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Sample records for susquehanna river-chesapeake bay

  1. Raw and Modified Raw Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay on Sept. 6, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  2. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay on Sept. 8, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  3. Raw and Modified Raw Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay on Sept. 8, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  4. Processed Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay on Sept. 6, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  5. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay on Sept. 7, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  6. Processed Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay on Sept. 8, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  7. Processed Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay on Sept. 7, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  8. Raw and Modified Raw Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay on Sept. 7, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  9. Climate Change Effects on Respiration Rates of Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus) from the Patuxent River, Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyffeler, A.

    2016-02-01

    A rise in atmospheric CO2 induces a greenhouse effect that also causes ocean temperatures and CO2 levels to rise. These environmental changes may represent an additional energetic cost for blue crabs because they rely on the concentration of CO2 in the water to deposit calcium carbonate in their shells. We conducted a respiration experiment to measure the effect of climate change on crab metabolism. Crabs were collected from the Chesapeake Bay and exposed to different heated and acidified conditions. After crabs had been exposed to the environmental conditions in the chambers for two molts, they were placed in respiration chambers to measure rates of oxygen consumption. Results indicated different trends in respiration rates between the treatments, although the patterns were not statistically significant. Crabs exposed to higher temperatures showed elevated respiration rates, while crabs exposed to high CO2 demonstrated decreased respiration rates. The two factors of climate change (high temperature and high CO2) did not demonstrate the highest respiration rate, but rather the crabs exposed to high temperatures and ambient CO2 showed the highest mean respiration rate. These data suggest that crab metabolism may not change as much as expected due to climate changes.

  10. Upriver transport of dissolved substances in an estuary and sub-estuary system of the lower James River, Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo; Shen, Jian; Xu, Hongzhou

    2018-01-01

    The water exchange between the James River and the Elizabeth River, an estuary and sub-estuary system in the lower Chesapeake Bay, was investigated using a 3D numerical model. The conservative passive tracers were used to represent the dissolved substances (DS) discharged from the Elizabeth River. The approach enabled us to diagnose the underlying physical processes that control the expansion of the DS, which is representative of potential transport of harmful algae blooms, pollutants from the Elizabeth River to the James River without explicitly simulating biological processes. Model simulations with realistic forcings in 2005, together with a series of processoriented numerical experiments, were conducted to explore the correlations of the transport process and external forcing. Model results show that the upriver transport depends highly on the freshwater discharge on a seasonal scale and maximum upriver transport occurs in summer with a mean transport time ranging from 15-30 days. The southerly/easterly wind, low river discharge, and neap tidal condition all act to strengthen the upriver transport. On the other hand, the northerly/westerly wind, river pulse, water level pulse, and spring tidal condition act to inhibit the upriver transport. Tidal flushing plays an important role in transporting the DS during spring tide, which shortens the travel time in the lower James River. The multivariable regression analysis of volume mean subtidal DS concentration in the mesohaline portion of the James River indicates that DS concentration in the upriver area can be explained and well predicted by the physical forcings (r = 0.858, p = 0.00001).

  11. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collected in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay on Sept. 6, 2006 on USGS Cruise 06018

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  12. Color-hillshade relief GeoTIFF image of the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay Area (CLRHSHD_POTO.TIF, UTM, Zone 18, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  13. ESRI Format Binary Grid of the Merged Bathymetry and Elevation Data from the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay Area For Use With USGS Cruise 06018 (POTO_AREA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  14. Color-hillshade relief GeoTIFF image of the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay Area (CLRHSHD_POTO_GEO.TIF, Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  15. Ship Trackline Along Which Continuous Resistivity Profile (CRP) Data was Collected in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay on Sept. 8, 2006 (RESGPSLNS_JD251.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  16. SEG-Y Formatted Seismic-Reflection Profile Data Collected in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay from Sept. 6, 2006 to Sept. 8, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  17. Radionuclide distributions and sorption behavior in the Susquehanna--Chesapeake Bay System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Lowry, P.D.; McLean, R.I.; Domotor, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Radionuclides released into the Susquehanna--Chesapeake System from the Three Mile Island, Peach Bottom, and Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plants are partitioned among dissolved, particulate, and biological phases and may thus exist in a number of physical and chemical forms. In this project, we have measured the dissolved and particulate distributions of fallout /sup 137/Cs; reactor-released /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, /sup 65/Zn, /sup 60/Co, and /sup 58/Co; and naturally occurring /sup 7/Be and /sup 210/Pb in the lower Susquehanna River and Upper Chesapeake Bay. In addition, we chemically leached suspended particles and bottom sediments in the laboratory to determine radionuclide partitioning among different particulate-sorbing phases to complement the site-specific field data. This information has been used to document the important geochemical processes that affect the transport, sorption, distribution, and fate of reactor-released radionuclides (and by analogy, other trace contaminants) in this river-estuarine system. Knowledge of the mechanisms, kinetic factors, and processes that affect radionuclide distributions is crucial for predicting their biological availability, toxicity, chemical behavior, physical transport, and accumulation in aquatic systems. The results from this project provide the information necessary for developing accurate radionuclide-transport and biological-uptake models. 76 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Navigation, Bathymetry and Temperature Points at the Ship Position During Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collection in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay on Sept. 7, 2006 on USGS Cruise 06018 (RESGPSPNTS_JD250.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  19. Ship Trackline along which Continuous Resistivity Profile Data was Collected in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay on Sept., 6, 2006 on USGS Cruise 06018 (RESGPSLNS_JD249.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  20. Processed Continuous Resistivity Profile (CRP) Data Below the Sediment Water Interface From the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay collected from Sept. 6, 2006 to Sept. 8, 2006 on USGS Cruise 06018 (MRG2006_ALLZYZ.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  1. Navigation and Bathymetry Points of Ship Position During Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collection in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay on Sept. 6, 2006 on USGS Cruise 06018 (RESGPSPNTS_JD249.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  2. Point Shapefile of All the Unique Seismic Shot Point Navigation Collected in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay from Sept. 6, 2006 to Sept. 8, 2006 on USGS Cruise 06018 (ALLSHOTS_GEOG.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  3. Point Shapefile of 500 Shot Interval Point Navigation For Seismic Data Collected in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay from Sept. 6, 2006 to Sept. 8, 2006 on USGS Cruise 06018 (SHOT500SORT_GEOG.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  4. Point Shapefile of 100 Shot Interval Point Navigation For Seismic Data Collected in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay from Sept. 6, 2006 to Sept. 8, 2006 on USGS Cruise 06018 (SHOT100SORT_GEOG.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  5. Shot Point Calibrated Trackline Navigation for Seismic Data Collected in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay from Sept. 6, 2006 to Sept. 8, 2006 (TRACK_ROUTE_CALIB_GEOG.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  6. SHIP NAVIGATION: ANSI Text File of the Navigation and Bathymetry Recorded by the Ship's Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay from Sept. 6 to Sept. 8, 2006 - USGS Cruise 06018

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  7. Navigation, Bathymetry and Temperature Point at the Ship Position During Continuous Resistivity Profile Data Collection in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay on Sept. 8, 2006 on USGS Cruise 06018 (RESGPSPNTS_JD251.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  8. Ship Trackline Along Which Continuous Resistivity Profile (CRP) Data was Collected in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay on Sept. 7, 2006 on USGS Cruise 06018 (RESGPSLNS_JD250.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  9. Seismic-Reflection Profile Data in JPEG Image Format Collected in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay from Sept. 6, 2006 to Sept. 8, 2006 on USGS Cruise 06018

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  10. Flux of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment from the Susquehanna River Basin to the Chesapeake Bay during Tropical Storm Lee, September 2011, as an indicator of the effects of reservoir sedimentation on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment are measured at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage at Conowingo Dam at the downstream end of the Susquehanna River Basin in Maryland, where the river flows into the Chesapeake Bay. During the period September 7-15, 2011, in the aftermath of Tropical Storm Lee, concentrations of these three constituents were among the highest ever measured at this site. These measurements indicate that sediment-storage processes behind the three dams on the lower Susquehanna River are evolving. In particular, they indicate that scouring of sediment (and the nitrogen and phosphorus attached to that sediment) may be increasing with time. Trends in flow-normalized fluxes at the Susquehanna River at Conowingo, Maryland, streamgage during 1996-2011 indicate a 3.2-percent decrease in total nitrogen, but a 55-percent increase in total phosphorus and a 97-percent increase in suspended sediment. These large increases in the flux of phosphorus and sediment from the Susquehanna River to the Chesapeake Bay have occurred despite reductions in the fluxes of these constituents from the Susquehanna River watershed upstream from the reservoirs. Although the Tropical Storm Lee flood event contributed about 1.8 percent of the total streamflow from the Susquehanna River to the Chesapeake Bay over the past decade (water years 2002-11), it contributed about 5 percent of the nitrogen, 22 percent of the phosphorus, and 39 percent of the suspended sediment during the same period. These results highlight the importance of brief high-flow events in releasing nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment derived from the Susquehanna River watershed and stored in the Conowingo Reservoir to the Chesapeake Bay.

  11. Spatial and temporal patterns in erosion and deposition in the York River, Chesapeake Bay, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calderón, Cielomar; Kuehl, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal patterns of seabed erosion and deposition in a dynamic estuarine environment, the York River (USA), are examined through acoustic studies and seabed sampling to identify the dominant environmental controls on sediment mobility. Areas near Clay Bank in the York River were surveyed monthly using a dual-frequency sonar for a 12 month period. In addition, six stations within these areas were sampled during the surveys. Strong spatial and temporal variations of a soft mud layer were identified, providing new insight to recurring seasonal and spatial patterns in deposition and erosion in the middle reaches of the York River estuary. Sub-bottom data indicated maximum thickness (5-22 cm ± 4 cm) of the soft mud layer during spring and winter from April 2008 through March 2009. Minimum thicknesses (1-12 cm ± 4 cm) of the soft mud layer were observed during summer and fall. Maximum thickness coincided with the occurrence of the secondary turbidity maximum near Clay Bank in the York River. Spatial variations in the soft-mud layer thickness were also identified between and within the York River secondary channel, the inactive oyster reef area, the south west flank of the main channel, and the main channel. The upriver secondary channel, the south west channel flank, and the main channel areas were physically dominated. The downriver secondary channel area was biologically dominated and the inactive oyster reef area reflected both physical and biological processes. Water content trends showed no correlation with seabed stability in this area. Observed changes in soft mud thicknesses are interpreted to result from both biological and physical factors, which vary markedly between winter/spring and summer/fall seasons, and among the different environments of the estuary's channel.

  12. 2002 Sediment Grab Data for Catlett and Goodwin Islands on the York River, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia (Ches_2002sedgrabs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set represents the sediment grain size gathered from grab sampling in 2002 (56 stations).In Fall/Winter 2002, researchers from the Virginia Institute of...

  13. 2004 Sediment Grab Data for Catlett and Goodwin Islands on the York River, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia (Ches_2004sedgrabs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set represents the sediment grain size gathered from grab sampling in 2004 (12 stations). In Fall/Winter 2002, researchers from the Virginia Institute of...

  14. 2003 Sediment Grab Data for Catlett and Goodwin Islands on the York River, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia (Ches_2003sedgrabs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set represents the sediment grain size gathered from grab sampling in 2003 (24 stations).In Fall/Winter 2002, researchers from the Virginia Institute of...

  15. 2004 Sediment Profile Imaging (SPI) Data for Catlett and Goodwin Islands on the York River, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia (Ches_2004SPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set represents the sediment profile imaging data from 2004 (79 stations).In Fall/Winter 2002, researchers from the Virginia Institute of Marine Science...

  16. 2002 Sediment Profile Imaging (SPI) Data for Catlett and Goodwin Islands on the York River, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia (Ches_2002SPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set represents the sediment profile imaging data from 2002.In Fall/Winter 2002, researchers from the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) and the...

  17. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Glen L. Martin NWR, Susquehanna NWR: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Blackwater NWR, Glen L. Martin NWR, and Susquehanna NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report...

  18. Deposition and simulation of sediment transport in the Lower Susquehanna River reservoir system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainly, R.A.; Reed, L.A.; Flippo, H.N.; Barton, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Susquehanna River drains 27,510 square miles in New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland and is the largest tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. Three large hydroelectric dams are located on the river, Safe Harbor (Lake Clarke) and Holtwood (Lake Aldred) in southern Pennsylvania, and Conowingo (Conowingo Reservoir) in northern Maryland. About 259 million tons of sediment have been deposited in the three reservoirs. Lake Clarke contains about 90.7 million tons of sediment, Lake Aldred contains about 13.6 million tons, and Conowingo Reservoir contains about 155 million tons. An estimated 64.8 million tons of sand, 19.7 million tons of coal, 112 million tons of silt, and 63.3 million tons of clay are deposited in the three reservoirs. Deposition in the reservoirs is variable and ranges from 0 to 30 feet. Chemical analyses of sediment core samples indicate that the three reservoirs combined contain about 814,000 tons of organic nitrogen, 98,900 tons of ammonia as nitrogen, 226,000 tons of phosphorus, 5,610,000 1tons of iron, 2,250,000 tons of aluminum, and about 409,000 tons of manganese. Historical data indicate that Lake Clarke and Lake Aldred have reached equilibrium, and that they no longer store sediment. A comparison of cross-sectional data from Lake Clarke and Lake Aldred with data from Conowingo Reservoir indicates that Conowingo Reservoir will reach equilibrium within the next 20 to 30 years. As the Conowingo Reservoir fills with sediment and approaches equilibrium, the amount of sediment transported to the Chesapeake Bay will increase. The most notable increases will take place when very high flows scour the deposited sediment. Sediment transport through the reservoir system was simulated with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' HEC-6 computer model. The model was calibrated with monthly sediment loads for calendar year 1987. Calibration runs with options set for maximum trap efficiency and a "natural" particle-size distribution resulted in an overall computed trap

  19. 75 FR 3486 - Susquehanna to Roseland 500kV Transmission Line, Environmental Impact Statement, Delaware Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... National Park Service Susquehanna to Roseland 500kV Transmission Line, Environmental Impact Statement... the Susquehanna to Roseland 500kV Transmission Line. SUMMARY: Pursuant to National Environmental..., Pennsylvania) to Roseland, New Jersey 500 kilovolt (kV) Transmission Line. The line is being proposed by...

  20. 78 FR 67216 - The New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway Corporation-Abandonment Exemption-Passaic and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board The New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway Corporation-- Abandonment Exemption--Passaic and Morris Counties, NY The New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway Corporation (NYS&W... filed with the Board should be sent to NYS&W's representative: Eric M. Hocky, Clark Hill Thorp Reed, One...

  1. Evaluation of genetic population structure of smallmouth bass in the Susquehanna River basin, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Megan K.; Bartron, Meredith L.; Wertz, Timothy; Niles, Jonathan M.; Shaw, Cassidy H.; Wagner, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    The Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu was introduced into the Susquehanna River basin, Pennsylvania, nearly 150 years ago. Since introduction, it has become an economically and ecologically important species that supports popular recreational fisheries. It is also one of the most abundant top predators in the system. Currently, there is no information on the level of genetic diversity or genetic structuring that may have occurred since introduction. An understanding of genetic diversity is important for the delineation of management units and investigation of gene flow at various management scales. The goals of this research were to investigate population genetic structure of Smallmouth Bass at sites within the Susquehanna River basin and to assess genetic differentiation relative to Smallmouth Bass at an out-of-basin site (Allegheny River, Pennsylvania) located within the species’ native range. During spring 2015, fin clips (n = 1,034) were collected from adults at 11 river sites and 13 tributary sites in the Susquehanna River basin and at one site on the Allegheny River. Fin clips were genotyped at 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Based on our results, adults sampled throughout the Susquehanna River basin did not represent separate genetic populations. There were only subtle differences in genetic diversity among sites (mean pairwise genetic differentiation index FST = 0.012), and there was an overall lack of population differentiation (K = 3 admixed populations). The greatest genetic differentiation was observed between fish collected from the out-of-basin site and those from the Susquehanna River basin sites. Knowledge that separate genetic populations of Smallmouth Bass do not exist in the Susquehanna River basin is valuable information for fisheries management in addition to providing baseline genetic data on an introduced sport fish population.

  2. 77 FR 53226 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Susquehanna to Roseland 500-kilovolt Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Electric Utilities Corporation and the Public Service Electric and Gas Company, request NPS permission to... construction of a 500-kV transmission line from the Susquehanna Substation (Berwick, Pennsylvania) to the Roseland Substation (Roseland, New Jersey). The construction and ROW permits would allow the construction...

  3. Twenty-five-year study of radionuclides in the Susquehanna river via periphyton biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Ruth; Palms, John; Kreeger, Danielle; Harris, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This 25-y study monitored aquatic and terrestrial gamma-ray-emitting radionuclide levels near a nuclear power plant. It is the only known, long-term environmental survey of its kind. It was conducted neither by a utility owner, nor by a government agency, but rather by a private, environmental research institution. Compared to dozens of other flora and fauna, periphyton was found to be the best indicator to biomonitor the Susquehanna River, which runs near PPL Susquehanna's nuclear plant. Sampling began in 1979 before the first plant start-up and continued for the next 24 years. Monitoring began two months after the Three Mile Island accident of 28 March 1979 and includes Three Mile Island area measurements. Ongoing measurements detected fallout from Chernobyl in 1986, as well as I not released from PPL Susquehanna. Although this paper concentrates on radionuclides found in periphyton, the scope of the entire environmental program includes a wide variety of aquatic and land-based plants, animals, and inorganic matter. Other species and matter studied were fish, mussels, snails, crayfish, insects, humus, mushrooms, lichens, squirrels, deer, cabbage, tomatoes, coarse and flocculated sediment, and more. Results show periphyton works well for detection of radionuclide activity, even in concentrations less than 100 Bq kg (picocuries per gram amounts). Data indicate that PPL Susquehanna's radionuclide releases have had no known environmental or human health impact.

  4. 76 FR 72001 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Susquehanna to Roseland 500-kilovolt Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Transmission Line AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The... Susquehanna to Roseland 500-kilovolt transmission line, which will affect the Appalachian National Scenic... visitors each year. The existing transmission line right-of-way predates the establishment of the...

  5. Recreating the 1950’s Chesapeake Bay: Use of a Network Model to Guide the Application of a Eutrophication Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Bay system were from many sources and encompassed types such as non-point loads, point-source loads, atmospheric loads, bank loads, and wetlands ...Bay. Values of annual averaged NO3 loads with river flow for the Susquehanna River at Harrisburg were graphically presented and showed that annual NO3 ...relationship Hagy et al. (2004) developed, which correlates the TN loading at Conowingo to NO3 - loading at Harrisburg and is written: (1) TN C NO HL

  6. Flood-inundation maps for the Susquehanna River near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Mark A.; Underwood, Stacey M.; Thomas, Craig M.; Miller, Jason F.; Pratt, Benjamin A.; Hogan, Laurie G.; Wnek, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    A series of 28 digital flood-inundation maps was developed for an approximate 25-mile reach of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The study was selected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) national Silver Jackets program, which supports interagency teams at the state level to coordinate and collaborate on flood-risk management. This study to produce flood-inundation maps was the result of a collaborative effort between the USACE, National Weather Service (NWS), Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC), The Harrisburg Authority, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These maps are accessible through Web-mapping applications associated with the NWS, SRBC, and USGS. The maps can be used in conjunction with the real-time stage data from the USGS streamgage 01570500, Susquehanna River at Harrisburg, Pa., and NWS flood-stage forecasts to help guide the general public in taking individual safety precautions and will provide local municipal officials with a tool to efficiently manage emergency flood operations and flood mitigation efforts. The maps were developed using the USACE HEC–RAS and HEC–GeoRAS programs to compute water-surface profiles and to delineate estimated flood-inundation areas for selected stream stages. The maps show estimated flood-inundation areas overlaid on high-resolution, georeferenced, aerial photographs of the study area for stream stages at 1-foot intervals between 11 feet and 37 feet (which include NWS flood categories Action, Flood, Moderate, and Major) and the June 24, 1972, peak-of-record flood event at a stage of 33.27 feet at the Susquehanna River at Harrisburg, Pa., streamgage.

  7. Time-of-travel studies, Susquehanna River, Binghamton, New York, to Clarks Ferry, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, C.D.; Armbruster, J.T.; Voytik, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    Results of time-of-travel studies are presented in both tabular and graphical form for several flow conditions in the Susquehanna River from Binghamton, N.Y., to Clarks Ferry, Pa. This reach is approximately 240 miles (386 kilometres) long, measured along the center of the channel, and has a drainage area of about 19,700 square miles (51,000 square kilometres) at its downstream end.

  8. Conowingo Reservoir Sedimentation and Chesapeake Bay: State of the Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerco, Carl F

    2016-05-01

    The Conowingo Reservoir is situated on the Susquehanna River, immediately upstream of Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States. Sedimentation in the reservoir provides an unintended benefit to the bay by preventing sediments, organic matter, and nutrients from entering the bay. The sediment storage capacity of the reservoir is nearly exhausted, however, and the resulting increase in loading of sediments and associated materials is a potential threat to Chesapeake Bay water quality. In response to this threat, the Lower Susquehanna River Watershed Assessment was conducted. The assessment indicates the reservoir is in a state of "dynamic equilibrium" in which sediment loads from the upstream watershed to the reservoir are balanced by sediments leaving the reservoir. Increased sediment loads are not a threat to bay water quality. Increased loads of associated organic matter and nutrients are, however, detrimental. Bottom-water dissolved oxygen declines of 0.1 to 0.2 g m are projected as a result of organic matter oxidation and enhanced eutrophication. The decline is small relative to normal variations but results in violations of standards enforced in a recently enacted total maximum daily load. Enhanced reductions in nutrient loads from the watershed are recommended to offset the decline in water quality caused by diminished retention in the reservoir. The assessment exposed several knowledge gaps that require additional investigation, including the potential for increased loading at flows below the threshold for reservoir scour and the nature and reactivity of organic matter and nutrients scoured from the reservoir bottom. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. 76 FR 1666 - Susquehanna Union Railroad Company-Control Exemption-North Shore Railroad Company, Nittany & Bald...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Susquehanna Union Railroad Company--Control Exemption--North Shore Railroad Company, Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company, Shamokin Valley Railroad Company, Juniata Valley Railroad Company, Lycoming Valley Railroad Company, and Union County Industrial Railroad Company On April 12, 2010...

  10. Flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Susquehanna River near the Boroughs of Lewisburg and Milton, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Mark A.; Hoffman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an approximate 8-mile reach of the West Branch Susquehanna River from approximately 2 miles downstream from the Borough of Lewisburg, extending upstream to approximately 1 mile upstream from the Borough of Milton, Pennsylvania, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict the estimated areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa. In addition, the information has been provided to the Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) for incorporation into their Susquehanna Inundation Map Viewer (SIMV) flood warning system (http://maps.srbc.net/simv/). The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasted peak-stage information (http://water.weather.gov/ahps) for USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa., may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. Calibration of the model was achieved using the most current stage-discharge relations (rating number 11.1) at USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa., a documented water-surface profile from the December 2, 2010, flood, and recorded peak stage data. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 26 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 14 feet (ft) to 39 ft. Modeled flood stages, as defined by NWS, include Action Stage, 14 ft; Flood Stage, 18 ft; Moderate Flood Stage, 23 ft; and Major Flood Stage, 28 ft. Geographic information system (GIS) technology

  11. SIR2012-5282 Surficial Geology: Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system along a 32-mile reach of the Susquehanna River valley and adjacent areas was evaluated in eastern Broome and...

  12. Risk-based Inspection Guide for the Susquehanna Station HPCI system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, R; Higgins, J; Gunther, W; Shier, W [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system has been examined from a risk perspective. A system Risk-based Inspection Guide (S-RIG) has been developed as an aid to HPCI system inspections at the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station (SSES) which is operated by Pennsylvania Power & Light (PP&L). Included in this S-RIG is a discussion of the role of HPCI in mitigating accidents and a presentation of PRA-based failure modes which could prevent proper operation of the system. The S-RIG uses industry operating experience, including plant-specific illustrative examples, to augment the basic PRA failure modes. It is designed to be used as a reference for both routine inspections and the evaluation of the significance of component failures.

  13. Geochemistry of manganese, iron, uranium, lead-210 and major ions in the Susquehanna River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The change in water composition accompanying a change in discharge of large streams and the Susquehanna River results from the change in the proportions of the total flow composed of type waters of constant composition. This change in the flow proportions is due to the different hydrologic responses to precipitation inputs of basins underlain by different single rock types. The in-river precipitation of mine-drainage-injected Mn and Fe was studied at a pH of approximately 7. For Mn the removal from solution appears to be first order. The rate constant is 10/sup 3/ times greater than the extrapolated autocatalytic rate constant of previous laboratory experiments. The study of the removal of Fe from solution yields a first order rate constant consistent with previous laboratory experiments. Lead-210 was used as a natural tracer to study the fate of trace metals.

  14. Manage water resources allocation and water use in the Susquehanna River Basin with a GIS-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Balay, J.

    2012-12-01

    Water supply is one of the priority management areas of the Susquehanna River Basin Commission. The desired results of the water supply is to meet immediate and future water needs of the people of the basin, in order to maintain sustainable economic viability, protect instream uses, and ensure ecological diversity. In this study, a GIS-based model is designed and developed to assist water resource planning and management in the Susquehanna River Basin. A comprehensive basin-wide water use geographic database is compiled by integrating reported/approved water use and estimated water use if no monitoring data is available, such as agriculture water use. Then water availability at each WBD10 watersheds within the Susquehanna River Basin are then determined based on the ecosystem flow needs and acceptable hydrologic alternation. A GIS-based basin-wide model integrates the water use and water availability and couples with a module that allows iterative evaluation of water resources management alternatives. The model is capable of quantification and graphic presentation of water use and availability at various spatial scale and performance of spatial analysis and scenario analysis to aid in determining optimized water resources management.

  15. Quantifying shale weathering by Li isotopes at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoefel, Grit; Fantle, Matthew S.; Brantley, Sue L.

    2017-04-01

    Lithium isotopes have emerged as a powerful tool to investigate abiotic weathering processes because isotope fraction is controlled by silicate weathering depending on the weathering rate. In this study, we explore Li isotopes as a proxy for shale weathering in the well-investigated Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (USA), which is a first-order catchment in a temperate climate in the Appalachian Mountain. Groundwater, soil and stream water reveal large variation in δ7Li (14.5 to 40.0‰) controlled by variable but high degrees of Li retention by kaolinite and vermiculite formation. Parental shales, bulk soils and stream sediments reveal similar isotope signatures with little variations giving average δ7Li values of -0.6, 0.5 and -0.3‰, respectively which is in the typical range for shales dominated by structural-bound Li and consistent with high Li retention. An isotope mass balance approach reveal that Li is virtually quantitatively exported by erosional weathering from the system. This result is consisted with a high depletion of Li along with clay minerals in soils whereas both is enriched in stream sediments. Overall shale weathering is dominated by clay transformation forming kaolinite through intermediate phases under highly incongruent weathering conditions followed by preferentially loss of fine-grained weathering products, a processes which is likely an important mechanism in the modern global Li cycle.

  16. Influence of Topography on Root Processes in the Shale Hills-Susquehanna Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenstat, D. M.; Orr, A. S.; Adams, T. S.; Chen, W.; Gaines, K.

    2015-12-01

    Topography can strongly influence root and associated mycorrhizal fungal function in the Critical Zone. In the Shale Hills-Susquehanna Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO), soil depths range from more than 80 cm deep in the valley floor to about 25 cm on the ridge top. Tree height varies from about 28 m tall at the valley floor to about 17 m tall at the ridge top. Yet total absorptive root length to depth of refusal is quite similar across the hillslope. We find root length density to vary as much at locations only 1-2 m apart as at scales of hundreds of meters across the catchment. Tree community composition also varies along the hillslope, including tree species that vary widely in thickness of their absorptive roots and type of mycorrhiza (arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal). Studies of trees in a common garden of 16 tree species and in forests near SSCZO indicate that both root morphology and mycorrhizal type can strongly influence root foraging. Species that form thick absorptive roots appear more dependent on mycorrhizal fungi and thin-root species forage more by root proliferation. Ectomycorrhizal trees show more variation in foraging precision (proliferation in a nutrient-rich patch relative to that in an unenriched patch) of their mycorrhizal hyphae whereas AM trees show more variation in foraging precision by root proliferation, indicating alternative strategies among trees of different mycorrhizal types. Collectively, the results provide insight into how topography can influence foraging belowground.

  17. The floods of March 1936, part 2, Hudson River to Susquehanna River region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Nathan C.

    1937-01-01

    by white men, were broken many of them by wide margins. The peak of the Connecticut River at Hartford, Conn., was 8.6 feet higher than had been experienced since the settlement by white men, 300 years ago. The Susquehanna River at Harrisburg, Pa., was 3.5 feet higher than had been known in a period of record covering about 200 years. The Ohio River at Pittsburgh, Pa., was 6.1 feet higher than had been known in the period beginning 1762. This volume presents many of the facts of these notable floods with respect to the New England rivers, for permanent record and for study and reference by engineers concerned with the building of highways, bridges, and industrial plants, planners of river development, and others. Similar volumes for the region from the Hudson River to the Susquehanna River and for the Potomac, James, and upper Ohio River Basins are presented in companion Water-Supply Papers 799 and 800 respectively. In this volume records of stage and discharge for the period Including the floods are presented for about 150 measurement stations; peak discharges with comparative data for other floods at more than 400 measurement points are summarized; crest stages along an aggregate length of stream channel of 2,820 miles are tabulated; and results of detailed studies of the rainfall and run-off and many other kinds of flood information are presented.

  18. Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system in the Endicott-Vestal area of southwestern Broome County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.; Kappel, William M.

    2015-07-29

    The village of Endicott, New York, and the adjacent town of Vestal have historically used groundwater from the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system for municipal water supply, but parts of some aquifers in this urban area suffer from legacy contamination from varied sources. Endicott would like to identify sites distant from known contamination where productive aquifers could supply municipal wells with water that would not require intensive treatment. The distribution or geometry of aquifers within the Susquehanna River valley fill in western Endicott and northwestern Vestal are delineated in this report largely on the basis of abundant borehole data that have been compiled in a table of well records.

