WorldWideScience

Sample records for suspension steering systems

  1. V-TECS Guide for Auto Mechanics: Suspension Systems, Brakes and Steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charles G.; And Others

    The materials in this document are an extension of a catalog of occupational duties, tasks, and performance objectives relevant to maintaining automotive suspension systems, brakes, and steering mechanisms. This document provides the following for each occupational task within each duty: (1) a standard of performance; (2) the conditions under…

  2. Design and manufacturing of mechanical steering system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and manufacturing of mechanical steering system for parallel parking, zero turning radius, minimum turning radius with traditional turning. ... of the steering system are designed so as to meet all the configuration of steering system and to be well-matched to the power train, suspension system and body of the car.

  3. Front-End Types. Automotive Mechanics. Steering & Suspension. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automotive steering and suspension, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with automobile front-end types. Covered in the module are three common types of passenger car front suspension systems and their major components as well as two types…

  4. 49 CFR 570.7 - Steering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering systems. 570.7 Section 570.7... Pounds or Less § 570.7 Steering systems. (a) System play. Lash or free play in the steering system shall... in the steering system. Table 1—Steering System Free Play Values Steering wheel diameter (inches...

  5. 49 CFR 393.207 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... braking system. The vehicle shall be level (not tilting to the left or right). Air leakage shall not be... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 393.207 Section 393.207... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393...

  6. 46 CFR 176.814 - Steering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering systems. 176.814 Section 176.814 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.814 Steering systems. At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to test the steering systems of...

  7. Hydropneumatic suspension systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    Hydropneumatic suspensions systems combine the excellent properties of gas springs with the favourable damping properties of hydraulic fluids. The advantages of these systems are particularly appropriate for automotive applications, such as passenger cars, trucks and agricultural equipment. In this book, Dr. Bauer provides an extensive overview of hydropneumatic suspension systems. Starting with a comparison of different types of suspension systems, the author subsequently describes the theoretical background associated with spring and damping characteristics of hydropneumatic systems and furthermore explains the design of the most important system components. Additionally he gives an overview of level control systems and various special functions. Finally the technology is illustrated by design examples and the outlook for future hydropneumatic suspensions is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Alignment Adjustment Procedures. Automotive Mechanics. Steering & Suspension. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automotive steering and suspension, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with automobile alignment and adjustment procedures. Covered in the module are identifying positive and negative cambers, positive and negative casters, and toe-ins;…

  9. Pre-Alignment Checks. Automotive Mechanics. Steering & Suspension. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automotive steering and suspension, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with prealignment checks. Covered in the module are the following steps in a prealignment check: checking the ride height of a vehicle, checking the ball joints and the…

  10. Development of steering system in network environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanagawa, Fumihiro; Noguchi, So; Yamashita, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    We have been developing the steering system, which can successively observe the-data obtained during the numerical computation and change the parameters in the analysis. Moreover, this system is also extended to link the network. By using this system, a user can easily detect errors immediately and achieve the rapid and accurate analysis with lower computation cost. (Author)

  11. Effect of the crone suspension control system on braking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, X.; Oustaloup, A. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Talence (France). Lab. d' Automatique et de Productique; Nouillant, C. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Talence (France). Lab. d' Automatique et de Productique]|[DRIA-PSA Peugeot Citroen, Velizy - Villacoublay (France)

    2001-07-01

    Semi-active or active suspensions not only increase driving comfort, but also permit the control system to be switched over if required in order to improve the transmission of forces at the points of contact between tire and road surface by minimizing the dynamic wheel loads. It may also be possible to use these systems to control wheel load distribution and, thus, influence braking or steering performance by changing the distribution of normal forces between the front and rear axles. This article examines the effect of the CRONE suspension control system on braking. The central idea is to use continuously variable dampers and fast load levelling devices to distribute the normal forces of tire between the front and rear axles. The basis principle is explained using known dynamic properties of active suspension, vehicles and tires. The effect of active suspension on vehicle response during braking is then evaluated using computer simulations from a two-wheel vehicle model. (orig.)

  12. Online optimized hysteresis-based steering feel model for steer-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kirli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In rubber-wheeled road vehicles, the mechanical connection between steering wheel and front wheels provides steering-related feedback to the driver. The torque fed back to the driver through the steering linkages and steering wheel, which is called steering feel, helps the driver in controlling the vehicle. The torque feedback is reproduced via artificial methods in steer-by-wire systems due to the lack of mechanical connection. In this work, in order to minimize the physical workload and the lateral acceleration under the consideration of handling performance, optimization of a hysteresis-based steering feel has been studied. A 2-degree-of-freedom bicycle model based on the magic formula tire model has been used for simulations and hardware-in-the-loop experiments. A mathematical model is proposed in order to create an adaptive model-based optimization of the hysteresis parameters simultaneously while driving. A hardware-in-the-loop experimental setup has been used for the driving tests. The weave and the double-lane change tests have been performed with different drivers in order to demonstrate and quantify the optimization methods that are presented in this work.

  13. Fault-tolerant Actuator System for Electrical Steering of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Sandberg; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    is needed that meets this requirement. This paper studies the fault-tolerance properties of an electrical steering system. It presents a fault-tolerant architecture where a dedicated AC motor design used in conjunction with cheap voltage measurements can ensure detection of all relevant faults......Being critical to the safety of vehicles, the steering system is required to maintain the vehicles ability to steer until it is brought to halt, should a fault occur. With electrical steering becoming a cost-effective candidate for electrical powered vehicles, a fault-tolerant architecture...

  14. Development of A New Automotive Active Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef Abdulhammed, Eng.; Eng. Hisham Elsherif, Dr, Prof.

    2017-12-01

    The main objective was to develop a smart new vehicle suspension system that minimizes the road irregularities impact on the driver, also to increase performance and stability of the vehicle at high speeds. The central idea is based on modifying the normal passive suspension system into a computer controller hydraulic actuated active suspension system simply by adding a new component such as a hydraulic cylinder on a normal passive system. The new suspension system is economical to be wildly used in consumer’s cars with low prices. The new added components was analytically tested and modeled according to different parameters. A new test rig was implemented to simulate a real quarter suspension system. The new suspension model was controlled by feedback controller according to the road conditions; the controller output controls the cylinder actuator to compensate the road oscillations and increases the vehicle stability for the passenger. Finally, to maximize the aerodynamics coefficients of the vehicle during high speeds by controlling the vehicle clearance level from the ground to achieve full stability, steering and fuel economy.

  15. Research on Performance of Wire-controlled Hydraulic Steering System Based on Four-wheel Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, P.; Jin, X. H.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the steering stability and control strategy of forklift are put forward. Drive based on yawing moment distribution of rotary torque coordination control method, through analyzing the linear two degree of freedom model of forklift truck, forklift yawing angular velocity and mass center side-slip Angle of expectations, as the control target parameters system, using fuzzy controller output driving forklift steering the yawing moment, to drive rotary torque distribution, make the forklift truck to drive horizontal pendulum angular velocity and side-slip Angle tracking reference model very well. In this paper, the lateral stability control system were designed, the joint simulation in MATLAB/Simulink, the simulation results show that under the different partial load, the control system can effectively to control side forklift lateral stability, enhanced the forklift driving safety, for the side forklift steering stability study provides a theoretical basis.

  16. Research on Handling Stability of Steering-by-wire System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Ying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main function of steer-by-wire (SBW system are improving steering characteristics, security and stability of the vehicle. In this paper, the variable steering ratio of SBW system is analyzed, and the method of steering ratio based on fuzzy control and neural network are researched. In order to solve the actual working condition, the wheel angle may not reach the expected value, this paper establishes a twodegree-of-freedom (2-DOF vehicle model, and a Matlab/Simulink simulation model, in which a control strategy based on PID controller is put forward to control the front wheel steering angle. Simulation results show that proposed control strategy based on fuzzy neural network can effectively reduce lateral deviation and improve the handling stability and comfortability of the vehicle.

  17. Four-Wheel Vehicle Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, Donald B.

    1990-01-01

    Four-wheel suspension system uses simple system of levers with no compliant components to provide three-point suspension of chassis of vehicle while maintaining four-point contact with uneven terrain. Provides stability against tipping of four-point rectangular base, without rocking contact to which rigid four-wheel frame susceptible. Similar to six-wheel suspension system described in "Articulated Suspension Without Springs" (NPO-17354).

  18. 49 CFR 570.8 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 570.8 Section 570.8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... Pounds or Less § 570.8 Suspension systems. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut or...

  19. 49 CFR 570.61 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 570.61 Section 570.61... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IN USE INSPECTION STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.61 Suspension system. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut...

  20. Calculation of the beam injector steering system using Helmholtz coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passaro, A.; Sircilli Neto, F.; Migliano, A.C.C.

    1991-03-01

    In this work, a preliminary evaluation of the beam injector steering system of the IEAv electron linac is presented. From the existing injector configuration and with the assumptions of monoenergetic beam (100 keV) and uniform magnetic field, two pairs of Helmholtz coils were calculated for the steering system. Excitations of 105 A.turn and 37 A.turn were determined for the first and second coils, respectively. (author)

  1. Steering Dynamics in the Dutch Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waslander, Sietske; Hooge, Edith; Drewes, Tineke

    2016-01-01

    Based on detailed empirical analyses, we paint a layered picture of emerging steering dynamics. Inspired by Foucault, we put the focus on roles stakeholders define both for themselves and others, how they give sense to policy, how they work together in policy elaboration and implementation, and the subtle and sometimes deceitful function of soft…

  2. Attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, David B.; Fontana, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic suspension systems can be used in a wide variety of applications. The decision of whether to use an attractive or repulsive suspension system for a particular application is a fundamental one which must be made during the design process. As an aid to the designer, we compare and contrast attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems and indicate whether and under what conditions one or the other system is preferred.

  3. Use of MBS (ADAMS / CAR software in simulations of vehicle suspension systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz KONIECZNY

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the examination of a vehicle suspension system in the plate position are presented in the paper. The model vehicle is a Fiat Seicento with front independent suspension, McPherson type, with the steering system and with the semi-trailing arm in the rear suspension. Identification of the model was made by comparing the simulation results with the results from the test stand. A multibody model of the vehicle will be used in studies of the impact of shock absorber technical conditions on the dynamics of automotive vehicles.

  4. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Imtiaz Hussain; Jawaid Daudpoto; Ali Asghar Memon

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability...

  5. Study on control schemes of flexible steering system of a multi-axle all-wheel-steering robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxia Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that a multi-axle wheeled robot possesses larger load capability and also higher drive performance. However, its steering flexibility is degraded due to the large number of wheels. In order to solve this problem, in this article, we proposed three control schemes based on the center of rotation or the steering angles of both the first- and last-axle wheels. To release these control schemes, steering mode selection and also the left wheel’s steering angle in a specific axle are added approaching a practical application. Thereafter, the remaining wheels’ steering angles can be calculated with the Ackerman steering theorem. In order to verify the control effects, a five-axle all-wheel-steering wheeled robot has been developed with the Bluetooth wireless monitor system. Based on the newly designed robot, validation experiments are carried out, such as lateral movement, situ rotation, and multi-mode steering within a narrow space. The results indicate that the proposed design in this article can ensure a more flexible and faster movement within a narrow space. It shows large potential in obstacle avoidance compared with the conventional partial-wheel steering mode.

  6. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Hussain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability. The paper proposes the use of primary and secondary suspension to suppress the vibrations more effectively.

  7. Stochastic stability of four-wheel-steering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Dongwei; Wang Hongli; Zhu Zhiwen; Feng Zhang

    2007-01-01

    A four-wheel-steering system subjected to white noise excitations was reduced to a two-degree-of-freedom quasi-non-integrable-Hamiltonian system. Subsequently we obtained an one-dimensional Ito stochastic differential equation for the averaged Hamiltonian of the system by using the stochastic averaging method for quasi-non-integrable-Hamiltonian systems. Thus, the stochastic stability of four-wheel-steering system was analyzed by analyzing the sample behaviors of the averaged Hamiltonian at the boundary H = 0 and calculating its Lyapunov exponent. An example given at the end demonstrated that the conclusion obtained is of considerable significance

  8. Multifunctional Converter Drive for Automotive Electric Power Steering Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackner, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis it is shown that in the case of an automotive electric power steering system, critical pulse power loads can be decoupled from the power net with a storage element and a multifunctional converter. A multifunctional converter system is proposed because it uses the motor drive system as

  9. Complex Education Systems: From Steering Change to Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The theories and approaches of steering/monitoring a process of change within education systems have evolved over the last 20 years or so as a result of many factors such as globalisation and decentralisation, a faster pace of change, increasing expectations and demands from various stakeholders (parents, employers, teacher unions, etc.) and the…

  10. A hybrid system for beam steering and wavefront control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, Vladimir V.

    2004-06-01

    Performance of long-range mobile laser systems operating within Earth's atmosphere is generally limited by several factors. Movement of the communicating platforms, such as aircraft, terrain vehicles, etc., complemented by mechanical vibrations, is the main cause of pointing errors. In addition, atmospheric turbulence causes changes of the refractive index along the propagation path that lead to phase distortions (aberrations), thus creating random redistribution of optical energy in the spatial domain. The combined effect of these factors leads to an increased bit-error probability under adverse operation conditions. While traditional approaches provide separate treatment of these problems, suggesting the development of high-bandwidth beam steering systems to perform tracking and jitter rejection, and wavefront control for the mitigation of atmospheric effects, the two tasks could be integrated. In this paper we present a hybrid laser beam steering/wavefront control system comprising an electrically addressed spatial light modulator (SLM) installed on the Omni-Wrist sensor mount platform. The function of the Omni-Wrist is to provide coarse steering over a wide range of pointing angles, while the purpose of the SLM is twofold: it performs wavefront correction and fine steering. The control law for the Omni-Wrist is synthesized using the decentralized approach that provides independent access to the azimuth and declination channels, while the algorithm for calculating the required phase profile for the SLM is optimization-based. This paper presents the control algorithms, the approach to coordinating the operation of the both systems and the simulation results.

  11. Experimental Evaluation of Mountain Bike Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Titlestad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant distinction between competitive mountain bikes is whether they have a suspension system. Research studies indicate that a suspension system gives advantages, but it is difficult to quantify the benefits because they depend on so many variables, including the physiology and psychology of the cyclist, the roughness of the track and the design of the suspension system. A laboratory based test rig has been built that allows the number of variables in the system to be reduced and test conditions to be controlled. The test rig simulates regular impacts of the rear wheel with bumps in a rolling road. The physiological variables of oxygen consumption and heart rate were measured, together with speeds and forces at various points in the system. Physiological and mechanical test results both confirm a significant benefit in using a suspension system on the simulated rough track, with oxygen consumption reduced by around 30 % and power transmitted through the pedals reduced by 30 % to 60 %.

  12. Intelligent systems of the vehicles’ suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurlin, D.

    2018-02-01

    The article is devoted to the current condition of car’s active suspension system. It presents the tendencies in development of the active systems of suspension system, adjustable elements incorporated in them and the companies succeeded in designing such systems. It also mirrors the problem of impact of active systems on car’s safety and their importance for the driver. Advantages and disadvantages of the most common types of active elements are being described, analyzed and compared. The author concludes about the perspectives of these systems’ development.

  13. The Optimal Steering Control System using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm on Vehicles with Steer-by-Wire System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hunaini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Steer-by-wire is the electrical steering systems on vehicles that are expected with the development of an optimal control system can improve the dynamic performance of the vehicle. This paper aims to optimize the control systems, namely Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC and the Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID control on the vehicle steering system using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA. The control systems are built in a cascade, FLC to suppress errors in the lateral motion and the PID control to minimize the error in the yaw motion of the vehicle. FLC is built has two inputs (error and delta error and single output. Each input and output consists of three Membership Function (MF in the form of a triangular for language term "zero" and two trapezoidal for language term "negative" and "positive". In order to work optimally, each MF optimized using ICA to get the position and width of the most appropriate. Likewise, in the PID control, the constant at each Proportional, Integral and Derivative control also optimized using ICA, so there are six parameters of the control system are simultaneously optimized by ICA. Simulations performed on vehicle models with 10 Degree Of Freedom (DOF, the plant input using the variables of steering that expressed in the desired trajectory, and the plant outputs are lateral and yaw motion. The simulation results showed that the FLC-PID control system optimized by using ICA can maintain the movement of vehicle according to the desired trajectory with lower error and higher speed limits than optimized with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO.

  14. Optimization of Steering System of Forklift Vehicle for Idle Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal design process for the steering system of a forklift vehicle. An efficient procedure for minimizing the engine-induced idle vibration is developed in this study. Reciprocating unbalance and gas pressure torque as two major sources of engine excitation are studied. Using the field vibration tests and FEM analysis, the cause and characteristics of steering system’s idle vibration are recognized. So as to distribute the characteristic modes based on the optimization strategy, global sensitivity analysis of the main parameters is also carried out to achieve the optimal combination of the optimization factors. Based on all analysis above, some structure modifications for optimization are presented to control the idle vibration. The effectiveness and rationality of the improvements are also verified through experimental prototyping testing. This study also makes it possible to provide a design guideline using CAE (computer aided engineering analysis for some other objects.

  15. Modeling of Driver Steering Operations in Lateral Wind Disturbances toward Driver Assistance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Yoshinori; Wada, Takahiro; Kamiji, Norimasa; Doi, Shun'ichi

    Disturbances decrease vehicle stability and increase driver's mental and physical workload. Especially unexpected disturbances such as lateral winds have severe effect on vehicle stability and driver's workload. This study aims at building a driver model of steering operations in lateral wind toward developing effective driver assistance system. First, the relationship between the driver's lateral motion and its reactive quick steering behavior is investigated using driving simulator with lateral 1dof motion. In the experiments, four different wind patterns are displayed by the simulator. As the results, strong correlation was found between the driver's head lateral jerk by the lateral disturbance and the angular acceleration of the steering wheel. Then, we build a mathematical model of driver's steering model from lateral disturbance input to steering torque of the reactive quick feed-forward steering based on the experimental results. Finally, validity of the proposed model is shown by comparing the steering torque of experimental results and that of simulation results.

  16. Study on a New Steering Mechanism for Point-the-Bit Rotary Steerable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhi Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel steering mechanism embedded in a point-the-bit rotary steerable system (RSS for oilfield exploitation. The new steering mechanism adopts a set of universal joints to alleviate the high alternative strain on drilling mandrel and employs a specially designed planetary gear small tooth number difference (PGSTD to achieve directional steering. Its principle and characteristics are explained and examined through a series of analyses. First, the eccentric displacement vector of the offset point on the drilling mandrel is formulated and kinematic solutions are established. Next, structural design for the new steering mechanism is addressed. Then, procedures and program architectures for simulating offset state of the drilling mandrel and motion trajectory of the whole steering mechanism are presented. After that, steering motion simulations of the new steering mechanism for both 2D and 3D well trajectories are then performed by combining LabVIEW and SolidWorks. Finally, experiments on the steering motion control of the new steering mechanism prototype are carried out. The simulations and experiments reveal that the steering performance of the new steering mechanism is satisfied. The research can provide good guidance for further research and engineering application of the point-the-bit RSS.

