WorldWideScience

Sample records for suspensions including research

  1. dc Electrokinetics for spherical particles in salt-free concentrated suspensions including ion size effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, Rafael; Carrique, Félix; Ruiz-Reina, Emilio

    2011-11-21

    We study the electrophoretic mobility of spherical particles and the electrical conductivity in salt-free concentrated suspensions including finite ion size effects. An ideal salt-free suspension is composed of just charged colloidal particles and the added counterions that counterbalance their surface charge. In a very recent paper [Roa et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 3960-3968] we presented a model for the equilibrium electric double layer for this kind of suspensions considering the size of the counterions, and now we extend this work to analyze the response of the suspension under a static external electric field. The numerical results show the high importance of such corrections for moderate to high particle charges, especially when a region of closest approach of the counterions to the particle surface is considered. The present work sets the basis for further theoretical models with finite ion size corrections, concerning particularly the ac electrokinetics and rheology of such systems. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  2. Controlling the magnetorheological suspension of a vehicle seat including the biomechanics of the driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gągorowski, Andrzej

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an original approach to the problem of controlling a magnetorheological suspension of a driver's seat for optimal reduction of whole-body vibration. The concept consists in taking into consideration the individual personal features (biomechanical parameters) of the driver in the control process of a MR damper by using human generated signals. The proposed algorithm enables the adaptation of the suspension for an individual driver and specific road conditions. The actual research has focused on numerical simulations with a complex model of the human-seat-vehicle system. The human model representing a specific driver has been described by several biomechanical parameters such as masses of body structures, moments of inertia, and stiffness and damping of the spine, intervertebral discs, spinal muscles and ligaments.

  3. Active seat suspension for a small vehicle: considerations for control system including observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Hiroshi; Oshinoya, Yasuo; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa; Ozaki, Koichi; Ogino, Hirohiko

    2007-12-01

    We have examined the improvement of ride quality and the reduction of riding fatigue brought about by the active control of the seat suspension of small vehicles such as one-seater electric automobiles. A small active seat suspension, which is easy to install, was designed and manufactured for one-seater electric automobiles. For the actuator, a maintenance-free voice coil motor used as a direct drive was adopted. For fundamental considerations, we designed a one-degree-of-freedom model for the active seat suspension system. Then, we designed a disturbance cancellation control system that includes the observer for a two-degree-of-freedom model. In an actual driving test, a test road, in which the concavity and convexity of an actual road surface were simulated using hard rubber, was prepared and the control performance of vertical vibrations of the seat surface during driving was examined. As a result, in comparison with the one-degree-of-freedom control system, it was confirmed that the control performance was improved by the two-degree-of-freedom control system that includes the observer.

  4. Research of Biogas Purification Using Microalgae Monoraphidium Griffithii Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Bingelytė

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using biogas instead of fossil fuels decreases pollutants such as solid particles, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides concentrations in the environment. Green energy and development of relevant infrastructure improves air quality considerably. Chemical, physical, biological methods are used for biogas purification. The main difficulties using biological methods are selection of suitable microorganisms’ suspensions and making optimal conditions in photobioreactor. Different origin and structure microalgae suspensions are used applying biological treatment methods. Monoraphidium griffithi, which is widespread in fresh water, has relatively high potential. Microalgae’ cultures absorb the main components of biogas – carbon dioxide (CO2 and hydrogen sulphide (H2S. Absorbtion processes are based on photosynthesis. Microalgae absorb specific components of biogas when there are suitable light source and nutrient solvent. The main purposes of the research are to asses emission of biogas using different substrates (chicken manure and wastewater sludge. Also, it was measured main physical and chemical characteristics of both substrates: acidicy, temperature, redox potential, conductivity, biohemical oxygen demand. According results of the research, emission from wastewater sludge is greater than from chicken manure so sludge was chosen in teh next stage of the research. The next stage – asssessment of purification efficienty using Monoraphidium grifftihii suspension. Raw biogas was supplied to photobioreacor (with microalgae suspension. Alterations of methane, carbon dioxide, oxygen, hydrogen sulphide concentrations were measured precisely. According to results concentration of methane in the beginning of the researc was 62%, after 35 days – 69%. Meanwhile carbon dioxide – 37% and 31% by analogy. Experimental research alows to assess Monoraphidium griffithi absorption capacity of ballast components. Results were compared to different scientists

  5. Electrorheology of nanofiber suspensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yin, Jianbo; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2011-01-01

    .... In this review, we especially focus on the recent researches on electrorheology of various nanofiber-based suspensions, including inorganic, organic, and inorganic/organic composite nanofibers...

  6. Research on Modeling of Hydropneumatic Suspension Based on Fractional Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With such excellent performance as nonlinear stiffness, adjustable vehicle height, and good vibration resistance, hydropneumatic suspension (HS has been more and more applied to heavy vehicle and engineering vehicle. Traditional modeling methods are still confined to simple models without taking many factors into consideration. A hydropneumatic suspension model based on fractional order (HSM-FO is built with the advantage of fractional order (FO in viscoelastic material modeling considering the mechanics property of multiphase medium of HS. Then, the detailed calculation method is proposed based on Oustaloup filtering approximation algorithm. The HSM-FO is implemented in Matlab/Simulink, and the results of comparison among the simulation curve of fractional order, integral order, and the curve of real experiment prove the feasibility and validity of HSM-FO. The damping force property of the suspension system under different fractional orders is also studied. In the end of this paper, several conclusions concerning HSM-FO are drawn according to analysis of simulation.

  7. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  8. We need to include bystander first aid in trauma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Håkon Kvåle; Wisborg, Torben

    2017-03-23

    The chain of trauma survival is a concept that originated in the area of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and was adapted to the treatment of trauma. In out-of-hospital cardiac arrest research into bystander first aid has resulted in improved outcome. Whereas, in trauma research the first link of the chain of survival is almost ignored. In OHCA, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) from bystanders has been subject of a vast amount of research, as well as measures and programs to raise the rate of bystander CPR to cardiac arrest victims. These efforts have resulted in improved survival. The research effort has been well grounded in the research community, as demonstrated by its natural inclusion in the uniform reporting template (Utstein) for the treatment of OHCA. In trauma the bystander may contribute by providing an open airway, staunch bleedings, or prevent hypothermia. In trauma however, while the chain of survival has been adopted along with it distinct links, including bystander first aid, the consensus-based uniform reporting template for trauma (the Utstein template) does not include the bystander first aid efforts. There is extremely little research on what first aid measures bystanders provide to trauma victims, and on what impact such measures have on outcome. An important step to improve research on bystander first aid in trauma would be to include this as part of the uniform reporting template for trauma CONCLUSION: The lack of research on bystander first aid makes the first link in the trauma chain of survival the weakest link. We, the trauma research community, should either improve our research and knowledge in this area, or remove the link from the chain of survival.

  9. Methodological challenges when doing research that includes ethnic minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2016-01-01

    minorities are included. Method: A thorough literature search yielded 21 articles obtained from the scientific databases PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science and PsychInfo. Analysis followed Arksey and O’Malley’s framework for scoping reviews, applying content analysis. Results: The results showed methodological......Background: There are challenging methodological issues in obtaining valid and reliable results on which to base occupational therapy interventions for ethnic minorities. The aim of this scoping review is to describe the methodological problems within occupational therapy research, when ethnic...

  10. Research on magnetorheological damper suspension with permanent magnet and magnetic valve based on developed FOA-optimal control algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Ping; Gao, Hong [Anhui Polytechnic University, Wuhu (China); Niu, Limin [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China)

    2017-07-15

    Due to the fail safe problem, it was difficult for the existing Magnetorheological damper (MD) to be widely applied in automotive suspensions. Therefore, permanent magnets and magnetic valves were introduced to existing MDs so that fail safe problem could be solved by the magnets and damping force could be adjusted easily by the magnetic valve. Thus, a new Magnetorheological damper with permanent magnet and magnetic valve (MDPMMV) was developed and MDPMMV suspension was studied. First of all, mechanical structure of existing magnetorheological damper applied in automobile suspensions was redesigned, comprising a permanent magnet and a magnetic valve. In addition, prediction model of damping force was built based on electromagnetics theory and Bingham model. Experimental research was onducted on the newly designed damper and goodness of fit between experiment results and simulated ones by models was high. On this basis, a quarter suspension model was built. Then, fruit Fly optimization algorithm (FOA)-optimal control algorithm suitable for automobile suspension was designed based on developing normal FOA. Finally, simulation experiments and bench tests with input surface of pulse road and B road were carried out and the results indicated that working erformance of MDPMMV suspension based on FOA-optimal control algorithm was good.

  11. Research on Suspension with Novel Dampers Based on Developed FOA-LQG Control Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance working-performance robustness of suspension, a vehicle suspension with permanent-magnet magnetic-valve magnetorheological damper (PMMVMD was studied. Firstly, mechanical structure of traditional magnetorheological damper (MD used in vehicle suspensions was redesigned through introducing a permanent magnet and a magnetic valve. Based on theories of electromagnetics and Bingham model, prediction model of damping force was built. On this basis, two-degree-of-freedom vehicle suspension model was established. In addition, fruit fly optimization algorithm- (FOA- line quadratic Gaussian (LQG control algorithm suitable for PMMVMD suspensions was designed on the basis of developing normal FOA. Finally, comparison simulation experiments and bench tests were conducted by taking white noise and a sine wave as the road surface input and the results indicated that working performance of PMMVMD suspension based on FOA-LQG control algorithm was good.

  12. New research builds strong case for including informal migrant ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... In February 2015, a major outbreak of violence against immigrants and immigrant entrepreneurs in Southern Africa prompted researchers to address the prevailing myths about immigrants in South Africa on television, radio, and newspapers. Findings from the research will be featured on a book titled, ...

  13. Energy secretary's priorities include San Francisco area research projects

    CERN Multimedia

    Widener, A

    2003-01-01

    "Bay Area research labs got a big boost Monday when the Secretary of Energy unveiled his priorities for major research projects his agency hopes to fund over the next two decades. Among the agency's 28 top priorities are a major computer expansion and an experiment examining the expanding universe that could be housed at Lawrence Berkeley Lab and a powerful X-ray laser planned for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center" (1 page).

  14. Including People with Intellectual Disabilities in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    The voice of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed in the literature to best understand their unique experiences and perspectives. Researchers face challenges in conducting interviews with people with ID who are limited in conceptual and verbal language skills. It can also be difficult to obtain participants with ID because of…

  15. Canine cancer patients are included in translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Betina; Clausen, Malene Martini; Hansen, Anders Elias

    2014-01-01

    Cancer bearing dogs represent a unique clinical cancer model with a direct potential for accelerating translation into human patients. A research collaboration between the veterinary and human medical facilities at Copenhagen University and Rigshospitalet has taken offset in this. Canine cancer...... patients are implemented for development of new strategies in molecular imaging and radiotherapy. The obtained results will be used to guide human clinical trials....

  16. The role of chemical engineering in medicinal research including Alzheimer's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M

    2015-01-01

    Various disciplines of chemical engineering, especially thermodynamics and kinetics, play an important role in medicinal research and this has been particularly recognized during the last 10-15 years (von Stockar and van der Wielen, J Biotechnol 59:25, 1997; Prausnitz, Fluid Phase Equilib 53:439, 1989; Prausnitz, Pure Appl Chem 79:1435, 2007; Dey and Prausnitz, Ind Eng Chem Res 50:3, 2011; Prausnitz, J Chem Thermodynamics 35:21, 2003; Tsivintzelis et al. AIChE J 55:756, 2009). It is expected that during the twenty-first century chemical engineering and especially thermodynamics can contribute as significantly to the life sciences development as it has been done with the oil and gas and chemical sectors in the twentieth century. Moreover, it has during the recent years recognized that thermodynamics can help in understanding diseases like human cataract, sickle-cell anemia, Creuzfeldt-Jacob ("mad cow" disease), and Alzheimer's which are connected to "protein aggregation." Several articles in the Perspectives section of prominent chemical engineering journals have addressed this issue (Hall, AIChE J 54:1956, 2008; Vekilov, AIChE J 54:2508, 2008). This work reviews recent applications of thermodynamics (and other areas of chemical engineering) first in drug development and then in the understanding of the mechanism of Alzheimer's and similar diseases.

  17. High yield derivation of enriched glutamatergic neurons from suspension-cultured mouse ESCs for neurotoxicology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbard Kyle S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, there has been a strong emphasis on identifying an in vitro model for neurotoxicity research that combines the biological relevance of primary neurons with the scalability, reproducibility and genetic tractability of continuous cell lines. Derived neurons should be homotypic, exhibit neuron-specific gene expression and morphology, form functioning synapses and consistently respond to neurotoxins in a fashion indistinguishable from primary neurons. However, efficient methods to produce neuronal populations that are suitable alternatives to primary neurons have not been available. Methods With the objective of developing a more facile, robust and efficient method to generate enriched glutamatergic neuronal cultures, we evaluated the neurogenic capacity of three mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC lines (R1, C57BL/6 and D3 adapted to feeder-independent suspension culture. Neurogenesis and neuronal maturation were characterized as a function of time in culture using immunological, genomic, morphological and functional metrics. The functional responses of ESNs to neurotropic toxins with distinctly different targets and mechanisms of toxicity, such as glutamate, α-latrotoxin (LTX, and botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT, were also evaluated. Results Suspension-adapted ESCs expressed markers of pluripotency through at least 30 passages, and differentiation produced 97×106 neural progenitor cells (NPCs per 10-cm dish. Greater than 99% of embryonic stem cell-derived neurons (ESNs expressed neuron-specific markers by 96 h after plating and rapidly developed complex axodendritic arbors and appropriate compartmentalization of neurotypic proteins. Expression profiling demonstrated the presence of transcripts necessary for neuronal function and confirmed that ESN populations were predominantly glutamatergic. Furthermore, ESNs were functionally receptive to all toxins with sensitivities and responses consistent with primary neurons

  18. Experimental Evaluation of Mountain Bike Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Titlestad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant distinction between competitive mountain bikes is whether they have a suspension system. Research studies indicate that a suspension system gives advantages, but it is difficult to quantify the benefits because they depend on so many variables, including the physiology and psychology of the cyclist, the roughness of the track and the design of the suspension system. A laboratory based test rig has been built that allows the number of variables in the system to be reduced and test conditions to be controlled. The test rig simulates regular impacts of the rear wheel with bumps in a rolling road. The physiological variables of oxygen consumption and heart rate were measured, together with speeds and forces at various points in the system. Physiological and mechanical test results both confirm a significant benefit in using a suspension system on the simulated rough track, with oxygen consumption reduced by around 30 % and power transmitted through the pedals reduced by 30 % to 60 %.

  19. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    Special issue in honour of Henk Lekkerkerker's 65th birthday Professor Henk N W Lekkerkerker is a world-leading authority in the field of experimental and theoretical soft condensed matter. On the occasion of his 65th birthday in the summer of 2011, this special issue celebrates his many contributions to science. Henk Lekkerkerker obtained his undergraduate degree in chemistry at the University of Utrecht (1968) and moved to Calgary where he received his PhD in 1971. He moved to Brussels as a NATO fellow at the Université Libre de Bruxelles and was appointed to an assistant professorship (1974), an associate professorship (1977) and a full professorship (1980) in physical chemistry at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. In 1985 he returned to The Netherlands to take up a professorship at the Van 't Hoff Laboratory, where he has been ever since. He has received a series of awards during his career, including the Onsager Medal (1999) of the University of Trondheim, the Bakhuys Roozeboom Gold Medal (2003) of the Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), the ECIS-Rhodia European Colloid and Interface Prize (2003), and the Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society (2008). He was elected a member of KNAW in 1996, was awarded an Academy Chair position in 2005, and has held several visiting lectureships. Henk's work focuses on phase transitions in soft condensed matter, and he has made seminal contributions to both the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. Here we highlight three major themes running through his work, and a few selected publications. So-called depletion interactions may lead to phase separation in colloid-polymer mixtures, and Henk realised that the partitioning of polymer needs to be taken into account to describe the phase behaviour correctly [1]. Colloidal suspensions can be used as model fluids, with the time- and length-scales involved leading to novel opportunities, notably the direct observation of capillary waves at a

  20. How novice, skilled and advanced clinical researchers include variables in a case report form for clinical research: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hongling; Zeng, Lin; Fetters, Micheal D; Li, Nan; Tao, Liyuan; Shi, Yanyan; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Fengwei; Zhao, Yiming

    2017-09-18

    Despite varying degrees in research training, most academic clinicians are expected to conduct clinical research. The objective of this research was to understand how clinical researchers of different skill levels include variables in a case report form for their clinical research. The setting for this research was a major academic institution in Beijing, China. The target population was clinical researchers with three levels of experience, namely, limited clinical research experience, clinicians with rich clinical research experience and clinical research experts. Using a qualitative approach, we conducted 13 individual interviews (face to face) and one group interview (n=4) with clinical researchers from June to September 2016. Based on maximum variation sampling to identify researchers with three levels of research experience: eight clinicians with limited clinical research experience, five clinicians with rich clinical research experience and four clinical research experts. These 17 researchers had diverse hospital-based medical specialties and or specialisation in clinical research. Our analysis yields a typology of three processes developing a case report form that varies according to research experience level. Novice clinician researchers often have an incomplete protocol or none at all, and conduct data collection and publication based on a general framework. Experienced clinician researchers include variables in the case report form based on previous experience with attention to including domains or items at risk for omission and by eliminating unnecessary variables. Expert researchers consider comprehensively in advance data collection and implementation needs and plan accordingly. These results illustrate increasing levels of sophistication in research planning that increase sophistication in selection for variables in the case report form. These findings suggest that novice and intermediate-level researchers could benefit by emulating the comprehensive

  1. Articulated suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, Donald B. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention provides a rough terrain vehicle which maintains a substantially constant weight, and therefore traction, on all wheels, despite one wheel moving considerably higher or lower than the others, while avoiding a very soft spring suspension. The vehicle includes a chassis or body to be supported and a pair of side suspensions at either side of the body. In a six wheel vehicle, each side suspension includes a middle wheel, and front and rear linkages respectively coupling the front and rear wheels to the middle wheel. A body link pivotally connects the front and rear linkages together, with the middle of the body link rising or falling by only a fraction of the rise or fall of any of the three wheels. The body link pivotally supports the middle of the length of the body. A transverse suspension for suspending the end of the body on the side suspensions includes a middle part pivotally connected to the body about a longitudinal axis and opposite ends each pivotally connected to one of the side suspensions along at least a longitudinal axis.

  2. The importance of moral sensitivity when including persons with dementia in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggestad, Anne Kari T; Nortvedt, Per; Slettebø, Åshild

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this article is to show the importance of moral sensitivity when including persons with dementia in research. The article presents and discusses ethical challenges encountered when a total of 15 persons with dementia from two nursing homes and seven proxies were included in a qualitative study. The examples show that the ethical challenges may be unpredictable. As researchers, you participate with the informants in their daily life and in the interviews, and it is not possible to plan all that may happen during the research. A procedural proposal to an ethical committee at the beginning of a research project based on traditional research ethical principles may serve as a guideline, but it cannot solve all the ethical problems one faces during the research process. Our main argument in this article is, therefore, that moral sensitivity is required in addition to the traditional research ethical principles throughout the whole process of observing and interviewing the respondents.

  3. Using Photovoice to Include People with Profound and Multiple Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluley, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is now expected that projects addressing the lives of people with learning disabilities include people with learning disabilities in the research process. In the past, such research often excluded people with learning disabilities, favouring the opinions of family members, carers and professionals. The inclusion of the voices of…

  4. Research in space science and technology. [including X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    Progress in various space flight research programs is reported. Emphasis is placed on X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics. Topics covered include: infrared astronomy, long base line interferometry, geological spectroscopy, space life science experiments, atmospheric physics, and space based materials and structures research. Analysis of galactic and extra-galactic X-ray data from the Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-3) and HEAO-A and interplanetary plasma data for Mariner 10, Explorers 47 and 50, and Solrad is discussed.

  5. The importance of moral sensitivity when including persons with dementia in qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Heggestad, Anne Kari Tolo; Nordtvedt, Per; Slettebø, Åshild

    2013-01-01

    Author's version of an article in the journal: Nursing Ethics. Also avaliable from the publisher at: httjp://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0969733012455564 The aim of the article is to show the importance of moral sensitivity when including persons with dementia in research. The article presents and discusses ethical challenges encountered when a total of fifteen persons with dementia from two nursing homes and seven proxies were included in a qualitative study. The examples show that ethical challen...

  6. Independent suspension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaikin, Don

    1992-01-01

    ... independent suspension. INDEPENDENCE! An independent system is simply one in which each of the vehicle's wheels is free to react totally separate from any of the other wheels. If the right rear wheel hits a bump, the left rear wheel is undisturbed. Since the whole car does not bounce and shake every time one of the wheels hits a potho...

  7. Methodological challenges when doing research that includes ethnic minorities: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2016-11-01

    There are challenging methodological issues in obtaining valid and reliable results on which to base occupational therapy interventions for ethnic minorities. The aim of this scoping review is to describe the methodological problems within occupational therapy research, when ethnic minorities are included. A thorough literature search yielded 21 articles obtained from the scientific databases PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science and PsychInfo. Analysis followed Arksey and O'Malley's framework for scoping reviews, applying content analysis. The results showed methodological issues concerning the entire research process from defining and recruiting samples, the conceptual understanding, lack of appropriate instruments, data collection using interpreters to analyzing data. In order to avoid excluding the ethnic minorities from adequate occupational therapy research and interventions, development of methods for the entire research process is needed. It is a costly and time-consuming process, but the results will be valid and reliable, and therefore more applicable in clinical practice.

  8. 'Including health in systems responsible for urban planning': a realist policy analysis research programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patrick; Friel, Sharon; Wilson, Andrew

    2015-07-23

    Realist methods are increasingly being used to investigate complex public health problems. Despite the extensive evidence base clarifying the built environment as a determinant of health, there is limited knowledge about how and why land-use planning systems take on health concerns. Further, the body of research related to the wider determinants of health suffers from not using political science knowledge to understand how to influence health policy development and systems. This 4-year funded programme of research investigates how the land-use planning system in New South Wales, Australia, incorporates health and health equity at multiple levels. The programme uses multiple qualitative methods to develop up to 15 case studies of different activities of the New South Wales land-use planning system. Comparison cases from other jurisdictions will be included where possible and useful. Data collection includes publicly available documentation and purposively sampled stakeholder interviews and focus groups of up to 100 participants across the cases. The units of analysis in each case are institutional structures (rules and mandates constraining and enabling actors), actors (the stakeholders, organisations and networks involved, including health-focused agencies), and ideas (policy content, information, and framing). Data analysis will focus on and develop propositions concerning the mechanisms and conditions within and across each case leading to inclusion or non-inclusion of health. Data will be refined using additional political science and sociological theory. Qualitative comparative analysis will compare cases to develop policy-relevant propositions about the necessary and sufficient conditions needed to include health issues. Ethics has been approved by Sydney University Human Research Ethics Committee (2014/802 and 2015/178). Given the nature of this research we will incorporate stakeholders, often as collaborators, throughout. We outline our research translation

  9. Global Health Education for Medical Students: When Learning Objectives Include Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Alison M; Oddo, Anthony R; Dennis, David J; Siska, Robert C; VanderWal, Echo; VanderWal, Harry; Dlamini, Nompumelelo; Markert, Ronald J; McCarthy, Mary C

    2017-10-05

    The Luke Commission, a provider of comprehensive mobile health outreach in rural Swaziland, focuses on human immunodeficiency virus testing and prevention, including the performance of over 100 circumcisions weekly. Educational objectives for medical student global health electives are essential. Learning research methodology while engaging in clinical activities reinforces curriculum goals. Medical care databases can produce clinically significant findings affecting international health policy. Engaging in academic research exponentially increased the educational value of student experiences during an international medical elective. Staff of the Luke Commission, a nongovernmental organization, collected and deidentified information from 1500 Swazi male patients undergoing circumcision from January through June of 2014. Medical students designed studies and analyzed these data to produce research projects on adverse event rates, pain perception, and penile malformations. Institutional review board approval was obtained from the home institution and accompanying senior surgical faculty provided mentorship. First-year medical students enrolled in an international medical elective to explore resource availability, cultural awareness, health care provision, and developing world endemic diseases. While in country, students learned research methodology, collected data, and engaged in research projects. Following the trip, students presented posters at over 10 regional and national meetings. All 4 articles are accepted or under consideration for publication by major journals. During international medical electives the combination of clinical experiences and access to databases from health aid organizations provides the foundation for productive medical student research. All participants benefit from the relationships formed by aid organizations, medical students, and patient populations. Global health research has many complexities, but through careful planning and

  10. Including mixed methods research in systematic reviews: examples from qualitative syntheses in TB and malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Salla; Launiala, Annika; Kagaha, Alexander; Smith, Helen

    2012-04-30

    Health policy makers now have access to a greater number and variety of systematic reviews to inform different stages in the policy making process, including reviews of qualitative research. The inclusion of mixed methods studies in systematic reviews is increasing, but these studies pose particular challenges to methods of review. This article examines the quality of the reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only studies. We used two completed systematic reviews to generate a sample of qualitative studies and mixed method studies in order to make an assessment of how the quality of reporting and rigor of qualitative-only studies compares with that of mixed-methods studies. Overall, the reporting of qualitative studies in our sample was consistently better when compared with the reporting of mixed methods studies. We found that mixed methods studies are less likely to provide a description of the research conduct or qualitative data analysis procedures and less likely to be judged credible or provide rich data and thick description compared with standalone qualitative studies. Our time-related analysis shows that for both types of study, papers published since 2003 are more likely to report on the study context, describe analysis procedures, and be judged credible and provide rich data. However, the reporting of other aspects of research conduct (i.e. descriptions of the research question, the sampling strategy, and data collection methods) in mixed methods studies does not appear to have improved over time. Mixed methods research makes an important contribution to health research in general, and could make a more substantial contribution to systematic reviews. Through our careful analysis of the quality of reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only research, we have identified areas that deserve more attention in the conduct and reporting of mixed methods research.

  11. Including mixed methods research in systematic reviews: Examples from qualitative syntheses in TB and malaria control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Health policy makers now have access to a greater number and variety of systematic reviews to inform different stages in the policy making process, including reviews of qualitative research. The inclusion of mixed methods studies in systematic reviews is increasing, but these studies pose particular challenges to methods of review. This article examines the quality of the reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only studies. Methods We used two completed systematic reviews to generate a sample of qualitative studies and mixed method studies in order to make an assessment of how the quality of reporting and rigor of qualitative-only studies compares with that of mixed-methods studies. Results Overall, the reporting of qualitative studies in our sample was consistently better when compared with the reporting of mixed methods studies. We found that mixed methods studies are less likely to provide a description of the research conduct or qualitative data analysis procedures and less likely to be judged credible or provide rich data and thick description compared with standalone qualitative studies. Our time-related analysis shows that for both types of study, papers published since 2003 are more likely to report on the study context, describe analysis procedures, and be judged credible and provide rich data. However, the reporting of other aspects of research conduct (i.e. descriptions of the research question, the sampling strategy, and data collection methods) in mixed methods studies does not appear to have improved over time. Conclusions Mixed methods research makes an important contribution to health research in general, and could make a more substantial contribution to systematic reviews. Through our careful analysis of the quality of reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only research, we have identified areas that deserve more attention in the conduct and reporting of mixed methods research. PMID:22545681

  12. Flywheel Magnetic Suspension Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzolo, Alan; Kenny, Andrew; Sifford, Curtiss; Thomas, Erwin; Bhuiyan, Mohammad; Provenza, Andrew; Kascak, Albert; Montague, Gerald; Lei, Shuliang; Kim, Yeonkyu; hide

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of many areas of the flywheel magnetic suspension (MS) R&D being performed at the Texas A&M Vibration Control and Electromechanics Lab (TAMU-VCEL). This includes system response prediction, actuator optimization and redundancy, controller realizations and stages, sensor enhancements and backup bearing reliability.

  13. 25 CFR 23.52 - Grant suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant suspension. 23.52 Section 23.52 Indians BUREAU OF... Grant Administration Provisions and Requirements § 23.52 Grant suspension. (a) When a grantee has... assistance, suspend the grant. The notice preceding the suspension shall include the effective date of the...

  14. Proper selection of 1 g controls in simulated microgravity research as illustrated with clinorotated plant cell suspension cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Khaled Y.; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Medina, F. Javier; Herranz, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the physical and biological effects of the absence of gravity is necessary to conduct operations on space environments. It has been previously shown that the microgravity environment induces the dissociation of cell proliferation from cell growth in young seedling root meristems, but this source material is limited to few cells in each row of meristematic layers. Plant cell cultures, composed by a large and homogeneous population of proliferating cells, are an ideal model to study the effects of altered gravity on cellular mechanisms regulating cell proliferation and associated cell growth. Cell suspension cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana cell line (MM2d) were exposed to 2D-clinorotation in a pipette clinostat for 3.5 or 14 h, respectively, and were then processed either by quick freezing, to be used in flow cytometry, or by chemical fixation, for microscopy techniques. After long-term clinorotation, the proportion of cells in G1 phase was increased and the nucleolus area, as revealed by immunofluorescence staining with anti-nucleolin, was decreased. Despite the compatibility of these results with those obtained in real microgravity on seedling meristems, we provide a technical discussion in the context of clinorotation and proper 1 g controls with respect to suspension cultures. Standard 1 g procedure of sustaining the cell suspension is achieved by continuously shaking. Thus, we compare the mechanical forces acting on cells in clinorotated samples, in a control static sample and in the standard 1 g conditions of suspension cultures in order to define the conditions of a complete and reliable experiment in simulated microgravity with corresponding 1 g controls.

  15. Research into the Effect of Supercapacitor Terminal Voltage on Regenerative Suspension Energy-Regeneration and Dynamic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ruochen; Ding, Yanshu; Ye, Qing; Ding, Renkai; Qian, Jingang

    2017-01-01

    To study the effect of supercapacitor initial terminal voltage on the regenerative and semiactive suspension energy-regeneration and dynamic performance, firstly, the relationship between supercapacitor terminal voltage and linear motor electromagnetic damping force and that between supercapacitor terminal voltage and recycled energy by the supercapacitor in one single switching period were both analyzed. The result shows that the linear motor electromagnetic damping force is irrelevant to th...

  16. Research into the Effect of Supercapacitor Terminal Voltage on Regenerative Suspension Energy-Regeneration and Dynamic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruochen Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of supercapacitor initial terminal voltage on the regenerative and semiactive suspension energy-regeneration and dynamic performance, firstly, the relationship between supercapacitor terminal voltage and linear motor electromagnetic damping force and that between supercapacitor terminal voltage and recycled energy by the supercapacitor in one single switching period were both analyzed. The result shows that the linear motor electromagnetic damping force is irrelevant to the supercapacitor terminal voltage, and the recycled energy by the supercapacitor reaches the maximum when initial terminal voltage of the supercapacitor equals output terminal voltage of the linear motor. Then, performances of system dynamics and energy-regeneration were studied as the supercapacitor initial terminal voltage varied in situations of B level and C level road. The result showed that recycled energy by the supercapacitor increased at first and then decreased while the dynamic performance had no obvious change. On the basis of previous study, a mode-switching control strategy of supercapacitor for the regenerative and semiactive suspension system was proposed, and the mode-switching rule was built. According to simulation and experiment results, the system energy-regeneration efficiency can be increased by utilizing the control strategy without influencing suspension dynamic performance, which is highly valuable to practical engineering.

  17. Research on Environmental Economic Dispatch of Power System Including Wind Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia-qing, Zhong

    In power market environment with energy conservation and emission reduction, clean energy power has an increasingly important position because of its low cost and environmental pollution. This paper researches on power system dynamic economy dispatch including wind system. The model of environment economic dispatch including wind power is established with the lowest generating cost of total power system as the objective function. The various constraint conditions are considered with conventional thermal power units and wind power. According to actual load data in a certain area, simulation test is completed using particle swarm optimization algorithm which has advantage of strength searching capability and fast optimizing. Simulation results show that the mathematical model is correct and the optimization algorithm is effective. Meanwhile, the application of the relative entropy balance theory is on evaluation and selection to the decision results.

  18. Professional Development for Researchers in Solid Earth Science Evolved to Include Scientific and Educational Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Olds, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Integrated measures of crustal deformation provide valuable insight about tectonic and human-induced processes for scientists and educators alike. UNAVCO in conjunction with EarthScope initiated a series of short courses for researchers to learn the processing and interpretation of data from new technologies such as high precision GPS, Strainmeter, InSar and LiDAR that provide deformation information relevant to many geoscience sub-disciplines. Intensive short courses of a few days and the widespread availability of processed data through large projects such as EarthScope and GEON enable more geoscientists to incorporate these data into diverse projects. Characteristics of the UNAVCO Short Course Series, reaching over 400 participants since 2005, include having short course faculty who have pioneered development of each technology; open web-access to course materials; processing software installed on class-ready computers; no course fees; scholarships for students, post-doctoral fellows, and emerging faculty when needed; formative evaluation of the courses; community-based decisions on topics; and recruitment of participants across relevant geoscience disciplines. In 2009, when EarthScope airborne LiDAR data became available to the public through OpenTopographhy, teaching materials were provided to these researchers to incorporate the latest technologies into teaching. Multiple data sets across technologies have been developed with instructions on how to access the various data sets and incorporate them into geological problem sets. Courses in GPS, airborne LiDAR, strainmeter, and InSAR concentrate on data processing with examples of various geoscience applications. Ground-based LiDAR courses also include data acquisition. Google Earth is used to integrate various forms of data in educational applications. Various types of EarthScope data can now be used by a variety of geoscientists, and the number of scientists who have the skills and tools to use these various

  19. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Greaves, Lorraine; Nichter, Mimi; Bloch, Michele

    2012-03-01

    Female smoking is predicted to double between 2005 and 2025. There have been numerous calls for action on women's tobacco use over the past two decades. In the present work, evidence about female tobacco use, progress, challenges and ways forward for developing gendered tobacco control is reviewed. Literature on girls, women and tobacco was reviewed to identify trends and determinants of tobacco use and exposure, the application of gender analysis, tobacco marketing, the impact of tobacco control on girls and women and ways to address these issues particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Global female tobacco use is increasingly complex, involving diverse products and factors including tobacco marketing, globalisation and changes in women's status. In high-income countries female smoking is declining but is increasingly concentrated among disadvantaged women. In low-income and middle-income countries the pattern is more complex; in several regions the gap between girls' and boys' smoking is narrow. Gendered analyses and approaches to tobacco control are uncommon, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Tobacco control has remained largely gender blind, with little recognition of the importance of understanding the context and challenges of girl's and women's smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. There has been little integration of gender considerations in research, policy and programmes. The present work makes a case for gender and diversity analyses in tobacco control to reflect and identify intersecting factors affecting women's tobacco use. This will help animate the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's concern for gender specificity and women's leadership, and reduce the impact of tobacco on women.

  20. Who to include in palliative care research? Consequences of different population definitions in palliative care epidemiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, S.D.; Deliens, L.; Francke, A.L.; Stalman, W.A.B.; Willems, D.L.; Eijk, T.T.M. van; Wal, G. van der

    2003-01-01

    Object of the study: Epidemiological research into palliative care faces the problem of defining an adequate research population. Subjects in studies are alternately defined as patients receiving 'palliative care' , 'palliative treatment' or 'end of life care'. So far, it is not known how

  1. Rationale for Research on Including Sustainable Agriculture in the High School Agricultural Education Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David L.; Dollisso, Awoke D.

    1998-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture is a multidisciplinary approach to food and fiber problems. Its inclusion in the secondary curriculum would enrich and align it with social concerns. Research is needed in the scholarship functions of discovery, integrative approaches, and teaching. (SK)

  2. Suspension biomechanics of swimming microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Takuji

    2009-10-06

    Micro-organisms play a vital role in many biological, medical and engineering phenomena. Some recent research efforts have demonstrated the importance of biomechanics in understanding certain aspects of micro-organism behaviours such as locomotion and collective motions of cells. In particular, spatio-temporal coherent structures found in a bacterial suspension have been the focus of many research studies over the last few years. Recent studies have shown that macroscopic properties of a suspension, such as rheology and diffusion, are strongly affected by meso-scale flow structures generated by swimming microbes. Since the meso-scale flow structures are strongly affected by the interactions between microbes, a bottom-up strategy, i.e. from a cellular level to a continuum suspension level, represents the natural approach to the study of a suspension of swimming microbes. In this paper, we first provide a summary of existing biomechanical research on interactions between a pair of swimming micro-organisms, as a two-body interaction is the simplest many-body interaction. We show that interactions between two nearby swimming micro-organisms are described well by existing mathematical models. Then, collective motions formed by a group of swimming micro-organisms are discussed. We show that some collective motions of micro-organisms, such as coherent structures of bacterial suspensions, are satisfactorily explained by fluid dynamics. Lastly, we discuss how macroscopic suspension properties are changed by the microscopic characteristics of the cell suspension. The fundamental knowledge we present will be useful in obtaining a better understanding of the behaviour of micro-organisms.

  3. Including Media in Field Research and Becoming Part of the Science Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    There are two primary strategies that I have pursued over the last decade to engage the media, policy makers, and public; after two decades of typical scientific publication methods. An effective method to engage the media with our ongoing 32 year glacier field research program has been to invite media members to join us in the field. From climate videographers to traditional reporters we have had a member of the media with us in nine of the last ten field seasons; two in 2015. The resulting stories have led to several awards for the journalists and an ongoing relationship with our research program. The second part of this science research communication strategy is to have readily available material on specific topics for the media to utilize; this requires social media outreach. The primary outlet media find is the AGU Blog: From a Glacier's Perspective. This blog pubishes two articles a week on a specific glacier's response to climate change. The blog yields on average a media contact on every fourth blog post in 2015. The contacts revolve around specific local glacier information published on the blog. The goal of each blog post is to tell a story about how each glacier is impacted by climate change.