  19. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Allegheny and Susquehanna Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004--2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E.T.; Milheim, L.E.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Malizia, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Coalbed methane, which is sometimes extracted using the same technique, is commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and is frequently developed in clusters of wells across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Allegheny County and Susquehanna County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  20. Chesapeake Bay fish–osprey (Pandion haliaetus) food chain: Evaluation of contaminant exposure and genetic damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Rattner, Barnett A.; McGowan, Peter C.; Hale, Robert C.; Karouna-Reiner, Natalie K.; Erickson, Richard A.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    From 2011 to 2013, a large-scale ecotoxicological study was conducted in several Chesapeake Bay (USA) tributaries (Susquehanna River and flats, the Back, Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco Rivers, Anacostia/ middle Potomac, Elizabeth and James Rivers) and Poplar Island as a mid-Bay reference site. Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) diet and the transfer of contaminants from fish to osprey eggs were evaluated. The most bioaccumulative compounds (biomagnification factor > 5) included p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and bromodiphenyl ether (BDE) congeners 47, 99, 100, and 154. This analysis suggested that alternative brominated flame retardants and other compounds (methoxytriclosan) are not appreciably biomagnifying. A multivariate analysis of similarity indicated that major differences in patterns among study sites were driven by PCB congeners 105, 128, 156, 170/190, and 189, and PBDE congeners 99 and 209. An integrative redundancy analysis showed that osprey eggs from Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco River and the Elizabeth River had high residues of PCBs and p,p′-DDE, with PBDEs making a substantial contribution to overall halogenated contamination on the Susquehanna and Anacostia/middle Potomac Rivers. The redundancy analysis also suggested a potential relation between PBDE residues in osprey eggs and oxidative DNA damage in nestling blood samples. The results also indicate that there is no longer a discernible relation between halogenated contaminants in osprey eggs and their reproductive success in Chesapeake Bay. Osprey populations are thriving in much of the Chesapeake, with productivity rates exceeding those required to sustain a stable population.

  1. Ground-Water Quality in the Upper Susquehanna River Basin, New York, 2004-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetcher-Aguila, Kari K.; Eckhardt, David A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 20 production wells and 13 private residential wells throughout the upper Susquehanna River Basin (upstream from the Pennsylvania border) during the fall of 2004 and the spring of 2005 and analyzed to describe the chemical quality of ground water in the upper basin. Wells were selected to represent areas of greatest ground-water use and highest vulnerability to contamination, and to provide a representative sampling from the entire (4,516 square-mile) upper basin. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, nutrients, inorganic constituents, metals, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. The cations that were detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; the anions that were detected in the greatest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrient was nitrate, the concentrations of which were greater in samples from sand and gravel aquifers than in samples from bedrock. The metals barium, boron, cobalt, copper, and nickel were detected in every sample; the metals with the highest concentrations were barium, boron, iron, manganese, strontium, and lithium. The pesticide compounds detected most frequently were atrazine, deethylatrazine, alachlor ESA, and two degradation products of metolachlor (metolachlor ESA and metolachlor OA); the compounds detected in highest concentration were metolachlor ESA and OA. Volatile organic compounds were detected in 11 samples, and concentrations of 3 of these compounds exceeded 1 microgram per liter (?g/L). Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasollline additive, was not detected in any sample. Several analytes were found in concentrations that exceeded Federal and New York State water-quality standards, which are typically identical. Chloride concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) of 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in two samples

  2. Osmium isotopes demonstrate distal transport of contaminated sediments in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helz, G.R.; Adelson, J.M.; Miller, C.V.; Cornwell, J.C.; Hill, J.M.; Horan, M.; Walker, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Because the isotopic composition of anthropogenic Os is normally distinctive in comparison to continental crust and is precisely measurable, this platinum-group element is attractive as a tracer of transport pathways for contaminated sediments in estuaries. Evidence herein and elsewhere suggest that biomedical research institutions are the chief source of anthropogenic Os. In the Chesapeake Bay region, uncontaminated sediments bear a crustal 187Os/188Os signature of 0.73 ?? 0.10. Slightly higher 187Os/188Os ratios occur in Re-rich Coastal Plain deposits due to post- Miocene 187Re decay. The upper Susquehanna Basin yields sediments also with higher 187Os/188Os. Beginning in the late 1970s, this signal was overprinted by a low 187Os/188Os (anthropogenic) source in the lower Susquehanna Basin. In the vicinity of Baltimore, which is a major center of heavy industry as well as biomedical research, anthropogenic Os has been found only in sediments impacted by the principal wastewater treatment plant. Surprisingly, a mid-Bay site distant from anthropogenic sources contains the strongest anthropogenic Os signal in the data set, having received anthropogenic Os sporadically since the mid-20th Century. Transport of particles to this site overrode the northward flowing bottom currents. Finding anthropogenic Os at this site cautions that other particle-borne substances, including hazardous ones, could be dispersed broadly in this estuary.Because the isotopic composition of anthropogenic Os is normally distinctive in comparison to continental crust and is precisely measurable, this platinum-group element is attractive as a tracer of transport pathways for contaminated sediments in estuaries. Evidence herein and elsewhere suggest that biomedical research institutions are the chief source of anthropogenic Os. In the Chesapeake Bay region, uncontaminated sediments bear a crustal 187Os/188Os signature of 0.73 ?? 0.10. Slightly higher 187Os/188Os ratios occur in Re-rich Coastal

  3. Forward Stagewise Naive Bayes

    OpenAIRE

    Vidaurre Henche, Diego; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga Múgica, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The naïve Bayes approach is a simple but often satisfactory method for supervised classification. In this paper, we focus on the naïve Bayes model and propose the application of regularization techniques to learn a naïve Bayes classifier. The main contribution of the paper is a stagewise version of the selective naïve Bayes, which can be considered a regularized version of the naïve Bayes model. We call it forward stagewise naïve Bayes. For comparison’s sake, we also introduce an explicitly r...

  4. Capturing interactions between nitrogen and hydrological cycles under historical climate and land use: Susquehanna watershed analysis with the GFDL land model LM3-TAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, Paul C. D.; Jaffé, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a process model LM3-TAN to assess the combined effects of direct human influences and climate change on terrestrial and aquatic nitrogen (TAN) cycling. The model was developed by expanding NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory land model LM3V-N of coupled terrestrial carbon and nitrogen (C-N) cycling and including new N cycling processes and inputs such as a soil denitrification, point N sources to streams (i.e., sewage), and stream transport and microbial processes. Because the model integrates ecological, hydrological, and biogeochemical processes, it captures key controls of the transport and fate of N in the vegetation–soil–river system in a comprehensive and consistent framework which is responsive to climatic variations and land-use changes. We applied the model at 1/8° resolution for a study of the Susquehanna River Basin. We simulated with LM3-TAN stream dissolved organic-N, ammonium-N, and nitrate-N loads throughout the river network, and we evaluated the modeled loads for 1986–2005 using data from 16 monitoring stations as well as a reported budget for the entire basin. By accounting for interannual hydrologic variability, the model was able to capture interannual variations of stream N loadings. While the model was calibrated with the stream N loads only at the last downstream Susquehanna River Basin Commission station Marietta (40°02' N, 76°32' W), it captured the N loads well at multiple locations within the basin with different climate regimes, land-use types, and associated N sources and transformations in the sub-basins. Furthermore, the calculated and previously reported N budgets agreed well at the level of the whole Susquehanna watershed. Here we illustrate how point and non-point N sources contributing to the various ecosystems are stored, lost, and exported via the river. Local analysis of six sub-basins showed combined effects of land use and climate on soil denitrification rates, with the highest rates in the

  5. Locally Weighted Naive Bayes

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Eibe; Hall, Mark; Pfahringer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Despite its simplicity, the naive Bayes classifier has surprised machine learning researchers by exhibiting good performance on a variety of learning problems. Encouraged by these results, researchers have looked to overcome naive Bayes primary weakness - attribute independence - and improve the performance of the algorithm. This paper presents a locally weighted version of naive Bayes that relaxes the independence assumption by learning local models at prediction time. Experimental results s...

  6. Wakasa Bay Weather Forecast Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E Wakasa Bay Field Campaign was conducted over Wakasa Bay, Japan, in January and February, 2003. The Wakasa Bay Field Campaign includes joint research...

  7. Streamflow and water-quality monitoring in response to young-of-year smallmouth bass (micropterus dolomieu) mortality in the Susquehanna River and major tributaries, with comparisons to the Delaware and Allegheny Rivers, Pennsylvania, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; Crawford, J. Kent

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005, spring hatched young-of-year (YOY) smallmouth bass in Pennsylvania reaches of the Susquehanna River have experienced above-normal mortality when summertime streamflows are near or lower than normal. Stress factors include, but are not limited to, low dissolved oxygen and elevated water temperatures during times critical for survival and development (critical period is May 1 through July 31). At this time (2010), widespread disease and mortality are believed to be more prevalent for YOY smallmouth bass in the Susquehanna River Basin than in the Delaware or Allegheny River Basins.

  8. Occurrence and concentrations of volatile organic compounds in shallow ground water in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin, Pennsylvania and Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Matthew H.; Lindsey, Bruce D.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of a regional assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in ground water from six sampling areas within the Lower Susquehanna River Basin. The sampling areas, selected to represent aquifers where ground water is used as a drinking water supply, include four areas underlain by limestone, one area underlain by crystalline bedrock, and one area underlain by interbedded sandstone and shale. The land use is rural in five areas and urban in one area. Samples were collected in 1993-95 from 118 wells ranging from 30 to 226 feet deep. Analyses for 60 VOC's at detection levels ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 mg/L (micrograms per liter) reveal the presence of 24 compounds. The compounds were present in water from 32 of the 118 wells. Methyl tert-butyl ether was the most commonly detected compound. Concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether, found in 16 of the 118 wells, ranged from 0.11 to 51 mg/L. Chloroform was the second most commonly detected compound. The highest concentration detected in a water sample was 61 mg/L of chloroform. None of the detections in samples from wells used as drinking water supplies exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Levels or Lifetime Health Advisory Levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, the 51 mg/L of methyl tert-butyl ether, detected in water from a monitoring well, is in the 20 to 200 mg/L range proposed for a Lifetime Health Advisory Level. The occurrence of VOC's in limestone aquifers in the Great Valley near Harrisburg, Pa., is influenced by land use. VOC's occur more frequently in the urban area than in the agricultural area. Within the urban area, analyses of samples from wells, springs, and a spring-fed stream show contaminated ground water discharging from springs and flowing into the stream.

  9. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  10. A Diagnostic-Predictive Framework for Assessing Drought Risk in the Susquehanna River Basin in Response to Large-Scale Circulation Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, E.; Steinschneider, S.

    2016-12-01

    The 2016 drought in the Northeast US led to widespread water use restrictions and agricultural losses, as summertime streamflows approached 100 year lows. Recent research has suggested a possible oceanic forcing in the North Atlantic of past droughts in the region, such as those in the 1960s and 1990's, but others have suggested that at least a subset of these droughts are the result of natural atmospheric variability. This study presents a diagnostic-predictive framework to examine the prevailing atmospheric and oceanic conditions of the 2016 drought in the context of past droughts (1950-2015) and with a specific focus on the Susquehanna River Basin, the longest river on the U.S. east coast draining into the Atlantic. We first assess basin-wide hydroclimatic conditions (streamflow, precipitation, temperature, incident radiation, and relative humidity) during past droughts and determine whether the characteristics of these hydroclimatic variables cluster into distinct drought typologies. Prevailing features of atmospheric circulation (geopotential height and wind vector fields) and oceanic forcing (sea surface temperature anomalies) are identified during different drought types. We then present a hierarchical Bayesian modeling framework that formally links ocean forcing to atmospheric circulation to regional drought impacts and accounts for potential differences in the ocean-atmosphere-regional climate causal chain under varying drought typologies. Potential applications for seasonal drought forecasting in the Susquehanna River Basin, as well as in the causal analysis of relevant climatic processes across dynamical models used for climate reconstruction and climate changes projections, are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of the streamgage network for estimating streamflow statistics at ungaged sites in Pennsylvania and the Susquehanna River Basin in Pennsylvania and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Stuckey, Marla H.; Hoffman, Scott A.

    2017-05-10

    The current (2015) streamgage network in Pennsylvania and the Susquehanna River Basin in Pennsylvania and New York was evaluated in order to design a network that would meet the hydrologic needs of many partners and serve a variety of purposes and interests, including estimation of streamflow statistics at ungaged sites. This study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Susquehanna River Basin Commission. The study area includes the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the Susquehanna River Basin in Pennsylvania and New York. For this study, 229 streamgages were identified as reference streamgages that could be used to represent ungaged watersheds. Criteria for a reference streamgage are a minimum of 10 years of continuous record, minimally altered streamflow, and a drainage area less than 1,500 square miles. Some of the reference streamgages have been discontinued but provide historical hydrologic information valuable in the determination of streamflow characteristics of ungaged watersheds. Watersheds in the study area not adequately represented by a reference streamgage were identified by examining a range of basin characteristics, the extent of geographic coverage, and the strength of estimated streamflow correlations between gaged and ungaged sites.Basin characteristics were determined for the reference streamgage watersheds and the 1,662 12-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC12) subwatersheds in Pennsylvania and the Susquehanna River Basin using a geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis and nationally available GIS datasets. Basin characteristics selected for this study include drainage area, mean basin elevation, mean basin slope, percentage of urbanized area, percentage of forested area, percentage of carbonate bedrock, mean annual precipitation, and soil thickness. A GIS spatial analysis was used to identify HUC12 subwatersheds outside the range of basin

  12. Long-Term Changes in Sediment and Nutrient Delivery from Conowingo Dam to Chesapeake Bay: Effects of Reservoir Sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Hirsch, Robert M; Ball, William P

    2016-02-16

    Reduction of suspended sediment (SS), total phosphorus (TP), and total nitrogen is an important focus for Chesapeake Bay watershed management. The Susquehanna River, the bay's largest tributary, has drawn attention because SS loads from behind Conowingo Dam (near the river's mouth) have been rising dramatically. To better understand these changes, we evaluated histories of concentration and loading (1986-2013) using data from sites above and below Conowingo Reservoir. First, observed concentration-discharge relationships show that SS and TP concentrations at the reservoir inlet have declined under most discharges in recent decades, but without corresponding declines at the outlet, implying recently diminished reservoir trapping. Second, best estimates of mass balance suggest decreasing net deposition of SS and TP in recent decades over a wide range of discharges, with cumulative mass generally dominated by the 75∼99.5th percentile of daily Conowingo discharges. Finally, stationary models that better accommodate effects of riverflow variability also support the conclusion of diminished trapping of SS and TP under a range of discharges that includes those well below the literature-reported scour threshold. Overall, these findings suggest that decreased net deposition of SS and TP has occurred at subscour levels of discharge, which has significant implications for the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem.

  13. Soils as a Record of Anthropogenic Metal Inputs: From Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory to Marietta, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M.; Herndon, E.; Brantley, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of metals emitted by anthropogenic activities has been a significant source of metal loading into soils in the United States for more than 200 years. Based on research at the Susquehanna Shale Hills CZO, we began investigating Mn inputs to soils in the northeastern U.S.A. from widespread atmospheric Mn emissions from steel manufacturers and coal-burning power plants. Total Mn inputs to Shale Hills soils at ridgetops are calculated to be 42 mg Mn/cm2. In order to more directly evaluate the link between Mn emissions and Mn enrichment in soils, we are now investigating soils around a ferromanganese refinery in Marietta, Ohio that is currently the largest emission source of manganese (Mn) into the atmosphere in the U.S.A. Particulate emissions during production are up to 31-34% percent manganese oxide (MnO) by weight. These particles range in diameter from 0.05 to 0.4 μm, making them both highly mobile and respirable. In order to assess the role of soils in Marietta as sinks for atmospherically-derived Mn, a series of soil cores have been collected from a range of distances (0.5 - 35 km) from the refinery. Mn is enriched at the soil surface up to 8 times above parent material composition sampled at 1 m depth near the source and decreases as a function of distance. Total mass of Mn added to soils per unit land area integrated over the soil depth core was calculated to be 50 mg Mn/cm2¬¬ near the refinery. In contrast, 10 mg Mn/cm2 was lost from the soil profile at a distance of 35 km from the facility. Enrichment of chromium (Cr) up to 3 times was also found in surface soils near the refinery, consistent with the production of ferrochromium at the Marietta plant. Further trace element analyses are being used to fingerprint atmospheric inputs from the refinery into the soil. Models of Mn addition to soils are also being developed and compared to known rates of emission.

  14. Integrating naive Bayes and FOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Landwehr, Niels; Kersting, Kristian; De Raedt, Luc

    2007-01-01

    A novel relational learning approach that tightly integrates the naive Bayes learning scheme with the inductive logic programming rule-learner FOIL is presented. In contrast to previous combinations that have employed naive Bayes only for post-processing the rule sets, the presented approach employs the naive Bayes criterion to guide its search directly. The proposed technique is implemented in the NFOIL and TFOIL systems, which employ standard naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes model...

  15. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  16. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  17. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  18. Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system along a 32-mile reach of the Susquehanna River valley and adjacent areas was evaluated in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York. The surficial geology, inferred ice-marginal positions, and distribution of stratified-drift aquifers were mapped from existing data. Ice-marginal positions, which represent pauses in the retreat of glacial ice from the region, favored the accumulation of coarse-grained deposits whereas more steady or rapid ice retreat between these positions favored deposition of fine-grained lacustrine deposits with limited coarse-grained deposits at depth. Unconfined aquifers with thick saturated coarse-grained deposits are the most favorable settings for water-resource development, and three several-mile-long sections of valley were identified (mostly in Broome County) as potentially favorable: (1) the southernmost valley section, which extends from the New York–Pennsylvania border to about 1 mile north of South Windsor, (2) the valley section that rounds the west side of the umlaufberg (an isolated bedrock hill within a valley) north of Windsor, and (3) the east–west valley section at the Broome County–Chenango County border from Nineveh to East of Bettsburg (including the lower reach of the Cornell Brook valley). Fine-grained lacustrine deposits form extensive confining units between the unconfined areas, and the water-resource potential of confined aquifers is largely untested. Recharge, or replenishment, of these aquifers is dependent not only on infiltration of precipitation directly on unconfined aquifers, but perhaps more so from precipitation that falls in adjacent upland areas. Surface runoff and shallow groundwater from the valley walls flow downslope and recharge valley aquifers. Tributary streams that drain upland areas lose flow as they enter main valleys on permeable alluvial fans. This infiltrating water also recharges valley aquifers. Current (2012) use of

  19. FLOODPLAIN, SUSQUEHANNA COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  20. Bayes and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes' theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law.

  1. Evolving extended naive Bayes classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Klawonn, Frank; Angelov, Plamen

    2006-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers are a very simple, but often effective tool for classification problems, although they are based on independence assumptions that do not hold in most cases. Extended naive Bayes classifiers also rely on independence assumptions, but break them down to artificial subclasses, in this way becoming more powerful than ordinary naive Bayes classifiers. Since the involved computations for Bayes classifiers are basically generalised mean value calculations, they easily render ...

  2. Long-term changes in sediment and nutrient delivery from Conowingo Dam to Chesapeake Bay: Effects of reservoir sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Hirsch, Robert M.; Ball, William P.

    2016-01-01

    Reduction of suspended sediment (SS), total phosphorus (TP), and total nitrogen is an important focus for Chesapeake Bay watershed management. The Susquehanna River, the bay’s largest tributary, has drawn attention because SS loads from behind Conowingo Dam (near the river’s mouth) have been rising dramatically. To better understand these changes, we evaluated histories of concentration and loading (1986–2013) using data from sites above and below Conowingo Reservoir. First, observed concentration-discharge relationships show that SS and TP concentrations at the reservoir inlet have declined under most discharges in recent decades, but without corresponding declines at the outlet, implying recently diminished reservoir trapping. Second, best estimates of mass balance suggest decreasing net deposition of SS and TP in recent decades over a wide range of discharges, with cumulative mass generally dominated by the 75∼99.5th percentile of daily Conowingo discharges. Finally, stationary models that better accommodate effects of riverflow variability also support the conclusion of diminished trapping of SS and TP under a range of discharges that includes those well below the literature-reported scour threshold. Overall, these findings suggest that decreased net deposition of SS and TP has occurred at subscour levels of discharge, which has significant implications for the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem.

  3. Down by the Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Elizabeth; Tunks, Karyn; Hardman, Kacie

    2017-01-01

    The Pelican's Nest, located near Mobile Bay in the Gulf of Mexico, is a science center supported by a local educational foundation. Programs are geared toward marine wildlife and the coastal habitat with an emphasis on hands-on learning for students in grades K-6. The director of the science center conducts daily classroom labs and discovery trips…

  4. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available 3815 9 D A Lord Department of Oceanography University of Port Elizabeth P 0 Box 1600 PORT ELIZABETH 6000 N D Geldenhuys Department of Environment Affairs Private Bag X9005 CAPE TOWN 8000 Cover: Richards Bay from the air showing city... of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material...

  5. 78 FR 27989 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos... Assessments (EAs) for three Oregon refuges--Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife... ``Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay final CCPs and FONSIs'' in the subject line of the message. U...

  6. 75 FR 73121 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos... prepare a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for the Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay... ``Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay CCP'' in the subject line of the message. Fax: Attn: Project...

  7. Characterizing Subsurface Lithology and Hydrological Processes at the Susquehanna Shale Hills CZO Using Multi-scale Near-surface Geophysical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, G.; Guo, L.; Comas, X.; DiBiase, R.; Hayes, J. L.; Del Vecchio, J.; Forsythe, B.; Brantley, S. L.; Lin, H.

    2016-12-01

    Characterization of the subsurface lithology of the critical zone using traditional point scale methods such as coring is complicated by the number of samples and time required to properly capture the spatial variability in complex hydrogeological systems, particularly for large scale (i.e. km) studies. Near-surface geophysical techniques can be used to efficiently collect subsurface data at high spatial and temporal resolution and over several scales of measurement to image the subsurface lithology and capture changes over time that can be linked to hydrogeological processes. In this research, preliminary geophysical data including ground penetrating radar, seismic, magnetometry, and terrain conductivity were collected at a series of sites within the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory to characterize the subsurface lithology within two distinct geologic settings: the Garner Run sub-catchment overlaying quartzite, and the Shale Hills sub-catchment overlaying fractured shales. Techniques were applied at both sites in the to 1) investigate the thickness and hydrologic properties of shallow soils, and 2) characterize the hydrological settings of an artisanal spring. This study shows the potential of near-surface geophysical methods to better understand subsurface structure and processes and to develop parameters that could be utilized by local and regional hydrology models.

  8. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  9. Microclimate controls on weathering: Insights into deep critical zone evolution from seismic refraction surveys in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, N.; Kirby, E.; Nyblade, A.; Brantley, S. L.; Clarke, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    The formation of regolith is fundamental to the functioning and structure of the critical zone - the physically and chemically altered material formed from in situ parent bedrock that is available for transport. Understanding how regolith production and transport respond to perturbations in climate and/or tectonic forcing remains a first-order question. At the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHO), high resolution LiDAR-derived topographic data and depths to hand auger refusal reveal a systematic asymmetry in hillslope gradient and mobile regolith thickness; both are greater on north-facing hillslopes. Hydrologic and geochemical studies at the SSHO also suggest asymmetric sediment transport, fluid flow, and mineral weathering with respect to hillslope aspect. Here, we combine shallow seismic surveys completed along 4 hillslope transects (2 north-facing and 2-south facing), 2 ridgetops transects, and subsurface observations in boreholes to investigate the role of climate in inducing fracturing and priming the development of the observed asymmetry. Comparisons of shallow p-wave velocities with borehole and pit observations lead us to hypothesize the presence of three distinct layers at SSHO: 1) a deep, high velocity layer that is consistent with unweathered shale bedrock; 2) an intermediate velocity layer that is consistent with fractured and chemically altered bedrock which overlies unaltered bedrock, and 3) a shallow, slow velocity layer that is consistent with mobile material or shallow soil. Shallow p-wave velocity profiles suggest differences in thickness for both the mobile and immobile regolith material with respect to aspect. Patterns of p-wave velocities with depth are consistent with patterns of fracture densities observed in boreholes and with predictive cracking intensity models related to frost action. The models and data are consistent with climate as a primary driver for the development of asymmetry in the subsurface architecture at

  10. Bayes multiple decision functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and with the goal being to decide which among of many genes are relevant with respect to some phenotype of interest; in the engineering and reliability sciences; in astronomy; in education; and in business. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach to this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the quality of decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through a class of frailty-induced Archimedean copulas. In particular, non-Gaussian dependent data structure, which is typical with failure-time data, can be entertained. The numerical implementation of the determination of the Bayes optimal action is facilitated through sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The theory developed could also be extended to the problem of multiple hypotheses testing, multiple classification and prediction, and high-dimensional variable selection. The proposed procedure is illustrated for the simple versus simple hypotheses setting and for the composite hypotheses setting

  11. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  12. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. 165.1195 Section 165... Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. (a) Location. The Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) includes all navigable waters of the Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and the Humboldt Bay...

  13. Eutrophication in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanowicz, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of using remote sensing to acquire fast reliable data on the nutrient problem in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem are discussed. Pollution effects to phytoplankton blooms during late summer and early fall months are also considered.

  14. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  15. Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Model Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical memorandum provides results of an extended load reduction simulation. The memorandum serves as an addendum to the main Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Mass Balance Model report prepared for the Lake Champlain Basin Program by LimnoTech in 2012

  16. Lavaca Bay 1985-1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples were collected from October 15, 1985 through June 12, 1987 in emergent marsh and non-vegetated habitats throughout the Lavaca Bay system to characterize...

  17. Constructing Puale Bay field camp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Puale bay is located on the Pacific side of the Alaskan Peninsula across Shelikof Strait from the southern end of Kodiak Island. The weather, although often mild, is...

  18. Preliminary estimates of regolith generation and mobility in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, Pennsylvania, using meteoric {sup 10}Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Nicole, E-mail: nxw157@psu.edu [Penn State University, 542 Deike Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kirby, Eric [Penn State University, 542 Deike Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bierman, Paul [University of Vermont, 180 Colchester Ave., Burlington, VT 05405 (United States); Rood, Dylan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Research Highlights: > At our field site, most meteoric {sup 10}Be remains in the uppermost decimeters of soil. > Meteoric {sup 10}Be inventories suggest that ridge top soils are Holocene. > Meteoric {sup 10}Be inventories suggest a ridge top erosion rate of 19.4 m/Ma. > The downslope increase in {sup 10}Be suggests relatively slow downslope transport of soil. - Abstract: This study seeks to quantify the rate and timing of regolith generation in the Critical Zone at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHO). Meteoric {sup 10}Be depth profiles were determined using measurements from 30 hillslope soil and bedrock core samples in an effort to constrain {sup 10}Be inventories. The SSHO is located in the temperate climate zone of central Pennsylvania and comprises a first-order watershed developed entirely on a Fe-rich, organic-poor, Silurian-aged shale. Two major perturbations to the landscape have occurred at SSHO in the geologically recent past, including significant and sustained periglacial activity until after the retreat of the Laurentide ice sheet ({approx}21 ka) and deforestation during early colonial land-use. Bulk soil samples (n = 16) were collected at three locations along a planar hillslope on the southern ridge of the catchment, representing the ridge top, mid-slope and valley floor. Rock chip samples (n = 14) were also collected from a 24 m deep core drilled into the northern ridge top. All meteoric {sup 10}Be concentration profiles show a declining trend with depth, with most of the {sup 10}Be retained in the uppermost decimeters of the soil. Meteoric {sup 10}Be inventories are higher at the mid-slope and valley floor sample sites, at 3.71 {+-} 0.02 x 10{sup 10} at/cm{sup 2} and 3.69 {+-} 0.02 x 10{sup 10} at/cm{sup 2}, than at the ridge top site (1.90 {+-} 0.01 x 10{sup 10} at/cm{sup 2}). The {sup 10}Be inventory at the convex ridge top site implies a minimum residence time of {approx}10.6 ka, or if erosion is steady, an erosion rate

  19. BOBMEX: The Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, G.S.; Gadgil, S.; Kumar, P.V.H.; Kalsi, S.R.; Madhusoodanan, P.; Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, C.V.K.P.; RameshBabu, V.; Rao, L.V.G.; Rao, R.R.; Ravichandran, M.; Reddy, K.G.; Rao, P.Sanjeeva; Sengupta, D.; Sikka, D.R.; Swain, J.; Vinayachandran, P.N.

    , ocean, and their interface to gain deeper insight into some of the processes that govern the variability of organized convection over the bay. Simultaneous time series observations were carried out in the northern and southern Bay of Bengal from ships...

  20. Humboldt Bay Benthic Habitats 2009 Aquatic Setting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  1. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  2. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  3. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  4. 77 FR 57107 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos... conservation plans and environmental assessments (Draft CCP/EAs) for three Oregon refuges-- Bandon Marsh... . Include ``Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay draft CCP and EA'' in the subject line of the message...

  5. 33 CFR 100.112 - Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI. 100.112 Section 100.112 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI. (a) Regulated area. All waters of the East Passage of Narragansett Bay...

  6. 77 FR 70891 - Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay..., CA in support of the Bay Bridge Construction Safety Zone from November 1, 2012 through July 31, 2013.... 1221 et seq.). CALTRANS will sponsor the Bay Bridge Construction Safety Zone on November 1, 2012...

  7. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  8. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  9. Hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Wiering, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers tend to perform very well on a large number of problem domains, although their representation power is quite limited compared to more sophisticated machine learning algorithms. In this pa- per we study combining multiple naive Bayes classifiers by using the hierar- chical mixtures of experts system. This system, which we call hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers, is compared to a simple naive Bayes classifier and to using bagging and boosting for combining ...