  17. : Light Steering Projection Systems and Attributes for HDR Displays

    KAUST Repository

    Damberg, Gerwin

    2017-06-02

    New light steering projectors in cinema form images by moving light away from dark regions into bright areas of an image. In these systems, the peak luminance of small features can far exceed full screen white luminance. In traditional projectors where light is filtered or blocked in order to give shades of gray (or colors), the peak luminance is fixed. The luminance of chromatic features benefit in the same way as white features, and chromatic image details can be reproduced at high brightness leading to a much wider overall color gamut coverage than previously possible. Projectors of this capability are desired by the creative community to aid in and enhance storytelling. Furthermore, reduced light source power requirements of light steering projectors provide additional economic and environmental benefits. While the dependency of peak luminance level on (bright) image feature size is new in the digital cinema space, display technologies with identical characteristics such as OLED, LED LCD and Plasma TVs are well established in the home. Similarly, direct view LED walls are popular in events, advertising and architectural markets. To enable consistent color reproduction across devices in today’s content production pipelines, models that describe modern projectors and display attributes need to evolve together with HDR standards and available metadata. This paper is a first step towards rethinking legacy display descriptors such as contrast, peak luminance and color primaries in light of new display technology. We first summarize recent progress in the field of light steering projectors in cinema and then, based on new projector and existing display characteristics propose the inclusion of two simple display attributes: Maximum Average Luminance and Peak (Color) Primary Luminance. We show that the proposed attributes allow a better prediction of content reproducibility on HDR displays. To validate this assertion, we test professional content on a commercial HDR

  18. Measurements on an electromagnetic active suspension system for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gysen, B.L.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.; Encica, L.; Gysen, B.L.J.; Jansen, J.W.; Krop, D.C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract—This paper describes the specifications for active suspension systems and provides an electromagnetic solution. Electromagnetic actuation and preliminary control strategies are investigated in order to achieve a suspension system with the ability to absorb road irregularities and perform

  19. Research on Sliding Mode Control for Steer-by-Wire System in Forklift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jun-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at steering stability and wheel angle tracking of steer-by-wire (SBW three wheeled forklift, steering dynamic model and SBW system mathematical model of three wheeled forklift are established. A control strategy for the ideal transmission ratio is introduced based on this model, which ensures forklift steering gain invariant. A sliding mode controller can then be designed based on the bound information of uncertain system parameters, uncertain self-aligning torque, and external disturbances. The results of simulation show the control strategies above can effectively reduce the sideslip angle when the forklift is steering and improve the sensitivity and stability of the steering forklift; at the same time can effectively restrain the parameter perturbation of internal system and external disturbance, which improves the tracking performance of the wheel angle.

  20. Vibration Reduction System Using Magnetic Suspension Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spychała Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents considerations concerning the construction of vibration reduction system using magnetic suspension technology. Presents the results of simulation, numerical and experimental the bearingless electric motor, for which successfully used this type of solution. Positive results of research and testing have become the basis for the development of the concept of building this type of active vibration reduction system , at the same time acting as a support for a technical object, which is a jet engine. Bearing failures are manifested by loss or distortion of their mass, which leads to a total destruction of the roller bearing, and thus reflected in the security. The article presents the concept of building active magnetic suspension to eliminate the bearing system of classical rolling bearing and replace it with magnetic bearing.

  1. A semi-active control suspension system for railway vehicles with magnetorheological fluid dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiukun; Zhu, Ming; Jia, Limin

    2016-07-01

    The high-speed train has achieved great progress in the last decades. It is one of the most important modes of transportation between cities. With the rapid development of the high-speed train, its safety issue is paid much more attention than ever before. To improve the stability of the vehicle with high speed, extra dampers (i.e. anti-hunting damper) are used in the traditional bogies with passive suspension system. However, the curving performance of the vehicle is undermined due to the extra lateral force generated by the dampers. The active suspension systems proposed in the last decades attempt to solve the vehicle steering issue. However, the active suspension systems need extra actuators driven by electrical power or hydraulic power. There are some implementation and even safety issues which are not easy to be overcome. In this paper, an innovative semi-active controlled lateral suspension system for railway vehicles is proposed. Four magnetorheological fluid dampers are fixed to the primary suspension system of each bogie. They are controlled by online controllers for enhancing the running stability on the straight track line on the one hand and further improving the curving performance by controlling the damper force on the other hand. Two control strategies are proposed in the light of the pure rolling concept. The effectiveness of the proposed strategies is demonstrated by SIMPACK and Matlab co-simulation for a full railway vehicle with two conventional bogies.

  2. 46 CFR 122.320 - Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests... communication system tests. The master of a vessel shall have examined and tested the steering gear, signaling whistle, propulsion controls, and communication systems of the vessel prior to getting underway for a...

  3. EVALUATION OF A CONCEPTUAL VEHICLE STEERING SYSTEM FOR INDEPENDENT WHEEL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard BUCHALIK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief description of an unconventional steering system involving electronic stability control and its influence on vehicle motion. The proposed configuration enables individual changes in steering angle for each single wheel, in contrast to the mechanical linkage solution. An analysis of vehicle behaviour during emergency braking on a heterogeneous surface is conducted, especially with regard to the undesirable rotation of the vehicle body. The benefits of using this active steering system, implemented in the steer-by-wire mode, are characterized, while the problems for further consideration and the potential benefits of such a solution are described.

  4. Adiabatically steered open quantum systems: Master equation and optimal phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmilehto, J.; Solinas, P.; Ankerhold, J.; Moettoenen, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an alternative way to derive the generalized form of the master equation recently presented by J. P. Pekola et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 030401 (2010)] for an adiabatically steered two-level quantum system interacting with a Markovian environment. The original derivation employed the effective Hamiltonian in the adiabatic basis with the standard interaction picture approach but without the usual secular approximation. Our approach is based on utilizing a master equation for a nonsteered system in the first superadiabatic basis. It is potentially efficient in obtaining higher-order equations. Furthermore, we show how to select the phases of the adiabatic eigenstates to minimize the local adiabatic parameter and how this selection leads to states which are invariant under a local gauge change. We also discuss the effects of the adiabatic noncyclic geometric phase on the master equation.

  5. Nonlinear Predictive Sliding Mode Control for Active Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhuang Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An active suspension system is important in meeting the requirements of the ride comfort and handling stability for vehicles. In this work, a nonlinear model of active suspension system and a corresponding nonlinear robust predictive sliding mode control are established for the control problem of active suspension. Firstly, a seven-degree-of-freedom active suspension model is established considering the nonlinear effects of springs and dampers; and secondly, the dynamic model is expanded in the time domain, and the corresponding predictive sliding mode control is established. The uncertainties in the controller are approximated by the fuzzy logic system, and the adaptive controller reduces the approximation error to increase the robustness of the control system. Finally, the simulation results show that the ride comfort and handling stability performance of the active suspension system is better than that of the passive suspension system and the Skyhook active suspension. Thus, the system can obviously improve the shock absorption performance of vehicles.

  6. Demonstration of Multisetting One-Way Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering in Two-Qubit Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ya; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Sun, Kai; Xu, Jin-Shi; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-04-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes the ability of one party to remotely affect another's state through local measurements. One of the most distinguishable properties of EPR steering is its asymmetric aspect. Steering can work in one direction but fail in the opposite direction. This type of one-way steering, which is different from the symmetry concepts of entanglement and Bell nonlocality, has garnered much interest. However, an experimental demonstration of genuine one-way EPR steering in the simplest scenario, i.e., one that employs two-qubit systems, is still lacking. In this Letter, we experimentally demonstrate one-way EPR steering with multimeasurement settings for a class of two-qubit states, which are still one-way steerable even with infinite settings. The steerability is quantified by the steering radius, which represents a necessary and sufficient steering criterion. The demonstrated one-way steering in the simplest bipartite quantum system is of fundamental interest and may provide potential applications in one-way quantum information tasks.

  7. Modelling and Simulation of a Hydrostatic Steering System for Agricultural Tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zardin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The steering system of a vehicle impacts on the vehicle performance, safety and on the driver’s comfort. Moreover, in off-road vehicles using hydrostatic steering systems, the energy dissipation also becomes a critical issue. These aspects push and motivate innovation, research and analysis in the field of agricultural tractors. This paper proposes the modelling and analysis of a hydrostatic steering system for an agricultural tractor to calculate the performance of the system and determine the influence of its main design parameters. The focus here is on the driver’s steering feel, which can improve the driver’s behavior reducing unnecessary steering corrections during the working conditions. The hydrostatic steering system is quite complex and involves a hydraulic circuit and a mechanical mechanism to transmit the steering to the vehicle tires. The detailed lumped parameters model here proposed allows to simulate the dynamic behavior of the steering system and to both enhance the understanding of the system and to improve the design through parameters sensitivity analysis.

  8. 15 CFR 2011.207 - Suspension of the certificate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.207 Suspension of the certificate system. (a) Suspension. The.... Notice of such suspension and the effective date thereof shall be published in the Federal Register. (b... such reinstatement and the effective date thereof shall be published in the Federal Register. (c...

  9. Beam steered millimeter-wave fiber-wireless system for 5G indoor coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Z.; Wang, Q.; Tessema, N.M.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Soares, F.M.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    A 38GHz beam steered fiber-wireless system, enabled by a novel integrated optical tunable delay line, is demonstrated for 5G indoor coverage. The beam steering gains 14dBm spatial power focusing and 6 times EVM improvement.

  10. 46 CFR 185.320 - Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests. 185.320 Section 185.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.320 Steering...

  11. Neural control of magnetic suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, W. Steven

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to design, build and test (in cooperation with NASA personnel from the NASA Langley Research Center) neural controllers for two different small air-gap magnetic suspension systems. The general objective of the program is to study neural network architectures for the purpose of control in an experimental setting and to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. The specific objectives of the research program are: (1) to demonstrate through simulation and experimentation the feasibility of using neural controllers to stabilize a nonlinear magnetic suspension system; (2) to investigate through simulation and experimentation the performance of neural controllers designs under various types of parametric and nonparametric uncertainty; (3) to investigate through simulation and experimentation various types of neural architectures for real-time control with respect to performance and complexity; and (4) to benchmark in an experimental setting the performance of neural controllers against other types of existing linear and nonlinear compensator designs. To date, the first one-dimensional, small air-gap magnetic suspension system has been built, tested and delivered to the NASA Langley Research Center. The device is currently being stabilized with a digital linear phase-lead controller. The neural controller hardware is under construction. Two different neural network paradigms are under consideration, one based on hidden layer feedforward networks trained via back propagation and one based on using Gaussian radial basis functions trained by analytical methods related to stability conditions. Some advanced nonlinear control algorithms using feedback linearization and sliding mode control are in simulation studies.

  12. Steering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeffer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume presents basic principles as well as advanced concepts of the computational modeling of steering systems. Moreover, the book includes the components and functionalities of modern steering system, which are presented comprehensively and in a practical way. The book is written by more than 15 leading experts from the automotive industry and its components suppliers. The target audience primarily comprises practicing engineers, developers, researchers as well as graduate students who want to specialize in this field.

  13. System and technique for ultrasonic characterization of settling suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Margaret S [Richland, WA; Panetta, Paul D [Richland, WA; Bamberger, Judith A [Richland, WA; Pappas, Richard A [Richland, WA

    2006-11-28

    A system for determining properties of settling suspensions includes a settling container, a mixer, and devices for ultrasonic interrogation transverse to the settling direction. A computer system controls operation of the mixer and the interrogation devices and records the response to the interrogating as a function of settling time, which is then used to determine suspension properties. Attenuation versus settling time for dilute suspensions, such as dilute wood pulp suspension, exhibits a peak at different settling times for suspensions having different properties, and the location of this peak is used as one mechanism for characterizing suspensions. Alternatively or in addition, a plurality of ultrasound receivers are arranged at different angles to a common transmitter to receive scattering responses at a variety of angles during particle settling. Angular differences in scattering as a function of settling time are also used to characterize the suspension.

  14. Mirror suspension system for the TAMA SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Takamori, A; Bertolini, A; Cella, G; DeSalvo, R; Fukushima, M; Iida, Y; Jacquier, F; Kawamura, S; Marka, S; Nishi, Y; Numata, K; Sannibale, V; Somiya, K; Takahashi, R; Tariq, H; Tsubono, K; Ugas, J; Viboud, N; Yamamoto, H; Yoda, T; Wang Chen Yang

    2002-01-01

    Several R and D programmes are ongoing to develop the next generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors providing the superior sensitivity desired for refined astronomical observations. In order to obtain a wide observation band at low frequencies, the optics need to be isolated from the seismic noise. The TAMA SAS (seismic attenuation system) has been developed within an international collaboration between TAMA, LIGO, and some European institutes, with the main objective of achieving sufficient low-frequency seismic attenuation (-180 dB at 10 HZ). The system suppresses seismic noise well below the other noise levels starting at very low frequencies above 10 Hz. It also includes an active inertial damping system to decrease the residual motion of the optics enough to allow a stable operation of the interferometer. The TAMA SAS also comprises a sophisticated mirror suspension subsystem (SUS). The SUS provides support for the optics and vibration isolation complementing the SAS performance. The SU...

  15. Fault Risk Assessment of Underwater Vehicle Steering System Based on Virtual Prototyping and Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Deyu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the risks of steering system faults in underwater vehicles is a human-machine-environment (HME systematic safety field that studies faults in the steering system itself, the driver’s human reliability (HR and various environmental conditions. This paper proposed a fault risk assessment method for an underwater vehicle steering system based on virtual prototyping and Monte Carlo simulation. A virtual steering system prototype was established and validated to rectify a lack of historic fault data. Fault injection and simulation were conducted to acquire fault simulation data. A Monte Carlo simulation was adopted that integrated randomness due to the human operator and environment. Randomness and uncertainty of the human, machine and environment were integrated in the method to obtain a probabilistic risk indicator. To verify the proposed method, a case of stuck rudder fault (SRF risk assessment was studied. This method may provide a novel solution for fault risk assessment of a vehicle or other general HME system.

  16. Driver assistance system for lane departure avoidance by steering and differential braking

    OpenAIRE

    MINOIU-ENACHE, N; MAMMAR, S; GLASER, S; LUSETTI, B

    2010-01-01

    Lane departure avoidance systems assist actively the driver during inattention or drowsiness and increase driving safety. Most of the lane departure avoidance systems use for the lateral control of the vehicle in closed loop a DC motor similar to the electrical powered steering (EPS) assistance. Important difficulties and limits of this approach are the shared control with the driver on the steering wheel and the vehicle handling at limits. In this paper a combined lateral control using a DC ...

  17. Millimeter wave beam steered fiber wireless systems for 5G indoor coverage : Integrated circuits and systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Zizheng; Zhang, Xuebing; Zhao, Xinran; Shen, Longfei; Deng, Xiong; Yin, Xin; Koonen, Ton

    2017-01-01

    In this talk, we review our recent progress and on-going research on millimeter wave beam steered fiber wireless systems for 5G indoor coverage enabled by the advanced photonic integrated circuit and well-designed fiber-wireless networks.

  18. Robust H2/H∞ Control for the Electrohydraulic Steering System of a Four-Wheel Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To shorten the steer diameter and to improve the maneuverability flexibility of a construction vehicle, four wheels’ steering system is presented. This steering system consists of mechanical-electrical-hydraulic assemblies. Its diagram and principle are depicted in detail. Then the mathematical models are derived step by step, including the whole vehicle model and the hydraulic route model. Considering the nonlinear and time-varying uncertainty of the steering system, robust H2/H∞ controller is put forward to guarantee both the system performance and the robust stability. The H∞ norm of the sensitive function from the parameter perturbation of the hydraulic system to the yaw velocity of the vehicle is taken as the evaluating index of the robustness and the H2 norm of the transfer function from the external disturbance to the steering angle of the wheel as the index of linear quadratic Gaussian. The experimental results showed that the proposed scheme was superior to classical PID controller and can guarantee both the control performance and the robustness of the steering system.

  19. Comparison of vibration damping of standard and PDCPD housing of the electric power steering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2017-08-01

    A comparison of two different types of electric power steering system housing is presented. The first considered type of the housing was a standard one that is made of an aluminium alloy. The second one is made of polydicyclopentadiene polymer (PDCPD) and was produced using the RIM technology. Considered elements were analysed in order to verify their properties of vibrations damping. This property is very important taking into account noise generated by elements of a car’s power steering system. During the carried out tests vibrations of analysed power steering housings were measured using Marco Fiber Composite (MFC) piezoelectric transducers. Results obtained for both considered power steering housings in case of the same parameters of vibrations excitations were measured and juxtaposed. Obtained results were analysed in order to verify if the housing made of PDCPD polymer has better properties of vibration damping than the standard one.

  20. Design of Model-based Controller with Disturbance Estimation in Steer-by-wire System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sanghun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The steer-by-wire system is a next generation steering control technology that has been actively studied because it has many advantages such as fast response, space efficiency due to removal of redundant mechanical elements, and high connectivity with vehicle chassis control, such as active steering. Steer-by-wire system has disturbance composed of tire friction torque and self-aligning torque. These disturbances vary widely due to the weight or friction coefficient change. Therefore, disturbance compensation logic is strongly required to obtain desired performance. This paper proposes model-based controller with disturbance compensation to achieve the robust control performance. Targeted steer-by-wire system is identified through the experiment and system identification method. Moreover, model-based controller is designed using the identified plant model. Disturbance of targeted steer-by-wire is estimated using disturbance observer(DOB, and compensate the estimated disturbance into control input. Experiment of various scenarios are conducted to validate the robust performance of proposed model-based controller.

  1. Mirror suspension system for the TAMA SAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamori, Akiteru; Ando, Masaki; Bertolini, Alessandro; Cella, Giancarlo; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Iida, Yukiyoshi; Jacquier, Florian; Kawamura, Seiji; Marka, Szabolcs; Nishi, Yuhiko; Numata, Kenji; Sannibale, Virginio; Somiya, Kentaro; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Tariq, Hareem; Tsubono, Kimio; Ugas, Jose; Viboud, Nicolas; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Yoda, Tatsuo; Wang Chenyang

    2002-01-01

    Several R and D programmes are ongoing to develop the next generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors providing the superior sensitivity desired for refined astronomical observations. In order to obtain a wide observation band at low frequencies, the optics need to be isolated from the seismic noise. The TAMA SAS (seismic attenuation system) has been developed within an international collaboration between TAMA, LIGO, and some European institutes, with the main objective of achieving sufficient low-frequency seismic attenuation (-180 dB at 10 HZ). The system suppresses seismic noise well below the other noise levels starting at very low frequencies above 10 Hz. It also includes an active inertial damping system to decrease the residual motion of the optics enough to allow a stable operation of the interferometer. The TAMA SAS also comprises a sophisticated mirror suspension subsystem (SUS). The SUS provides support for the optics and vibration isolation complementing the SAS performance. The SUS is equipped with a totally passive magnetic damper to suppress internal resonances without degrading the thermal noise performance. In this paper we discuss the SUS details and present prototype results

  2. Magnetic suspension of a rotating system. Application to inertial flywheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarquand, Guy

    1984-01-01

    The various possible magnetic suspension configurations compatible with rotating mechanical systems are defined from studies of the characteristics of different types of magnetic bearings. The results obtained are used in the design and realization of a magnetic suspension for an inertial flywheel. (author) [fr

  3. 15 CFR 2011.110 - Suspension of certificate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Certificate of Quota Eligibility § 2011.110 Suspension of certificate system. (a... of such suspension and the effective date thereof shall be published in the Federal Register. (b... such reinstatement and the effective date thereof shall be published in the Federal Register. (c...

  4. A Vehicle Steering Recognition System Based on Low-Cost Smartphone Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing how a vehicle is steered and then alerting drivers in real time is of utmost importance to the vehicle and driver’s safety, since fatal accidents are often caused by dangerous vehicle maneuvers, such as rapid turns, fast lane-changes, etc. Existing solutions using video or in-vehicle sensors have been employed to identify dangerous vehicle maneuvers, but these methods are subject to the effects of the environmental elements or the hardware is very costly. In the mobile computing era, smartphones have become key tools to develop innovative mobile context-aware systems. In this paper, we present a recognition system for dangerous vehicle steering based on the low-cost sensors found in a smartphone: i.e., the gyroscope and the accelerometer. To identify vehicle steering maneuvers, we focus on the vehicle’s angular velocity, which is characterized by gyroscope data from a smartphone mounted in the vehicle. Three steering maneuvers including turns, lane-changes and U-turns are defined, and a vehicle angular velocity matching algorithm based on Fast Dynamic Time Warping (FastDTW is adopted to recognize the vehicle steering. The results of extensive experiments show that the average accuracy rate of the presented recognition reaches 95%, which implies that the proposed smartphone-based method is suitable for recognizing dangerous vehicle steering maneuvers.