  4. "Mind Blown"--Including Exercise Science Students as Research Assistants to Reduce Ageist Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlenza, Samuel T.; Bourassa, Dara

    2017-01-01

    The amount of older adults is increasing rapidly and the demands of an aging population will need to be met by professionals in many fields, including exercise science. However, many undergraduate students do not want to work with older adults. Therefore, this qualitative study sought to examine the experiences and perceptions of exercise science…

  5. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  6. Limits of Generalizing in Education Research: Why Criteria for Research Generalization Should Include Population Heterogeneity and Uses of Knowledge Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercikan, Kadriye; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Context: Generalization is a critical concept in all research designed to generate knowledge that applies to all elements of a unit (population) while studying only a subset of these elements (sample). Commonly applied criteria for generalizing focus on experimental design or representativeness of samples of the population of units. The criteria…

  7. Expanding the scope of medical mission volunteer groups to include a research component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovers, John; Andreski, Michael; Gitua, John; Bagayoko, Abdoulaye; DeVore, Jill

    2014-02-20

    Serving on volunteer groups undertaking medical mission trips is a common activity for health care professionals and students. Although volunteers hope such work will assist underserved populations, medical mission groups have been criticized for not providing sustainable health services that focus on underlying health problems. As members of a volunteer medical mission group, we performed a bed net indicator study in rural Mali. We undertook this project to demonstrate that volunteers are capable of undertaking small-scale research, the results of which offer locally relevant results useful for disease prevention programs. The results of such projects are potentially sustainable beyond the duration of a mission trip. Volunteers with Medicine for Mali interviewed 108 households in Nana Kenieba, Mali during a routine two-week medical mission trip. Interviewees were asked structured questions about family demographics, use of insecticide treated bed nets the previous evening, as well as about benefits of net use and knowledge of malaria. Survey results were analyzed using logistic regression. We found that 43.7% of households had any family member sleep under a bed net the previous evening. Eighty seven percent of households owned at least one ITN and the average household owned 1.95 nets. The regression model showed that paying for a net was significantly correlated with its use, while low perceived mosquito density, obtaining the net from the public sector and more than four years of education in the male head of the household were negatively correlated with net use. These results differ from national Malian data and peer-reviewed studies of bed net use. We completed a bed net study that provided results that were specific to our service area. Since these results were dissimilar to peer-reviewed literature and Malian national level data on bed net use, the results will be useful to develop locally specific teaching materials on malaria prevention. This preventive

  8. Low-rank coal research annual report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1990 including quarterly report, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    Research programs in the following areas are presented: control technology and coal preparation; advance research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction; and gasification. Sixteen projects are included. Selected items have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Suspension as an Emergency Power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amanda L. Tyler

    2009-01-01

    ... Legislation B. Suspension During Reconstruction: Putting Down the Klan in South Carolina IV. UNDERSTANDING SUSPENSION AS AN EMERGENCY POWER A. Reading the Suspension Clause in Context B. Giving Meaning to the Suspension Power C. Mapping the Suspension Clause Within the Constitution V. SUSPENSION AND THE SEPARATION OF POWERS CONCLUSION [A] suspensio...

  10. Time Variance of the Suspension Nonlinearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Pedersen, Bo Rohde

    2008-01-01

    . This paper investigates the changes in compliance the driving signal can cause, this includes low level short duration measurements of the resonance frequency as well as high power long duration measurements of the non-linearity of the suspension. It is found that at low levels the suspension softens...

  11. Rotational diffusion in dense suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, M. H. J.; Frenkel, D.; Lowe, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    We have computed the rotational diffusion coefficient for a suspension of hard spheres. We find excellent agreement with experimental results over a density range up to, and including, the colloidal crystal. However, we find that theories derived to second order in the volume fraction overestimate

  12. Research on corrosion mechanism of suspension insulator steel foot of direct current system and measures for corrosion inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Yang, Yueguang; Su, Guolei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Hourong; Sun, Xiaoyu; Fan, Youping

    2017-09-01

    There are increasingly serious electrocorrosion phenomena on insulator hardware caused by direct current transmission due to the wide-range popularization of extra high voltage direct current transmission engineering in our country. Steel foot corrosion is the main corrosion for insulators on positive polarity side of transmission lines. On one hand, the corrosion leads to the tapering off of steel foot diameter, having a direct influence on mechanical property of insulators; on the other hand, in condition of corrosion on steel foot wrapped in porcelain ware, the volume of the corrosion product is at least 50% more than that of the original steel foot, leading to bursting of porcelain ware, threatening safe operation of transmission lines. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on the phenomenon and propose feasible measures for corrosion inhibition. Starting with the corrosion mechanism, this article proposes two measures for corrosion inhibition, and verifies the inhibition effect in laboratory conditions, providing reference for application in engineering.

  13. A comparative study on the control strategies in vehicle active suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jie; Zheng, Ling; Li, Yi-nong

    2005-12-01

    The object of this research was to compare the performances of the active suspension system with three different control strategies. At first, a two degree-of-freedom vehicle model was established in order to study the basis feature of the active suspension system. Then three different control strategies including fuzzy control, optimal control and fuzzy-PID control were designed for the model. Each control strategy has its own characteristics. Therefore, their advantages and disadvantages were discussed in details. The simulation results show that the performances of the active suspension with three different control strategies are improved in riding comfort obviously and the fuzzy-PID control takes the advantages of both fuzzy control and PID control. It can be concluded that the fuzzy-PID control is a useful strategy for the active suspension system.

  14. Including limitations in news coverage of cancer research: effects of news hedging on fatalism, medical skepticism, patient trust, and backlash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob D; Carcioppolo, Nick; King, Andy J; Bernat, Jennifer K; Davis, LaShara; Yale, Robert; Smith, Jessica

    2011-05-01

    Past research has demonstrated that news coverage of cancer research, and scientific research generally, rarely contains discourse-based hedging, including caveats, limitations, and uncertainties. In a multiple message experiment (k = 4 news stories, N = 1082), the authors examined whether hedging shaped the perceptions of news consumers. The results revealed that participants were significantly less fatalistic about cancer (p = .039) and marginally less prone to nutritional backlash (p = .056) after exposure to hedged articles. Participants exposed to articles mentioning a second researcher (unaffiliated with the present study) exhibited greater trust in medical professions (p = .001). The findings provide additional support for the inclusion of discourse-based hedging in cancer news coverage and suggest that news consumers will use scientific uncertainty in illness representations.

  15. Study on kinematic and compliance test of suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lixin; Wu, Liguang; Li, Xuepeng; Zhang, Yu

    2017-09-01

    Chassis performance development is a major difficulty in vehicle research and development, which is the main factor restricting the independent development of vehicles in China. These years, through a large number of studies, chassis engineers have found that the suspension K&C characteristics as a quasi-static characteristic of the suspension provides a technical route for the suspension performance R&D, and the suspension K&C test has become an important means of vehicle benchmarking, optimization and verification. However, the research on suspension K&C test is less in china, and the test conditions and setting requirements vary greatly from OEM to OEM. In this paper, the influence of different settings on the characteristics of the suspension is obtained through experiments, and the causes of the differences are analyzed; in order to fully reflect the suspension characteristics, the author recommends the appropriate test case and settings.

  16. A Course in Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a course focusing on fluid mechanics and physical chemistry of suspensions. Describes the main themes of the lectures and includes a list of course outlines. Possible textbooks and many journal articles are listed. (YP)

  17. Heat and mass transfer in particulate suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2013-01-01

    Heat and Mass Transfer in Particulate Suspensions is a critical review of the subject of heat and mass transfer related to particulate Suspensions, which include both fluid-particles and fluid-droplet Suspensions. Fundamentals, recent advances and industrial applications are examined. The subject of particulate heat and mass transfer is currently driven by two significant applications: energy transformations –primarily combustion – and heat transfer equipment. The first includes particle and droplet combustion processes in engineering Suspensions as diverse as the Fluidized Bed Reactors (FBR’s) and Internal Combustion Engines (ICE’s). On the heat transfer side, cooling with nanofluids, which include nanoparticles, has attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade both from the fundamental and the applied side and has produced several scientific publications. A monograph that combines the fundamentals of heat transfer with particulates as well as the modern applications of the subject would be...

  18. Numerical Study of Suspension Plasma Spraying

    CERN Document Server

    Farrokhpanah, Amirsaman; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    A numerical study of suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is presented in the current work. The liquid suspension jet is replaced with a train of droplets containing the suspension particles injected into the plasma flow. Atomization, evaporation, and melting of different components are considered for particles as they travel towards the substrate. Effect of different parameters on particle conditions during flight and upon impact on the substrate are investigated. Initially, influence of the torch operating conditions such as inlet flow rate and power are studied. Additionally, effect of injector parameters like injection location, flow rate, and angle are examined. The model used in current study takes high temperature gradients and non-continuum effects into account. Moreover, the important effect of change in physical properties of suspension droplets as a result of evaporation is included in the model. These mainly include variations in heat transfer properties and viscosity. Utilizing this improved model, s...

  19. CONFERENCE SUMMARY: Summary and comment on superconducting analogue electronics research, including materials and fabrication, as presented at ISEC 07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, C. P.

    2007-11-01

    The main theme at ISEC 2007 for superconducting materials, fabrication and analogue electronics was the description of incremental developments, including a few new directions that indicate breakthroughs in this area of research. The work on applications focused on their cost-benefit analysis (in order to improve their appeal), the development of simpler systems, making more of the data collected, improving packaging and being responsive to the power handling requirements for commercial systems. All papers presenting this level of research highlighted the importance of obtaining all the necessary details in order to investigate analogue devices and the effectiveness and commercial viability of their systems. This stage of development is important if we are to achieve the transition of superconducting electronics from the laboratory to commercial use. There were some exciting disruptive breakthroughs reported. These were in the areas of nano-SQUIDs, rotating gradiometers, superconducting scanning tunnelling microscopy (Hayashi et al) and the potential of superconducting photonics using optical interfaces with superconducting vortex flow transistors, for example. The materials research in low (LTS), high (HTS) and medium (MTS) critical temperature superconductors was reported. In LTS, nitrides emerged as important materials for use as new tunnel barriers, either insulating or semiconducting. Papers on BaN, NbN, TaN, GaN and Nb-Si superconducting materials were also presented. The MTS material of MgB2 is still under development (Zhao et al). There were also new research groups from South Africa and Turkey attending the conference. The fabrication research presented covered the areas of critical current Ic spread, which is still an issue in reducing the reproducibility of Josephson junctions, a 150 mm process for Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb and methods to improve barrier layers using both new materials and smooth surfaces at thin film interfaces (Du et al). New methods to make sub

  20. Suspension Trauma / Orthostatic Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emphasis Programs Directives Severe Violators TOPICS By Sector Construction Health Care Agriculture Maritime Oil and Gas Federal ... such fatalities often are referred to as "harnessinduced pathology" or "suspension trauma." Signs & symptoms that may be ...

  1. Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor will have you try bladder retraining, Kegel exercises, medicines, or other options. If you tried ... retropubic colposuspension; Needle suspension; Burch colposuspension Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  2. Rheology of organoclay suspension

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hato, MJ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors have studied the rheological properties of clay suspensions in silicone oil, where clay surfaces were modified with three different types of surfactants. Dynamic oscillation measurements showed a plateau-like behavior for all...

  3. PREFACE: Electrorheological fluids and magnetorheological suspensions Electrorheological fluids and magnetorheological suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenbach, Stefan; Borin, Dmitry

    2010-08-01

    The 11th International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions (ERMR08) was organized between 25-29 August 2008 at the Technische Universität Dresden in Germany. The conference's scientific program focused on the synthesis, characterization and application of fluids which can be controlled by external electric or magnetic fields. Within this framework electrorheological fluids, magnetorheological suspensions, ferrofluids and—for the first time—magnetorheological elastomers, which have attracted great interest in recent years, formed the class of materials discussed during the conference. With more than 180 participants from 24 different countries and 85 oral presentations in non-parallel sessions, including 8 plenary talks and 81 posters, it has been the largest ERMR meeting held during the last decade. This growth is at least partly driven by the synthesis of improved fluids and elastomers, which open new possibilities for applications as well as in basic research characterizing the flow and properties of such materials under the influence of external magnetic and electric fields. The general proceedings of ERMR08 include 116 peer-reviewed papers covering all conference topics. They were published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series volume 149 in 2009. The present special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains six selected papers dealing with basic research problems which will be of general interest to the condensed matter community. We hope that this selection will provide an insight into the fascination of soft matter controlled by external fields.

  4. Ride responses of macpherson suspension systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cheng-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to obtain more correct vehicle ride responses by using a nonlinear ride model considering the effect of Macpherson suspension geometry. Traditional ride model applied to analysis and controller design uses a two degree of freedom linear model, which includes sprung mass and unsprung mass and a spring and a damper vertically connect them. In fact, suspension components do not vertically position above the tire. The motions of body and tire are not going straight up and down. Therefore, the analysis results obtained by the simple model are often different from the experimental values of the actual vehicle. Because of the difference between simple model and actual vehicle, the control strategy almost cannot apply to actual vehicle. In order to understand the effect of suspension geometry on the vehicle ride responses and design a more practical control strategy, a nonlinear model including the geometric parameters of the suspension is constructed in this study. To estimate the initial equilibrium position of the suspension assembly under load, the static equilibrium analysis and mechanism motion analysis are synchronous implemented at the same time. The nonlinear model describes not only the relative position and velocity but also the force transmission between body and tire. Furthermore, by linearize this nonlinear model the development of control strategy for subsequent (semi active suspension system could be expected.

  5. Decommissioning technologies, including recent developments and special features of the dismantling of nuclear research and prototype facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, W.; Versemann, R.; Wilk, P. [Hannover Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde, Garbsen (Germany); Pfeifer, W.; Valencia, L.; Eisenmann, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Stilllegung Nuklearer Anlagen; Hammer, G. [IABG Industrieanlagen Betriebsgeselslchaft mbH, Ottobrunn (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    A variety of technologies is available for the decontamination and dismantling of nuclear facilities. All over the world, these technologies as well as conditioning processes of decommissioning waste are further developed. So far, they have been mainly applied to the dismantling of research and prototype facilities. Dismantling of reactors of higher power has started with the nuclear power plants of Greifswald and Wuergassen among others. The present paper shall present the state of the art of decontamination and dismantling techniques as well as of post-treatment processes of radioactive decommissioning waste. From the technical point of view, the most complex step is the remote dismantling of activated and highly contaminated components. The prototype facilities of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, which are currently being dismantled, cover all types of plants. Their status of dismantling and the experience gained from using decommissioning technologies that are also suited for power facilities shall be illustrated. Further developments and adaptations of individual techniques, e.g. thermal and mechanical cutting methods, as well as of the complete systems technology, including carrier system, manipulator system, and tools, are reasonable and indispensable for managing the variety of dismantling tasks and, not least, for reducing their operation times and costs of use. (orig.)

  6. Designing and recruiting to UK autism spectrum disorder research databases: do they include representative children with valid ASD diagnoses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnell, F; George, B; McConachie, H; Johnson, M; Hardy, R; Parr, J R

    2015-09-04

    (1) Describe how the Autism Spectrum Database-UK (ASD-UK) was established; (2) investigate the representativeness of the first 1000 children and families who participated, compared to those who chose not to; (3) investigate the reliability of the parent-reported Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnoses, and present evidence about the validity of diagnoses, that is, whether children recruited actually have an ASD; (4) present evidence about the representativeness of the ASD-UK children and families, by comparing their characteristics with the first 1000 children and families from the regional Database of children with ASD living in the North East (Dasl(n)e), and children and families identified from epidemiological studies. Recruitment through a network of 50 UK child health teams and self-referral. Parents/carers with a child with ASD, aged 2-16 years, completed questionnaires about ASD and some gave professionals' reports about their children. 1000 families registered with ASD-UK in 30 months. Children of families who participated, and of the 208 who chose not to, were found to be very similar on: gender ratio, year of birth, ASD diagnosis and social deprivation score. The reliability of parent-reported ASD diagnoses of children was very high when compared with clinical reports (over 96%); no database child without ASD was identified. A comparison of gender, ASD diagnosis, age at diagnosis, school placement, learning disability, and deprivation score of children and families from ASD-UK with 1084 children and families from Dasl(n)e, and families from population studies, showed that ASD-UK families are representative of families of children with ASD overall. ASD-UK includes families providing parent-reported data about their child and family, who appear to be broadly representative of UK children with ASD. Families continue to join the databases and more than 3000 families can now be contacted by researchers about UK autism research. Published by the BMJ

  7. Korea's Contribution to Radiological Research Included in Science Citation Index Expanded, 1986-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, You Jin; Yoon, Dae Young; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Baek, Sora; Seo, Young Lan; Yun, Eun Joo; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon [Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun; Ju, Young Su [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To evaluate scientific papers published by Korean radiologists in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) radiology journals, between 1986 and 2010. The Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge-Web of Science (SCIE) database was searched for all articles published by Korean radiologists, in SCIE radiology journals, between 1986 and 2010. We performed the analysis by typing 'Korea' and 'radiol' in the address section and selecting the subject area of 'Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, and Medical Imaging' with the use of the general search function of the software. Analyzed parameters included the total number of publications, document types, journals, and institutions. In addition, we analyzed where Korea ranks, compared to other countries, in terms of the number of published articles. All these data were analyzed according to five time periods: 1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, and 2006-2010. Overall, 4974 papers were published by Korean radiologists, in 99 different SCIE journals, between 1986 and 2010, of which 4237 (85.2%) were article-type papers. Of the total 115395 articles, worldwide, published in radiology journals, Korea's share was 3.7%, with an upward trend over time (p < 0.005). The journal with the highest number of articles was the American Journal of Roentgenology (n 565, 13.3%). The institution which produced the highest number of publications was Seoul National University (n = 932, 22.0%). The number of scientific articles published by Korean radiologists in the SCIE radiology journals has increased significantly between 1986 and 2010. Korea was ranked 4th among countries contributing to radiology research during the last 5 years.

  8. Autologous epidermal cell suspension: A promising treatment for chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongliang; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Cuiping; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-02-01

    Chronic wounds have become an increasing medical and economic problem of aging societies because they are difficult to manage. Skin grafting is an important treatment method for chronic wounds, which are refractory to conservative therapy. The technique involving epidermal cell suspensions was invented to enable the possibility of treating larger wounds with only a small piece of donor skin. Both uncultured and cultured autologous epidermal cell suspensions can be prepared and survive permanently on the wound bed. A systematic search was conducted of EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PubMed and web of science by using Boolean search terms, from the establishment of the database until May 31, 2014. The bibliographies of all retrieved articles in English were searched. The search terms were: (epithelial cell suspension OR keratinocyte suspension) and chronic and wound. From the included, 6 studies are descriptive interventions and discussed the use of autologous keratinocyte suspension to treat 61 patients' chronic wound. The various methods of preparation of epidermal cell suspension are described. The advantages and shortcomings of different carriers for epidermal cell suspensions are also summarised. Both uncultured and cultured autologous epidermal cell suspensions have been used to treat chronic wounds. Although the limitations of these studies include the small number of patient populations with chronic wounds and many important problems that remain to be solved, autologous epidermal cell suspension is a promising treatment for chronic wounds. Copyright © 2015 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Global sensitivity analysis of bogie dynamics with respect to suspension components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi Bideleh, Seyed Milad, E-mail: milad.mousavi@chalmers.se; Berbyuk, Viktor, E-mail: viktor.berbyuk@chalmers.se [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics (Sweden)

    2016-06-15

    The effects of bogie primary and secondary suspension stiffness and damping components on the dynamics behavior of a high speed train are scrutinized based on the multiplicative dimensional reduction method (M-DRM). A one-car railway vehicle model is chosen for the analysis at two levels of the bogie suspension system: symmetric and asymmetric configurations. Several operational scenarios including straight and circular curved tracks are considered, and measurement data are used as the track irregularities in different directions. Ride comfort, safety, and wear objective functions are specified to evaluate the vehicle’s dynamics performance on the prescribed operational scenarios. In order to have an appropriate cut center for the sensitivity analysis, the genetic algorithm optimization routine is employed to optimize the primary and secondary suspension components in terms of wear and comfort, respectively. The global sensitivity indices are introduced and the Gaussian quadrature integrals are employed to evaluate the simplified sensitivity indices correlated to the objective functions. In each scenario, the most influential suspension components on bogie dynamics are recognized and a thorough analysis of the results is given. The outcomes of the current research provide informative data that can be beneficial in design and optimization of passive and active suspension components for high speed train bogies.

  10. Production of secondary metabolites trimethyl xanthina by Camellia sinensis L suspension culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutini, Sodiq, Mochamad; Muslihatin, Wirdhatul; Indra, Mochamad Rasjad

    2017-06-01

    Bioactive trimethyl xanthina can be obtained from the plant Camellia sinensis L. To obtain bioactive plant of which there are several hurdles for instance to wait up to five years to be harvested, also it needs land at a certain height from the sea level. Therefore, the production of secondary metabolites trimethyl xanthina need to be developed with suspense culture techniques. The purpose of this study obtained the production of bioactive trimethyl xanthina way culturally suspense in large scale with a relatively short time, potentially as anti-oxidants. Research methods include: (1) initiation of callus from pieces of leaves, shoots the youngest of the plant Camellia sinensis L in the media MS with the optimization of the addition of growth regulators, (2) the subculture of callus on media and plant growth regulator that is equal to the stage of initiation, (3) initiation of suspension culture using explants of callus Camellia sinensis L, (4) Analysis of secondary metabolites trimethyl xanthina growth in suspension culture, (5) the isolation and identification of trimethyl xanthina qualitatively and quantitatively using thin layer chromatography/high performance chromatography column. The results of the study suspension cultures containing bioactive trimethyl xanthina candidates that can be used as an antioxidant.

  11. Coupling colloidal forces with yield stress of charged inorganic particle suspension: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Akira

    2018-01-12

    This paper aims to summarize the series of investigations on coupling suspension yield stress and DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek) forces, i.e. van der Waals and electrical double layer forces. This summary provides a better understanding of the basic phenomena associated, historical development and current status of this useful coupling, and also discusses the applicability and limitations/variations of such coupling applied to different types of concentrated aqueous particle suspensions. Aqueous suspensions discussed are composed of charged inorganic fine particles, including metal oxide colloidal particles, mineral fine particles, and clays. The research gaps are identified and specific future perspectives are discussed to further enhance the use of this unique and useful coupling, and to aim for the transition from the modelling of similar particle suspension systems to its dissimilar/mix particle suspension systems that fit more with the current and future industry needs in particle processing. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. H2 control of a one-quarter semi-active ground vehicle suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Félix-Herrán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-rheological (MR dampers are effective solutions in improving vehicle stability and passenger comfort. However, handling these dampers implies a strong effort in modeling and control. This research proposes an H2 controller, based on a Takagi–Sugeno (T–S fuzzy model, for a two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF one-quarter vehicle semi-active suspension with an MR damper; a system with important applications in automotive industry. Regarding performance criteria (in frequency domain handled herein, the developed controller considerably improves the passive suspension's efficiency. Moreover, nonlinear actuator dynamics usually avoided in reported work, is included in controller's synthesis; improving the relevance of research outcomes because the controller is synthesized from a closer-to-reality suspension model. Going further, outcomes of this research are compared (based on frequency domain performance criteria and a common time domain test with reported work to highlight the outstanding results. H2 controller is given in terms of quadratic Lyapunov stability theory and carried out by means of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI, and the command signal is applied via the Parallel Distributed Compensation (PDC approach. A case of study, with real data, is developed and simulation work supports the results. The methodology applied herein can be extended to include other vehicle suspension's dynamics towards a general chassis control.

  13. Viscosity of colloidal suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, E.G.D. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States); Schepper, I.M. de [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Simple expressions are given for the effective Newtonian viscosity as a function of concentration as well as for the effective visco-elastic response as a function of concentration and imposed frequency, of monodisperse neutral colloidal suspensions over the entire fluid range. The basic physical mechanisms underlying these formulae are discussed. The agreement with existing experiments is very good.

  14. Cryonic Suspension and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George P.; Hall, Clare

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes three central problems which adversely affect use, development, and perfection of cryonic suspension of individuals: the extent to which a physician may be guilty of malpractice in assisting with a suspension; the need for a recognition of suspension; and the present effect of the law's anachronistic treatment of estate devolution upon a…

  15. MEMS mass-spring-damper systems using an out-of-plane suspension scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Aziz, Ahmed Kamal Said

    2014-02-04

    MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) using an out-of-plane (or vertical) suspension scheme, wherein the suspensions are normal to the proof mass, are disclosed. Such out-of-plane suspension scheme helps such MEMS mass-spring-damper systems achieve inertial grade performance. Methods of fabricating out-of-plane suspensions in MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) are also disclosed.

  16. Intention, Principle, Outputs and Aims of the Experimental Pavilion Research of Building Envelopes Including Windows for Wooden Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štaffenová, Daniela; Rybárik, Ján; Jakubčík, Miroslav

    2017-06-01

    The aim of experimental research in the area of exterior walls and windows suitable for wooden buildings was to build special pavilion laboratories. These laboratories are ideally isolated from the surrounding environment, airtight and controlled by the constant internal climate. The principle of experimental research is measuring and recording of required physical parameters (e.g. temperature or relative humidity). This is done in layers of experimental fragment sections in the direction from exterior to interior, as well as in critical places by stable interior and real exterior climatic conditions. The outputs are evaluations of experimental structures behaviour during the specified time period, possibly during the whole year by stable interior and real exterior boundary conditions. The main aim of this experimental research is processing of long-term measurements of experimental structures and the subsequent analysis. The next part of the research consists of collecting measurements obtained with assistance of the experimental detached weather station, analysis, evaluation for later setting up of reference data set for the research locality, from the point of view of its comparison to the data sets from Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMU) and to localities with similar climate conditions. Later on, the data sets could lead to recommendations for design of wooden buildings.

  17. Numerical study of suspensions of deformable particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Luca; Rosti, Marco Edoardo

    2017-11-01

    We consider a model non-Newtonian fluid consisting of a suspension of deformable particles in a Newtonian solvent. Einstein showed in his pioneering work that the relative increase in effective viscosity is a linear function of the particle volume fraction for dilute suspensions of rigid particles. Inertia has been shown to introduce deviations from the behaviour predicted by the different empirical fits, an effect that can be related to an increase of the effective volume fraction. We here focus on the effect of elasticity, i.e. visco-elastic deformable particles. To tackle the problem at hand, we perform three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation of a plane Couette flow with a suspension of neutrally buoyant deformable viscous hyper-elastic particles. We show that elasticity produces a shear-thinning effect in elastic suspensions (in comparison to rigid ones) and that it can be understood in terms of a reduction of the effective volume fraction of the suspension. The deformation modifies the particle motion reducing the level of mutual interaction. Normal stress differences will also be considered. European Research Council, Grant No. ERC-2013-CoG- 616186, TRITOS; SNIC (the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing).

  18. FGFR1 inhibits skeletal muscle atrophy associated with hindlimb suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrard Dave

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal muscle atrophy can occur under many different conditions, including prolonged disuse or immobilization, cachexia, cushingoid conditions, secondary to surgery, or with advanced age. The mechanisms by which unloading of muscle is sensed and translated into signals controlling tissue reduction remains a major question in the field of musculoskeletal research. While the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs and their receptors are synthesized by, and intimately involved in, embryonic skeletal muscle growth and repair, their role maintaining adult muscle status has not been examined. Methods We examined the effects of ectopic expression of FGFR1 during disuse-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy, utilizing hindlimb suspension and DNA electroporation in mice. Results We found skeletal muscle FGF4 and FGFR1 mRNA expression to be modified by hind limb suspension,. In addition, we found FGFR1 protein localized in muscle fibers within atrophying mouse muscle which appeared to be resistant to atrophy. Electroporation and ectopic expression of FGFR1 significantly inhibited the decrease in muscle fiber area within skeletal muscles of mice undergoing suspension induced muscle atrophy. Ectopic FGFR1 expression in muscle also significantly stimulated protein synthesis in muscle fibers, and increased protein degradation in weight bearing muscle fibers. Conclusion These results support the theory that FGF signaling can play a role in regulation of postnatal skeletal muscle maintenance, and could offer potentially novel and efficient therapeutic options for attenuating muscle atrophy during aging, illness and spaceflight.

  19. 78 FR 12106 - Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility of Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... include a recommendation by the OPM Suspension and Debarment Committee (SDC) as to a proposed course of... investigating and submitting potential debarment/suspension actions to the SDC, which will have the... with the SDC, will also have responsibility for recommending to the Director or designee whether or not...

  20. 3 CFR - Suspension of Limitations Under the Jerusalem Embassy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension of Limitations Under the Jerusalem... June 5, 2009 Suspension of Limitations Under the Jerusalem Embassy Act Memorandum for the Secretary of... States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I...

  1. Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs, Including LSD, PCP, Ketamine, Dextromethorphan. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Research is developing a clearer picture of the dangers of mind-altering drugs. The goal of this report is to present the latest information to providers to help them strengthen their prevention and treatment efforts. A description is presented of dissociative drugs, and consideration is given as to why people take hallucinogens. The physical…

  2. A prospective observational study of machine translation software to overcome the challenge of including ethnic diversity in healthcare research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel M; Crichton, Nicola; Moult, Beki; Gibson, Faith

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates whether machine translation could help with the challenge of enabling the inclusion of ethnic diversity in healthcare research. A two phase, prospective observational study. Two machine translators, Google Translate and Babylon 9, were tested. Translation of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) from 24 languages into English and translation of an English information sheet into Spanish and Chinese were quality scored. Quality was assessed using the Translation Assessment Quality Tool. Only six of the 48 translations of the SDQ were rated as acceptable, all from Google Translate. The mean number of acceptably translated sentences was higher ( P  = 0·001) for Google Translate 17·1 (sd 7·2) than for Babylon 9 11 (sd 7·9). Translation by Google Translate was better for Spanish and Chinese, although no score was in the acceptable range. Machine translation is not currently sufficiently accurate without editing to provide translation of materials for use in healthcare research.

  3. Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Style, R. W.

    2010-06-30

    During the drying of colloidal suspensions, the desiccation process causes the suspension near the air interface to consolidate into a connected porous matrix or crust. Fluid transport in the porous medium is governed by Darcy\\'s law and the equations of poroelasticity, while the equations of colloid physics govern processes in the suspension. We derive new equations describing this process, including unique boundary conditions coupling the two regions, yielding a moving-boundary model of the concentration and stress profiles during drying. A solution is found for the steady-state growth of a nedimensional crust during constant evaporation rate from the surface. The solution is used to demonstrate the importance of the system boundary conditions on stress profiles and diffusivity in a drying crust. © 2011 The Royal Society.

  4. Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'consulting communities' to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for

  5. Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: ‘Consulting communities’ to inform policy☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for

  6. Next Generation Suspension Dynamics Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, Peter Randall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Higdon, Jonathon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chen, Steven [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research project has the objective to extend the range of application, improve the efficiency and conduct simulations with the Fast Lubrication Dynamics (FLD) algorithm for concentrated particle suspensions in a Newtonian fluid solvent. The research involves a combination of mathematical development, new computational algorithms, and application to processing flows of relevance in materials processing. The mathematical developments clarify the underlying theory, facilitate verification against classic monographs in the field and provide the framework for a novel parallel implementation optimized for an OpenMP shared memory environment. The project considered application to consolidation flows of major interest in high throughput materials processing and identified hitherto unforeseen challenges in the use of FLD in these applications. Extensions to the algorithm have been developed to improve its accuracy in these applications.

  7. Student and school factors associated with school suspension: A multilevel analysis of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl, A. Hemphill; Stephanie, M. Plenty; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    One of the common issues schools face is how best to handle challenging student behaviors such as violent behavior, antisocial behavior, bullying, school rule violations, and interrupting other students’ learning. School suspension may be used to remove students engaging in challenging behaviors from the school for a period of time. However, the act of suspending students from school may worsen rather than improve their behavior. Research shows that suspensions predict a range of student outcomes, including crime, delinquency, and drug use. It is therefore crucial to understand the factors associated with the use of school suspension, particularly in sites with different policy approaches to problem behaviors. This paper draws on data from state-representative samples of 3,129 Grade 7 and 9 students in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia sampled in 2002. Multilevel modeling examined student and school level factors associated with student-reported school suspension. Results showed that both student (being male, previous student antisocial and violent behavior, rebelliousness, academic failure) and school (socioeconomic status of the school, aggregate measures of low school commitment) level factors were associated with school suspension and that the factors related to suspension were similar in the two states. The implications of the findings for effective school behavior management policy are that, rather than focusing only on the student, both student and school level factors need to be addressed to reduce the rates of school suspension. PMID:24860205

  8. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 7:Summary report to phase 2 respondents including frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; White, Terry F.

    1991-01-01

    Phase 2 of the four phase NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project was undertaken to study the transfer of scientific and technical information (STI) from government to the aerospace industry and the role of librarians and technical information specialists in the transfer process. Data was collected through a self-administered mailback questionnaire. Libraries identified as holding substantial aerospace or aeronautical technical report collections were selected to receive the questionnaires. Within each library, the person responsible for the technical report was requested to answer the questionnaire. Questionnaires were returned from approx. 68 pct. of the libraries. The respondents indicated that scientists and engineer are not aware of the services available from libraries/technical information centers and that scientists and engineers also under-utilized their services. The respondents also indicated they should be more involved in the process.

  9. Anatomic outcomes of vaginal mesh procedure (Prolift) compared with uterosacral ligament suspension and abdominal sacrocolpopexy for pelvic organ prolapse: a Fellows' Pelvic Research Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanses, Tatiana V D; Shahryarinejad, Azin; Molden, Stephanie; Hoskey, Kay A; Abbasy, Shameem; Patterson, Danielle; Saks, Emily K; Weber LeBrun, Emily E; Gamble, Tondalaya L; King, Virginia G; Nguyen, Aimee L; Abed, Husam; Young, Stephen B

    2009-11-01

    The objective of the study was to compare apical support anatomic outcomes following vaginal mesh procedure (VMP) (Prolift) to uterosacral ligament suspension (USLS) and abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC). This multicenter, retrospective chart review compared apical anatomic success (stage 0 or 1 based on point C or D of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification), level of vaginal apex (point C or D) 3-6 months after prolapse repair at 10 US centers between 2004 and 2007. VMP, USLS, and ASC were performed for 206, 231, and 305 subjects respectively. There was no difference in apical success after VMP (98.8%) compared with USLS (99.1%) or ASC (99.3%) (both P = 1.00) 3-6 months after surgery. The average elevation of the vaginal apex was lower after VMP (-6.9 cm) than USLS (-8.05 cm) and ASC (-8.5 cm) (both P < .001) Patients undergoing VMP have similar apical success compared with USLS and ASC despite lower vaginal apex 3-6 month after surgery.

  10. Heteropolar Magnetic Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misovec, Kathleen; Johnson, Bruce; Downer, James; Eisenhaure, David; Hockney, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Compact permanent-magnet/electromagnet actuator has six degrees of freedom. Heteropolar magnetic actuator conceived for use as actively controlled vibration-isolating suspension device. Exerts forces along, and torques about, all three principal coordinate axes to resist all three components of translational vibration and all three components of rotational vibration. Inner cylinder suspended magnetically within outer cylinder. Electro-magnet coils interact with fields of permanent magnets to provide active control of suspending force and torque.

  11. Auxiliary variables in multiple imputation in regression with missing X: a warning against including too many in small sample research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Multiple imputation is becoming increasingly popular. Theoretical considerations as well as simulation studies have shown that the inclusion of auxiliary variables is generally of benefit. Methods A simulation study of a linear regression with a response Y and two predictors X1 and X2 was performed on data with n = 50, 100 and 200 using complete cases or multiple imputation with 0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 auxiliary variables. Mechanisms of missingness were either 100% MCAR or 50% MAR + 50% MCAR. Auxiliary variables had low (r=.10) vs. moderate correlations (r=.50) with X’s and Y. Results The inclusion of auxiliary variables can improve a multiple imputation model. However, inclusion of too many variables leads to downward bias of regression coefficients and decreases precision. When the correlations are low, inclusion of auxiliary variables is not useful. Conclusion More research on auxiliary variables in multiple imputation should be performed. A preliminary rule of thumb could be that the ratio of variables to cases with complete data should not go below 1 : 3. PMID:23216665

  12. Auxiliary variables in multiple imputation in regression with missing X: a warning against including too many in small sample research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Jochen; Herke, Max; Leonhart, Rainer

    2012-12-05

    Multiple imputation is becoming increasingly popular. Theoretical considerations as well as simulation studies have shown that the inclusion of auxiliary variables is generally of benefit. A simulation study of a linear regression with a response Y and two predictors X1 and X2 was performed on data with n = 50, 100 and 200 using complete cases or multiple imputation with 0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 auxiliary variables. Mechanisms of missingness were either 100% MCAR or 50% MAR + 50% MCAR. Auxiliary variables had low (r=.10) vs. moderate correlations (r=.50) with X's and Y. The inclusion of auxiliary variables can improve a multiple imputation model. However, inclusion of too many variables leads to downward bias of regression coefficients and decreases precision. When the correlations are low, inclusion of auxiliary variables is not useful. More research on auxiliary variables in multiple imputation should be performed. A preliminary rule of thumb could be that the ratio of variables to cases with complete data should not go below 1 : 3.

  13. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 5:] Summary report to phase 1 respondents including frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; White, Terry F.

    1991-01-01

    Phase 1 of a four part study was undertaken to investigate the use of scientific and technical information (STI) by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Specific attention was paid to institutional and sociometric variables and to the step-by-step process of information gathering used by the respondents. Data were collected by means of three self-administered mail-back questionnaires. The approximately 34,000 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics served as the study population. More than 65 percent of the randomly selected respondants returned the questionnaires in each of the three groups. Respondants relied more heavily on informal sources of information than formal sources and turned to librarians and other technical information specialists only when they did not obtain results via informal means or their own formal searches. The report includes frequency distributions for the questions.