  10. Using Micro-Gravity Techniques to Map Alluvium Thickness and Pleistocene Location of the West Branch of the Susquehanna River Near Muncy, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianni, M.; Hayes, B.; Jacob, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    Laurentide glaciation during the early Pleistocene (~ or approximately 970 ka) dammed the northeast-flowing West Branch of the Susquehanna River (WBSR), scouring bedrock and creating 100-km-long glacial Lake Lesley near the Great Bend at Muncy, Pennsylvania. Local drill logs and well data indicate that subsequent paleo-outwash floods and modern fluvial processes have deposited as much as 30 meters of alluvium in this area, but little is known about the valley fill architecture and the bedrock-alluvium interface. This project determined if variations in the thickness of the valley fill were detectable as deviations in the gravitational field using micro-gravity techniques to map the bedrock-alluvium interface. A LaCoste and Romberg Gravitron unit was used to collect gravitational field readings at 50 locations over 5 transects across the Muncy Creek and WBSR valleys (approximately 30 km2), with at least two gravity base stations per transect. Latitude, longitude and ground surface elevation at each location were measured using an OPUS corrected Trimble RTK-GPS unit. Base stations were chosen based on ease of access due to the necessity of repeat measurements. Gravity measurement locations were selected and marked to provide easy access and repeat measurements. The gravimeter was returned to a base station within every two hours and a looping procedure was used to determine drift and maximize confidence in the gravity measurements. A two minute calibration reading at each station was used to minimize any tares in the data. The Gravitron digitally recorded finite impulse response filtered gravity measurements every 20 seconds at each station. A measurement period of 15 minutes was used for each base station occupation and a minimum of 5 minutes at all other locations. Longer or multiple measurements were utilized at some sites if drift or other externalities (i.e. train or truck traffic) were effecting readings. Average, median, standard deviation and 95% confidence

  11. Backscatter imagery in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1x1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The backscatter values are in relative 8-bit (0 –...

  12. Classification using Hierarchical Naive Bayes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Dyhre Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Classification problems have a long history in the machine learning literature. One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing set of classifiers is the Naïve Bayes models. However, an inherent problem with these classifiers is the assumption that all attributes used to describe......, termed Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models. Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models extend the modeling flexibility of Naïve Bayes models by introducing latent variables to relax some of the independence statements in these models. We propose a simple algorithm for learning Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models...

  13. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, David S.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Gohn, Gregory S.; Horton, J. Wright

    2015-10-28

    About 35 million years ago, during late Eocene time, a 2-mile-wide asteroid or comet smashed into Earth in what is now the lower Chesapeake Bay in Virginia. The oceanic impact vaporized, melted, fractured, and (or) displaced the target rocks and sediments and sent billions of tons of water, sediments, and rocks into the air. Glassy particles of solidified melt rock rained down as far away as Texas and the Caribbean. Models suggest that even up to 50 miles away the velocity of the intensely hot air blast was greater than 1,500 miles per hour, and ground shaking was equivalent to an earthquake greater than magnitude 8.0 on the Richter scale. Large tsunamis affected most of the North Atlantic basin. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure is among the 20 largest known impact structures on Earth.

  14. Bayes reconstruction of missing teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporring, Jon; Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff

    2008-01-01

     We propose a method for restoring the surface of tooth crowns in a 3D model of a human denture, so that the pose and anatomical features of the tooth will work well for chewing. This is achieved by including information about the position and anatomy of the other teeth in the mouth. Our system...... contains two major parts: A statistical model of a selection of tooth shapes and a reconstruction of missing data. We use a training set consisting of 3D scans of dental cast models obtained with a laser scanner, and we have build a model of the shape variability of the teeth, their neighbors...... regularization of the log-likelihood estimate based on differential geometrical properties of teeth surfaces, and we show general conditions under which this may be considered a Bayes prior.Finally we use Bayes method to propose the reconstruction of missing data, for e.g. finding the most probable shape...

  15. Influenza in Bristol Bay, 1919

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Gilson deValpine

    2015-01-01

    The 1918 influenza pandemic has been blamed for as many as 50 million deaths worldwide. Like all major disasters, the full story of the pandemic includes smaller, less noted episodes that have not attracted historical attention. The story of the 1919 wave of the influenza pandemic in Bristol Bay Alaska is one such lost episode. It is an important story because the most accessible accounts—the Congressional Record and t...

  16. Zooplankton Biomass Data from Prince William Sound, Icy Bay and Yakutat Bay, Alaska 2010-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes zooplankton biomass from Prince William Sound, Icy Bay and Yakutat Bay, Alaska. Zooplankton were sampled with a ring net (0.6 m diameter with...

  17. [Characteristics of Pahs pollution in sediments from Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Rong; Sun, Sheng-Li; Ke, Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay represented open coastal area and half-closed bay, respectively. This study discussed the differences of PAHs concentration levels, spatial distribution and sources in sediments from these three marine areas. The results showed that detected ratios of 15 PAHs were 100%, and major compounds were 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, especialy Phe, Fla, Pry and Bbf; Sigma PAHs concentration was Leizhou the outside, and the aquaculture > the non-aquaculture in Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay. It suggested that large-scale mariculture inside bay played an important role in PAHs pollution and might make it serious. Oil, fossil fuels and biomass burning were the dominant sources of PAHs in sediments from Leizhou coastal area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay.

  18. Linear dimension reduction and Bayes classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decell, H. P., Jr.; Odell, P. L.; Coberly, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    An explicit expression for a compression matrix T of smallest possible left dimension K consistent with preserving the n variate normal Bayes assignment of X to a given one of a finite number of populations and the K variate Bayes assignment of TX to that population was developed. The Bayes population assignment of X and TX were shown to be equivalent for a compression matrix T explicitly calculated as a function of the means and covariances of the given populations.

  19. Investigation of Tidal Power, Cobscook Bay, Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    include Perry, Pembrook, Edmunds, Dennyville, Whiting and Trescott (See Figure 1). Located entirely in the United States at the mouth of the Bay of Fundy ...Quoddy Region because of the softer sediments in that area. Some are harvested within the bay itself, although to a much lesser extent. Lobsters are...earthquake of an intensity VIII occurring in the Bay of Fundy approximately 35 miles west of the site. Closer to the site an earthquake of intensity VII

  20. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This... with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31, 2013. DATES: This rule is effective...

  1. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay... of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. DATES: This rule is...

  2. Investigation of Tidal Power, Cobscook Bay, Maine. Environmental Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Nevertheless, some worms are harvested in Cobscook Bay . Lobsters are also found in Cobscook Bay , although not in sufficient numbers to support a...ring-billed gull, sanderling, black-bellied plover, semipalmated plover, least sandpiper and dowitcher. Cobscook Bay (and Bay of Fundy in general...tidal power development in the upper Bay of Fundy . Circulation between Cobscook Bay and the Gulf of Maine will be reduced resulting in decreased

  3. Galveston Bay Area : Land Barrier preliminary design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berchum, E.C.; de Vries, P.A.L.; de Kort, R.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    The Galveston Bay Area is under significant risk from hurricane induced flooding. Ever since Hurricane Ike caused billions of damage back in 2008, the option of closing off the Galveston Bay from the Gulf of Mexico was investigated. This report, commissioned by Texas A&M University in Galveston,

  4. Unique thermal record in False Bay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grundlingh, ML

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade False Bay has assumed a prime position in terms of research in to large South African bays. This is manifested by investigations that cover flow conditions modelling, thermal structure, management, biology and nutrients, geology...

  5. Hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers tend to perform very well on a large number of problem domains, although their representation power is quite limited compared to more sophisticated machine learning algorithms. In this pa- per we study combining multiple naive Bayes classifiers by using the hierar- chical

  6. Traditional Fisheries of Antongil Bay, Madagascar | Doukakis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar's marine fisheries provide revenue and sustenance for the island nation. Antongil Bay, the largest shallow-water bay along Madagascar's eastern coast, harbors significant marine resources and is heavily utilized by traditional, artisanal (shark-fin) and industrial fisheries. Mean hourly catch rates are just under 1 ...

  7. Recent Results from Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment observed electron antineutrino disappearance associated with $\\theta_{13}$ with a significance better than $5\\sigma$ in 2012. The final two of eight antineutrino detectors were installed in the summer of 2012. Including the 404 days of data collected with the full detector configuration resulted in a 3.6 times increase of statistics over the previous result with the 6-AD configuration. With improvements of the systematic uncertainties and better estimation of backgrounds, Daya Bay has measured $\\sin^22\\theta_{13} = 0.084\\pm0.005$ and $|\\Delta m^2_{ee}|=2.42^{+0.10}_{-0.11}\\times 10^{-3}$~eV$^2$. This is the most precise measurement of $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ to date and the most precise measurement of of $|\\Delta m^2_{ee}|$ via electron antineutrino disappearance. Several other analysis results are presented, including an independent measurement of $\\theta_{13}$ using inverse-beta decays associated with neutron capture on hydrogen, a measurement of reactor antineutrino fl...

  8. 19 CFR 7.11 - Guantanamo Bay Naval Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guantanamo Bay Naval Station. 7.11 Section 7.11... TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH INSULAR POSSESSIONS AND GUANTANAMO BAY NAVAL STATION § 7.11 Guantanamo Bay Naval Station. Articles of foreign origin may enter the area (both land and water) of the Guantanamo Bay...

  9. THz identification and Bayes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolnikov, Andre

    2017-05-01

    THz Identification is a developing technology. Sensing in the THz range potentially gives opportunity for short range radar sensing because THz waves can better penetrate through obscured atmosphere, such as fog, than visible light. The lower scattering of THz as opposed to the visible light results also in significantly better imaging than in IR spectrum. A much higher contrast can be achieved in medical trans-illumination applications than with X-rays or visible light. The same THz radiation qualities produce better tomographical images from hard surfaces, e.g. ceramics. This effect comes from the delay in time of reflected THz pulses detection. For special or commercial applications alike, the industrial quality control of defects is facilitated with a lower cost. The effectiveness of THz wave measurements is increased with computational methods. One of them is Bayes modeling. Examples of this kind of mathematical modeling are considered.

  10. A pollution history of Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, E.D.; Hodge, V.; Koide, M.; Griffin, J.; Gamble, E.; Bricker, O.P.; Matisoff, G.; Holdren, G.R.; Braun, R.

    1978-01-01

    Present day anthropogenic fluxes of some heavy metals to central Chesapeake Bay appear to be intermediate to those of the southern California coastal region and those of Narragansett Bay. The natural fluxes, however, are in general higher. On the bases of Pb-210 and Pu-239 + 240 geochronologies and of the time changes in interstitial water compositions, there is a mixing of the upper 30 or so centimeters of the sediments in the mid-Chesapeake Bay area through bioturbation by burrowing mollusks and polychaetes. Coal, coke and charcoal levels reach one percent or more by dry weight in the deposits, primarily as a consequence of coal mining operations. ?? 1978.

  11. 78 FR 14185 - Safety Zone; MODU KULLUK; Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, AK to Captains Bay, Unalaska Island, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; MODU KULLUK; Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, AK to Captains Bay, Unalaska Island, AK AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY... in Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, Alaska with planned towed transit into Captains Bay, Unalaska Island...

  12. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  13. Description of gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Donald L.; John L. Chin,; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-27

    Seventy-two gravity cores were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990, 1991, and 2000 from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, California. The gravity cores collected within San Pablo Bay contain bioturbated laminated silts and sandy clays, whole and broken bivalve shells (mostly mussels), fossil tube structures, and fine-grained plant or wood fragments. Gravity cores from the channel wall of Carquinez Strait east of San Pablo Bay consist of sand and clay layers, whole and broken bivalve shells (less than in San Pablo Bay), trace fossil tubes, and minute fragments of plant material.

  14. FL BAY SPECTROUT-POPULATION STATUS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  15. Watermass structure in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sastry, J.S.; Rao, D.P.; Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Suryanarayana, A.; Babu, M.T.

    The distributions of temperature, salinity thermosteric anomaly, density flux function and stability along 88 degrees E in the Bay of Bengal are presented. The surface salinities showed strong gradients both horizontally and vertically in northern...

  16. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  17. Underwater Video Sites in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico were mapped and characterized using visual interpretation...

  18. San Antonio Bay 1986-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effect of salinity on utilization of shallow-water nursery habitats by aquatic fauna was assessed in San Antonio Bay, Texas. Overall, 272 samples were collected...

  19. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  20. Bay Scallop Spawning, Survival, Growth Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bay Scallops are selected and cultured according to criteria of growth and survival. Morphological attributes have also been selected to assess heretibility....

  1. Mesozoic anomalies in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Nair, R.R.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Krishna, K.S.; Subrahmanyam, V.; D'Cruz, M.; Subrahmanyam, C.; Paul, J.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Sekhar, D.V.C.

    The analysis of 8200 line km of total magnetic intensity data in the Bay of Bengal, northeastern Indian Ocean, revealed the presence of approximately N30~'E-trending seafloor spreading type magnetic anomalies. These anomalies resemble the Mesozoic...

  2. Hydrogeomorphic Regions in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Generalized lithology (rock type) and physiography based on geologic formations were used to characterize hydrgeomorphic regions (HGMR) within the Chesapeake Bay...

  3. 2002 Willapa Bay LiDAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA contracted with Spencer B. Gross, Inc. (SBG) to obtain airborne LiDAR of Willapa Bay, Washington during low tide conditions. The LiDAR data was processed to...

  4. Corpus ChristiEast Matagorda Bay 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of habitat utilization were compared among transplanted and natural Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Halls Lake area of Chocolate Bay in the Galveston...

  5. 2004 Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the collection and processing of Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data over an area along the coast of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron,...

  6. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  7. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  8. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  9. Wastewater Out Front in Bay Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clean Water Act programs administered by EPA and the delegated states have played a central role in the success of the wastewater sector in effectively meeting nutrient limits in the Chesapeake Bay “pollution diet” a decade early.

  10. Biscayne Bay Florida Bottlenose Dolphin Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of small vessel based studies of bottlenose dolphins that reside within Biscayne Bay, Florida, adjacent estuaries and nearshore...

  11. South Bay Salt Ponds : Initial stewardship plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will operate and maintain the South Bay Salt Ponds under this Initial Stewardship...

  12. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Master Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, located in the city of Virginia Beach, Virginia, comprises 4,608 acres of barrier beach, fresh and brackish marsh, small...

  13. Historical methyl mercury in San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — San Francisco Bay, California is considered a mercury-impaired watershed. Elevated concentrations of mercury are found in water and sediment as well as fish and...

  14. Naive Bayes Image Classification: beyond Nearest Neighbors

    OpenAIRE

    Timofte, Radu; Tuytelaars, Tinne; Van Gool, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Timofte R., Tuytelaars T., Van Gool L., ''Naive bayes image classification: beyond nearest neighbors'', 11th Asian conference on computer vision - ACCV 2012, 13 pp., November 5-9, 2012, Daejeon, Korea.

  15. Saginaw Bay Restoration Assessment Degree Flowlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This represents the flowline network in Sagina Bay Restoration Assessment (SBRA). It is attributed with the number of disconnections between the reach and the...

  16. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  17. The surface heat budget of Hudson Bay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danielson, E.W

    1969-01-01

    ... which information the heat budget calculations are based. These data include surface air and sea temperatures, ice concentration, cloudiness, wind, atmospheric moisture, ice and water movement, and heat storage amounts within Hudson Bay waters...

  18. Differential productivity of Bristol Bay spawning grounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bristol Bay escapement surveys covering a period of several years show that, irrespective of fluctuations in total numbers on a system, certain grounds display a...

  19. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  20. Water data to answer urgent water policy questions: Monitoring design, available data, and filling data gaps for determining whether shale gas development activities contaminate surface water or groundwater in the Susquehanna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betanzo, Elin A.; Hagen, Erik R.; Wilson, John T.; Reckhow, Kenneth H.; Hayes, Laura; Argue, Denise M.; Cangelosi, Allegra A.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout its history, the United States has made major investments in assessing natural resources, such as soils, timber, oil and gas, and water. These investments allow policy makers, the private sector and the American public to make informed decisions about cultivating, harvesting or conserving these resources to maximize their value for public welfare, environmental conservation and the economy. As policy issues evolve, new priorities and challenges arise for natural resource assessment, and new approaches to monitoring are needed. For example, new technologies for oil and gas development or alternative energy sources may present new risks for water resources both above and below ground. There is a need to evaluate whether today’s water monitoring programs are generating the information needed to answer questions surrounding these new policy priorities. The Northeast-Midwest Institute (NEMWI), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, initiated this project to explore the types and amounts of water data needed to address water-quality related policy questions of critical concern to today’s policy makers and whether those data are currently available. The collaborating entities identified two urgent water policy questions and conducted case studies in the Northeast-Midwest region to determine the water data needed, water data available, and the best ways to fill the data gaps relative to those questions. This report details the output from one case study and focuses on the Susquehanna River Basin, a data-rich area expected to be a best-case scenario in terms of water data availability.

  1. 77 FR 2972 - Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.; Notice of..., 2347-049, 2373-010 Midwest Hydro, LLC Midwest Hydraulic Company, Inc Project No. 10805-054 Midwest...

  2. Map showing thickness of young bay mud, southern San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sandra D.; Nichols, Donald R.; Wright, Nancy A.; Atwater, Brian

    1978-01-01

    Soft water-saturated estuarine deposits less than 10,000 years old underlie the southern part of San Francisco bay and the present and former marshlands that border the bay. Known locally as bay mud or as young bay mud, these deposits, and the estuarine environment that produces them, are of major importance in making decision on land use and development in the San Francisco Bay area. Knowledge of the distribution, thickness, and physical properties of young bay mud is critical to the feasibility, design, and maintenance of structures built on it. Fore this reason, numerous attempts have been made in the past to map or describe these characteristics (Mitchell, 1963; Goldman, 1969; McDonald and Nichols, 1974). The accompanying map of bay-mud thickness significantly revises part of an earlier compilation by Kahle and Goldman (1969) and includes new data from approximately 2400 boreholes, most of which have been drilled during the past 15 years. It also incorporates information on historic margins of San Francisco Bay and its tidal marshes (Nichols and Wright, 1971). Although this map was compelled mostly from data gathered during foundation investigations and construction projects, it is mostly from data gathered during foundation investigations and construction projects, it is not a substitute for such studies. Rather, the map provides regional information for land-use planning, seismic zonation, and design of foundation investigations.

  3. BOOK REVIEW OF "CHESAPEAKE BAY BLUES: SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND THE STRUGGLE TO SAVE THE BAY"

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a book review of "Chesapeake Bay Blues: Science, Politics, and the Struggle to Save the Bay". This book is very well written and provides an easily understandable description of the political challenges faced by those proposing new or more stringent environmental regulat...

  4. Influenza in Bristol Bay, 1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gilson deValpine

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The 1918 influenza pandemic has been blamed for as many as 50 million deaths worldwide. Like all major disasters, the full story of the pandemic includes smaller, less noted episodes that have not attracted historical attention. The story of the 1919 wave of the influenza pandemic in Bristol Bay Alaska is one such lost episode. It is an important story because the most accessible accounts—the Congressional Record and the Coast Guard Report—are inconsistent with reports made by employees, health care workers, and volunteers at the site of the disaster. Salmon fishing industry supervisors and medical officers recorded their efforts to save the region’s Native Alaskans in private company reports. The federal Bureau of Education physician retained wireless transmission, reports, and letters of events. The Coast Guard summarized its work in its Annual Report of 1920. The independent Bureau of Fisheries report to the Department of Commerce reveals the Coast Guard report at striking odds with others and reconciles only one account. This article explores the historical oversight, and attempts to tell the story of the 1919 wave of the pandemic which devastated the Native Alaskan population in this very remote place.

  5. Bayes Syndrome and Imaging Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Ivan Hernandez; Izquierdo-Gomez, Maria Manuela; Niebla, Javier Garcia; Laynez-Cerdeña, Ignacio; Garcia-Gonzalez, Martin Jesus; Barragan-Acea, Antonio; Iribarren-Sarriá, Jose Luis; Jimenez-Rivera, Juan Jose; Lacalzada-Almeida, Juan

    2017-07-13

    Interatrial block (IAB) is due to disruption in the Bachmann region (BR). According to whether interatrial electrical conduction is delayed or completely blocked through the BR, it can be classified as IAB of first, second or third degree. On the surface electrocardiogram, a P wave ≥ 120 ms (partial IAB) is observed or associated to the prolongation of the P wave with a biphasic (positive / negative) morphology in the inferior leads (advanced IAB). Bayes syndrome is defined as an advanced IAB associated with atrial arrhythmia, more specifically atrial fibrillation. The purpose of this review is to describe the latest evidence about an entity considered an anatomical and electrical substrate with its own name, which may be a predictor of supraventricular arrhythmia and cardioembolic cerebrovascular accidents, as well as the role of new imaging techniques, such as echocardiographic strain and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, in characterizing atrial alterations associated with this syndrome and generally in the study of anatomy and atrial function. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study - Historical and Prehistorical Record of Tampa Bay Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Terry

    2005-01-01

    To study how Tampa Bay, Florida, has changed over time, the prehistorical conditions and natural variations in the bay environment are being evaluated. These variations can be tracked by examining the sediments that have accumulated in and around the bay. The prehistorical record, which pre-dates settlers' arrival in the Tampa Bay area around 1850, provides a baseline with which to compare and evaluate the magnitude and effects of sea-level, climate, biological, geochemical, and man-made changes. These data also are valuable for planning and conducting projects aimed at restoring wetlands and other estuarine habitats to their original state. In addition, the data provide a basis for judging efforts to improve the health of the bay.

  7. 76 FR 23193 - Traffic Separation Schemes: In the Approaches to Portland, ME; Boston, MA; Narragansett Bay, RI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Portland, ME; Boston, MA; Narragansett Bay, RI and Buzzards Bay, MA; Chesapeake Bay, VA, and Cape Fear... Portland, ME; in the approaches to Boston, MA; in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI and Buzzards Bay... Portland, ME; Boston, MA; Narragansett Bay, RI and Buzzards Bay, MA; Chesapeake Bay, VA; and Cape Fear...

  8. Radium isotopes in the Ulsan Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Seong [Department of Oceanography, Chungnam National University, Gung-dong 220, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: leejs728@nfrda.re.kr; Kim, Kee Hyun [Department of Oceanography, Chungnam National University, Gung-dong 220, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Duck Soo [Department of Oceanography, Chungnam National University, Gung-dong 220, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    In order to estimate the fluxes of Ra isotopes, we measured {sup 224}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 228}Ra activities in the Ulsan Bay mixing zone. The convex upwards curvature of the plot of Ra isotope activities versus salinity for the mixing zone suggests that Ra isotopes are supplied from particles entering the mixing zone from both the river and bottom sediments. This addition increases the estuarine flux of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra to the outer sea by factors of 15 and 95 over the flux attributable to Ra dissolved in the riverine water alone. In order to estimate the residence time of the water in Ulsan Bay, we applied a mass balance model to the distribution of {sup 224}Ra and {sup 226}Ra activities in the Ulsan Bay mixing zone with the inflow from the Taehwa River. The obtained residence times of the waters in the Ulsan Bay were estimated to be 6.8-11.4 d. The waters in the upper part of the estuary have long residence times whereas those in the lower part, in contact with the open sea, have shorter residence times. The mean residence time of the water in the Ulsan Bay was estimated to be 9.1 d.

  9. Fishery Management Program Progress Report: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing summary of fishery biologist's visit to Back Bay to remove carp from impoundments at Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge.

  10. Parameter Identification by Bayes Decision and Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulczycki, P.; Schiøler, Henrik

    1994-01-01

    The problem of parameter identification by Bayes point estimation using neural networks is investigated.......The problem of parameter identification by Bayes point estimation using neural networks is investigated....

  11. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund: Projects and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) projects listed here are part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  12. Benthic grab data from October 1999 in Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve and the NOAA Office for Coastal Management worked together to map benthic habitats within Apalachicola Bay,...

  13. Sediment grab data from October 1999 in Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve and the NOAA Office for Coastal Management worked together to map benthic habitats within Apalachicola Bay,...

  14. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration, Phase II at Ravenswood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Phase II Construction at Ravenswood, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  15. Phytoplankton and nutrients studies in Magu bay, Speke gulf, Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemical parameters were studied in Magu Bay, Lake Victoria, in May 2001. Investigations on the influence of Simiyu River on the biological and physical characteristics of the Bay were carried out. Surface and bottom currents flowed in the ...

  16. Biology and subsistence hunting of geese at Chagvan Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Chagvan Bay and Nanvak Bay are known to be important staging and/or stopover areas for large numbers of Pacific Brant (Branta bernicola) and Emperor Geese (Chen...

  17. 1999 RoxAnn Data Points from Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve and the NOAA Office for Coastal Management worked together to map benthic habitats within Apalachicola Bay,...

  18. Technical Support Documents Used to Develop the Chesapeake Bay TMDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chesapeake Bay TMDL development was supported by several technical documents for water quality standards and allocation methodologies specific to the Chesapeake Bay. This page provides the technical support documents.

  19. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  20. Mapping Oyster Reef Habitats in Mobile Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Oyster reefs around the world are declining rapidly, and although they haven t received as much attention as coral reefs, they are just as important to their local ecosystems and economies. Oyster reefs provide habitats for many species of fish, invertebrates, and crustaceans, as well as the next generations of oysters. Oysters are also harvested from many of these reefs and are an important segment of many local economies, including that of Mobile Bay, where oysters rank in the top five commercial marine species both by landed weight and by dollar value. Although the remaining Mobile Bay oyster reefs are some of the least degraded in the world, projected climate change could have dramatic effects on the health of these important ecosystems. The viability of oyster reefs depends on water depth and temperature, appropriate pH and salinity levels, and the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. Projected increases in sea level, changes in precipitation and runoff patterns, and changes in pH resulting from increases in the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in the oceans could all affect the viability of oyster reefs in the future. Human activities such as dredging and unsustainable harvesting practices are also adversely impacting the oyster reefs. Fortunately, several projects are already under way to help rebuild or support existing or previously existing oyster reefs. The success of these projects will depend on the local effects of climate change on the current and potential habitats and man s ability to recognize and halt unsustainable harvesting practices. As the extent and health of the reefs changes, it will have impacts on the Mobile Bay ecosystem and economy, changing the resources available to the people who live there and to the rest of the country, since Mobile Bay is an important national source of seafood. This project identified potential climate change impacts on the oyster reefs of Mobile Bay, including the possible addition of newly viable

  1. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology; Wike, L.D. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Dietsch, B.M. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  2. 77 FR 14276 - Regulated Navigation Area; Little Bay Bridge Construction, Little Bay, Portsmouth, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) on the navigable waters of Little Bay in the Piscataqua River under and surrounding the Little Bay and General Sullivan Bridges in order to facilitate construction of the Little Bay Bridge between Newington, NH and Dover, NH. This temporary interim rule is necessary to provide for the safety of life on the navigable waters during bridge construction operations that could pose an imminent hazard to vessels operating in the area. This rule implements certain safety measures, including speed restrictions and the temporary suspension of vessel traffic during construction operations.

  3. Holocene evolution of Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Twichell, David C.

    2011-01-01

    A program of geophysical mapping and vibracoring was conducted in 2007 to better understand the geologic evolution of Apalachicola Bay and its response to sea-level rise. A detailed geologic history could help better understand how this bay may respond to both short-term (for example, storm surge) and long-term sea-level rise. The results of this study were published (Osterman and others, 2009) as part of a special issue of Geo-Marine Letters that documents early results from the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project.

  4. An Empirical Bayes Approach to Spatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C. N.; Kostal, H.

    1983-01-01

    Multi-channel LANDSAT data are collected in several passes over agricultural areas during the growing season. How empirical Bayes modeling can be used to develop crop identification and discrimination techniques that account for spatial correlation in such data is considered. The approach models the unobservable parameters and the data separately, hoping to take advantage of the fact that the bulk of spatial correlation lies in the parameter process. The problem is then framed in terms of estimating posterior probabilities of crop types for each spatial area. Some empirical Bayes spatial estimation methods are used to estimate the logits of these probabilities.

  5. Chondrichthyan occurrence and abundance trends in False Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial fishing in False Bay, South Africa, began in the 1600s. Today chondrichthyans are regularly taken in fisheries throughout the bay. Using a combination of catch, survey and life history data, the occurrence and long-term changes in populations of chondrichthyans in False Bay are described. Analyses of time ...

  6. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given. ...

  7. 33 CFR 162.150 - Maumee Bay and River, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maumee Bay and River, Ohio. 162... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.150 Maumee Bay and River, Ohio. (a) In Maumee Bay (lakeward of Maumee River Lighted Buoy 49(L/L No. 770)), no vessel greater than...

  8. Naïve Bayes classification in R

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2016-01-01

    Naïve Bayes classification is a kind of simple probabilistic classification methods based on Bayes’ theorem with the assumption of independence between features. The model is trained on training dataset to make predictions by predict() function. This article introduces two functions naiveBayes() and train() for the performance of Naïve Bayes classification.

  9. Naive Bayes and Text Classification I - Introduction and Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Raschka, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers, a family of classifiers that are based on the popular Bayes' probability theorem, are known for creating simple yet well performing models, especially in the fields of document classification and disease prediction. In this article, we will look at the main concepts of naive Bayes classification in the context of document categorization.

  10. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Regulated area. All navigable waters of Great South Bay, NY within a 100 yard radius of each... the Fire Island Lighthouse Dock in approximate position 40°38′01″ N 073°13′07″ W, northerly through.... (1) No person or vessel may enter, transit, or remain within 100 yards of any swimmer or safety craft...

  11. Susceptibilities of Human Cytomegalovirus Clinical Isolates to BAY38-4766, BAY43-9695, and Ganciclovir

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, James J.; McDonough, Ann; Olson, Betty; Hallenberger, Sabine; Reefschlaeger, Juergen; Bender, Wolfgang; Drusano, George L.

    2001-01-01

    BAY38-4766 and BAY43-9695 are nonnucleosidic compounds with activities against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Two phenotypic assays were used to determine the drug susceptibilities of 36 HCMV clinical isolates to the BAY compounds and ganciclovir. Using either assay, both BAY compounds at a concentration of approximately 1 μM inhibited the replication of all 36 HCMV clinical isolates, including 11 ganciclovir-resistant clinical isolates, by 50%. PMID:11557492

  12. Geology and geomorphology--Drakes Bay and Vicinity Bay Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The polygon shapefile is included in...

  13. Pärnu Bay Golf Club = Pärnu Bay Golf Club / Arhitekt11

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Pärnu Bay Golf Club, arhitektid Jürgen Lepper, Anto Savi, Margus Soonets, Janar Toomesso (Arhitekt11), sisearhitektid Liina Vaino, Kaari Metslang, Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11). Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali aastapreemia nominent 2016

  14. Gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release contains information on gravity cores that were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the area of San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait,...

  15. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund Points, SF Bay CA, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund is a competitive grant program that is helping implement TMDLs to improve water quality, protect wetlands, and...

  16. Contaminants in redhead ducks wintering in Baffin Bay and Redfish Bay, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A sample of 39 redhead ducks was collected from Redfish and Baffin Bays on the Texas Coast during the winter of 1988-1989 to obtain baseline information on...