  5. Study on Dynamic Behaviour of Wishbone Suspension System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M; Rahman, M M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristic model of the wishbone suspension system using the quarter car model approach. Suspension system in an automobile provides vehicle control and passenger comfort by providing isolation from road disturbances. This makes it essential that the detailed behavior of suspension should be known to optimize the performance. A kinetic study is performed using multi body system (MBS) analysis. The dirt road profile is considered as an applied loading. The spring constant, damping coefficient and sprung mass are studied on the performance of the suspension system. It can be observed that the spring constant is inversely related with time required to return to initial position and the amount of deformations. The damping ratio affects the suppression of spring oscillations, beyond a certain limit damping ration has the negligible effect. Sprung mass effected the equilibrium position of the suspension system with a small effect on its oscillation behavior. It is shown that the spring constant, damping ratio and sprung mass are significant parameters to design the suspension system. This study is essential for complete understanding of working of the suspension system and a future study with real geometries.

  6. A universal suspension test rig for electrohydraulic active and passive automotive suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Omar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A fully active electro-hydraulic and passive automotive quarter car suspensions with their experimental test-rigs are designed and implemented. Investigation of the active performance compared against the passive is performed experimentally and numerically utilizing SIMULINK's Simscape library. Both systems are modeled as single-degree-of-freedom in order to simplify the validation process. Economic considerations were considered during the rig's implementation. The rig consists of two identical platforms fixed side by side allowing testing two independent suspensions simultaneously. Position sensors for sprung and unsprung masses on both platforms are installed. The road input is introduced by a cam and a roller follower mechanism driven by 1.12 kW single phase induction motor with speed reduction assembly. The active hydraulic cylinder was the most viable choice due to its high power-to-weight ratio. The active control is of the proportional-integral-differential (PID type. Though this technique is quite simple and not new, yet the emphasis of this paper is the engineering, design and implementation of the experimental setup and controller. A successful validation process is performed. Ride comfort significantly improved with active suspension, as shown by the results; 24.8% sprung mass vibration attenuation is achieved. The details of the developed system with the analytical and experimental results are presented. Keywords: Active suspension, Passive suspension, Servo, Hydraulic, Control, PID

  7. A novel magnetic lead screw active suspension system for vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    This paper encompasses a detailed study of the redesign of a novel Magnetic Lead Screw (MLS) active suspension system for possible regeneration of the energy dispatched in the suspension system and active control of vehicle body movement. The MLS converts a low speed high force linear motion...... of a translator into a high speed low torque rotational motion of a rotor through helically shaped magnets. The paper describes the drawback of the first MLS prototype v1.0 developed for active suspension system, which lead to a new design of the MLS prototype named v1.5. Furthermore the paper introduces detailed...

  8. A Kinematic, Kevlar(registered) Suspension System for an ADR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.; Jackson, Michael L.; Shirron, Peter J.; Tuttle, James G.

    2003-01-01

    The High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) will use identical Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR) to cool their bolometer detectors to 200mK and 100mK, respectively. In order to minimize thermal loads on the salt pill, a Kevlar@ suspension system is used to hold it in place. An innovative, kinematic suspension system is presented. The suspension system is unique in that it consists or two parts that can be assembled and tensioned offline, and later bolted onto the salt pill. The resulting assembly constrains each degree of freedom only once, yielding a kinematic, tensile structure.

  9. Automated steering systems applied to complex horizontal well in South Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderoni, A.; Ligrone, A.; Trampini, A. [ENI AGIP (Italy); Oppelt, J.; Gauld, S. [Baker Hughes INTEQ (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A new drilling system that not only improved the quality of the borehole trajectory, but also resulted in significant savings in capital cost is described. The new concept in drilling is the result of a joint development between a major oil company and an oilfield service provider. Through providing a breakthrough technology in directional steering systems the accuracy of the borehole steering has been substantially improved. The new concept involves the use of a straight hole drilling system (SDD) in the upper hole section, in combination with the rotary steering system, AutoTrak, in the 8.5 inch hole size. By synergistically using the new automated tools, the well was drilled much more efficiently than offset wells, producing substantial time savings, a smoother trajectory and less friction. Details of the different automated directional drilling systems that were used together in a well for the first time at Monte Enoc 9 in South Italy are described. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  10. Networked Control System for the Guidance of a Four-Wheel Steering Agricultural Robotic Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Paciência Godoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A current trend in the agricultural area is the development of mobile robots and autonomous vehicles for precision agriculture (PA. One of the major challenges in the design of these robots is the development of the electronic architecture for the control of the devices. In a joint project among research institutions and a private company in Brazil a multifunctional robotic platform for information acquisition in PA is being designed. This platform has as main characteristics four-wheel propulsion and independent steering, adjustable width, span of 1,80 m in height, diesel engine, hydraulic system, and a CAN-based networked control system (NCS. This paper presents a NCS solution for the platform guidance by the four-wheel hydraulic steering distributed control. The control strategy, centered on the robot manipulators control theory, is based on the difference between the desired and actual position and considering the angular speed of the wheels. The results demonstrate that the NCS was simple and efficient, providing suitable steering performance for the platform guidance. Even though the simplicity of the NCS solution developed, it also overcame some verified control challenges in the robot guidance system design such as the hydraulic system delay, nonlinearities in the steering actuators, and inertia in the steering system due the friction of different terrains.

  11. Analysis of Train Suspension System Using MR dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    RamaSastry, DVA; Ramana, K. V.; Mohan Rao, N.; Siva Kumar, SVR; Priyanka, T. G. L.

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with introducing MR dampers to the Train Suspension System for improving the ride comfort of the passengers. This type of suspension system comes under Semi-active suspension system which utilizes the properties of MR fluid to damp the vibrations. In case of high speed trains, the coach body is subjected to vibrations due to vertical displacement, yaw and pitch movements. When the body receives these disturbances from the ground,the transmission of vibrations to the passenger increases which affect the ride comfort. In this work, the equations of motion of suspension system are developed for both conventional passive system and semi-active system and are modelled in Matlab/Simulink and analysis has been carried out. The passive suspension system analysis shows that it is taking more time to damp the vibrations and at the same time the transmissibility of vibrations is more.Introducing MR dampers,vertical and angular displacements of the body are computed and compared. The results show that the introduction of MR dampers into the train suspension system improves ride comfort.

  12. Phase control of entanglement and quantum steering in a three-mode optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F. X.; Mao, D.; Dai, Y. T.; Ficek, Z.; He, Q. Y.; Gong, Q. H.

    2017-12-01

    The theory of phase control of coherence, entanglement and quantum steering is developed for an optomechanical system composed of a single mode cavity containing a partially transmitting dielectric membrane and driven by short laser pulses. The membrane divides the cavity into two mutually coupled optomechanical cavities resulting in an effective three-mode closed loop system, two field modes of the two cavities and a mechanical mode representing the oscillating membrane. The closed loop in the coupling creates interfering channels which depend on the relative phase of the coupling strengths of the field modes to the mechanical mode. Populations and correlations of the output modes are calculated analytically and show several interesting phase dependent effects such as reversible population transfer from one field mode to the other, creation of collective modes, and induced coherence without induced emission. We find that these effects result from perfect mutual coherence between the field modes which is preserved even if one of the modes is not populated. The inseparability criterion for the output modes is also investigated and we find that entanglement may occur only between the field modes and the mechanical mode. We show that depending on the phase, the field modes can act on the mechanical mode collectively or individually resulting, respectively, in tripartite or bipartite entanglement. In addition, we examine the phase sensitivity of quantum steering of the mechanical mode by the field modes. Deterministic phase transfer of the steering from bipartite to collective is predicted and optimum steering corresponding to perfect EPR state can be achieved. These different types of quantum steering can be distinguished experimentally by measuring the coincidence rate between two detectors adjusted to collect photons of the output cavity modes. In particular, we find that the minima of the interference pattern of the coincidence rate signal the bipartite steering

  13. Optimal Vibration Control for Tracked Vehicle Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jun Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technique of optimal vibration control with exponential decay rate and simulation for vehicle active suspension systems is developed. Mechanical model and dynamic system for a class of tracked vehicle suspension vibration control is established and the corresponding system of state space form is described. In order to prolong the working life of suspension system and improve ride comfort, based on the active suspension vibration control devices and using optimal control approach, an optimal vibration controller with exponential decay rate is designed. Numerical simulations are carried out, and the control effects of the ordinary optimal controller and the proposed controller are compared. Numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  14. Optimization of Automotive Suspension System by Design of Experiments: A Nonderivative Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban C. Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of health issues like low back pain, digestive disorders, and musculoskeletal disorders are caused as a result of the whole body vibrations induced by automobiles. This paper is concerned with the enhancement and optimization of suspension performance by using factorial methods of Design of Experiments, a nonderivative method. It focuses on the optimization of ride comfort and determining the parameters which affect the suspension behavior significantly as per the guidelines stated in ISO 2631-1:1997 standards. A quarter car test rig integrated with a LabVIEW based data acquisition system was developed to understand the real time behavior of a vehicle. In the pilot experiment, only three primary suspension parameters, that is, spring-stiffness, damping, and sprung mass, were considered and the full factorial method was implemented for the purpose of optimization. But the regression analysis of the data obtained rendered a very low goodness of fit which indicated that other parameters are likely to influence the response. Subsequently, steering geometry angles, camber and toe and tire pressure, were included in the design. Fractional factorial method with six factors was implemented to optimize ride comfort. The resultant optimum combination was then verified on the test rig with high correlation.

  15. A Vehicle Haptic Steering by Wire System Based on High Gain GPI Observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodriguez-Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle steering by wire (SBW haptic system based on high gain generalized proportional integral (GPI observers is introduced. The observers are considered for the estimation of dynamic perturbations that are present at the tire and steering wheel. To ensure efficient tracking between the commanded steering wheel angle and the tire orientation angle, the estimated perturbations are on line canceled. As to provide a haptic interface with the driver, the estimated dynamic effects at the steering rack are fed back to the steering wheel, yielding a master-slave haptic system with bilateral communication. For implementation purposes few sensors and minimum knowledge of the dynamic model are required, which is a major advantage compared to other approaches. Only position tracking errors are fed back, while all other signals are estimated by the high gain GPI observers. The scheme is robust to uncertainty on the input gain and cancels dynamic perturbation effects such as friction and aligning forces on the tire. Experimental results are presented on a prototype platform.

  16. Design of a suspension system and determining suspension parameters of a medium downforce small Formula type car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswal Sadjyot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the paper is on designing a suspension system for a medium downforce small Formula type race car. The paper not only focusses on step by step design for a double wishbone type suspension but will also show the use and role of kinematics software in determining the optimized suspension of the car. The paper will also focus on the use of tire data in determining suspension parameters and the design of the double wishbone suspension. Various parameters, their design importance and the process to optimize them according to suspension design goals will be covered. The easiest and best ways to change the suspension parameters to get the best results will also be covered.

  17. Opportunities to Investigate the Steering System for Improvement of Truck Driving Properties under Critical Road Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlewski, Mirosław

    2011-09-01

    Application of an electric steering system in a truck gives new opportunities to obtain desirable and safe motion path under critical road conditions. Analysis of the opportunity to take advantage of the steering system for improvement of truck driving properties will be carried out on the basis of the results of model tests. The paper describes model of the vehicle applied in simulation tests and methodology as well as anticipated results. The scheduled tests will be carried out within the framework of an research project No. NN509 568439 headed by the author.

  18. Torsional asymmetry in suspension bridge systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 6 (2015), s. 677-701 ISSN 0862-7940 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : suspension bridge * Hamilton principle * vertical and torsional oscillation * uniqueness * existence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10492-015-0117-3

  19. Spectral analysis connected with suspension bridge systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2016), s. 42-75 ISSN 0272-4960 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : suspension bridge * vertical and torsional oscillation * eigenvalue * eigenvector * flutter Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.945, year: 2016 http://imamat.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/09/16/imamat.hxv027.short?rss=1

  20. Displacement and force coupling control design for automotive active front steering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wanzhong; Zhang, Han; Li, Yijun

    2018-06-01

    A displacement and force coupling control design for active front steering (AFS) system of vehicle is proposed in this paper. In order to investigate the displacement and force characteristics of the AFS system of the vehicle, the models of AFS system, vehicle, tire as well as the driver model are introduced. Then, considering the nonlinear characteristics of the tire force and external disturbance, a robust yaw rate control method is designed by applying a steering motor to generate an active steering angle to adjust the yaw stability of the vehicle. Based on mixed H2/H∞ control, the system robustness and yaw rate tracking performance are enforced by H∞ norm constraint and the control effort is captured through H2 norm. In addition, based on the AFS system, a planetary gear set and an assist motor are both added to realize the road feeling control in this paper to dismiss the influence of extra steering angle through a compensating method. Evaluation of the overall system is accomplished by simulations and experiments under various driving condition. The simulation and experiment results show the proposed control system has excellent tracking performance and road feeling performance, which can improve the cornering stability and maneuverability of vehicle.

  1. Vehicle steering by side stick: optimising steering characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, J.; Hogema, J.H.; Brekelmans, J.A.W.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a study that was conducted to investigate the possibilities for optimizing task performance when driving a side stick-steered vehicle. Using steer-by-wire technology, a conventional steering system was mimicked, thus yielding the possibility to modify the steering

  2. Wheeled Vehicle Steering Systems. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    This course is one of several subcourses that make up the entire Army correspondence course on wheeled vehicle maintenance. The subcourse is designed to provide the student with information about the operation, malfunction diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of wheeled vehicle steering systems. It provides the basic theory, and also includes…

  3. Design of power steering systems for heavy-duty long-haul vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvas, E.; Backx, E.A.; Hofman, T.; Voets, H.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    Conventionally, all auxiliaries present in a heavy-duty vehicle (e.g., power-steering pump, air-conditioning compressor) are engine-driven systems, which put high constraints on their performance. Outputs (e.g., speed, temperature) and energy consumption are dictated by engine speed, while most

  4. Development of an Air Pneumatic Suspension System for Transtibial Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Pirouzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The suspension system and socket fitting of artificial limbs have major roles and vital effects on the comfort, mobility, and satisfaction of amputees. This paper introduces a new pneumatic suspension system that overcomes the drawbacks of current suspension systems in donning and doffing, change in volume during daily activities, and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface. An air pneumatic suspension system (APSS for total-contact sockets was designed and developed. Pistoning and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface were tested for the new APSS. More than 95% of the area between each prosthetic socket and liner was measured using a Tekscan F-Scan pressure measurement which has developed matrix-based pressure sensing systems. The variance in pressure around the stump was 8.76 kPa. APSS exhibits less pressure concentration around the stump, improved pressure distribution, easy donning and doffing, adjustability to remain fitted to the socket during daily activities, and more adaptability to the changes in stump volume. The volume changes were adjusted by utility of air pressure sensor. The vertical displacement point and reliability of suspension were assessed using a photographic method. The optimum pressure in every level of loading weight was 55 kPa, and the maximum displacement was 6 mm when 90 N of weight was loaded.

  5. Digital control of wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Goodyer, Michael J.; Eskins, Jonathan; Parker, David; Halford, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Digital controllers are being developed for wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems, which in turn permit wind tunnel testing of aircraft models free from support interference. Hardware and software features of two existing digital control systems are reviewed. Some aspects of model position sensing and system calibration are also discussed.

  6. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and quantum steering in a three-mode optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiongyi; Ficek, Zbigniew

    2014-02-01

    We study multipartite entanglement, the generation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) states, and quantum steering in a three-mode optomechanical system composed of an atomic ensemble located inside a single-mode cavity with a movable mirror. The cavity mode is driven by a short laser pulse, has a nonlinear parametric-type interaction with the mirror and a linear beam-splitter-type interaction with the atomic ensemble. There is no direct interaction of the mirror with the atomic ensemble. A threshold effect for the dynamics of the system is found, above which the system works as an amplifier and below which as an attenuator of the output fields. The threshold is determined by the ratio of the coupling strengths of the cavity mode to the mirror and to the atomic ensemble. It is shown that above the threshold, the system effectively behaves as a two-mode system in which a perfect bipartite EPR state can be generated, while it is impossible below the threshold. Furthermore, a fully inseparable tripartite entanglement and even further a genuine tripartite entanglement can be produced above and below the threshold. In addition, we consider quantum steering and examine the monogamy relations that quantify the amount of bipartite steering that can be shared between different modes. It is found that the mirror is more capable for steering of entanglement than the cavity mode. The two-way steering is found between the mirror and the atomic ensemble despite the fact that they are not directly coupled to each other, while it is impossible between the output of cavity mode and the ensemble which are directly coupled to each other.

  7. Optical demodulation system for digitally encoded suspension array in fluoroimmunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Li, Dongmei; He, Yonghong; Guan, Tian; Zhang, Yilong; Shen, Zhiyuan; Chen, Xuejing; Liu, Siyu; Lu, Bangrong; Ji, Yanhong

    2017-09-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy-coupled optical system is reported to demodulate digitally encoded suspension array in fluoroimmunoassay. It takes advantage of the plasma emissions of assembled elemental materials to digitally decode the suspension array, providing a more stable and accurate recognition to target biomolecules. By separating the decoding procedure of suspension array and adsorption quantity calculation of biomolecules into two independent channels, the cross talk between decoding and label signals in traditional methods had been successfully avoided, which promoted the accuracy of both processes and realized more sensitive quantitative detection of target biomolecules. We carried a multiplexed detection of several types of anti-IgG to verify the quantitative analysis performance of the system. A limit of detection of 1.48×10-10 M was achieved, demonstrating the detection sensitivity of the optical demodulation system.

  8. Autonomous collision avoidance system by combined control of steering and braking using geometrically optimised vehicular trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ryuzo; Isogai, Juzo; Raksincharoensak, Pongsathorn; Nagai, Masao

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes an autonomous obstacle avoidance system not only by braking but also by steering, as one of the active safety technologies to prevent traffic accidents. The proposed system prevents the vehicle from colliding with a moving obstacle like a pedestrian jumping out from the roadside. In the proposed system, to avoid the predicted colliding position based on constant-velocity obstacle motion assumption, the avoidance trajectory is derived as connected two identical arcs. The system then controls the vehicle autonomously by the combined control of the braking and steering systems. In this paper, the proposed system is examined by real car experiments and its effectiveness is shown from the results of the experiments.

  9. Modeling of electronic power steering system for IKCO SAMAND vehicle and investigating on its performance via CARSIM software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgoo, Esmail; Zamani, Mohammad; Sharbati, Ali

    2017-02-01

    The point of this article is introducing the usage of electronic power steering (ESP) system in IKCO SAMAND vehicle and investigating on it's benefit's. Also the operation of electronic steering system and it's performance in IKCO SAMAND vehicle have been described. The optimization of IC engine efficiency and it's fuel consumption have been simulated via ADVISOR software used in MATLAB software. Usually, mechanical steering systems and hydraulic steering systems are producing inside IRAN that the mechanical types have not accepted because of it's too many disadvantages. The hydraulic steering systems, that have been replaced with mechanical types, indeed have the same features with mechanical types but with a difference which they have a hydraulic booster to facilitate the rotation of steering wheel. Beside advantages in hydraulic systems, they are some disadvantages in this system that one of the most important of them is reducing the output power of engine. To restore this power dissipated, we use ESP systems. In this article output diagrams given by software, are showing that IKCO SAMAND vehicle which equipped with ESP system, exerts less torque and power on steering wheel. This improves the safety of driver and also performance of the vehicle at high speeds and reduces fuel consumption beside increasing the efficiency of IC engine.