  14. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Nanometric Alumina Suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuanping [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Colloidal processing is an effective and reliable approach in the fabrication of the advanced ceramic products. Successful colloidal processing of fine ceramic powders requires accurate control of the rheological properties. The accurate control relies on the understanding the influences of various colloidal parameters on the rheological properties. Almost all research done on the rheology paid less attention to the interactions of particle and solvent. However, the interactions of the particles are usually built up through the media in which the particles are suspended. Therefore, interactions of the particle with the media, the adsorbed layers on the particle surface, and chemical and physical properties of media themselves must influence the rheology of the suspension, especially for the dense suspensions containing nanosized particles. Relatively little research work has been reported in this area. This thesis addresses the rheological properties of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions, and paying more attention to the interactions between particle and solvent, which in turn influence the particle-particle interactions. Dense nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions with low viscosity were achieved by environmentally-benign fructose additives. The rheology of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions and its variation with the particle volume fraction and concentration of fructose were explored by rheometry. The adsorptions of solute (fructose) and solvent (water) on the nanometric alumina particle surfaces were measured and analyzed by TG/DSC, TOC, and NMR techniques. The mobility of water molecules in the suspensions and its variation with particle volume fractions and fructose additive were determined by the 17O NMR relaxation method. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water and fructose solutions were investigated by AFM. The results indicated that a large number of water layers were physically bound on the particles

  15. Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Model of a One-Half Semiactive Vehicle Suspension: Lateral Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Félix-Herrán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel semiactive model of a one-half lateral vehicle suspension. The contribution of this research is the inclusion of actuator dynamics (two magnetorheological nonlinear dampers in the modelling, which means that more realistic outcomes will be obtained, because, in real life, actuators have physical limitations. Takagi-Sugeno (T-S fuzzy approach is applied to a four-degree-of-freedom (4-DOF lateral one-half vehicle suspension. The system has two magnetorheological (MR dampers, whose numerical values come from a real characterization. T-S allows handling suspension’s components and actuator’s nonlinearities (hysteresis, saturation, and viscoplasticity by means of a set of linear subsystems interconnected via fuzzy membership functions. Due to their linearity, each subsystem can be handled with the very well-known control theory, for example, stability and performance indexes (this is an advantage of the T-S approach. To the best of authors’ knowledge, reported work does not include the aforementioned nonlinearities in the modelling. The generated model is validated via a case of study with simulation results. This research is paramount because it introduces a more accurate (the actuator dynamics, a complex nonlinear subsystem model that could be applied to one-half vehicle suspension control purposes. Suspension systems are extremely important for passenger comfort and stability in ground vehicles.

  16. Numerical Study of Suspension Plasma Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhpanah, Amirsaman; Coyle, Thomas W.; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2017-01-01

    A numerical study of suspension plasma spraying is presented in the current work. The liquid suspension jet is replaced with a train of droplets containing the suspension particles injected into the plasma flow. Atomization, evaporation, and melting of different components are considered for droplets and particles as they travel toward the substrate. Effect of different parameters on particle conditions during flight and upon impact on the substrate is investigated. Initially, influence of the torch operating conditions such as inlet flow rate and power is studied. Additionally, effect of injector parameters like injection location, flow rate, and angle is examined. The model used in the current study takes high-temperature gradients and non-continuum effects into account. Moreover, the important effect of change in physical properties of suspension droplets as a result of evaporation is included in the model. These mainly include variations in heat transfer properties and viscosity. Utilizing this improved model, several test cases have been considered to better evaluate the effect of different parameters on the quality of particles during flight and upon impact on the substrate.

  17. 31 CFR 10.82 - Expedited suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited suspension. 10.82 Section... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.82 Expedited suspension. (a... suspension. A suspension under this section will commence on the date that written notice of the suspension...

  18. Low-rank coal research. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--June 30, 1989, including quarterly report, April--June 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  19. 48 CFR 209.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 209.407... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 209.407 Suspension. ...

  20. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), which is owned by the companies that operate the Swedish nuclear power plants, has been assigned the task of managing and disposing of the spent nuclear fuel from the reactors. The Nuclear Activities Act requires a programme of comprehensive research and development and other measures that are needed to manage and dispose of nuclear waste in a safe manner and to decommission and dismantle the nuclear power plants. SKB is now presenting RD and D-Programme 2004 in fulfilment of this requirement. The programme describes SKB's plans for the period 2005-2010. The period of immediate concern is 2005-2007. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower.The programme provides a basis for designing systems for safe management and disposal of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB's plan is to implement deep disposal of the spent fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RD and D-Programme we describe our activities and planning for this line of action and the work that is being conducted on alternative methods. Review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they look upon different parts of the programme and stipulate guidelines for the future. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government.The goal for the period up to the end of 2008 is to be able to submit permit applications for the encapsulation plant and the deep repository. This RD and D-Programme therefore differs from the preceding ones in that it concentrates on questions relating to technology development for these facilities. The programmes for safety assessment and research on the long-term processes that take place in the deep repository are then linked together with the programmes for technology development. Another

  1. Pharmaceutical suspensions: relation between zeta potential, sedimentation volume and suspension stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayes, J B

    1977-04-01

    The effect of added surface-active agents of various ionic types on the sedimentation volume of drug suspensions of betamethasone, griseofulvin, nalidixic acid and thiabendazole has been investigated, and the results correlated with previously measured zeta potentials. Study of the zeta potential/sedimentation volumes versus concentration plots showed that apparently only coagulated, deflocculated or sterically stabilized systems were formed. In most cases the sterically stabilized systems were produced from mixtures of ionic/non-ionic surfactants. These are examples of controlled coagulation, although non-ionic surfactant alone conferred stability against caking. Secondary minimum flocculation was not apparent but this may have been due to the method of examination of suspensions. The work confirmed that the DLVO theory of colloid stability and its modification to include a steric term can be applied to coarse suspension systems.

  2. Suspension culture of pluripotent stem cells: effect of shear on stem cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kevin C; Rodrigues, Beatriz; zur Nieden, Nicole I

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant promise, the routine usage of suspension cell culture to manufacture stem cell-derived differentiated cells has progressed slowly. Suspension culture is an innovative way of either expanding or differentiating cells and sometimes both are combined into a single bioprocess. Its advantages over static 2D culturing include a homogeneous and controllable culture environment and producing a large quantity of cells in a fraction of time. This feature makes suspension cell culture ideal for use in stem cell research and eventually ideal in the large-scale production of differentiated cells for regenerative medicine. Because of their tremendous differentiation capacities and unlimited growth properties, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in particular are considered potential sources for future cell-replacement therapies. Currently, expansion of PSCs is accomplished in 2D, which only permits a limited amount of cell growth per culture flask before cells need to be passaged. However, before stem cells can be applied clinically, several aspects of their expansion, such as directed growth, but also differentiation, need to be better controlled. This review will summarize recent advantages in suspension culture of PSCs, while at the same time highlighting current challenges.

  3. Evolution of poor reporting and inadequate methods over time in 20 920 randomised controlled trials included in Cochrane reviews: research on research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechartres, Agnes; Trinquart, Ludovic; Atal, Ignacio; Moher, David; Dickersin, Kay; Boutron, Isabelle; Perrodeau, Elodie; Altman, Douglas G; Ravaud, Philippe

    2017-06-08

    Objective  To examine how poor reporting and inadequate methods for key methodological features in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have changed over the past three decades. Design  Mapping of trials included in Cochrane reviews. Data sources  Data from RCTs included in all Cochrane reviews published between March 2011 and September 2014 reporting an evaluation of the Cochrane risk of bias items: sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, and incomplete outcome data. Data extraction  For each RCT, we extracted consensus on risk of bias made by the review authors and identified the primary reference to extract publication year and journal. We matched journal names with Journal Citation Reports to get 2014 impact factors. Main outcomes measures  We considered the proportions of trials rated by review authors at unclear and high risk of bias as surrogates for poor reporting and inadequate methods, respectively. Results  We analysed 20 920 RCTs (from 2001 reviews) published in 3136 journals. The proportion of trials with unclear risk of bias was 48.7% for sequence generation and 57.5% for allocation concealment; the proportion of those with high risk of bias was 4.0% and 7.2%, respectively. For blinding and incomplete outcome data, 30.6% and 24.7% of trials were at unclear risk and 33.1% and 17.1% were at high risk, respectively. Higher journal impact factor was associated with a lower proportion of trials at unclear or high risk of bias. The proportion of trials at unclear risk of bias decreased over time, especially for sequence generation, which fell from 69.1% in 1986-1990 to 31.2% in 2011-14 and for allocation concealment (70.1% to 44.6%). After excluding trials at unclear risk of bias, use of inadequate methods also decreased over time: from 14.8% to 4.6% for sequence generation and from 32.7% to 11.6% for allocation concealment. Conclusions  Poor reporting and inadequate methods have decreased over time, especially for sequence generation

  4. Differential dynamic microscopy of bidisperse colloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mohammad S; Poling-Skutvik, Ryan; Vekilov, Peter G; Conrad, Jacinta C

    2017-01-01

    Research tasks in microgravity include monitoring the dynamics of constituents of varying size and mobility in processes such as aggregation, phase separation, or self-assembly. We use differential dynamic microscopy, a method readily implemented with equipment available on the International Space Station, to simultaneously resolve the dynamics of particles of radius 50 nm and 1 μm in bidisperse aqueous suspensions. Whereas traditional dynamic light scattering fails to detect a signal from the larger particles at low concentrations, differential dynamic microscopy exhibits enhanced sensitivity in these conditions by accessing smaller wavevectors where scattering from the large particles is stronger. Interference patterns due to scattering from the large particles induce non-monotonic decay of the amplitude of the dynamic correlation function with the wavevector. We show that the position of the resulting minimum contains information on the vertical position of the particles. Together with the simple instrumental requirements, the enhanced sensitivity of differential dynamic microscopy makes it an appealing alternative to dynamic light scattering to characterize samples with complex dynamics.

  5. Inconsistency in the items included in tools used in general health research and physical therapy to evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials: a descriptive analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Fuentes, Jorge; Ospina, Maria; Saltaji, Humam; Hartling, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessing the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is crucial to understand how biases affect treatment effect estimates. A number of tools have been developed to evaluate risk of bias of RCTs; however, it is unknown how these tools compare to each other in the items included. The main objective of this study was to describe which individual items are included in RCT quality tools used in general health and physical therapy (PT) research, and how these items compare ...

  6. Transtibial prosthesis suspension failure during skydiving freefall: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Assaf T; Land, Rebekah M

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the unusual case of an everyday-use prosthesis suspension system failure during the freefall phase of a skydiving jump. The case individual was a 53-year-old male with a left transtibial amputation secondary to trauma. He used his everyday prosthesis, a transtibial endoskeleton with push-button, plunger-releasing, pin-locking silicon liner suction suspension and a neoprene knee suspension sleeve, for a standard recreational tandem skydive. Within seconds of exiting the plane, the suspension systems failed, resulting in the complete prosthesis floating away. Several factors may have led to suspension system failure, including an inadequate seal and material design of the knee suspension sleeve and liner, lack of auxiliary suspension mechanisms, and lack of a safety cover overlying the push-button release mechanism. This is the first report, to our knowledge, to discuss prosthetic issues specifically related to skydiving. While amputees are to be encouraged to participate in this extreme sport, special modifications to everyday components may be necessary to reduce the possibility of prosthesis failure during freefall, parachute deployment, and landing.

  7. International Programs and Centers for Instruction, Research and Public Service in the Western States (Including Instruction in Less Common Foreign Languages).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Frank C., Ed.

    Programs of education and research on international economy and trade, foreign cultures and languages, and other aspects of international affairs and located in the western states are listed in an annotated directory. The units are of varying types and include informal interdepartmental committees within academic institutions, well-established…

  8. Robust Vehicle Suspension System by Converting Active & Passive Control of a Vehicle to Semi-Active Control System Analytically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Elahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work a simplified translational model of an automotive suspension system is constructed by only considering the translation motion of one wheel of a car. Passive Vehicle Suspension System is converted into Semi Active Vehicle System. Major advantage achieved by this system is that it adjusts the damping of the suspension system without the application of any actuator by using MATLAB® simulations. The semi-active control is found to control the vibration of suspension system very well.

  9. Energetic instability unjams sand and suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yimin; Liu, Mario

    2004-10-01

    Jamming is a phenomenon occurring in systems as diverse as traffic, colloidal suspensions, and granular materials. A theory on the reversible elastic deformation of jammed states is presented. First, an explicit granular stress-strain relation is derived that captures many relevant features of sand, including especially the Coulomb yield surface and a third-order jamming transition. Then this approach is generalized, and employed to consider jammed magnetorheological and electrorheological fluids, again producing results that compare well to experiments and simulations.

  10. Crossing the Suspension Bridge: Navigating the Road from School Suspension to College Success--How Some Students Have Overcome the Negative Implications of School Suspension to Bridge the Road to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Chris J.; McNees, Heather; Stickl, Jaimie; Banner, Justin H.; Hewitt, Kimberly K.

    2016-01-01

    Out-of-school suspensions for middle and high school students can have negative, long-lasting consequences. Researchers have documented that suspensions have a negative impact on academic development, increase likelihood of dropping out of school, and are associated with a stronger likelihood that students will be involved in the legal system.…

  11. Constraint Embedding for Vehicle Suspension Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Abhinandan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to achieve close to real-time dynamics performance for allowing auto-pilot in-the-loop testing of unmanned ground vehicles (UGV for urban as well as off-road scenarios. The overall vehicle dynamics performance is governed by the multibody dynamics model for the vehicle, the wheel/terrain interaction dynamics and the onboard control system. The topic of this paper is the development of computationally efficient and accurate dynamics model for ground vehicles with complex suspension dynamics. A challenge is that typical vehicle suspensions involve closed-chain loops which require expensive DAE integration techniques. In this paper, we illustrate the use the alternative constraint embedding technique to reduce the cost and improve the accuracy of the dynamics model for the vehicle.

  12. Exploration and implementation for the construction of the quaternary teaching system of medical genetics including teaching, practice, research and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng-juan; Xie, Wen-mei; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Xiao-rong

    2015-09-01

    Medical genetics, the connection between basic and clinical medicine, is a subject with strong applicability and plays important role in modern medical education system. Based on years of teaching experience and during the construction of state-level top quality course, our teaching team has established the quaternary teaching system of medical genetics which includes teaching, practice, research and clinical application. The four elements of the system interpenetrate, complement and reinforce each other. Specifically, classroom teaching is the basics which is further complemented by social practice, improved by research and promoted by clinical application. The quaternary teaching system provides a feasible way to integrate theoretical and clinical courses. After years of implementation, the teaching system has got great effects on the obvious improvement of research ability, social reputation and clinical service capacities of the research team.

  13. 49 CFR 238.427 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 238.427 Section 238.427... Equipment § 238.427 Suspension system. (a) General requirements. (1) Suspension systems shall be designed to... equipment. (2) Passenger equipment shall meet the safety performance standards for suspension systems...

  14. 78 FR 57525 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  15. 48 CFR 2909.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 2909.407... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2909.407 Suspension. (a) The Senior... authorized to make an exception, regarding suspension by another agency suspending official under the...

  16. 14 CFR 1267.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 1267.670 Section 1267.670... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that...

  17. 22 CFR 1008.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1008.670 Section 1008.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive...

  18. 2 CFR 182.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 182.670 Section 182.670 Grants... Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient from... guidance on nonprocurement debarment and suspension (2 CFR part 180, which implements Executive Orders...

  19. 40 CFR 36.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 36.670 Section 36.670... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 36.670 Suspension. Suspension means... contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension...

  20. 78 FR 5734 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  1. 77 FR 53775 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  2. 29 CFR 94.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension. 94.670 Section 94.670 Labor Office of the... § 94.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a... Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive Order 12689...

  3. 45 CFR 1173.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1173.670 Section 1173.670 Public... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1173.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that...

  4. 45 CFR 1641.11 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1641.11 Section 1641.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION DEBARMENT, SUSPENSION AND REMOVAL OF RECIPIENT AUDITORS Suspension § 1641.11 Suspension. (a) IPAs suspended from providing audit...

  5. 77 FR 2646 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  6. 31 CFR 19.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 19.1015 Section 19.1015 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending...

  7. 41 CFR 105-68.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 105-68.1015 Section 105-68.1015 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an...

  8. 15 CFR 29.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 29.670 Section 29.670... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that...

  9. 13 CFR 147.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 147.670 Section 147...-FREE WORKPLACE (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 147.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that...

  10. 78 FR 2622 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  11. 10 CFR 607.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 607.670 Section 607.670 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive...

  12. 76 FR 9666 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  13. 29 CFR 1471.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1471.1015 Section 1471.1015 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending...

  14. 22 CFR 133.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 133.670 Section 133.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive...

  15. 43 CFR 43.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 43.670 Section 43.670 Public... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 43.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and 2 CFR part 180. Suspension of a recipient is a distinct and separate action from...

  16. 22 CFR 312.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 312.670 Section 312.670 Foreign... § 312.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a... Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive Order 12689...

  17. 34 CFR 84.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 84.670 Section 84.670 Education Office of... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive...

  18. 77 FR 7537 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  19. 19 CFR 146.82 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 146.82 Section 146.82 Customs Duties U... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Penalties; Suspension; Revocation § 146.82 Suspension. (a) For cause. The... for a period not to exceed 90 days. Upon order of the Board the suspension may be continued. If...

  20. 77 FR 24858 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  1. 75 FR 5890 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  2. 76 FR 39782 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  3. 22 CFR 1509.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1509.670 Section 1509.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive...

  4. 22 CFR 210.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 210.670 Section 210.670 Foreign... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that...

  5. 45 CFR 1206.1-4 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1206.1-4 Section 1206.1-4 Public... GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance § 1206.1-4 Suspension. (a) General. The responsible Corporation official may suspend...

  6. 31 CFR 20.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 20.670 Section 20.670...-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that...

  7. 78 FR 68999 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  8. 29 CFR 1472.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1472.670 Section 1472.670 Labor Regulations... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1472.670 Suspension. Suspension means an... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement...

  9. 24 CFR 21.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 21.670 Section 21.670... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.670 Suspension. Suspension means an... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement...

  10. 77 FR 9856 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  11. 49 CFR 32.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 32.670 Section 32.670 Transportation... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive...

  12. 21 CFR 1405.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 1405.670 Section 1405.670 Food and... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that...

  13. 50 CFR 13.27 - Permit suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit suspension. 13.27 Section 13.27... GENERAL PERMIT PROCEDURES Permit Administration § 13.27 Permit suspension. (a) Criteria for suspension... Government. Such suspension shall remain in effect until the issuing officer determines that the permittee...

  14. 45 CFR 1155.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1155.670 Section 1155.670 Public... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive...

  15. 78 FR 57523 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  16. 5 CFR 919.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 919.1015 Section 919.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an...

  17. 78 FR 2624 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  18. 76 FR 2596 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  19. 75 FR 52861 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  20. 28 CFR 83.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 83.670 Section 83.670... WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that...

  1. 39 CFR 957.27 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 957.27 Section 957.27 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.27 Suspension. (a) Any firm or individual suspended under chapter 3, section 7 of the Postal Service Purchasing Manual who believes that the suspension has not been in...

  2. 7 CFR 3021.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 3021.670 Section 3021.670 Agriculture... Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient from... Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive Order 12689...

  3. 76 FR 5284 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  4. 78 FR 69001 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  5. 45 CFR 630.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 630.670 Section 630.670 Public Welfare... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement...

  6. 20 CFR 439.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 439.670 Section 439.670 Employees... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 439.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive...

  7. 75 FR 9111 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  8. 77 FR 63753 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  9. 77 FR 2650 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  10. 78 FR 5736 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  11. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994–2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  12. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Miriam; Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  13. How hard can it be to include research evidence and evaluation in local health policy implementation? Results from a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Bridie Angela

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an evidence-based approach is the ideal model for planning and delivering healthcare, barriers exist to using research evidence to implement and evaluate service change. This paper aims to inform policy implementation and evaluation by understanding the role of research evidence at the local level through implementation of a national chronic conditions management policy. Methods We conducted a national email survey of health service commissioners at the most devolved level of decision-making in Wales (Local Health Boards – LHBs followed by in-depth interviews with representatives of LHBs, purposively selecting five to reflect geographic and economic characteristics. Survey data were analysed descriptively; we used thematic analysis for interview data. Results All LHBs (n = 22 completed questionnaires. All reported they routinely assessed the research literature before implementing interventions, but free-text answers revealed wide variation in approach. Most commonly reported information sources included personal contacts, needs assessments, information or research databases. No consistent approach to evaluation was reported. Frequently reported challenges were: insufficient staff capacity (17/22; limited skills, cost, limited time, competing priorities (16/22; availability and quality of routine data (15/22. Respondents reported they would value central guidance on evaluation. Five interviews were held with managers from the five LHBs contacted. Service delivery decisions were informed by Welsh Government initiatives and priorities, budgets, perceived good practice, personal knowledge, and local needs, but did not include formal research evidence, they reported. Decision making was a collaborative process including clinical staff, patient representatives, and partner organization managers with varying levels of research experience. Robust evaluation data were required, but they were constrained by a lack of skills

  14. A Review of Court Cases Involving Out-of-School Suspension and Expulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrill, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of out-of-school suspension and expulsion in K-12 public schools is limited when focusing on violence, due process, weapons, drugs and alcohol, and search and seizure. Understanding the role of an administrator when dealing with out-of-school suspension an expulsion led the researcher to develop the following question: What…

  15. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This spectacle in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three performances for...

  16. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three perfo...

  17. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local pop...

  18. Worldwide safety experience with ceftibuten pediatric suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenberg, B E

    1995-07-01

    Ceftibuten suspension was administered to 1312 pediatric patients in clinical trials at a dosage of 9 mg/kg once daily, with a maximal daily dose of 400 mg. Adverse experiences were collected by voluntary reports by physicians from direct observations, parental and/or patient complaints in 1152 patients. In 160 patients gastrointestinal adverse experiences were elicited at each visit in addition to voluntary reports. Patients had a mean age of 4.9 years, the male: female ratio was 1:1 and 72% were white. Fifty-five percent (719 of 1312) of patients were treated in otitis media studies, 33% (438 of 1312) were treated in a pharyngitis study and 12% (155 of 1312) were treated in other studies. Adverse experiences occurred in 10% (138 of 1312) of all patients receiving ceftibuten suspension. The most common voluntarily reported treatment-related adverse events were diarrhea 3% (34 of 1152) and vomiting 2% (22 of 1152). For elicited adverse events related to treatment, the most common were also diarrhea 9% (14 of 160) and vomiting 3% (5 of 160). There were no deaths and only 0.9% (12 of 1312) patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. Abnormal laboratory values related to therapy were uncommon and no patient discontinued treatment because of abnormal laboratory values. No cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, serum sickness-like reactions or pseudomembranous colitis have been observed with ceftibuten suspension in research studies to date.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Vibration control in semi-active suspension of the experimental off-road vehicle using information about suspension deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprzyk Jerzy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of vibration control in an automotive semi-active suspension system depends on the quality of information from sensors installed in the vehicle, including information about deflection of the suspension system. The control algorithm for vibration attenuation of the body takes into account its velocity as well as the relative velocity of the suspension. In this paper it is proposed to use the Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT unit to measure the suspension deflection and then to estimate its relative velocity. This approach is compared with a typical solution implemented in such applications, where the relative velocity is calculated by processing signals acquired from accelerometers placed on the body and on the chassis. The experiments performed for an experimental All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV confirm that using LVDT units allows for improving ride comfort by better vibration attenuation of the body.

  20. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guazzelli Élisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava. Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liquid and by mechanical contact. These systems thus belong to an intermediate regime between pure suspensions and granular flows. We show that we can unify suspension and granular rheology under a common framework by transferring the frictional approach of dry granular media to wet suspensions of spherical particles. We also discuss non-Newtonian behavior such as normal-stress differences and shear-induced migration. Beyond the classical problem of dense suspension of hard spheres which is far from being completely resolved, there are also entirely novel avenues of study concerning more complex mixtures of particles and fluids such as those involving other types of particles (e.g. fibers or non-Newtonian fluids that we will also address.

  1. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzelli, Élisabeth

    2017-06-01

    Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing) and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava). Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liquid and by mechanical contact. These systems thus belong to an intermediate regime between pure suspensions and granular flows. We show that we can unify suspension and granular rheology under a common framework by transferring the frictional approach of dry granular media to wet suspensions of spherical particles. We also discuss non-Newtonian behavior such as normal-stress differences and shear-induced migration. Beyond the classical problem of dense suspension of hard spheres which is far from being completely resolved, there are also entirely novel avenues of study concerning more complex mixtures of particles and fluids such as those involving other types of particles (e.g. fibers) or non-Newtonian fluids that we will also address.

  2. Toward a general psychological model of tension and suspense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehne, Moritz; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Tension and suspense are powerful emotional experiences that occur in a wide variety of contexts (e.g., in music, film, literature, and everyday life). The omnipresence of tension and suspense suggests that they build on very basic cognitive and affective mechanisms. However, the psychological underpinnings of tension experiences remain largely unexplained, and tension and suspense are rarely discussed from a general, domain-independent perspective. In this paper, we argue that tension experiences in different contexts (e.g., musical tension or suspense in a movie) build on the same underlying psychological processes. We discuss key components of tension experiences and propose a domain-independent model of tension and suspense. According to this model, tension experiences originate from states of conflict, instability, dissonance, or uncertainty that trigger predictive processes directed at future events of emotional significance. We also discuss possible neural mechanisms underlying tension and suspense. The model provides a theoretical framework that can inform future empirical research on tension phenomena. PMID:25717309

  3. Rat hindlimb muscle responses to suspension hypokinesia/hypodynamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.; Deavers, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Hypokinetic/hyupodynamic (H/H) whole body suspension of rats eliminates hindlimb load bearing functions while permitting continued use of the forelimbs. Responses of hindlimb muscles were assessed in terms of absolute and relative weights during 1 and 2 weeks of H/H suspension. Muscle mass loss was in the order soleus greater than gastrocnemius equal to plantaris greater than extensor digitorum longus (EDL). The soleus, a postural antigravity muscle composed mainly of slow twitch fibers, was most sensitive, losing 35 and 45 percent of its weight during the first and second weeks, respectively. The gastrocnemius and plantaris showed losses during the first week but no significant loss during the second wee. The EDL showed little or no weight loss. During post suspension recovery all muscles showed a weight gain. H/H suspended rats failed to grow; following removal from suspension they gained weight linearly, comparable to controls. Products of muscle metabolism including urea, ammonia, and 3-methylhistidine increased in the urine during H/H suspension and were significantly reduced approaching control levels during recovery. This suspension model offers considerable promise for comparison with H/H responses during weightlessness.

  4. Clinical trials and E-health: impact of new information technology applied to clinical trials (including source data-medical records) and to human and drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhier, Jehan-Michel; Reynier, Jean-Charles; Bertoye, Pierre-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2010-01-01

    Within the last few years, new technology has come to play an important part in our professional and private daily environment. Healthcare has not escaped this progressive mutation with computers reaching the bedside. Clinical research has also shown growing interest in these new tools available to the clinical investigator, the patient, as well as to specialist departments for diagnosis and follow-up of patients, and to the different professions in clinical research. If the use of new technology seems to make life easier, by centralizing data or by simplifying data-sharing between different teams, it is still a matter of private data which must remain reliable, confidential and secure, whether it is being used in ordinary healthcare or in academic or industrial research. The aim of the round table was to estimate the impact of new information technology applied to clinical trials (including source data-medical records) and to human and drug research. First, an inventory was made of the development of these new technologies in the healthcare system. The second point developed was identification of expected benefits in order to issue guidelines for their good use and hazard warnings in clinical trials. Finally, the impact of these new technologies on the investigator as well as the project manager was analysed. © 2010 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF THE PROPERTIES OF THE SUSPENSIONS FOR NON-STICK COATINGS FOR FOUNDRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gil’manshina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at figuring out dependence of the technological properties (density, thickness of the coating, reduced strength and sedimentation stability of the suspensions for nonstick coatings on the for activation time powder quartz graphite filler. It is shown that with increasing activation time to 10 minutes all the basic properties of graphite suspension powder quartz were improved. The paper presents the results of comparative studies of technological properties of suspensions of activated graphite oxide compositions prepared on the basis of activated aluminum oxide and periclase. The resulting suspension may be recommended for cast iron and non-ferrous castings.

  6. Driving self-assembly and emergent dynamics in colloidal suspensions by time-dependent magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James E.; Snezhko, Alexey

    2013-12-01

    In this review we discuss recent research on driving self-assembly of magnetic particle suspensions subjected to alternating magnetic fields. The variety of structures and effects that can be induced in such systems is remarkably broad due to the large number of variables involved. The alternating field can be uniaxial, biaxial or triaxial, the particles can be spherical or anisometric, and the suspension can be dispersed throughout a volume or confined to a soft interface. In the simplest case the field drives the static or quasistatic assembly of unusual particle structures, such as sheets, networks and open-cell foams. More complex, emergent collective behaviors evolve in systems that can follow the time-dependent field vector. In these cases energy is continuously injected into the system and striking flow patterns and structures can arise. In fluid volumes these include the formation of advection and vortex lattices. At air-liquid and liquid-liquid interfaces striking dynamic particle assemblies emerge due to the particle-mediated coupling of the applied field to surface excitations. These out-of-equilibrium interface assemblies exhibit a number of remarkable phenomena, including self-propulsion and surface mixing. In addition to discussing various methods of driven self-assembly in magnetic suspensions, some of the remarkable properties of these novel materials are described.

  7. Access policies in biobank research: what criteria do they include and how publicly available are they? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhof, Holger; Kahrass, Hannes; Sievers, Sören; Strech, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Access policies of biobanks specify the governance of sample and data sharing. Basic guidance on relevant access criteria exists, but so far little is known about their public availability and what criteria for access and prioritization they actually include. Access policies were gathered by hand searching the websites of biobanks identified via registries (eg, BBMRI and P3G), and by additional search strategies. Criteria for access and prioritization were synthesized by thematic analysis. Of 523 biobank websites screened, 9% included a publicly available access policy. With all applied search strategies, we finally retrieved 74 access policies. Thematic analysis resulted in 62 different access criteria in three main categories: (a) scientific quality, (b) value and (c) ethical soundness. 'Scientific quality' criteria were mentioned in 70% of all policies, 'value' criteria in 33% and 'ethical soundness' criteria in 73%. Criteria for prioritization were specified in 27% of all policies. Access policies differed broadly in number, specification and operationalization of the included access criteria. In order to make biobank research more effective, efficient and trustworthy, access policies should be more available to the public. Furthermore, access policies should aim for precise and more harmonized wording of access criteria. From a public and governance perspective, the issue of how to prioritize access to scarce samples should form part of access policies.

  8. Characterizing Fullerene Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have indicated that fullerenes can form stable colloidal suspensions in water when introduced to the aqueous phase through solvent exchange, sonication, or extended mixing. The colloidal suspensions created using these techniques have effective aqueous phase concentratio...

  9. Induction of linalool as a pharmaceutical and medicinal metabolite via cell suspension culture of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, N; Kahrizi, D; Mansouri, M; Karim, H; Vaziri, S; Zargooshi, J; Khanahmadi, M; Shokrinia, M; Mohammadi, N

    2016-05-30

    Cumin is an important medicinal plant in Iran. Plant cell suspension culture is a method for the production of medicinal and secondary metabolites. The linalool is a plant secondary metabolite that has been recognized as a neuroprotective agent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of salicylic acid elicitor on induction of linalool in cell suspension culture of cumin. For this purpose, the cumin seeds were prepared, to obtain sterile seedling, were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and alcohol, and were cultured on MS basal medium. This research was conducted in two separate experiments including callus induction and suspension cultures. Leaf explants were prepared from sterile seedlings and used to produce callus on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l BAP. In order to establish suspension culture, the appropriate calli were transferred to liquid medium. Then cell cultures were treated with elicitors. The effects of elicitor on the production of linalool secondary metabolite and cell viability were assessed by GC-Mass and tetrazolium test respectively. For this purpose, the salicylic acid (at concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg/l) was used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications. The results of cell culture and GC-Mass analysis showed that salicylic acid had significant effects on the linalool production (cumin. It is necessary to determine the best combination of medium and elicitor.

  10. Bladder neck needle suspension for urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazener, Cathryn Ma; Cooper, Kevin; Mashayekhi, Atefeh

    2017-07-25

    Bladder neck needle suspension is an operation traditionally used for moderate or severe stress urinary incontinence in women. About a third of adult women experience some urinary incontinence, and about a third of these have moderate or severe symptoms. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) imposes significant health and economic burdens on society and the women affected. To determine the effects of needle suspension on stress or mixed urinary incontinence in comparison with other management options. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE in process, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO ICTRP and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings (searched 12 November 2014), and the reference lists of relevant articles. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials that included needle suspension for the treatment of urinary incontinence. At least two authors assessed trials and extracted data independently. Two trial investigators provided additional information. We identified 10 trials, which included 375 women having six different types of needle suspension procedures and 489 who received comparison interventions. Needle suspensions were more likely to fail than open abdominal retropubic suspension. There was a higher subjective failure rate after the first year (91/313 (29%) failed versus 47/297 (16%) failed after open abdominal retropubic suspension). The risk ratio (RR) was 2.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47 to 2.72), although the difference in peri-operative complications was not significant (17/75 (23%) versus 12/77 (16%); RR 1.44, 95% CI 0.73 to 2.83). There were no significant differences for the other outcome measures. This effect was seen in both women with primary incontinence and women with recurrent incontinence after failed primary operations. Needle suspensions may be as effective as anterior vaginal repair (50/156 (32

  11. Quasi-Static Condensation of Aeroelastic Suspension Bridge Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Randi N.; Krenk, Steen; N. Svendsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    . The present contribution demonstrates the application of quasi-static condensation to long suspension bridges as well as introduces an extension of the method to include the full aeroelastic system. This includes considerations on reduction of external wind loading as well as motion-induced forces....

  12. Heavy vehicle pitch dynamics and suspension tuning

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2008-01-01

    The influence of suspension tuning of passenger cars on bounce and pitch ride performance has been explored in a number of studies, while only minimal efforts have been made for establishing similar rules for heavy vehicles. This study aims to explore pitch dynamics and suspension tunings of a two-axle heavy vehicle with unconnected suspension, which could also provide valuable information for heavy vehicles with coupled suspensions. Based on a generalised pitch-plane model of a two-axle heav...

  13. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the second of two papers, describing probe measurements of deposit buildup and removal (shedding), conducted in a 350 MWth suspension-fired boiler, firing straw and wood. Investigations of deposit buildup and shedding have been made by use of an advanced online deposit probe and a s...

  14. Transmission function of pneumatic suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Turenko, A.; Bogomolov, V.; Klimenko, V.; Shilov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The transmission function of pneumatic suspension at assumption, that walls of pneumatic elastic element is absolute not stretched; the rubber buffers of compression and of retreat are absent; description of shock absorber is linear and symmetric; the processes of compression and expansion of air are adiabatic; motion of the oscillating system carry out without separation of wheel from a road is received.

  15. Seismic response of steel suspension bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, D.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Astaneh-Asl, A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Performing accurate, realistic numerical simulations of the seismic response of long-span bridges presents a significant challenge to the fields of earthquake engineering and seismology. Suspension bridges in particular represent some of the largest and most important man-made structures and ensuring the seismic integrity of these mega-structures is contingent on accurate estimations of earthquake ground motions and accurate computational simulations of the structure/foundation system response. A cooperative, multi-year research project between the Univ. of California and LLNL was recently initiated to study engineering and seismological issues essential for simulating the response of major structures. Part of this research project is focused on the response of the long-span bridges with the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge serving as a case study. This paper reports on the status of this multi-disciplinary research project with emphasis on the numerical simulation of the transient seismic response of the Bay Bridge.

  16. 49 CFR 570.61 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 570.61 Section 570.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... 10,000 Pounds § 570.61 Suspension system. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut...

  17. 49 CFR 570.8 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 570.8 Section 570.8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... Pounds or Less § 570.8 Suspension systems. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut or...

  18. 49 CFR 393.207 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 393.207 Section 393.207... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.207 Suspension systems. (a) Axles. No axle positioning part shall be cracked, broken, loose or missing...

  19. 45 CFR 1210.3-3 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1210.3-3 Section 1210.3-3 Public... § 1210.3-3 Suspension. (a) The ACTION State Director may suspend a Volunteer for up to 30 days in order... Volunteer. Suspension is not warranted if the State Director determines that sufficient grounds already...

  20. 48 CFR 2509.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 2509.407 Section 2509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2509.407 Suspension. ...

  1. 32 CFR 26.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 26.670 Section 26.670 National... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 26.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient from...

  2. 41 CFR 105-74.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 105-74.670...-GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 105-74.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient from...

  3. 48 CFR 609.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 609.407 Section 609.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 609.407 Suspension. ...

  4. 25 CFR 558.5 - License suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License suspension. 558.5 Section 558.5 Indians NATIONAL... MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS § 558.5 License suspension. (a) If, after the issuance of a gaming license, the... tribe shall suspend such license and shall notify in writing the licensee of the suspension and the...

  5. 48 CFR 1309.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1309.407 Section 1309.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 1309.407 Suspension. ...

  6. 36 CFR 1212.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1212.670 Section... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1212.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient from...

  7. 22 CFR 34.20 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 34.20 Section 34.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY DEBT COLLECTION Collection Adjustments § 34.20 Suspension. The suspension of collection action shall be made in accordance with the standards set forth in...

  8. 32 CFR 552.80 - Suspension period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension period. 552.80 Section 552.80 National... Suspension period. All solicitation privileges suspended by installation commanders will be for a specific time. Normally, it will not exceed 2 years. When the suspension period expires, the agent may reapply...

  9. 48 CFR 509.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 509.407 Section 509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 509.407 Suspension. ...