  17. Florida Bay Science Program: a Synthesis of Research on Florida Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, John; Nuttle, William

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the progress made toward the objectives established in the Strategic Plan revised in 1997 for the agencies cooperating in the program. These objectives are expressed as five questions that organized the research on the Florida Bay ecosystem: Ecosystem History What was the Florida Bay ecosystem like 50, 100, and 150 years ago? Question 1—Physical Processes How and at what rates do storms, changing freshwater flows, sea level rise, and local evaporatio...

  18. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalles, J.F. (Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (USA)); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Bathymetry (2011) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution depth surface for Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). The...

  20. Madreporaria from the Bay of Batavia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umbgrove, J.H.F.

    1939-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In the Bay of Batavia there are patch-reefs and cays in different stadia of development. Some are small reefs still rather deep below sea level, other reefs bear a small sand cay. On the larger coral sand islands vegetation has developed ; moreover shingle ramparts and a moat have come

  1. Bathymetry (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution depth surface for Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). The...

  2. PEMANFATAN TEOREMA BAYES DALAM PENENTUAN PENYAKIT THT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Winiarti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dalam konsep pelacakan dalam mencari solusi dengan pendekatan artificial inteligent, ada berbagai metode  yang dapat diterapkan untuk mengatasi masalah ketidakpastian saat proses pelacakan terjadi. Salah satunya adalah teorema bayes. Adanya ketidakpastian pada proses pelacakan dapat terjadi karena adanya perubahan pengetahuan yang ada di dalam sistem. Untuk itu diperlukan adanya suatu metode untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut. Dalam penelitian ini telah diterapkan suatu metode untuk mengatasi ketidakpastian dengan teorema Bayes pada kasus pelacakan untuk mendiagnosa penyakit pada THT (Telinga,Hidung dan Tenggorokan.  Subjek pada penelitian ini adalah proses pelacakan untuk menentukan penyakit THT dengan model penalaran forward chaining dan metode kepastiannya menggunakan teorema bayes dengan cara menghitung nilai probabilitas suatu penyakit dan membandingkan probabilitas setiap gejalanya. Model pengembangan perangkat lunak yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Waterfall. Metode Waterfall diawali dengan analisis data, perancangan sistem, pengkodean menggunakan Visual Basic 6.0, pengujian sistem dengan black box test dan alfa test. Dari penelitian yang dilakukan menghasilkan sebuah perangkat lunak yaitu  yang mampu menentukan penyakit pada THT dengan menerapkan metode bayes untuk mengatasi ketidakpastian. Hasil uji coba sistem menujukkan bahwa aplikasi ini layak dan dapat digunakan.

  3. Morphological features in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.

    the NW-SE trending long profiles spaced at 30 nautical miles aided to improve the bathymetry chart of the Bay of Bengal. The echograms show some important geo-morphological features of the seafloor. One such feature is the "Swatch of no ground" which...

  4. Chesapeake Bay Program Water Quality Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chesapeake Information Management System (CIMS), designed in 1996, is an integrated, accessible information management system for the Chesapeake Bay Region. CIMS is an organized, distributed library of information and software tools designed to increase basin-wide public access to Chesapeake Bay information. The information delivered by CIMS includes technical and public information, educational material, environmental indicators, policy documents, and scientific data. Through the use of relational databases, web-based programming, and web-based GIS a large number of Internet resources have been established. These resources include multiple distributed on-line databases, on-demand graphing and mapping of environmental data, and geographic searching tools for environmental information. Baseline monitoring data, summarized data and environmental indicators that document ecosystem status and trends, confirm linkages between water quality, habitat quality and abundance, and the distribution and integrity of biological populations are also available. One of the major features of the CIMS network is the Chesapeake Bay Program's Data Hub, providing users access to a suite of long- term water quality and living resources databases. Chesapeake Bay mainstem and tidal tributary water quality, benthic macroinvertebrates, toxics, plankton, and fluorescence data can be obtained for a network of over 800 monitoring stations.

  5. Saginaw Bay, MI LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME:(NRCS) Saginaw Bay, MI LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G11PD01254 Woolpert Order...

  6. (IMPS) at Makoba Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daisy Ouya

    sedimentation pond, in that order. Water from the reservoir flows through the pond system by gravity. In the late 18th Century a powerful cyclone hit. Unguja Island. As a result, the estuarine sediments in the Bay have remained blackish in colour, sticky,.

  7. Summary report on Bristol Bay murre mortality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — At least 86,000 common murres died in Bristol Bay, Alaska during a brief period in late April of this year. Evidence suggests that it was a catastrophic event of...

  8. An empirical Bayes approach for the Poisson life distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavos, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    A smooth empirical Bayes estimator is derived for the intensity parameter (hazard rate) in the Poisson distribution as used in life testing. The reliability function is also estimated either by using the empirical Bayes estimate of the parameter, or by obtaining the expectation of the reliability function. The behavior of the empirical Bayes procedure is studied through Monte Carlo simulation in which estimates of mean-squared errors of the empirical Bayes estimators are compared with those of conventional estimators such as minimum variance unbiased or maximum likelihood. Results indicate a significant reduction in mean-squared error of the empirical Bayes estimators over the conventional variety.

  9. Chesapeake Bay Watershed - Protecting the Chesapeake Bay and its rivers through science, restoration, and partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay, the Nation's largest estuary, has been degraded due to the impact of human-population increase, which has doubled since 1950, resulting in degraded water quality, loss of habitat, and declines in populations of biological communities. Since the mid-1980s, the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP), a multi-agency partnership which includes the Department of Interior (DOI), has worked to restore the Bay ecosystem. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has the critical role of providing unbiased scientific information that is utilized to document and understand ecosystem change to help assess the effectiveness of restoration strategies in the Bay and its watershed. The USGS revised its Chesapeake Bay science plan for 2006-2011 to address the collective needs of the CBP, DOI, and USGS with a mission to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Bay ecosystem. The USGS science themes for this mission are: Causes and consequences of land-use change; Impact of climate change and associated hazards; Factors affecting water quality and quantity; Ability of habitat to support fish and bird populations; and Synthesis and forecasting to improve ecosystem assessment, conservation, and restoration.

  10. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  11. POTENTIAL HAZARDS OF SEDIMENT IN KENDARI BAY, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Adi Kristanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kendari bay is located in front of Kendari city. There are two harbors in the inner part of bay which very important to support economic activities such as shipping and passenger transportation. The result of coastal characteristic mapping and physical oceanography survey show various coastal morphology, vegetation, weathering processes, sedimentation, currents, and water depth and sea floor morphology. Kendari bay is an enclosed bay; the area is wide in the inner part and narrow in mouth of bay (outlet, the morphology look like a bottle’s neck. Numerous mouth rivers are concentrate around the bay. The rivers load material from land since erosion on land is intensive enough. There is indication that sediment supplies from land trough river mouth not equivalent with outlet capacity. Sediment load is trapped in the inner bay caused the outlet morphology. So high sediment rate play an important role in the process of shallow of water depth in Kendari bay. This condition make the Kendari bay is a prone area of sediment hazard due to height rate of sedimentary process. Therefore, to anticipate the hazards, precaution should be taken related to the Kendari bay as the center of activities in southeast of Sulawesi. The further survey is needed such as marine geotechnique and on land environmental to collect data, which can be used as database for development planning. Key words: Potential hazard, sediment, Kendari Bay Teluk

  12. Biological baseline data Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Higley, D.L.; Holton, R.L.

    1975-04-01

    This report presents biological baseline information gathered during the research project, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies on Youngs Bay.'' Youngs Bay is a shallow embayment located on the south shore of the Columbia River, near Astoria, Oregon. Research on Youngs Bay was motivated by the proposed construction by Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation of an aluminum reduction plant at Warrenton, Oregon. The research was designed to provide biological baseline information on Youngs Bay in anticipation of potential harmful effects from plant effluents. The information collected concerns the kinds of animals found in the Youngs Bay area, and their distribution and seasonal patterns of abundance. In addition, information was collected on the feeding habits of selected fish species, and on the life history and behavioral characteristics of the most abundant benthic amphipod, Corophium salmonis. Sampling was conducted at approximately three-week intervals, using commonly accepted methods of animal collection. Relatively few stations were sampled for fish, because of the need to standardize conditions of capture. Data on fish capture are reported in terms of catch-per-unit effort by a particular sampling gear at a specific station. Methods used in sampling invertebrates were generally more quantitative, and allowed sampling at a greater variety of places, as well as a valid basis for the computation of densities. Checklists of invertebrate species and fish species were developed from these samples, and are referred to throughout the report. The invertebrate checklist is more specific taxonomically than are tables reporting invertebrate densities. This is because the methods employed in identification were more precise than those used in counts. 9 refs., 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Hierarchical Naive Bayes for genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malovini, Alberto; Barbarini, Nicola; Bellazzi, Riccardo; de Michelis, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Genome Wide Association Studies represent powerful approaches that aim at disentangling the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying complex traits. The usual "one-SNP-at-the-time" testing strategy cannot capture the multi-factorial nature of this kind of disorders. We propose a Hierarchical Naïve Bayes classification model for taking into account associations in SNPs data characterized by Linkage Disequilibrium. Validation shows that our model reaches classification performances superior to those obtained by the standard Naïve Bayes classifier for simulated and real datasets. In the Hierarchical Naïve Bayes implemented, the SNPs mapping to the same region of Linkage Disequilibrium are considered as "details" or "replicates" of the locus, each contributing to the overall effect of the region on the phenotype. A latent variable for each block, which models the "population" of correlated SNPs, can be then used to summarize the available information. The classification is thus performed relying on the latent variables conditional probability distributions and on the SNPs data available. The developed methodology has been tested on simulated datasets, each composed by 300 cases, 300 controls and a variable number of SNPs. Our approach has been also applied to two real datasets on the genetic bases of Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes generated by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. The approach proposed in this paper, called Hierarchical Naïve Bayes, allows dealing with classification of examples for which genetic information of structurally correlated SNPs are available. It improves the Naïve Bayes performances by properly handling the within-loci variability.

  14. Urban Noise Modelling in Boka Kotorska Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Nikolić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic is the most significant noise source in urban areas. The village of Kamenari in Boka Kotorska Bay is a site where, in a relatively small area, road traffic and sea (ferry traffic take place at the same time. Due to the specificity of the location, i.e. very rare synergy of sound effects of road and sea traffic in the urban area, as well as the expressed need for assessment of noise level in a simple and quick way, a research was conducted, using empirical methods and statistical analysis methods, which led to the creation of acoustic model for the assessment of equivalent noise level (Leq. The developed model for noise assessment in the Village of Kamenari in Boka Kotorska Bay quite realistically provides data on possible noise levels at the observed site, with very little deviations in relation to empirically obtained values.

  15. Pockmarks in Passamaquoddy Bay, New Brunswick, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Laura; Legere, Christine; Hughes Clark, J.E.; Kelley, J.T.; Barnhardt, Walter; Andrews, Brian; Belknap, D.F.

    2016-01-01

    Pockmarks are seafloor depressions associated with fluid escape (Judd & Hovland 2007). They proliferate in the muddy seafloors of coastal Gulf of Maine and Bay of Fundy, where they are associated with shallow natural gas likely of biogenic origin (Ussler et al. 2003; Rogers et al. 2006; Wildish et al. 2008). In North America, shallow-water pockmark fields are not reported south of Long Island Sound, despite the abundance of gassy, muddy estuaries. The absence of pockmarks south of the limit of North American glaciation suggests that local and regional heterogeneities, possibly related to glacial or sea-level history or bedrock geology, influence pockmark field distribution. In shallow-water embayments, such as Passamaquoddy Bay, New Brunswick, pockmarks can be large (>200 m diameter) and number in the thousands.

  16. Thatcher Bay, Washington, Nearshore Restoration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breems, Joel; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Grossman, Eric E.; Elliott, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The San Juan Archipelago, located at the confluence of the Puget Sound, the Straits of Juan de Fuca in Washington State, and the Straits of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada, provides essential nearshore habitat for diverse salmonid, forage fish, and bird populations. With 408 miles of coastline, the San Juan Islands provide a significant portion of the available nearshore habitat for the greater Puget Sound and are an essential part of the regional efforts to restore Puget Sound (Puget Sound Shared Strategy 2005). The nearshore areas of the San Juan Islands provide a critical link between the terrestrial and marine environments. For this reason the focus on restoration and conservation of nearshore habitat in the San Juan Islands is of paramount importance. Wood-waste was a common by-product of historical lumber-milling operations. To date, relatively little attention has been given to the impact of historical lumber-milling operations in the San Juan Archipelago. Thatcher Bay, on Blakely Island, located near the east edge of the archipelago, is presented here as a case study on the restoration potential for a wood-waste contaminated nearshore area. Case study components include (1) a brief discussion of the history of milling operations. (2) an estimate of the location and amount of the current distribution of wood-waste at the site, (3) a preliminary examination of the impacts of wood-waste on benthic flora and fauna at the site, and (4) the presentation of several restoration alternatives for the site. The history of milling activity in Thatcher Bay began in 1879 with the construction of a mill in the southeastern part of the bay. Milling activity continued for more than 60 years, until the mill closed in 1942. Currently, the primary evidence of the historical milling operations is the presence of approximately 5,000 yd3 of wood-waste contaminated sediments. The distribution and thickness of residual wood-waste at the site was determined by using sediment

  17. MSL-1 reservicing in OPF Bay 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    KSC payloads processing employees work to reservice the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) Spacelab module in the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia's payload bay for the STS-94 mission in Orbiter Processing Facility 1. That mission is now scheduled to lift off in early July. This was the first time that this type of payload was reserviced without removing it from the payload bay. This new procedure pioneers processing efforts for quick relaunch turnaround times for future payloads. The Spacelab module was scheduled to fly again with the full complement of STS-83 experiments after that mission was cut short due to a faulty fuel cell. During the scheduled 16-day STS-94 mission, the experiments will be used to test some of the hardware, facilities and procedures that are planned for use on the International Space Station while the flight crew conducts combustion, protein crystal growth and materials processing experiments.

  18. The Bay of Pigs: Revisiting Two Museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Museum of Playa Giron (the Bay of Pigs in the region of Cienega De Zapata, Cuba, celebrates the repulse of Brigade 2506 as the first reverse of US imperialism on the American continents. The equivalent Brigade 2506 Museum in Miami, dedicated to and maintained by the members of Brigade 2506, celebrates defeat at the Bay of Pigs as moral victory for the Cuban exiles. The forces were indeed implacable foes. Yet between the museums can be detected some curious similarities. Both present the common theme of the confrontation between forces of good and evil. Both celebrate the philosophy that dying for one’s country is the greatest good a citizen may achieve. Both museums fly the common Cuban flag. Both museums identify a common enemy: the United States of America. This article, by comparing the displays in the two museums, analyses some cultural elements of what, despite decades of separation, in some ways remains a common Cuban culture.

  19. New and Improved Results from Daya Bay

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Despite the great progress achieved in the last decades, neutrinos remain among the least understood fundamental particles to have been experimentally observed. The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment consists of eight identically designed detectors placed underground at different baselines from three groups of nuclear reactors in China, a configuration that is ideally suited for studying the properties of these elusive particles. In this talk I will review the improved results released last summer by the Daya Bay collaboration. These results include (i) a precision measurement of the θ13 mixing angle and the effective mass splitting in the electron antineutrino disappearance channel with a dataset comprising more than 2.5 million antineutrino interactions, (ii) a high-statistics measurement of the absolute flux and spectrum of reactor-produced electron antineutrinos, and (iii) a search for light sterile neutrino mixing performed with more than three times the statistics of the previous result. I w...

  20. Stratification on the Skagit Bay Tidal Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    shore Skagit Bay a Camano Island -1 0 1 -2-1012 0.5 -0.5 1 -1 C ro ss -s ho re (k m ) Alongshore (km) 0 b 1 0 -1 Bed level (m ) 18 2.2 Modeled...shadowed by Camano Island, which forms the southern border of the tidal flats (Fig. 2-3c). Saline water has propagated onshore and a roughly

  1. Bechevin Bay, Alaska, Inlet Stability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Krenitzin. Bechevin Inlet, Bechevin Bay, and Isanotski Strait form an inlet system which * separates Unimak Island from the Alaska Peninsula. This...from the North Pacific must travel around Unimak Island through Unimak Pass. This route is 100-150 miles longer than the route through the Bechevin...period was semidiurnal, while the tidal flow at Unimak Pass (not too far southwest from the study area) was, interestingly, diurnal. Second, the phase

  2. IRST infrared background analysis of bay environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwering, PBW

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available environment. Some sensor management approaches for application in IRST systems is discussed. Keywords: Infrared backgrounds, coastal bay analysis, small surface target contrasts, IRST application. 1. INTRODUCTION More and more, coastal... in environments with highly cluttered backgrounds as well as rapidly varying atmospheric conditions. Threat contrasts may be low and varying in littoral environments, and the amount of background clutter can be severe. Electro-optical sensors, used for detection...

  3. Distribution of Seagrasses in Inner Ambon Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Irawan, Andri; Nganro, Noorsalam R

    2016-01-01

    Excessive sedimentation in Inner Ambon Bay (IAB) is alleged to cause the degradation of seagrass ve-getation in the area. To get a clearer picture about the matter, we conducted a field study in October 2010 - January 2011 to describe the distribution and density of seagrass at several locations in IAB with different conditions of sedimentation levels. Data were collected using transects perpendicular to the coastline along the seagrass vegetation. The results showed that there were six speci...

  4. Experimental enhancement of pickleweed, Suisun Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Tsao, Danika C.; Yee, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    As mitigation for habitat impacted by the expansion of a pier on Suisun Bay, California, two vehicle parking lots (0.36 ha and 0.13 ha) were restored by being excavated, graded, and contoured using dredged sediments to the topography or elevation of nearby wetlands. We asked if pickleweed (Sarcocornia pacifica L, [Amaranthaceae]) colonization could be enhanced by experimental manipulation on these new wetlands. Pickleweed dominates ecologically important communities at adjacent San Francisco Bay, but is not typically dominant at Suisun Bay probably because of widely fluctuating water salinity and is outcompeted by other brackish water plants. Experimental treatments (1.0-m2 plots) included mulching with pickleweed cuttings in either the fall or the spring, tilling in the fall, or applying organic enrichments in the fall. Control plots received no treatment. Pickleweed colonization was most enhanced at treatment plots that were mulched with pickleweed in the fall. Since exotic vegetation can colonize bare sites within the early phases of restoration and reduce habitat quality, we concluded that mulching was most effective in the fall by reducing invasive plant cover while facilitating native plant colonization.

  5. An overview of San Francisco Bay PORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ralph T.; McKinnie, David; English, Chad; Smith, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    The Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) provides observations of tides, tidal currents, and meteorological conditions in real-time. The San Francisco Bay PORTS (SFPORTS) is a decision support system to facilitate safe and efficient maritime commerce. In addition to real-time observations, SFPORTS includes a nowcast numerical model forming a San Francisco Bay marine nowcast system. SFPORTS data and nowcast numerical model results are made available to users through the World Wide Web (WWW). A brief overview of SFPORTS is presented, from the data flow originated at instrument sensors to final results delivered to end users on the WWW. A user-friendly interface for SFPORTS has been designed and implemented. Appropriate field data analysis, nowcast procedures, design and generation of graphics for WWW display of field data and nowcast results are presented and discussed. Furthermore, SFPORTS is designed to support hazardous materials spill prevention and response, and to serve as resources to scientists studying the health of San Francisco Bay ecosystem. The success (or failure) of the SFPORTS to serve the intended user community is determined by the effectiveness of the user interface.

  6. Operational modal identification using variational Bayes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binbin; Der Kiureghian, Armen

    2017-05-01

    Operational modal analysis is the primary tool for modal parameter identification in civil engineering. Bayesian statistics offers an ideal framework for analyzing uncertainties associated with the identified modal parameters. However, the exact Bayesian formulation is usually intractable due to the high computational demand in obtaining the posterior distributions of modal parameters. In this paper, the variational Bayes method is employed to provide an approximate solution. Unlike the Laplace approximation and Monte Carlo sampling, the variational Bayes approach provides a gradient-free algorithm to analytically approximate the posterior distributions. Working with the state-space representation of a dynamical system, the variational Bayes approach for identification of modal parameters is derived by ignoring statistical correlation between latent variables and the model parameters. In this approach, the joint distribution of the state-transition and observation matrices as well as the joint distribution of the process noise and measurement error are firstly calculated analytically using conjugate priors. The distribution of modal parameters is extracted from these obtained joint distributions using a first-order Taylor series expansion. A robust implementation of the method is discussed by using square-root filtering and Cholesky decomposition. The proposed approach is illustrated by its application to an example mass-spring system and the One Rincon Hill Tower in San Francisco.

  7. Tidal power from the Bay of Fundy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Walsum, W.

    1998-10-01

    The potential for tidal power development in New Brunswick`s Bay of Fundy was discussed. Alternative methods of tidal plant operation, suitable for the site conditions of the head of the Bay (where there are two continuous basins), were described. Tidal power is strongly influenced by site conditions. A simple mathematical model has shown that for the location at the head of the Bay, a linked-basins plant could produce 5 per cent more energy with only 53 per cent of the power generating machinery that would be required for a conventional paired basins scheme. The challenge is to find an economical, environmentally friendly way of extracting power and energy from the tides. An early study series from 1966 to 1988 has shown that tidal power can be economical, yet nothing has materialized beyond an 18 MW pilot plant at Annapolis because of environmental concerns. In 1977, this single basin tidal power plant was found to increase the tidal range at Boston by 30 cm. It was suggested that a `tidal fence` may be an ecologically acceptable solution to this problem. Attention was drawn to the need to draft a master plan for the development of Fundy`s tidal power potential, making sure that early development does not jeopardize optimum development of the total resource. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Susquehanna River Basin Flood Control Review Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Economy 31 Flood Damages 31 Water Use 33 Power Supply 39 Recreation Resources 41 Existing Plans and Improvements 43 Reservoirs 43 Upstream Watershed...a broadview of the overall study. Included in the report is a descrirption of the basin resources and economy ; problems and needs; the evaluation and...accompanied by heavy showers and thundershowers. Tropical Storm Agnes, which had originated days earlier as a tropical depression of the Yucatan

  9. DCS Hydraulic Submission for Susquehanna County PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  10. Organic Matter Remineralization Predominates Phosphorus Cycling in the Mid-Bay Sediments in the Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunendra, Joshi R.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Burdige, David J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Sparks, Donald L.; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2015-05-19

    The Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the US, suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and non–point source nutrient sources. Restoration of the bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs and hydrological conditions, and complex interacting factors including climate forcing. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics enables one to identify the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment- water interface and aid to better constrain mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between the sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ18Op) in concert with sediment chemistry, XRD, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on the sediment retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the meso-haline portion of the mid-bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedback effect on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Isotope data indicate that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-bay sediments. We interpret that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any bottom-water and/or pore-water P derived from other sources or biogeochemical processes and exceeded saturation with respect to authigenic P precipitation. It is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway against remobilization (coupled Fe-P cycling) pathway in the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results are expected to have significant implications for the current understanding of P cycling and benthic-pelagic coupling in the bay, particularly on the

  11. Grand Bay-Banks Lake Stewardship Partnership - Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    soils that are typically found beneath the wetlands. The Carolina bays are generally oval- shaped depressions and vary in size from one to several...layer of quartz sand, overlain by argillaceous, slightly phosphatic, dolomitic limestone. Small blue clasts of clay are common throughout the...McConnell and Hacke (1993) speculated that the circular shaped wetland areas called bays in the northern part of their study area (Grand Bay and Banks Lake

  12. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Strategy for Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    used to model and evaluate the behavior of sediment placed within Mobile Bay. SEDIMENT TRANSPORT WITHIN MOBILE BAY: A sediment budget for Mobile...benthic invertebrates in the pit basin while not adversely impacting the pit with regards to fish utilization or recreational fishing. 2) A second...were seasonally occupied by fishery resource assemblages typical of greater Mobile Bay. Species composition included several taxa that exemplify

  13. Variational Assimilation of Glider Data in Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    gliders and ten Slocum gliders were deployed in the Monterey Bay region, collecting temperature and salinity profiles (Ramp et al., 2008). Since the... Glider Data in the Monterey Bay 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 0601153N 6. AUTHOR(S) Chudong Pan, Max...observed by gliders in the Monterey Bay in August 2003 are assimilated into NCOM model in the framework of a 3dVar scheme with a hybrid background error

  14. The orbiter Discovery rolls from OPF bay 1 to bay 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    KSC employees chaperone the transfer of the orbiter Discovery from Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) bay 1 to OPF bay 3 where ongoing payload and ground processing assessments will be completed. Managers will then determine when to roll the orbiter to the Vehicle Assembly Building for stacking with the external tank and solid rocket boosters, and when to roll out to Launch Pad 39A. Discovery is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:30 p.m. EDT on mission STS-92, which will be the 100th flight in the Shuttle program.

  15. Index for Assessing Water Trophic Status in Semi-Enclosed Cuban Bays. Case Study: Cienfuegos Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Seisdedo, Mabel; Arencibia, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the coastal environmental management by developing a new trophic status index of the water (TSIW). The index is tailored to semi-enclosed bays with estuarine characteristic like the Cienfuegos bay in Cuba. We also propose pressure indicators related to exporting and assimilation capacities as a tool to assess the vulnerability of the system to eutrophication. The TSIW is based on response indicators to eutrophication processes showing correspondence with the predefined pressure indicators and previous reports on water quality. Thus, the proposed trophic status index is a reliable scientific tool to measure the current stage of the water quality and to establish a baseline for further studies.

  16. Delineation of marsh types from Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, to Perdido Bay, Alabama, in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Michael G. Brasher,; Jenneke M. Visser,; Michael K. Mitchell,; Bart M. Ballard,; Mark W. Parr,; Barry C. Wilson,

    2015-07-23

    Coastal zone managers and researchers often require detailed information regarding emergent marsh vegetation types (that is, fresh, intermediate, brackish, and saline) for modeling habitat capacities and needs of marsh dependent taxa (such as waterfowl and alligator). Detailed information on the extent and distribution of emergent marsh vegetation types throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico coast has been historically unavailable. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Gulf Coast Joint Venture, the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Ducks Unlimited, Inc., and the Texas A&M University-Kingsville, produced a classification of emergent marsh vegetation types from Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, to Perdido Bay, Alabama.

  17. Control of hardwood regeneration in restored carolina bay depression wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Lee, J.; Barton, Christopher, D.; Blake, John, I.

    2012-06-01

    Carolina bays are depression wetlands located in the coastal plain region of the eastern United States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna. Previous bay restoration projects have identified flood-tolerant woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of desired herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. We restored 3 bays on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, by plugging drainage ditches, harvesting residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays, and monitoring the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change. We applied a foliar herbicide on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acerrubrum), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and water oak (Quercus nigra) sprouting, and we tested its effectiveness across a hydrologic gradient in each bay. Hardwood regeneration was partially controlled by flooding in bays that exhibited long growing season hydroperiods. The findings also indicated that herbicide application was an effective means for managing hardwood regeneration and re-sprouting in areas where hydrologic control was ineffective. Herbicide use had no effect on species richness in the emerging vegetation community. In late-season drawdown periods, or in bays where hydroperiods are short, more than one herbicide application may be necessary.

  18. MODELING THE 1958 LITUYA BAY MEGA-TSUNAMI, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Mader

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lituya Bay, Alaska is a T-Shaped bay, 7 miles long and up to 2 miles wide. The two arms at the head of the bay, Gilbert and Crillon Inlets, are part of a trench along the Fairweather Fault. On July 8, 1958, an 7.5 Magnitude earthquake occurred along the Fairweather fault with an epicenter near Lituya Bay.A mega-tsunami wave was generated that washed out trees to a maximum altitude of 520 meters at the entrance of Gilbert Inlet. Much of the rest of the shoreline of the Bay was denuded by the tsunami from 30 to 200 meters altitude.In the previous study it was determined that if the 520 meter high run-up was 50 to 100 meters thick, the observed inundation in the rest of Lituya Bay could be numerically reproduced. It was also concluded that further studies would require full Navier-Stokes modeling similar to those required for asteroid generated tsunami waves.During the Summer of 2000, Hermann Fritz conducted experiments that reproduced the Lituya Bay 1958 event. The laboratory experiments indicated that the 1958 Lituya Bay 524 meter run-up on the spur ridge of Gilbert Inlet could be caused by a landslide impact.The Lituya Bay impact landslide generated tsunami was modeled with the full Navier- Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE with includes the effect of gravity.

  19. Coastal Habitat Restoration and Hydrodynamics in Panguil Bay, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxas, P. G.; Gorospe, J. G.

    2007-03-01

    Hydrobiological studies indicate the deterioration of the coastal ecosystems in Panguil Bay, Philippines despite interventions that started more than a decade ago. Mangrove ecosystems that filter land run offs and act as pollutant sinks are converted to fishponds that discharge toxic materials into the bay. Monsoon winds continue to erode mangrove-dominated coastlines. Water movements, nutrient transport and influx of freshwater from rivers and saline waters from the sea are altered by proliferating fishing structures and boats that use sea lanes for navigation. The reduction of current velocities increased siltation rates that caused shallowing of the bay. Failure in interventions to restore ecosystems is partly attributed to use of methods that failed to consider the bay's hydrodynamics. But sustaining the bay is a must because it is a major source of fishery resources hence strategies to arrest its further deterioration and to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystems based on the bay's hydrodynamics are explored. Timing, selection of appropriate species, and use of encasements are considered relative to the water dynamics of the bay. Zoning and regulation of barrier structures are implemented in some parts of the bay. Bioremediating agricultural run offs and discharges from fishponds, boats, and factories that accumulate in the inner part of the bay remains a challenge.

  20. PENERAPAN ALGORITMA NAIVE BAYES UNTUK MENGKLASIFIKASI DATA NASABAH ASURANSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustami Bustami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining adalah teknik yang memanfaatkan data dalam jumlah yang besar untuk memperoleh informasi berharga yang sebelumnya tidak diketahui dan dapat dimanfaatkan untuk pengambilan keputusan penting. Pada penelitian ini, penulis berusaha menambang data (data mining nasabah sebuah perusahaan asuransi untuk mengetahui lancar, kurang lancar atau tidak lancarnya nasabah tersebut. Data yang ada dianalisis menggunakan algoritma Naive Bayes. Naive Bayes merupakan salah satu meode pada probabilistic reasoning. Algoritma Naive Bayes bertujuan untuk melakukan klasifikasi data pada kelas tertentu, kemudian pola tersebut dapat digunakan untuk memperkirakan nasabah yang bergabung, sehingga perusahaan bisa mengambil keputusan menerima atau menolak calon nasabah tersebut. Kata Kunci : data mining, asuransi, klasifikasi, algoritma Naive Bayes

  1. A summer monsoon pump to keep the Bay of Bengal salty

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shankar, D.; Vernekar, S.; Sandeep, K.K.; Amol, P.; Neema, C.P.; Chatterjee, A.