  10. A magnetic suspension system for measuring liquid density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Centeno González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Density is a derived quantity of mass and length; it is defined as mass per volume unit and its SI unit is kg/m3. National metrology institutes have been designing and building their own magnetic suspension systems during the last 5 decades for making fluid density measurements; this has allowed them to carry out research into liquids and gases’ physical characteristics. This paper was aimed at designing and developing a magnetic suspension system for a magnetic balance used in determining liquid density to be used in CENAM’s metrology density laboratories.

  11. Decoupling control of steering and driving system for in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Zhao, Wanzhong

    2018-02-01

    To improve the maneuverability and stability of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle, a control strategy based on nonlinear decoupling control method is proposed in this paper, realizing the coordinated control of the steering and driving system. At first, the nonlinear models of the in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle and its sub-system are constructed. Then the inverse system decoupling theory is applied to decompose the nonlinear system into several independent subsystems, which makes it possible to realize the coordinated control of each subsystem. Next, the μ-Synthesis theory is applied to eliminate the influence of model uncertainty, improving the stability, robustness and tracking performance of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle. Simulation and experiment results and numerical analyses, based on the electric vehicle actuated by in-wheel-motors, prove that the proposed control method is effective to accomplish the decoupling control of the steering and driving system in both simulation and real practice.

  12. A new variable stiffness suspension system: passive case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Anubi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, analysis, and experimental validation of the passive case of a variable stiffness suspension system. The central concept is based on a recently designed variable stiffness mechanism. It consists of a horizontal control strut and a vertical strut. The main idea is to vary the load transfer ratio by moving the location of the point of attachment of the vertical strut to the car body. This movement is controlled passively using the horizontal strut. The system is analyzed using an L2-gain analysis based on the concept of energy dissipation. The analyses, simulation, and experimental results show that the variable stiffness suspension achieves better performance than the constant stiffness counterpart. The performance criteria used are; ride comfort, characterized by the car body acceleration, suspension deflection, and road holding, characterized by tire deflection.

  13. Multivectored Superficial Muscular Aponeurotic System Suspension for Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Garrison; Kurnik, Nicole; Joganic, Jessica; Joganic, Edward

    2017-06-01

    Facial paralysis is a devastating condition that may cause severe cosmetic and functional deformities. In this study we describe our technique for superficial muscular aponeurotic system (SMAS) suspension using barbed suture and compare the vectors of suspension in relation to the underlying musculature. This study also quantifies the improvements in postoperative symmetry using traditional anthropologic landmarks. The efficacy of this procedure for improving facial paralysis was determined by comparing anthropometric indices and using Procrustes distance between 4 groupings of homologous landmarks plotted on each patient's preoperative and postoperative photos. Geometric morphometrics was used to evaluate change in facial shape and improvement in symmetry postoperatively.To analyze the vector of suspension in relation to the underlying musculature, specific anthropologic landmarks were used to calculate the vector of the musculature in 3 facial hemispheres from cadaveric controls against the vector of repair in our patients. Ten patients were included in our study. Subjectively, great improvement in functional status was achieved. Geometric morphometric analysis demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in facial symmetry. Cadaveric dissection demonstrated that the suture should be placed in the SMAS in vectors parallel to the underlying musculature to achieve these results. There were no complications in our study to date. In conclusion, multivectored SMAS suture suspension is an effective method for restoring static suspension of the face after facial paralysis. This method has the benefit of producing quick, reliable results with improved function, low cost, and low morbidity.

  14. Optimization of Front Axle Suspension System of Articulated Dump Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Christensen, Brian B.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2010-01-01

    that has been subjected to comfort improvement is a two axle articulated dump truck. The comfort has been in terms of whole body vibration exposure and the overall improvement has been made possible by adding front axle suspension. However, a hydraulic stabilizing system between the tractor and trailer...... to evaluate the whole body vibrations. By use of a multibody simulation model of the dump truck the whole body vibration exposure has been computed using the predefined work cycle as model input. The design parameters comprise the components of the hydraulic subsystem of the suspension, i.e., the size...

  15. Steering and timing system solutions at the COSY accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongers, N.; Hacker, U.; Henn, K.; Simon, M.; Vashegyi, T.; Weinert, A.

    1994-01-01

    Two components of the COSY control system are discussed. One is the system for control of the correction magnet power converters and the other is the timing system. The power converters are controlled by VME crate systems, each crate being able to control up to four power converters. The timing system consists of a VME timing system transmitter, a transmission network and receivers in the power converter crates. Figures for the resolution required and achieved are given. ((orig.))

  16. Steering and timing system solutions at the COSY accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongers, N [KFA, Juelich (Germany); Hacker, U [KFA, Juelich (Germany); Henn, K [KFA, Juelich (Germany); Simon, M [KFA, Juelich (Germany); Vashegyi, T [KFA, Juelich (Germany); Weinert, A [KFA, Juelich (Germany)

    1994-12-15

    Two components of the COSY control system are discussed. One is the system for control of the correction magnet power converters and the other is the timing system. The power converters are controlled by VME crate systems, each crate being able to control up to four power converters. The timing system consists of a VME timing system transmitter, a transmission network and receivers in the power converter crates. Figures for the resolution required and achieved are given. ((orig.))

  17. Design considerations for a semi-active electromagnetic suspension system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, J.J.H.; Encica, L.; Lomonova, E.A.; Vandenput, A.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Vehicle manufacturers always strive to improve the vehicle handling and passenger safety and comfort. One of the focus points for the automotive industry is the (semi-)active suspension system for which various commercial technologies are existing, varying from pneumatic to hydraulic. This paper

  18. ADDJUST - An automated system for steering Centaur launch vehicles in measured winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    ADDJUST (Automatic Determination and Dissemination of Just-Updated Steering Terms) is an automated computer and communication system designed to provide Atlas/Centaur and Titan/Centaur launch vehicles with booster-phase steering data on launch day. Wind soundings are first obtained, from which a smoothed wind velocity vs altitude relationship is established. Design for conditions at the end of the boost phase with initial pitch and yaw maneuvers, followed by zero total angle of attack through the filtered wind establishes the required vehicle attitude as a function of altitude. Polynomial coefficients for pitch and yaw attitude vs altitude are determined and are transmitted for validation and loading into the Centaur airborne computer. The system has enabled 14 consecutive launches without a flight wind delay.

  19. Frequency Invariant Beam Steering for Short-Pulse Systems with a Rotman Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lambrecht

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A promising approach for beam steering of high-voltage transient signals for HPEM-systems (High Power Electro Magnetic is presented. The inherent capability of the Rotman lens to provide true time delays is used to develop a prototype beam steering device for an antielectronics HPEM system in the frequency range from 350 MHz to 5 GHz. Results of analytical calculations, simulations, and measurements from a hardware prototype are presented. The detailed mechanical setup of the Rotman lens is presented. Additionally the output pulses are investigated when inputting a Gaussian-like transient signal. Then time domain measures of quality (full width at half maximum, ringing, delay spread, maximum of transfer function are investigated for these output transients, and the simulation and measurement results are compared. A concluding analysis of the realizable time domain array pattern shows the radiated pulse form.

  20. Development of a Computational Steering Framework for High Performance Computing Environments on Blue Gene/P Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Danani, Bob K.

    2012-07-01

    Computational steering has revolutionized the traditional workflow in high performance computing (HPC) applications. The standard workflow that consists of preparation of an application’s input, running of a simulation, and visualization of simulation results in a post-processing step is now transformed into a real-time interactive workflow that significantly reduces development and testing time. Computational steering provides the capability to direct or re-direct the progress of a simulation application at run-time. It allows modification of application-defined control parameters at run-time using various user-steering applications. In this project, we propose a computational steering framework for HPC environments that provides an innovative solution and easy-to-use platform, which allows users to connect and interact with running application(s) in real-time. This framework uses RealityGrid as the underlying steering library and adds several enhancements to the library to enable steering support for Blue Gene systems. Included in the scope of this project is the development of a scalable and efficient steering relay server that supports many-to-many connectivity between multiple steered applications and multiple steering clients. Steered applications can range from intermediate simulation and physical modeling applications to complex computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications or advanced visualization applications. The Blue Gene supercomputer presents special challenges for remote access because the compute nodes reside on private networks. This thesis presents an implemented solution and demonstrates it on representative applications. Thorough implementation details and application enablement steps are also presented in this thesis to encourage direct usage of this framework.

  1. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXIII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM, PART II--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING STEERING SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM AND THE STEERING SYSTEM OF DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE FUEL INJECTION SECTION, AND DESCRIPTION OF THE STEERING SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  2. Design analysis of formula student race car suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, Julian Wisnu; Ubaidillah, Aditra, Rama; Alnursyah, Rafli; Rahman, Rizki Abdul; Cahyono, Sukmaji Indro

    2018-02-01

    Design analysis of suspension especially for racecar suspension is very crucial to achieve maximum performance and handling. Suspension design may vary depending on the road terrain and the vehicle purpose itself, such as high speed or off-road vehicle. This paper focused on the suspension which used for racecar vehicle. The suspension type used was unequal double wishbone. This model is used because of its stability for high-speed usage compared to another kind of suspension. The suspension parameter was calculated to achieve desired performance. The result is the motion ratio of the designed suspension geometry. The obtained value of motion ratio was 1:2 for front suspension and 1:1 for the rear suspension. These calculation result the front suspension is still too soft, which the optimal motion ratio should be kept around 1:1 for better handling. This problem caused by the lack of space for suspension linkage.

  3. Consistent Steering System using SCTP for Bluetooth Scatternet Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaya, R.; Sadasivam, V.; Kanthavel, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wireless communication is the best way to convey information from source to destination with flexibility and mobility and Bluetooth is the wireless technology suitable for short distance. On the other hand a wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants. Using Bluetooth piconet wireless technique in sensor nodes creates limitation in network depth and placement. The introduction of Scatternet solves the network restrictions with lack of reliability in data transmission. When the depth of the network increases, it results in more difficulties in routing. No authors so far focused on the reliability factors of Scatternet sensor network's routing. This paper illustrates the proposed system architecture and routing mechanism to increase the reliability. The another objective is to use reliable transport protocol that uses the multi-homing concept and supports multiple streams to prevent head-of-line blocking. The results show that the Scatternet sensor network has lower packet loss even in the congestive environment than the existing system suitable for all surveillance applications.

  4. MEMS mass-spring-damper systems using an out-of-plane suspension scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Aziz, Ahmed Kamal Said; Sharaf, Abdel Hameed; Serry, Mohamed Yousef; Sedky, Sherif Salah

    2014-01-01

    MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) using an out-of-plane (or vertical) suspension scheme, wherein the suspensions are normal to the proof mass, are disclosed. Such out-of-plane suspension scheme helps such MEMS mass-spring-damper systems achieve inertial grade performance. Methods of fabricating out-of-plane suspensions in MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) are also disclosed.

  5. MEMS mass-spring-damper systems using an out-of-plane suspension scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Aziz, Ahmed Kamal Said

    2014-02-04

    MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) using an out-of-plane (or vertical) suspension scheme, wherein the suspensions are normal to the proof mass, are disclosed. Such out-of-plane suspension scheme helps such MEMS mass-spring-damper systems achieve inertial grade performance. Methods of fabricating out-of-plane suspensions in MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) are also disclosed.

  6. Design and analysis of an intelligent controller for active geometry suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Avesta; Oloomi, Ehsan; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2011-02-01

    An active geometry suspension (AGS) system is a device to optimise suspension-related factors such as toe angle and roll centre height by controlling vehicle's suspension geometry. The suspension geometry could be changed through control of suspension mounting point's position. In this paper, analysis and control of an AGS system is addressed. First, the effects of suspension geometry change on roll centre height and toe angle are studied. Then, based on an analytical approach, the improvement of the vehicle's stability and handling due to the control of suspension geometry is investigated. In the next section, an eight-degree-of-freedom handling model of a sport utility vehicle equipped with an AGS system is introduced. Finally, a self-tuning proportional-integral controller has been designed, using the fuzzy control theory, to control the actuator that changes the geometry of the suspension system. The simulation results show that an AGS system can improve the handling and stability of the vehicle.

  7. Steering and evasion assist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dang, T.; Desens, J.; Franke, U.; Gavrila, D.; Schäfers, L.; Ziegler, W.; Eskandarian, A.

    2012-01-01

    Steering and evasion assistance defines a new and future class of driver assistance systems to avoid an impending collision with other traffic participants. Dynamic and kinematic considerations reveal that an evasive steering maneuver has high potential for collision avoidance in many driving

  8. Car suspension system monitoring under road conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Kuznetsov, N. Y.; Lysenko, A. V.; Vlasov, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper describes an advanced gyro-based measuring system comprising a CGV-4K central vertical gyro and a G-3M gyrocompass. The advanced system provides additional functions that help measure unsprung mass rotation angles about a vertical axis, rolling angles, trim angles and movements of the unsprung masses of the front (ap and al) and rear b axes when a car wheel hits a single obstruction. The paper also describes the operation of the system, which measures movements of unsprung masses about the body of a car when it hits a single obstruction. The paper presents the dependency diagrams ap = f(t) and al = f(t) for front and rear wheels respectively, as well as b = f(t) for a rear left wheel, which were determined experimentally. Test results for a car equipped with an advanced gyro-based measuring system moving around a circle can form a basis for developing a mathematical model of the process.

  9. Interactive visual steering--rapid visual prototyping of a common rail injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matković, Kresimir; Gracanin, Denis; Jelović, Mario; Hauser, Helwig

    2008-01-01

    Interactive steering with visualization has been a common goal of the visualization research community for twenty years, but it is rarely ever realized in practice. In this paper we describe a successful realization of a tightly coupled steering loop, integrating new simulation technology and interactive visual analysis in a prototyping environment for automotive industry system design. Due to increasing pressure on car manufacturers to meet new emission regulations, to improve efficiency, and to reduce noise, both simulation and visualization are pushed to their limits. Automotive system components, such as the powertrain system or the injection system have an increasing number of parameters, and new design approaches are required. It is no longer possible to optimize such a system solely based on experience or forward optimization. By coupling interactive visualization with the simulation back-end (computational steering), it is now possible to quickly prototype a new system, starting from a non-optimized initial prototype and the corresponding simulation model. The prototyping continues through the refinement of the simulation model, of the simulation parameters and through trial-and-error attempts to an optimized solution. The ability to early see the first results from a multidimensional simulation space--thousands of simulations are run for a multidimensional variety of input parameters--and to quickly go back into the simulation and request more runs in particular parameter regions of interest significantly improves the prototyping process and provides a deeper understanding of the system behavior. The excellent results which we achieved for the common rail injection system strongly suggest that our approach has a great potential of being generalized to other, similar scenarios.

  10. First experience with THE AUTOLAP™ SYSTEM: an image-based robotic camera steering device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijsman, Paul J M; Broeders, Ivo A M J; Brenkman, Hylke J; Szold, Amir; Forgione, Antonello; Schreuder, Henk W R; Consten, Esther C J; Draaisma, Werner A; Verheijen, Paul M; Ruurda, Jelle P; Kaufman, Yuval

    2018-05-01

    Robotic camera holders for endoscopic surgery have been available for 20 years but market penetration is low. The current camera holders are controlled by voice, joystick, eyeball tracking, or head movements, and this type of steering has proven to be successful but excessive disturbance of surgical workflow has blocked widespread introduction. The Autolap™ system (MST, Israel) uses a radically different steering concept based on image analysis. This may improve acceptance by smooth, interactive, and fast steering. These two studies were conducted to prove safe and efficient performance of the core technology. A total of 66 various laparoscopic procedures were performed with the AutoLap™ by nine experienced surgeons, in two multi-center studies; 41 cholecystectomies, 13 fundoplications including hiatal hernia repair, 4 endometriosis surgeries, 2 inguinal hernia repairs, and 6 (bilateral) salpingo-oophorectomies. The use of the AutoLap™ system was evaluated in terms of safety, image stability, setup and procedural time, accuracy of imaged-based movements, and user satisfaction. Surgical procedures were completed with the AutoLap™ system in 64 cases (97%). The mean overall setup time of the AutoLap™ system was 4 min (04:08 ± 0.10). Procedure times were not prolonged due to the use of the system when compared to literature average. The reported user satisfaction was 3.85 and 3.96 on a scale of 1 to 5 in two studies. More than 90% of the image-based movements were accurate. No system-related adverse events were recorded while using the system. Safe and efficient use of the core technology of the AutoLap™ system was demonstrated with high image stability and good surgeon satisfaction. The results support further clinical studies that will focus on usability, improved ergonomics and additional image-based features.

  11. The modecleaner system and suspension aspects of GEO 600

    CERN Document Server

    Gossler, S; Freise, A; Grote, H; Lück, H B; McNamara, P; Plissi, M V; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Skeldon, K D; Strain, K A; Torrie, C I; Ward, H; Willke, B; Hough, J; Danzmann, K

    2002-01-01

    GEO 600 uses two 8 m triangular ring cavities as a modecleaner system for the stabilization of the laser. To isolate the cavities with respect to the seismic noise the optical components are suspended as double pendulums. The resonances of these pendulums are damped by a local-control loop via magnet-coil actuators acting on the intermediate masses. The suspension scheme and the measured key data (i.e. finesse, linewidth, visibility, throughput and in-lock durations of the cavities, as well as the isolation performance and the resulting frequency stability) of the modecleaner system will be given in this paper. Furthermore an overview of the GEO 600 interferometer suspension will be given.

  12. One-way EPR steering and genuine multipartite EPR steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiongyi; Reid, Margaret D.

    2012-11-01

    We propose criteria and experimental strategies to realise the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering nonlocality. One-way steering can be obtained where there is asymmetry of thermal noise on each system. We also present EPR steering inequalities that act as signatures and suggest how to optimise EPR correlations in specific schemes so that the genuine multipartite EPR steering nonlocality (EPR paradox) can also possibly be realised. The results presented here also apply to the spatially separated macroscopic atomic ensembles.

  13. Hyperspectral and in situ data fusion for the steering of plant production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, W. W.; Coppin, P.

    2009-04-01

    Plant production systems are governed by biotic and a-biotic factors and by management practices. Some of the relevant parameters have already been identified and incorporated as inputs into existing models for production assessment, early-warning, and process management. These parameters originate nowadays primarily from in-situ measurements and observations. Non-invasive remotely sensed data, the diagnostic tools of excellence where it concerns the interaction of solar energy with biomass, have seldom been included and if so, mostly to support yield assessment and harvest monitoring only. The availability of new-generation hyperspectral/hypertemporal signatures will greatly facilitate their integration into full-fledged plant production model either via direct use, forcing, assimilation or re-initialization strategies. The main objective of IS-HS (Integration of In Situ data and HyperSpectral remote sensing for plant production modeling) is to set up a multidisciplinary research platform to deepen our system understanding and to develop production-oriented schemes to steer capital-intensive vegetation scenarios. Real-time steering in a 10-15 year timeframe is envisaged, where current system state is monitored, and steered towards an ideal state in terms of production quantity and quality. IS-HS focuses on hyperspectral sensor design, time series analysis tools for remote sensing data of vegetation systems, on the establishment of two stream communication between satellite and ground sensors, on the development of citrus plant production systems, and on the design of in-situ data sensor networks. The general framework of this system approach will be presented. In time, this integration should allow to cross the bridge from post-harvest assessment to near real-time potential and actual yield monitoring in terms of crop.