  10. 7 CFR 3015.123 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 3015.123 Section 3015.123 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Grant and Subgrant Closeout, Suspension and Termination § 3015.123 Suspension. (a) When a recipient has materially failed to comply with the provisions...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1806 - Piperazine suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine suspension. 520.1806 Section 520.1806... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1806 Piperazine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains piperazine monohydrochloride equivalent to...

  12. 48 CFR 9.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 9.407 Section 9.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 9.407 Suspension. ...

  13. 48 CFR 909.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 909.407 Section 909.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 909.407 Suspension. ...

  14. 48 CFR 809.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 809.407 Section 809.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 809.407 Suspension. ...

  15. 48 CFR 1509.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 1509.407 Section 1509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension and Ineligibility 1509.407 Suspension. ...

  16. 21 CFR 522.1289 - Lufenuron suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lufenuron suspension. 522.1289 Section 522.1289 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Lufenuron suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous suspension contains 10...

  17. 32 CFR 776.82 - Interim suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim suspension. 776.82 Section 776.82... Complaint Processing Procedures § 776.82 Interim suspension. (a) Where the Rules Counsel determines there is... interim suspension, pending completion of a professional responsibility investigation. The covered...

  18. 48 CFR 409.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 409.407 Section 409.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension and Ineligibility 409.407 Suspension. ...

  19. 48 CFR 2009.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 2009.407 Section 2009.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2009.407 Suspension. ...

  20. 75 FR 24494 - Nonprocurement Debarment and Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...; ] ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION 2 CFR Chapter 58 Nonprocurement Debarment and Suspension AGENCY: U.S... proposed debarment and suspension regulations. These proposed regulations will apply to nonprocurement... Management and Budget (OMB) in a document on nonprocurement debarment and suspension published in the Federal...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1630 - Oxfendazole suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxfendazole suspension. 520.1630 Section 520.1630... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1630 Oxfendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains: (1) 90.6 milligrams (mg) oxfendazole (9...

  2. 32 CFR 552.79 - Suspension action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension action. 552.79 Section 552.79 National... Suspension action. (a) When suspended for cause, immediately notify the company and the agent, in writing, of the reason. When the installation commander determines that suspension should be extended throughout...

  3. 36 CFR 223.141 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 223.141 Section... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Suspension and Debarment of Timber Purchasers § 223.141 Suspension. (a) The suspending official may, in the public interest, suspend a purchaser on the basis of...

  4. 22 CFR 127.8 - Interim suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim suspension. 127.8 Section 127.8 Foreign... Interim suspension. (a) The Managing Director of the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls or the Director of the Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance is authorized to order the interim suspension of...

  5. 38 CFR 48.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 48.670...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient from...

  6. 48 CFR 309.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 309.407 Section 309.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 309.407 Suspension. ...

  7. 48 CFR 1409.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1409.407 Section 1409.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 1409.407 Suspension. ...

  8. Risk of Mortality (Including Sudden Cardiac Death and Major Cardiovascular Events in Atypical and Typical Antipsychotic Users: A Study with the General Practice Research Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarita Murray-Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Antipsychotics have been associated with increased cardiac events including mortality. This study assessed cardiac events including mortality among antipsychotic users relative to nonusers. Methods. The General Practice Research Database (GPRD was used to identify antipsychotic users, matched general population controls, and psychiatric diseased nonusers. Outcomes included cardiac mortality, sudden cardiac death (SCD, all-cause mortality (excluding suicide, coronary heart disease (CHD, and ventricular arrhythmias (VA. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for age, dose, duration, antipsychotic type, and psychiatric disease. Results. 183,392 antipsychotic users (115,491 typical and 67,901 atypical, 544,726 general population controls, and 193,920 psychiatric nonusers were identified. Nonusers with schizophrenia, dementia, or bipolar disorder had increased risks of all-cause mortality compared to general population controls, while nonusers with major depression had comparable risks. Relative to psychiatric nonusers, the adjusted relative ratios (aRR of all-cause mortality in antipsychotic users was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.64–1.87; cardiac mortality 1.72 (95% CI: 1.42–2.07; SCD primary definition 5.76 (95% CI: 2.90–11.45; SCD secondary definition 2.15 (95% CI: 1.64–2.81; CHD 1.16 (95% CI: 0.94–1.44; and VA 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02–1.31. aRRs of the various outcomes were lower for atypical versus typical antipsychotics (all-cause mortality 0.83 (95% CI: 0.80–0.85; cardiac mortality 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82–0.97; and SCD secondary definition 0.76 (95% CI: 0.55–1.04. Conclusions. Antipsychotic users had an increased risk of cardiac mortality, all-cause mortality, and SCD compared to a psychiatric nonuser cohort.

  9. Risk of mortality (including sudden cardiac death) and major cardiovascular events in atypical and typical antipsychotic users: a study with the general practice research database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Thomas, Tarita; Jones, Meghan E; Patel, Deven; Brunner, Elizabeth; Shatapathy, Chetan C; Motsko, Stephen; Van Staa, Tjeerd P

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Antipsychotics have been associated with increased cardiac events including mortality. This study assessed cardiac events including mortality among antipsychotic users relative to nonusers. Methods. The General Practice Research Database (GPRD) was used to identify antipsychotic users, matched general population controls, and psychiatric diseased nonusers. Outcomes included cardiac mortality, sudden cardiac death (SCD), all-cause mortality (excluding suicide), coronary heart disease (CHD), and ventricular arrhythmias (VA). Sensitivity analyses were conducted for age, dose, duration, antipsychotic type, and psychiatric disease. Results. 183,392 antipsychotic users (115,491 typical and 67,901 atypical), 544,726 general population controls, and 193,920 psychiatric nonusers were identified. Nonusers with schizophrenia, dementia, or bipolar disorder had increased risks of all-cause mortality compared to general population controls, while nonusers with major depression had comparable risks. Relative to psychiatric nonusers, the adjusted relative ratios (aRR) of all-cause mortality in antipsychotic users was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.64-1.87); cardiac mortality 1.72 (95% CI: 1.42-2.07); SCD primary definition 5.76 (95% CI: 2.90-11.45); SCD secondary definition 2.15 (95% CI: 1.64-2.81); CHD 1.16 (95% CI: 0.94-1.44); and VA 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02-1.31). aRRs of the various outcomes were lower for atypical versus typical antipsychotics (all-cause mortality 0.83 (95% CI: 0.80-0.85); cardiac mortality 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82-0.97); and SCD secondary definition 0.76 (95% CI: 0.55-1.04). Conclusions. Antipsychotic users had an increased risk of cardiac mortality, all-cause mortality, and SCD compared to a psychiatric nonuser cohort.

  10. A magnetic suspension system for measuring liquid density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Centeno González

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Density is a derived quantity of mass and length; it is defined as mass per volume unit and its SI unit is kg/m3. National metrology institutes have been designing and building their own magnetic suspension systems during the last 5 decades for making fluid density measurements; this has allowed them to carry out research into liquids and gases’ physical characteristics. This paper was aimed at designing and developing a magnetic suspension system for a magnetic balance used in determining liquid density to be used in CENAM’s metrology density laboratories.

  11. Physical changes of beta-sitosterol crystals in oily suspensions during heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bonsdorff-Nikander, Anna; Lievonen, Satu; Christiansen, Leena

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research was to describe the thermal behavior of beta-sitosterol crystals in oil-suspensions with a focus on the role of water during heating. The suspensions were prepared by recrystallization in order to achieve a microcrystalline particle size. The structural changes together w...... to understand various physical changes during heating.......The aim of this research was to describe the thermal behavior of beta-sitosterol crystals in oil-suspensions with a focus on the role of water during heating. The suspensions were prepared by recrystallization in order to achieve a microcrystalline particle size. The structural changes together...... of the suspensions, at low temperatures. At high beta-sitosterol concentration, the monohydrate crystal form changed partially to a hemihydrated form, and when only a small amount of water was initially incorporated, the hemihydrate crystal form dehydrated to a mostly anhydrate crystal form. The released water...

  12. Role of treadmill training versus suspension therapy on balance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gehan H. El-Meniawy

    2011-11-29

    Nov 29, 2011 ... treadmill training and suspension therapy on balance in children with DS. Subjects .... DS to ensure their comfort with the research team and proto- col. In this ... with sport shoes. For all children, conversation about their interests was done in addition to verbal and visual encourage- ment to motivate them.

  13. 7 CFR 1219.71 - Suspension or termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension or termination. 1219.71 Section 1219.71 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH...

  14. Establishment of the callus and cell suspension culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was the optimization of the conditions of callus and cell suspension culture of Elaeagnus angustifolia for the production of condensed tannins. The effects of different conditions on the callus growth and the production of condensed tannins were researched. The leaf tissue part of E. angustifolia was ...

  15. Overview of Magnetic Levitation Systems with Emphasis on Electrodynamic Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Najjar-Khodabakhsh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of magnetic levitation systems has made attention in transportation. Suspension is caused by two magnetic fields in the near distance and thus the repulsion and attraction induced between them. In Iran, different types of magnetic systems and their applications, especially in the transportation system were not considered deeply and the features and specifications of each of these systems is not discussed yet. In this article we want to review past research and studies on the applications and the characteristics of these systems to fully express and we do compare them with each other. We also offer the laboratory equipment for study the behavior of magnetic suspension systems with emphasis on electrodynamic suspension.

  16. The dynamics of European two-axle railway freight wagons with UIC standard suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Mark; True, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of two-axle railway freight wagons with the UIC standard Suspension is investigated theoretically and the dynamic behaviour is explained. Fully nonlinear models are considered. The hysteresis from dry friction and the effect of impacts between elements of the suspension are included...

  17. Dramatically different dizygotic twins: will we include them in Research? Twin research reviews: congenital anomalies, mirror-image effects in conjoined twins, older mothers of twins; Twin statistics: 'Massachusetts, land of twins'; Tribute: Dr Victor A. McKusick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2008-10-01

    The increased frequency of interracial marriage is a likely source of unusual-looking dizygotic (DZ) twins. Some members of DZ twin pairs born to mixed-race couples inherit very different physical features from their parents. This raises several questions, such as: Will researchers wish to include such twins in their ongoing studies? Next, new twin research concerned with congenital anomalies, mirror-image effects in conjoined twins and older mothers of twins will be reviewed. New statistics on twinning rates in Massachusetts will also be summarized, followed by a tribute to the late medical geneticist Dr. Victor A. McKusick.

  18. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz.

  19. Physical theory for near-bed turbulent particle suspension capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenhuisen, Joris T.; Cartigny, Matthieu J. B.; de Leeuw, Jan

    2017-05-01

    The inability to capture the physics of solid-particle suspension in turbulent fluids in simple formulas is holding back the application of multiphase fluid dynamics techniques to many practical problems in nature and society involving particle suspension. We present a force balance approach to particle suspension in the region near no-slip frictional boundaries of turbulent flows. The force balance parameter Γ contains gravity and buoyancy acting on the sediment and vertical turbulent fluid forces; it includes universal turbulent flow scales and material properties of the fluid and particles only. Comparison to measurements shows that Γ = 1 gives the upper limit of observed suspended particle concentrations in a broad range of flume experiments and field settings. The condition of Γ > 1 coincides with the complete suppression of coherent turbulent structures near the boundary in direct numerical simulations of sediment-laden turbulent flow. Γ thus captures the maximum amount of sediment that can be contained in suspension at the base of turbulent flow, and it can be regarded as a suspension capacity parameter. It can be applied as a simple concentration boundary condition in modelling studies of the dispersion of particulates in environmental and man-made flows.

  20. Effective viscosity of actively swimming algae suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewoldt, Randy; Caretta, Lucas; Chengala, Anwar; Sheng, Jian

    2010-11-01

    Suspensions of actively swimming microorganisms exhibit an effective viscosity which may depend on volume fraction, cell shape, and the nature of locomotion (e.g. "pushers" vs. "pullers"). Here we report experimental measurements of shear viscosity for suspensions of unicellular green algae (Dunaliella primolecta, a biflagellated "puller"). We use a cone-and-plate rheometer to measure the dynamic shear viscosity for both motile and non-motile suspensions of D. primolecta. Viscosity increases with concentration for both cases, but the active suspensions of "pullers" have a comparatively lower effective viscosity than passive suspensions. This observation contrasts recently proposed theories which predict that "pullers" should instead have a higher viscosity than non-motile suspensions. Additionally, we observe shear-induced migration of active suspensions and consider its impact on the resulting effective shear viscosity.

  1. Suspension Bridge Flutter for Girder with Separate Control Flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huynh, T.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Active vibration control of long span suspension bridge flutter using separated control flaps (SFSC) has shown to increase effectively the critical wind speed of bridges. In this paper, an SFSC calculation based on modal equations of the vertical and torsional motions of the bridge girder including...... the flaps is presented. The length of the flaps attached to the girder, the flap configuration and the flap rotational angles are parameters used to increase the critical wind speed of the bridge. To illustrate the theory a numerical example is shown for a suspension bridge of 1000m+2500m+1000m span based...... on the Great Belt Bridge streamlined girder....

  2. Mixing and solid suspension in a stirred precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, T P

    1986-01-01

    Full-scale mixing and solid suspension studies have been conducted to determine the optimum agitator design for precipitators used in plutonium processing. Design considerations include the geometry of precipitator vessels, feed locations, flow patterns, and product requirements. Evaluations of various agitator designs are based on their capabilities: (1) to achieve uniform mixing of reactants in minimum time, (2) to suspend the slurry uniformly throughout the vessel, and (3) to minimize power consumption without inducing air entrainment. Tests of full-scale agitator designs showed that significant improvements in mixing, solid suspension, and energy consumption were achieved.

  3. Interplay of particle shape and suspension properties: a study of cube-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audus, Debra J; Hassan, Ahmed M; Garboczi, Edward J; Douglas, Jack F

    2015-05-07

    With advances in anisotropic particle synthesis, particle shape is now a feasible parameter for tuning suspension properties. However, there is a need to determine how these newly synthesized particles affect suspension properties and a need to solve the inverse problem of inferring the particle shape from property measurements. Either way, accurate suspension property predictions are required. Towards this end, we calculated a set of dilute suspension properties for a family of cube-like particles that smoothly interpolate between spheres and cubes. Using three conceptually different methods, we numerically computed the electrical properties of particle suspensions, including the intrinsic conductivity of perfect conductors and insulators. We also considered hydrodynamic properties relevant to particle solutions including the hydrodynamic radius, the intrinsic viscosity and the intrinsic solvent diffusivity. Additionally, we determined the second osmotic virial coefficient using analytic expressions along with numerical integration. As the particles became more cube-like, we found that all of the properties investigated become more sensitive to particle shape.

  4. Robust Tensioned Kevlar Suspension Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joseph B.; Naylor, Bret J.; Holmes, Warren A.

    2012-01-01

    One common but challenging problem in cryogenic engineering is to produce a mount that has excellent thermal isolation but is also rigid. Such mounts can be achieved by suspending the load from a network of fibers or strings held in tension. Kevlar fibers are often used for this purpose owing to their high strength and low thermal conductivity. A suite of compact design elements has been developed to improve the reliability of suspension systems made of Kevlar.

  5. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  6. Dynamics of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Vanchna; Banerjee, Varsha; Sharma, Manish

    2012-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles. Their relaxation times are strongly size-dependent. The dominant mode of relaxation is also governed by the size of the particles. As a result the dynamics is greatly altered due to polydispersity in the sample. We study the effect of polydispersity on the response functions. These exhibit significant changes as the parameters characterizing polydispersity are varied. We also provide a procedure to extract the particle size dist...

  7. Analysis of vibroprotection characteristics of pneumatic relaxation seat suspension with capability of vibration energy recuperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyashenko Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes mechanism and control algorithm for pneumatic relaxation system of suspension with vibration energy recuperation applied to standard vehicle operator seat (“Sibeko” company. Mathematical model of the seat pneumatic relaxation suspension with two additional air volumes was created. Pneumatic motor – recuperator activated by means of air flow from the one additional volume to another is installed in air piping between additional volumes. Computational research was made in Matlab/Simulink. Amplitude-frequency characteristics of transmission coefficient for standard and proposed suspensions were plotted for preliminary evaluation of vibration protection properties of seat suspension. Performed comparative analysis of amplitude-frequency characteristics shows that noticeable improvement of vibration protection properties of pneumatic relaxation suspension system with vibration energy recuperation in comparison with standard system both in region of resonance disturbances and in above-resonance region. Main ways for further improvement of vibration protection properties of proposed system were marked out.

  8. Polymorphism in Bacterial Flagella Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenger, Walter J.

    Bacterial flagella are a type of biological polymer studied for its role in bacterial motility and the polymorphic transitions undertaken to facilitate the run and tumble behavior. The naturally rigid, helical shape of flagella gives rise to novel colloidal dynamics and material properties. This thesis studies methods in which the shape of bacterial flagella can be controlled using in vitro methods and the changes the shape of the flagella have on both single particle dynamics and bulk material properties. We observe individual flagellum in both the dilute and semidilute regimes to observe the effects of solvent condition on the shape of the filament as well as the effect the filament morphology has on reptation through a network of flagella. In addition, we present rheological measurements showing how the shape of filaments effects the bulk material properties of flagellar suspensions. We find that the individual particle dynamics in suspensions of flagella can vary with geometry from needing to reptate linearly via rotation for helical filaments to the prevention of long range diffusion for block copolymer filaments. Similarly, for bulk material properties of flagella suspensions, helical geometries show a dramatic enhancement in elasticity over straight filaments while block copolymers form an elastic gel without the aid of crosslinking agents.

  9. Study on a Suspension of a Planetary Exploration Rover to Improve Driving Performance During Overcoming Obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    We-Sub Eom

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The planetary exploration rover executes various missions after moving to the target point in an unknown environment in the shortest distance. Such missions include the researches for geological and climatic conditions as well as the existence of water or living creatures. If there is any obstacle on the way, it is detected by such sensors as ultrasonic sensor, infrared light sensor, stereo vision, and laser ranger finder. After the obtained data is transferred to the main controller of the rover, decisions can be made to either overcome or avoid the obstacle on the way based on the operating algorithm of the rover. All the planetary exploration rovers which have been developed until now receive the information of the height or width of the obstacle from such sensors before analyzing it in order to find out whether it is possible to overcome the obstacle or not. If it is decided to be better to overcome the obstacle in terms of the operating safety and the electric consumption of the rover, it is generally made to overcome it. Therefore, for the purpose of carrying out the planetary exploration task, it is necessary to design the proper suspension system of the rover which enables it to safely overcome any obstacle on the way on the surface in any unknown environment. This study focuses on the design of the new double 4-bar linkage type of suspension system applied to the Korea Aerospace Research Institute rover (a tentatively name that is currently in the process of development by our institute in order to develop the planetary exploration rover which absolutely requires the capacity of overcoming any obstacle. Throughout this study, the negative moment which harms the capacity of the rover for overcoming an obstacle was induced through the dynamical modeling process for the rocker-bogie applied to the Mars exploration rover of the US and the improved version of rocker-bogie as well as the suggested double 4-bar linkage type of suspension

  10. On the mechanism of agglomeration in suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Agglomeration in suspension is a size enlargement method that facilitates operation of solid processing and preserves the solubilization properties of fine particles. A small quantity of binder liquid is added into a suspension of microparticles, directly in the stirred vessel where the precipitation or crystallization took place. This study deals with the evaluation of the effect of agitation time before and after addition of binder liquid on agglomerates properties in order to give some insights into the mechanism of the formation of the agglomerates. Methods: Carbamazepine is used as a model drug and isopropyl acetate is used as binder liquid. The agglomerates characterization includes the particle size, morphology and density. Results: The results showed that, by increasing the agitation time before addition of binder liquid, smaller agglomerates with less density and irregular forms composed of larger crystals were obtained. However, with increasing agitation time after addition of binder liquid the agglomerates size and density increases and morphology improves. Indeed, by continuing agitation along the course of agglomeration the properties of the particles change gradually but substantially. Conclusion: With optimized agitation time before and after addition of binder liquid, spherical and dense agglomerates can be obtained.

  11. Carbon dioxide and climate. [Appendix includes names and addresses of the Principal Investigators for the research projects funded in FY1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO{sub 2} Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration.

  12. Characteristics of cerium-gadolinium oxide (CGO) suspensions as a function of dispersant and powder properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phair, John; Lönnroth, Nadja; Lundberg, Mats

    2009-01-01

    with the lowest viscosity at 1 wt.% dispersant and was chosen for subsequent suspension preparations. Increasing the surface area (from 7.0 to 35.5 m2/g) of the CGO powder lead to an increase in the viscosity of the suspension prepared with constant dispersant wt.%. The viscosity data obeyed the Herschel......A series of concentrated suspensions ( = 0.18–0.34) of cerium-gadolinium oxide (CGO) in terpineol were prepared as a function of dispersant, powder surface area and solids concentration. The stability of the suspensions was assessed by rheological measurements including viscosity and oscillatory...... measurements. Six dispersants with different molecular weights and terminal groups were compared for their relative efficiency in dispersing the powders by viscosity measurements. A Rhodafac dispersant, a long chain polymer containing phosphoric acid terminal groups, was found to produce suspensions...

  13. Drag Reduction of Bacterial Cellulose Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ogata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction due to bacterial cellulose suspensions with small environmental loading was investigated. Experiments were carried out by measuring the pressure drop in pipe flow. It was found that bacterial cellulose suspensions give rise to drag reduction in the turbulent flow range. We observed a maximum drag reduction ratio of 11% and found that it increased with the concentration of the bacterial cellulose suspension. However, the drag reduction effect decreased in the presence of mechanical shear.

  14. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Hussain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability. The paper proposes the use of primary and secondary suspension to suppress the vibrations more effectively.

  15. Time Varying Behavior of the Loudspeaker Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2007-01-01

    The suspension part of the electrodynamic loudspeaker is often modelled as a simple linear spring with viscous damping, however the dynamic behaviour of the suspension is much more complicated than predicted by such a simple model. At higher levels the compliance becomes non-linear and often...... changes during excitation at high levels. This paper investigates how the compliance of the suspension depends on the excitation, i.e. level and frequency content. The measurements are compared with other known measurement methods of the suspension....

  16. Research in Biological and Medical Sciences Including Biochemistry, Communicable Disease and Immunology, Internal Medicine, Physiology, Psychiatry, Surgery, and Veterinary Medicine. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    development of scrub typhus ricket - tsiae in a colony of vector mites. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 63: 251-58, 1969. 13. Rapmund, G., A. L. Dohany...Lovelace Inhalation Toxicology Research Insticute in Albuquerque, New Mexico is being utilized to simulate the M198/M203 pressure patterns. The

  17. Toward a general psychological model of tension and suspense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz eLehne

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tension and suspense are powerful emotional experiences that occur in a wide variety of contexts (e.g., in music, film, literature, and everyday life. The omnipresence of tension experiences suggests that they build on very basic cognitive and affective mechanisms. However, the psychological underpinnings of tension experiences remain largely unexplained, and tension and suspense are rarely discussed from a general, domain-independent perspective. In this paper, we argue that tension experiences in different contexts (e.g., musical tension or suspense in a movie build on the same underlying psychological processes. We discuss key components of tension experiences and propose a domain-independent model of tension and suspense. According to this model, tension experiences originate from states of conflict, instability, dissonance, or uncertainty that trigger predictive processes directed at future events of emotional significance. We also discuss possible neural mechanisms underlying experiences of tension. The model provides a theoretical framework that can inform future empirical research on tension phenomena.

  18. Mirror suspension system for the TAMA SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Takamori, A; Bertolini, A; Cella, G; DeSalvo, R; Fukushima, M; Iida, Y; Jacquier, F; Kawamura, S; Marka, S; Nishi, Y; Numata, K; Sannibale, V; Somiya, K; Takahashi, R; Tariq, H; Tsubono, K; Ugas, J; Viboud, N; Yamamoto, H; Yoda, T; Wang Chen Yang

    2002-01-01

    Several R and D programmes are ongoing to develop the next generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors providing the superior sensitivity desired for refined astronomical observations. In order to obtain a wide observation band at low frequencies, the optics need to be isolated from the seismic noise. The TAMA SAS (seismic attenuation system) has been developed within an international collaboration between TAMA, LIGO, and some European institutes, with the main objective of achieving sufficient low-frequency seismic attenuation (-180 dB at 10 HZ). The system suppresses seismic noise well below the other noise levels starting at very low frequencies above 10 Hz. It also includes an active inertial damping system to decrease the residual motion of the optics enough to allow a stable operation of the interferometer. The TAMA SAS also comprises a sophisticated mirror suspension subsystem (SUS). The SUS provides support for the optics and vibration isolation complementing the SAS performance. The SU...

  19. 77 FR 37549 - Suspension of Limitations Under the Jerusalem Embassy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Suspension of Limitations Under the Jerusalem Embassy Act Memorandum for the Secretary of State Pursuant to..., including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the ``Act''), I hereby...

  20. 75 FR 33489 - Suspension of Limitations Under the Jerusalem Embassy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Suspension of Limitations Under the Jerusalem Embassy Act Memorandum for the Secretary of State Pursuant to..., including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the ``Act''), I hereby...

  1. 76 FR 1333 - Suspension of Limitations Under the Jerusalem Embassy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ..., 2010 Suspension of Limitations Under the Jerusalem Embassy Act Memorandum for the Secretary of State..., including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the ``Act''), I hereby...

  2. Progress report on first year of WP5.2. Including detailed description of planned research for WP 5.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellemers, N.; Van Dijk, E.; Terwel, B.; De Vries, G. [Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    This document contains the progress report on the first half year of the CATO-2 WP5.2 PhD project 'Framing effects in communication about CCS'. In the first few months a literature study has been conducted, both on (factors that influence) public perceptions and acceptance of CCS, and on framing. In the last two month, a first study was designed. This study consists of an experiment designed to examine how framing a company's involvement in CCS in terms of economic benefits and/or CSR of the organization affects the corporate image, trust, and perceived 'greenwashing' (deceit). Furthermore, this experiment serves to test the quality of newly developed questionnaires to measure these variables. In addition, this document contains a detailed description of the research planned for WP5.2 written by senior (CATO-2) researchers from January 2010 on. The objective of the research planned for WP5.2 is to examine whether framing of communications by an organization can improve the perceived credibility and trustworthiness of the organization and the information provided. This issue will be examined by a combination of experimental studies and a survey-type study.

  3. Pathways from School Suspension to Adolescent Nonviolent Antisocial Behavior in Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Plenty, Stephanie M.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.; McMorris, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    School suspension is associated with school dropout, crime, delinquency, and alcohol and other drug use for the suspended student. Important research questions are how academic and related factors are relevant to the school suspension process and the generality of the process in different sites. State-representative samples of Grade 7 students (N…

  4. A statistical model for estimation of fish density including correlation in size, space, time and between species from research survey data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kristensen, Kasper; Lewy, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP) statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes...... zero observations and over-dispersion. The model utilises the fact the correlation between numbers of fish caught increases when the distance in space and time between the fish decreases, and the correlation between size groups in a haul increases when the difference in size decreases. Here the model...... is extended in two ways. Instead of assuming a natural scale size correlation, the model is further developed to allow for a transformed length scale. Furthermore, in the present application, the spatial- and size-dependent correlation between species was included. For cod (Gadus morhua) and whiting...

  5. Photoelectrochemical studies on aqueous suspensions of some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pensions meet these requirements. The suspension media are equally as important as the suspension particles in generating an efficient photolysis process. Previous studies used semi- conductor particles as major producers of photonic outcome through heterogeneous charge transfer processes at the par- ticle/electrolyte ...

  6. 49 CFR 238.227 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 238.227 Section 238.227 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.227 Suspension system. On or after November 8, 1999— (a) All passenger equipment shall...

  7. Phase diagram of vertically vibrated dense suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Kann, S.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; van der Meer, Roger M.

    2014-01-01

    When a hole is created in a layer of a dense, vertically vibrated suspension, phenomena are known to occur that defy the natural tendency of gravity to close the hole. Here, an overview is presented of the different patterns that we observed in a variety of dense particulate suspensions.

  8. Active suspension for a field sprayer boom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Skovsgaard; Sørensen, Paul Haase

    1998-01-01

    The possibilities of implementing an active boom suspension is investigated. The performance improvement of an active suspension over a traditional passive one is studied in simulation, and shows a significant improvement. A closed-loop control system involving two ultrasonic distance transducers...

  9. 32 CFR 1609.5 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1609.5 Section 1609.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM UNCOMPENSATED PERSONNEL § 1609.5 Suspension. The Director of Selective Service may suspend from duty any uncompensated person...

  10. 25 CFR 242.7 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 242.7 Section 242.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.7 Suspension. All commercial fishing operations may be suspended by order of the Secretary at any...

  11. 39 CFR 955.28 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 955.28 Section 955.28 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE BEFORE THE POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.28 Suspension. (a) Whenever at any time it appears that the parties are in agreement as to...

  12. 32 CFR 552.77 - Suspension approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension approval. 552.77 Section 552.77 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND....77 Suspension approval. The installation commander will personally approve all cases in which...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1289 - Lufenuron suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lufenuron suspension. 520.1289 Section 520.1289 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1289 Lufenuron suspension. (a...

  14. l-Carnitine supplement reduces skeletal muscle atrophy induced by prolonged hindlimb suspension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiwoong; Park, Jonghoon; Chang, Hyukki; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-12-01

    l-Carnitine was recently found to downregulate the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) and increase insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations in animal models. However, the effect of l-carnitine administration on disuse muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb suspension has not yet been studied. Thus, we hypothesized that l-carnitine may have a protective effect on muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb suspension via the Akt1/mTOR and/or UPP. Male Wistar rats were assigned to 3 groups: hindlimb suspension group, hindlimb suspension with l-carnitine administration (1250 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) group, and pair-fed group adjusted hindlimb suspension. l-Carnitine administration for 2 weeks of hindlimb suspension alleviated the decrease in weight and fiber size in the soleus muscle. In addition, l-carnitine suppressed atrogin-1 mRNA expression, which has been reported to play a pivotal role in muscle atrophy. The present study shows that l-carnitine has a protective effect against soleus muscle atrophy caused by hindlimb suspension and decreased E3 ligase messenger RNA expression, suggesting the possibility that l-carnitine protects against muscle atrophy, at least in part, through the inhibition of the UPP. These observations suggest that l-carnitine could serve as an effective supplement in the decrease of muscle atrophy caused by weightlessness in the fields of clinical and rehabilitative research.

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 10: Summary report to phase 3 academic library respondents including frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; White, Terry F.

    1991-01-01

    Phase 3 of a 4 part study was undertaken to study the use of scientific and technical information (STI) in the academic aerospace community. Phase 3 of this project used three questionnaires that were sent to three groups (i.e., faculty, librarians, and students) in the academic aerospace community. Specific attention was paid to the types of STI used and the methods in which academic users acquire STI. The responses of the academic libraries are focussed on herein. Demographic information on academic aerospace libraries is provided. Data regarding NASA interaction with academic aerospace libraries is also included, as is the survey instrument.

  16. Physics-based Modeling Techniques for Analysis and Design of Advanced Suspension Systems with Experimental Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Farjoud, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    This research undertakes the problem of vibration control of vehicular and structural systems using intelligent materials and controllable devices. Advanced modeling tools validated with experimental test data are developed to help with understanding the fundamentals as well as advanced and novel applications of smart and conventional suspension systems. The project can be divided into two major parts. The first part is focused on development of novel smart suspensions using Magneto-Rheolo...

  17. Analysis of vibroprotection characteristics of pneumatic relaxation seat suspension with capability of vibration energy recuperation

    OpenAIRE

    Lyashenko Mikhail; Potapov Pavel; Iskaliev Azamat

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes mechanism and control algorithm for pneumatic relaxation system of suspension with vibration energy recuperation applied to standard vehicle operator seat (“Sibeko” company). Mathematical model of the seat pneumatic relaxation suspension with two additional air volumes was created. Pneumatic motor – recuperator activated by means of air flow from the one additional volume to another is installed in air piping between additional volumes. Computational research was made in M...

  18. The key quality control technology of main cable erection in long-span suspension bridge construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongrui; Wei, Wei; Dai, Jie

    2017-04-01

    Main cable is one of the most important structure of suspension Bridges, which bear all the dead and live load from upper structure. Cable erection is one of the most critical process in suspension bridge construction. Key points about strand erection are studied in this paper, including strand traction, lateral movement, section adjustment, placing into saddle, anchoring, line shape adjustment and keeping, and tension control. The technology has helped a long-span suspension bridge in Yunnan Province, China get a ideal finished state.

  19. A statistical model for estimation of fish density including correlation in size, space, time and between species from research survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rasmus Nielsen

    Full Text Available Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes zero observations and over-dispersion. The model utilises the fact the correlation between numbers of fish caught increases when the distance in space and time between the fish decreases, and the correlation between size groups in a haul increases when the difference in size decreases. Here the model is extended in two ways. Instead of assuming a natural scale size correlation, the model is further developed to allow for a transformed length scale. Furthermore, in the present application, the spatial- and size-dependent correlation between species was included. For cod (Gadus morhua and whiting (Merlangius merlangus, a common structured size correlation was fitted, and a separable structure between the time and space-size correlation was found for each species, whereas more complex structures were required to describe the correlation between species (and space-size. The within-species time correlation is strong, whereas the correlations between the species are weaker over time but strong within the year.

  20. FxLMS Method for Suppressing In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motor Vertical Force Based on Vehicle Active Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration of SRM obtains less attention for in-wheel motor applications according to the present research works. In this paper, the vertical component of SRM unbalanced radial force, which is named as SRM vertical force, is taken into account in suspension performance for in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles (IWM-EV. The analysis results suggest that SRM vertical force has a great effect on suspension performance. The direct cause for this phenomenon is that SRM vertical force is directly exerted on the wheel, which will result in great variation in tyre dynamic load and the tyre will easily jump off the ground. Furthermore, the frequency of SRM vertical force is broad which covers the suspension resonance frequencies. So it is easy to arouse suspension resonance and greatly damage suspension performance. Aiming at the new problem, FxLMS (filtered-X least mean square controller is proposed to improve suspension performance. The FxLMS controller is based on active suspension system which can generate the controllable force to suppress the vibration caused by SRM vertical force. The conclusion shows that it is effective to take advantage of active suspensions to reduce the effect of SRM vertical force on suspension performance.

  1. 48 CFR 9.407-4 - Period of suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 9.407-4 Period of... notice, the suspension shall be terminated unless an Assistant Attorney General requests its extension...

  2. Investigation of passenger car using Macpherson strut for suspension system pt.1: Vehicle behaviour variation of time response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tanti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been decade, researchers has been conducting researches on the topics concerning vehicle behavior. Suspension system, driving maneuver and road profile are the particular parameters in order to achieve the aim in vehicle behavior understanding. This paper combined these three criteria by means of using a passenger car equipped with MacPherson strut front suspension undergoes different driving behavior. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of passenger car equipped with MacPherson strut front suspension system vehicle behavior based on different driving maneuvers. For this study, Proton Persona Sedan 1.6 Manual Transmission Base Line was used to investigate the MacPherson strut suspension system. Data were collected using DEWESoft Software. As the velocity and direction varies with time, the vehicle response subjected to stationary excitation, while it varies with different velocity and different type of road. Acceleration, deceleration and bumpy test the suspension mechanism support the weight of the vehicle yet to cushion bumps and holes in the road. It can be concluded that the MacPherson strut suspension system has an effect on not only vehicle behavior but also comfort ride. These findings provide the following insights for future research in suspension vibration in order to optimize the performance of the MacPherson strut suspension system.

  3. The British research evidence for recovery, papers published between 2006 and 2009 (inclusive). Part two: a review of the grey literature including book chapters and policy documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, T; Wright, N

    2011-05-01

    This paper is the second in a series of two which reviews the current UK evidence base for recovery in mental health. As outlined in the previous paper, over the last 4 years a vast amount has written about recovery in mental health (approximately 60% of all articles). Whereas the first review focused on the peer-reviewed evidence; this paper specifically focuses on the grey/non-peer-reviewed literature. In total, our search strategy yielded the following: 3 books, a further 11 book chapters, 12 papers, 6 policy documents and 3 publications from voluntary sector organizations. Each group of publications was analysed for content, and they are discursively presented by publication group. The findings are then presented as themes in the discussion section. The themes are: social, historical and political critique; philosophy of hope for the individual; individual identity and narrative; models and guidance for mental health practice. We conclude that there is a need for both empirical research into recovery and a clearer theoretical exposition of the concept. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  4. Low-resolution simulations of vesicle suspensions in 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabacaoğlu, Gökberk; Quaife, Bryan; Biros, George

    2018-03-01

    Vesicle suspensions appear in many biological and industrial applications. These suspensions are characterized by rich and complex dynamics of vesicles due to their interaction with the bulk fluid, and their large deformations and nonlinear elastic properties. Many existing state-of-the-art numerical schemes can resolve such complex vesicle flows. However, even when using provably optimal algorithms, these simulations can be computationally expensive, especially for suspensions with a large number of vesicles. These high computational costs can limit the use of simulations for parameter exploration, optimization, or uncertainty quantification. One way to reduce the cost is to use low-resolution discretizations in space and time. However, it is well-known that simply reducing the resolution results in vesicle collisions, numerical instabilities, and often in erroneous results. In this paper, we investigate the effect of a number of algorithmic empirical fixes (which are commonly used by many groups) in an attempt to make low-resolution simulations more stable and more predictive. Based on our empirical studies for a number of flow configurations, we propose a scheme that attempts to integrate these fixes in a systematic way. This low-resolution scheme is an extension of our previous work [51,53]. Our low-resolution correction algorithms (LRCA) include anti-aliasing and membrane reparametrization for avoiding spurious oscillations in vesicles' membranes, adaptive time stepping and a repulsion force for handling vesicle collisions and, correction of vesicles' area and arc-length for maintaining physical vesicle shapes. We perform a systematic error analysis by comparing the low-resolution simulations of dilute and dense suspensions with their high-fidelity, fully resolved, counterparts. We observe that the LRCA enables both efficient and statistically accurate low-resolution simulations of vesicle suspensions, while it can be 10× to 100× faster.