    The Bay of Bengal receives a large influx of freshwater from precipitation and river discharge. Outflow of excess freshwater and inflow of saltier water is required to prevent the bay from freshening. Relatively fresh water flows out of the bay...

  2. Sediment depositional environment in some bays in Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajamanickam, G.V.; Gujar, A.R.

    minerals data show a positive correlation with mean grain size in Kalbadevi Bay but negative correlation in Ratnagiri Bay, whereas they show an unharmonic relationship with sorting. Considering similar hydraulic conditions in all the bays, the existence...

  3. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  4. On watermass mixing ratios and regenerated silicon in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Sarma, V.V.; Rao, V.S.; Sudhakar, U.; Gupta, G.V.M.

    Regeneration of silicon on mixing in the Bay of Bengal have been computed from six water masses [Bay of Bengal low saline water (BBLS), Bay of Bengal subsurface water (BBSS), northern southeast high salinity water (NSEHS), north Indian intermediate...

  5. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  6. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  7. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex Annual Narrative Report 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex comprises of three refuges including the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, the San Pablo Bay...

  8. Gateway National Recreation Area, Jamaica Bay Unit : Jamaica Bay Greenway Missing Links Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    Based on both a field site reconnaissance and workshop, this study developed a conceptual plan for the location and design of bicyle facilites to complete a "missing link" of the Jamaica Bay through the Rockaway region of Brooklyn and Queens in New Y...

  9. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gerold; Greening, Holly; Yates, Kimberly K.; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, is a shallow, subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of seagrasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds. Over the past three decades, nitrogen controls involving sources such as wastewater treatment plants, stormwater conveyance systems, fertilizer manufacturing and shipping operations, and power plants have been undertaken to meet these and other management objectives. Cumulatively, these controls have resulted in a 60% reduction in annual total nitrogen (TN) loads relative to earlier worse-case (latter 1970s) conditions. As a result, annual water-clarity and chlorophyll a targets are currently met in most years, and seagrass cover measured in 2008 was the highest recorded since 1950. Factors that have contributed to the observed improvements in Tampa Bay over the past several decades include the following: (1) Development of numeric, science-based water-quality targets to meet a long-term goal of restoring seagrass acreage to 1950s levels. Empirical and mechanistic models found that annual average chlorophyll a concentrations were a primary manageable factor affecting light attenuation. The models also quantified relationships between TN loads, chlorophyll a concentrations, light attenuation, and fluctuations in seagrass cover. The availability of long-term monitoring data, and a systematic process for using the data to evaluate the effectiveness of management actions, has allowed managers to track progress and

  10. Commencement Bay Study. Volume IV. Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-31

    AD-AI12 555 DAMES AND MOORE SEATTLE WA* FIG 8/1 COMMENCEMENT BAY STUDY. VOLUME IV. INVERTEBRATES .(U)DEC 81 W M BAYLOCK, J P HOUGHTON DACW67-80-C-OIDI...December 1981 Volume IV, Invertebrates 6. PERFORMINO ORG. REPORT NUMBER 682-021-05 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUmaER(S) DACW67-80-C-0101 S. PERFORMING... Invertebrates Air Quality, Birds Is. KEY WORDS (Continue an reverse old. It necomemy w red ty a b eek mireber) Salmonids Wetlands Noise Aesthetics Marine Fish

  11. Bathymetry and acoustic backscatter: Estero Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Stephen R.; Finlayson, David P.; Dartnell, Peter; Johnson, Samuel Y.

    2013-01-01

    Between July 30 and August 9, 2012, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC), acquired bathymetry and acoustic-backscatter data from Estero Bay, San Luis Obispo, California, under PCMSC Field Activity ID S-05-12-SC. The survey was done using the R/V Parke Snavely outfitted with a multibeam sonar for swath mapping and highly accurate position and orientation equipment for georeferencing. This report provides these data in a number of different formats, as well as a summary of the mapping mission, maps of bathymetry and backscatter, and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata.

  12. Minimum relative entropy, Bayes and Kapur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Allan D.

    2011-04-01

    The focus of this paper is to illustrate important philosophies on inversion and the similarly and differences between Bayesian and minimum relative entropy (MRE) methods. The development of each approach is illustrated through the general-discrete linear inverse. MRE differs from both Bayes and classical statistical methods in that knowledge of moments are used as ‘data’ rather than sample values. MRE like Bayes, presumes knowledge of a prior probability distribution and produces the posterior pdf itself. MRE attempts to produce this pdf based on the information provided by new moments. It will use moments of the prior distribution only if new data on these moments is not available. It is important to note that MRE makes a strong statement that the imposed constraints are exact and complete. In this way, MRE is maximally uncommitted with respect to unknown information. In general, since input data are known only to within a certain accuracy, it is important that any inversion method should allow for errors in the measured data. The MRE approach can accommodate such uncertainty and in new work described here, previous results are modified to include a Gaussian prior. A variety of MRE solutions are reproduced under a number of assumed moments and these include second-order central moments. Various solutions of Jacobs & van der Geest were repeated and clarified. Menke's weighted minimum length solution was shown to have a basis in information theory, and the classic least-squares estimate is shown as a solution to MRE under the conditions of more data than unknowns and where we utilize the observed data and their associated noise. An example inverse problem involving a gravity survey over a layered and faulted zone is shown. In all cases the inverse results match quite closely the actual density profile, at least in the upper portions of the profile. The similar results to Bayes presented in are a reflection of the fact that the MRE posterior pdf, and its mean

  13. Intertidal sediments and benthic animals of Roebuck Bay, Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, M.; Piersma, T.; Pearson, G.; Lavaleye, M.

    1999-01-01

    Roebuck Bay near Broome (NW Australia) is with itsextensive tidal flats one of the foremost internationallyimportant sites for shorebirds in the Asia-Pacificflyway system. It is home to 150,000 shorebirds (or‘waders’) in the nonbreeding season, which suggeststhat the intertidal flats of the bay have

  14. Summer survival of Phytophthora ramorum in California bay laurel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth J. Fichtner; David M. Rizzo; Shannon C. Lynch; Jennifer Davidson; Gerri Buckles; Jennifer Parker

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death manifests as non-lethal foliar lesions on bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), which support sporulation and survival of Phytophthora ramorum in forest ecosystems. Infected bay laurel leaves are more likely to abscise than uninfected leaves, resulting in an accumulation of inoculum at the forest floor. The pathogen survives the dry...

  15. 33 CFR 117.795 - Jamaica Bay and Connecting Waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jamaica Bay and Connecting Waterways. 117.795 Section 117.795 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.795 Jamaica Bay and...

  16. St Helena Bay (southern Benguela) then and now: muted climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the abiotic and biotic components. St Helena Bay in the 1950s showed similarities to 2000–2010 in terms of wind patterns, hydrology and phytoplankton. Upwelling, oxygen and nutrient concentrations in subthermocline water displayed pronounced decadal-scale variability. Primary production in St Helena Bay is variable ...

  17. Flood Risk Mitigation for the Jamaica Bay Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, J.L.; De Boer, R.; Evers, G.A.; Kruis, M.C.; Van der Valk, K.

    2014-01-01

    Project Jamaica Bay is a response to superstorm Sandy, occurring in October, 2012. The storm was a disaster for New York City, causing around 50 billion US dollars of damage. Research shows that 75% of the expected annual dam-age in New York occurs around the Jamaica Bay area. Another problem that

  18. An overview of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment discovered an unexpectedly large neutrino oscillation related to the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ in 2012. This finding paved the way to the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments. In this article, we review the history, featured design, and scientific results of Daya Bay. Prospects of the experiment are also described.

  19. An overview of the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jun; Luk, Kam-Biu

    2016-01-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment discovered an unexpectedly large neutrino oscillation related to the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ in 2012. This finding paved the way to the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments. In this article, we review the history, featured design, and scientific results of Daya Bay. Prospects of the experiment are also described.

  20. Modelling of hydrodynamic circulation in Benoa Bay, Bali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ningsih, Nining Sari; Muchamad, Al Azhar

    2013-01-01

    A simulation of water level, velocity, salinity, and temperature in the Bay of Benoa has been carried out using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic Estuarine and Coastal Ocean Model incorporating a main characteristic of southward transport of the Indonesian throughflow at the offshore area of the bay...

  1. eBay's Business Format: An example of Participatory Democracy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, I analyzed the eBay business model and compared the user agreements and texts among eBay, Sothebys, PayPal and Paisa Pay. Further, an analysis of Indian jurisprudence on online auctioneer liability and the subsequent legislation was performed to determine the impact of the business model on a developing ...

  2. A support system for predicting eBay end prices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. van Heijst (Dennis); R. Potharst (Rob); M.C. van Wezel (Michiel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn this report a support system for predicting end prices on eBay is proposed. The end price predictions are based on the item descriptions found in the item listings of eBay, and on some numerical item features. The system uses text mining and boosting algorithms from the field of

  3. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa, which border the San Francisco Bay. The area also... proceed along the San Francisco, San Mateo, and Santa Cruz County shoreline (across the Quadrangles of San... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false San Francisco Bay. 9.157...

  4. 33 CFR 80.110 - Casco Bay, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Casco Bay, ME. 80.110 Section 80.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.110 Casco Bay, ME. (a) A line drawn from the...

  5. Characteristic mixing triangles in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Temperature-salinity structures in the inner part of Bay of Bengal showed complete mixing processes in the upper bay, less than about 600 m can be characterisEd. by a mixing triangle constitutEd. by three characteristic water properties. In outer...

  6. 33 CFR 334.80 - Narragansett Bay, RI; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Narragansett Bay, RI; restricted..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.80 Narragansett Bay, RI; restricted... regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Commander U.S. Naval Base, Newport, RI, and such agencies...

  7. Using naive Bayes classifier for classification of convective rainfall ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... based on 'naiveBayes classifier' is applied. This is a simple probabilistic classifier based on applying 'Bayes' theoremwith strong (naive) independent assumptions. For a 9-month period, the ability of SEVIRI to classifythe rainfall intensity in the convective clouds is evaluated using weather radar over the northern Algeria.

  8. Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris at Lutembe Bay, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lutembe bay is a sheltered shallow bay on the northern shores of Lake Victoria near. Entebbe International Airport with scattered mud islands often covered by water hyacinth. It has many Palaearctic migrants, particularly huge congregations of gulls and terns. Interesting species such as Caspian Tern Sterna caspia, ...

  9. Upwelling features near Sri Lanka in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShreeRam, P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    The Bay of Bengal is a semi-enclosed tropical ocean basin that is highly influenced by monsoons and receives large volume of freshwater from both river discharge and rainfall. Over the Bay of Bengal two distinct wind systems prevail during the year...

  10. 33 CFR 110.193 - Tampa Bay, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tampa Bay, Fla. 110.193 Section 110.193 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.193 Tampa Bay, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Explosives...

  11. 33 CFR 110.193a - St. Joseph Bay, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Joseph Bay, Fla. 110.193a Section 110.193a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.193a St. Joseph Bay, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  12. Dynamics of macrozoobenthos assemblages in the Fubao Bay of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two-year-long investigation on the dynamics of the structure and biodiversity of macrozoobenthos was conducted in the Fubao Bay of Dianchi Lake, Southwest China. A high level of organic pollution has been detected in this Bay for the last 10 years. In all, 31 benthic taxa belonging to eight families and 20 genera were ...

  13. 33 CFR 117.779 - Eastchester Bay (Arm of).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eastchester Bay (Arm of). 117.779 Section 117.779 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.779 Eastchester Bay (Arm of). The draw...

  14. 46 CFR 7.110 - Mamala Bay, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mamala Bay, HI. 7.110 Section 7.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Hawaii § 7.110 Mamala Bay, HI. A line drawn from Barbers Point Light to Diamond Head Light. Pacific Coast ...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight line...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn from...

  17. Green Bay: Spatial patterns in water quality and landscape correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a high-resolution survey along the nearshore (369 km) in Green Bay using towed electronic instrumentation at approximately the 15 m depth contour, with additional transects of the bay that were oriented cross-contour (49 km). Electronic sensor data provided an effic...

  18. Optimasi Naive Bayes Dengan Pemilihan Fitur Dan Pembobotan Gain Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Guna Adi Socrates

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Naïve Bayes merupakan salah satu metode data mining yang umum digunakan dalam klasifikasi dokumen berbasis text. Kelebihan dari metode ini adalah algoritma yang sederhana dengan  kompleksitas  perhitungan  yang  rendah.  Akan  tetapi,  pada  metode  Naïve  Bayes terdapat kelemahan dimana sifat independensi dari fitur Naïve Bayes tidak dapat selalu diterapkan sehingga akan berpengaruh pada tingkat akurasi perhitungan. Maka dari itu, metode Naïve Bayes perlu dioptimasi dengan cara pemberian bobot mengunakan Gain Ratio. Namun, pemberian bobot pada Naïve Bayes menimbulkan permasalahan pada penghitungan probabilitas setiap    dokumen, dimana fitur  yang tidak  merepresentasikan kelas  yang diuji banyak muncul sehingga terjadi kesalahan klasifikasi. Oleh karena itu, pembobotan Naïve Bayes   masih   belum   optimal.   Paper   ini mengusulkan  optimasi  metode   Naïve   Bayes mengunakan pembobotan Gain Ratio yang ditambahkan dengan metode pemilihan fitur pada kasus klasifikasi teks. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa optimasi metode Naïve Bayes menggunakan pemilihan fitur dan pembobotan menghasilkan akurasi sebesar 94%.

  19. Hydrodynamics and water quality models applied to Sepetiba Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Cynara de L. da N.; Rosman, Paulo C. C.; Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Carlos do Nascimento Monteiro, Teófilo

    2006-10-01

    A coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model is used to simulate the pollution in Sepetiba Bay due to sewage effluent. Sepetiba Bay has a complicated geometry and bottom topography, and is located on the Brazilian coast near Rio de Janeiro. In the simulation, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) are used as indicators for the presence of organic matter in the body of water, and as parameters for evaluating the environmental pollution of the eastern part of Sepetiba Bay. Effluent sources in the model are taken from DO and BOD field measurements. The simulation results are consistent with field observations and demonstrate that the model has been correctly calibrated. The model is suitable for evaluating the environmental impact of sewage effluent on Sepetiba Bay from river inflows, assessing the feasibility of different treatment schemes, and developing specific monitoring activities. This approach has general applicability for environmental assessment of complicated coastal bays.

  20. Study on bayes discriminant analysis of EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan; He, DanDan; Qin, Fang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have done Bayes Discriminant analysis to EEG data of experiment objects which are recorded impersonally come up with a relatively accurate method used in feature extraction and classification decisions. In accordance with the strength of α wave, the head electrodes are divided into four species. In use of part of 21 electrodes EEG data of 63 people, we have done Bayes Discriminant analysis to EEG data of six objects. Results In use of part of EEG data of 63 people, we have done Bayes Discriminant analysis, the electrode classification accuracy rates is 64.4%. Bayes Discriminant has higher prediction accuracy, EEG features (mainly αwave) extract more accurate. Bayes Discriminant would be better applied to the feature extraction and classification decisions of EEG data.

  1. Crustal structure of Bristol Bay Region, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, A.K.; McLean, H.; Marlow, M.S.

    1985-04-01

    Bristol Bay lies along the northern side of the Alaska Peninsula and extends nearly 600 km southwest from the Nushagak lowlands on the Alaska mainland to near Unimak Island. The bay is underlain by a sediment-filled crustal downwarp known as the north Aleutian basin (formerly Bristol basin) that dips southeast toward the Alaska Peninsula and is filled with more than 6 km of strata, dominantly of Cenozoic age. The thickest parts of the basin lie just north of the Alaska Peninsula and, near Port Mollar, are in fault contact with older Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. These Mesozoic rocks form the southern structural boundary of the basin and extend as an accurate belt from at least Cook Inlet to Zhemchug Canyon (central Beringian margin). Offshore multichannel seismic-reflection, sonobuoy seismic-refraction, gravity, and magnetic data collected by the USGS in 1976 and 1982 indicate that the bedrock beneath the central and northern parts of the basin comprises layered, high-velocity, and highly magnetic rocks that are locally deformed. The deep bedrock horizons may be Mesozoic(.) sedimentary units that are underlain by igneous or metamorphic rocks and may correlate with similar rocks of mainland western Alaska and the Alaska Peninsula. Regional structural and geophysical trends for these deep horizons change from northeast-southwest to northwest-southeast beneath the inner Bering shelf and may indicate a major crustal suture along the northern basin edge.

  2. Master Agreement Between Bay de Noc Community College Governing Board and Bay de Noc Community College Faculty Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay de Noc Community Coll., Escanaba, MI.

    This agreement between the Bay de Noc Community College Governing Board and the Bay de Noc Community College Faculty Association covers the period from 1973-75. Contents cover recognition, rights, and guarantees; faculty, personnel, and division procedures; appointments, promotions, reductions, and related matters; leaves and absences; grievance…

  3. A Comparative Study of Bayes Net, Naive Bayes and Averaged One-Dependence Estimators for Osteoporosis Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waleska Simões, Priscyla; Mazzuchello, Leandro Luiz; Toniazzo de Abreu, Larissa Letieli; Garcia, Diego; dos Passos, Maitê Gabriel; Venson, Ramon; Bisognin Ceretta, Luciane; Veiga Silva, Ana Carolina; da Rosa, Maria Inês; Martins, Paulo João

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the accuracy of the Bayesian classifiers: Bayes Net, Naive Bayes and Averaged One-Dependence Estimator, to support diagnoses of osteopenia and osteoporosis. All classifiers showed good results, thus, given data, it is possible to produce a reasonably accurate estimate of the diagnosis.

  4. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen.Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged.Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible.Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for

  5. GPU MrBayes V3.1: MrBayes on Graphics Processing Units for Protein Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shuai; Stones, Rebecca J; Ren, Ming-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Gang; Xia, Hong-ju; Wu, Hao-Yang; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    We present a modified GPU (graphics processing unit) version of MrBayes, called ta(MC)(3) (GPU MrBayes V3.1), for Bayesian phylogenetic inference on protein data sets. Our main contributions are 1) utilizing 64-bit variables, thereby enabling ta(MC)(3) to process larger data sets than MrBayes; and 2) to use Kahan summation to improve accuracy, convergence rates, and consequently runtime. Versus the current fastest software, we achieve a speedup of up to around 2.5 (and up to around 90 vs. serial MrBayes), and more on multi-GPU hardware. GPU MrBayes V3.1 is available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/mrbayes-gpu/. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Integrating science and resource management in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Greening, Holly; Morrison, Gerold

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay is recognized internationally for its remarkable progress towards recovery since it was pronounced "dead" in the late 1970s. Due to significant efforts by local governments, industries and private citizens throughout the watershed, water clarity in Tampa Bay is now equal to what it was in 1950, when population in the watershed was less than one-quarter of what it is today. Seagrass extent has increased by more than 8,000 acres since the mid-1980s, and fish and wildlife populations are increasing. Central to this successful turn-around has been the Tampa Bay resource management community's long-term commitment to development and implementation of strong science-based management strategies. Research institutions and agencies, including Eckerd College, the Florida Wildlife Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Mote Marine Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Southwest Florida Water Management District, University of South Florida, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey, local and State governments, and private companies contribute significantly to the scientific basis of our understanding of Tampa Bay's structure and ecological function. Resource management agencies, including the Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council's Agency on Bay Management, the Southwest Florida Water Management District's Surface Water Improvement and Management Program, and the Tampa Bay Estuary Program, depend upon this scientific basis to develop and implement regional adaptive management programs. The importance of integrating science with management has become fully recognized by scientists and managers throughout the region, State and Nation. Scientific studies conducted in Tampa Bay over the past 10–15 years are increasingly diverse and complex, and resource management programs reflect our increased knowledge of geology, hydrology and hydrodynamics, ecology and restoration techniques. However, a synthesis of this

  7. Bay breeze climatology at two sites along the Chesapeake bay from 1986-2010: Implications for surface ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Ryan M; Thompson, Anne M

    Hourly surface meteorological measurements were coupled with surface ozone (O3) mixing ratio measurements at Hampton, Virginia and Baltimore, Maryland, two sites along the Chesapeake Bay in the Mid-Atlantic United States, to examine the behavior of surface O3 during bay breeze events and quantify the impact of the bay breeze on local O3 pollution. Analyses were performed for the months of May through September for the years 1986 to 2010. The years were split into three groups to account for increasingly stringent environmental regulations that reduced regional emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx): 1986-1994, 1995-2002, and 2003-2010. Each day in the 25-year record was marked either as a bay breeze day, a non-bay breeze day, or a rainy/cloudy day based on the meteorological data. Mean eight hour (8-h) averaged surface O3 values during bay breeze events were 3 to 5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) higher at Hampton and Baltimore than on non-bay breeze days in all year periods. Anomalies from mean surface O3 were highest in the afternoon at both sites during bay breeze days in the 2003-2010 study period. In conjunction with an overall lowering of baseline O3 after the 1995-2002 period, the percentage of total exceedances of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 75 ppbv 8-h O3 standard that occurred on bay breeze days increased at Hampton for 2003-2010, while remaining steady at Baltimore. These results suggest that bay breeze circulations are becoming more important to causing exceedance events at particular sites in the region, and support the hypothesis of Martins et al. (2012) that highly localized meteorology increasingly drives air quality events at Hampton.

  8. Lessons from monitoring water quality in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.; Schraga, T.S.; Lopez, C.B.; Labiosa, R.

    2003-01-01

    San Francisco Bay is the defining landscape feature of the place we call ‘The Bay Area,’ but most of us only experience the Bay as we view it from an airplane window or drive across one of its bridges. These views from afar suggest that the Bay is static and sterile, but this impression is deceptive. If you are one of the many thousands of students who have experienced the Bay through a school excursion with the Marine Science Institute or other educational programs, you observed its rich plankton soup under a microscope, sorted clams and worms and crustaceans from mud samples, and identified the gobies, sole, halibut, bat rays, sharks, sardines, and smelt caught with trawls. San Francisco Bay is much more than a landscape feature. It is a dynamic ecosystem, continually changing and teeming with life. The Bay once supported the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of the United States, but commercial fishing for shellfish, shrimp, sturgeon, shad, salmon, and striped bass ended many decades ago because of habitat loss, pollution, invasive species and over harvest.

  9. Storm surge propagation in Galveston Bay during Hurricane Ike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, João L.; Li, Chunyan

    2010-09-01

    We studied Hurricane Ike's storm surge along the Texas-Louisiana coast using the fully nonlinear Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM, by Chen et al., 2003) with a high-resolution unstructured mesh. The model was validated with USGS surge data collected during Hurricane Ike. This study focused on 1) how the surge wave propagates into and within Galveston Bay and 2) the importance of the bay's barrier system. Ike's coastal surge propagated alongshore due east towards Louisiana, partly because of Bolivar Peninsula, which, together with Galveston Island, provided a barrier protecting the bay. In the upper bay, a west-east oscillation of water surface gradient of about 0.08 m/km was found and studied. We then varied Bolivar Peninsula's topography for different simulations, examining the role of barrier islands on surge propagation into the bay. Results suggest that when the Peninsula's height (or volume) was reduced to about 45% of the original, with two breaches, the bay was exposed to dangerously high water levels almost as much as those if the Peninsula was leveled to just 0.05 m above the Mean Sea Level, underlining the nonlinear nature of this bay-barrier system.

  10. Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L.; Kasameyer, P.; Turpin, C.; Long, L.; Hollfelder, J.; McEvilly, T.; Clymer, R.; Uhrhammer, R.

    2000-03-01

    This is a progress report on the Bay Bridges downhole network. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges in San Francisco Bay, California. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty-one sensor packages at fifteen sites. The downhole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 731 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes. Preliminary results on phasing across the Bay Bridge, up and down hole wave amplification at Yerba Buena Island, and sensor orientation analysis are presented. Events recorded and located during 1999 are presented. Also, a senior thesis on the deep structure of the San Francisco Bay beneath the Bay Bridge is presented as an addendum.

  11. Preparing Informal Bay Area Educators for Climate Education Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Bay Area Climate Literacy Impact Collaborative (Bay-CLIC) joins informal science educators from over 30 environmental education organizations with the common goal of increasing climate literacy and action. Over this past year, the collaborative has been gathering existing tools and resources that will allow informal educators in the Bay Area to communicate on climate change with confidence. Bay-CLIC's work plans to bring climate science to life by equipping educators with climate data that resonates best with local audiences, which is data that is place-based and personal. Bay-CLIC is also researching effective sustainability campaigns focused on behavior change that can be crafted to fit our unique regional context and rolled out across multiple Bay-CLIC member organizations. This session will focus on sharing our findings from our six month information gathering phase. The overarching discussion will focus on the needs that Bay Area educators identified as necessary to address in order for them to provide the best quality climate education programming. We will also discuss the data we gathered on what local educators are already using in their work and share out on how this diverse array of informal educators will be implementing our research into their programs.

  12. 36 CFR 13.1132 - What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? 13.1132 Section 13.1132 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1132 What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? Three types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay non-wilderness...

  13. 77 FR 56549 - Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... [Docket Number USCG-2012-0739] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu, HI... Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. This safety zone encompasses a small area of the Kane'ohe Bay Naval [[Page 56550... capabilities, over Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii during a 3-day period. Taking into account the hazards associated...

  14. Bayes and empirical Bayes estimators of abundance and density from spatial capture-recapture data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Dorazio

    Full Text Available In capture-recapture and mark-resight surveys, movements of individuals both within and between sampling periods can alter the susceptibility of individuals to detection over the region of sampling. In these circumstances spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR models, which incorporate the observed locations of individuals, allow population density and abundance to be estimated while accounting for differences in detectability of individuals. In this paper I propose two Bayesian SECR models, one for the analysis of recaptures observed in trapping arrays and another for the analysis of recaptures observed in area searches. In formulating these models I used distinct submodels to specify the distribution of individual home-range centers and the observable recaptures associated with these individuals. This separation of ecological and observational processes allowed me to derive a formal connection between Bayes and empirical Bayes estimators of population abundance that has not been established previously. I showed that this connection applies to every Poisson point-process model of SECR data and provides theoretical support for a previously proposed estimator of abundance based on recaptures in trapping arrays. To illustrate results of both classical and Bayesian methods of analysis, I compared Bayes and empirical Bayes esimates of abundance and density using recaptures from simulated and real populations of animals. Real populations included two iconic datasets: recaptures of tigers detected in camera-trap surveys and recaptures of lizards detected in area-search surveys. In the datasets I analyzed, classical and Bayesian methods provided similar - and often identical - inferences, which is not surprising given the sample sizes and the noninformative priors used in the analyses.

  15. Spatiotemporal appraisal of TBT contamination and imposex along a tropical bay (Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artifon, Vanda; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    A spatiotemporal evaluation of butyltin contamination was performed between 2010 and 2012 along Todos os Santos Bay (Northeast Brazil) using surface sediments, bivalve tissues (Anomalocardia brasiliana and Mytella guyanensis), and imposex occurrence (Stramonita rustica). The spatial study detected high tributyltin (TBT) levels (maximum values of 262 ng Sn g (-1) - 21,833 ng Sn g(-1) of total organic carbon - for surface sediments and 421 ng Sn g(-1) for bivalve tissues) in the innermost part of the bay. The TBT levels detected in M. guyanensis tissues might cause human health risk since local population consumes these organisms. These high concentrations observed in the bivalves might result in ingestions higher than the safe limits established by European Food Safety Authority (250 ng TBT kg(-1) day(-1)). Considering the temporal evaluation, no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between TBT concentrations in sediments obtained during the two sampling campaigns (2010/2011 and 2012). However, the increasing predominance of TBT metabolites (butyltin degradation index (BDI) >1) in more recent sediments indicates further degradation of old TBT inputs. In spite of that, recent inputs are still evident at this region. Nevertheless, a reduction of imposex parameters in S. rustica over the last decade suggests an overall decline in the TBT contamination, at least in the outermost and possible less impacted region of the bay. The TBT contamination is probably reducing due to the national and international legislative restrictions on the use of TBT as antifouling biocide. The contamination levels, however, are still relevant especially in the inner part of Todos os Santos Bay since they are above those that are likely to cause toxicity to the biota.

  16. Draft Detailed Project Report and Draft Environmental Assessment. Neah Bay Navigation Improvements, Neah Bay, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    WashinQton coastal waters. Order Carnivora Suborder Fissipedia sea otter Ehnydra lutris river otter Lutra canadensis SubcZrder Pinnipedia northern fur seal...Executive Order (EO) 11988. The requirements of EO 11988 are presented in more detail in the EA. o Preserve the wetlands in the study area in conformance with...Tribal fishermen will continue to commute from their homes in Neah Bay to Port Angeles (150 miles round trip), living there temporarily, in order to

  17. Implementation of the "Non-Local Bayes" (NL-Bayes Image Denoising Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lebrun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a detailed implementation of the Non-Local Bayes (NL-Bayes image denoising algorithm. In a nutshell, NL-Bayes is an improved variant of NL-means. In the NL-means algorithm, each patch is replaced by a weighted mean of the most similar patches present in a neighborhood. Images being mostly self-similar, such instances of similar patches are generally found, and averaging them increases the SNR. The NL-Bayes strategy improves on NL-means by evaluating for each group of similar patches a Gaussian vector model. To each patch is therefore associated a mean (which would be the result of NL-means, but also a covariance matrix estimating the variability of the patch group. This permits to compute an optimal (in the sense of Bayesian minimal mean square error estimate of each noisy patch in the group, by a simple matrix inversion. The implementation proceeds in two identical iterations, but the second iteration uses the denoised image of the first iteration to estimate better the mean and covariance of the patch Gaussian models. A discussion of the algorithm shows that it is close in spirit to several state of the art algorithms (TSID, BM3D, BM3D-SAPCA, and that its structure is actually close to BM3D. Thorough experimental comparison made in this paper also shows that the algorithm achieves the best state of the art on color images in terms of PSNR and image quality. On grey level images, it reaches a performance similar to the more complex BM3D-SAPCA (no color version is available for this last algorithm.