  14. Analysis of a front suspension system for UniART FSAE car using FEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidie, M. N. A.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Tasyrif, M.; Basha, M. H.; Ibrahim, I.; Kamaruddin, N. S.; Shahriman, A. B.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, many research works from institutions that participated in Formula SAE had highlighted on suspension systems. The aim is to improve the system in term of performance and robustness. However, every suspension system for a racing car is tailored to the car itself. Thus, this paper proposes a new design for front suspension system for UniART FSAE car. The new design was than being compared to the previous suspension system for enhancement. The analysis covered in this paper based on several conditions such as braking, cornering and bumping condition and was carried out using finite element analysis. Each main component for the suspension system such as lower arm, upper arm and knuckle has been analysed in term of strength and performance. From the results, the proposed new design of the suspension system has improved in term of strength and performance compared to the previous suspension system.

  15. Active Return-to-Center Control Based on Torque and Angle Sensors for Electric Power Steering Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Pan-Pan; Su, Hao; Tang, Gong-You

    2018-03-14

    This paper presents a complete control strategy of the active return-to-center (RTC) control for electric power steering (EPS) systems. We first establish the mathematical model of the EPS system and analyze the source and influence of the self-aligning torque (SAT). Second, based on the feedback signals of steering column torque and steering wheel angle, we give the trigger conditions of a state switch between the steering assist state and the RTC state. In order to avoid the sudden change of the output torque for the driving motor when the state switches frequently between the steering assist state and the RTC state, we design an undisturbed state switching logic algorithm. This state switching logic algorithm ensures that the output value of the RTC controller is set to an initial value and increases in given steps up to a maximum value after entering the RTC state, and the output value of the RTC controller will reduce in given steps down to zero when exiting the RTC state. This therefore ensures smooth switch control between the two states and improves the driver's steering feeling. Third, we design the RTC controller, which depends upon the feedback signals of the steering wheel angle and the angular velocity. In addition, the controller increases the auxiliary control function of the RTC torque based on vehicle speed. The experimental results show that the active RTC control method does not affect the basic assist characteristics, which effectively reduces the residual angle of the steering wheel at low vehicle speed and improves the RTC performance of the vehicle.

  16. Active Return-to-Center Control Based on Torque and Angle Sensors for Electric Power Steering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Pan Du

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complete control strategy of the active return-to-center (RTC control for electric power steering (EPS systems. We first establish the mathematical model of the EPS system and analyze the source and influence of the self-aligning torque (SAT. Second, based on the feedback signals of steering column torque and steering wheel angle, we give the trigger conditions of a state switch between the steering assist state and the RTC state. In order to avoid the sudden change of the output torque for the driving motor when the state switches frequently between the steering assist state and the RTC state, we design an undisturbed state switching logic algorithm. This state switching logic algorithm ensures that the output value of the RTC controller is set to an initial value and increases in given steps up to a maximum value after entering the RTC state, and the output value of the RTC controller will reduce in given steps down to zero when exiting the RTC state. This therefore ensures smooth switch control between the two states and improves the driver’s steering feeling. Third, we design the RTC controller, which depends upon the feedback signals of the steering wheel angle and the angular velocity. In addition, the controller increases the auxiliary control function of the RTC torque based on vehicle speed. The experimental results show that the active RTC control method does not affect the basic assist characteristics, which effectively reduces the residual angle of the steering wheel at low vehicle speed and improves the RTC performance of the vehicle.

  17. Application of MEMS Accelerometers and Gyroscopes in Fast Steering Mirror Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In a charge-coupled device (CCD-based fast steering mirror (FSM tracking control system, high control bandwidth is the most effective way to enhance the closed-loop performance. However, the control system usually suffers a great deal from mechanical resonances and time delays induced by the low sampling rate of CCDs. To meet the requirements of high precision and load restriction, fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOGs are usually used in traditional FSM tracking control systems. In recent years, the MEMS accelerometer and gyroscope are becoming smaller and lighter and their performance have improved gradually, so that they can be used in a fast steering mirror (FSM to realize the stabilization of the line-of-sight (LOS of the control system. Therefore, a tentative approach to implement a CCD-based FSM tracking control system, which uses MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes as feedback components and contains an acceleration loop, a velocity loop and a position loop, is proposed. The disturbance suppression of the proposed method is the product of the error attenuation of the acceleration loop, the velocity loop and the position loop. Extensive experimental results show that the MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes can act the similar role as the FOG with lower cost for stabilizing the LOS of the FSM tracking control system.

  18. The Active Fractional Order Control for Maglev Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peichang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maglev suspension system is the core part of maglev train. In the practical application, the load uncertainties, inherent nonlinearity, and misalignment between sensors and actuators are the main issues that should be solved carefully. In order to design a suitable controller, the attention is paid to the fractional order controller. Firstly, the mathematical model of a single electromagnetic suspension unit is derived. Then, considering the limitation of the traditional PD controller adaptation, the fractional order controller is developed to obtain more excellent suspension specifications and robust performance. In reality, the nonlinearity affects the structure and the precision of the model after linearization, which will degrade the dynamic performance. So, a fractional order controller is addressed to eliminate the disturbance by adjusting the parameters which are added by the fractional order controller. Furthermore, the controller based on LQR is employed to compare with the fractional order controller. Finally, the performance of them is discussed by simulation. The results illustrated the validity of the fractional order controller.

  19. Automatic local beam steering systems for NSLS x-ray storage ring: Design and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, O.V.; Nawrocky, R.; Flannigan, J.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, two local automatic steering systems, controlled by microprocessors, have been installed and commissioned in the NSLS X- Ray storage ring. In each system, the position of the electron beam is stabilized at two locations by four independent servo systems. This paper describes three aspects of the local feedback program: design; commissioning; and limitation. The system design is explained by identifying major elements such as beam position detectors, signal processors, compensation amplifiers, ratio amplifiers, trim equalizers and microprocessor feedback controllers. System commissioning involves steps such as matching trim compensation, determination of local orbit bumps, measurement of open loop responses and design of servo circuits. Several limitations of performance are also discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs

  20. Observation of quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation under open systems, and its steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng-Fei; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ming, Fei; Huang, Ai-Jun; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2018-01-01

    Quantum objects are susceptible to noise from their surrounding environments, interaction with which inevitably gives rise to quantum decoherence or dissipation effects. In this work, we examine how different types of local noise under an open system affect entropic uncertainty relations for two incompatible measurements. Explicitly, we observe the dynamics of the entropic uncertainty in the presence of quantum memory under two canonical categories of noisy environments: unital (phase flip) and nonunital (amplitude damping). Our study shows that the measurement uncertainty exhibits a non-monotonic dynamical behavior—that is, the amount of the uncertainty will first inflate, and subsequently decrease, with the growth of decoherence strengths in the two channels. In contrast, the uncertainty decreases monotonically with the growth of the purity of the initial state shared in prior. In order to reduce the measurement uncertainty in noisy environments, we put forward a remarkably effective strategy to steer the magnitude of uncertainty by means of a local non-unitary operation (i.e. weak measurement) on the qubit of interest. It turns out that this non-unitary operation can greatly reduce the entropic uncertainty, upon tuning the operation strength. Our investigations might thereby offer an insight into the dynamics and steering of entropic uncertainty in open systems.

  1. Stabilization of Electromagnetic Suspension System Behavior by Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Najar Khoda Bakhsh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic suspension system with a nonlinear and unstable behavior, is used in maglev trains. In this paper a linear mathematical model of system is achieved and the state feedback method is used to improve the system stability. The control coefficients are tuned by two different methods, Riccati and a new method based on Genetic algorithm. In this new proposed method, we use Genetic algorithm to achieve the optimum values of control coefficients. The results of the system simulation by Matlab indicate the effectiveness of new proposed system. When a new reference of air gap is needed or a new external force is added, the proposed system could omit the vibration and shake of the train coupe and so, passengers feel more comfortable.

  2. Design and analysis of the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] dipole magnet suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    The design of the suspension system for Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole magnets has been driven by rigorous thermal and structural requirements. The current system, designed to meet those requirements, represents a significant departure from previous superconducting magnet suspension system designs. This paper will present a summary of the design and analysis of the vertical and lateral suspension as well as the axial anchor system employed in SSC dipole magnets. 5 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Preview based control of suspension systems for commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijderman, J.H.E.A.; Kok, J.J.; Huisman, R.G.M.; Veldpaus, F.E.; van Heck, J.G.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    An active suspension with preview is developed for the rear axle of a commercial vehicle. The obtained improvements are promising and justify further investigation of the more feasible semi-active suspensions with preview. The inherent non-linearity of semi-active suspensions with switching shock

  4. Investigation on a Power Coupling Steering System for Dual-Motor Drive Tracked Vehicles Based on Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Double-motor drive tracked vehicles (2MDTV are widely used in the tracked vehicle industry due to the development of electric vehicle drive systems. The aim of this paper is to solve the problem of insufficient propulsion motor torque in low-speed, small-radius steering and insufficient power in high-speed large-radius steering. In order to do this a new type of steering system with a coupling device is designed and a closed-loop control strategy based on speed is adopted to improve the lateral stability of the vehicle. The work done entails modeling and simulating the 2MDTV and the proposed control strategy in RecurDyn and Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results show that the 2MDTV with the coupling device outputs more torque and power in both steering cases compared to the 2MDTV without the coupling device, and the steering stability of the vehicle is improved by using the strategy based on speed.

  5. Fuzzy Stabilization for Nonlinear Discrete Ship Steering Stochastic Systems Subject to State Variance and Passivity Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jer Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For nonlinear discrete-time stochastic systems, a fuzzy controller design methodology is developed in this paper subject to state variance constraint and passivity constraint. According to fuzzy model based control technique, the nonlinear discrete-time stochastic systems considered in this paper are represented by the discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy models with multiplicative noise. Employing Lyapunov stability theory, upper bound covariance control theory, and passivity theory, some sufficient conditions are derived to find parallel distributed compensation based fuzzy controllers. In order to solve these sufficient conditions, an iterative linear matrix inequality algorithm is applied based on the linear matrix inequality technique. Finally, the fuzzy stabilization problem for nonlinear discrete ship steering stochastic systems is investigated in the numerical example to illustrate the feasibility and validity of proposed fuzzy controller design method.

  6. Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) system for Grumman Maglev concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Swarn S.

    1994-01-01

    The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low vehicle speeds; low magnetic field at the SC coil--less than 0.35 T; no need to use non-magnetic/non-metallic rebar in the guideway structure; low magnetic field in passenger cabin--approximately 1 G; low forces on the SC coil; employs state-of-the-art NbTi wire; no need for an active magnet quench protection system; and lower weight than a magnet system with copper coils. The EMS Maglev described in this paper does not require development of any new technologies. The system could be built with the existing SC magnet technology.

  7. Fuzzy-Skyhook Control for Active Suspension Systems Applied to a Full Vehicle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref M.A. Soliman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, most modern vehicles are equipped with controlled suspension systems for improving the vehicle ride comfort. Therefore, this paper is concerned with a theoretical study for the ride comfort performance of the vehicle. The theoretical investigation includes a suggestion of an active suspension system controller using fuzzy-skyhook control theory, which offers new opportunities for the improvement of vehicle ride performance. The ride comfort of the active suspension system has been evaluated using a 7 degree of freedom full vehicle mathematical model. The simulation results are presented in the time and frequency domain, also in terms of RMS values, and it’s shown that the proposed active suspension system with fuzzy-skyhook control improved the vehicle ride quality in terms of body acceleration, suspension working space and dynamic tyre load in comparison with the passive and skyhook suspension systems.

  8. Worm gear efficiency model considering misalignment in electric power steering systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a worm gear efficiency model considering misalignment in electric power steering systems. A worm gear is used in Column type Electric Power Steering (C-EPS systems and an Anti-Rattle Spring (ARS is employed in C-EPS systems in order to prevent rattling when the vehicle goes on a bumpy road. This ARS plays a role of preventing rattling by applying preload to one end of the worm shaft but it also generates undesirable friction by causing misalignment of the worm shaft. In order to propose the worm gear efficiency model considering misalignment, geometrical and tribological analyses were performed in this study. For geometrical analysis, normal load on gear teeth was calculated using output torque, pitch diameter of worm wheel, lead angle and normal pressure angle and this normal load was converted to normal pressure at the contact point. Contact points between the tooth flanks of the worm and worm wheel were obtained by mathematically analyzing the geometry, and Hertz's theory was employed in order to calculate contact area at the contact point. Finally, misalignment by an ARS was also considered into the geometry. Friction coefficients between the tooth flanks were also researched in this study. A pin-on-disk type tribometer was set up to measure friction coefficients and friction coefficients at all conditions were measured by the tribometer. In order to validate the worm gear efficiency model, a worm gear was prepared and the efficiency of the worm gear was predicted by the model. As the final procedure of the study, a worm gear efficiency measurement system was set and the efficiency of the worm gear was measured and the results were compared with the predicted results. The efficiency considering misalignment gives more accurate results than the efficiency without misalignment.

  9. Structural analysis of compression helical spring used in suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Akshat; Misra, Sheelam; Jindal, Arun; Lakhian, Prateek

    2017-07-01

    The main aim of this work has to develop a helical spring for shock absorber used in suspension system which is designed to reduce shock impulse and liberate kinetic energy. In a vehicle, it increases comfort by decreasing amplitude of disturbances and it improves ride quality by absorbing and dissipating energy. When a vehicle is in motion on a road and strikes a bump, spring comes into action quickly. After compression, spring will attempt to come to its equilibrium state which is on level road. Helical springs can be made lighter with more strength by reducing number of coils and increasing the area. In this research work, a helical spring is modeled and analyzed to substitute the existing steel spring which is used in suspension. By using different materials, stress and deflection of helical spring can be varied. Comparability between existing spring and newly replaced spring is used to verify the results. For finding detailed stress distribution, finite element analysis is used to find stresses and deflection in both the helical springs. Finite element analysis is a method which is used to find proximate solutions of a physical problem defined in a finite domain. In this research work, modeling of spring is accomplished using Solid Works and analysis on Ansys.

  10. Effects of feeding system on growth performance, plasma biochemical components and hormones, and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Sung Chung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to compare growth performance, blood components and carcass traits by two feeding systems (concentrate with roughage separately [CON] vs total mixed ration [TMR] in Hanwoo steers, and to learn the relationship between blood components during fattening or finishing phases and carcass traits in Hanwoo steers. Methods Sixty steers aged 8 months were allotted to two feeding systems and fed similar amounts of average dry matter and total digestible nutrient throughout whole experimental period according to each feeding program. Steers were weighed monthly, taken blood at the end of growing, fattening and finishing periods, and slaughtered at 30 month of age. Results Growing performance was higher (p<0.05 in the CON group compared to the TMR group during fattening and finishing periods. The CON group was lower (p<0.05 in blood aspartic acid transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and retinol levels during growing period, but higher in triglyceride and cholesterol levels during fattening and finishing periods compared to the TMR group. The CON group was greater (p<0.05 in rib-eye area, and lighter (p<0.05 red in meat color compared to the TMR group. In the correlation coefficients between blood components of steers and carcass traits, retinol had a negative (p<0.05 correlation with marbling score and rib-eye area. Leptin had a positive (p<0.05 correlation with back fat thickness. Blood cholesterol and triglyceride were positively (p<0.05 correlated with carcass weight and rib-eye area. Conclusion Growth performance, carcass ribeye area and meat color showed a more desirable result in the CON compared to the TMR in Hanwoo steers. Assessing the accumulated data of carcass traits with blood components including hormones—particularly retinol, cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin—during the fattening or finishing phases, it may be possible to find a biomarker for determining beef quality in living animals.

  11. Progress towards extreme attitude testing with Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Parker, David H.

    1988-01-01

    Progress is reported in a research effort aimed towards demonstration of the feasibility of suspension and aerodynamic testing of models at high angles of attack in wind tunnel Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems. Extensive modifications, described in this paper, have been made to the Southampton University suspension system in order to facilitate this work. They include revision of electromagnet configuration, installation of all-new position sensors and expansion of control system programs. An angle of attack range of 0 to 90 deg is expected for axisymmetric models. To date, suspension up to 80 deg angle of attack has been achieved.

  12. Progress on the ITER H&CD EC upper launcher steering-mirror control system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collazos, A.; Bertizzolo, R.; Chavan, R.; Dolizy, F.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T.P.; Henderson, M.A.; Landis, J.-D.; Sanchez, F.

    2010-01-01

    The ITER Heating and Current Drive Upper Launcher (H&CD EC UL) uses a pneumomechanical steering-mirror assembly (SMA) to steer the RF beams for their deposition in the appropriate location in the plasma to control magnetohydrodynamic activity (neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) and sawtooth

  13. Progress of magnetic-suspension systems and magnetic bearings in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper traces the development and progress of magnetic suspension systems and magnetic bearings in the USSR. The paper describes magnetic bearings for turbomachines, magnetic suspension systems for vibration isolation, some special measuring devices, wind tunnels, and other applications. The design, principles of operation, and dynamic characteristics of the system are presented

  14. 38-GHz millimeter wave beam steered fiber wireless systems for 5G indoor coverage: architectures, devices, and links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Z.; Zhao, X.; Soares, F.M.; Tessema, N.M.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Millimeter wave (mm-wave) beam steering is a key technique for the next generation (5G) wireless communication. The 28 and 38-GHz bands are widely considered as the candidates for 5G. In the context of indoor coverage, fiber-wireless systems with multiple simplified remote antenna sites are

  15. Active Electromechanical Suspension System for Planetary Rovers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Balcones Technologies, LLC proposes to adapt actively controlled suspension technology developed by The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics...

  16. Development of an algorithm for the servo-assisted control of an electro-mechanical steering system; Entwicklung eines Algorithmus zur Servokraftregelung einer elektromechanischen Lenkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannoehl, Caroline

    2010-07-01

    Electromechanical steering systems increasingly replace hydraulic power steering systems, since they have substantial advantages such as a reduced consumption of fuel. A substantial aspect of each power steering is the correct choice of the support strength as a function of the driving conditions. The contribution under consideration reports on different approaches of regulation for an adjustment of the desired target hand moment for an electromechanical power steering. The requirements of the instantaneous control are deduced and specified by target values for selected characteristic numbers. The different automatic controllers are compared with the help of numeric simulation. Among other things, a special H{sub {infinity}} approach is used which is suitable very well for the regulation under consideration. The behaviour of the controller action is analyzed both in simulation as well as in a test vehicle. The steering system is modelled for the systems analysis, controller synthesis and controller simulation. The model validation is accomplished by test stand measurements.

  17. Steering straight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, Jacqueline

    2011-12-15

    Baker Hughes Inc. has developed a deep azimuthal resistivity measurement tool for subsurface navigation when drilling oil and gas wells. This tool, named AziTrak, has measurement-while-drilling and logging-while-drilling capabilities and data are sent in real time to the surface via mud pulse or wired pipe telemetry. This technology helps the operator detect and visualize bed boundaries in real time, thanks to 3D imagery and a 360 degree view of the subsurface. The AziTrak system makes it possible to steer proactively and to stay within the pay zone at all times to maximize production; the tool had excellent results in field applications. Although this tool is 5 times more expensive than conventional technologies, its use results in a more economic wellbore thanks to its great utility. If the operator puts a high degree of involvement into it, the AziTrak deep azimuthal resistivity measurement tool will allow him to stay in the pay zone at all times.