  5. Structure and rheology of nanoparticle–polymer suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Srivastava, Samanvaya

    2012-01-01

    Structure and rheology of oligomer-tethered nanoparticles suspended in low molecular weight polymeric host are investigated at various particle sizes and loadings. Strong curvature effects introduced by the small size of the nanoparticle cores are found to be important for understanding both the phase stability and rheology of the materials. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate that PEG-SiO 2/PEG suspensions are more stable against phase separation and aggregation than expected from theory for interacting brushes. SAXS and rheology measurements also reveal that at high particle loadings, the stabilizing oligomer brush is significantly compressed and produces jamming in the suspensions. The jamming transition is accompanied by what appears to be a unique evolution in the transient suspension rheology, along with large increments in the zero-shear, Newtonian viscosity. The linear and nonlinear flow responses of the jammed suspensions are discussed in the framework of the Soft Glassy Rheology (SGR) model, which is shown to predict many features that are consistent with experimental observations, including a two-step relaxation following flow cessation and a facile method for determining the shear-thinning coefficient from linear viscoelastic measurements. Finally, we show that the small sizes of the particles have a significant effect on inter-particle interactions and rheology, leading to stronger deviations from expectations based on planar brushes and hard-sphere suspension theories. In particular, we find that in the high volume fraction limit, tethered nanoparticles interact in their host polymer through short-range forces, which are more analogous to those between soft particles than between spherical polymer brushes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Muhammad Shafique; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This paper is Part 1 in a series of two describing probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal (shedding) in a 350 MWth suspension boiler, firing straw and wood. The influence of fuel type (straw share in wood), probe exposure time, probe surface temperature (500, 550, and 600 °C), and flue...... gas temperature (600–1050 °C) on ash deposit formation rate has been investigated. Investigations of deposit formation rate were made by use of an advanced online deposit probe that allowed nearly continuous measurement of the deposited mass. Two different measures of deposit formation rate are used...... in the analysis of the data. The first is the integral deposit formation rate (IDF-rate) found by dividing the integral mass change over integral time intervals (of order several hours) by the time interval. The IDF-rate is similar to deposit formation rates based on total deposit mass uptake divided by probe...

  7. Nonlinear oscillatory rheology and structure of wormlike micellar solutions and colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnon, Amanda Kate

    The complex, nonlinear flow behavior of soft materials transcends industrial applications, smart material design and non-equilibrium thermodynamics. A long-standing, fundamental challenge in soft-matter science is establishing a quantitative connection between the deformation field, local microstructure and macroscopic dynamic flow properties i.e., the rheology. Soft materials are widely used in consumer products and industrial processes including energy recovery, surfactants for personal healthcare (e.g. soap and shampoo), coatings, plastics, drug delivery, medical devices and therapeutics. Oftentimes, these materials are processed by, used during, or exposed to non-equilibrium conditions for which the transient response of the complex fluid is critical. As such, designing new dynamic experiments is imperative to testing these materials and further developing micromechanical models to predict their transient response. Two of the most common classes of these soft materials stand as the focus of the present research; they are: solutions of polymer-like micelles (PLM or also known as wormlike micelles, WLM) and concentrated colloidal suspensions. In addition to their varied applications these two different classes of soft materials are also governed by different physics. In contrast, to the shear thinning behavior of the WLMs at high shear rates, the near hard-sphere colloidal suspensions are known to display increases, sometimes quite substantial, in viscosity (known as shear thickening). The stress response of these complex fluids derive from the shear-induced microstructure, thus measurements of the microstructure under flow are critical for understanding the mechanisms underlying the complex, nonlinear rheology of these complex fluids. A popular micromechanical model is reframed from its original derivation for predicting steady shear rheology of polymers and WLMs to be applicable to weakly nonlinear oscillatory shear flow. The validity, utility and limits of

  8. Naratriptan hydrochloride in extemporaneosly compounded oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y P; Trissel, L A; Fox, J L

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmaceutical acceptability and chemical stability of naratriptan hydrochloride in three extemporaneously compounded suspension formulations. The naratriptan-hydrochloride oral suspensions were prepared from 2.5-mg commercial tablets yielding a nominal naratriptan concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. The suspension vehicles selected for testing were Syrpalta, an equal-parts mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet, and an equal-parts mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet SF. The tablets were crushed and thoroughly triturated to a fine powder using a porcelain mortar and pestle. The powder was incorporated into a portion of the Syrpalta or Ora-Plus suspension vehicle and mixed until homogeneous. The mixtures were then brought to volume with Syrpalta, Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF, as appropriate. The suspensions were packaged in amber, plastic, screw-cap prescription bottles and stored at 23 deg C for seven days and 4 deg C for 90 days. An adequate suspension was never achieved in Syrpalta. The crushed-tablet powder did not produce a uniformly dispersed mixture and exhibited clumping and a high rate of sedimentation. A distinct layer of the solid tablet material settled immediately after shaking. Over the next four hours, a densely packed, yellow, caked layer formed at the bottom of the containers, making resuspension difficult. During storage, the caking became worse. Chemical analysis was not performed. The Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF suspensions had a slight greenish cast and were resuspended without difficulty by shaking for approximately ten seconds, yielding easily poured and homogeneous mixtures throughout the study. Visible settling and layering did not begin for four hours with the Ora-Sweet suspension and 24 hours for the Ora-Sweet SF suspension. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis found that the naratriptan concentration in both suspension-vehicle combinations exhibited little or no loss for seven days at 23

  9. Determination of Weight Suspension Rigidity in the Transport-Erector Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zverev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to determine weight suspension rigidity in aggregates designed to perform technological transport-erector operations at the miscellaneous launch complexes.We consider the weight suspension comprising the following distinctive structural components: the executive weight-lowering mechanism, polyspast mechanism, rope, traverse, and rods. A created structural dynamic model of suspension allowed us to define weight suspension rigidity. Within the framework of design analysis of a dynamic model we determined the rigidity of its structural units, i.e. traverse, rope, and polyspast.Known analytical relationships were used to calculate the rope rigidity. To determine rigidity of polyspast and traverse have been created special models based on the finite element method. For each model deformation in the specific points under the test load have been defined. Data obtained were used to determine trigidity of traverses and polyspast, and also rigidity of suspension in total. The rigidity models of polispast mechanism and traverse have been developed and calculated using the software complex "Zenit-95".As the research results, the paper presents a dynamic model of the weight suspension of the transport-erector aggregate, the finite element models of the polispast mechanism and traverse, an algorithm for determining the weight suspension rigidity and relevant analytical relationships.Independent calculation of weight suspension rigidity enables us to simplify further dynamic calculation of the aggregate-weight system because it allows attaining a simpler model of the aggregate-weight system that uses the weight suspension model as an element of equivalent rigidity. Despite this simplification the model allows us to determine correctly weight movement parameters and overloads in the aggregate-weight system in the process of technical operations.

  10. Adaptive tracking control for active suspension systems with non-ideal actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huihui; Sun, Weichao; Jing, Xingjian; Gao, Huijun; Yao, Jianyong

    2017-07-01

    As a critical component of transportation vehicles, active suspension systems are instrumental in the improvement of ride comfort and maneuverability. However, practical active suspensions commonly suffer from parameter uncertainties (e.g., the variations of payload mass and suspension component parameters), external disturbances and especially the unknown non-ideal actuators (i.e., dead-zone and hysteresis nonlinearities), which always significantly deteriorate the control performance in practice. To overcome these issues, this paper synthesizes an adaptive tracking control strategy for vehicle suspension systems to achieve suspension performance improvements. The proposed control algorithm is formulated by developing a unified framework of non-ideal actuators rather than a separate way, which is a simple yet effective approach to remove the unexpected nonlinear effects. From the perspective of practical implementation, the advantages of the presented controller for active suspensions include that the assumptions on the measurable actuator outputs, the prior knowledge of nonlinear actuator parameters and the uncertain parameters within a known compact set are not required. Furthermore, the stability of the closed-loop suspension system is theoretically guaranteed by rigorous mathematical analysis. Finally, the effectiveness of the presented adaptive control scheme is confirmed using comparative numerical simulation validations.

  11. Annona muricata: Is the natural therapy to most disease conditions including cancer growing in our backyard? A systematic review of its research history and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavamukulya, Yahaya; Wamunyokoli, Fred; El-Shemy, Hany A

    2017-09-01

    Annona muricata (A. muricata) is a tropical plant species belonging to family Annonaceae and known for its many medicinal uses. This review focuses on the research history of its traditional uses, phytochemicals, pharmacological activities, toxicological aspects of the extracts and isolated compounds, as well as the in vitro propagation studies with the objective of stimulating further studies on this plant for human consumption and treatment. A. muricata extracts have been identified in tropical regions to traditionally treat diverse conditions ranging from fever to diabetes and cancer. More than 200 chemical compounds have been identified and isolated from this plant, the most important being alkaloids, phenols and acetogenins. Using in vitro studies, its extracts and phytochemicals have been characterized as antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, larvicidal, and cytotoxic to cancer cells. In vivo studies have revealed anxiolytic, anti-stress, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antimalarial, antidepressant, gastro protective, wound healing, hepato-protective, hypoglycemic, anticancer and anti-tumoral activities. In silico studies have also been reported. In addition, clinical studies support the hypoglycemic as well as some anticancer activities. Mechanisms of action of some pharmacological activities have been elucidated. However, some phytochemical compounds isolated from A. muricata have shown a neurotoxic effect in vitro and in vivo, and therefore, these crude extracts and isolated compounds need to be further investigated to define the magnitude of the effects, optimal dosage, and mechanisms of action, long-term safety, and potential side effects. Additionally, more clinical studies are necessary to support the therapeutic potential of this plant. Some studies were also found to have successfully regenerated the plant in vitro, but with limited success. The reported toxicity notwithstanding, A. muricata extracts seem to be

  12. 75 FR 35044 - Notice of Approval of a Supplemental New Animal Drug Application; Penicillin G Procaine Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Application; Penicillin G Procaine Suspension AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... for a revised formulation of penicillin G procaine injectable suspension that includes lecithin as a... 6JP, Northern Ireland, filed a supplement to NADA 065-010 for use of NOROCILLIN (penicillin G procaine...

  13. The Impact of School Suspension on Student Tobacco Use: A Longitudinal Study in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Context: School suspension may have unintended consequences in contributing to problem behaviors, including dropping out from school, substance use, and antisocial behavior. Tobacco use is an early-onset problem behavior, but prospective studies of the effects of suspension on tobacco use are lacking. Method: Longitudinal school-based survey of…

  14. Self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme of motor-driven active suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Sun, Weichao

    2017-09-01

    Active suspension systems have advantages on mitigating the effects of vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, which are one of the most important component parts in influencing the performances of vehicles. However, high amount of energy consumption restricts the application of active suspension systems. From the point of energy saving, this paper presents a self-powered criterion of the active suspension system to judge whether a motor-driven suspension can be self-powered or not, and then a motor parameter condition is developed as a reference to design a self-powered suspension. An energy regeneration implementation scheme is subsequently proposed to make the active suspension which has the potential to be self-powered achieve energy-saving target in the real application. In this implementation scheme, operating electric circuits are designed based on different working status of the actuator and power source and it is realizable to accumulate energy from road vibration and supply energy to the actuator by switching corresponding electric circuits. To apply the self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme, an active suspension system is designed with a constrained H∞ controller and calculation results indicate that it has the capability to be self-powered. Simulation results show that the performances of the self-powered active suspension are nearly the same as those of the active suspension with an external energy source and can achieve energy regeneration at the same time.

  15. Restructuring and aging in a capillary suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Erin; Kannowade, Wolfgang; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2014-12-01

    The rheological properties of capillary suspensions, suspensions with small amounts of an added immiscible fluid, are dramatically altered with the addition of the secondary fluid. We investigate a capillary suspension to determine how the network ages and restructures at rest and under applied external shear deformation. The present work uses calcium carbonate suspended in silicone oil (11 % solids) with added water as a model system. Aging of capillary suspensions and their response to applied oscillatory shear is distinctly different from particulate gels dominated by the van der Waals forces. The suspensions dominated by the capillary force are very sensitive to oscillatory flow, with the linear viscoelastic regime ending at a deformation of only 0.1% and demonstrating power-law aging behavior. This aging persists for long times at low deformations or for shorter times with a sudden decrease in the strength at higher deformations. This aging behavior suggests that the network is able to rearrange and even rupture. This same sensitivity is not demonstrated in shear flow where very high shear rates are required to rupture the agglomerates returning the apparent viscosity of capillary suspensions to the same viscosity as for the pure vdW suspension. A transitional region is also present at intermediate water contents wherein the material response depends very strongly on the type, strength, and duration of the external forcing.

  16. Stability of extemporaneously prepared rosuvastatin oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Shtayah, Rania; Qadumi, Ayman; Ghanem, Mashour; Qedan, Rawan; Daibes, Marah; Awwad, Somud Abu; Jaradat, Nidal; Kittana, Naim

    2017-10-01

    The stability of an extemporaneously prepared rosuvastatin suspension stored over 30 days under various storage conditions was evaluated. Rosuvastatin suspension was extemporaneously prepared using commercial rosuvastatin tablets as the source of active pharmaceutical ingredient. The organoleptic properties, dissolution profile, and stability of the formulation were investigated. For the stability studies, samples of the suspension were stored under 2 storage conditions, room temperature (25 °C and 60% relative humidity) and accelerated stability chambers (40 °C and 75% relative humidity). Viscosity, pH, organoleptic properties, and microbial contamination were evaluated according to the approved specifications. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for the analysis and quantification of rosuvastatin in selected samples. Microbiological investigations were also conducted. The prepared suspension showed acceptable organoleptic properties. It showed complete release of rosuvastatin within 15 minutes. The pH of the suspension was 9.8, which remained unchanged during the stability studies. The microbiological investigations demonstrated that the preparation was free of any microbial contamination. In addition, the suspension showed stability within at least the period of use of a 100-mL rosuvastatin bottle. Extemporaneously prepared rosuvastatin 20-mg/mL suspension was stable for 30 days when stored at room temperature. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. MAGNETICALLY LEVITATED TRAIN'S SUSPENSION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Polyakov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The implementation of the magnetically levitated train’s (MLT levitation force (LF occurs during the interaction between fields of superconducting train’s (STC and short-circuited track’s contours (STC, which are included in to levitation module (LU. Based on this, the purpose of this study is to obtain a correct description of such interaction. Methodology. At the present stage, the main and most universal tool for the analysis and synthesis of processes and systems is their mathematical and, in particular, computer modeling. At the same time, the radical advantages of this tool make even more important the precision of choosing a specific methodology for research conducting. This is particularly relevant in relation to such large and complex systems as MLT. For this reason, the work pays special attention to the reasoned choice of the selective features of the research paradigm. Findings. The analysis results of existing versions of LF implementation’s models show that each of them, along with the advantages, also has significant drawbacks. In this regard, one of the main results of the study should be the construction of this force implementation’s mathematical model, which preserves the advantages of the mentioned versions, but free from their shortcomings. The rationality of application, for the train’s LF researching, of an integrative holistic paradigm, which assimilates the advantages of the electric circuit's and magnetic field's theory’s, is reasonably justified in work. Originality. The scientific novelty of the research – in priority of such a paradigm’s and the corresponding version’s of the LF’s implementation’s model’s creating. Practical value. The main manifestation of the practical significance of the work is the possibility, in the case of using its results, to significantly increase the effectiveness of dynamic MLT research while reducing their resource costing.

  18. Effective flocculation of fine mineral suspensions using Moringa oleifera seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, T.M. [Bureau of Mines, Reno, NV (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using Moringa oleifera seeds, or the active components of the seeds, in the clarification of waters containing suspended mineral fines. In comparative testing using a hematite suspension, the flocculating activity of Moringa oleifera seeds was better than alum. Twenty milligrams of seed powder was sufficient to clarify the hematite to near zero turbidity, while the same amount of alum had a minimal effect on turbidity. Extracts were prepared from the seeds in an attempt to separate the proteins. A crude protein extract was enriched by lowering the pH to 6.0. Only 0.08 mg/L of the enriched extract was required to flocculate a minusil suspension. Environmentally friendly protein flocculants could theoretically be produced and enhanced with recombinant DNA techniques as an alternative to chemical flocculants currently used in water treatment.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 189. Community-based education (CBE) is a learning approach that enables students to acquire skills by means of ... of CBE include early contact with the community, improved teamwork of ... A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Zimbabwe.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a community setting,[1] with goals that include: creating knowledge, skills and attitudes among students to ensure they are capable of providing high- quality health services to local, underserved communities, often in rural areas.

  1. Suture complications in a teaching institution among patients undergoing uterosacral ligament suspension with permanent braided suture

    OpenAIRE

    Yazdany, Tajnoos; Yip, Sallis; Bhatia, Narender N.; Nguyen, John N.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis Our study aimed to identify the rate of suture complications over a 5-year period using braided permanent suture for uterosacral ligament suspension (USLS) surgery. Methods We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent vaginal uterosacral ligament suspensions using braided polyester suture. Outcome measures included rate and timing of suture complications, patient symptoms post-operatively, efficacy of treatment modalities and surgical success. Results ...

  2. Characterization and quantification of deposits build up and removal in straw suspension fired boilers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt Jensen, Peter; Wedel, S.; Jappe Frandsen, F.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Shafique Bashir, M. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. CHEC Research Centre, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Wadenback, J.; Thaaning Pedersen, S. [Vattenfall A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-07-15

    This project deals with ash deposit formation in suspension fired biomass power plant boilers. The project has been conducted in a tight collaboration between Vattenfall and the CHEC Research Centre at DTU Department of Chemical Engineering. A large part of the project has been performed by conducting advanced probe measurements at the Amagervaerkets Vattenfall owed boilers. It was the objective of the project to provide an improved understanding of ash deposit formation and removal in biomass suspension fired boilers. The project have provided a large amount of knowledge on the following issues: 1) The influence of local boiler conditions on deposit formation in suspension fired boilers using wood or co-firing straw and wood, 2) quantification of deposit removal in biomass suspension firing boilers with regards both to natural shedding and soot blower induced shedding, 3) established relations of the properties of fuel ash, fly ash and deposits, 4) use of coal ash to remedy biomass ash induced boiler deposit problems. (Author)

  3. Characterization and quantification of deposits build up and removal in straw suspension fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Wedel, Stig

    This project deals with ash deposit formation in suspension fired biomass power plant boilers. The project has been conducted in a tight collaboration between Vattenfall and the CHEC Research Centre at DTU Department of Chemical Engineering. A large part of the project has been performed...... by conducting advanced probe measurements at the Amagerværkets Vattenfall owed boilers. It was the objective of the project to provide an improved understanding of ash deposit formation and removal in biomass suspension fired boilers. The project have provided a large amount of knowledge on the following issues......: 1) The influence of local boiler conditions on deposit formation in suspension fired boilers using wood or co-firing straw and wood, 2) quantification of deposit removal in biomass suspension firing boilers with regards both to natural shedding and soot blower induced shedding, 3) established...

  4. Control system design of active seat suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, I.

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents an approach to the control system design of seat suspension systems for the active vibration attenuation. The paper presents the studies of the active vibration control strategy based on the reverse dynamics of force actuator and the primary controller. The multi-criteria optimization procedure is utilized in order to calculate the primary controller settings which subsequently define the vibro-isolation characteristics of active suspensions. As an example of the proposed control system design, the seat with a pneumatic suspension is investigated and its vibro-isolation properties are shaped by an appropriate selection of the controller settings.

  5. Suspension for the low frequency facility

    CERN Document Server

    Cella, G; Di Virgilio, A; Gaddi, A; Viceré, A

    2000-01-01

    We introduce the working principles of the VIRGO Low Frequency Facility (LFF), whose main aim is the measurement of the thermal noise in the VIRGO suspension system. We evaluate the displacement thermal noise of a mirror, which is an intermediate element of a double pendulum suspension system. This double pendulum will be suspended to the last stage of a VIRGO Super-Attenuator (SA), the prototype VIRGO suspension system being tested at the Pisa section of INFN. In the proposed configuration, we evaluate the spectrum of the thermal noise for different choices of the parameters: based on this study, we comment on the future directions to be undertaken in the LFF experiment.

  6. 48 CFR 42.1302 - Suspension of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1302 Suspension of work. A suspension of work under a construction or architect... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension of work. 42...

  7. Manipulation of nano-entities in suspension by electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Donglei

    Nanoscale entities, including nanospheres, nanodisks, nanorings, nanowires and nanotubes are potential building blocks for nanoscale devices. Among them, nanowires is an important type of nanoparticles, due to the potential application in microelectronics and bio-diagnosis. Manipulation of nanowires in suspension has been a formidable problem. As described in this thesis, using AC electric fields applied to strategically designed microelectrodes, nanowires in suspension can be driven to align, to chain, to accelerate in directions parallel and perpendicular to its orientation, to concentrate onto designated places, and to disperse in a controlled manner with high efficiency despite an extremely low Reynolds number at the level of 10-5. Randomly oriented nanowires in suspension can be rapidly assembled into extended nonlinear structures within seconds. We show that both the electric field and its gradient play the essential roles of aligning and transporting the nanowires into scaffolds according to the electric field distributions inherent to the geometry of the microelectrodes. The assembling efficiency depends strongly on the frequency of the applied AC voltages and varies as square of the voltage. Furthermore, nanowires have been rotated by AC electric fields applied to strategically designed electrodes. The rotation of the nanowires can be instantly switched on or off with precisely controlled rotation speed (to at least 25000 rpm), definite chirality, and total angle of rotation. This new method has been used to controllably rotate magnetic and non-magnetic nanowires as well as multi-wall carbon nanotubes. We have also produced a micromotor using a rotating nanowire that can drive particles into circular motion. This has application to microfluidic devices, micro-stirrers, and micro electromechanical systems (MEMS). To move and place nanowires onto designated locations with high precision, electrophoretic force has been combined with dielectrophoretic force to

  8. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH...

  9. Multidisciplinary design optimization of mechatronic vehicles with active suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuping; McPhee, John

    2005-05-01

    A multidisciplinary optimization method is applied to the design of mechatronic vehicles with active suspensions. The method is implemented in a GA-A'GEM-MATLAB simulation environment in such a way that the linear mechanical vehicle model is designed in a multibody dynamics software package, i.e. A'GEM, the controllers and estimators are constructed using linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) method, and Kalman filter algorithm in Matlab, then the combined mechanical and control model is optimized simultaneously using a genetic algorithm (GA). The design variables include passive parameters and control parameters. In the numerical optimizations, both random and deterministic road inputs and both perfect measurement of full state variables and estimated limited state variables are considered. Optimization results show that the active suspension systems based on the multidisciplinary optimization method have better overall performance than those derived using conventional design methods with the LQG algorithm.

  10. Measurements of scattering and absorption in mammalian cell suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourant, J.R.; Johnson, T.M.; Freyer, J.P.

    1996-03-01

    During the past several years a range of spectroscopies, including fluorescence and elastic-scatter spectroscopy, have been investigated for optically based detection of cancer and other tissue pathologies. Both elastic-scatter and fluorescence signals depend, in part, on scattering and absorption properties of the cells in the tissue. Therefore an understanding of the scattering and absorption properties of cells is a necessary prerequisite for understanding and developing these techniques. Cell suspensions provide a simple model with which to begin studying the absorption and scattering properties of cells. In this study we have made preliminary measurements of the scattering and absorption properties of suspensions of mouse mammary carcinoma cells (EMT6) over a broad wavelength range (380 nm to 800 nm).

  11. Measurements of scattering and absorption in mammalian cell suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourant, Judith R.; Freyer, James P.; Johnson, Tamara M.

    1996-04-01

    During the past several years a range of spectroscopies, including fluorescence and elastic- scatter spectroscopy, have been investigated for optically based detection of cancer and other tissue pathologies. Both elastic-scatter and fluorescence signals depend, in part, on scattering and absorption properties of the cells in the tissue. Therefore an understanding of the scattering and absorption properties of cells is a necessary prerequisite for understanding and developing these techniques. Cell suspensions provide a simple model with which to begin studying the absorption and scattering properties of cells. In this study we have made preliminary measurements of the scattering and absorption properties of suspensions of mouse mammary carcinoma cells (EMT6) over a broad wavelength range (380 nm to 800 nm).

  12. Nonlinear Self-Action of Light through Biological Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezryadina, Anna; Hansson, Tobias; Gautam, Rekha; Wetzel, Benjamin; Siggins, Graham; Kalmbach, Andrew; Lamstein, Josh; Gallardo, Daniel; Carpenter, Edward J.; Ichimura, Andrew; Morandotti, Roberto; Chen, Zhigang

    2017-08-01

    It is commonly thought that biological media cannot exhibit an appreciable nonlinear optical response. We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, a tunable optical nonlinearity in suspensions of cyanobacteria that leads to robust propagation and strong self-action of a light beam. By deliberately altering the host environment of the marine bacteria, we show experimentally that nonlinear interaction can result in either deep penetration or enhanced scattering of light through the bacterial suspension, while the viability of the cells remains intact. A theoretical model is developed to show that a nonlocal nonlinearity mediated by optical forces (including both gradient and forward-scattering forces) acting on the bacteria explains our experimental observations.

  13. Suspension of rigid spheres in shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Mona; Esteghamatian, Amir; Wachs, Anthony

    2017-11-01

    Suspension of rigid spheres in a plane Couette flow is studied using three-dimensional particle resolved numerical simulations. We use a fixed mesh that resolves each particle diameter using 24 points and a Distributed Lagrange Multi- plier/Fictitious Domain (DLM/FD) method. The effects of particle volume fraction and particle Reynolds number on the macrcoscopic and microscopic stresses in the suspension are examined. The kinematics of particle are also studied for a range of dilute to dense suspensions and Stokes to inertial flows. For dense suspensions and also for higher particle Reynolds numbers the particle/particle and particle/wall contacts are enhanced. For such cases, lubrication forces need to be taken into account. We compare simulations with and without the lubrication forces to conclude for what range of parameters lubrication should be incorporated into the simulations.

  14. 21 CFR 26.16 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.16 Suspension. (a) Each party has the right...

  15. Optical analysis of red blood cell suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szołna, Alicja A.; Grzegorzewski, Bronisław

    2008-12-01

    The optical properties of suspensions of red blood cells (RBCs) were studied. Fresh human venues blood was obtained from adult healthy donors. RBCs were suspended in isotonic salt solution, and in autologous plasma. Suspensions with haematocrit 0.25 - 3% were investigated. Novel technique was proposed to determine the scattering coefficient μs for the suspensions. The intensity of He-Ne laser light transmitted through a wedge-shape container filled with a suspension was recorded. To find the dependence of the intensity on the thickness of the sample the container was moved horizontally. The dependence of μs on the haematocrit was determined for RBCs suspended in the isotonic salt solution. RBCs suspended in plasma tend to form rouleaux. For the RBCs suspended in plasma, the scattering coefficient as a function of time was obtained. It is shown that this technique can be useful in the study of rouleaux formation.

  16. Characterizations and Stability of Colloidal Coal-Measure Kaolinite in Aqueous Suspensions: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingyun; Hu, Yang; Min, Fanfei; Zhang, Mingxu; Song, Shaoxian

    2013-03-01

    Coal-measure kaolinite is a main gangue mineral in coal deposits. Because of the colloidal particle size, the kaolinite is very stable in coal tailing slurries, leading to a high turbidity of recycled water in coal washing plants. The coagulation of colloidal kaolinite in aqueous suspensions is an essential problem in many coal washing plants. This review highlights the characterizations and stability of colloidal coal-measure kaolinite in aqueous suspensions. The characterizations include mineralogy, electrokinetics and hydration layers on kaolinite surfaces. The coagulation of colloidal kaolinite in aqueous suspensions is reviewed and discussed on the basis of the DLVO theory and the characterization. In addition,the main parameters of affecting the coagulation, such as suspension pH, electrolytic ions and temperature, are summarized.

  17. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, ext...

  18. A comparison between two pneumatic suspension architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Scopesi, Marco; Franco, Walter; Quaglia, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess and compare the mathematical models of two pneumatic suspension architectures and show how they can converge, after appropriate simplifications, to a general linear form. After making this model dimensionless, it will be used to study, with a transmissibility analysis, the behaviour of a mono-suspension (quarter-car model). Finally, an example of a design process will be shown to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both architectures and to provide the ...

  19. Rheology of Confined Non-Brownian Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, Walter; Brandt, Luca; Chaudhuri, Pinaki; Lopez, Cyan Umbert; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Picano, Francesco

    2016-01-08

    We study the rheology of confined suspensions of neutrally buoyant rigid monodisperse spheres in plane-Couette flow using direct numerical simulations. We find that if the width of the channel is a (small) integer multiple of the sphere diameter, the spheres self-organize into two-dimensional layers that slide on each other and the effective viscosity of the suspension is significantly reduced. Each two-dimensional layer is found to be structurally liquidlike but its dynamics is frozen in time.

  20. Melting in temperature sensitive suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsayed, Ahmed M.

    We describe two experimental studies about melting in colloidal systems. In particular we studied melting of 1-dimensional lamellar phases and 3-dimensional colloidal crystals. In the first set of experiments we prepared suspensions composed of rodlike fd virus and the thermosensitive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). The phase diagram of this systems is temperature and concentration dependent. Using video microscopy, we directly observed melting of lamellar phases and single lamellae into nematic phase. We found that lamellar phases swell with increasing temperature before melting into the nematic phase. The highly swollen lamellae can be superheated as a result of topological nucleation barriers that slow the formation of the nematic phase. In another set of experiments we prepared colloidal crystals from thermally responsive microgel spheres. The crystals are equilibrium close-packed three-dimensional structures. Upon increasing the temperature slightly above room temperature, particle volume fraction decreased from 0.74 to less than 0.5. Using video microscopy, we observed premelting at grain boundaries and dislocations within bulk colloidal crystals. Premelting is the localized loss of crystalline order at surfaces and defects at sample volume fractions above the bulk melting transition. Particle tracking revealed increased disorder in crystalline regions bordering defects, the amount of which depends on the type of defect, distance from the defect, and particle volume fraction. In total these observations suggest that interfacial free energy is the crucial parameter for premelting in colloidal and in atomic scale crystals.

  1. X-ray Mapping of Dynamic Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mohammad; Lenoir, Nicolas; Ovarlez, Guillaume; Hormozi, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    Dense non-colloidal suspensions are materials with broad application both in industrial processes and natural phenomena. In most of these applications, the suspensions are either far from equilibrium or strongly non-Newtonian (i.e., non-colloidal particles are suspended in non-Newtonian fluid) meaning that the flow kinetics are not only strain-dependent but also strain-rate dependent. Therefore, experimental techniques must be developed to analyze the flows of these complex suspensions over a wide range of steady and transient shear rates. Techniques such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance/Imaging (NMR/I) are inapplicable due to low sampling frequency and low image resolution (typically 10 minutes per averaged NMR image of 1x1cm). We introduce a new technique using an X-ray/CT-scan system to study dynamic suspensions. We show our recent results on the application of this technique for the study of shear induced migration of particles in a yield stress matrix fluid in a wide-gap cylindrical Couette cell. This work opens new avenues to study dynamic non-colloidal suspensions and the suspensions with other types of nonlinear suspending fluids such as viscoelastic and shear thickening fluids. NFS(CBET-1554044-CAREER).

  2. Core muscle activity during suspension exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Nicola W; Yeung, Ella W; Cho, Jeran C; Hui, Samson C; Liu, Kimee C; Pang, Coleman H

    2015-03-01

    Suspension exercise has been advocated as an effective means to improve core stability among healthy individuals and those with musculoskeletal complaints. However, the activity of core muscles during suspension exercises has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the level of activation of core muscles during suspension exercises within young and healthy adults. The study was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of core muscles (rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique/transversus abdominis, and superficial lumbar multifidus) during four suspension workouts (hip abduction in plank, hamstring curl, chest press, and 45° row) was investigated. Muscle activity during a 5-s hold period of the workouts was measured by sEMG and normalized to the individual's maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Different levels of muscle activation were observed during the hip abduction in plank, hamstring curl, and chest press. Hip abduction in plank generated the highest activation of most abdominal muscles. The 45° row exercise generated the lowest muscle activation. Among the four workouts investigated, the hip abduction in plank with suspension was found to have the strongest potential strengthening effect on core muscles. Also, suspension training was found to generate relatively high levels of core muscle activation when compared with that among previous studies of core exercises on stable and unstable support surfaces. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microfluidic Fabrication Solutions for Tailor-Designed Fiber Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Berthet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibers are widely used in different industrial processes, for example in paper manufacturing or lost circulation problems in the oil industry. Recently, interest towards the use of fibers at the microscale has grown, driven by research in bio-medical applications or drug delivery systems. Microfluidic systems are not only directly relevant for lab-on-chip applications, but have also proven to be good model systems to tackle fundamental questions about the flow of fiber suspensions. It has therefore become necessary to provide fiber-like particles with an excellent control of their properties. We present here two complementary in situ methods to fabricate controlled micro-fibers allowing for an embedded fabrication and flow-on-a-chip platform. The first one, based on a photo-lithography principle, can be used to make isolated fibers and dilute fiber suspensions at specific locations of interest inside a microchannel. The self-assembly property of super-paramagnetic colloids is the principle of the second fabrication method, which enables the fabrication of concentrated suspensions of more flexible fibers. We propose a flow gallery with several examples of fiber flow illustrating the two methods’ capabilities and a range of recent laminar flow results.

  4. Cobalt ferrite dispersion in organic solvents for electrophoretic deposition: Influence of suspension parameters on the film microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, Gang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Lu, Sheng, E-mail: lusheng119@yahoo.com.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Zhou, Dongxiang [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yang, Junyou [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Fu, Qiuyun [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-01-15

    An electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method was applied for the preparation of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CFO) films on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Pt substrates. A coprecipitation process was used to synthesize fine CFO powders with an average particle size of ∼40 nm. Influences of suspension parameters such as solvents, iodine additive, and charged polymer on the suspension stability and film microstructure were investigated in detail. Three suspensions including CFO–acetylacetone, CFO–acetylacetone–0.08 wt% I{sub 2} and CFO–acetylacetone–0.2 wt% polyethylenimine (PEI) were optimized, respectively. It was found that CFO was deposited uniformly and the potential required for the deposition was small for the three optimized suspensions. After sintering at 1250 °C for 2 h, the film from CFO–acetylacetone–0.08 wt% I{sub 2} showed many cracks, which indicates this suspension is not suitable for preparing high quality CFO ceramic films. While the sintered films fabricated from the other two optimized suspensions exhibited dense structures. Based on the electric and magnetic properties of CFO ceramic films, it can be concluded that CFO–acetylacetone–0.2 wt% PEI is the proper suspension to prepare films with better microstructures and properties. - Highlights: • Suspension parameters were investigated in the EPD of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} film. • Among organic solvents acetylacetone is proper to prepare CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} suspension. • I{sub 2} addition improved suspension stability but deteriorated the film structure. • PEI addition improved both the suspension stability and the film structure.

  5. Novel quality by design tools for concentrated drug suspensions: surface energy profiling and the fractal concept of flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruif, Jan Kendall; Khoo, Jiyi; Bravo, Roberto; Kuentz, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Quality by design is an important concept, but only limited research has been invested in concentrated pharmaceutical suspensions. A need exists for novel analytical tools to thoroughly characterize the drug as well as its aggregated particle structure in suspension. This work focuses on lipid-based pharmaceutical suspensions for filling of capsules. A rheological approach, namely the fractal concept of flocculation, is introduced to the pharmaceutical field. The model drug mebeverine hydrochloride was first physicochemically analyzed. A special aim was to study the surface energy profiles using inverse gas chromatography as a critical characteristic for the suspension's rheological behavior. Suspensions were manufactured in laboratory process equipment while applying different homogenization speeds. Flow curves of the final suspensions were measured using a cone-and-plate rheometer. As a result, surface energy profiles revealed differences from one mebeverine lot to another. Different homogenization intensities greatly affected the viscosity and the Mooney model was able to predict experimental values as a function of the drug volume fraction. The fractal concept of flocculation characterized mebeverine in suspension and a slight increase of fractal dimension was noted when homogenization speed was increased. It was concluded that the introduced concepts have large potential for designing quality into concentrated pharmaceutical suspensions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Stability of propranolol in extemporaneously compounded suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensom, Mary H H; Kendrick, Jennifer; Rudolph, Susan; Decarie, Diane

    2013-03-01

    Propranolol is a drug of choice for many diseases occurring in neonates and infants, an age group for which oral suspensions are required almost exclusively. Many adult and elderly patients for whom propranolol is prescribed are also unable to swallow solid dosage forms. In Canada, propranolol is not commercially available in a liquid dosage form, and existing recipes for extemporaneously compounded suspensions of propranolol (1 mg/mL) are limited by concerns regarding diabetes mellitus in certain subpopulations, the need for a more concentrated suspension for patients taking larger doses, and the tediousness of compounding. To evaluate the stability of propranolol suspensions in a sugar-free, commercially available vehicle after storage at room temperature and under refrigeration for up to 120 days. Suspensions of propranolol (2 and 5 mg/mL) were prepared in the sugar-free vehicle (Ora-Blend SF), placed in 100-mL amber plastic prescription bottles, and stored at 25°C and 4°C. Samples were collected from each bottle once weekly for 120 days, stored frozen, and analyzed by a validated, stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography - ultraviolet detection method. A suspension was considered stable if it maintained at least 90% of its initial concentration of propranolol. Physical compatibility was evaluated in terms of colour, taste, precipitation, and pH. Propranolol suspensions 2 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL stored at 25°C maintained at least 94.7% of their initial concentration for 120 days, and suspensions stored at 4°C maintained at least 93.9% of their initial concentration for 120 days. There were no notable changes in pH, and all samples remained physically unchanged except for a slight change in colour, around day 70, of suspensions stored at room temperature. Propranolol suspensions (2 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL) prepared in Ora-Blend SF and stored in plastic prescription bottles at either 25°C or 4°C are expected to remain stable for 120 days.