  18. Tampa Bay Study Data and Information Management System (DIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, N. T.; Johnston, J. B.; Yates, K.; Smith, K. E.

    2005-05-01

    Providing easy access to data and information is an essential component of both science and management. The Tampa Bay Data and Information Management System (DIMS) catalogs and publicizes data and products which are generated through the Tampa Bay Integrated Science Study. The publicly accessible interface consists of a Web site (http://gulfsci.usgs.gov), a digital library, and an interactive map server (IMS). The Tampa Bay Study Web site contains information from scientists involved in the study, and is also the portal site for the digital library and IMS. Study information is highlighted on the Web site according to the estuarine component: geology and geomorphology, water and sediment quality, ecosystem structure and function, and hydrodynamics. The Tampa Bay Digital Library is a web-based clearinghouse for digital products on Tampa Bay, including documents, maps, spatial and tabular data sets, presentations, etc. New developments to the digital library include new search features, 150 new products over the past year, and partnerships to expand the offering of science products. The IMS is a Web-based geographic information system (GIS) used to store, analyze and display data pertaining to Tampa Bay. Upgrades to the IMS have improved performance and speed, as well as increased the number of data sets available for mapping. The Tampa Bay DIMS is a dynamic entity and will continue to evolve with the study. Beginning in 2005, the Tampa Bay Integrated Coastal Model will have a more prominent presence within the DIMS. The Web site will feature model projects and plans; the digital library will host model products and data sets; the IMS will display spatial model data sets and analyses. These tools will be used to increase communication of USGS efforts in Tampa Bay to the public, local managers, and scientists.

  19. The Holocene History of Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Reynisson, Njall

    2013-01-01

    have been analyzed using several climate proxies, including benthic foraminifera, diatoms, IP25, dinoflagellate cysts and XRF. Together, these cores provide high-resolution records of the changes in climatic conditions over the last ca. 13,000 years in the southern Labrador Sea. After the Younger Dryas...... ended, the beginning of the warmer early Holocene was recorded by an increase in productivity-linked foraminiferal and diatom assemblages, as well as a drop in the presence of the sea-ice indicator IP25 in core 14G (Pearce et al., 2012). Variability in atmospheric circulation during the Holocene...... from analyses of core 10G indicate that the core contains a full Holocene record of climatic conditions in Placentia Bay inferred from foraminiferal and diatom assemblage analyses, which are expected to align with results from previous studies using the cores from the 2007 Akademik Ioffe cruise. Jessen...

  20. Benthic fluxes in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Douglas E.; Fuller, C.; Harmon, D.; Hartman, Blayne; Korosec, M.; Miller, L.G.; Rea, R.; Warren, S.; Berelson, W.; Hager, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of benthic fluxes have been made on four occasions between February 1980 and February 1981 at a channel station and a shoal station in South San Francisco Bay, using in situ flux chambers. On each occasion replicate measurements of easily measured substances such as radon, oxygen, ammonia, and silica showed a variability (??1??) of 30% or more over distances of a few meters to tens of meters, presumably due to spatial heterogeneity in the benthic community. Fluxes of radon were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because of greater macrofaunal irrigation at the former, but showed little seasonal variability at either station. At both stations fluxes of oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and silica were largest following the spring bloom. Fluxes measured during different seasons ranged over factors of 2-3, 3, 4-5, and 3-10 (respectively), due to variations in phytoplankton productivity and temperature. Fluxes of oxygen and carbon dioxide were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because the net phytoplankton productivity is greater there and the organic matter produced must be rapidly incorporated in the sediment column. Fluxes of silica were greater at the shoal station, probably because of the greater irrigation rates there. N + N (nitrate + nitrite) fluxes were variable in magnitude and in sign. Phosphate fluxes were too small to measure accurately. Alkalinity fluxes were similar at the two stations and are attributed primarily to carbonate dissolution at the shoal station and to sulfate reduction at the channel station. The estimated average fluxes into South Bay, based on results from these two stations over the course of a year, are (in mmol m-2 d-1): O2 = -27 ?? 6; TCO2 = 23 ?? 6; Alkalinity = 9 ?? 2; N + N = -0.3 ?? 0.5; NH3 = 1.4 ?? 0.2; PO4 = 0.1 ?? 0.4; Si = 5.6 ?? 1.1. These fluxes are comparable in magnitude to those in other temperate estuaries with similar productivity, although the seasonal

  1. Evaluating Bay Area Methane Emission Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Marc [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jeong, Seongeun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    As a regulatory agency, evaluating and improving estimates of methane (CH4) emissions from the San Francisco Bay Area is an area of interest to the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). Currently, regional, state, and federal agencies generally estimate methane emissions using bottom-up inventory methods that rely on a combination of activity data, emission factors, biogeochemical models and other information. Recent atmospheric top-down measurement estimates of methane emissions for the US as a whole (e.g., Miller et al., 2013) and in California (e.g., Jeong et al., 2013; Peischl et al., 2013) have shown inventories underestimate total methane emissions by ~ 50% in many areas of California, including the SF Bay Area (Fairley and Fischer, 2015). The goal of this research is to provide information to help improve methane emission estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area. The research effort builds upon our previous work that produced methane emission maps for each of the major source sectors as part of the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project (http://calgem.lbl.gov/prior_emission.html; Jeong et al., 2012; Jeong et al., 2013; Jeong et al., 2014). Working with BAAQMD, we evaluate the existing inventory in light of recently published literature and revise the CALGEM CH4 emission maps to provide better specificity for BAAQMD. We also suggest further research that will improve emission estimates. To accomplish the goals, we reviewed the current BAAQMD inventory, and compared its method with those from the state inventory from the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the CALGEM inventory, and recent published literature. We also updated activity data (e.g., livestock statistics) to reflect recent changes and to better represent spatial information. Then, we produced spatially explicit CH4 emission estimates on the 1-km modeling grid used by BAAQMD. We present the detailed activity data, methods and derived emission maps by sector

  2. Evaluating Manifest Monotonicity Using Bayes Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijmstra, Jesper; Hoijtink, Herbert; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2015-12-01

    The assumption of latent monotonicity in item response theory models for dichotomous data cannot be evaluated directly, but observable consequences such as manifest monotonicity facilitate the assessment of latent monotonicity in real data. Standard methods for evaluating manifest monotonicity typically produce a test statistic that is geared toward falsification, which can only provide indirect support in favor of manifest monotonicity. We propose the use of Bayes factors to quantify the degree of support available in the data in favor of manifest monotonicity or against manifest monotonicity. Through the use of informative hypotheses, this procedure can also be used to determine the support for manifest monotonicity over substantively or statistically relevant alternatives to manifest monotonicity, rendering the procedure highly flexible. The performance of the procedure is evaluated using a simulation study, and the application of the procedure is illustrated using empirical data.

  3. bayesPop: Probabilistic Population Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Ševčíková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe bayesPop, an R package for producing probabilistic population projections for all countries. This uses probabilistic projections of total fertility and life expectancy generated by Bayesian hierarchical models. It produces a sample from the joint posterior predictive distribution of future age- and sex-specific population counts, fertility rates and mortality rates, as well as future numbers of births and deaths. It provides graphical ways of summarizing this information, including trajectory plots and various kinds of probabilistic population pyramids. An expression language is introduced which allows the user to produce the predictive distribution of a wide variety of derived population quantities, such as the median age or the old age dependency ratio. The package produces aggregated projections for sets of countries, such as UN regions or trading blocs. The methodology has been used by the United Nations to produce their most recent official population projections for all countries, published in the World Population Prospects.

  4. Bay street looks at the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaseosa, O.

    1976-04-01

    The glamour is off frontier plays and the action is among junior and intermediate producers. That's the consensus of Bay Street analysts specializing in the oil sector. The mood of the investor is one of caution. He is only paying for current earnings and dividends. Disenchantment with the majors stems from a number of factors. The rapidly escalating cost, and limited success of frontier exploration plays, lack of government policy north of 60, the high visibility, and strictures on marketing expansion. But on the positive side, regulatory approval of a Mackenzie Valley Pipeline will enable investors to ascribe specific value to Mackenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea reserves. Without regulatory approval of a pipeline these are considered speculative, despite the fact that they represent very real replacement of depleting conventional reserves. The views of several analysts are presented on other stocks in Canada and on American markets. (MCW)

  5. Lightning phenomenology in the Tampa Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, D. W.; Uman, M. A.; Wilcox, C. E., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A commercial lightning-locating system (LLS) was employed in the study of lightning phenomenology in the Tampa Bay area of Florida. The LLS output included the time, location, number of strokes per flash, and initial peak magnetic field value of first strokes for lightning ground flashes lowering negative charge. Attention is given to the design and the operation of the LLS, and the experimental results. Measured properties of each of 111 storms are given in a number of tables. It was observed that the apparent motion associated with the lightning activity in storm systems was not due to the motion of the individual single-peak and multiple-peak storms but rather to the successive growth of new storms near previously active storms.

  6. Defining a data management strategy for USGS Chesapeake Bay studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    The mission of U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Chesapeake Bay studies is to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Collective USGS efforts in the Chesapeake Bay watershed began in the 1980s, and by the mid-1990s the USGS adopted the watershed as one of its national place-based study areas. Great focus and effort by the USGS have been directed toward Chesapeake Bay studies for almost three decades. The USGS plays a key role in using “ecosystem-based adaptive management, which will provide science to improve the efficiency and accountability of Chesapeake Bay Program activities” (Phillips, 2011). Each year USGS Chesapeake Bay studies produce published research, monitoring data, and models addressing aspects of bay restoration such as, but not limited to, fish health, water quality, land-cover change, and habitat loss. The USGS is responsible for collaborating and sharing this information with other Federal agencies and partners as described under the President’s Executive Order 13508—Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed signed by President Obama in 2009. Historically, the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies have relied on national USGS databases to store only major nationally available sources of data such as streamflow and water-quality data collected through local monitoring programs and projects, leaving a multitude of other important project data out of the data management process. This practice has led to inefficient methods of finding Chesapeake Bay studies data and underutilization of data resources. Data management by definition is “the business functions that develop and execute plans, policies, practices and projects that acquire, control, protect, deliver and enhance the value of data and information.” (Mosley, 2008a). In other words, data management is a way to preserve, integrate, and share data to address the needs of the Chesapeake Bay studies to better

  7. Tidal pumping - missing factor in glacial bays evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczucinski, Witold; Moskalik, Mateusz; Dominiczak, Aleksander

    2017-04-01

    Most of the glaciers worldwide are subjected to rapid retreat. It is particularly well visible in Svalbard, where tidewater glaciers after the termination of the Little Ice Age often resulted in formation of new glacial bays. These bays are specific environments, characterised by high sediment accumulation rates, seasonal formation of sea-ice cover and common presence of icebergs. They are usually separated from the rest of the fjord by shallow (e.g. submerged moraine) or narrow passages. Although hostile, these bays also host unique ecosystems, with particular importance as feeding grounds for seals and sea birds. Among factors considered in development of such environments the role of tides is usually neglected or assumed as constant. Here we would like to stress the increasing role of tides in development of glacial bays ecosystems, as well as for import and burial of organic carbon in the bays. We present a model of tide development and results on present day conditions from Brepolen bay in Hornsund (southern Spitsbergen). On the basis of ADCP and CTD surveys we present the modern conditions and water exchange rates between the glacial bay and the fjord. Analysis of archival satellite images, aerial photographs and historical maps was used to map the change in glacial bay area. Finally simple modeling allow to identify a linear increase in tidal pumping magnitude (water exchange due to tides) with increasing glacial bay area due to glaciers retreat. We discuss it in context of potential consequences for bay oceanography, ecology and sedimentation. With fast glacier retreat and rapid grow of glacial bays one may expect the following effects of increasing tidal pumping: enhanced water exchange with the central part of the fjord, increasing salinity, facilitating colonisation by new species (e.g. import of juvenile forms of benthic species), increased input of marine organic carbon into setting suitable for its burial (high sediment accumulation rate in glacial

  8. Roebuck Bay and the Town of Broome, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Roebuck Bay (18.0S, 122.0E) is a prominent bay on the arid northwest coast of Western Australia and the town of Broome is one of the few prominent towns along this very sparsley settled coast. The large gray area extending back from the shoreline of the bay is the Roebuck Plains slowly being filled with sediment by local streams draining the Great Sandy Desert. The irregular bare patches on the desert to the south are burn scars from brush fires.

  9. The Neoglacial landscape and human history of Glacier Bay, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, southeast Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, C.; Streveler, G.; Post, A.; Monteith, D.; Howell, W.

    2009-01-01

    The Neoglacial landscape of the Huna Tlingit homeland in Glacier Bay is recreated through new interpretations of the lower Bay's fjordal geomorphology, late Quaternary geology and its ethnographic landscape. Geological interpretation is enhanced by 38 radiocarbon dates compiled from published and unpublished sources, as well as 15 newly dated samples. Neoglacial changes in ice positions, outwash and lake extents are reconstructed for c. 5500?????"200 cal. yr ago, and portrayed as a set of three landscapes at 1600?????"1000, 500?????"300 and 300?????"200 cal. yr ago. This history reveals episodic ice advance towards the Bay mouth, transforming it from a fjordal seascape into a terrestrial environment dominated by glacier outwash sediments and ice-marginal lake features. This extensive outwash plain was building in lower Glacier Bay by at least 1600 cal. yr ago, and had filled the lower bay by 500 cal. yr ago. The geologic landscape evokes the human-described landscape found in the ethnographic literature. Neoglacial climate and landscape dynamism created difficult but endurable environmental conditions for the Huna Tlingit people living there. Choosing to cope with environmental hardship was perhaps preferable to the more severely deteriorating conditions outside of the Bay as well as conflicts with competing groups. The central portion of the outwash plain persisted until it was overridden by ice moving into Icy Strait between AD 1724?????"1794. This final ice advance was very abrupt after a prolonged still-stand, evicting the Huna Tlingit from their Glacier Bay homeland. ?? 2009 SAGE Publications.

  10. MrBayes tgMC³: a tight GPU implementation of MrBayes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ling

    Full Text Available MrBayes is model-based phylogenetic inference tool using Bayesian statistics. However, model-based assessment of phylogenetic trees adds to the computational burden of tree-searching, and so poses significant computational challenges. Graphics Processing Units (GPUs have been proposed as high performance, low cost acceleration platforms and several parallelized versions of the Metropolis Coupled Markov Chain Mote Carlo (MC(3 algorithm in MrBayes have been presented that can run on GPUs. However, some bottlenecks decrease the efficiency of these implementations. To address these bottlenecks, we propose a tight GPU MC(3 (tgMC(3 algorithm. tgMC(3 implements a different architecture from the one-to-one acceleration architecture employed in previously proposed methods. It merges multiply discrete GPU kernels according to the data dependency and hence decreases the number of kernels launched and the complexity of data transfer. We implemented tgMC(3 and made performance comparisons with an earlier proposed algorithm, nMC(3, and also with MrBayes MC(3 under serial and multiply concurrent CPU processes. All of the methods were benchmarked on the same computing node from DEGIMA. Experiments indicate that the tgMC(3 method outstrips nMC(3 (v1.0 with speedup factors from 2.1 to 2.7×. In addition, tgMC(3 outperforms the serial MrBayes MC(3 by a factor of 6 to 30× when using a single GTX480 card, whereas a speedup factor of around 51× can be achieved by using two GTX 480 cards on relatively long sequences. Moreover, tgMC(3 was compared with MrBayes accelerated by BEAGLE, and achieved speedup factors from 3.7 to 5.7×. The reported performance improvement of tgMC(3 is significant and appears to scale well with increasing dataset sizes. In addition, the strategy proposed in tgMC(3 could benefit the acceleration of other Bayesian-based phylogenetic analysis methods using GPUs.

  11. Modeling the hydrodynamic responses to land reclamation in different regions of a semi-enclosed bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Chui, T. F. M.

    2016-12-01

    Water area in bays has been reclaimed to meet the increasing land demand for development. Numbers of studies have examined the hydrodynamic impacts induced by land reclamations in semi-enclosed bays such as San Francisco Bay in the U.S., Tokyo Bay in Japan, and Jiaozhou Bay in China. However, they have not compared the impacts of land reclamations taken place in different regions. The Deep Bay in China was selected as a case study to evaluate and compare the hydrodynamic responses to land reclamations that narrows the bay mouth and that causes water surface loss inside of the bay. A numerical model was employed to simulate the hydrodynamics throughout the bay and to examine the differences in impacts through scenario experiments. The model was validated using the observations of water elevation, currents, and salinity. To indicate the changes in hydrodynamics, tidal prism, current field, tidal energy flux, and water age were computed. Simulation results show that narrowing the bay mouth length by 30% with ??% loss of its original water surface area would increase the total energy flux entering the bay by 26 %, while 14% loss of its original water surface area in middle bay would decrease the total energy entering the bay by 23%. The two regions of reclamations have both resulted in substantial but different changes in current field, the spatial distribution of tidal energy flux and water age. For example, the reclamation at bay mouth has increased the current velocity and tidal energy flux at the bay mouth while that inside of the bay has streamlined the current field and increased the velocity in the inner bay. The water age throughout the bay has been reduced by 5.1% and 13.7% respectively in the two scenarios, increasing the water exchange ability of the bay with the adjacent sea. This study is beneficial to other semi-enclosed bays considering land reclamations, facilitating quick and preliminary estimations of hydrodynamic impacts for planning and management.

  12. Hydrodynamic and transport responses to land reclamation in different areas of semi-enclosed subtropical bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Chui, Ting Fong May

    2017-07-01

    Many coastal areas worldwide have been reclaimed to meet the increasing land demand. Understanding the effects of land reclamation on the hydrodynamics and transport processes of a semi-enclosed bay is therefore of significance. From a case study of Deep Bay (DB) in China and referring to idealized bay models, the effects of two types of land reclamation, one that narrows the bay mouth and another that reduces the water area inside the bay, were examined in this study. Simulation results of idealized models show that the current velocity at the bay mouth and the incoming tidal energy flux are negatively correlated with the width of bay mouth, as the tidal prism remains almost constant when the bay mouth width reduces. The bay mouth width reduction would also increase the tidal energy dissipation inside of the bay due to friction increase. In DB, a 30% reduction in the mouth width increased the bay mouth current velocity by up to 5% and the total incoming energy flux by 18%. The narrowed bay mouth also substantially changed the bay's vertical structure of salinity, increasing the stratification strength by 1.7×10-4 s-2. For reductions in the water surface area in the head of the bay, results from idealized bay simulations show that the current velocity throughout the bay, the incoming tidal energy flux, and salinity at the inner bay all decrease with water area reduction. Reclaiming 14% of area in DB, the current velocity reduced by 9% at the bay mouth, but increased in the middle and inner parts. The incoming tidal energy flux also increased as the coastline became more streamlined after reclamation, and the salinity at inner bay decreased. Both reclamation types have substantially altered the water and salt transport processes and increased the water exchange ability of the bay with the adjacent sea.

  13. San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Sweetwater Marsh and South San Diego Bay Units: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact Statement: Volume I

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on San Diego Bay NWR (Sweetwater Marsh and South San Diego Bay Units) for the next 15...

  14. Aerial reconnaissance of emperor geese and associated waterbirds on the Bristol Bay coastal fringe, Northern Alaska Peninsula, between Kvichak Bay and Port Moller, 25 April 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A aerial reconnaissance was conducted along the Bristol Bay coast of the northern Alaska Peninsula, between Kvichak Bay and Port Moller on 25 April 1986, prior to...

  15. 75 FR 15462 - PPL Susquehanna, LLC; Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... implement the requirements of this section through its Commission-approved Physical Security Plan, Training..., (2) specialized industry expertise whose availability is being challenged by the significant demand...

  16. 77 FR 75674 - Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2, PPL Susquehanna, LLC, Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... unplanned Unit 1 outage necessary due to fatigue cracking experienced on the Unit 1 turbine blades described... licensee subsequently reduced reactor power on Units 1 and 2 to minimize blade tip vibration and allow...

  17. Narrative report : Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Calendar year 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  18. San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge Climate Adaptation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Future climate change is expected to cause dramatic changes in the physical and biological environment of the San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge). To...

  19. 33 CFR 110.145 - Narragansett Bay, R.I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mooring piles or stakes will not be allowed. (ii) Anchorage X-1, Naval explosives and ammunition handling anchorage. The waters of Narragansett Bay northeasterly of Gould Island within a circle having a radius of...

  20. Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer Brightness Temperatures, Wakasa Bay, Japan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes calibrated brightness temperatures measured over Wakasa Bay in the Sea of Japan in January and February 2003. The MIR was carried on a...

  1. Bayes' theorem: A paradigm research tool in biomedical sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... 1Department of Industrial Mathematics and Applied Statistics, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria. ... Bayes' theorem in biomedical research using examples. ..... educate prospective mothers aged 20 years or less. The.

  2. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Fur Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Fur Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly supports the...

  3. 2013 East Bay Seismic Experiment (EBSE) -- Implosion Data, Hayward, Calif

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In August 2013, the California State University, East Bay (CSUEB) in Hayward, California imploded a 13-story building (Warren Hall) that was deemed unsafe because of...

  4. Faults--Drakes Bay and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data of faults for the geologic and geomorphologic map of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is...

  5. San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on San Pablo Bay NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  6. Searching for θ13 at Daya Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giedt, Joel [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Napolitano, James [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    An experiment has been carried out by the Daya Bay Collaboration to measure the neutrino mixing angle θ13. In addition, the grant has supported research into lattice field theory beyond the standard model.

  7. Circulation and geostrophic transport in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Murty, V.S.N.

    Utilising the hydrographic data collected during the early northeast monsoon of 1983 and southwest monsoon of 1984, the circulation of waters of the Bay of Bengal and the associated volume transport have been studied in the upper 1000 m...

  8. Salt balance and mixing in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Basic fields of temperature salinity, density and currents in the Bay of Bengal are investigated using data archieved at the National Oceanographic Data Centre (NODC) Washington, D.C. and the Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre (INODC...

  9. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Reddy, G.V.; Araligidad, N.; Shenoy, Shrikant

    of Bengal, such as occurrence time, characteristics, stability, inter-annual variability and generating mechanisms. Spatially organized temperature inversion occurs in the coastal waters of the western and northeastern Bay during winter (November...

  10. Delaware Bay, Delaware Sediment Distribution 2003 to 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 38 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2003 to 2004 along the middle to lower Delaware Bay Coast. The bottom sediment map...

  11. Microplastic contamination in the San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Mason, Sherri A; Stanek, Shavonne K; Willis-Norton, Ellen; Wren, Ian F; Box, Carolynn

    2016-08-15

    Despite widespread detection of microplastic pollution in marine environments, data describing microplastic abundance in urban estuaries and microplastic discharge via treated municipal wastewater are limited. This study presents information on abundance, distribution, and composition of microplastic at nine sites in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Also presented are characterizations of microplastic in final effluent from eight wastewater treatment plants, employing varying treatment technologies, that discharge to the Bay. With an average microplastic abundance of 700,000particles/km(2), Bay surface water appears to have higher microplastic levels than other urban waterbodies sampled in North America. Moreover, treated wastewater from facilities that discharge into the Bay contains considerable microplastic contamination. Facilities employing tertiary filtration did not show lower levels of contamination than those using secondary treatment. As textile-derived fibers were more abundant in wastewater, higher levels of fragments in surface water suggest additional pathways of microplastic pollution, such as stormwater runoff. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Isopachs--Salt Point to Drakes Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the sediment-thickness map of the Salt Point to Drakes Bay, California, region. The raster data file is included in...

  13. Macrofouling community structure in Kanayama Bay, Kii Peninsula (Japan)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Harada, E.

    An investigation on the macrofouling community in Kanayama Bay, Kill Peninsula, Japan was undertaken from June 1994 to May 1995 by exposing fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) panels at subsurface and bottom (2.2 m) depths. The composition and abundance...

  14. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Atlas Area Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Green Bay, WI Atlas Area. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the EnviroAtlas Area....

  15. Nestucca Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Nestucca Bay National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  16. AMMR Air and Brightness Temperature Data, Wakasa Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Wakasa Bay Field Campaign was conducted in January and February 2003 to validate rainfall algorithms developed for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer -...

  17. Backscatter A [8101]--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Drakes bay and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  18. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore Half Moon Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as two...

  19. Backscatter C [7125]--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Drakes bay and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  20. Backscatter B [7125]--Offshore Half Moon Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as two...

  1. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Side Scan Imagery: Area B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High resolution sonar data were collected over ultra-shallow areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  2. Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Grand Bay NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  3. Possible effects of Bay fill on air quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Baylands Subcommittee is seeking background information on the effects and ramifications of developing those parts of San Francisco Bay that lie in Santa Clara...

  4. 2002 NOAA Lidar: Willapa Bay, WA Mudflat (WA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA contracted with Spencer B. Gross, Inc. (SBG) to obtain airborne Lidar of Willapa Bay, Washington during low tide conditions. The Lidar data was processed to...

  5. Data supporting study of Ecosystem Metabolism in Pensacola Bay estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These files house the data collected during 2013 in lower Pensacola Bay. The data were used to estimate aquatic primary production and respiration. This dataset is...

  6. Environmental Contaminants Evaluation of St. Andrew Bay, Florida: Volume 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between 1985 and 1997, a general survey of St. Andrew Bay, Florida, was conducted to measure chemical contaminant concentrations in the sediments and selected biota....

  7. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Proposed Receiver Site 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Given the location of the critical areas of erosion and the need to avoid adverse impacts to local sensitive habitat, the Southern Monterey Bay Coastal RSM Plan...

  8. Physical oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Murty, V.S.N.; Suryanarayana, A.

    Physical oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea is reviewed for the first time. All available information for over 50 years is consolidated in this review. To begin with, information on peripheral or related aspects of climate...

  9. Tampa Bay Topographic/Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In this joint demonstration project for the Tampa Bay region, NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have merged NOAA bathymetric...

  10. Annual Narrative Oyster Bay National Wildlife Refuge 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Oyster Bay National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  11. APR-2 Dual-frequency Airborne Radar Observations, Wakasa Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In January and February 2003, the Airborne Second Generation Precipitation Radar (APR-2) collected data in the Wakasa Bay AMSR-E validation campaign over the sea of...

  12. Species List for Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a species list of fish, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles that are either common to the Back Bay area or have ranges that extend into this region. This list...

  13. San Francisco Bay, California 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second San Francisco Bay, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This...

  14. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting seabirds (alcids, pelagic birds), gulls, terns, diving birds, and raptors in the Bristol Bay...

  15. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and...

  16. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Critical Habitats, Wildlife Refuges, National Park lands, and other management areas in the Bristol Bay Subarea....

  17. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and coastal areas of...

  18. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: HABITATS (Habitats Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and coastal...

  19. 2004 Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan Coastline LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the collection and processing of Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data over an area along the coast of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron,...

  20. The Voisey's Bay mine/mill project: project description report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ...). The project referred to is the proposed development of a nickel-copper-cobalt mine and mill complex, including associated infrastructure, in the area of the Voisey's Bay discovery on the north coast of Labrador...

  1. Nekton-habitat associations in Yaquina Bay, Oregon - March 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a 3-year field study to determine the relative nekton usage of 4 intertidal habitats (eelgrass [Zostera marina], mud shrimp [Upogebia pugettensis], ghost shrimp [Neotrypaea californiensis], and unvegetated sand) in Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Nekton samples were collected u...

  2. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - San Francisco Bay Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the San Francisco Bay...

  3. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Kachemak Bay Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Kachemak Bay system in...

  4. Primary production in the Bay of Bengal during August 1977

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devassy, V.P.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; Radhakrishna, K.

    Primary production, chlorophyll @ia@@, phaeophytin, phytoplankton and particulate organic carbon (POC) were studied at 14 stations in the Bay of Bengal during August 1977. Column primary production, chlorophyll @ia@@, and phaeopigments varied from 0...

  5. Birds and mammals recorded at Ugashik Bay and Cinder River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 26 September through 19 October 1985, biologists with the Division of Research, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were present at Ugashik Bay, along the NE side...

  6. Folds--Offshore of Half Moon Bay Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, California. The vector data file is...

  7. Field guide to fishes of the chesapeake bay

    CERN Document Server

    Murdy, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    The only comprehensive field guide to the Chesapeake’s fishes, this book is an indispensable resource for both anglers and students of the Bay. Vivid illustrations by Val Kells complement the expertise of researchers Edward O. Murdy and John A. Musick. They describe fishes that inhabit waters ranging from low-salinity estuaries to the point where the Bay meets the Atlantic Ocean. Key features of this field guide include• full-color illustrations of more than 200 species• text that is presented adjacent to illustrations for easy reference• detailed descriptions of physical characteristics, range, occurrence in the Bay, reproduction, diet, and statistics from fisheries research• spot illustrations that highlight critical features of certain fish• illustrations of juveniles when they look different from adults• appendices that include identification keys Formatted as a compact field guide for students, scientists, researchers, and fishermen, Field Guide to Fishes of the Chesapeake Bay should be a ...

  8. Faults--Offshore of Half Moon Bay Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, California. The vector data file is...

  9. Environmental Assessment: Impoundment Rehabilitation on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to rehabilitate the wetland impoundments of Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. The environmental assessment describes the...

  10. Distribution of nutrients in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Distribution of phosphates and nitrates in relation to some physico-chemical features of the western Bay of Bengal during August-September 1976 indicated marked regional variations. The mixed surface layer which was associated with high oxygen...

  11. Characteristics of nearshore waters in Binge Bay, Karwar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Environmental parameters to delineate characteristics of nearshore waters were studied over one year in Binge Bay. Existence of low temperature, high saline, low dissolved oxygen and high nutrient water during August-October at the bottom...

  12. Vehicular regulations announced for Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an announcement pertaining to regulations published in the Federal Register concerning the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. The regulations all...

  13. Neah Bay, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Neah Bay, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  14. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, and seabirds in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  15. Shallow-water Benthic Habitats in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico were mapped and characterized using visual interpretation...

  16. Arctic cisco stable isotope data, Prudhoe Bay, August 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set documents the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of age-0 Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) captured in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in August 2009....

  17. Narrative report : Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Calendar year 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Back Bay NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  18. Narrative report : Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Calendar year 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Back Bay NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  19. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  20. Folds--Drakes Bay and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data of folds for the geologic and geomorphologic map of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is...

  1. Distribution of particulate carbohydrate species in the Bay of Bengal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ; particulate carbohydrates; particulate uronic acids; organic matter, Bay of Bengal. ... Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Marine Corrosion and Material Research Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula 403 004, ...