  18. Two-Dimensional Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control of a Field-Sensed Magnetic Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hsing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the two-dimensional fuzzy sliding mode control of a field-sensed magnetic suspension system. The fuzzy rules include both the sliding manifold and its derivative. The fuzzy sliding mode control has advantages of the sliding mode control and the fuzzy control rules are minimized. Magnetic suspension systems are nonlinear and inherently unstable systems. The two-dimensional fuzzy sliding mode control can stabilize the nonlinear systems globally and attenuate chatter effectively. It is adequate to be applied to magnetic suspension systems. New design circuits of magnetic suspension systems are proposed in this paper. ARM Cortex-M3 microcontroller is utilized as a digital controller. The implemented driver, sensor, and control circuits are simpler, more inexpensive, and effective. This apparatus is satisfactory for engineering education. In the hands-on experiments, the proposed control scheme markedly improves performances of the field-sensed magnetic suspension system.

  19. Preview control of vehicle suspension system featuring MR shock absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, M S; Choi, S B [Smart Structures and Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, M W [Precision Manufacturing and Inspection Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H G [Department of Automotive Engineering, Daeduk College, Daejeon, 305-715 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: seungbok@inha.ac.kr

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents control performance evaluation of optimal preview control algorithm for vehicle suspension featuring MR shock absorber. The optimal preview control algorithm has several advantages such as high control performance over that which is best for a non-preview system. In order to achieve this goal, a commercial MR shock absorber, Delphi MganerideTM, which is applicable to high class passenger vehicle, is adopted and its field-dependent damping force and dynamic responses are experimentally evaluated. Then the governing equation of motion for the full-vehicle model is established and integrated with the MR shock absorber. Subsequently, optimal controller with preview control algorithm is formulated and implemented for vibration suppression of the car body. Control performance of the preview controller is evaluated for the full-vehicle model under random road condition. In addition, the control performances depending on preview distances are evaluated.

  20. Preview control of vehicle suspension system featuring MR shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, M S; Choi, S B; Cho, M W; Lee, H G

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents control performance evaluation of optimal preview control algorithm for vehicle suspension featuring MR shock absorber. The optimal preview control algorithm has several advantages such as high control performance over that which is best for a non-preview system. In order to achieve this goal, a commercial MR shock absorber, Delphi MganerideTM, which is applicable to high class passenger vehicle, is adopted and its field-dependent damping force and dynamic responses are experimentally evaluated. Then the governing equation of motion for the full-vehicle model is established and integrated with the MR shock absorber. Subsequently, optimal controller with preview control algorithm is formulated and implemented for vibration suppression of the car body. Control performance of the preview controller is evaluated for the full-vehicle model under random road condition. In addition, the control performances depending on preview distances are evaluated.

  1. Individual addressing of trapped {sup 171}Yb{sup +} ion qubits using a microelectromechanical systems-based beam steering system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crain, S.; Mount, E.; Baek, S.; Kim, J., E-mail: jungsang@duke.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Fitzpatrick Institute for Photonics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2014-11-03

    The ability to individually manipulate the increasing number of qubits is one of the many challenges towards scalable quantum information processing with trapped ions. Using micro-mirrors fabricated with micro-electromechanical systems technology, we focus laser beams on individual ions in a linear chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. We demonstrate sequential single qubit gates on multiple {sup 171}Yb{sup +} qubits and characterize the gate performance using quantum state tomography. Our system features negligible crosstalk to neighboring ions (<3×10{sup −4}), and switching speed comparable to typical single qubit gate times (<2 μs)

  2. Design and test of a novel magnetic lead screw for active suspension system in a vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore the Magnetic Lead Screw is introduced and its benefits when used with an active suspension system are discussed. Based on a model of a quarter car, the design specifications for the MLS active suspension system are found, which leads to a design study. The design study investigates the relation...

  3. 22 CFR 208.110 - What is the purpose of the nonprocurement debarment and suspension system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the purpose of the nonprocurement debarment and suspension system? 208.110 Section 208.110 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... the nonprocurement debarment and suspension system? (a) To protect the public interest, the Federal...

  4. 46 CFR 182.610 - Main steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main steering gear. 182.610 Section 182.610 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.610 Main steering gear. (a) A vessel must be provided with a main steering gear that is: (1) Of adequate strength and capable of steering the vessel at all service...

  5. Influence of Road Excitation and Steering Wheel Input on Vehicle System Dynamic Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen-Feng Wang; Ming-Ming Dong; Liang Gu; Jagat-Jyoti Rath; Ye-Chen Qin; Bin Bai

    2017-01-01

    Considering the importance of increasing driving safety, the study of safety is a popular and critical topic of research in the vehicle industry. Vehicle roll behavior with sudden steering input is a main source of untripped rollover. However, previous research has seldom considered road excitation and its coupled effect on vehicle lateral response when focusing on lateral and vertical dynamics. To address this issue, a novel method was used to evaluate effects of varying road level and steer...

  6. Analysis of the Kinematics and Compliance of a Passive Suspension System using Adams Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ikhsan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experimental approach is usually used as the way to develop or modify a suspension system to obtain maximum ride comfort and handling characteristics. This approach is a time-consuming process, costly, and may not guarantee the optimum solution. Thus, to avoid this, a virtual vehicle suspension system is necessary. In this paper, a half-car body of an actual suspension system based on the PROTON WRM 44 P0-34 was modeled and simulated. In total, 10 components comprised each front McPherson strut and rear multilink suspension consisting of different joint types and a number of degrees of freedom. The model was developed by defining the location of the hard point or coordinate before specifying the component characteristics and joint type. The completed suspension model was simulated using the vertical parallel and vertical oppose movement test, the same tests conducted with the actual experimental parameter setup. The kinematics and compliance (K&C of the simulation is compared with the experimental data to verify the suspension model. The outcome from the simulation showed a verified virtual suspension system model with a very minimum percentage of error and different characteristics of the static performance of the suspension system when subjected to the test as explained further in the paper.

  7. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger 
Configuration System.

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez Cavalcanti, Tiago; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger 
Configuration System.
 
The ATLAS detector system installed in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 
at CERN is designed to study proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus 
collisions with a maximum center of mass energy of 14 TeV at a bunch 
collision rate of 40MHz.  In March 2010 the four LHC experiments saw 
the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV. Still within the year a 
collision rate of nearly 10 MHz is expected. At ATLAS, events of 
potential interest for ATLAS physics are selected by a three-level 
trigger system, with a final recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first 
level (L1) is implemented in custom hardware; the two levels of 
the high level trigger (HLT) are software triggers, running on large 
farms of standard computers and network devices. 

Within the ATLAS physics program more than 500 trigger signatures are 
defined. The HLT tests each signature on each L1-accepted event; the 
test outcome is recor...

  8. Entanglement, EPR steering, and Bell-nonlocality criteria for multipartite higher-spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Q. Y.; Drummond, P. D.; Reid, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    We develop criteria to detect three classes of nonlocality that have been shown by Wiseman et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402 (2007)] to be nonequivalent: entanglement, EPR steering, and the failure of local hidden-variable theories. We use the approach of Cavalcanti et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 210405 (2007)] for continuous variables to develop the nonlocality criteria for arbitrary spin observables defined on a discrete Hilbert space. The criteria thus apply to multisite qudits, i.e., systems of fixed dimension d, and take the form of inequalities. We find that the spin moment inequalities that test local hidden variables (Bell inequalities) can be violated for arbitrary d by optimized highly correlated nonmaximally entangled states provided the number of sites N is high enough. On the other hand, the spin inequalities for entanglement are violated and thus detect entanglement for such states, for arbitrary d and N, and with a violation that increases with N. We show that one of the moment entanglement inequalities can detect the entanglement of an arbitrary generalized multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Because they involve the natural observables for atomic systems, the relevant spin-operator correlations should be readily observable in trapped ultracold atomic gases and ion traps.

  9. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger Configuration System.

    CERN Document Server

    Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS detector system installed in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is designed to study proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions with a maximum centre of mass energy of 14 TeV at a bunch collision rate of 40MHz. In March 2010 the four LHC experiments saw the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV. Still within the year a collision rate of nearly 10 MHz is expected. At ATLAS, events of potential interest for ATLAS physics are selected by a three-level trigger system, with a final recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first level (L1) is implemented in custom hardware; the two levels of the high level trigger (HLT) are software triggers, running on large farms of standard computers and network devices. Within the ATLAS physics program more than 500 trigger signatures are defined. The HLT tests each signature on each L1-accepted event; the test outcome is recorded for later analysis. The HLT-Steering is responsible for this. It foremost ensures the independent test of each signature, guarantying u...

  10. Solution or suspension - Does it matter for lipid based systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A T; Holm, R; Müllertz, A

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the potential of co-administering an aqueous suspension with a placebo lipid vehicle, i.e. chase dosing, was investigated in rats relative to the aqueous suspension alone or a solution of the drug in the lipid vehicle. The lipid investigated in the present study was Labrafil M2125CS...... and three evaluated poorly soluble model compounds, danazol, cinnarizine and halofantrine. For cinnarizine and danazol the oral bioavailability in rats after chase dosing or dosing the compound dissolved in Labrafil M21515CS was similar and significantly higher than for the aqueous suspension....... For halofantrine the chase dosed group had a tendency towards a low bioavailability relative to the Labrafil M2125CS solution, but still a significant higher bioavailability relative to the aqueous suspension. This could be due to factors such as a slower dissolution rate in the intestinal phase of halofantrine...

  11. Establishment of sorghum cell suspension culture system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Additionally, sorghum cell suspension cultures have been initiated from the friable ... proteomics technologies. The field of proteomics is .... air dried at room temperature and resuspended in 2 ml of urea buffer [9 M urea, 2 M ...

  12. Towards a Continuous Biometric System Based on ECG Signals Acquired on the Steering Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ribeiro Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiogram signals acquired through a steering wheel could be the key to seamless, highly comfortable, and continuous human recognition in driving settings. This paper focuses on the enhancement of the unprecedented lesser quality of such signals, through the combination of Savitzky-Golay and moving average filters, followed by outlier detection and removal based on normalised cross-correlation and clustering, which was able to render ensemble heartbeats of significantly higher quality. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and Haar transform features were extracted and fed to decision methods based on Support Vector Machines (SVM, k-Nearest Neighbours (kNN, Multilayer Perceptrons (MLP, and Gaussian Mixture Models - Universal Background Models (GMM-UBM classifiers, for both identification and authentication tasks. Additional techniques of user-tuned authentication and past score weighting were also studied. The method’s performance was comparable to some of the best recent state-of-the-art methods (94.9% identification rate (IDR and 2.66% authentication equal error rate (EER, despite lesser results with scarce train data (70.9% IDR and 11.8% EER. It was concluded that the method was suitable for biometric recognition with driving electrocardiogram signals, and could, with future developments, be used on a continuous system in seamless and highly noisy settings.

  13. Towards a Continuous Biometric System Based on ECG Signals Acquired on the Steering Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, João Ribeiro; Cardoso, Jaime S; Lourenço, André; Carreiras, Carlos

    2017-09-28

    Electrocardiogram signals acquired through a steering wheel could be the key to seamless, highly comfortable, and continuous human recognition in driving settings. This paper focuses on the enhancement of the unprecedented lesser quality of such signals, through the combination of Savitzky-Golay and moving average filters, followed by outlier detection and removal based on normalised cross-correlation and clustering, which was able to render ensemble heartbeats of significantly higher quality. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Haar transform features were extracted and fed to decision methods based on Support Vector Machines (SVM), k-Nearest Neighbours (kNN), Multilayer Perceptrons (MLP), and Gaussian Mixture Models - Universal Background Models (GMM-UBM) classifiers, for both identification and authentication tasks. Additional techniques of user-tuned authentication and past score weighting were also studied. The method's performance was comparable to some of the best recent state-of-the-art methods (94.9% identification rate (IDR) and 2.66% authentication equal error rate (EER)), despite lesser results with scarce train data (70.9% IDR and 11.8% EER). It was concluded that the method was suitable for biometric recognition with driving electrocardiogram signals, and could, with future developments, be used on a continuous system in seamless and highly noisy settings.

  14. Method of steering the gain of a multiple antenna global positioning system receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alan G.; Hermann, Bruce R.

    1992-06-01

    A method for steering the gain of a multiple antenna Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver toward a plurality of a GPS satellites simultaneously is provided. The GPS signals of a known wavelength are processed digitally for a particular instant in time. A range difference or propagation delay between each antenna for GPS signals received from each satellite is first resolved. The range difference consists of a fractional wavelength difference and an integer wavelength difference. The fractional wavelength difference is determined by each antenna's tracking loop. The integer wavelength difference is based upon the known wavelength and separation between each antenna with respect to each satellite position. The range difference is then used to digitally delay the GPS signals at each antenna with respect to a reference antenna. The signal at the reference antenna is then summed with the digitally delayed signals to generate a composite antenna gain. The method searches for the correct number of integer wavelengths to maximize the composite gain. The range differences are also used to determine the attitude of the array.

  15. A new model to compute the desired steering torque for steer-by-wire vehicles and driving simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankem, Steve; Müller, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the control of the hand wheel actuator in steer-by-wire (SbW) vehicles and driving simulators (DSs). A novel model for the computation of the desired steering torque is presented. The introduced steering torque computation does not only aim to generate a realistic steering feel, which means that the driver should not miss the basic steering functionality of a modern conventional steering system such as an electric power steering (EPS) or hydraulic power steering (HPS), and this in every driving situation. In addition, the modular structure of the steering torque computation combined with suitably selected tuning parameters has the objective to offer a high degree of customisability of the steering feel and thus to provide each driver with his preferred steering feel in a very intuitive manner. The task and the tuning of each module are firstly described. Then, the steering torque computation is parameterised such that the steering feel of a series EPS system is reproduced. For this purpose, experiments are conducted in a hardware-in-the-loop environment where a test EPS is mounted on a steering test bench coupled with a vehicle simulator and parameter identification techniques are applied. Subsequently, how appropriate the steering torque computation mimics the test EPS system is objectively evaluated with respect to criteria concerning the steering torque level and gradient, the feedback behaviour and the steering return ability. Finally, the intuitive tuning of the modular steering torque computation is demonstrated for deriving a sportier steering feel configuration.

  16. Flagellated Magnetotactic Bacteria as Controlled MRI-trackable Propulsion and Steering Systems for Medical Nanorobots Operating in the Human Microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Sylvain; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Felfoul, Ouajdi; Lu, Zhao; Pouponneau, Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Although nanorobots may play critical roles for many applications in the human body such as targeting tumoral lesions for therapeutic purposes, miniaturization of the power source with an effective onboard controllable propulsion and steering system have prevented the implementation of such mobile robots. Here, we show that the flagellated nanomotors combined with the nanometer-sized magnetosomes of a single Magnetotactic Bacterium (MTB) can be used as an effective integrated propulsion and steering system for devices such as nanorobots designed for targeting locations only accessible through the smallest capillaries in humans while being visible for tracking and monitoring purposes using modern medical imaging modalities such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Through directional and magnetic field intensities, the displacement speeds, directions, and behaviors of swarms of these bacterial actuators can be controlled from an external computer.

  17. An automatic beam steering system for the NSLS X-17T beam line using closed orbit feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrocky, R.J.; Ma, Li; Rarback, H.M.; Singh, O.V.; Yu, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    Initial observations of motion of the undulator radiation in the NSLS X-17T beam line clearly indicated that the beam had to be stabilized in both directions to be usable for the planned soft x-ray imaging experiments. The low frequency spectra of beam motion contained peaks in the range from dc to 60 Hz and at higher frequencies. A beam steering system employing closed orbit feedback has been designed and installed to stabilize the beam in both planes. In each plane of motion, beam position is measured with a beam position detector and a correction signal is fed back to a local four magnet orbit bump to dynamically control the angle of the radiation at the source. This paper describes the design and performance of the beam steering system

  18. Computation of magnetic suspension of maglev systems using dynamic circuit theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J. L.; Rote, D. M.; Coffey, H. T.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic circuit theory is applied to several magnetic suspensions associated with maglev systems. These suspension systems are the loop-shaped coil guideway, the figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil guideway, and the continuous sheet guideway. Mathematical models, which can be used for the development of computer codes, are provided for each of these suspension systems. The differences and similarities of the models in using dynamic circuit theory are discussed in the paper. The paper emphasizes the transient and dynamic analysis and computer simulation of maglev systems. In general, the method discussed here can be applied to many electrodynamic suspension system design concepts. It is also suited for the computation of the performance of maglev propulsion systems. Numerical examples are presented in the paper.

  19. Methodologies for steering clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadsey, Harold

    1995-01-01

    One of the concerns of the PTTI community is the coordination of one time scale with another. This is accomplished through steering one clock system to another, with a goal of a zero or constant offset in time and frequency. In order to attain this goal, rate differences are calculated and allowed for by the steering algorithm. This paper will present several of these different methods of determining rate differences. Ideally, any change in rate should not cause the offset to change sign (overshoot) by any amount, but certainly not by as much as its previous absolute value. The advantages and disadvantages of each depend on the user's situation.

  20. Functional Based Adaptive and Fuzzy Sliding Controller for Non-Autonomous Active Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiuh-Jer; Chen, Hung-Yi

    In this paper, an adaptive sliding controller is developed for controlling a vehicle active suspension system. The functional approximation technique is employed to substitute the unknown non-autonomous functions of the suspension system and release the model-based requirement of sliding mode control algorithm. In order to improve the control performance and reduce the implementation problem, a fuzzy strategy with online learning ability is added to compensate the functional approximation error. The update laws of the functional approximation coefficients and the fuzzy tuning parameters are derived from the Lyapunov theorem to guarantee the system stability. The proposed controller is implemented on a quarter-car hydraulic actuating active suspension system test-rig. The experimental results show that the proposed controller suppresses the oscillation amplitude of the suspension system effectively.

  1. Driver assistance system for passive multi-trailer vehicles with haptic steering limitations on the leading unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jesús; Mandow, Anthony; Martínez, Jorge L; Reina, Antonio J; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2013-04-03

    Driving vehicles with one or more passive trailers has difficulties in both forward and backward motion due to inter-unit collisions, jackknife, and lack of visibility. Consequently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for multi-trailer combinations can be beneficial to accident avoidance as well as to driver comfort. The ADAS proposed in this paper aims to prevent unsafe steering commands by means of a haptic handwheel. Furthermore, when driving in reverse, the steering-wheel and pedals can be used as if the vehicle was driven from the back of the last trailer with visual aid from a rear-view camera. This solution, which can be implemented in drive-by-wire vehicles with hitch angle sensors, profits from two methods previously developed by the authors: safe steering by applying a curvature limitation to the leading unit, and a virtual tractor concept for backward motion that includes the complex case of set-point propagation through on-axle hitches. The paper addresses system requirements and provides implementation details to tele-operate two different off- and on-axle combinations of a tracked mobile robot pulling and pushing two dissimilar trailers.

  2. Driver Assistance System for Passive Multi-Trailer Vehicles with Haptic Steering Limitations on the Leading Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Reina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving vehicles with one or more passive trailers has difficulties in both forward and backward motion due to inter-unit collisions, jackknife, and lack of visibility. Consequently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS for multi-trailer combinations can be beneficial to accident avoidance as well as to driver comfort. The ADAS proposed in this paper aims to prevent unsafe steering commands by means of a haptic handwheel. Furthermore, when driving in reverse, the steering-wheel and pedals can be used as if the vehicle was driven from the back of the last trailer with visual aid from a rear-view camera. This solution, which can be implemented in drive-by-wire vehicles with hitch angle sensors, profits from two methods previously developed by the authors: safe steering by applying a curvature limitation to the leading unit, and a virtual tractor concept for backward motion that includes the complex case of set-point propagation through on-axle hitches. The paper addresses system requirements and provides implementation details to tele-operate two different off- and on-axle combinations of a tracked mobile robot pulling and pushing two dissimilar trailers.