  7. Mirror suspension system for the TAMA SAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamori, Akiteru [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ando, Masaki [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Bertolini, Alessandro [Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Cella, Giancarlo [Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); DeSalvo, Riccardo [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fukushima, Mitsuhiro [National Astronomy Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588 (Japan); Iida, Yukiyoshi [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Jacquier, Florian [INSA de Lyon, Lyon (France); Kawamura, Seiji [National Astronomy Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588 (Japan); Marka, Szabolcs [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nishi, Yuhiko [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Numata, Kenji [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Sannibale, Virginio [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Somiya, Kentaro [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Takahashi, Ryutaro [National Astronomy Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588 (Japan); Tariq, Hareem [Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States); Tsubono, Kimio [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Ugas, Jose [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Viboud, Nicolas [INSA de Lyon, Lyon (France); Yamamoto, Hiroaki [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Yoda, Tatsuo [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033 (Japan); Wang Chenyang [California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2002-04-07

    Several R and D programmes are ongoing to develop the next generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors providing the superior sensitivity desired for refined astronomical observations. In order to obtain a wide observation band at low frequencies, the optics need to be isolated from the seismic noise. The TAMA SAS (seismic attenuation system) has been developed within an international collaboration between TAMA, LIGO, and some European institutes, with the main objective of achieving sufficient low-frequency seismic attenuation (-180 dB at 10 HZ). The system suppresses seismic noise well below the other noise levels starting at very low frequencies above 10 Hz. It also includes an active inertial damping system to decrease the residual motion of the optics enough to allow a stable operation of the interferometer. The TAMA SAS also comprises a sophisticated mirror suspension subsystem (SUS). The SUS provides support for the optics and vibration isolation complementing the SAS performance. The SUS is equipped with a totally passive magnetic damper to suppress internal resonances without degrading the thermal noise performance. In this paper we discuss the SUS details and present prototype results.

  8. Suspension system for gimbal supported scanning payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, Michael E.

    1995-03-01

    Gimballed scanning devices or instruments are the subject of this invention. Scanning is an important aspect of space science. To achieve a scan pattern some means must be provided which impart to the payload an oscillatory motion. Various forms of machines have been employed for controllably conferring on scanning instruments predetermined scan patterns. They include control moment gyroscopes, reaction wheels, torque motors, reaction control systems, and the like. But rotating unbalanced mass (RUM) devices are a new and efficient way to generate scans in gimballed payloads. RUM devices are superior to previous scanning apparatus, but they require power consuming and frequently complex auxiliary control systems to position and reposition the particular scan pattern relative to a target or a number of targets. Herein the control system is simplified. The most frequently employed method for achieving the various scan patterns is to gimbal the scanning device. Gimbals are suspended in such a way that they can be activated to generate the scan pattern. The suspension means described is for payloads supported in gimbals wherein the payload rotation is restricted by a flex pivot so that the payload oscillates, thereby moving in a scan pattern.

  9. Aggregation behaviour of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions investigated by magnetorelaxometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberbeck, D; Wiekhorst, F; Steinhoff, U; Trahms, L [Department 8.2 Biosignals, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-09-27

    The aggregation behaviour of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) is a decisive factor for their application in medicine and biotechnology. We extended the moment superposition model developed earlier for describing the Neel relaxation of an ensemble of immobilized particles with a given size distribution by including the Brownian relaxation mechanism. The resulting cluster moment superposition model is used to characterize the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles in various suspensions in terms of mean cluster size, aggregate fraction, and size dispersion. We found that in stable ferrofluids 50%-80% of larger magnetic nanoparticles are organized in dimers and trimers. The scaling of the relaxation curves with respect to MNP concentration is found to be a sensitive indicator of the tendency of a MNP suspension to form large aggregates, which may limit the biocompatibility of the preparation. Scaling violation was observed in aged water based ferrofluids, and may originate from damaged MNP shells. In biological media such as foetal calf serum, bovine serum albumin, and human serum we observed an aggregation behaviour which reaches a maximum at a specific MNP concentration. We relate this to agglutination of the particles by macromolecular bridges between the nanoparticle shells. Analysis of the scaling behaviour helps to identify the bridging component of the suspension medium that causes agglutination.

  10. Aggregation behaviour of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions investigated by magnetorelaxometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberbeck, D.; Wiekhorst, F.; Steinhoff, U.; Trahms, L.

    2006-09-01

    The aggregation behaviour of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) is a decisive factor for their application in medicine and biotechnology. We extended the moment superposition model developed earlier for describing the Néel relaxation of an ensemble of immobilized particles with a given size distribution by including the Brownian relaxation mechanism. The resulting cluster moment superposition model is used to characterize the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles in various suspensions in terms of mean cluster size, aggregate fraction, and size dispersion. We found that in stable ferrofluids 50%-80% of larger magnetic nanoparticles are organized in dimers and trimers. The scaling of the relaxation curves with respect to MNP concentration is found to be a sensitive indicator of the tendency of a MNP suspension to form large aggregates, which may limit the biocompatibility of the preparation. Scaling violation was observed in aged water based ferrofluids, and may originate from damaged MNP shells. In biological media such as foetal calf serum, bovine serum albumin, and human serum we observed an aggregation behaviour which reaches a maximum at a specific MNP concentration. We relate this to agglutination of the particles by macromolecular bridges between the nanoparticle shells. Analysis of the scaling behaviour helps to identify the bridging component of the suspension medium that causes agglutination.

  11. Putting the spotlight back on plant suspension cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita B. Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell suspension cultures have several advantages that make them suitable for the production of recombinant proteins. They can be cultivated under aseptic conditions using classical fermentation technology, they are easy to scale-up for manufacturing, and the regulatory requirements are similar to those established for well-characterized production systems based on microbial and mammalian cells. It is therefore no surprise that taliglucerase alfa (Elelyso® – the first licensed recombinant pharmaceutical protein derived from plants – is produced in plant cell suspension cultures. But despite this breakthrough, plant cells are still largely neglected compared to transgenic plants and the more recent plant-based transient expression systems. Here, we revisit plant cell suspension cultures and highlight recent developments in the field that show how the rise of plants cells parallels that of Chinese hamster ovary cells, currently the most widespread and successful manufacturing platform for biologics. These developments include medium optimization, process engineering, statistical experimental designs, scale-up/scale-down models and process analytical technologies. Significant yield increases for diverse target proteins will encourage a gold rush to adopt plant cells as a platform technology, and the first indications of this breakthrough are already on the horizon.

  12. IMPORTANCE OF LOW POINT OF SUSPENSION IN SUICIDAL HANGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomy Mappalakayil

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There is a popular belief in Chinese culture that the spirit of those who have died by suicide by hanging will haunt and torment the survivors, because they have died in rage and with feelings of hostility angry and oppressed women would use this method as an act of revenge. A tree is the most common suspension point in hanging occurring out of doors. But, bridge or climbing frames have also been used. In indoor causes, there is a large range of suspension points including doors, banisters, rafters and loft hatches or practicality any raised object. MATERIALS AND METHODS Semi-structured proforma is used for analysis of the data. Type of study- Retrospective study. Period of Study- 2016 January to 31 st October 2016. Study Population- People of age group 10 to 90 years of age, either sex. RESULTS A significant number of cases of hanging showed partial hanging in which low point of suspension noticed. Out of twenty cases, six numbers were partial hanging, i.e. 30% which is analysed to be in significant group. All the partial hanging cases of this study showed features of slow asphyxia like petechial haemorrhages on conjunctivae and on pleural and peritoneal membranes, i.e. 100%. CONCLUSION So, this study reveals that partial hanging/hanging from a low point of suspension in very frequent, i.e. 30%. This opens an eye towards the public not to suspect homicidal hanging in every partial hanging cases and thereby unnecessary suspicion towards the killing and suspending the body in every partial hanging cases.

  13. Performance Analysis of a Semiactive Suspension System with Particle Swarm Optimization and Fuzzy Logic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Abroon Jamal; de Silva, Clarence W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a quarter model of an automobile having passive and semiactive suspension systems to develop a scheme for an optimal suspension controller. Semi-active suspension is preferred over passive and active suspensions with regard to optimum performance within the constraints of weight and operational cost. A fuzzy logic controller is incorporated into the semi-active suspension system. It is able to handle nonlinearities through the use of heuristic rules. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is applied to determine the optimal gain parameters for the fuzzy logic controller, while maintaining within the normalized ranges of the controller inputs and output. The performance of resulting optimized system is compared with different systems that use various control algorithms, including a conventional passive system, choice options of feedback signals, and damping coefficient limits. Also, the optimized semi-active suspension system is evaluated for its performance in relation to variation in payload. Furthermore, the systems are compared with respect to the attributes of road handling and ride comfort. In all the simulation studies it is found that the optimized fuzzy logic controller surpasses the other types of control. PMID:24574868

  14. Performance analysis of a semiactive suspension system with particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Abroon Jamal; de Silva, Clarence W; Khan, Afzal; Khan, Muhammad Tahir

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a quarter model of an automobile having passive and semiactive suspension systems to develop a scheme for an optimal suspension controller. Semi-active suspension is preferred over passive and active suspensions with regard to optimum performance within the constraints of weight and operational cost. A fuzzy logic controller is incorporated into the semi-active suspension system. It is able to handle nonlinearities through the use of heuristic rules. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is applied to determine the optimal gain parameters for the fuzzy logic controller, while maintaining within the normalized ranges of the controller inputs and output. The performance of resulting optimized system is compared with different systems that use various control algorithms, including a conventional passive system, choice options of feedback signals, and damping coefficient limits. Also, the optimized semi-active suspension system is evaluated for its performance in relation to variation in payload. Furthermore, the systems are compared with respect to the attributes of road handling and ride comfort. In all the simulation studies it is found that the optimized fuzzy logic controller surpasses the other types of control.

  15. Ride performance of a high speed rail vehicle using controlled semi active suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2017-05-01

    The rail-wheel interaction in a rail vehicle running at high speed results in large amplitude vibration of carbody that deteriorates the ride comfort of travellers. The role of suspension system is crucial to provide an acceptable level of ride performance. In this context, an existing rail vehicle is modelled in vertical, pitch and roll motions of carbody and bogies. Additionally, nonlinear stiffness and damping parameters of passive suspension system are defined based on experimental data. In the secondary vertical suspension system, a magneto-rheological (MR) damper is included to improve the ride quality and comfort. The parameters of MR damper depend on the current, amplitude and frequency of excitations. At different running speeds, three semi-active suspension strategies with MR damper are analysed for periodic track irregularity and the resulting performance indices are juxtaposed with the nonlinear passive suspension system. The disturbance rejection and force tracking damper controller algorithms are applied to control the desired force of MR damper. This study reveals that the vertical vibrations of a vehicle can be reduced significantly by using the proposed semi-active suspension strategies. Moreover, it naturally results in improved ride quality and passenger’s comfort in comparison to the existing passive system.

  16. Performance Analysis of a Semiactive Suspension System with Particle Swarm Optimization and Fuzzy Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abroon Jamal Qazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a quarter model of an automobile having passive and semiactive suspension systems to develop a scheme for an optimal suspension controller. Semi-active suspension is preferred over passive and active suspensions with regard to optimum performance within the constraints of weight and operational cost. A fuzzy logic controller is incorporated into the semi-active suspension system. It is able to handle nonlinearities through the use of heuristic rules. Particle swarm optimization (PSO is applied to determine the optimal gain parameters for the fuzzy logic controller, while maintaining within the normalized ranges of the controller inputs and output. The performance of resulting optimized system is compared with different systems that use various control algorithms, including a conventional passive system, choice options of feedback signals, and damping coefficient limits. Also, the optimized semi-active suspension system is evaluated for its performance in relation to variation in payload. Furthermore, the systems are compared with respect to the attributes of road handling and ride comfort. In all the simulation studies it is found that the optimized fuzzy logic controller surpasses the other types of control.

  17. Order and gelation of cellulose nanocrystal suspensions: an overview of some issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Derek G.

    2017-12-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are polydisperse rod-shaped particles of crystalline cellulose I, typically prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis of natural cellulose fibres to give aqueous colloidal suspensions stabilized by sulfate half-ester groups. Sufficiently dilute suspensions are isotropic fluids, but as the concentration of CNC in water is increased, a critical concentration is reached where a spontaneously ordered phase is observed. The (equilibrium) phase separation of the ordered chiral nematic phase is in competition with a tendency of the CNC suspension to form a gel. Qualitatively, factors that reduce the stability of the CNC suspension favour the onset of gelation. The chiral nematic structure is preserved, at least partially, when the suspension dries. Solid chiral nematic films of cellulose are of interest for their optical and templating properties, but the preparation of the films requires improvement. The processes that govern the formation of solid chiral nematic films from CNC suspensions include phase separation, gelation and also the effects of shear on CNC orientation during evaporation. Some insight into these processes is provided by polarized light microscopy, which indicates that the relaxation of shear-induced orientation to give a chiral nematic structure may occur via an intermediate twist-bend state. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'.

  18. Mathematical modelling of the secondary airspring suspension in railway vehicles and its effect on safety and ride comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchinetti, Alan; Mazzola, Laura; Alfi, Stefano; Bruni, Stefano

    2010-12-01

    The mathematical model of suspension components in a railway vehicle may have an important effect on the results of vehicle dynamics simulations and their accuracy in reproducing the actual vehicle behaviour. This paper aims to define and compare alternative mathematical modelling approaches for the secondary airspring suspension and to assess their effect on the accuracy of rail vehicle dynamics multibody simulation. To derive reliable models of the suspension, a quasi-static and dynamic characterisation of the suspension was performed by means of a full-scale laboratory experiment. Based on this, two different modelling approaches were developed for the airspring suspension: a quasi-static one, in which the frequency-dependent behaviour of the suspension is neglected, but the coupling between shear and roll stiffness is included, and a dynamic one in which additionally the frequency-dependent behaviour of the suspension in vertical direction is represented using a thermodynamic model, and additionally the dependency of lateral/roll stiffness parameters on the load is incorporated. The results of vehicle dynamics simulations in curved track and/or in the presence of crosswinds and the results of ride comfort calculations are presented, to assess the effect of the models developed, in comparison with a simpler model only reproducing the vertical and lateral stiffness of the suspension. It is demonstrated that the quasi-static coupling effect between shear and roll deformation in the airsprings can have a large effect on the simulation of load transfer effects in curved track and in the presence of crosswinds, and hence remarkably affect the assessment of ride safety and track loading, whereas the dynamic model of the airspring suspension appears to be required when wheel unloading under the action of crosswind is evaluated. Finally, it is shown that a dynamic model of the airspring is required to assess ride comfort correctly, especially when the pneumatic layout

  19. Rheological behavior of oxide nanopowder suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Simge

    Ceramic nanopowders offer great potential in advanced ceramic materials and many other technologically important applications. Because a material's rheological properties are crucial for most processing routes, control of the rheological behavior has drawn significant attention in the recent past. The control of rheological behavior relies on an understanding of how different parameters affect the suspension viscosities. Even though the suspension stabilization mechanisms are relatively well understood for sub-micron and micron size particle systems, this knowledge cannot be directly transferred to nanopowder suspensions. Nanopowder suspensions exhibit unexpectedly high viscosities that cannot be explained with conventional mechanisms and are still a topic of investigation. This dissertation aims to establish the critical parameters governing the rheological behavior of concentrated oxide nanopowder suspensions, and to elucidate the mechanisms by which these parameters control the rheology of these suspensions. Aqueous alumina nanopowders were chosen as a model system, and the findings were extrapolated to other oxide nanopowder systems such as zirconia, yttria stabilized zirconia, and titania. Processing additives such as fructose, NaCl, HCl, NaOH, and ascorbic acid were used in this study. The effect of solids content and addition of fructose on the viscosity of alumina nanopowder suspensions was investigated by low temperature differential scanning calorimetry (LT-DSC), rheological, and zeta potential measurements. The analysis of bound water events observed in LT-DSC revealed useful information regarding the rheological behavior of nanopowder suspensions. Because of the significance of interparticle interactions in nanopowder suspensions, the electrostatic stabilization was investigated using indifferent and potential determining ions. Different mechanisms, e.g., the effect of the change in effective volume fraction caused by fructose addition and electrostatic

  20. Analysis Of Vehicle Lateral Stability Estimating Suspension Characteristics On The Snowy And Dry Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidas Žuraulis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the lateral dynamics of the vehicle withindependent suspension. The tests have been made driving inan incremental acceleration mode under conditions of a circulartrajectory within 10, 15 and 20-meter radius. The literature reviewprovides a summary of recent research re-lated to the topics discussedin this article. The article looks at the interaction of thesnowy and dry road with wheels and its influence on the lateraloscillation of a vehicle. The displacement of different sides ofvehicle suspension and its variation in acting lateral accelerationhave also been estimated. Data on the performed tests of theconducted research have been graphically plotted thus presentingthe summarized results and conclusions.

  1. Fabrication and the rheology of crystalline polyethylene microgels for thermo-responsive suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Gerald H.

    Microgel suspensions have been studied and characterized extensively by many research groups in recent years. However, most of these suspensions are aqueous in nature with those exhibiting thermo-responsive characteristics being almost exclusively aqueous. The original impetus for this research dissertation was to develop a thermo-responsive microgel suspension that was completely organic in nature for use in high-performance lubricants. These suspensions would maintain or even increase in viscosity with increasing temperature. The focus of the dissertation eventually broadened to a more general approach encompassing soft, swellable particles in organic media. PE microgels were developed using mechanical fragmentation techniques as well as from immiscible blends of PS and PE. The microgels ranged in size from 127 +/- 2 microm to 0.944 +/- 0.003 microm and the size distributions were well-described using Log-Normal and Weibull distributions. The mechanical fragmentation method produced PE microgels with long surface chains that were capable of interparticle interactions when suspended in squalane. To study the effect of these interactions, the PE microgels produced from immiscible blends were modified to have minimal terminal PE chains or PS chains grafted on the surface. A variety of spectroscopy and electron microscopy techniques were employed to characterize the PE microgels especially the topology of PE microgels with grafted PS chains. Steady flow and small-strain oscillatory viscoelastic experiments were performed on the PE microgel suspensions to characterize the thermal response and interparticle interactions. The PE microgel suspensions exhibited an increase in steady-shear viscosity when the PE microgels melted and the magnitude of the increase was dependent on the PE microgel concentration. Dynamic temperature sweeps of the PE microgel suspensions showed evidence of interparticle interactions as evident from the formation of a gel.

  2. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ceres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel 300 mm in diameter. The just suspension impeller speeds were measured using an electrochemical method, and were checked visually. A 2.5 % NaCl water solution was used as the liquid phase, and glass particles with four equivalent diameters between 0.18 and 0.89 mmand volumetric concentration from 2.5 % to 40% were usedasthesolid phase. The criterion values πs=Po√Fr'3(d/D7 were calculated from the particle suspension and power consumption measurements. The dependencies of πs on particle content cv show that larger agitators are more efficient for higher particle content.

  3. Intrinsic viscosity of actively swimming microalgae suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewoldt, Randy; Caretta, Lucas; Chengala, Anwar; Sheng, Jian

    2011-11-01

    Suspensions of actively swimming microorganisms exhibit an effective viscosity which may depend on volume fraction, cell shape, and the nature of locomotion (e.g. ``pushers'' vs. ``pullers''). Although several dilute-regime theories have been offered for active suspensions, no experimental study to our knowledge has been able to resolve the dilute-regime intrinsic viscosity of actively swimming microorganism suspensions. Here we use a cone-and-plate rheometer to experimentally measure the dynamic shear viscosity for motile and non-motile suspensions of unicellular green algae (Dunaliella primolecta, a biflagellated ``puller''). The low viscosity biological samples require careful experimental protocols to avoid settling and flow-induced migration, and to minimize precision error. With these protocols in place we can distinguish the intrinsic viscosity which we show is higher for the motile ``puller'' swimmers compared to the immobilized counterparts. This observation is consistent with recently proposed dilute-regime theories which predict that ``pullers'' should have a higher viscosity than non-motile suspensions.

  4. Inhalation delivery of proteins from ethanol suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W S; Murthy, G G; Edwards, D A; Langer, R; Klibanov, A M

    2001-09-25

    To circumvent inherent problems associated with pulmonary administration of aqueous-solution and dry-powder protein drugs, inhalation delivery of proteins from their suspensions in absolute ethanol was explored both in vitro and in vivo. Protein suspensions in ethanol of up to 9% (wt/vol) were readily aerosolized with a commercial compressor nebulizer. Experiments with enzymic proteins revealed that nebulization caused no detectable loss of catalytic activity; furthermore, enzyme suspensions in anhydrous ethanol retained their full catalytic activity for at least 3 weeks at room temperature. With the use of Zn(2+)-insulin, conditions were elaborated that produced submicron protein particles in ethanol suspensions. The latter (insulin/EtOH) afforded respirable-size aerosol particles after nebulization. A 40-min exposure of laboratory rats to 10 mg/ml insulin/EtOH aerosols resulted in a 2-fold drop in the blood glucose level and a marked rise in the serum insulin level. The bioavailability based on estimated deposited lung dose of insulin delivered by inhalation of ethanol suspension aerosols was 33% (relative to an equivalent s.c. injection), i.e., comparable to those observed in rats after inhalation administration of dry powder and aqueous solutions of insulin. Inhalation of ethanol in a relevant amount/time frame resulted in no detectable acute toxic effects on rat lungs or airways, as reflected by the absence of statistically significant inflammatory or allergic responses, damage to the alveolar/capillary barrier, and lysed and/or damaged cells.

  5. Stability of dynamic response of suspension bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsoni, Antonio; Ardito, Raffaele; Guerrieri, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The potential occurrence of internal parametric resonance phenomena has been recently indicated as a potential contributory cause of the appearance of critical dynamic states in long-span suspension bridges. At the same time, suspension bridges, in view of their flexibility, are prone to aeroelastic response, such as vortex shedding, torsional divergence and flutter. In this paper, a non-linear dynamic model of a suspension bridge is devised, with the purpose of providing a first attempt toward a unified framework for the study of aeroelastic and internal resonance instabilities. Inspired by the pioneering work of Herrmann and Hauger, the analyses have been based on a linearized formulation that is able to represent the main structural non-linear effects and the coupling given by aerodynamic forces. The results confirm that the interaction between aeroelastic effects and non-linear internal resonance leads to unstable conditions for wind speeds which can be lower than the critical threshold for standard aeroelastic predictions.

  6. Estimation of tracked vehicle suspension parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldélio Bueno Caldeira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to estimate the suspension stiffness and damping coefficient of a tracked vehicle by using an inverse problem technique based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and on Random Restricted Window (R2W. The tracked vehicle has ten road wheels. Each road wheel is linked to a passive and independent suspension. A half car model with seven degrees of freedom describes the bounce and pitch dynamics of the chassis and the vertical dynamics of the wheels. Bounce and pitch accelerations are evaluated when the vehicle traverses a bump terrain. The inverse problem approach minimizes the total quadratic error between estimated and pseudo-experimental data for bounce and pitch accelerations. The viability of a field experiment to estimate the suspension parameters is analyzed, as well as the performance of the employed optimization methods and the effects of the noise on pseudo-experimental data.

  7. Anomalous electrical conductivity of nanoscale colloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Suman; Padhy, Sourav

    2008-10-28

    The electrical conductivity of colloidal suspensions containing nanoscale conducting particles is nontrivially related to the particle volume fraction and the electrical double layer thickness. Classical electrochemical models, however, tend to grossly overpredict the pertinent effective electrical conductivity values, as compared to those obtained under experimental conditions. We attempt to address this discrepancy by appealing to the complex interconnection between the aggregation kinetics of the nanoscale particles and the electrodynamics within the double layer. In particular, we model the consequent alterations in the effective electrophoretic mobility values of the suspension by addressing the fundamentals of agglomeration-deagglomeration mechanisms through the pertinent variations in the effective particulate dimensions, solid fractions, as well as the equivalent suspension viscosity. The consequent alterations in the electrical conductivity values provide a substantially improved prediction of the corresponding experimental findings and explain the apparent anomalous behavior predicted by the classical theoretical postulates.

  8. Vibration study of a vehicle suspension assembly with the finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cătălin Marinescu, Gabriel; Castravete, Ştefan-Cristian; Dumitru, Nicolae

    2017-10-01

    The main steps of the present work represent a methodology of analysing various vibration effects over suspension mechanical parts of a vehicle. A McPherson type suspension from an existing vehicle was created using CAD software. Using the CAD model as input, a finite element model of the suspension assembly was developed. Abaqus finite element analysis software was used to pre-process, solve, and post-process the results. Geometric nonlinearities are included in the model. Severe sources of nonlinearities such us friction and contact are also included in the model. The McPherson spring is modelled as linear spring. The analysis include several steps: preload, modal analysis, the reduction of the model to 200 generalized coordinates, a deterministic external excitation, a random excitation that comes from different types of roads. The vibration data used as an input for the simulation were previously obtained by experimental means. Mathematical expressions used for the simulation were also presented in the paper.

  9. [Idiopathic loss of lateral tarsal suspension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyano, J; Martín, E; Genol-Saavedra, I; García-Sánchez, J

    2007-06-01

    A 53-year-old man who showed a loss of tarsal suspension in the lateral third of both lower eyelids underwent lateral canthoplasty with a good post-operative result. Disinsertion of the union of the inferior tarsus with the lateral canthus, of unknown cause, is a very uncommon finding that has almost never been reported in the world literature. There are two cases described of eyelid elastolysis with loss of lateral tarsal suspension, as in our case, but both showed eyelid skin atrophy and had histopathologic confirmation. Our case did not have skin atrophy.

  10. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  11. Deflocculation of clay suspensions using sodium polyacrylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, P.

    1984-01-01

    Rheological properties of elutriated kaolin suspensions deflocculated by Na polyacrylate (DAC 3 and DAC 4) were studied and compared to those deflocculated by the conventional Na2CO3 water and glass and imported Dispex N40. The deflocculating effect of Na polyacrylate was comparable to that of Dispex N40. The optimum amounts of Na polyacrylate were determined for suspensions based on 5-type kaolin. The Na polyacrylate can be successfully used for decreasing the water content of ceramic slips for casting and spray drying.

  12. A comparison between two pneumatic suspension architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglia, G.; Scopesi, M.; Franco, W.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work is to assess and compare the mathematical models of two pneumatic suspension architectures and show how they can converge, after appropriate simplifications, to a general linear form. After making this model dimensionless, it will be used to study, with a transmissibility analysis, the behaviour of a mono-suspension (quarter-car model). Finally, an example of a design process will be shown to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both architectures and to provide the reader with a practical design tool.

  13. Reducing Transmitted Vibration Using Delayed Hysteretic Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcen Mokni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous numerical and experimental works show that time delay technique is efficient to reduce transmissibility of vibration in a single pneumatic chamber by controlling the pressure in the chamber. The present work develops an analytical study to demonstrate the effectiveness of such a technique in reducing transmitted vibrations. A quarter-car model is considered and delayed hysteretic suspension is introduced in the system. Analytical predictions based on perturbation analysis show that a delayed hysteretic suspension enhances vibration isolation comparing to the case where the nonlinear damping is delay-independent.

  14. Time varying behaviour of the loudspeaker suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn; Pedersen, Bo Rohde

    2009-01-01

    The compliance of the loudspeaker suspension is known to depend on the recent excitation level history. Previous investigations have shown that the electrical power as well as displacement and velocity plays a role. In this paper the hypothesis that the changes in compliance are caused mainly...... by how much the suspension has been stretched, i.e., the maximum displacement, is investigated. For this purpose the changes in compliance are measured when exposing the loudspeaker to different levels and types of electrical excitation signals, as well as mechanical excitation only. For sinusoidal...

  15. Gravity Drainage Kinetics of Papermaking Fibrous Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybysz Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses application possibilities of filtration and thickening models in evaluation of papermaking suspension drainage rate. The authors proposed their own method to estimate the drainage rate on the basis of an existing Ergun capillary model of liquid flow through a granular material. The proposed model was less sensitive to porosity changes than the Ergun model. An empirical verification proved robustness of the proposed approach. Taking into account discrepancies in the published data concerning how the drainage velocity of papermaking suspension is defined, this study examines which of the commonly applied models matches experimental results the best.

  16. Laser effects on yeast cell suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorovici, A.; Despa, Sanda I.; Paunescu, Teodor G.

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the effects produced by coherent electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet and visible range on the growth of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell suspension. There were made several experiments in which we used different irradiation parameters (power, irradiation time, wavelength) for pointing out those that produce the stimulation or inhibition of the cellular culture growth. Beyond the modifications that appeared in the culture evolution we investigated other physical and chemical changes induced by the laser light on yeast cell suspensions.

  17. Unifying Suspension and Granular flows near Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeGiuli Eric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of dense flows of hard particles are singular as one approaches the jamming threshold where flow ceases, both for granular flows dominated by inertia, and for over-damped suspensions. Concomitantly, the lengthscale characterizing velocity correlations appears to diverge at jamming. Here we review a theoretical framework that gives a scaling description of stationary flows of frictionless particles. Our analysis applies both to suspensions and inertial flows of hard particles. We report numerical results in support of the theory, and show the phase diagram that results when friction is added, delineating the regime of validity of the frictionless theory.

  18. 39 CFR 954.6 - Revocation or suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.6 Revocation or suspension. When the authorized official determines that a publication is no longer entitled to Periodicals mailing...

  19. Etude thermique expérimentale des suspensions non newtoniennes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newtonian and pseudoplastic suspensions flowing in a horizontal pipe with variable geometry. These suspensions are composed of large hard spheres in a solution of Tylose. It helped to highlight the limits of the development of the thermal boundary ...

  20. Enhancement of 20-hydroxyecdysone production in cell suspension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-18

    hydroxyecdysone production of. Vitex glabrata suspension .... hydroxyecdysone production in V. glabrata cell suspension cultures. Determination of dry cell ... residue was dissolved in 3 ml methanol and vortexed with 2 ml hexane twice.

  1. Decoupling Suspension Controller Based on Magnetic Flux Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The suspension module control system model has been established based on MIMO (multiple input and multiple output state feedback linearization. We have completed decoupling between double suspension points, and the new decoupling method has been applied to CMS04 magnetic suspension vehicle in national mid-low-speed maglev experiment field of Tangshan city in China. Double suspension system model is very accurate for investigating stability property of maglev control system. When magnetic flux signal is taken back to the suspension control system, the suspension module’s antijamming capacity for resisting suspension load variety has been proved. Also, the external force interference has been enhanced. As a result, the robustness and stability properties of double-electromagnet suspension control system have been enhanced.

  2. Flow Electrification in Nonaqueous Colloidal Suspensions, studied with Video Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolpekin, V.A.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Duits, Michael H.G.; Mellema, J.

    2004-01-01

    Flow electrification in nonaqueous suspensions has been scarcely reported in the literature but can significantly affect colloidal stability and (phase) behavior, perhaps even without being recognized. We have observed it in shear flow experiments on concentrated binary suspensions of hydrophobized

  3. On the Benefits of Semi-Active Suspensions with Inerters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Jie Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inerters have become a hot topic in recent years especially in vehicle, train, building suspension systems, etc. Eight different layouts of suspensions were analyzed with a quarter-car model in this paper. Dimensionless root mean square (RMS responses of the sprung mass vertical acceleration, the suspension travel, and the tire deflection are derived which were used to evaluate the performance of the quarter-car model. The behaviour of semi-active suspensions with inerters using Groundhook, Skyhook, and Hybrid control has been evaluated and compared to the performance of passive suspensions with inerters. Sensitivity analysis was applied to the development of a high performance semi-active suspension with an inerter. Numerical simulations indicate that a semi-active suspension with an inerter has much better performance than the passive suspension with an inerter, especially with the Hybrid control method, which has the best compromise between comfort and road holding quality.

  4. Electrophoretic deposition of unstable colloidal suspensions for superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Young Soo; Buie, Cullen R

    2011-04-05

    A novel method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is presented. EPD presents a readily scalable, customizable, and potentially low cost surface manufacturing process. Low surface energy materials with high surface roughness are achieved using EPD of unstable hydrophobic SiO(2) particle suspensions. The effect of suspension stability on surface roughness is quantitatively explored with optical absorbance measurements (to determine suspension stability) and atomic force microscopy (to measure surface roughness). Varying suspension pH modulates suspension stability. Contrary to most applications of EPD, we show that superhydrophobic surfaces favor mildly unstable suspensions since they result in high surface roughness. Particle agglomerates formed in unstable suspensions lead to highly irregular films after EPD. After only 1 min of EPD, we obtain surfaces with low contact angle hysteresis and static contact angles exceeding 160°. We also present a technique to enhance the mechanical durability of the superhydrophobic surfaces by adding a polymeric binder to the suspension prior to EPD.

  5. Aspects of suspension design for the development of advanced gravitational wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul

    The Institute for Gravitational Research in the University of Glasgow in collaboration with the Albert Einstein Institute in Hannover, Golm and the University of Cardiff has been actively involved in the research for the development of instruments and data analysis techniques to detect gravitational waves. This includes construction of a long ground based interferometer in Germany called GEO 600 (upgraded to GEO-HF) having an arm length 600 m and strong involvement in the larger detectors of the LIGO (Laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory) project in USA having arm lengths of 4 km (Operated by MIT, Boston and CALTECH, Pasadena). An upgrade to LIGO called Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) is currently under construction with significant input from the University of Glasgow. Thermal noise is one of the most significant noise sources affecting the sensitivity of the detector at a range of frequencies. Thermal noise arises due to the random fluctuations of atoms and molecules in the materials of the test mass mirrors and suspension elements, and is related to mechanical loss in these materials. The work presented in chapter 3 of this thesis is devoted to the analysis of aspects of mechanical loss and thermal noise in the final stages of the GEO suspension. The work in chapter 4 focuses on the theory of photoelasticty and birefringence techniques. A study of mechanical and thermal stress induced in fused silica has been discussed in chapter 5 of this thesis. To understand the working of photoelastic techniques learned in chapter 4, a study of mechanical stress was undertaken by applying a load on the sample to induce temporary birefringence. A study of thermal stress in fused silica welds has also been presented in chapter 5.

  6. A Study on Integration of Energy Harvesting System and Semi-Active Control for a Hydraulic Suspension System

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Sung, Yung-Ching; Liu, Han-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Suspension systems are used to diminish the vibration of vehicles. The hydraulic dampers in conventional suspension systems are mainly designed with the orifices of the piston; however, the vibration energy will be transferred into waste heat. In recent years, conventional vehicles with internal combustion engines and hybrid vehicles are used commonly. However, with the gradual depletion of fossil fuels, electric vehicles are developing. For this reason, the research focuses on recycling ener...

  7. The behavior of ash species in suspension fired biomass boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2015-01-01

    While fluid bed and grate fired boilers initially was the choice of boilers used for power production from both wood and herbaceous biomass, in recent years suspension fired boilers have been increasingly used for biomass based power production. In Denmark several large pulverized fuel boilers have been converted from coal to biomass combustion in the last 15 years. This have included co-firing of coal and straw, up to 100% firing of wood or straw andthe use of coal ash as an additive to reme...

  8. Force Measurements in Magnetic Suspension and Balance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, Alexander; Shapovalov, George; Prohorov, Nikolay

    1996-01-01

    The description of an infrared telemetry system for measurement of drag forces in Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS) is presented. This system includes a drag force sensor, electronic pack and transmitter placed in the model which is of special construction, and receiver with a microprocessor-based measuring device, placed outside of the test section. Piezosensitive resonators as sensitive elements and non-magnetic steel as the material for the force sensor are used. The main features of the proposed system for load measurements are discussed and the main characteristics are presented.

  9. Development of an Air Pneumatic Suspension System for Transtibial Prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    Pirouzi, Gholamhossein; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu; Oshkour, Azim; Ali, Sadeeq; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Abas, Wan Wan

    2014-01-01

    The suspension system and socket fitting of artificial limbs have major roles and vital effects on the comfort, mobility, and satisfaction of amputees. This paper introduces a new pneumatic suspension system that overcomes the drawbacks of current suspension systems in donning and doffing, change in volume during daily activities, and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface. An air pneumatic suspension system (APSS) for total-contact sockets was designed and developed. Pistoning a...

  10. 75 FR 19891 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... management measures after this rule is published but prior to the actual suspension date. These communities.... China, Township of, St. 260203 August 16, 1974, ......do -Do-. Clair County. Emerg; August 1, 1978, Reg.... East China, Township of, 260197 February 9, 1973, ......do -Do-. St. Clair County. Emerg; July 3, 1978...

  11. Electroneutrality and phase behavior of colloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, A R

    2007-11-01

    Several statistical mechanical theories predict that colloidal suspensions of highly charged macroions and monovalent microions can exhibit unusual thermodynamic phase behavior when strongly deionized. Density-functional, extended Debye-Hückel, and response theories, within mean-field and linearization approximations, predict a spinodal phase instability of charged colloids below a critical salt concentration. Poisson-Boltzmann cell model studies of suspensions in Donnan equilibrium with a salt reservoir demonstrate that effective interactions and osmotic pressures predicted by such theories can be sensitive to the choice of reference system, e.g., whether the microion density profiles are expanded about the average potential of the suspension or about the reservoir potential. By unifying Poisson-Boltzmann and response theories within a common perturbative framework, it is shown here that the choice of reference system is dictated by the constraint of global electroneutrality. On this basis, bulk suspensions are best modeled by density-dependent effective interactions derived from a closed reference system in which the counterions are confined to the same volume as the macroions. Lower-dimensional systems (e.g., monolayers, clusters), depending on the strength of macroion-counterion correlations, may be governed instead by density-independent effective interactions tied to an open reference system with counterions dispersed throughout the reservoir, possibly explaining the observed structural crossover in colloidal monolayers and anomalous metastability of colloidal crystallites.