  2. South Bay Salt Ponds Restoration Project : Final Data Acquisition Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides the Data Acquisition Plan for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project. The purpose of the Data Acquisition Plan is to guide the collection...

  3. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Croplands Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Cropland Management Plan focuses on the production of supplemental grain and browse foods to maintain wildlife populations at...

  4. Marsh and Water Management Plan: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Marsh and Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of...

  5. DDT residues in sediments from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    in the sediments from the Bay of Bengal. Peterson grab and hydrographic winch was used to collect the sediment samples. Each sample was extracted and cleaned. Residues were detected by electron capture gas chromatography. A range variation in the concentration...

  6. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — One of the most important functions of the southern Monterey Bay coastal system is its role as a habitat for a unique flora and fauna. The beaches are habitat for...

  7. Summer distribution of pelagic birds in Bristol Bay, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bristol Bay and its islands, the embayments, lagoons, and other estuaries along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula, and the nesting cliffs on the north shore,...

  8. Monosaccharide composition of suspended particles from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Sankaran, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    Neutral carbohydrates were determined as alditol acetates by capillary gas chromatography in the hydrolysates of suspended particulate samples (40) collected from 8 depths (approx 1 to 1,000 m) at 5 stations of the Bay of Bengal. Eight individual...

  9. Seafloor character--Offshore of Half Moon Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map of the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, California. The raster data file is included in...

  10. Narrative Report : San Francisco Bay NWR Complex : Fiscal Year 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report details the conditions and management of San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge in 1974. The report begins with a general...

  11. Quarterly refuge narrative report : Cold Bay Game Management [1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Cold Bay Game Management outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  12. Recent Results from the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The Daya Bay neutrino experiment has recently updated the oscillation analysis results with 621 days of data in 2015, which has 3.6 times more statistics than the previous publication in 2014. The relative $\\bar{\

  13. AFSC/ABL: Auke Bay Climatology 1959-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data set includes available climatological and related physical environmental records for Auke Bay, Auke Creek and Auke Lake beginning in 1959. Daily high and low...

  14. Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1938 to provide habitat and protection for migratory birds. Management objectives have since been expanded to...

  15. Massachusetts Bay - Internal wave packets digitized from SAR imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains internal wave packets digitized from SAR imagery at 1:350,000 scale in Massachusetts Bay. Internal waves are nonsinusoidal waves that...

  16. Eureka Littoral Cell CRSMP Humboldt Bay Shoreline Types 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In 2011 Aldaron Laird walked and kayaked the entire shoreline of Humboldt Bay mapping the shoreline conditions onto 11x17 laminated fieldmaps at a scale of 1' = 200'...

  17. Island Bay Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the back-end data file for the Island Bay Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use (see...

  18. Vertical distribution of planktonic copepods in Tokyo Bay in summer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Itoh, Hiroshi; Tachibana, Aiko; Nomura, Hideaki; Tanaka, Yuji; Furota, Toshio; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    ... in the inner part of Tokyo Bay, central Japan. Acartia sinjiensis showed a peak of the population density in the surface water, which was influenced by river discharge, and Paracalanus parvus s.l...

  19. Evaluation of Contaminant Residues in Delaware Bay Bald Eagle Nestlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagle (Naliacetus leucocephalus) nesting attempts have steadily increased over the past decade in the Delaware Bay and River drainage basin; however, nesting...

  20. Long-term morphologic evolution of the Hangzhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, W.; Zhijun, D.; Hualiang, X.

    2013-12-01

    Estuaries are the most productive ecosystems of coastal zones in the world, which are significant to mankind as places of navigation, recreation and commerce as well as extensive and diverse habitats for wildlife. However, most estuary environments in the world had occurred greatly changes in recent decades. These estuaries have suffered from impacts of forcing factors including wave climate, mean sea level change and storm surge, especial to the intensive human activities such as training wall construction, channel dredging, sand mining and dam constructions. Thus, there have been increasing concerns about estuary environment changes under effects of different factors. Riverine loads into the Changjiang Estuary have declined dramatically with the construction of Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003. The morphological evolution of the Hangzhou bay that located the southern proximity of the Yangtze estuary starts to attract increasing attentions due to most material of the Hangzhou bay received from Yangtze estuary. In this paper, historical bathymetric charts were digitized and analyzed within a GIS to provide quantitative estimate of changes in volumes in different regions below 0 m elevation. The results show that Hangzhou bay has experienced a major loss in estuarine volume of about 15% with annual mean sediment deposition rate of 80 million m3/a during the last 75 years. However, there is a large-scale spatial adjustment in Hangzhou bay: Bathymetric changes of the Hangzhou bay can be rapidly shifted within the range of 8-10 classes. Volume of the Jinshanzui upstream of the Hangzhou bay has obviously decreased in the last 75 years, especially during 2003-2008. However, Volume of the southern Hangzhou bay has experienced slowly decrease with minor deposition. The northern Hangzhou bay had largely volume changes with rapidly decrease during 1931-1981, and drastically increase since 2003. Further analysis of the bathymetric data relating to possible factors indicates

  1. Bayes' theorem: A paradigm research tool in biomedical sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... P B P E B P C P E C. = +. (4). For computing P(B/E) and P(C/E) using Bayes' rule denominator would be exactly the same as above, the numerator would be P(B) P(E/B) and P(C) P(E/C), respectively. A proof and more formal development of. Bayes' rule can be found in most probability texts. (Rosner, 1990).

  2. An Oceanographic and Climatological Atlas of Bristol Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    have a profound the bay North Pacific water which has just entered effect on regional oceanographic phenomena. An the Bering Sea through Unimak Pass... Unimak circulation in outer Bristol Bay consists of a Island, much of the coastal current is entrained typically unclosed counterclockwise gyre open to...Peninsula and become more face currents. cyclonic and rotary offshore. National Ocean Sea level changes on either side of Unimak Survey current tables

  3. Environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana De Oliveira Fistarol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g. virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms, or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g. vibrios. Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift towards flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  4. PENERAPAN NAIVE BAYES PADA INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM DENGAN DISKRITISASI VARIABEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Trisna Wirawan

    2015-07-01

    Pada penelitian ini akan dibahas mengenai penerapan naive bayes classifier dengan menggunakan pemilihan atribut berdasarkan pada korelasi serta preprocessing data dengan diskritisasi dengan menggunakan metode mean/standar deviasi untuk atribut kontinu dengan menggunakan 3-interval dan 5-interval. Hasil percobaan menunjukan bahwa penerapan naive bayes pada klasifikasi data yang telah melewati proses diskritisasi mampu memberikan akurasi hingga 89% dengan running time rata-rata adalah 31 detik.

  5. Potential climate-change impacts on the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, R.; Pyke, C.; Adams, M.; Breitburg, D.; Hershner, C.; Kemp, M.; Howarth, R.; Mulholland, M.; Paolisso, M.; Secor, D.; Sellner, K.; Wardrop, D.; Wood, R.

    2008-12-01

    We review current understanding of the potential impact of climate change on the Chesapeake Bay. Scenarios for carbon dioxide emissions indicate that by the end of the 21st century the Bay region will experience significant changes in climate forcings with respect to historic conditions, including increases in carbon dioxide concentrations, sea level, and water temperature of 50-160 percent, 0.7-1.6 m, and 2-6 K, respectively. Also likely are increases in precipitation amount (particularly in the winter and spring), precipitation intensity, intensity of tropical and extratropical cyclones (though their frequency may decrease), and sea-level variability. The greatest uncertainty is associated with changes in annual streamflow, though it is likely that winter and spring flows will increase. Climate change alone will cause the Bay to function very differently in the future. Likely changes include: (1) an increase in coastal flooding and submergence of estuarine wetlands; (2) an increase in salinity variability on many time scales; (3) an increase in harmful algae; (4) an increase in hypoxia; (5) a reduction of eelgrass, the dominant submerged aquatic vegetation in the Bay; and (6) altered interactions among trophic levels, with warm-water fish and shellfish species ultimately being favored in the Bay. The magnitude of these changes is sensitive to the carbon dioxide emission trajectory, so that actions taken now to reduce carbon dioxide emissions will reduce climate impacts on the Bay. Research needs include improved precipitation and streamflow projections for the Bay watershed and whole-system monitoring and modeling (supplemented by process studies) that can capture the likely non-linear responses of the Chesapeake Bay system to climate variability and change.

  6. Unscaled Bayes factors for multiple hypothesis testing in microarray experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Francesco; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Racugno, Walter

    2015-12-01

    Multiple hypothesis testing collects a series of techniques usually based on p-values as a summary of the available evidence from many statistical tests. In hypothesis testing, under a Bayesian perspective, the evidence for a specified hypothesis against an alternative, conditionally on data, is given by the Bayes factor. In this study, we approach multiple hypothesis testing based on both Bayes factors and p-values, regarding multiple hypothesis testing as a multiple model selection problem. To obtain the Bayes factors we assume default priors that are typically improper. In this case, the Bayes factor is usually undetermined due to the ratio of prior pseudo-constants. We show that ignoring prior pseudo-constants leads to unscaled Bayes factor which do not invalidate the inferential procedure in multiple hypothesis testing, because they are used within a comparative scheme. In fact, using partial information from the p-values, we are able to approximate the sampling null distribution of the unscaled Bayes factor and use it within Efron's multiple testing procedure. The simulation study suggests that under normal sampling model and even with small sample sizes, our approach provides false positive and false negative proportions that are less than other common multiple hypothesis testing approaches based only on p-values. The proposed procedure is illustrated in two simulation studies, and the advantages of its use are showed in the analysis of two microarray experiments. © The Author(s) 2011.

  7. 76 FR 31851 - Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier...-0417 Safety Zone; Put-In-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier, South Bass Island; Put-In-Bay, OH. (a...

  8. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results, San Francisco Bay Area CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  9. 78 FR 27126 - East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force... approximations obtained using a commercial mapping program which utilizes Simple Cylindrical projection with a...

  10. Soundscape Ecology of Hawaiian Spinner Dolphin Resting Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenehan, Heather Leigh

    Sound is a key sensory modality for Hawaiian spinner dolphins. Like many other marine animals, these dolphins rely on sound and their acoustic environment for many aspects of their daily lives, making it is essential to understand soundscape in areas that are critical to their survival. Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest during the day in shallow coastal areas and forage offshore at night. In my dissertation I focus on the soundscape of the bays where Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest taking a soundscape ecology approach. I primarily relied on passive acoustic monitoring using four DSG-Ocean acoustic loggers in four Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting bays on the Kona Coast of Hawai'i Island. 30-second recordings were made every four minutes in each of the bays for 20 to 27 months between January 8, 2011 and March 30, 2013. I also utilized concomitant vessel-based visual surveys in the four bays to provide context for these recordings. In my first chapter I used the contributions of the dolphins to the soundscape to monitor presence in the bays and found the degree of presence varied greatly from less than 40% to nearly 90% of days monitored with dolphins present. Having established these bays as important to the animals, in my second chapter I explored the many components of their resting bay soundscape and evaluated the influence of natural and human events on the soundscape. I characterized the overall soundscape in each of the four bays, used the tsunami event of March 2011 to approximate a natural soundscape and identified all loud daytime outliers. Overall, sound levels were consistently louder at night and quieter during the daytime due to the sounds from snapping shrimp. In fact, peak Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting time co-occurs with the quietest part of the day. However, I also found that humans drastically alter this daytime soundscape with sound from offshore aquaculture, vessel sound and military mid-frequency active sonar. During one recorded mid

  11. Recipient Capacity of Tvaeren, a Baltic Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnedal, P.O.; Bergstroem, S.O.W.

    1966-07-15

    The research station at Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast and includes several reactors and laboratories, a waste disposal plant serving both the station and waste producers outside Studsvik. A storage plant for irradiated fuel from power reactors has also been built. A total of 850 people are employed. The waste disposal plant was designed for a personnel of 900 using foreign information to correlate waste amounts to personnel. After a delay production has increased at a rate very close to the one expected. The composition of the waste is varied and difficult to predict. Minor amounts of fission products, active corrosion products, and fissile materials have been detected. Most of the waste activity is released to a strait leading into the Bay. Large volumes of water with very low specific activity are released immediately off the coast. Hydrological and dispersion data for the bay are quoted from a paper presented at the symposium mentioned below. The Baltic has brackish water. Both the chemistry and the biology are quite different from those of marine or fresh water recipients. A short description is given of the fauna and flora and important food webs are discussed. The different ways in which man is exposed to radioactivity in waste releases are dependent upon biological accumulation in living organisms and adsorption to dead materials. Fish consumption is the type of exposure which is likely to be the most critical, though it is possible that the exposure from sunbathing and fishing-gear handling could reach similar significance if conservative calculations are used. Accumulation factors from water to fish are given for iron, cobalt,and zinc . Permissible releases have been calculated using relevant accumulation factors. Fission products and corrosion products seem to be of similar significance with regard to possible human exposure. Permission to release liquid waste is granted by water courts in Sweden and operations inspected by special authorities

  12. Chesapeake Bay Study. Supplement A. Problem Identification. Supplement B. Public Involvement. Supplement C. The Chesapeake Bay Hydraulic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    ORGANISMS Algae Mollusca (Shellfish) Pisces ( Fish ) (Cont.) (Cont.) Blue-Green Alga Northern puffer Diatom (4 general) ** Coot clam Oyster toadfish...Chesapeake Bay Estuary A-10 The Biota of Chesapeake Bay A-15 Aquatic Plants A-15 Fish and Wildlife A- 16 Important Plant and Animal Organisms A-18 Plant and...Erosion Problems A-92 Fish and Wildlife A-92 Electric Power A-97 Power Requirements and Generating Facilities A-97 Market Sectors A-97 Cooling Water

  13. THE RESPONSE OF MONTEREY BAY TO THE 2010 CHILEAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence C. Breaker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary frequencies contained in the arrival sequence produced by the tsunami from the Chilean earthquake of 2010 in Monterey Bay were extracted to determine the seiche modes that were produced. Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD were employed to extract the primary frequencies of interest. The wave train from the Chilean tsunami lasted for at least four days due to multipath arrivals that may not have included reflections from outside the bay but most likely did include secondary undulations, and energy trapping in the form of edge waves, inside the bay. The SSA decomposition resolved oscillations with periods of 52-57, 34-35, 26-27, and 21-22 minutes, all frequencies that have been predicted and/or observed in previous studies. The EEMD decomposition detected oscillations with periods of 50-55 and 21-22 minutes. Periods in the range of 50-57 minutes varied due to measurement uncertainties but almost certainly correspond to the first longitudinal mode of oscillation for Monterey Bay, periods of 34-35 minutes correspond to the first transverse mode of oscillation that assumes a nodal line across the entrance of the bay, a period of 26- 27 minutes, although previously observed, may not represent a fundamental oscillation, and a period of 21-22 minutes has been predicted and observed previously. A period of ~37 minutes, close to the period of 34-35 minutes, was generated by the Great Alaskan Earthquake of 1964 in Monterey Bay and most likely represents the same mode of oscillation. The tsunamis associated with the Great Alaskan Earthquake and the Chilean Earthquake both entered Monterey Bay but initially arrived outside the bay from opposite directions. Unlike the Great Alaskan Earthquake, however, which excited only one resonant mode inside the bay, the Chilean Earthquake excited several modes suggesting that the asymmetric shape of the entrance to Monterey Bay was an important factor and that the

  14. Highlights from the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With an understanding of the energy response of the anti-neutrino detectors, the Daya Bay collaboration presents new results using gadolinium-neutron capture: sin2 2θ13 = 0.108 ± 0.028 and |Δmee2| = 2.55−0.18+0.21 × 10−3 eV2 with only the distortion information of the neutrino energy spectrum shape, and sin2 2θ13 = 0.090−0.009+0.008 and |Δmee2| = 2.59−0.20+0.19 10−3 eV2 with both the shape and event rate information. It is also demonstrated that a clean inverse beta decay sample can be extracted using hydrogen-neutron capture, which is now being used for neutrino oscillation measurement. The supernova online trigger is designed and implemented, which can provide about 100% efficiency for all SN1987A-scale supernova bursts within the Milky Way.

  15. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Nearshore phytoplankton of Hammond Bay, Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles L.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1983-01-01

    To predict the effects of increased nutrient loading on nearshore phytoplankton populations in northern Lake Huron, we collected phytoplankton from a small, nearshore water intake at Hammond Bay four times per week from August 1973 to July 1975. Phytoplankton density, taxonomic composition, and biomass in the nearshore waters followed predictable, seasonal fluctuations during each of two 12-month periods. The density of total phytoplankton was high (450600 cells/mL) in June and low (60 to 210 cells/mL) from January to April each year. The mean annual composition of the phytoplankton assemblage by number for the study period was 33% cryptomonads, 24% diatoms, 16% chrysophytes, 16% blue-green algae, and 10% green algae. Phytoplankton biomass was low through each year (range, 0.09 to 0.66 g/m3), resembling values previously reported from Lake Superior. Pennate diatoms contributed 60 to 80% of the total biomass from December to April and in July. Phytoflagellates consisting of chrysophytes and cryptomonads accounted for 35% of the biomass throughout the 2-year study.

  17. Groupthink, Bay of Pigs, and Watergate Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven

    1998-02-01

    Irving Janis's concept of groupthink can be seen in the context of our on-again-off-again love affair with groups. Group decisions have often been seen as offering the benefits of collective wisdom, but may also lead to disastrous consequences. Groupthink then focuses on the negative effects of erroneous group decisions. Two major examples of groupthink are reexamined and compared: the disastrous Bay of Pigs decision by the elite advisory group of President Kennedy, and the advisory groups of President Nixon, which led to the Watergate disaster and at unsuccessful attempts to cover up. In both, it is suggested there was a "runaway norm," escalation and polarization with the norm being to exceed other members of the group in taking more extreme and unrestrained actions against an "enemy." While Janis seems to suggest that groupthink will ultimately lead the group to fail in its ultimate endeavors, we need to consider the frightening possibility that in the case of the Nixon group, the group actions came close to being successful. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  18. Recent Results from the Daya Bay Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z. Y.; Daya Bay Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment was designed to precisely measure the neutrino oscillation parameter θ 13 via the relative comparison of neutrino rates and spectra at different baselines. Eight identically designed detectors were deployed in two near experimental halls and a far hall. Six 2.9 GWth nuclear power reactors served as intense {\\bar ν _e} sources. Since Dec. 2011, the experiment has been running stably. The latest neutrino oscillation results were based on 1230 days of data. Analysis using a three-flavor oscillation model yielded sin22θ 13 = 0.0841 ± 0.0027(stat.) ± 0.0019(syst.), and effective neutrino mass-squared difference ≤ft| {Δ mee^2} \\right| = ≤ft( {2.50 +/- 0.06≤ft( {stat.} \\right) +/- 0.06≤ft( {syst.} \\right)} \\right) × {10 - 3}e{V^2}. Besides, results from the absolute measurement of reactor {\\bar ν _e} flux and energy spectrum, and a search for a light sterile neutrino are also presented.

  19. Comparison of two regression-based approaches for determining nutrient and sediment fluxes and trends in the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Douglas; Hirsch, Robert M.; Hyer, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Nutrient and sediment fluxes and changes in fluxes over time are key indicators that water resource managers can use to assess the progress being made in improving the structure and function of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. The U.S. Geological Survey collects annual nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) and sediment flux data and computes trends that describe the extent to which water-quality conditions are changing within the major Chesapeake Bay tributaries. Two regression-based approaches were compared for estimating annual nutrient and sediment fluxes and for characterizing how these annual fluxes are changing over time. The two regression models compared are the traditionally used ESTIMATOR and the newly developed Weighted Regression on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS). The model comparison focused on answering three questions: (1) What are the differences between the functional form and construction of each model? (2) Which model produces estimates of flux with the greatest accuracy and least amount of bias? (3) How different would the historical estimates of annual flux be if WRTDS had been used instead of ESTIMATOR? One additional point of comparison between the two models is how each model determines trends in annual flux once the year-to-year variations in discharge have been determined. All comparisons were made using total nitrogen, nitrate, total phosphorus, orthophosphorus, and suspended-sediment concentration data collected at the nine U.S. Geological Survey River Input Monitoring stations located on the Susquehanna, Potomac, James, Rappahannock, Appomattox, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Patuxent, and Choptank Rivers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Two model characteristics that uniquely distinguish ESTIMATOR and WRTDS are the fundamental model form and the determination of model coefficients. ESTIMATOR and WRTDS both predict water-quality constituent concentration by developing a linear relation between the natural logarithm of observed constituent

  20. Chemical Characterization of Atmospheric Particulate Matter from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsch, M.; Kirpes, R.; Moffett, C. E.; Sheesley, R. J.; Pratt, K.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is impacting the Arctic, leading to increasing temperatures and decreasing summer sea ice coverage which has allowed for increased oil and gas extraction activities. Prudhoe Bay is currently the second highest source of particulate matter from oil and gas extraction in the Arctic, and 3rd largest oil field in the United States. With drilling operations expected to increase due to the reduced sea ice coverage, these emissions, specifically contributions from black carbon and organic carbon, are expected to continue to increase over the coming decades. Given the complexity and evolving nature of atmospheric particles, as well as the logistical challenges associated with Arctic measurements, many uncertainties remain in our understanding of the impacts of increasing emissions in the Arctic. To investigate the size and chemistry of individual particles emitted from activities within the Prudhoe Bay oil fields in real-time, an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed 300 km northwest of Prudhoe Bay to Barrow, AK during August-September 2015 as well as inside the Prudhoe Bay oil fields at Oliktok Point, AK during August-September 2016. During the 2015 measurements, particle number concentrations increased 10 times when under the influence of Prudhoe Bay, primarily from sub-50 nm particles attributed to transported combustion emissions. ATOFMS also identified increased number fractions of soot and organic carbon-sulfate particles (0.2 - 1.5 μm in diameter) when comparing Prudhoe Bay influential periods to Arctic Ocean influential periods. During 2016 measurements, parallel size-resolved number concentration measurements allowed for near-source quantification of number and mass concentrations of particles from the various sources of combustion within the oil fields, including residual fuel, diesel fuel and biomass burning. These measurements represent the first single particle chemical characterization of oil and gas extraction

  1. Assessing marsh response from sea‐level rise applying local site conditions: Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is located on Humboldt Bay in northern California. Humboldt Bay NWR was established in 1971 and consists of a mosaic...

  2. Abundance patterns of macrofauna and infauna in nursery habitats of Christmas Bay, Texas: July 1984 through June 1985.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between July 1984 and June 1985, monthly samples were collected from marsh, seagrass, and nonvegetated habitats in Christmas Bay and West Bay in the Galveston Bay...

  3. A comparison of levels of bat flight and foraging activity at 10 meters and 30 meters above drained Carolina bays and reference bays, prior to bay restoration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Michael, A.; Ford, W., Mark; Edwards, John, W.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2001-08-01

    A technical report of a monitoring study of bat flight and foraging activity above drained and undrained Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. In order to determine if the vegetational community type or structure of the forest community surrounding the bays affected bat activity levels, bat activity was monitored over 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine/mixed hardwood communities and 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine monocultures. Bat activity was monitored using time expansion bat detectors. Calls were recorded to Sony Professional tape recorders (Sony WMD3). Detectors positioned at 10 m heights were linked directly to the tape recorders. Time expansion radiomicrophones were used to monitor activity at 30 m heights. The radiomicrophones were attached to 2-m diameter helium balloons and suspended approximately 30 m above the forest floor. Calls detected by the radiomicrophones were transmitted via a FM narrowband frequency to a scanner on the ground.

  4. Proceedings of the Fourth Glacier Bay Science Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Gende, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    Foreword Glacier Bay was established as a National Monument in 1925, in part to protect its unique character and natural beauty, but also to create a natural laboratory to examine evolution of the glacial landscape. Today, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve is still a place of profound natural beauty and dynamic landscapes. It also remains a focal point for scientific research and includes continuing observations begun decades ago of glacial processes and terrestrial ecosystems. In recent years, research has focused on glacial-marine interactions and ecosystem processes that occur below the surface of the bay. In October 2004, Glacier Bay National Park convened the fourth in a series of science symposiums to provide an opportunity for researchers, managers, interpreters, educators, students and the general public to share knowledge about Glacier Bay. The Fourth Glacier Bay Science Symposium was held in Juneau, Alaska, rather than at the Park, reflecting a desire to maximize attendance and communication among a growing and diverse number of stakeholders interested in science in the park. More than 400 people attended the symposium. Participants provided 46 oral presentations and 41 posters covering a wide array of disciplines including geology, glaciology, oceanography, wildlife and fisheries biology, terrestrial and marine ecology, socio-cultural research and management issues. A panel discussion focused on the importance of connectivity in Glacier Bay research, and keynote speakers (Gary Davis and Terry Chapin) spoke of long-term monitoring and ecological processes. These proceedings include 56 papers from the symposium. A summary of the Glacier Bay Science Plan-itself a subject of a meeting during the symposium and the result of ongoing discussions between scientists and resource managers-also is provided. We hope these proceedings illustrate the diversity of completed and ongoing scientific studies, conducted within the Park. To this end, we invited all

  5. Documenting ice in the Bay of Fundy, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, R. [Resource Manage Inc., Halifax, NS (Canada); Baddour, E. [National Research Council of Canada, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Inst. for Ocean Technology

    2006-03-15

    This paper examined the distribution of sea ice in targeted tidal energy sites in the Bay of Fundy. The Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia is considered to be the most energetic tidal power site in North America. The study showed that the Minas Passage, the Minas Channel, Cape Enrage, Shepody Bay, the Cumberland Basin, and Cobequid Bay all periodically experience 30 per cent ice cover that is at least 15 cm thick in floes of approximately 100 meters in length. The ice floes typically move under the influence of tidal currents and sustained winds exceeding 50 mph. During severe winters, some sites experience 70 per cent cover, with ice greater than 30 cm thick. Approximately 90 per cent of the harvestable tidal current energy sites in the Bay of Fundy and New Brunswick experience sea ice capable of impacting marine operations. It was concluded that tidal current harvesting devices in these sites should be designed to tolerate severe sea-ice conditions in order to harvest the global resources of this alternative energy source. Additional research is needed to further characterize tidal currents in the presence of ice. 24 refs., 13 figs.

  6. A Bayes factor meta-analysis of Bem's ESP claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Morey, Richard D

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, statisticians and psychologists have provided the critique that p-values do not capture the evidence afforded by data and are, consequently, ill suited for analysis in scientific endeavors. The issue is particular salient in the assessment of the recent evidence provided for ESP by Bem (2011) in the mainstream Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Wagenmakers, Wetzels, Borsboom, and van der Maas (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 426-432, 2011) have provided an alternative Bayes factor assessment of Bem's data, but their assessment was limited to examining each experiment in isolation. We show here that the variant of the Bayes factor employed by Wagenmakers et al. is inappropriate for making assessments across multiple experiments, and cannot be used to gain an accurate assessment of the total evidence in Bem's data. We develop a meta-analytic Bayes factor that describes how researchers should update their prior beliefs about the odds of hypotheses in light of data across several experiments. We find that the evidence that people can feel the future with neutral and erotic stimuli to be slight, with Bayes factors of 3.23 and 1.57, respectively. There is some evidence, however, for the hypothesis that people can feel the future with emotionally valenced nonerotic stimuli, with a Bayes factor of about 40. Although this value is certainly noteworthy, we believe it is orders of magnitude lower than what is required to overcome appropriate skepticism of ESP.

  7. Causal Bayes Model of Mathematical Competence in Kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar Tepeš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper authors define mathematical competences in the kindergarten. The basic objective was to measure the mathematical competences or mathematical knowledge, skills and abilities in mathematical education. Mathematical competences were grouped in the following areas: Arithmetic and Geometry. Statistical set consisted of 59 children, 65 to 85 months of age, from the Kindergarten Milan Sachs from Zagreb. The authors describe 13 variables for measuring mathematical competences. Five measuring variables were described for the geometry, and eight measuring variables for the arithmetic. Measuring variables are tasks which children solved with the evaluated results. By measuring mathematical competences the authors make causal Bayes model using free software Tetrad 5.2.1-3. Software makes many causal Bayes models and authors as experts chose the model of the mathematical competences in the kindergarten. Causal Bayes model describes five levels for mathematical competences. At the end of the modeling authors use Bayes estimator. In the results, authors describe by causal Bayes model of mathematical competences, causal effect mathematical competences or how intervention on some competences cause other competences. Authors measure mathematical competences with their expectation as random variables. When expectation of competences was greater, competences improved. Mathematical competences can be improved with intervention on causal competences. Levels of mathematical competences and the result of intervention on mathematical competences can help mathematical teachers.

  8. Phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics in Winyah Bay, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneillo, G. E.; Brooks, S. S.; Brown, S. L.; Woodford, K. M.; Wright, C. R.

    2016-02-01

    Winyah Bay is a coastal plain estuary located in South Carolina that has been classified for a moderate risk of Eutrophication by NOAA. Winyah Bay receives freshwater input from four rivers, the Waccamaw, Sampit, Black, and Pee Dee Rivers. The Waccamaw, Sampit and Black River are blackwater systems that discharge elevated amounts of colored dissolved organic matter. During the summer and fall of 2015, bioassay experiments were performed to simultaneously examine both light and nutrient (nitrogen & phosphate) limitation throughout Winyah Bay. Sampling stations near the mouth of the Waccamaw and Sampit Rivers showed that phytoplankton were light limited in the late summer instead of nutrient limited. These stations were located in the industrialized area of the bay and typically had the highest nutrient concentrations and highest turbidity, with Secchi depths typically less than 0.5 meters. Results indicated that phytoplankton may be nitrogen limited near the mouth of Winyah Bay, where nutrient concentrations and turbidity were observed to be lower than locations further upstream. There was also an observed dissolved oxygen and pH gradient during the summer of 2015. Dissolved oxygen levels less than 4.0 mg/L were routinely observed near the industrialized head of the estuary and corresponded with lower pH values.