  3. Experimental verification of multidimensional quantum steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Che-Ming; Lo, Hsin-Pin; Chen, Liang-Yu; Yabushita, Atsushi

    2018-03-01

    Quantum steering enables one party to communicate with another remote party even if the sender is untrusted. Such characteristics of quantum systems not only provide direct applications to quantum information science, but are also conceptually important for distinguishing between quantum and classical resources. While concrete illustrations of steering have been shown in several experiments, quantum steering has not been certified for higher dimensional systems. Here, we introduce a simple method to experimentally certify two different kinds of quantum steering: Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering and single-system (SS) steering (i.e., temporal steering), for dimensionality (d) up to d = 16. The former reveals the steerability among bipartite systems, whereas the latter manifests itself in single quantum objects. We use multidimensional steering witnesses to verify EPR steering of polarization-entangled pairs and SS steering of single photons. The ratios between the measured witnesses and the maximum values achieved by classical mimicries are observed to increase with d for both EPR and SS steering. The designed scenario offers a new method to study further the genuine multipartite steering of large dimensionality and potential uses in quantum information processing.

  4. Adaptive tracking control for active suspension systems with non-ideal actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huihui; Sun, Weichao; Jing, Xingjian; Gao, Huijun; Yao, Jianyong

    2017-07-01

    As a critical component of transportation vehicles, active suspension systems are instrumental in the improvement of ride comfort and maneuverability. However, practical active suspensions commonly suffer from parameter uncertainties (e.g., the variations of payload mass and suspension component parameters), external disturbances and especially the unknown non-ideal actuators (i.e., dead-zone and hysteresis nonlinearities), which always significantly deteriorate the control performance in practice. To overcome these issues, this paper synthesizes an adaptive tracking control strategy for vehicle suspension systems to achieve suspension performance improvements. The proposed control algorithm is formulated by developing a unified framework of non-ideal actuators rather than a separate way, which is a simple yet effective approach to remove the unexpected nonlinear effects. From the perspective of practical implementation, the advantages of the presented controller for active suspensions include that the assumptions on the measurable actuator outputs, the prior knowledge of nonlinear actuator parameters and the uncertain parameters within a known compact set are not required. Furthermore, the stability of the closed-loop suspension system is theoretically guaranteed by rigorous mathematical analysis. Finally, the effectiveness of the presented adaptive control scheme is confirmed using comparative numerical simulation validations.

  5. Online Adaptive Optimal Control of Vehicle Active Suspension Systems Using Single-Network Approximate Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the performance requirements (e.g., ride comfort, road holding, and suspension space limitation for vehicle suspension systems, this paper proposes an adaptive optimal control method for quarter-car active suspension system by using the approximate dynamic programming approach (ADP. Online optimal control law is obtained by using a single adaptive critic NN to approximate the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equation. Stability of the closed-loop system is proved by Lyapunov theory. Compared with the classic linear quadratic regulator (LQR approach, the proposed ADP-based adaptive optimal control method demonstrates improved performance in the presence of parametric uncertainties (e.g., sprung mass and unknown road displacement. Numerical simulation results of a sedan suspension system are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  6. Design and Implementation of Electric Steering Gear Inspection System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Based on Virtual Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of UAV electric servo detection system based on Virtual Instrument is designed in this paper, including the hardware platform based on PC-DAQ virtual instrument architecture and the software platform based on LabVIEW function, structure and system implementation methods. The function, structure and system implementation method of software platform is also described. The gear limits checking, zero testing, time domain characteristics test results showed that the system achieves testing requirements well, and can complete detection of electric steering gear automatically, fast, easy and accurate.

  7. Influence of Road Excitation and Steering Wheel Input on Vehicle System Dynamic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Feng Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of increasing driving safety, the study of safety is a popular and critical topic of research in the vehicle industry. Vehicle roll behavior with sudden steering input is a main source of untripped rollover. However, previous research has seldom considered road excitation and its coupled effect on vehicle lateral response when focusing on lateral and vertical dynamics. To address this issue, a novel method was used to evaluate effects of varying road level and steering wheel input on vehicle roll behavior. Then, a 9 degree of freedom (9-DOF full-car roll nonlinear model including vertical and lateral dynamics was developed to study vehicle roll dynamics with or without of road excitation. Based on a 6-DOF half-car roll model and 9-DOF full-car nonlinear model, relationship between three-dimensional (3-D road excitation and various steering wheel inputs on vehicle roll performance was studied. Finally, an E-Class (SUV level car model in CARSIM® was used, as a benchmark, with and without road input conditions. Both half-car and full-car models were analyzed under steering wheel inputs of 5°, 10° and 15°. Simulation results showed that the half-car model considering road input was found to have a maximum accuracy of 65%. Whereas, the full-car model had a minimum accuracy of 85%, which was significantly higher compared to the half-car model under the same scenario.

  8. Operational Modal Analysis and the Performance Assessment of Vehicle Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Soria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comfort, road holding and safety of passenger cars are mainly influenced by an appropriate design of suspension systems. Improvements of the dynamic behaviour can be achieved by implementing semi-active or active suspension systems. In these cases, the correct design of a well-performing suspension control strategy is of fundamental importance to obtain satisfying results. Operational Modal Analysis allows the experimental structural identification in those that are the real operating conditions: Moving from output-only data, leading to modal models linearised around the more interesting working points and, in the case of controlled systems, providing the needed information for the optimal design and verification of the controller performance. All these characters are needed for the experimental assessment of vehicle suspension systems. In the paper two suspension architectures are considered equipping the same car type. The former is a semi-active commercial system, the latter a novel prototypic active system. For the assessment of suspension performance, two different kinds of tests have been considered, proving ground tests on different road profiles and laboratory four poster rig tests. By OMA-processing the signals acquired in the different testing conditions and by comparing the results, it is shown how this tool can be effectively utilised to verify the operation and the performance of those systems, by only carrying out a simple, cost-effective road test.

  9. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, D.M.; He, J.; Johnson, L.R.

    1994-01-04

    A propulsion and stabilization system are described comprising a series of coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance, and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension. 8 figures.

  10. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Donald M.; He, Jianliang; Johnson, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    A propulsion and stabilization system comprising a series of FIG. 8 coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the FIG. 8 coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension.

  11. Magnetic suspension motorized spindle-cutting system dynamics analysis and vibration control review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli QIAO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of high-speed spindle directly determines the development of high-end machine tools. The cutting system's dynamic characteristics and vibration control effect are inseparable with the performance of the spindle,which influence each other, synergistic effect together the cutting efficiency, the surface quality of the workpiece and tool life in machining process. So, the review status on magnetic suspension motorized spindle, magnetic suspension bearing-flexible rotor system dynamics modeling theory and status of active control technology of flexible magnetic suspension motorized spindle rotor vibration are studied, and the problems which present in the magnetic suspension flexible motorized spindle rotor systems are refined, and the development trend of magnetic levitation motorized spindle and the application prospect is forecasted.

  12. 46 CFR 58.25-20 - Piping for steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for steering gear. 58.25-20 Section 58.25-20... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-20 Piping for steering gear. (a) Pressure piping must... the hydraulic system can be readily recharged from within the steering-gear compartment and must be...

  13. Optimization of damping in the passive automotive suspension system with using two quarter-car models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozia, Z.; Zdanowicz, P.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the optimization of damping in the passive suspension system of a motor vehicle moving rectilinearly with a constant speed on a road with rough surface of random irregularities, described according to the ISO classification. Two quarter-car 2DoF models, linear and non-linear, were used; in the latter, nonlinearities of spring characteristics of the suspension system and pneumatic tyres, sliding friction in the suspension system, and wheel lift-off were taken into account. The smoothing properties of vehicle tyres were represented in both models. The calculations were carried out for three roads of different quality, with simulating four vehicle speeds. Statistical measures of vertical vehicle body vibrations and of changes in the vertical tyre/road contact force were used as the criteria of system optimization and model comparison. The design suspension displacement limit was also taken into account. The optimum suspension damping coefficient was determined and the impact of undesirable sliding friction in the suspension system on the calculation results was estimated. The results obtained make it possible to evaluate the impact of the structure and complexity of the model used on the results of the optimization.

  14. Ride performance of a high speed rail vehicle using controlled semi active suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2017-05-01

    The rail-wheel interaction in a rail vehicle running at high speed results in large amplitude vibration of carbody that deteriorates the ride comfort of travellers. The role of suspension system is crucial to provide an acceptable level of ride performance. In this context, an existing rail vehicle is modelled in vertical, pitch and roll motions of carbody and bogies. Additionally, nonlinear stiffness and damping parameters of passive suspension system are defined based on experimental data. In the secondary vertical suspension system, a magneto-rheological (MR) damper is included to improve the ride quality and comfort. The parameters of MR damper depend on the current, amplitude and frequency of excitations. At different running speeds, three semi-active suspension strategies with MR damper are analysed for periodic track irregularity and the resulting performance indices are juxtaposed with the nonlinear passive suspension system. The disturbance rejection and force tracking damper controller algorithms are applied to control the desired force of MR damper. This study reveals that the vertical vibrations of a vehicle can be reduced significantly by using the proposed semi-active suspension strategies. Moreover, it naturally results in improved ride quality and passenger’s comfort in comparison to the existing passive system.

  15. Time response analysis in suspension system design of a high-speed car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagwiwoko, Cosmas Pandit

    2010-03-01

    A land speed record vehicle is designed to run on a flat surface like salt lake where the wheels are normally made from solid metal with a special suspension system. The suspension is designed to provide a stable platform to keep the wheel treads on tract, to insulate the car and the driver from the surface irregularities and to take part of good handling properties. The surface condition of the lake beds is basically flat without undulations but with inconsistent surface textures and ridges. Spring with nonlinear rate is used with the reason that the resistance builds up roughly proportional to the aerodynamic download for keeping the height more nearly constant. The objective of the work is to produce an efficient method for assisting the design of suspension system. At the initial step, the stiffness and the damping constants are determined based on RMS optimization by following the optimization strategy i.e. to minimize the absolute acceleration respect to the relative displacement of the suspension. Power bond graph technique is then used to model the nonlinearity of the components i.e. spring and dashpot of the suspension system. This technique also enables to incorporate the interactions of dynamic response of the vehicle's body with aerodynamic flow as a result of the base excitation of the ground to the wheels. The simulation is conducted on the platform of Simulink-MATLAB and the interactions amongst the components within the system are observed in time domain to evaluate the effectiveness of the suspension.

  16. Development of a non-piston MR suspension rod for variable mass systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huaxia; Han, Guanghui; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Mingxian; Ma, Mengchao; Zhong, Xiang; Yu, Liandong

    2018-06-01

    The semi-active suspension systems for variable mass systems require long work stroke and variable damping, while the currently piston structure limits the work stroke for the magnetorheological (MR) dampers. The main work of this paper is to design a semi-active non-piston MR (NPMR) suspension rod for the reduction of the vibration of an automatic impeller washing machine, which is a typical variable mass system. The designed suspension rod locates in the suspension system that links the internal tub to the washing machine cabinet. The NPMR suspension rod includes a MR part and a air part. The MR part can provide low initial damping force and the unlimited work stroke compared with the piston MR damper. The hysteretic response tests and vibration performance evaluation with different loadings are conducted to verify the dynamic performance for the designed rod. The measured damping force of the MR part varies from 5 to 20 N. Studies of dehydration mode experiments of the washing machine indicate that its vibration acceleration with the NPMR suspension rods can reduce to half of the original passive ones in certain conditions.

  17. A comparison of optimal semi-active suspension systems regarding vehicle ride comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulocheris, Dimitrios; Papaioannou, Georgios; Chrysos, Emmanouil

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to present a comparison of the main semi active suspension systems used in a passenger car, after having optimized the suspension systems of the vehicle model in respect with ride comfort and road holding. Thus, a half car model, equipped with controllable dampers, along with a seat and a driver was implemented. Semi-active suspensions have received a lot of attention since they seem to provide the best compromise between cost (energy consumption, actuators/sensors hardware) and performance in comparison with active and passive suspensions. In this work, the semi active suspension systems studied are comfort oriented and consist of (a) the two version of Skyhook control (two states skyhook and skyhook linear approximation damper), (b) the acceleration driven damper (ADD), (c) the power driven damper (PDD), (d) the combination of Skyhook and ADD (Mixed Skyhook-ADD) and (e) the combination of the two with the use of a sensor. The half car model equipped with the above suspension systems was excited by a road bump, and was optimized using genetic algorithms (GA) in respect with ride comfort and road holding. This study aims to highlight how the optimization of the vehicle model could lead to the best compromise between ride comfort and road holding, overcoming their well-known trade-off. The optimum results were compared with important performance metrics regarding the vehicle’s dynamic behaviour in general.

  18. Lateral Vibration Attenuation by the Dynamic Adjustment of Bias Currents in Magnetic Suspension System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Takeshi; Takasaki, Masaya; Ishino, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Switching stiffness control is applied to attenuate vibration in the lateral directions in an active magnetic suspension system with electromagnets operated in differential mode. The magnetic suspension system using the attractive force between magnetized bodies is inherently unstable in the normal direction so that feedback control is necessary to achieve stable suspension. In contrast, it can be stable in the lateral directions due to the edge effects in the magnetic circuits. In several applications, such passive suspension is used in combination with the active one to reduce cost and space. However, damping in the lateral directions is generally small. As a result, induced vibrations in these directions are hardly attenuated. To suppress such vibration without any additional actuator (electromagnet), switching stiffness control is applied to an magnetic suspension system operated in the differential mode. The stiffness in the lateral direction is adjusted by varying the bias currents of an opposed pair of electromagnets located in the normal direction simultaneously according to the motion of the suspended object. When the varied bias currents are adjusted for the additive normal forces cancel each other, such control does not affect the suspension in the normal direction. The effectiveness of the proposed control methods is confirmed experimentally. (paper)

  19. System Identification and Steering Control Characteristic of Rice Combine Harvester Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutisna, S. P.; Setiawan, R. P. A.; Subrata, I. D. M.; Mandang, T.

    2018-05-01

    This study is a preliminary research of rice combine harvester trajectory. A vehicle model of rice combine used crawler with differential steering. Turning process of differential steering used speed difference of right and left tracks This study aims to learn of rice combine harvester steering control. In real condition, the hydraulic break on each track produced the speed difference. The model used two DC motors with maximum speed 100 rpm for each tracks. A rotary encoder with resolution 600 pulse/rotation was connected to each DC motors shaft to monitor the speed of tracks and connected to the input shaft of a gearbox with ratio 1:46. The motor speed control for each track used pulse width modulation to produce the speed difference. A gyroscope sensor with resolution 0.01° was used to determine the model orientation angle. Like the real rice combine, the tracks can not rotate to the opposite direction at the same time so it makes the model can not perform the pivot turn. The turn radius of the model was 28 cm and the forward maximum speed was 17.8 cm/s. The model trajectory control used PID odometry controller. Parameters input were the speed of each track and the orientation of the vehicle. The straight line test showed the controller can control the rice combine model trajectory with the average error 0.67 cm.

  20. Holographic memory using beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Hanan, Jay C. (Inventor); Reyes, George F. (Inventor); Zhou, Hanying (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method, apparatus, and system provide the ability for storing holograms at high speed. A single laser diode emits a collimated laser beam to both write to and read from a photorefractice crystal. One or more liquid crystal beam steering spatial light modulators (BSSLMs) or Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) mirrors steer a reference beam, split from the collimated laser beam, at high speed to the photorefractive crystal.

  1. An isotropic suspension system for a biaxial accelerometer using electroplated thick metal with a HAR SU-8 mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Seung; Lee, Seung S

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is developed to design an isotropic suspension system using thick metal freestanding micro-structures combining bulk micro-machining with electroplating based on a HAR SU-8 mold. An omega-shape isotropic suspension system composed of circular curved beams that have free switching of imaginary boundary conditions is proposed. This novel isotropic suspension design is not affected by geometric dimensional parameters and always achieves matching stiffness along the principle axes of elasticity. Using the finite element method, the isotropic suspension system was compared with an S-shaped meandering suspension system. In order to realize the suggested isotropic suspension system, a cost-effective fabrication process using electroplating with the SU-8 mold was developed to avoid expensive equipment and materials such as deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) or a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The fabricated isotropic suspension system was verified by electromagnetic actuation experiments. Finally, a biaxial accelerometer with isotropic suspension system was realized and tested using a vibration generator system. The proposed isotropic suspension system and the modified surface micro-machining technique based on electroplating with an SU-8 mold can contribute towards minimizing the system size, simplifying the system configuration, reducing the system price of and facilitating mass production of various types of low-cost sensors and actuators

  2. On Electrohydraulic Pressure Control for Power Steering Applications : Active Steering for Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Amico, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the Electrohydraulic Power Steering system for road vehicles, using electronic pressure control valves. With an ever increasing demand for safer vehicles and fewer traffic accidents, steering-related active safety functions are becoming more common in modern vehicles. Future road vehicles will also evolve towards autonomous vehicles, with several safety, environmental and financial benefits. A key component in realising such solutions is active steering. The power steer...

  3. Kineto-dynamic design optimisation for vehicle-specific seat-suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Wen-Bin; Shui, Yijie; Rakheja, Subhash

    2017-11-01

    Designs and analyses of seat-suspension systems are invariably performed considering effective vertical spring rate and damping properties, while neglecting important contributions due to kinematics of the widely used cross-linkage mechanism. In this study, a kineto-dynamic model of a seat-suspension is formulated to obtain relations for effective vertical suspension stiffness and damping characteristics as functions of those of the air spring and the hydraulic damper, respectively. The proposed relations are verified through simulations of the multi-body dynamic model of the cross-linkage seat-suspension in the ADAMS platform. The validity of the kineto-dynamic model is also demonstrated through comparisons of its vibration transmission response with the experimental data. The model is used to identify optimal air spring coordinates to attain nearly constant natural frequency of the suspension, irrespective of the seated body mass and seated height. A methodology is further proposed to identify optimal damping requirements for vehicle-specific suspension designs to achieve minimal seat effective amplitude transmissibility (SEAT) and vibration dose value (VDV) considering vibration spectra of different classes of earthmoving vehicles. The shock and vibration isolation performance potentials of the optimal designs are evaluated under selected vehicle vibration superimposed with shock motions. Results show that the vehicle-specific optimal designs could provide substantial reductions in the SEAT and VDV values for the vehicle classes considered.

  4. DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF MAGNETIC BEARING SUSPENSION SYSTEM IN A THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman GÜRDAL

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The current popularity of suspension and levitation stems no doubt the possibilities in high-speed ground transportation schemes. Although these are both challenging and exciting, there is considerable scope for application of suspension techniques to achieving frictionless bearing. The requirement in this case is often for close tolerances, low power consumption, small airgaps and ingeneral, compactness. Thus, magnetic suspension using DC electromagnets schemes have received more attention than the other techniques of repulsion levitation. Proposed prototype system consists of a conventional stator and its rotor without iron core, set of electromagnets for suspension of rotor shaft and set of compensation circuits feedbacked by optical-transducers. Prototyped system is aimed as a laboratory demonstration tool so there is no challenging to exceed the speeds of 1500 rev/min that is the speed of motor with mechanical bearings. Magnetic bearing suspension system provides a high impact visual demonstration of many principles in undergraduate educational programs in electrical education, e.g., electromagnetic design, PD controlled compensation of a unstable control system and power amplifier design. The system is capable of giving a good comparison between mechanical and magnetic bearing up to speeds 350 rev/min. Power losses without load show about 15% reduction with magnetic bearing. The noise of the motor is also decreased to a low level.