  12. Stress fluctuations in sheared Stokesian suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasan, J; Ramamohan, T R; Singh, Anugrah; Nott, Prabhu R

    2002-08-01

    We report an analysis, using the tools of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory, of the fluctuations in the stress determined from simulations of shear flow of Stokesian suspensions. The simulations are for shear between plane parallel walls of a suspension of rigid identical spheres in a Newtonian fluid, over a range of particle concentration. By analyzing the time series of the stress, we find that the dynamics underlying these fluctuations is deterministic, low-dimensional, and chaotic. We use the dynamic and metric invariants of the underlying dynamics as a means of characterizing suspension behavior. The dimension of the chaotic attractor increases with particle concentration, indicating the increasing influence of multiple-body interactions on the rheology of the suspension with rise in particle concentration. We use our analysis to make accurate predictions of the short-term evolution of a stress component from its preceding time series, and predict the evolution of one component of the stress using the time series of another. We comment on the physical origin of the chaotic stress fluctuations, and on the implications of our results on the relation between the microstructure and the stress.

  13. Cosmetic powder suspensions in compliant, fingerprintlike contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K; Myant, C; Spikes, H A; Schneider, M; Ladnorg, T; Grunze, M

    2011-09-01

    Cosmetic powders are regularly employed in skin creams and cosmetic formulations to improve performance and enhance skin feel. A previous study investigated the effect of particle concentration and size on the lubricating properties of powder suspensions in smooth, compliant contacts [Timm et al., Tribol. Int. (2011)]. In this paper the tribological properties of cosmetic powder suspensions are investigated in compliant contacts having model fingerprintlike surface topography. Friction coefficients were measured for a series of powder suspensions with varying particle size and concentration in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/PDMS contact. A commercial tribometer (MTM, PCS Instruments) was employed to measure friction as a function of rubbing time (20 min), under pure sliding (50 mm/s) and low load (0.5 N) conditions. Compared to results using smooth surfaces, it was clear that surface topography has a pronounced affect on the time-dependent tribological behavior of the cosmetic powder suspensions studied. A two-stage friction coefficient versus time curve was observed. By varying the particle size and concentration it was shown that the duration and magnitude of each stage can be controlled.

  14. 75 FR 55280 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ...; September 29, 2010, Susp. Sweet Home, City of, Linn 410146 April 17, 1975, ......do Do. County. Emerg; March... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...

  15. Nucleonic coal detector with independent, hydropneumatic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. W.; Handy, K.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a nucleonic, coal interface detector which measures the depth of coal on the roof and floor of a coal mine is presented. The nucleonic source and the nucleonic detector are on independent hydropneumatic suspensions to reduce the measurement errors due to air gap.

  16. Suspension of Water Droplets on Individual Pillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tóth, T.; Ferraro, D.; Chiarello, E.

    2011-01-01

    We report results of extensive experimental and numerical studies on the suspension of water drops deposited on cylindrical pillars having circular and square cross sections and different wettabilities. In the case of circular pillars, the drop contact line is pinned to the whole edge contour until...

  17. "Restorative Practices" Offer Alternatives to Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    At City Springs and many other schools across the country, restorative practices are about holding students accountable and getting them to right a wrong. The approach is getting more notice than ever as criticism grows of zero-tolerance disciplinary policies that often require out-of-school suspension and expulsion. Educators are turning to…

  18. Tangential Ultrafiltration of Aqueous "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae" Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos M.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.; Xavier, Ana M. R. B.; Eusebio, M. F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental work on ultrafiltration is presented to illustrate the practical and theoretical principles of this separation technique. The laboratory exercise comprises experiments with pure water and with aqueous "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" (from commercial Baker's yeast) suspensions. With this work students detect the characteristic phenomena…

  19. Formation of Aqueous Suspensions of Fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloidal suspensions of C60, C70 and a derivative of C60, PCBM ([6,6]-Phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester) were produced by extended mixing in water. We examined the contribution of background solution chemistry (pH, ionic strength) on the formation kinetics of colloidal suspe...

  20. 77 FR 2912 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY.... Coahoma County. Emerg; September 28, 1979, Reg; February 2, 2012, Susp. Lula, Town of, Coahoma 280042 May...

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Using a critical leadership theory framework, we conducted a qualitative ... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, ... AITRP was to develop HIV research leaders at the University of ..... Wellcome-Trust.

  2. EOS suspension test for the assessment of spinal flexibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Caroline; Ilharreborde, Brice; Mazda, Keyvan

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of spinal flexibility is essential for the planning of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. Various radiographic methods have been used but none of them has shown any superiority. The new low-dose stereography system EOS (EOS imaging, Paris, France) captures whole body images in a single scan without vertical distortion. EOS is now used in routine clinical use for AIS follow-up. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and the reproducibility of a new suspension test during the EOS imaging for the assessment of spinal flexibility in AIS. Fifty AIS patients scheduled for surgery were prospectively included. For each patient, a standard EOS radiograph was obtained, then a suspension test in the EOS and a classic traction test on the cotrel frame were performed. The examinations were compared in terms of radiation exposure, tolerance, mean traction force, and Cobb angle reduction for each curve. Axial and sagittal reductions during suspension were analyzed on three-dimensional EOS reconstructions. The tolerance of the suspension test was lower than the traction test but it was less operator dependent. Radiation exposure was 7 times lower during the suspension test. Cobb angle reductions achieved in the proximal and main curves by the two tests were similar. The traction test achieved greater reduction of the distal curve. Flexibility in the axial plane and in the sagittal plane was analyzed with the suspension test. The reduction in apical rotation was not correlated with the reduction in Cobb angle. The EOS suspension test can be used for the assessment of spinal flexibility in AIS. It gives a global vision of the deformity with new flexibility indices in the axial and sagittal planes.

  3. 21 CFR 520.1182 - Iron dextran suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron dextran suspension. 520.1182 Section 520.1182... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1182 Iron dextran suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of suspension contains 55.56 milligrams (mg) iron as ferric...

  4. Fuzzy logic control of vehicle suspensions with dry friction nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We design and investigate the performance of fuzzy logic-controlled (FLC) active suspensions on a nonlinear vehicle model with four degrees of freedom, without causing any degeneration in suspension working limits. Force actuators were mounted parallel to the suspensions. In this new approach, linear combinations of ...

  5. Electrostratic stabilization of suspensions in non-aqueous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven, van der P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated suspensions of detergent powder solids in a liquid nonionic surfactant are considered for practical application as liquid detergent products. If no precautions are taken, upon storage the viscosity of such suspensions increases and the pourability drops because the suspensions are

  6. 48 CFR 52.242-14 - Suspension of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension of Work. 52.242... Suspension of Work. As prescribed in 42.1305(a), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when a fixed-price construction or architect-engineer contract is contemplated: Suspension of Work (APR...

  7. Fuzzy logic control of vehicle suspensions with dry friction nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are faced with the problem of determining suspension spring and damper coefficients. Two important ... Replacement of spring damper suspensions of automobiles by active systems has the potential to ..... Rao M V C, Prahlad V 1997 A tunable fuzzy logic controller for vehicle-active suspension systems. Fuzzy Sets Syst.

  8. 21 CFR 520.905a - Fenbendazole suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fenbendazole suspension. 520.905a Section 520.905a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.905a Fenbendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains 100 milligrams (mg) fenbendazole. (b...

  9. 21 CFR 520.903b - Febantel suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Febantel suspension. 520.903b Section 520.903b... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.903b Febantel suspension. (a) Specifications. The suspension contains 9.3 percent (2.75 grams per ounce) febantel. (b) Sponsor. See 000859 in...

  10. 21 CFR 522.960a - Flumethasone suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flumethasone suspension. 522.960a Section 522.960a... Flumethasone suspension. (a) Chemical name. 6α,9α-Difluoro-11β,17,21 - trihydroxy - 16α - methylpregna - 1,4 - diene - 3,20 - dione. (b) Specifications. Flumethasone suspension is sterile and each milliliter of the...

  11. CFD simulation of solids suspension in stirred tanks: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochieng Aoyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many chemical reactions are carried out using stirred tanks, and the efficiency of such systems depends on the quality of mixing, which has been a subject of research for many years. For solid-liquid mixing, traditionally the research efforts were geared towards determining mixing features such as off-bottom solid suspension using experimental techniques. In a few studies that focused on the determination of solids concentration distribution, some methods that have been used have not been accurate enough to account for some small scale flow mal-distribution such as the existence of dead zones. The present review shows that computational fluid dynamic (CFD techniques can be used to simulate mixing features such as solids off-bottom suspension, solids concentration and particle size distribution and cloud height. Information on the effects of particle size and particle size distribution on the solids concentration distribution is still scarce. Advancement of the CFD modeling is towards coupling the physical and kinetic data to capture mixing and reaction at meso- and micro-scales. Solids residence time distribution is important for the design; however, the current CFD models do not predict this parameter. Some advances have been made in recent years to apply CFD simulation to systems that involve fermentation and anaerobic processes. In these systems, complex interaction between the biochemical process and the hydrodynamics is still not well understood. This is one of the areas that still need more attention.

  12. Stability of levetiracetam in extemporaneously compounded suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensom, Mary H H; Decarie, Diane; Rudolph, Susan

    2011-05-01

    Levetiracetam is widely used as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial-onset seizures, myoclonic seizures, primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and idiopathic generalized epilepsy in the community and in hospital. However, no convenient, easy-to-swallow dosage form is commercially available in Canada. Moreover, no stability data are available for this antiepileptic prepared in a vehicle combining Ora-Sweet sweetener and Ora-Plus suspending agent. To evaluate the stability of levetiracetam suspensions in amber plastic bottles at room temperature and under refrigeration for up to 91 days. Suspensions of levetiracetam (50 mg/mL) were prepared in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Sweet sweetening agent and Ora-Plus suspending agent. The suspensions were transferred to 50-mL amber plastic prescription bottles, which were stored at 25°C or at 4°C. Samples were collected from each bottle at time zero and on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, and 91. The samples were analyzed in triplicate by a validated, stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection. A suspension was considered stable if it maintained at least 90% of its initial concentration of levetiracetam. Colour, odour, taste, clarity, and pH were assessed to determine physical compatibility. All samples remained physically unchanged over time, and there was no significant change in pH. The 95% confidence interval of the slope of the curve relating concentration to time, determined by linear regression, indicated that suspensions stored at 25°C would maintain at least 91.4% of the initial levetiracetam concentration for 91 days and that suspensions stored at 4°C would maintain at least 93.2% of the initial concentration for 91 days, with 95% confidence. Levetiracetam suspensions prepared in Ora-Sweet/Ora-Plus vehicle and stored in plastic prescription bottles at either 25°C or 4°C can be expected to remain stable for 91 days.

  13. Modification of the manufacturing process of tritium powered self-illuminating devices using a suspension coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jeffery Alexander

    Tritium powered self-illuminating lights (TPSILs) are used to provide illumination in low light conditions without the use of an external power source. The manufacturing process of TPSIL devices was modified and a new suspension coating method was developed. The modification of the current process included analyzing the heat treatment applied to the device and the alteration of the phosphor particle size distribution. Both modifications yielded lower emission intensity from the TPSIL devices. The suspension coating method was developed to reduce the labour cost associated with the current dry powder coating method. The properties of the phosphor particles within an aqueous polymer suspension were analyzed and the emission intensity of the dried suspension coatings. Although the emission intensity of the suspension coatings did not match the emission intensity of the dry powder coatings with further refinement the suspension coating method could potentially be used to replace the dry powder coating method. Keywords: Tritium, ZnS:Cu,AI, Self-illuminating, Suspension, TPSIL, Emission Intensity

  14. Roll- and pitch-plane coupled hydro-pneumatic suspension. Part I Feasibility analysis and suspension properties

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Passive fluidically coupled suspensions have been considered to offer a promising alternative solution to the challenging design of a vehicle suspension system. A theoretical foundation, however, has not been established for fluidically coupled suspension to facilitate its broad applications to various vehicles. The first part of this study investigates the fundamental issues related to feasibility and properties of the passive, full-vehicle interconnected, hydro-pneumatic suspension configur...

  15. Stability of sunitinib in oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navid, Fariba; Christensen, Robbin; Minkin, Patton; Stewart, Clinton F; Furman, Wayne L; Baker, Sharyn

    2008-07-01

    Sunitinib is a novel, oral, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic and antitumor activity. No liquid formulation of sunitinib malate is commercially available for pediatric administration. To prepare extemporaneously an oral liquid formulation of sunitinib malate from commercially available capsules and study its chemical and physical stability in suspension at room temperature and under refrigeration at 4 degrees C. Six independent samples were prepared by mixing the contents of 3 sunitinib malate capsules (each equivalent to 50 mg of sunitinib) with 15 mL of a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus:Ora-Sweet solution to yield a final concentration of 10 mg/mL. Suspensions were stored in amber plastic bottles with child-resistant caps. Three samples were refrigerated at 4 degrees C and 3 were stored at room temperature. Aliquots from each bottle were obtained on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 60 and diluted to a final concentration of 300 ng/mL with 500 ng/mL of clozapine in 50% acetonitrile. Sunitinib concentrations were then measured by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay validated in our laboratory. At room temperature and under refrigeration at 4 degrees C, sunitinib in a 10-mg/mL suspension of sunitinib malate with Ora-Plus:Ora-Sweet 1:1 maintained greater than 96% of its initial concentration for 60 days. Visual appearance (color and consistency) and odor of drug suspension remained unchanged during the study. Sunitinib is stable in an oral suspension prepared from commercially available capsules for at least 60 days at room temperature and refrigeration at 4 degrees C. This liquid formulation is better suited for administration to children and adults with cancer who cannot swallow sunitinib capsules.

  16. Micro injection moulding process validation for high precision manufacture of thermoplastic elastomer micro suspension rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, M.; Tosello, G.; Elsborg Hansen, R.

    Micro injection moulding (μIM) is one of the most suitable micro manufacturing processes for flexible mass-production of multi-material functional micro components. The technology was employed in this research used to produce thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) micro suspension rings identified...

  17. Shear-induced organization of forces in dense suspensions: signatures of discontinuous shear thickening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sumantra; Shatoff, Elan; Ramola, Kabir; Mari, Romain; Morris, Jeffrey; Chakraborty, Bulbul

    2017-06-01

    Dense suspensions can exhibit an abrupt change in their viscosity in response to increasing shear rate. The origin of this discontinuous shear thickening (DST) has been ascribed to the transformation of lubricated contacts to frictional, particle-on-particle contacts. Recent research on the flowing and jamming behavior of dense suspensions has explored the intersection of ideas from granular physics and Stokesian fluid dynamics to better understand this transition from lubricated to frictional rheology. DST is reminiscent of classical phase transitions, and a key question is how interactions between the microscopic constituents give rise to a macroscopic transition. In this paper, we extend a formalism that has proven to be successful in understanding shear jamming of dry grains to dense suspensions. Quantitative analysis of the collective evolution of the contactforce network accompanying the DST transition demonstrates clear changes in the distribution of microscopic variables, and leads to the identification of an "order parameter" characterizing DST.

  18. Suspension stability and mobility of Trap-Ox Fe-zeolites for in-situ nanoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Glenn; Raj, Rukmini; Kopinke, Frank-Dieter; Georgi, Anett

    2017-09-01

    With Trap-Ox Fe-zeolites we intend to develop a novel nanoremediation concept, which is based on in situ trapping of organic contaminants by adsorption and catalytic oxidation in combination with oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide. Within this study, colloidal properties including surface charge and suspension stability as well as mobility in porous media were studied under various conditions for two Trap-Ox Fe-zeolite representatives: Fe-BEA35 and Fe-MFI120. These Fe-zeolites can act as adsorbent for contaminants and as micro-reactors for their catalytic Fenton-like oxidation. Both Fe-zeolites under investigation show remarkable suspension stability in slightly alkaline suspension (pH 8-8.5) without any additional stabilizers, but not in acidic suspensions (pH 5.5). Mobility investigations in columns with clean sand and natural sand suggest high mobility at slightly alkaline conditions. Particle breakthrough through 20cm sand columns was >75% for the two zeolites when injected as 10g/L suspensions with a flow velocity of 10m/d. However, under acidic conditions in natural sediment, a long period of near-total deposition of particles is observed before high breakthrough occurs. The pH dependency is believed to be caused by charge inhomogeneity due to Fe-oxide clusters on the zeolites as well as on the sediment grains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Parallel evolutionary trajectories underlie the origin of giant suspension-feeding whales and bony fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Matt

    2012-03-07

    Giant suspension feeders such as mysticete whales, basking and whale sharks, and the extinct (indicated by '†') †pachycormiform teleosts are conspicuous members of modern and fossil marine vertebrate faunas. Whether convergent anatomical features common to these clades arose along similar evolutionary pathways has remained unclear because of a lack of information surrounding the origins of all groups of large-bodied suspension feeders apart from baleen whales. New investigation reveals that the enigmatic ray-finned fish †Ohmdenia, from the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian, 183.0-175.6 Ma) Posidonia Shale Lagerstätte, represents the immediate sister group of edentulous †pachycormiforms, the longest lived radiation of large vertebrate suspension feeders. †Ohmdenia bisects the long morphological branch leading to suspension-feeding †pachycormiforms, providing information on the sequence of anatomical transformations preceding this major ecological shift that can be compared to changes associated with the origin of modern mysticetes. Similarities include initial modifications to jaw geometry associated with the reduction of dentition, followed by the loss of teeth. The evolution of largest body sizes within both radiations occurs only after the apparent onset of microphagy. Comparing the fit of contrasting evolutionary models to functionally relevant morphological measurements for whales and †pachycormiform fishes reveals strong support for a common adaptive peak shared by suspension-feeding members of both clades.

  20. The improvement of suspension training for trunk muscle power in Sanda athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujie Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether both suspension training (ST and traditional training (TT can improve Sanda athlete's strength quality of trunk muscles and to explore the effect of suspension training on Sanda athletes' trunk muscle power production. Twelve elite Sanda athletes from the Competitive Sports School of Shanghai University of Sport were randomly assigned to experimental group (EG and control group (CG. EG and CG were regularly trained with suspension training and traditional strength training for 40 minutes three times per week. The total duration of training was 10 weeks. The measurements including peak torque (PT, PT/body weight (BW, and rate of force development (RFD were used to assess trunk muscles strength. The results showed that there were significant differences between the two groups' performance when it was tested at the higher velocity of dynamometer (test of muscle power, but less significant differences when the two groups performance was tested at the lower velocity of dynamometer (test of maximum strength. The conclusion of this study is that compared with traditional training methods, suspension training can improve back and trunk flexion muscles strength more effectively. In particular, suspension training can improve the explosive power of trunk extension and flexion muscles.

  1. [Education effect of the simple suspension method training for fifth-year medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara, Hidenori; Kawate, Yuri; Tanaka, Mamoru; Tanaka, Akihiro; Izushi, Fumio; Izishi, Fumio; Araki, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The clinical training curriculum for fifth-year students of a school of medicine (Department of Medicine) includes training in clinical pharmacy, which is conducted by the Department of Pharmacy. Following training involving the simple suspension method, a survey was conducted to examine its effects to improve medical students' knowledge on the proper use of drugs. Forty-eight 5th-year students of Ehime University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, underwent training that employed the simple suspension method, and examinations were conducted prior to and following it to assess its effects. Following the training, the questionnaire results were analyzed using Quantification Theory Class II to examine whether knowledge acquired from it had motivated the students to use the simple suspension method. A correspondence structural analysis was also conducted to identify improvements in the training. The correct answer rate increased from 55.2±2.4% before to 83.8±1.7% after training, which supports its learning effects. The presence or absence of changes in disposition and the efficacy of the method for patients with dysphagia strongly motivated the medical students to use the method. As a future improvement, it is necessary to describe differences between the crushing and simple suspension methods during training. The results of a survey on training involving medical students conducted based on the simple suspension method suggested its learning effects and knowledge that motivated them to use the method.

  2. The Effect of Topical Sucralfate Suspension on Oral Aphthae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Delavarian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of oral sucralfate suspension (1gr/10ml in the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS.Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients with oral aphthae were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. In thefirst part of the study, all subjects were instructed to rinse with a 10% suspension of sucralfate or placebo, 4 times a day for 2 weeks. Clinical examination was performed two times a week. The second part consisted of topical use of sucralfate or placebo 2times a day for 4 weeks, followed by biweekly inspections for 6 months.The size and number of the ulcers along with pain severity were assessed in the course of the pretreatment and treatment phases. Recurrence was evaluated during the follow up period. Pearson, χ2, and Fisher’s exact tests were used for statistical analysis.Results: On the fourth day of the study, pain relief was encountered in 59% and 14% of the case and control patients, respectively. Also, 63% of the ulcers in the sucralfate group and 71% in the placebo group showed size-reduction on the first visit. During the first 7 days of treatment, the number of ulcers showed reduction in both groups, which was significantly larger in the case group.Conclusion: A 10% suspension of sucralfate accelerated pain relief in aphthous patients and its use is recommended as an adjunct for the treatment of RAS.

  3. Co-firing of coal with biomass and waste in full-scale suspension-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Johansen, Kim; Frandsen, Flemming J.; Jensen, Peter A.; Jensen, Anker D. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of chemical and Biochemical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The energy policy in Denmark has for many years focused on lowering the net CO{sub 2} emission from heat and power production by replacing fossil fuels by renewable resources. This has been done by developing dedicated grate-fired boilers for biomass and waste fuels but also by developing coal-based suspension-fired boilers to accept still higher fractions of biomass or waste material as fuels. This last development has been challenging of many reasons, including pre-treatment of fuels, and solving potential emission and operational problems during the simultaneous development of supercritical steam cycles with steam temperatures close to 600 C, providing power efficiencies close to 50% (Hein KRG, Sustainable energy supply and environment protection - strategies, resources and technologies. In: Gupta R, Wall T, Hupa M, Wigley F, Tillman D, Frandsen FJ (eds) Proceedings of international conference on impact of fuel quality on power production and the environment, Banff Conference Centre, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 29 Sept-4 Oct, 2008). For 25 years the CHEC (Combustion and Harmful Emission Control) Research Centre at DTU Chemical Engineering, has attained a leading role in research, supporting power producing industry, plant owners and boiler manufacturers to optimize design and operation and minimize cost and environmental impact using alternative fuels in suspension fired boilers. Our contribution has been made via a combination of full-scale measuring campaigns, pilot-scale studies, lab-scale measurements and modeling tools. The research conducted has addressed many issues important for co-firing, i.e. fuel processing, ash induced boiler deposit formation and corrosion, boiler chamber fuel conversion and emission formation, influence on flue gas cleaning equipment and the utilization of residual products. This chapter provides an overview of research activities, aiming at increasing biomass shares during co-firing in suspension, conducted in close collaboration with

  4. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  5. Revealing the frictional transition in shear-thickening suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavaud, Cécile; Bérut, Antoine; Metzger, Bloen; Forterre, Yoël

    2017-05-01

    Shear thickening in dense particulate suspensions was recently proposed to be driven by the activation of friction above an onset stress needed to overcome repulsive forces between particles. Testing this scenario represents a major challenge because classical rheological approaches do not provide access to the frictional properties of suspensions. Here we adopt a different strategy inspired by pressure-imposed configurations in granular flows that specifically gives access to this information. By investigating the quasi-static avalanche angle, compaction, and dilatancy effects in different nonbuoyant suspensions flowing under gravity, we demonstrate that particles in shear-thickening suspensions are frictionless under low confining pressure. Moreover, we show that tuning the range of the repulsive force below the particle roughness suppresses the frictionless state and also the shear-thickening behavior of the suspension. These results, which link microscopic contact physics to the suspension macroscopic rheology, provide direct evidence that the recent frictional transition scenario applies in real suspensions.

  6. Ion size effects on the electrokinetics of salt-free concentrated suspensions in ac fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, Rafael; Carrique, Félix; Ruiz-Reina, Emilio

    2012-12-01

    We analyze the influence of finite ion size effects in the response of a salt-free concentrated suspension of spherical particles to an oscillating electric field. Salt-free suspensions are just composed of charged colloidal particles and the added counterions released by the particles to the solution, that counterbalance their surface charge. In the frequency domain, we study the dynamic electrophoretic mobility of the particles and the dielectric response of the suspension. We find that the Maxwell-Wagner-O'Konski process associated with the counterions condensation layer, is enhanced for moderate to high particle charges, yielding an increment of the mobility for such frequencies. We also find that the increment of the mobility grows with ion size and particle charge. All these facts show the importance of including ion size effects in any extension attempting to improve standard electrokinetic models.

  7. Derivation of Hunt equation for suspension distribution using Shannon entropy theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Snehasis

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the Hunt equation for computing suspension concentration in sediment-laden flows is derived using Shannon entropy theory. Considering the inverse of the void ratio as a random variable and using principle of maximum entropy, probability density function and cumulative distribution function of suspension concentration is derived. A new and more general cumulative distribution function for the flow domain is proposed which includes several specific other models of CDF reported in literature. This general form of cumulative distribution function also helps to derive the Rouse equation. The entropy based approach helps to estimate model parameters using suspension data of sediment concentration which shows the advantage of using entropy theory. Finally model parameters in the entropy based model are also expressed as functions of the Rouse number to establish a link between the parameters of the deterministic and probabilistic approaches.

  8. Color-tunable light emitting diodes based on quantum dot suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhenyue; Chen, Haiwei; Liu, Yifan; Xu, Su; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2015-04-01

    We propose a color-tunable light emitting diode (LED) consisting of a blue LED as the light source and quantum dot (QD) suspension as the color-conversion medium. The LED color temperature can be controlled by varying the liquid volume of each QD suspension with different photoluminescence colors. We simulate and optimize the light efficiency and color quality of the color-tunable LED and also fabricated a prototype to prove concept. The proposed color-tunable LED exhibits several advantages such as excellent color-rendering property, simple structure and driving mechanism, as well as high energy efficiency. Its potential applications include circadian rhythm regulation and healthy lighting.

  9. A forecast of new test capabilities using Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawing, Pierce L.; Johnson, William G., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines the potential of Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS) technology to solve existing problems related to support interference in wind tunnels. Improvement of existing test techniques and exciting new techniques are envisioned as a result of applying MSBS. These include improved data accuracy, dynamic stability testing, two-body/stores release testing, and pilot/designer-in-the-loop tests. It also discusses the use of MSBS for testing exotic configurations such as hybrid hypersonic vehicles. A new facility concept that combines features of ballistic tubes, magnetic suspension, and cryogenic tunnels is described.

  10. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? (log-in required) Select Page Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Mar 31, 2017 Links updated, ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was aimed at improving the current practice of radiation safety training of radiographers and was, therefore, considered action research.[18] The processes of action and research was integrated because the teaching activities and assessment were developed after the Delphi survey and aligned with the ...

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the Western Cape (UWC), Cape Town, South Africa the students are exposed to research in various modules where they are trained in epidemiology, research methods and literature appraisal. In addition, they personally conduct a research project, performing relevant statistical analyses. The relevant modules for.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Systems (SEEDS)-INDEPTH Network Accra, Ghana, 3KEMRI/Wellcome Trust Research Programme, The Centre of Geographical Medicine Research-. Coast, Kilifi, Kenya, 4Population Health Sciences/Research Support Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aga Khan University- East Africa, Nairobi,. Kenya ...

  14. A Hydro-pneumatic Suspension of the Horizontally Balanced Loading Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pil'gunov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research is the horizontally balanced loading platform on soft suspension.Deviation from the horizontal direction of the platform can be caused by:- Displacement of the gravity centre of main unit load placed on it from the vertical axis of the platform;- Displacement of the mass centre of the load dispersed on the platform plane from its vertical axis;- Adding a load which gravity centre does not coincide with the gravity centre of the main load.In specific cases the use of complex and expensive tracking systems of high accuracy to balance loading platforms horizontally can be justified, e.g. when mounting the optical measuring or observation systems on a platform.The aim is to assess the possibility to use the soft hydro-pneumatic suspension with a low power supply unit to provide horizontal balance of platform.The paper offers a soft hydro-pneumatic suspension design of the rectangular loading platform based on four differential hydraulic cylinders to be the supports for two diagonal beams of the platform.The head and rod ends of each pair of the beam hydro-cylinders are cross-pipe connected, and to compensate for a difference between the volumes of head and rod ends of cylinders because of their differentiality, there are hydraulic bag-type accumulators installed in the hydraulic suspension system.The research technique involves the development of a mathematical model of the loading platform hydro-pneumatic suspension followed by its approbation using numerical methods. The paper presents algorithms of engineering analysis of parameters and structural dimensions of hydraulic suspension components.In order to assess the adequacy of the developed mathematical model of a hydro-pneumatic suspension the paper studiesthe an effect of the following factors on the quality of the platform stabilization in the horizon: initial volume values of the gas chamber of hydraulic accumulators; pressure level of initial pressurization of

  15. Megestrol acetate NCD oral suspension--Par Pharmaceutical: megestrol acetate nanocrystal dispersion oral suspension, PAR 100.2, PAR-100.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    development; Par Pharmaceutical believes these may be available sometime after 2008. The US Patent and Trademark office issued Patent No. 7 101 576 to Elan Pharma International, relating to megestrol acetate 625mg/5mL oral suspension, in September 2006. The patent covers more than 30 additional claims in connection with Par Pharmaceutical's novel formulation of megestrol acetate, and includes claims relating to the advanced formulation of megestrol acetate, specifically to the reduction of the food effect seen with previous formulations of megestrol acetate. The patent expires on 22 April 2024. In August 2003, Teva USA filed a lawsuit again Par Pharmaceutical in the US District Court for the District of Delaware after receiving approval to launch in the US a generic version of Bristol-Myers Squibb's Megace. In the lawsuit, Teva declared that its product did not infringe any of Par's four patents related to megestrol acetate oral suspension. In the countersuit filed in August 2003, Par stated that Teva willfully infringed one of Par's four patents in the lawsuit, US patent No. 6,593,318. Both companies settled the lawsuit in July 2004 with Par granting a licence to Teva USA for a limited number of units and Par receiving royalties on Teva USA's net sales of megestrol acetate oral suspension.

  16. Quality assessment of fluconazole capsules and oral suspensions compounded by pharmacies located in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Carine M; Cruz-Espindola, Crisanta; Thungrat, Kamoltip; Schick, Anthea E; Lewis, Thomas P; Boothe, Dawn M

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmaceutical characteristics (strength or concentration, accuracy, and precision), physical properties, and bacterial contamination of fluconazole compounded products. SAMPLE Fluconazole compounded products (30- and 240-mg capsules; 30- and 100-mg/mL oral suspensions) from 4 US veterinary compounding pharmacies. PROCEDURES Fluconazole compounded products were ordered 3 times from each of 4 pharmacies at 7- or 10-day intervals. Generic fluconazole products (50- and 200-mg tablets; 10- and 40-mg/mL oral suspensions) served as references. Compounded products were evaluated at the time of receipt; suspensions also were evaluated 3 months later and at beyond-use dates. Evaluations included assessments of strength (concentration), accuracy, precision, physical properties, and bacterial contamination. Acceptable accuracy was defined as within ± 10% of the labeled strength (concentration) and acceptable precision as within ± 10%. Fluconazole was quantified by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS Physical characteristics of compounded products differed among pharmacies. Aerobic bacterial cultures yielded negative results. Capsules (30 and 240 mg) had acceptable accuracy (median, 96.3%; range, 87.3% to 135.2%) and precision (mean ± SD, 7.4 ± 6.0%). Suspensions (30 and 100 mg/mL) had poor accuracy (median, 73.8%; range, 53.9% to 95.2%) and precision (mean ± SD, 15.0 ± 6.9%). Accuracy and precision were significantly better for capsules than for suspensions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Fluconazole compounded products, particularly suspensions, differed in pharmaceutical and physical qualities. Studies to evaluate the impact of inconsistent quality on bioavailability or clinical efficacy of compounded fluconazole products are indicated, and each study should include data on the quality of the compounded product evaluated.

  17. Callus and cell suspension cultures of carnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1972-01-01

    of growth regulators were observed to be 3 × 10−6M indoleacetic acid (JAA) combined with 3 × 10−6M benzylaminopurin (BAP) or 10−6M 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) alone. IAA + BAP caused a 100 fold increase in fresh weight over 4 weeks at 25°C. Addition of casein hydrolysate increased growth further....... Cell suspension cultures worked best in media containing 2,4-D in which they had a doubling time of about 2 days. Filtered suspensions were successfully plated on agar in petri dishes, but division was never observed in single cells. The cultures initiated roots at higher concentrations of IAA or NAA...

  18. Suspensions of colloidal particles and aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Babick, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the properties of particles in colloidal suspensions. It has a focus on particle aggregates and the dependency of their physical behaviour on morphological parameters. For this purpose, relevant theories and methodological tools are reviewed and applied to selected examples. The book is divided into four main chapters. The first of them introduces important measurement techniques for the determination of particle size and interfacial properties in colloidal suspensions. A further chapter is devoted to the physico-chemical properties of colloidal particles—highlighting the interfacial phenomena and the corresponding interactions between particles. The book’s central chapter examines the structure-property relations of colloidal aggregates. This comprises concepts to quantify size and structure of aggregates, models and numerical tools for calculating the (light) scattering and hydrodynamic properties of aggregates, and a discussion on van-der-Waals and double layer interactions between ...

  19. Compressed Air Production Using Vehicle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninad Arun Malpure

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Generally compressed air is produced using different types of air compressors which consumes lot of electric energy and is noisy. In this paper an innovative idea is put forth for production of compressed air using movement of vehicle suspension which normal is wasted. The conversion of the force energy into the compressed air is carried out by the mechanism which consists of the vehicle suspension system hydraulic cylinder Non-return valve air compressor and air receiver. We are collecting air in the cylinder and store this energy into the tank by simply driving the vehicle. This method is non-conventional as no fuel input is required and is least polluting.

  20. Correlations and Gravitational Temperature in Settling Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Philip N.; Liu, Fang; Umbanhower, Paul; Weitz, David A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to study the slow settling motions of spheres in suspensions ranging from dilute to highly concentrated, 0.05 less than phi less than 0.50. During sedimentation, velocity fluctuations are found to be organized into regions of characteristic size L approximately equal to 11 a phi(exp -1/3) and buoyant mass DELTA m given by the rms density fluctuations in a region of size L(exp 3) assuming random statistics. A simple model incorporating the suspension viscosity and excluded volume effects accurately predicts the magnitudes of the observed velocity fluctuations DELTA V. These lead to a universal relation for particle diffusion that can be written in a Stokes-Einstein type form as D approximately equal to (DELTA m gL)/(6 pi (eta)L).

  1. 30 CFR 282.13 - Suspension of production or other operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., order, or the lease; (2) There is a threat of serious, irreparable, or immediate harm or damage to life (including fish and other aquatic life), property, any mineral deposit, or the marine, coastal, or human environment; (3) The suspension or temporary prohibition is in the interest of national security or defense...

  2. Stability considerations for magnetic suspension systems using electromagnets mounted in a planar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Nelson J.; Britcher, Colin P.

    1991-01-01

    Mathematical models of a 5, 6, 7, and 8 coil large gap magnetic suspension system (MSDS) are presented. Some of the topics covered include: force and torque equations, reduction of state-space form, natural modes, origins of modes, effect of rotation in azimuth (yaw), future work, and n-coil ring conclusions.

  3. The use of suspension models and comparison with true weightlessness. [Animal Model Workshop on Gravitational Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Ellis, S.

    1985-01-01

    A resume is presented of various papers concerning the effect of weightlessness on particular physiological and biochemical phenomena in animal model systems. Findings from weightlessness experiments on earth using suspension models are compared with results of experiments in orbit. The biological phenomena considered include muscle atrophy, changes in the endocrine system, reduction in bone formation, and changes in the cardiovascular system.

  4. 78 FR 20960 - Face Up Entertainment Group, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... COMMISSION Face Up Entertainment Group, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading April 4, 2013. It appears to the... securities of Face Up Entertainment Group, Inc. (``Face Up'') because of questions concerning the adequacy and accuracy of publicly available information about Face Up, including, among other things, its...

  5. Dynamics of two-axle railway freight wagons with UIC standard suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Mark; True, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics of two different two-axle railway freight wagons is investigated theoretically and compared. Fully nonlinear models are considered. The hysteresis from dry friction and the effect of impacts between elements of the suspension are included. Bifurcation diagrams are shown in order...

  6. Elastic flow instability in nanotube suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin-Gibson, S; Pathak, J A; Grulke, E A; Wang, H; Hobbie, E K

    2004-01-30

    We report an elastic instability associated with flow-induced clustering in semidilute non-Brownian colloidal nanotubes. Rheo-optical measurements are compared with simulations of mechanical flocculation in sheared fiber suspensions, and the evolving structure is characterized as a function of confinement and shear stress. The transient rheology is correlated with the evolution of highly elastic vorticity-aligned aggregates, with the underlying instability being somewhat ubiquitous in complex fluids.

  7. Flow dynamics of pulp fiber suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Carla; Garcia, Fernando; Ferreira, Paulo; Rasteiro, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The transport between different equipment and unit operations plays an important role in pulp and paper mills because fiber suspensions differ from all other solid-liquid systems, due to the complex interactions between the different pulp and paper components. Poor understanding of the suspensions’ flow dynamics means the industrial equipment design is usually conservative and frequently oversized, thus contributing to excessive energy consumption in the plants. Our study aim was ...

  8. Magnetic suspension - Today's marvel, tomorrow's tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawing, Pierce L.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Langley facility has through constant advocacy of magnetic suspension systems (MSSs) for wind-tunnel model positioning obtained a technology-development status for the requisite large magnets, computers, automatic control techniques, and apparatus configurations, to contemplate the construction of MSSs for large wind tunnels. Attention is presently given to the prospects for MSSs in wind tunnels employing superfluid helium atmospheres to obtain very high Reynolds numbers, where the MSS can yield substantial enhancements of wind tunnel productivity.