  9. A model for the geomorphology of the Carolina Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Geometrical analysis of the Carolina Bays using Google Earth in combination with LiDAR data makes it possible to postulate that the bays formed as the result of impacts, rather than from eolian and lacustrine processes. The Carolina Bays are elliptical conic sections with width-to-length ratios averaging 0.58 that are radially oriented toward the Great Lakes region. The radial distribution of ejecta is one characteristic of impacts, and the width-to-length ratios of the ellipses correspond to cones inclined at approximately 35°, which is consistent with ballistic trajectories from the point of convergence. These observations, and the fact that these geomorphological features occur only on unconsolidated soil close to the water table, make it plausible to propose that the Carolina Bays are the remodeled remains of oblique conical craters formed on ground liquefied by the seismic shock waves of secondary impacts of glacier ice boulders ejected by an extraterrestrial impact on the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Mathematical analysis using ballistic equations and scaling laws relating yield energy to crater size provide clues about the magnitude of the extraterrestrial event. An experimental model elucidates the remodeling mechanisms and provides an explanation for the morphology and the diverse dates of the bays.

  10. Bayes factor of model selection validates FLMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, D W; Cohen, M M; Campbell, C S; Rodriguez, T

    2001-03-01

    The fuzzy logical model of perception (FLMP; Massaro, 1998) has been extremely successful at describing performance across a wide range of ecological domains as well as for a broad spectrum of individuals. An important issue is whether this descriptive ability is theoretically informative or whether it simply reflects the model's ability to describe a wider range of possible outcomes. Previous tests and contrasts of this model with others have been adjudicated on the basis of both a root mean square deviation (RMSD) for goodness-of-fit and an observed RMSD relative to a benchmark RMSD if the model was indeed correct. We extend the model evaluation by another technique called Bayes factor (Kass & Raftery, 1995; Myung & Pitt, 1997). The FLMP maintains its significant descriptive advantage with this new criterion. In a series of simulations, the RMSD also accurately recovers the correct model under actual experimental conditions. When additional variability was added to the results, the models continued to be recoverable. In addition to its descriptive accuracy, RMSD should not be ignored in model testing because it can be justified theoretically and provides a direct and meaningful index of goodness-of-fit. We also make the case for the necessity of free parameters in model testing. Finally, using Newton's law of universal gravitation as an analogy, we argue that it might not be valid to expect a model's fit to be invariant across the whole range of possible parameter values for the model. We advocate that model selection should be analogous to perceptual judgment, which is characterized by the optimal use of multiple sources of information (e.g., the FLMP). Conclusions about models should be based on several selection criteria.

  11. Account of the littoral diatoms from Langebaan, Saldanha bay, Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available The diatom flora from several stations on the eastern shore of Saldanha Bay (South Africa) has been studied. Saldanha bay is situated on the western coast of South Africa 110Km north of Cape Town....

  12. Virgin Islands: Coral Bay Watershed Management (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Coral Bay Watershed Management is a recipient of the Level II CARE cooperative agreement to continue and expand its collective efforts to stop erosion, sediment, and storm-water pollution of Coral Bay, improve solid waste management,

  13. Survey of Nesting Osprey at Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge and False Cape State Park

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of nesting Osprey (Pandion Haliaetus) was conducted during the nesting season of 1989. The survey was conducted in the bay waters of Back Bay National...

  14. 78 FR 66269 - Safety Zone, Sea World Fireworks; Mission Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Mission Bay, south of Fiesta Island, for a... Bay, south of Fiesta Island. Persons and vessels are prohibited from entering into, transiting through...

  15. Strong variability in bacterioplankton abundance and production in central and western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, V.; Ramaiah, N.; Paul, J.T.; Sardessai, S.; Jyothibabu, R.; Gauns, M.

    to low or no nutrient injections into the surface, primary production in Bay of Bengal is reportedly low. As a consequence, the Bay of Bengal is considered as a region of low biological productivity. Along with many biological parameters, bacterioplankton...

  16. Sediment profile image data from October 1999 in Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apalachicola Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve and the NOAA Office for Coastal Management worked together to map benthic habitats within Apalachicola Bay,...

  17. Back Bay, Virginia: A literature review and synthesis of natural resource status and trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several trends have been observed over time in Back Bay. The salinity of Back Bay has fluctuated up and down between saline, slightly brackish, and a nearly...

  18. Reducing Nutrients to San Francisco Bay through Additional Wastewater Sidestream Treatment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Reducing Nutrients to San Francisco Bay Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  19. Project Eden: fauna recovery on Peron Peninsula, Shark Bay, Western Shield review, February 2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christensen P

    2004-01-01

    Project Eden started on Peron Peninsula, Shark Bay WA in 1994 to control or eradicate introduced fauna, reconstruct the native fauna of the peninsula and to promote nature tourism based on the unique fauna of Shark Bay...

  20. Art Concept of STS-47 Endeavour, OV-105, payload bay (PLB) configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, payload bay (PLB) configuration is illustrated with artist concept. OV-105 orbits the Earth with payload bay doors (PLBDs) open exposing Spacelab Japan (SL-J) module. Alternate number is 92P-144.

  1. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Ellicot Slough NWR, Salinas River NWR, and...

  2. Seasonal variations in heavy mineral placer sand from Kalbadevi Bay, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    Heavy mineral sand from Kalbadevi Bay, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra is well known for ilmenite placer deposits. Study along the central profile of the Bay shows that the sand is major constituent followed by silt, and clay content is present in negligible...

  3. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Green Bay, WI Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) dataset comprises 936 km2 around the city of Green Bay, surrounding towns, tribal lands and rural areas in...

  4. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for San Francisco Bay NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, and Ellicott Slough NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  5. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for San Francisco Bay NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, Ellicott Slough NWR, and Salinas River NWR outlines...

  6. San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for San Francisco Bay NWR, San Pablo Bay NWR, Antioch Dunes NWR, Farallon NWR, Ellicott Slough NWR, and Salinas River NWR outlines...

  7. Survey of Nesting Osprey at Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge and False Cape State Park

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of nesting Osprey (Pandion Haliaetus) was conducted during the nesting season of 1990. The survey was conducted in the bay waters of Back Bay National...

  8. Dioxin toxin equivalents, PCBs, and PBDEs in eggs of avian wildlife of San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — San Francisco Bay (Bay) is considered an impaired waterbody under section 303 (d) of the Clean Water Act due to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and 2, 3, 7,...

  9. The Bias in Bayes and How to Measure it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. S. Fraser

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A Bayes prior with a likelihood can give approximate confidence and provide a remarkably flexible approach to statistical inference; but is also known to provide inaccurate perhaps incorrect results. We develop a measure of Bayes bias, first examining a simple Normal model and then progressing to quite general models with scalar and vector parameters. The Bias measure can be interpreted as the lateral displacement of the location standardized likelihood function and thus provides ready access to the effect of a prior on p-values, confidence bounds, and Bayes posterior bounds. The needed computation is comparable to that for the likelihood function and thus provides an initial option for checking merits of Bayesian computation for high dimensions.

  10. Naive Bayes vs Logistic Regression: Theory, Implementation and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Bhowmik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the theoretical derivation as well as practical steps for implementing Naive Bayes (NB and Logistic Regression (LR classifiers. A generative learning under Gaussian Naive Bayes assumption and two discriminative learning techniques based on gradient ascent and Newton-Raphson methods are described to estimate the parameters of LR. Some limitation of learning techniques and implementation issues are discussed as well. A set of experiments are performed for both the classifiers under different learning circumstances and their performances are compared. From the experiments, it is observed that LR learning with gradient ascent technique outperforms general NB classifier. However, under Gaussian Naive Bayes assumption, both classifiers NB and LR perform similar.

  11. Empirical Bayes estimation for additive hazards regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Debajyoti; McHenry, M Brent; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Ghosh, Malay

    2009-09-01

    We develop a novel empirical Bayesian framework for the semiparametric additive hazards regression model. The integrated likelihood, obtained by integration over the unknown prior of the nonparametric baseline cumulative hazard, can be maximized using standard statistical software. Unlike the corresponding full Bayes method, our empirical Bayes estimators of regression parameters, survival curves and their corresponding standard errors have easily computed closed-form expressions and require no elicitation of hyperparameters of the prior. The method guarantees a monotone estimator of the survival function and accommodates time-varying regression coefficients and covariates. To facilitate frequentist-type inference based on large-sample approximation, we present the asymptotic properties of the semiparametric empirical Bayes estimates. We illustrate the implementation and advantages of our methodology with a reanalysis of a survival dataset and a simulation study.

  12. Bayesian model averaging of naive Bayes for clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santafé, Guzmán; Lozano, Jose A; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2006-10-01

    This paper considers a Bayesian model-averaging (MA) approach to learn an unsupervised naive Bayes classification model. By using the expectation model-averaging (EMA) algorithm, which is proposed in this paper, a unique naive Bayes model that approximates an MA over selective naive Bayes structures is obtained. This algorithm allows to obtain the parameters for the approximate MA clustering model in the same time complexity needed to learn the maximum-likelihood model with the expectation-maximization algorithm. On the other hand, the proposed method can also be regarded as an approach to an unsupervised feature subset selection due to the fact that the model obtained by the EMA algorithm incorporates information on how dependent every predictive variable is on the cluster variable.

  13. Sand waves at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Helen; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey; California State University, Monterey Bay; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; and Center for Integrative Coastal Observation, Research and Education partnered to map central San Francisco Bay and its entrance under the Golden Gate Bridge using multibeam echosounders. View eastward, through the Golden Gate into central San Francisco Bay. Depth of sea floor color coded: red (less than 10 m deep) to purple (more than 100 m deep). Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Sand waves in this view average 6 m in height and 80 m from crest to crest. Golden Gate Bridge is about 2 km long. Vertical exaggeration is approximately 4x for sea floor, 2x for land.

  14. The Mysterious Optimality of Naive Bayes: Estimation of the Probability in the System of "Classifiers"

    OpenAIRE

    Kupervasser, Oleg; Vardy, Alexsander

    2002-01-01

    Bayes Classifiers are widely used currently for recognition, identification and knowledge discovery. The fields of application are, for example, image processing, medicine, chemistry (QSAR). But by mysterious way the Naive Bayes Classifier usually gives a very nice and good presentation of a recognition. It can not be improved considerably by more complex models of Bayes Classifier. We demonstrate here a very nice and simple proof of the Naive Bayes Classifier optimality, that can explain thi...

  15. A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that

  16. Hydrodynamic characterization of Corpus Christi Bay through modeling and observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad S; Bonner, James S; Edge, Billy L; Page, Cheryl A

    2014-11-01

    Christi Bay is a relatively flat, shallow, wind-driven system with an average depth of 3-4 m and a mean tidal range of 0.3 m. It is completely mixed most of the time, and as a result, depth-averaged models have, historically, been applied for hydrodynamic characterization supporting regulatory decisions on Texas coastal management. The bay is highly stratified during transitory periods of the summer with low wind conditions. This has important implications on sediment transport, nutrient cycling, and water quality-related issues, including hypoxia which is a key water quality concern for the bay. Detailed hydrodynamic characterization of the bay during the summer months included analysis of simulation results of 2-D hydrodynamic model and high-frequency (HF) in situ observations. The HF radar system resolved surface currents, whereas an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measured current at different depths of the water column. The developed model successfully captured water surface elevation variation at the mouth of the bay (i.e., onshore boundary of the Gulf of Mexico) and at times within the bay. However, large discrepancies exist between model-computed depth-averaged water currents and observed surface currents. These discrepancies suggested the presence of a vertical gradient in the current structure which was further substantiated by the observed bi-directional current movement within the water column. In addition, observed vertical density gradients proved that the water column was stratified. Under this condition, the bottom layer became hypoxic due to inadequate mixing with the aerated surface water. Understanding the disparities between observations and model predictions provides critical insights about hydrodynamics and physical processes controlling water quality.

  17. Comparison of empirical Bayes and full Bayes approaches for before-after road safety evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Bhagwant; Lan, Bo; Lyon, Craig; Bhim, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    The empirical Bayes (EB) approach has now gained wide acceptance among researchers as the much preferred one for the before-after evaluation of road safety treatments. In this approach, the before period crash experience at treated sites is used in conjunction with a crash prediction model for untreated reference sites to estimate the expected number of crashes that would have occurred without treatment. This estimate is compared to the count of crashes observed after treatment to evaluate the effect of the treatment. This procedure accounts for regression-to-the-mean effects that result from the natural tendency to select for treatment those sites with high observed crash frequencies. Of late, a fully Bayesian (FB) approach has been suggested as a useful, though complex alternative to the empirical Bayes approach in that it is believed to require less data for untreated reference sites, it better accounts for uncertainty in data used, and it provides more detailed causal inferences and more flexibility in selecting crash count distributions. This paper adds to the literature on comparing the two Bayesian approaches through empirical applications. The main application is an evaluation of the conversion of road segments from a four-lane to a three-lane cross-section with two-way left-turn lanes (also known as road diets). For completeness, the paper also summarizes the results of an earlier application pertaining to the evaluation of conversion of rural intersections from unsignalized to signalized control. For both applications, the estimated safety effects from the two approaches are comparable.

  18. Benthic marine algae of Loreto Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Rodríguez, Ignacio; Aguilar-Rosas, L.E.; R Aguilar-Rosas

    2010-01-01

    Ten sites in the Loreto Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, were sampled seasonally during 1996 and 1997, in the center zone of the Gulf of California. The collections of the species was manually in the intertidal and subtidal (3 m, SCUBA) zone in the localities distributed in the bay and surroun ding islands. A total of 62 taxa of benthic marine algae were determined. Rhodophyceae was represen ted by 62 species, Phaeophyceae by 15 species and Chlorophyceae by 7 species. The families with best ...

  19. Biodiversity of Echinoderms at Kuta Bay, West Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Yusron

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Observation on echinoderms diversity was carriedout at coastal waters of Kuta bay in the Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nopember 2005. A total of 21 species of echinoderms,consist of 4 species Holothuroidea, 7 species Echinoidea, 5 species Asteroidea and 5 species Ophiuroidea have beenfound in the Kuta of Nusa Tenggara Barat. The Echinoidea were relatively common in the sea gras zone. On the basisof population density, Echinoidea was the dominant group and relatively highest in the individual density. In generalthe number of species of echinoderm fauna is smaller than in the Sekotong Lombok Barat Bay.

  20. Bayes Estimation of Change Point in Discrete Maxwell Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuri Pandya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A sequence of independent lifetimes X1,…,Xm,Xm+1,…,Xn was observed from Maxwell distribution with reliability r1(t at time t but later, it was found that there was a change in the system at some point of time m and it is reflected in the sequence after Xm by change in reliability r2(t at time t. The Bayes estimators of m, θ1, θ2 are derived under different asymmetric loss functions. The effects of correct and wrong prior information on the Bayes estimates are studied.

  1. Discovery rolls from OPF bay 2 to the VAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- After rollover from Orbiter Processing Facility bay 2, Discovery is fitted with a crane that will lift it to a vertical position and move it into high bay 4. There it will be mated with its external tank and solid rocket boosters for its launch on mission STS-105. The payload on this 11th mission to the International Space Station includes the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo, which was built by the Italian Space Agency. Leonardo will be outfitted with 12 racks of experiments and equipment. Launch of Discovery is scheduled for no earlier than Aug. 5, 2001.

  2. The detector system of the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment

    OpenAIRE

    An, F. P.; Carr, R.; McKeown, R.D.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Wu, F.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Daya Bay experiment was the first to report simultaneous measurements of reactor antineutrinos at multiple baselines leading to the discovery of ν¯e oscillations over km-baselines. Subsequent data has provided the world׳s most precise measurement of sin^2 2θ_(13) and the effective mass splitting Δm^2_(ee). The experiment is located in Daya Bay, China where the cluster of six nuclear reactors is among the world׳s most prolific sources of electron antineutrinos. Multiple antineutrino detect...

  3. Hydrography of Onslow Bay, North Carolina: September 1975 (OBIS II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, L.P.; Singer, J.J.; Dunstan, W.M.; Pietrafesa, L.J.

    1975-09-01

    Data collected during studies of Onslow Bay, off the North Carolina coast during cruises during September, 1975, are reported. Current meters and thermography were placed at depths of 10 and 22 m along the 28 m isobath in the northeastern and southwestern sectors of the Bay. Data are included on wind turbulence and velocity; seawater salinity and temperature at various depths; the content of nitrates, phosphates, silicate, oxygen, chlorophyll, and phytoplankton biomass at various depths. Hydrographic and meteorologic conditions during the cruises are included. (CH)

  4. Sedimentological and clay mineral studies in Kakinada Bay, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, N.P.C.; Rao, K.M.

    The sediments of Kakinada Bay are predominantly silty clays, with a phi mean range between 2.9 to 7.8 northern, central and southern parts of the bay consist of finer sediments (5.5 to 7.05 phi) while the eastern and western parts of the bay...

  5. studies on the psammolittoral meiofauna of algoa bay, south africa i ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study on the meiofauna of Algoa Bay (on the south-eastern comer of Africa) forms part of a larger programme which was started at the University of Port Elizabeth and aimed at elucidating the overall structure and function of the Algoa Bay ecosystem. As the shores of the bay are mainly beaches, it was decided to ...

  6. Scratching the surface: A sentinel exploration of sea louse infestations in Cobscook Bay, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobscook Bay is a tidally energetic system (tidal range ~5.7 m and tidal velocities >2 m s-1) comprised of cool waters (annual mean of 10') capable of supporting marine aquaculture. The bay has three active Atlantic salmon Salmo salar farms in close proximity to Passamaquoddy Bay and New Brunswick, ...

  7. Regional Sediment Management Studies of Matagorda Ship Channel and Matagorda Bay System, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    4  2.1  Freshwater Flow into Lavaca and Matagorda Bays ..................................................... 4...as these processes interact with river influxes and tidal forcing from the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). The main challenge was to model mixed-sizes and... Freshwater Flow into Lavaca and Matagorda Bays Freshwater flow into Matagorda Bay is moderate and consists primarily of discharges from the Colorado

  8. 75 FR 13454 - Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Championships, Huntington Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Supplemental Notice of proposed rulemaking... Special Local Regulation on the navigable waters of Huntington Bay, New York due to the annual Fran... championship swim on the waters of Huntington Bay, NY during a single day in July. This swim has historically...

  9. 75 FR 38710 - Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ..., Huntington Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a permanent Special Local Regulation on the navigable waters of Huntington Bay, New York due to the annual... Championships, Huntington Bay, NY'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 13454). The Coast Guard received no comments...

  10. 19 CFR 191.5 - Guantanamo Bay, insular possessions, trust territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guantanamo Bay, insular possessions, trust... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.5 Guantanamo Bay, insular possessions, trust territories. Guantanamo Bay Naval Station shall be considered foreign territory...

  11. 33 CFR 100.119 - Newport-Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI 100.119 Section 100.119 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...-Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all waters of Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI, within the following points (NAD 83): Latitude Longitude 41°27′51...

  12. 77 FR 27115 - Newport to Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Newport to Bermuda Regatta, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI AGENCY... Bay, Newport, RI, from 10 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. on Friday, June 15, 2012. A portion of the navigable waters of the East Passage, Narragansett Bay, Newport, RI or its approaches will be closed during the...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1150 - Is a permit required for a vessel in Glacier Bay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vessel in Glacier Bay? 13.1150 Section 13.1150 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Vessel Permits § 13.1150 Is a permit required for a vessel in Glacier Bay? A permit from...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1116 - Do I need a camping permit in Glacier Bay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Glacier Bay? 13.1116 Section 13.1116 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.1116 Do I need a camping permit in Glacier Bay? From May 1...

  15. 36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Glacier Bay National Preserve. 13.1109 Section 13.1109 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Administrative Provisions § 13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National...

  16. 78 FR 25266 - An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... AGENCY An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska AGENCY... Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska'' (EPA-910-R-12-004Ba-c... assessment to determine the significance of Bristol Bay's ecological resources and the potential impacts of...

  17. 77 FR 31353 - An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... AGENCY An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, AK AGENCY... of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska'' (EPA-910-R-12-004a-d). The... draft ``An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska'' is...

  18. 75 FR 57857 - Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu... over Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. These safety zones are necessary to protect watercraft and the general... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled: Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu, HI in the...

  19. 77 FR 75017 - Security Zone; On the Waters in Kailua Bay, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; On the Waters in Kailua Bay, Oahu, HI... United States and members of his official party visiting the Kailua Bay area on the eastern coast of Oahu... United States and his family members plan to visit near the Kailua Bay shoreline on Oahu, Hawaii. This...

  20. 75 FR 50952 - Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu... over Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. These safety zones are necessary to protect watercraft and the general... performances, exhibiting their aircraft's maximum performance capabilities, over Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii...

  1. Comparison of sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from watersheds draining the Bay Area and the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, L.J.; Lewicki, M.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Ganju, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying suspended sediment loads is important for managing the world's estuaries in the context of navigation, pollutant transport, wetland restoration, and coastal erosion. To address these needs, a comprehensive analysis was completed on sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from fluvial sources. Suspended sediment, optical backscatter, velocity data near the head of the estuary, and discharge data obtained from the output of a water balance model were used to generate continuous suspended sediment concentration records and compute loads to the Bay from the large Central Valley watershed. Sediment loads from small tributary watersheds around the Bay were determined using 235 station-years of suspended sediment data from 38 watershed locations, regression analysis, and simple modeling. Over 16 years, net annual suspended sediment load to the head of the estuary from its 154,000 km2 Central Valley watershed varied from 0.13 to 2.58 (mean = 0.89) million metric t of suspended sediment, or an average yield of 11 metric t/km2/yr. Small tributaries, totaling 8145 km2, in the nine-county Bay Area discharged between 0.081 and 4.27 (mean = 1.39) million metric t with a mean yield of 212 metric t/km2/yr. The results indicate that the hundreds of urbanized and tectonically active tributaries adjacent to the Bay, which together account for just 5% of the total watershed area draining to the Bay and provide just 7% of the annual average fluvial flow, supply 61% of the suspended sediment. The small tributary loads are more variable (53-fold between years compared to 21-fold for the inland Central Valley rivers) and dominated fluvial sediment supply to the Bay during 10 out of 16 yr. If San Francisco Bay is typical of other estuaries in active tectonic or climatically variable coastal regimes, managers responsible for water quality, dredging and reusing sediment accumulating in shipping channels, or restoring wetlands in the world's estuaries may need to more carefully

  2. Eutrophication influence on phytoplankton community composition in three bays on the eastern Adriatic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Bužančić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the influence of eutrophication pressure on the phytoplankton community structure, abundance and biodiversity in the investigated bays with different hydromorphological features. Šibenik Bay is a highly stratified estuary of the karstic river Krka; Kaštela Bay is a semi-enclosed coastal bay, which is influenced by the relatively small river Jadro; and Mali Ston Bay is located at the Neretva River estuary, the largest river on the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea. All of the areas are affected by urban pressure, which is reflected in the trophic status of the waters. The greatest anthropogenic influence was found in Kaštela Bay while the lowest influence was found in Mali Ston Bay. In this study, the highest biomass concentration and maximum abundance of phytoplankton were recorded at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence. Those stations show a dominance of abundance compared to the biomass and a dominance of opportunistic species, which is reflected in the lower biodiversity of phytoplankton community. Diatoms were the most represented group of the phytoplankton community in all three bays, followed by the dinoflagellates. Diatoms that were highlighted as significant for the difference between the bays were Skeletonema marinoi in Šibenik Bay, Leptocylindrus minimus in Kaštela Bay and the genus Chaetoceros spp. in Mali Ston Bay. Dinoflagellates were more abundant at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence, and most significant were Prorocentrum triestinum in Kaštela Bay and Gymnodinium spp. in Šibenik Bay and Mali Ston Bay.

  3. A Proximate Biological Survey of San Diego Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Ulothrlx sp. (green algae) Viva lattsslma (sea lettuce) Yucca schldlgera (Mohave yucca) Zostera marina (eelgrass) B. Marine Invertebrates Porifera ... Invertebrates (eont.) Annelids AnnanJia hloculata (polychaete) Capitata ambiscta (polychaete) Glycera amerlcana (polychaete) Haploscoloposvlongatus...numbers but only at mouth of bay; prefers open ocean. M, WR. Occurs annually in small numbers. Feeds on fish and invertebrates in shallow waters

  4. Apostle Battery Table Bay Fire Command | Croock | Scientia Militaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 3 (1990) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Apostle Battery Table Bay Fire Command.

  5. Distribution of particulate carbohydrate species in the Bay of Bengal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in the Bay of Bengal. Vishwas B Khodse. ∗. , Narayan B Bhosle and V V Gopalkrishna. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Marine Corrosion and Material Research Division, .... showed small variation, and diatoms such as Tha- lassiothrix sp, Rizosolenia sp, and Nitzschia are generally abundant (Paul et al 2007).

  6. Distribution of iodate in the south western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raju, G.R.K.; Rajendran, A.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Low concentration of iodate at surface (Ca. 0.2 mu M) and an increase in deeper waters (Ca, 0.55 mu M) were observed in south western Bay of Bengal. A nutrient like behaviour of iodate was also found and phosphate showed that biota plays a major...

  7. Spatial distribution of atmospheric carbon monoxide over Bay of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)' for a two-month pre-monsoon period in 2006 with the ocean segment covering Bay of Bengal and Arabian ... and intercontinental transport of pollution (Khalil and Rasmussen 1994; Khalil 1995; ... air over the ocean surface was measured continu- ously using an IR analyser, Monitor ...

  8. On the marine atmospheric boundary layer characteristics over Bay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed measurements were carried out in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB) which covered both Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal during March to May 2006. In this paper, we present the meteorological observations made ...

  9. Characteristics of Tides in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sindhu, B.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    of tides in the Bay of Bengal B. Sindhu* and A. S. Unnikrishnan CSIR National Institute of Oceanography Dona Paula, Goa, 403004, India Present affiliations: COWI Gulf A/S Dubai, UAE, PO Box 52978 Abstract A vertically integrated 2D numerical model...

  10. Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Bish, D.L.; Ming, D.W.; Bristow, T.F.; Morris, R.V.; Blake, D.F.; Chipera, S.J.; Morrison, S.M.; Treiman, A.H.; Rampe, E.B.; Rice, M.; Achilles, C.N.; Grotzinger, J.P.; McLennan, S.M.; Williams, J.; Bell III, J.F.; Newsom, H.E.; Downs, R.T.; Maurice, S.; Sarrazin, P.; Yen, A.S.; Morookian, J.M.; Farmer, J.D.; Stack, K.; Milliken, R.E.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Sumner, D.Y.; Berger, G.; Crisp, J.A.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Anderson, R.; Des Marais, D.J.; Stolper, E.M.; Edgett, K.S.; Gupta, S.; Spanovich, N.; MSL Science Team, the|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks at Yellowknife Bay (Gale crater) on Mars include mudstone sampled by the Curiosity rover. The samples, John Klein and Cumberland, contain detrital basaltic minerals, calcium sulfates, iron oxide or hydroxides, iron sulfides, amorphous material, and trioctahedral smectites. The John

  11. The phytoplankton component of seston in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienke, S.M.; Cloern, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Phytoplankton biomass (as carbon) was estimated from chlorophyll a concentrations (Chla) and a mean value for the ratio of phytoplankton carbon to chlorophyll a in San Francisco Bay. The ratio was determined as the slope of a Model II regression of POC' against (Chla), where POC' is total particulate organic carbon minus sediment-associated non-phytoplankton carbon. Samples from 30 fixed sites in the channel and lateral shoals of San Francisco Bay were collected once or twice a month from April to November 1980, and at irregular intervals in South Bay during 1984 and 1985. For all data the calculated mean value of phytoplankton C:Chla was 51 (95% confidence interval = 47-54). No significant differences were found in the C:Chla ratio between shallow and deep sites (where light availability differs) or between northern and southern San Francisco Bay (where phytoplankton community composition differs). Using the mean C:Chla ratio of 51, we calculated that phytoplankton biomass constitutes about one third of seston carbon under most circumstances, but this fraction ranges from about 95% during phytoplankton blooms to less than 20% during spring periods of low phytoplankton biomass and high suspended sediment concentration. ?? 1987.

  12. Pirate Bay pa° vej mod virtuel statsdannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Saugmann

    2010-01-01

    , hvilket fik den britiske premierminister Gordon Brown til at udtale, at ’udenrigspolitik aldrig bliver det samme igen’. Fildelingssitet The Pirate Bay gik samtidig ind som en aktiv del af konflikten og kæmpede pa° demonstranternes side; dermed tog sitet første skridt pa° vejen mod at blive en virtuel stat....

  13. Socio-economic aspects of the Sodwana Bay SCUBA diving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding socio-economic aspects of the diving industry at Sodwana Bay, including data on participant motivation and expenditure, is crucial for the effective management of the St Lucia and Maputaland marine protected areas, South Africa. Between July 2011 and July 2012 a total of 59 553 dives was conducted by ...

  14. BayesMD: flexible biological modeling for motif discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Man-Hung Eric; Krogh, Anders; Winther, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We present BayesMD, a Bayesian Motif Discovery model with several new features. Three different types of biological a priori knowledge are built into the framework in a modular fashion. A mixture of Dirichlets is used as prior over nucleotide probabilities in binding sites. It is trained on trans...

  15. Sub-littoral meiobenthos of the northeastern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rodrigues, C.L.; Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    super(3)m/2 (median = 31.45 x 10 super(3)) Distribution was contagious with varied fauna in the nearshore region On the basis of metabolic index, the food requirement of the benthic community (macro+meio) in the Bay of Bengal was found to be lower than...

  16. Organochlorine pesticide compounds in organisms from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Zooplankton and bottom-feeding fish (four species) from the coastal Bay of Bengal were analysed for residues of DDT, DDD, DDE and aldrin, Concentrations of t-DDT (DDT+DDD+DDE) ranging from 1.31 to 115.90 ngg @u-1@@ wet weight in different fish...

  17. Principal Component Surface (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas inside Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). It was...

  18. Principal Component Surface (2011) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas inside Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). It was...

  19. Nutrient load estimates for Manila Bay, Philippines using population data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotto, Lara Patricia A; Beusen, Arthur H W; Villanoy, Cesar L.; Bouwman, Lex F.; Jacinto, Gil S.

    2015-01-01

    A major source of nutrient load to periodically hypoxic Manila Bay is the urban nutrient waste water flow from humans and industries to surface water. In Manila alone, the population density is as high as 19,137 people/km2. A model based on a global point source model by Morée et al. (2013) was used

  20. Vascular smooth muscle sensitivity to varying oxygen tensions, Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I this our study, using rat tail artery activate by nordrenaline and potassium chloride in thepresence of Bay K. 8644 and nifedipine at different oxygen levels, we showed that desensitization of the responses of the vscular smooth muscle occurred. It was evident that the underlying basis of vascular reponses observed with ...