  9. A Model of Active Roll Vehicle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Čech

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes active suspension with active roll for four-wheel vehicle (bus by means of an in-series pump actuator with doubled hydropneumatic springs. It also gives full control law with no sky-craping. Lateral stiffness and solid axle geometry in the mechanical model are not neglected. Responses to lateral input as well as responses to statistical unevennesses show considerable improvement of passengers comfort and safety when cornering.

  10. Listening to Include

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veck, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to make important connections between listening and inclusive education and the refusal to listen and exclusion. Two lines of argument are advanced. First, if educators and learners are to include each other within their educational institutions as unique individuals, then they will need to listen attentively to each other.…

  11. Physical gelation of a microfiber suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Antonio; Nunes, Janine K.; Guido, Stefano; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogels are among the most exploited materials in tissue engineering and there is growing interest in injectable hydrogels, especially as applied to surgical adhesives and bioprinting materials. Here we report a method to produce a hydrogel in a desired location by simply extruding a suspension of high aspect ratio and flexible microfibers from a syringe. The mechanism of gel formation is purely physical and based on irreversible entanglements formed by the microfibers under the action of flow. The single microfibers have been produced and finely tailored by microfluidic methods. Shear rheology has been performed in order to get insights on the entanglements, and results show that the formation of entanglements is related to a shear thickening behavior of the suspension, which in turn depends on shear rate and concentration of fibers. When shearing the suspension, highly non-linear viscoelastic behavior is observed and probed by a highly positive first normal stress difference. We also report the hydrogel swelling behavior and its linear viscoelastic properties as obtained by imposing small oscillatory stress to the material.

  12. Asystole following Reintubation during Suspension Laryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl H. Glassman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient increase in heart rate and mean arterial pressure commonly occur during manipulation of the airway via direct laryngoscopy. This phenomenon is understood to be due to a sympathetic nervous system reflex causing an increase in plasma catecholamines. Rarely, severe bradycardia and possible asystole can occur following laryngoscopy. One previous report described asystole during suspension laryngoscopy after uneventful direct laryngoscopy. Here we report a case of asystole occurring at the time of reinsertion and cuff inflation of an endotracheal tube in a patient who had been hemodynamically stable during initial direct laryngoscopy and the ensuing suspension laryngoscopy. The asystole was immediately recognized and successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed with the patient returning to baseline sinus rhythm. Cardiac arrest following laryngoscopy is rare. This case highlights the importance of continued vigilance even after the initial manipulations of the airway by both direct laryngoscopy and suspension laryngoscopy are to be performed. Identifying patients who may benefit from premedication with a vagolytic drug may prevent adversity. Preoperative heart rate analysis can identify patients with strong vagal tone.

  13. Highly conductive, printable pastes from capillary suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Monica; Koos, Erin; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    We have used the capillary suspension phenomenon to design conductive pastes for printed electronic applications, such as front side metallization of solar cells, without non-volatile, organic additives that often deteriorate electrical properties. Adding a small amount of a second, immiscible fluid to a suspension creates a network of liquid bridges between the particles. This capillary force-controlled microstructure allows for tuning the flow behavior in a wide range. Yield stress and low-shear viscosity can be adjusted such that long-term stability is provided by inhibiting sedimentation, and, even more importantly, narrow line widths and high aspect ratios are accessible. These ternary mixtures, called capillary suspensions, exhibit a strong degree of shear thinning that allows for conventional coating or printing equipment to be used. Finally, the secondary fluid, beneficial for stability and processing of the wet paste, completely evaporates during drying and sintering. Thus, we obtained high purity silver and nickel layers with a conductivity two times greater than could be obtained with state-of-the-art, commercial materials. This revolutionary concept can be easily applied to other systems using inorganic or even organic conductive particles and represents a fundamental paradigm change to the formulation of pastes for printed electronics.

  14. Normal stresses in shear thickening granular suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhongcheng; de Cagny, Henri; Habibi, Mehdi; Bonn, Daniel

    2017-05-24

    When subjected to shear, granular suspensions exhibit normal stresses perpendicular to the shear plane but the magnitude and sign of the different components of the normal stresses are still under debate. By performing both oscillatory and rotational rheology measurements on shear thickening granular suspensions and systematically varying the particle diameters and the gap sizes between two parallel-plates, we show that a transition from a positive to a negative normal stress can be observed. We find that frictional interactions which determine the shear thickening behavior of suspensions contribute to the positive normal stresses. Increasing the particle diameters or decreasing the gap sizes leads to a growing importance of hydrodynamic interactions, which results in negative normal stresses. We determine a relaxation time for the system, set by both the pore and the gap sizes, that governs the fluid flow through the inter-particle space. Finally, using a two-fluid model we determine the relative contributions from the particle phase and the liquid phase.

  15. An evaporation model of colloidal suspension droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Silvana; Li\\ Nán, Amable; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2009-11-01

    Colloidal suspensions of polymers in water or other solvents are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to coat tablets with different agents. These allow controlling the rate at which the drug is delivered, taste or physical appearance. The coating is performed by simultaneously spraying and drying the tablets with the colloidal suspension at moderately high temperatures. The spreading of the coating on the pills surface depends on the droplet Webber and Reynolds numbers, angle of impact, but more importantly on the rheological properties of the drop. We present a model for the evaporation of a colloidal suspension droplet in a hot air environment with temperatures substantially lower than the boiling temperature of the carrier fluid. As the liquid vaporizes from the surface, a compacting front advances into the droplet faster than the liquid surface regresses, forming a shell of a porous medium where the particles reach their maximum packing density. While the surface regresses, the evaporation rate is determined by both the rate at which heat is transported to the droplet surface and the rate at which liquid vapor is diffused away from it. This regime continues until the compacting front reaches the center of the droplet, at which point the evaporation rate is drastically reduced.

  16. Stability study of oral pediatric idebenone suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, Joël; Bourguignon, Elodie; Majoul, Elyes; Kabiche, Sofiane; Balde, Issa-Bella; Cisternino, Salvatore; Fontan, Jean-Eudes

    2017-03-01

    Adapted forms for administration to infants are limited. The proposed study was performed to propose oral liquid formulations of idebenone in Ora-Plus and either Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF, Ora-Blend, Ora-Blend SF and Inorpha. Each formulation was stored in 30 ml amber glass bottle at 5 or 25 °C for 90 days. Idebenone contents in these suspensions, determined by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method, remained stable at least 90 days in Inorpha when stored at the two temperatures. In Ora-Blend, the stability was estimated at 14 days and in other suspensions at 20 days at the two temperatures. After 90 days storage, the pH of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF changed between -0.10 and -0.25 units. For others suspensions, the pH changes were not significant (< -0.09 unit). No change was observed in color, odor or visual microbiology. To conclude, we recommended the use of idebenone in Inorpha vehicle stable for at least 90 days at 25 °C.

  17. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro

    2017-02-01

    A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, lower and upper parts of erector spinae muscles using concentric bipolar electrodes. The average rectified values of electromyographic signals were normalized with respect to individual maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle. Roll-out exercise showed the highest activation of rectus abdominis and oblique muscles compared to the other exercises. The rectus abdominis and external oblique reached an activation higher than 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (or very close to that threshold, 55%) in roll-out and bodysaw exercises. Findings from this study allow the selection of suspension core training exercises on the basis of quantitative information about the activation of muscles of interest. Roll-out and bodysaw exercises can be considered as suitable for strength training of rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles.

  18. The Microrheology of Red Blood Cell Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Harry L.

    1968-01-01

    The general problem of microrheology is to predict the macroscopic flow properties of a material from a detailed description of the behavior of its constituent elements. This approach has been used to study suspensions of human red cells in plasma or Ringer's solution flowing steadily in rigid tubes 8–25 times the red cell diameter by observing individual cell motions under the microscope. The results have been compared with those previously obtained with model particles under similar conditions. In very dilute suspensions single red cells rotated in orbits similar to those of rigid discs at low flow rates, but, in common with model deformable particles, were observed to migrate away from the tube wall. Linear rouleaux of red cells rotated as rodlike particles and were flexible, bending during their rotational orbits in a manner similar to that of filaments of nylon or Dacron. Transparent concentrated suspensions were produced by preparing ghost cells reconstituted in biconcave form in plasma. In these, the motions of some unhemolyzed red cells were followed. The erythrocyte velocity profiles were blunted at concentrations above 20%; the cell paths were erratic because of frequent radial displacements, especially at the tube periphery, with the particles being markedly deformed and oriented parallel to the flow. Finally, the difference in flow pattern in large and small vessels is discussed and some relevant model experiments are described. PMID:19873628

  19. Cements and concentrated model suspensions. Flow, jamming and flocculation; Ciments et suspensions concentrees modeles. Ecoulement, encombrement et floculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lootens, D.

    2004-10-15

    Here we report about the rheological behavior of very concentrated dispersions -or pastes- of granular or colloidal particles of cement or of monodisperse spherical silica particles. The model system of silica particles is used in order to control the physical chemistry properties of the suspension. Our research project is centered on two points which are focusing on the slurries properties: (i) the first one is the study of the structuring process by the coagulation at rest and its relation with setting. We use special tools (ultrasonic, confocal) to follow and understand the evolution from coagulation to the setting of cement (ii) the second is the study of the dynamic structuring phenomena, under shear, typical of the concentrated suspensions and named jamming. The flow can enter into a shear-thickening and, possibly jamming regime. The onset of this regime is shown to involve giant fluctuations of stress, assigned to the formation and breakup of direct frictional contact chains. The surface state of the particles is a determining factor in this transition. The studies of the normal stress and microscopic observation give good reasons to believe that solid friction is involved in the jamming transition. (author)

  20. Anisometric Particle Systems—from Shape Characterization to Suspension Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorová, Eva; Pabst, Willi; Vaněrková, Lucie

    2009-06-01

    Methods for the characterization of anisometric particle systems are discussed. For prolate particles, the aspect ratio determination via microscopic image analysis is recalled, and aspect ratio distributions as well as shape-size dependences are commented upon. For oblate particles a simple relation is recalled with can be used to determine an average aspect ratio when size distributions are available from two methods, typically from sedimentation analysis and laser diffraction. The connection between particle shape (aspect ratio) and suspension rheology is outlined and it is shown how a generic procedure, based on Brenner's theory, can be applied to predict the intrinsic viscosity when the aspect ratio is known. On the other hand it is shown, how information on the intrinsic viscosity and the critical solids volume fraction can be extracted from experiments, when the measured concentration dependence of the effective suspension viscosity is adequately interpreted (using the Krieger relation for fitting). The examples mentioned in this paper include systems with oblate or prolate ceramic particles (kaolins, pyrophyllite, wollastonite, silicon carbide) as well as (prolate) pharmaceuticals (mesalamine, ibuprofen, nifuroxazide, paracetamol).

  1. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  2. A seat suspension with a rotary magnetorheological damper for heavy duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S. S.; Ning, D. H.; Yang, J.; Du, H.; Zhang, S. W.; Li, W. H.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the development of an innovative seat suspension working with a rotary magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper. Compared with a conventional linear MR damper, the well-designed rotary MR damper possesses several advantages such as usage reduction of magnetorheological fluid, low sealing requirements and lower costs. This research starts with the introduction of the seat suspension structure and the damper design, followed by the property test of the seat suspension using an MTS machine. The field-dependent property, amplitude-dependent performance, and the frequency-dependent performance of the new seat suspension are measured and evaluated. This research puts emphasis on the evaluation of the vibration reduction capability of the rotary MR damper by using both simulation and experimental methods. Fuzzy logic is chosen to control the rotary MR damper in real time and two different input signals are considered as vibration excitations. The experimental results show that the rotary MR damper under fuzzy logic control is effective in reducing the vibrations.

  3. In situ characterization of organo-modified and unmodified montmorillonite aqueous suspensions by UV-visible spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alin, Jonas; Rubino, Maria; Auras, Rafael

    2015-10-15

    UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy (Tyndall spectra) was applied and tested for its ability to measure organo-modified and unmodified montmorillonite (MMT) clays in aqueous suspensions. A full factorial design of experiments was used to study the influence of pH, NaCl and clay concentrations on the average particle size of the clay agglomerates. The methodology was evaluated by observing results that were consistent with previous research about the unmodified clay's behavior in aqueous suspensions. The results from this evaluation corresponded to accepted theories about the unmodified clay's behavior, indicating that the methodology is precise enough to distinguish the effects of the studied factors on these clay suspensions. The effect of clay concentration was related to the amount of ions per clay particle for the unmodified clay, but was not significant for the organo-modified MMT. The average particle size of the organo-modified MMT in suspension was significantly larger than that of the unmodified clay. Size of the organo-modified MMT agglomerates in suspension decreased in the presence of NaCl and at both high and low pH; this behavior was opposite to that of the unmodified clay. These results demonstrate that the UV-Vis methodology is well-suited for characterizing clay particle size in aqueous suspensions. The technique also is simple, rapid, and low-cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of linear spring number at side load of McPherson suspension in electric city car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Sigit Setijo; Suprihadi, Agus; Makhrojan, Agus; Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, J.

    2017-01-01

    The function of the spring suspension on Mc Pherson type is to control vehicle stability and increase ride convenience although having tendencies of side load presence. The purpose of this study is to obtain simulation results of Mc Pherson suspension spring in the electric city car by using the finite element method and determining the side load that appears on the spring suspension. This research is conducted in several stages; they are linear spring designing models with various spring coil and spring suspension modeling using FEM software. Suspension spring is compressed in the vertical direction (z-axis) and at the upper part of the suspension springs will be seen the force that arises towards the x, y, and z-axis to simulate the side load arising on the upper part of the spring. The results of FEM simulation that the side load on the spring toward the x and y-axis which the value gets close to zero is the most stable spring.

  5. Using vacuum-assisted suspension to manage residual limb wounds in persons with transtibial amputation: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Robert D; Sutton, Erin E; Kinor, Deborah; Schaeffer, Julia M; Fatone, Stefania

    2014-02-01

    Persons with amputation and residual limb wounds would benefit from the ability to continue wearing a prosthesis while healing. Sockets with vacuum-assisted suspension may reduce intra-socket motion and be less disruptive to wound healing. The purpose of this case series was to measure residual limb wound size over time in persons with transtibial amputation while using prostheses with vacuum-assisted suspension. Six subjects with residual limb wounds were fit with vacuum-assisted suspension sockets. Wound surface area was calculated using ImageJ software at the time of fit and each subsequent visit until closure. FINDINGS AND OUTCOME: Average wound surface area at initial measurement was 2.17 ± 0.65 cm(2). All subjects were instructed to continue their normal activity level while wounds healed, with a mean of 177.6 ± 113 days to wound closure. Results suggest that well-fitting sockets with vacuum-assisted suspension in compliant individuals did not preclude wound healing. Further research is required to substantiate these case-based observations. Residual limb wounds are typically treated by suspension of prosthetic use until healing occurs, increasing the risk of long-term prosthesis nonuse. Our results suggest that vacuum-assisted suspension sockets may be used while healing occurs.

  6. Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudenbush, Stephen

    In May of 1999, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences hosted a conference on ways to improve the scientific quality of educational research. In medicine, thanks to work 40 years ago by 2 researchers, Howard Hyatt and Frederick Mosteller, the commitment of medical professionals to base their diagnoses and prescriptions on clinical trials in…

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. Three emergent themes were identified from the results of this study: a lack of standardised guidelines for nurse academics to effectively supervise postgraduate research; the pressure that nurse academics experience regarding postgraduate research supervision; other demanding roles of an academic, such as a ...

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    first time, on the findings of a research study on the implementation of field trips in a management module in the BPharm curriculum and to conclude whether this intervention changed pharmacy students' perception of the module. Method. A mixed-method sequential exploratory research design was followed,.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... Anonymity of respondents was assured by concealing their identity and research data was kept confidential for research purposes only. The study was conducted by full adherence of the ..... Samwel K. Misoi, Richard K. Rotich, Anthony K. Mwanthi and George. M. Mwita for their moderation throughout the ...

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An interview guide approach was implemented in face-to-face in-depth interviews ... Dependability of the data collected was ensured through an audit trail. The main researcher and supervisor served as peer .... [16] A growing body of research reports that students with high academic resilience and self-efficacy are more ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. 108 September 2017, Vol. 9, No. 3 AJHPE. Methods. This is a qualitative descriptive study that explored nursing students' experiences. ..... Challenges and lessons learned. Clin. Simulation Nursing 2013;9(5):e157-e162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecns.2011.11.011. 12. Creswell JW. Research Design. 4th ed.

  12. On the physical limitations for radio frequency absorption in gold nanoparticle suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordebo, Sven; Dalarsson, Mariana; Ivanenko, Yevhen; Sjöberg, Daniel; Bayford, Richard

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a study of the physical limitations for radio frequency absorption in gold nanoparticle (GNP) suspensions. A spherical geometry is considered consisting of a spherical suspension of colloidal GNPs characterized as an arbitrary passive dielectric material which is immersed in an arbitrary lossy medium. A relative heating coefficient and a corresponding optimal near field excitation are defined, taking the skin effect of the surrounding medium into account. The classical Mie theory for lossy media is also revisited, and it is shown that the optimal permittivity function yielding a maximal absorption inside the spherical suspension is a conjugate match with respect to the surrounding lossy material. A convex optimization approach is used to investigate the broadband realizability of an arbitrary passive material to approximate the desired conjugate match over a finite bandwidth, similar to the approximation of a metamaterial. A narrowband realizability study shows that for a surrounding medium consisting of a weak electrolyte solution, the electromagnetic heating, due to the electrophoretic (plasmonic) resonance phenomena inside the spherical GNP suspension, can be significant in the microwave regime, provided that the related Drude parameters can be tuned into (or near to) resonance. As a demonstration, some realistic Drude parameters are investigated concerning the volume fraction, mass, and friction constant of the GNPs. The amount of charge that can be accommodated by the GNPs is identified as one of the most important design parameters. However, the problem of reliably modelling, measuring and controlling the charge number of coated GNPs is not yet fully understood, and is still an open research issue in this field. The presented theory and related physical limitations provide a useful framework for further research in this direction. Future research is also aimed at an expansion towards arbitrary suspension geometries and the inclusion of

  13. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... people regard as a prerequisite for participating in local community politics. Based on a fieldwork in two villages of Panchthar district in eastern Nepal, this article explores how these changes strengthen or weaken women’s political agency and how this is reflected in their participation in community...

  14. [Formulation and stability of suspensions for preclinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgalassi, S; Perini, G; Giannaccini, B; Saettone, M F; Lodi, A

    1997-11-01

    In preclinical studies, poorly soluble drugs are usually administered orally to experimental animals as suspensions. The present study was aimed at providing data allowing predictive estimations of the stability of such suspensions. To this purpose aqueous suspensions of three drugs (griseofulvin, ibuprofen and indomethacin) were prepared at different concentrations using four different suspending agents: sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), microcrystalline cellulose/carboxymethylcellulose (MC/CMC), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and jota carragenaan (CJ). The physical and physico-chemical characteristics of the drugs, the rheological properties of the suspending media and of the corresponding drug suspensions, and the physical and chemical stability of the suspensions was then evaluated. The type of suspending agent, rather than the physical characteristics of the drug, appeared to exert the main influence on the physical stability of suspensions. The most stable formulations were produced by suspending agents with low-temperature gelation characteristics (CJ) or with thixotropic flux (MC/CMC).

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-09-09

    Sep 9, 2015 ... Traumatology, Umraniye Research and Education Hospital, 34899 ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons .... and major complication such as pain, seroma, dog ears, widening of.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that should promote basic capabilities and functionings as well as academic achievement. ... for development and wellbeing on an educational, personal and social level.[2] ... Research indicates that academic stressors, living circumstances, working conditions and where students undertake leisure activities affect.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-08-28

    Aug 28, 2015 ... Ethiopia, 2Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Department ... of Public Health, 4Institute of Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious .... active ingredient x 10,000 dilution rate of product): 0.1%.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... Background: For many women in Kenya, their husbands act as ... and researching whether men are translating this knowledge into action ..... older participants, and participants with multiparous wives, reflecting personal.

  19. Residual Ash Formation during Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2014-01-01

    Through 50+ years, high quality research has been conducted in order to characterize ash and deposit formation in utility boilers fired with coal, biomass and waste fractions. The basic mechanism of fly ash formation in suspension fired coal boilers is well described, documented and may even...... distribution. Thus, there is a good flair of the chemistry of fly ash formed in plants fired with biomass or waste fractions, either alone, or in conjunction with coal. But data on dedicated studies of the physical size development of fly ash, are almost non-existing for biomasses and waste fractions...... with increasing time, due to char oxidation/pyrolysis, fragmentation, and ash formation. For straw, an increase in the concentration of large particles at 1.0 – 2.0 s, indicated melting and agglomeration of ash particles. The transient release of K was massive (> 60 wt. %) for all fuels and throughout...

  20. Numerical homogenization on approach for stokesian suspensions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, B. M.; Berlyand, L. V.; Karpeev, D. A. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Department of Mathematics, Pennsylvania State Univ.)

    2012-01-20

    In this technical report we investigate efficient methods for numerical simulation of active suspensions. The prototypical system is a suspension of swimming bacteria in a Newtonian fluid. Rheological and other macroscopic properties of such suspensions can differ dramatically from the same properties of the suspending fluid alone or of suspensions of similar but inactive particles. Elongated bacteria, such as E. coli or B. subtilis, swim along their principal axis, propelling themselves with the help of flagella, attached at the anterior of the organism and pushing it forward in the manner of a propeller. They interact hydrodynamically with the surrounding fluid and, because of their asymmetrical shape, have the propensity to align with the local flow. This, along with the dipolar nature of bacteria (the two forces a bacterium exerts on a fluid - one due to self-propulsion and the other opposing drag - have equal magnitude and point in opposite directions), causes nearby bacteria to tend to align, resulting in a intermittent local ordering on the mesoscopic scale, which is between the microscopic scale of an individual bacterium and the macroscopic scale of the suspension (e.g., its container). The local ordering is sometimes called a collective mode or collective swimming. Thanks to self-propulsion, collective modes inject momentum into the fluid in a coherent way. This enhances the local strain rate without changing the macroscopic stress applied at the boundary of the container. The macroscopic effective viscosity of the suspension is defined roughly as the ratio of the applied stress to the bulk strain rate. If local alignment and therefore local strain-rate enhancement, are significant, the effective viscosity can be appreciably lower than that of the corresponding passive suspension or even of the surrounding fluid alone. Indeed, a sevenfold decrease in the effective viscosity was observed in experiments with B. subtilis. More generally, local collective

  1. Multidisciplinary approach to railway pneumatic suspensions: pneumatic pipe modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Docquier, Nicolas; Fisette, Paul; Jeanmart, Hervé; Multibody Dynamics 2007 - ECCOMAS Thematic Conference

    2007-01-01

    On the majority of modern railway vehicles, airspring are used for the secondary suspension, i.e. the suspension located between the bogie frame and the carbody. The airspring is connected with several other pneumatic components such as auxiliary tanks, pipes, valves, etc. Such a system can be analysed in a multidisciplinary approach by coupling a multibody model of the train with a detailed pneumatic model of the suspension. This paper presents and compares various modelling approach for the...

  2. Editors' perspectives: road vehicle suspension design, dynamics, and control

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dongpu; Song, Xubin; Ahmadian, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the latest advances in road vehicle suspension design, dynamics, and control, together with the authors' perspectives, in the context of vehicle ride, handling, and stability. The general aspects of road vehicle suspension dynamics and design are discussed, followed by descriptions of road-roughness excitations with a particular emphasis on road potholes. Passive suspension system designs and their effects on road vehicle dynamics and stability are presented...

  3. Modeling and Optimization of Vehicle Suspension Employing a Nonlinear Fluid Inerter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ideal inerter has been applied to various vibration engineering fields because of its superior vibration isolation performance. This paper proposes a new type of fluid inerter and analyzes the nonlinearities including friction and nonlinear damping force caused by the viscosity of fluid. The nonlinear model of fluid inerter is demonstrated by the experiments analysis. Furthermore, the full-car dynamic model involving the nonlinear fluid inerter is established. It has been detected that the performance of the vehicle suspension may be influenced by the nonlinearities of inerter. So, parameters of the suspension system including the spring stiffness and the damping coefficient are optimized by means of QGA (quantum genetic algorithm, which combines the genetic algorithm and quantum computing. Results indicate that, compared with the original nonlinear suspension system, the RMS (root-mean-square of vertical body acceleration of optimized suspension has decreased by 9.0%, the RMS of pitch angular acceleration has decreased by 19.9%, and the RMS of roll angular acceleration has decreased by 9.6%.

  4. Photoacoustic and Photothermal Effects in Particulate Suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, Gerald, J.

    2009-04-30

    A summary of the research areas investigated by the author during the grant period is given. Experiments and theory have been carried out on the photoacoustic effect arising from a number of physical and chemical processes. A number of studies of the photoacoustic effect as it occurs in transient grating experiments have been completed. The research done with the Ludwig-Soret effect on the generation of shock waves is reported. Other research, such as that carried out on interferometric and beam deflection microphones, the use of microphones in vacuum as momentum flux detectors, and chemical generation of sonoluminescence is listed. A list of published research including selected publications, a complete list of journal articles, books, review articles, and reviews are given.

  5. Active Electromechanical Suspension System for Planetary Rovers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Balcones Technologies, LLC proposes to adapt actively controlled suspension technology developed by The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics...

  6. Photoluminescent Patterned Papers Resulting from Printings of Polymeric Nanoparticles Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Sarrazin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The printability of a copolyfluorene-fluorenone (PFFO photoluminescent nanoparticle aqueous suspension on commercial tracing paper was here investigated. The nanoparticles suspension was obtained by miniemulsification of a suitable preformed photoluminescent organic polymer. The structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of the nanoparticles suspension were first studied before considering its printability by inkjet and flexography techniques. The native properties of the nanoparticles suspension revealed to be more suitable for inkjet printing which was successfully used to print photoluminescent patterns using a very low amount of PFFO.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Academic success in the LDP allows students a second opportunity to re-enter the mainstream medical programme at the start of the following academic year. Theoretical underpinnings of a remediation course include mindful design of the syllabus to include aspects of active learning and carefully selected course content, ...

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-10-19

    Oct 19, 2013 ... summarizing their experiences included: Thought of Death, Strength to live, Loss of female identity and sexuality and Coping mechanisms. ... design holistic palliative healthcare services including counseling to assist then cope with life. .... unhealthy anymore because of the stigma that sometimes comes.

  9. Suspension of oysters reduces the populations of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, K M; Supan, J; Ramirez, A; Johnson, C N

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) are associated with the consumption of raw oysters and cause illnesses ranging from simple gastroenteritis to life-threatening septicaemia. These halophilic bacteria are frequently found in marine and estuarine systems, accumulating within the tissues of a number of aquatic organisms and passing on to humans after consumption, through contaminated water, or via open wounds. As benthic organisms capable of filtering 40 gallons of water per hour, sediment is an important source of potentially pathogenic vibrios in oysters destined for raw consumption. This research used off-bottom oyster culture to reduce vibrio concentrations in oysters. Colony hybridization was used to enumerate Vp and Vv in bottom and suspended oysters. Vv and Vp concentrations were generally lower in oysters suspended off-bottom, and suspension decreased vibrio loads in oysters by an average of 13%. Suspension of oysters reduced vibrio concentrations. This study found that oyster suspension significantly reduced some populations of potentially pathogenic vibrios. These results indicate that oyster suspension could be a viable approach for preharvest treatment to reduce illness in consumers of raw oysters. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Phase and structural transformations in magnetorheological suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskakova, L. Yu.; Romanchuk, A. P.; Zubarev, A. Yu.

    2006-07-01

    Particle condensation in magnetorheological suspensions (MRS) under external magnetic field is studied theoretically. It is shown that the bulk condensation of particles into dense phases is preceded by the formation of fairly long chain aggregates. Phase transition occurs as a condensation of such chains due to their magnetic interaction. In thin layers of MRS, placed into the normal magnetic field, scenario of the phase transition differs essentially from that in infinite volumes of these systems. Equilibrium state of the system after the phase transition corresponds to the formation of ensemble of discrete domains of the dense phase rather than to separation into two massive phases as it takes place in infinite media.

  11. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  12. Intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of cubes

    KAUST Repository

    Mallavajula, Rajesh K.

    2013-11-06

    We report on the viscosity of a dilute suspension of cube-shaped particles. Irrespective of the particle size, size distribution, and surface chemistry, we find empirically that cubes manifest an intrinsic viscosity [η]=3.1±0.2, which is substantially higher than the well-known value for spheres, [η]=2.5. The orientation-dependent intrinsic viscosity of cubic particles is determined theoretically using a finite-element solution of the Stokes equations. For isotropically oriented cubes, these calculations show [η]=3.1, in excellent agreement with our experimental observations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  13. A microsphere suspension model of metamaterial fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Duan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing an analogy to the liquid phase of natural materials, we theoretically propose a microsphere suspension model to realize a metamaterial fluid with artificial electromagnetic indexes. By immersing high-ε, micrometer-sized dielectric spheres in a low-ε insulating oil, the structured fluid exhibits liquid-like properties from dispersing phase as well as the isotropic negative electromagnetic parameters caused by Mie resonances from dispersed microspheres. The work presented here will benefit the development of structured fluids toward metamaterials.

  14. Poiseuille flow of a Quincke suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cēbers, A

    2014-09-01

    The controversy of models of dielectric particle suspensions with antisymmetric stress, which predict a nonphysical cusp of the velocity profile in plane Poiseuille flow under the action of the electrical field, is resolved. In the mean-field approximation, the nonlinear kinetic equation is derived for coupled due to the flow translational and rotational motion of the particles. By its numerical solution, it is shown that the velocity profile is smeared due to the translational diffusion of the particles with opposite directions of rotation. The obtained results for the velocity profiles and flow rates as a function of the electric field strength are in qualitative agreement with the existing experimental results.

  15. Dynamic clustering in suspension of motile bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Yang, Xiang; Yang, Mingcheng; Zhang, H. P.

    2015-09-01

    Bacteria suspension exhibits a wide range of collective phenomena, arising from interactions between individual cells. Here we show Serratia marcescens cells near an air-liquid interface spontaneously aggregate into dynamic clusters through surface-mediated hydrodynamic interactions. These long-lived clusters translate randomly and rotate in the counterclockwise direction; they continuously evolve, merge with others and split into smaller ones. Measurements indicate that long-ranged hydrodynamic interactions have strong influences on cluster properties. Bacterial clusters change material and fluid transport near the interface and hence may have environmental and biological consequences.

  16. Quand l'enigme fait peur: le suspense (When Mystery Frightens: Suspense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayot, Paul; Baudou, Jacques

    1984-01-01

    Two principal schools within the "golden age" of French detective stories, from 1950-1970, are discussed and the suspense element which, along with humor, is inspiring and characteristic of both schools, is traced through a number of authors' works. (MSE)

  17. Drug release from non-aqueous suspensions. II. The release of methylxanthines from paraffin suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaey, C.J. de; Fokkens, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The release of 3 methylxanthines, i.e. caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, from suspensions in liquid paraffin to an aqueous phase was determined in an in vitro apparatus. The release rates were determined as a function of the pH of the aqueous phase. It was proved that the release process was

  18. Roll- and pitch-plane coupled hydro-pneumatic suspension. Part 1: Feasibility analysis and suspension properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2010-03-01

    Passive fluidically coupled suspensions have been considered to offer a promising alternative solution to the challenging design of a vehicle suspension system. A theoretical foundation, however, has not been established for fluidically coupled suspension to facilitate its broad applications to various vehicles. The first part of this study investigates the fundamental issues related to feasibility and properties of the passive, full-vehicle interconnected, hydro-pneumatic suspension configurations using both analytical and simulation techniques. Layouts of various interconnected suspension configurations are illustrated based on two novel hydro-pneumatic suspension strut designs, both of which provide a compact design with a considerably large effective working area. A simplified measure, vehicle property index, is proposed to permit a preliminary evaluation of different interconnected suspension configurations using qualitative scaling of the bounce-, roll-, pitch- and warp-mode stiffness properties. Analytical formulations for the properties of unconnected and three selected X-coupled suspension configurations are derived, and simulation results are obtained to illustrate their relative stiffness and damping properties in the bounce, roll, pitch and warp modes. The superior design flexibility feature of the interconnected hydro-pneumatic suspension is also discussed through sensitivity analysis of a design parameter, namely the annular piston area of the strut. The results demonstrate that a full-vehicle interconnected hydro-pneumatic suspension could provide enhanced roll- and pitch-mode stiffness and damping, while retaining the soft bounce- and warp-mode properties. Such an interconnected suspension thus offers considerable potential in realising enhanced decoupling among the different suspension modes.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... 1University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana, 2Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan, 3School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa, 4Japan Overseas Christian Medical Co-operative Services, C/o Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tabora,. Private Bag ...

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    212-218. [http:// dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4104_2]. 22. Pepper C. 'There's a lot of learning going on but NOT much teaching!': Student perceptions of problem-based learning in science. Higher Education Research & Development 2010 ...

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... 26 March 2017, Vol. 9, No. 1 AJHPE. Research were distributed among varying levels of advancement within the EM training programme (Table 1). Responses to the qualitative section of the survey were categorised into major themes, providing insight into the overall acceptability of small-group education.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-08-06

    Aug 6, 2015 ... permanent contraceptive methods and women's education (AOR=1.72, 95%CI = 1.02 - 3.05), women's occupation (AOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.11 -. 3.58), number of live .... NGO's and presence of different Medias in the area. The result of this .... Social and Behavior Change Communication. Research Brief.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... (SD) age of the male subjects was 38.4(14.9) years and that of the females was 40.8(13.9) years (p> 0.05). The overall ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net) ... Trained research assistants administered questionnaires and obtained the ...

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YouTube, TED and other podcast websites. Other researchers have also documented their procedures. Corl et al.[5] describe the basic process of producing a podcast, and Jham et al.[6] list a number of universities actively doing podcasts. Besides the lecture podcasts, we have also captured numerous clinical.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-05

    Jan 5, 2015 ... Methods: this was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Talensi district in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Systematic random ..... 14. Saunders MNK, Lewis P and Thornhill A. Research methods for business students. FT Prentice Hall. (2003); 3rd Edition. Harlow. Google Scholar. 15. Allen K ...

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-02-17

    Feb 17, 2012 ... Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes. 2000; 50: 79-211. 13. Montano DE and Kasprzyk D. The Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour Glanz, K Lewis, FM Rimer, BK eds. Health Behaviour and Health Education, Theory, Research and Practice: Jossy Bass ...

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... 1National Reference Center in Neonatology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital, University Hospital, Rabat, Morocco, 2Research Team on Health and ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons .... were globally performed in older mothers with a mean age of 31.5.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the standard of future practice. Therefore, it is imperative for healthcare educators to understand the issues students face in their everyday fieldwork practice and equip them to deal with these ethical issues. Objectives. The objective of this research was to determine the issues that students face in their fieldwork practice and ...

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-01-15

    Jan 15, 2015 ... diagnosed cases with FNAB as either benign or malignant when correlated with histology were 95% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: FNAB is ... foot). This study was conducted in compliance with the guidelines of the Helsinki declaration on biomedical research in human subjects. Confidentiality of the ...

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-12-16

    Dec 16, 2015 ... of this policy, there is need to monitor the implementation progress, identify the challenges and mitigate them and determine better strategies for implementation .... Ethical Considerations: ethical Clearance to carry out the research ... 10% of the respondents reported that the government was doing enough ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    Received: 03/12/2014 - Accepted: 15/01/2015 - Published: 13/03/2015. Abstract. Introduction: ... Studies have called on the need for further additional research to establish how supportive supervision in health systems should be best carried out effectively .... male to female medical practitioners in Kenya stood at 60% and.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-09

    Jun 9, 2015 ... The authors sincerely thank the staff of Clinical Research Education,. Networking and Consultancy (CRENC), Douala Cameroon for statistical analysis, data interpretation and assistance in drafting the manuscript. Tables and figures. Table 1: Characteristics (socio-demographic and clinical) of women.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-10-29

    Oct 29, 2013 ... mosquito-borne diseases, however, limited research has been documented on infections with dengue. This study ... presence of antibodies against dengue virus 2 (denv-2) in a cross-section of febrile out-patients visiting three selected hospitals to assess the level .... treatments prescribed was recorded.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-10

    May 10, 2017 ... (Approval number B/874), Joint Research Ethics Committee, Health Studies Office and the Manicaland Directorate Institutional Review Board. Written informed .... parasites, but without any features of severe malaria between. September ..... T-lymphocytes, impairment of antibody formulation and atrophy of.

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Methods: A mixed methods study was conducted using both .... Methods. Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] was employed. ..... Musheke M, Ntalasha H, Gari S, McKenzie O, Bond V, Martin-.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-08-25

    Aug 25, 2011 ... euthanasia were also queried. Data was analyzed using Epidata, SPSS 16.0 and Microsoft Excel. Results: Thirty-eight (97.4%) of thirty-nine institutions reported using animals for education and/or research. Thirty (76.9%) institutions reported using analgesics or anesthetics on a regular basis. Thirteen ...

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-28

    Apr 28, 2016 ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net). Research .... interstitial compartment and may lead to distal tubular damage, some with attendant nephrogenic diabetes ..... Model Summary R=0.861, R2=0.742, Standard error of estimate=0.046, p<0.001.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-01-30

    Jan 30, 2015 ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net). Research. Open Access ... compartment syndrome [4,5]. According to the literature, incidence ... fed into a multiple regression model to assess the odds ratio. Results. Between March 2012 and March 31, ...

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 AJHPE 43. Research. Patient-centredness requires pharmacists to view their patients as individuals with unique experiences.[1] Each patient in their social context responds uniquely to ... To determine the prevalence of the 16 different Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®(MBTI®) communication styles, and compare them with.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mixed-methods approach was selected as the most appropriate research design for data collection and analysis. The use of multiple data collection instruments and sources provided a broader perspective and deeper understanding of the core concepts of the evaluation from the perspective of multiple sources. Results ...