  5. Suspension system vibration analysis with regard to variable type ability to smooth road irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykov, S. P.; Rykova, O. A.; Koval, V. S.; Makhno, D. E.; Fedotov, K. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper aims to analyze vibrations of the dynamic system equivalent of the suspension system with regard to tyre ability to smooth road irregularities. The research is based on static dynamics for linear systems of automated control, methods of correlation, spectral and numerical analysis. Input of new data on the smoothing effect of the pneumatic tyre reflecting changes of a contact area between the wheel and road under vibrations of the suspension makes the system non-linear which requires using numerical analysis methods. Taking into account the variable smoothing ability of the tyre when calculating suspension vibrations, one can approximate calculation and experimental results and improve the constant smoothing ability of the tyre.

  6. Vibration control of an MR vehicle suspension system considering both hysteretic behavior and parameter variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Seong, Min-Sang; Ha, Sung-Hoon

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents vibration control responses of a controllable magnetorheological (MR) suspension system considering the two most important characteristics of the system; the field-dependent hysteretic behavior of the MR damper and the parameter variation of the suspension. In order to achieve this goal, a cylindrical MR damper which is applicable to a middle-sized passenger car is designed and manufactured. After verifying the damping force controllability, the field-dependent hysteretic behavior of the MR damper is identified using the Preisach hysteresis model. The full-vehicle suspension model is then derived by considering vertical, pitch and roll motions. An H ∞ controller is designed by treating the sprung mass of the vehicle as a parameter variation and integrating it with the hysteretic compensator which produces additional control input. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control system, the hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) methodology is adopted by integrating the suspension model with the proposed MR damper. Vibration control responses of the vehicle suspension system such as vertical acceleration are evaluated under both bump and random road conditions

  7. Technical note: Validation of an automated system for monitoring and restricting water intake in group-housed beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwardt, K; Ahlberg, C; Broocks, A; Bruno, K; Taylor, A; Place, S; Richards, C; Krehbiel, C; Calvo-Lorenzo, M; DeSilva, U; VanOverbeke, D; Mateescu, R; Goad, C; Rolf, M M

    2017-09-01

    The Insentec Roughage Intake Control (RIC) system has been validated for the collection of water intake; however, this system has not been validated for water restriction. The objective of this validation was to evaluate the agreement between direct observations and automated intakes collected by the RIC system under both ad libitum and restricted water conditions. A total of 239 crossbred steers were used in a 3-d validation trial, which assessed intake values generated by the RIC electronic intake monitoring system for both ad libitum water intake ( = 122; BASE) and restricted water intake ( = 117; RES). Direct human observations were collected on 4 Insentec water bins for three 24-h periods and three 12-h periods for BASE and RES, respectively. An intake event was noted by the observer when the electronic identification of the animal was read by the transponder and the gate lowered, and starting and ending bin weights were recorded for each intake event. Data from direct observations across each validation period were compared to automated observations generated from the RIC system. Missing beginning or ending weight values for visual observations occasionally occurred due to the observer being unable to capture the value before the monitor changed when bin activity was high. To estimate the impact of these missing values, analyses denoted as OBS were completed with the incomplete record coded as missing data. These analyses were contrasted with analyses where observations with a single missing beginning or end weight (but not both) were assumed to be identical to that which was recorded by the Insentec system (OBS). Difference in mean total intake across BASE steers was 0.60 ± 2.06 kg OBS (0.54 ± 1.99 kg OBS) greater for system observations than visual observations. The comparison of mean total intake across the 3 RES validation days was 0.53 ± 2.30 kg OBS (0.13 ± 1.83 kg OBS) greater for system observations than direct observations. Day was not a

  8. Robust finite-time tracking control for nonlinear suspension systems via disturbance compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huihui; Jing, Xingjian; Sun, Weichao

    2017-05-01

    This paper focuses on the finite-time tracking control with external disturbance for active suspension systems. In order to compensate unknown disturbance efficiently, a disturbance compensator with finite-time convergence property is studied. By analyzing the discontinuous phenomenon of classical disturbance compensation techniques, this study presents a simple approach to construct a continuous compensator satisfying the finite-time disturbance rejection performance. According to the finite-time separation principle, the design procedures of the nominal controller for the suspension system without disturbance and the disturbance compensator can be implemented in a completely independent manner. Therefore, the overall control law for the closed-loop system is continuous, which offers some distinct advantages over the existing discontinuous ones. From the perspective of practical implementation, the continuous controller can avoid effectively the unexpected chattering in active suspension control. Comparative experimental results are presented and discussed to illustrate the advantage and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  9. The Design and Simulation of the Modular Vehicle Air Suspension Height Control System Based on ECAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Peigang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on ECAS, this paper intended to develop a modular air suspension height control system with WABCO4728800010 two-position three way solenoid valves and Free scale MC9S12D64 microprocessor as its core components. And a simulation test was conducted in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The air suspension height control strategy of this system was divided into four modules: start control module, dynamic adjustment module, manual adjustment module and errors adjustment module, which were controlled by module select switch. Simulation tests indicated that the air suspension height control strategy is featured by its logical control accuracy and debug convenience, and the modular design greatly reduced the system complexity and software development cycle and costs as well.

  10. Sky-Hook Control and Kalman Filtering in Nonlinear Model of Tracked Vehicle Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurkiewicz Andrzej

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the undertaken topic is application of the continuous sky-hook control strategy and the Extended Kalman Filter as the state observer in the 2S1 tracked vehicle suspension system. The half-car model of this suspension system consists of seven logarithmic spiral springs and two magnetorheological dampers which has been described by the Bingham model. The applied continuous sky-hook control strategy considers nonlinear stiffness characteristic of the logarithmic spiral springs. The control is determined on estimates generated by the Extended Kalman Filter. Improve of ride comfort is verified by comparing simulation results, under the same driving conditions, of controlled and passive vehicle suspension systems.

  11. Design and Optimization of Intelligent Service Robot Suspension System Using Dynamic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seong Hoon; Park, Tae Won; Lee, Soo Ho; Jung, Sung Pil; Jun, Kab Jin; Yoon, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, an intelligent service robot is being developed for use in guiding and providing information to visitors about the building at public institutions. The intelligent robot has a sensor at the bottom to recognize its location. Four wheels, which are arranged in the form of a lozenge, support the robot. This robot cannot be operated on uneven ground because its driving parts are attached to its main body that contains the important internal components. Continuous impact with the ground can change the precise positions of the components and weaken the connection between each structural part. In this paper, the design of the suspension system for such a robot is described. The dynamic model of the robot is created, and the driving characteristics of the robot with the designed suspension system are simulated. Additionally, the suspension system is optimized to reduce the impact for the robot components

  12. Magnetic suspension and pointing system. [on a carrier vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. W.; Groom, N. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for providing accurate pointing of instruments on a carrier vehicle and for providing isolation of the instruments from the vehicle's motion disturbances is presented. The apparatus includes two assemblies, with connecting interfaces, each assembly having a separate function. The first assembly is attached to the carrier vehicle and consists of an azimuth gimbal and an elevation gimbal which provide coarse pointing of the instruments by allowing two rotations of the instruments relative to the carrier vehicle. The second or vernier pointing assembly is made up of magnetic suspension and fine pointing actuators, roll motor segments, and an instrument mounting plate around which a continuous annular rim is attached which provides appropriate magnetic circuits for the actuators and the roll motor segments. The vernier pointing assembly provides six degree-of-freedom isolation from carrier motion disturbances.

  13. Multi-Objective Sliding Mode Control on Vehicle Cornering Stability with Variable Gear Ratio Actuator-Based Active Front Steering Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinbo; Wong, Pak Kin; Zhao, Jing; Xie, Zhengchao

    2016-01-01

    Active front steering (AFS) is an emerging technology to improve the vehicle cornering stability by introducing an additional small steering angle to the driver’s input. This paper proposes an AFS system with a variable gear ratio steering (VGRS) actuator which is controlled by using the sliding mode control (SMC) strategy to improve the cornering stability of vehicles. In the design of an AFS system, different sensors are considered to measure the vehicle state, and the mechanism of the AFS system is also modelled in detail. Moreover, in order to improve the cornering stability of vehicles, two dependent objectives, namely sideslip angle and yaw rate, are considered together in the design of SMC strategy. By evaluating the cornering performance, Sine with Dwell and accident avoidance tests are conducted, and the simulation results indicate that the proposed SMC strategy is capable of improving the cornering stability of vehicles in practice. PMID:28036037

  14. Improvement of motor inertia influence of electric power steering; Dendoshiki power steering no motor kansei no eikyo to hosho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, S; Sakamoto, K; Hanamoto, Y [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Noritsugu, T [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Motor inertia of electric power steering affects not only steering characteristics but vehicle dynamics. We have investigated the influence of motor inertia and proposed a feedback strategy to compensate it. Weight of the test vehicle is 1100Kg and the steering system is pinion type electric power steering. By using simulation model and vehicle test, we have realized natural steering maneuvering and stable vehicle dynamics. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  15. 76 FR 41855 - Columbus Geographic Systems (GIS) Ltd.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Columbus Geographic Systems (GIS) Ltd.; Order of Suspension of Trading July 13, 2011. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that... Systems (GIS) Ltd. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended June 30, 2008. The...

  16. Design aspects of an active electromagnetic suspension system for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gysen, B.L.J.; Janssen, J.L.G.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design aspects of an active electromagnet suspension system for automotive applications which combines a brushless tubular permanent magnet actuator (TPMA) with a passive spring. This system provides for additional stability and safety by performing active roll and

  17. Direct-drive electromagnetic active suspension system with integrated eddy current damping for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gysen, B.L.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.

    2011-01-01

    A direct-drive electromagnetic active suspension system is considered which consists of a tubular permanent magnet actuator in parallel with a coil spring. This system has the ability of improving the ride comfort while maintaining optimum handling and stability. Since safety is of major concern,

  18. Design aspects of an active electromagnetic suspension system for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gysen, B.L.J.; Janssen, J.L.G.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design aspects of an active electromagnet suspension system for automotive applications which combines a brushless tubular permanent-magnet actuator with a passive spring. This system provides for additional stability and safety by performing active roll and pitch

  19. Nonlinear Robust Observer-Based Fault Detection for Networked Suspension Control System of Maglev Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fault detection approach based on nonlinear robust observer is designed for the networked suspension control system of Maglev train with random induced time delay. First, considering random bounded time-delay and external disturbance, the nonlinear model of the networked suspension control system is established. Then, a nonlinear robust observer is designed using the input of the suspension gap. And the estimate error is proved to be bounded with arbitrary precision by adopting an appropriate parameter. When sensor faults happen, the residual between the real states and the observer outputs indicates which kind of sensor failures occurs. Finally, simulation results using the actual parameters of CMS-04 maglev train indicate that the proposed method is effective for maglev train.

  20. A new pneumatic suspension system with independent stiffness and ride height tuning capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhihong; Khajepour, Amir; Cao, Dongpu; Ebrahimi, Babak; Guo, Konghui

    2012-12-01

    This paper introduces a new pneumatic spring for vehicle suspension systems, allowing independent tuning of stiffness and ride height according to different vehicle operating conditions and driver preferences. The proposed pneumatic spring comprises a double-acting pneumatic cylinder, two accumulators and a tuning subsystem. This paper presents a detailed description of the pneumatic spring and its working principle. The mathematical model is established based on principles of thermo and fluid dynamics. An experimental setup has been designed and fabricated for testing and evaluating the proposed pneumatic spring. The analytical and experimental results confirm the capability of the new pneumatic spring system for independent tuning of stiffness and ride height. The mathematical model is verified and the capabilities of the pneumatic spring are further proved. It is concluded that this new pneumatic spring provides a more flexible suspension design alternative for meeting various conflicting suspension requirements for ride comfort and performance.

  1. Decoupling Control Design for the Module Suspension Control System in Maglev Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An engineering oriented decoupling control method for the module suspension system is proposed to solve the coupling issues of the two levitation units of the module in magnetic levitation (maglev train. According to the format of the system transfer matrix, a modified adjoint transfer matrix based decoupler is designed. Then, a compensated controller is obtained in the light of a desired close loop system performance. Optimization between the performance index and robustness index is also carried out to determine the controller parameters. However, due to the high orders and complexity of the obtained resultant controller, model reduction method is adopted to get a simplified controller with PID structure. Considering the modeling errors of the module suspension system as the uncertainties, experiments have been performed to obtain the weighting function of the system uncertainties. By using this, the robust stability of the decoupled module suspension control system is checked. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed decoupling design method is validated by simulations and physical experiments. The results illustrate that the presented decoupling design can result in a satisfactory decoupling and better dynamic performance, especially promoting the reliability of the suspension control system in practical engineering application.

  2. Development of the Nissan hydraulic active suspension. Nissan yuatsu active suspension no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawarasaki, y.; Fukunaga, Y.; Hasegawa, S.; Okuyama, Y.; Omura, I.; Takahashi, K.; Abe, S.; Tsuruta, E. (Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-12-25

    A hydraulic active suspension system, Nissan original product, was developed and mass produced for the first time in the world. The system incorporates a sufficient power source, a high accuracy sensor and a high response device for continuous and intended vehicle control and at the same time delivers high levels of ride comfort and driving performance. The suspension system has four innovative features: skyhook damping, active roll and pitching control, a frequency-dependent damping mechanism, and active steering characteristics control. Under all road and operating conditions, the system actively suppresses vehicle attitude changes and unnecessary movement, and also gently absorbs inputs from the road. This epoch-making system provides a dramatic improvement in vehicle performance, and has been adopted in the Infiniti Q45 luxury sedan. 2 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Design and experiment study of a semi-active energy-regenerative suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Dehua; Chen, Long; Wang, Ruochen; Jiang, Haobin; Shen, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    A new kind of semi-active energy-regenerative suspension system is proposed to recover suspension vibration energy, as well as to reduce the suspension cost and demands for the motor-rated capacity. The system consists of an energy-regenerative damper and a DC-DC converter-based energy-regenerative circuit. The energy-regenerative damper is composed of an electromagnetic linear motor and an adjustable shock absorber with three regulating levels. The linear motor just works as the generator to harvest the suspension vibration energy. The circuit can be used to improve the system’s energy-regenerative performance and to continuously regulate the motor’s electromagnetic damping force. Therefore, although the motor works as a generator and damps the isolation without an external power source, the motor damping force is controllable. The damping characteristics of the system are studied based on a two degrees of freedom vehicle vibration model. By further analyzing the circuit operation characteristics under different working modes, the double-loop controller is designed to track the desired damping force. The external-loop is a fuzzy controller that offers the desired equivalent damping. The inner-loop controller, on one hand, is used to generate the pulse number and the frequency to control the angle and the rotational speed of the step motor; on the other hand, the inner-loop is used to offer the duty cycle of the energy-regenerative circuit. Simulations and experiments are conducted to validate such a new suspension system. The results show that the semi-active energy-regenerative suspension can improve vehicle ride comfort with the controllable damping characteristics of the linear motor. Meanwhile, it also ensures energy regeneration. (paper)

  4. Driver behavior following an automatic steering intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Nicola; Griesche, Stefan; Schieben, Anna; Hesse, Tobias; Baumann, Martin

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated driver behavior toward an automatic steering intervention of a collision mitigation system. Forty participants were tested in a driving simulator and confronted with an inevitable collision. They performed a naïve drive and afterwards a repeated exposure in which they were told to hold the steering wheel loosely. In a third drive they experienced a false alarm situation. Data on driving behavior, i.e. steering and braking behavior as well as subjective data was assessed in the scenarios. Results showed that most participants held on to the steering wheel strongly or counter-steered during the system intervention during the first encounter. Moreover, subjective data collected after the first drive showed that the majority of drivers was not aware of the system intervention. Data from the repeated drive in which participants were instructed to hold the steering wheel loosely, led to significantly more participants holding the steering wheel loosely and thus complying with the instruction. This study seems to imply that without knowledge and information of the system about an upcoming intervention, the most prevalent driving behavior is a strong reaction with the steering wheel similar to an automatic steering reflex which decreases the system's effectiveness. Results of the second drive show some potential for countermeasures, such as informing drivers shortly before a system intervention in order to prevent inhibiting reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of Driving Safety Criteria Based on National Regulations for the Suspension Systems of NGVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Mauricio Martinod

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work analyses the technical evaluation process of the suspension system for vehicles that have been adapted to natural-gas-fuelled engines from power light-duty gasoline, and diesel vehicles; this evaluation is done through a mechanical review established by national regulations. The development of this analysis is focused on establishing the relationship between the natural-gas-fuelled equipment and the dynamic effect caused by the extra-weight, according to two measuring criteria that determine the safety and driving comfort, these are: (i tire-road adhesion index; and (ii tire excitation phase angle. The paper also proposes new elements that can be added to the current national regulations and that are currently applied to assess the suspension of natural gas vehicles, recorded using a test standard benchmark for the evaluation of the suspension.

  6. Steer-by-wire innovations and demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Zuurbier, J.; Verschuren, R.M.A.F.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Willemsen, D.M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Arguments for 'by-wire' systems include production costs, packaging and traffic safety. Innovations concern both product and development process e.g. combined virtual engineering and Hardware-in-the-loop testing. Three Steer-by-wire systems are discussed: a steering system simulator used as a

  7. Wheeled Vehicle Drive Lines, Axles, and Suspension Systems. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    This course is one of several subcourses that make up the entire Army correspondence course on wheeled vehicle maintenance. The subcourse is designed to provide the student with information about the operation, malfunction diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of wheeled vehicle drive lines, axles, and suspension systems. It provides the basic…

  8. Active and semi-active control of suspension systems for commercial vehicles based on preview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, J.J.; van Heck, J.G.A.M.; Muijderman, J.H.E.A.; Veldpaus, F.E.

    1997-01-01

    The performance of a vehicle axle/wheel suspension system is primarily determined by the comfort of the occupants, the required working space, the handling properties and, for commercial vehicles in particular, the dynamic tire forces and the load on the chassis components and on the cargo. General

  9. Should drivers be operating within an automation-free bandwidth? Evaluating haptic steering support systems with different levels of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermeijer, Sebastiaan M; Abbink, David A; de Winter, Joost C F

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare continuous versus bandwidth haptic steering guidance in terms of lane-keeping behavior, aftereffects, and satisfaction. An important human factors question is whether operators should be supported continuously or only when tolerance limits are exceeded. We aimed to clarify this issue for haptic steering guidance by investigating costs and benefits of both approaches in a driving simulator. Thirty-two participants drove five trials, each with a different level of haptic support: no guidance (Manual); guidance outside a 0.5-m bandwidth (Band1); a hysteresis version of Band1, which guided back to the lane center once triggered (Band2); continuous guidance (Cont); and Cont with double feedback gain (ContS). Participants performed a reaction time task while driving. Toward the end of each trial, the guidance was unexpectedly disabled to investigate aftereffects. All four guidance systems prevented large lateral errors (>0.7 m). Cont and especially ContS yielded smaller lateral errors and higher time to line crossing than Manual, Band1, and Band2. Cont and ContS yielded short-lasting aftereffects, whereas Band1 and Band2 did not. Cont yielded higher self-reported satisfaction and faster reaction times than Band1. Continuous and bandwidth guidance both prevent large driver errors. Continuous guidance yields improved performance and satisfaction over bandwidth guidance at the cost of aftereffects and variability in driver torque (indicating human-automation conflicts). The presented results are useful for designers of haptic guidance systems and support critical thinking about the costs and benefits of automation support systems.

  10. Static load simulation of steering knuckle for a formula student race car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputro, Bagus Aulia; Ubaidillah, Triono, Dicky Agus; Pratama, Dzaky Roja; Cahyono, Sukmaji Indro; Imaduddin, Fitrian

    2018-02-01

    This research aims to determine the stress distribution which occurs on the steering knuckle and to define its safety factor number. Steering knuckle is the most critical part of a car's steering system. Steering knuckle supports the tie rod, brake caliper, and the wheels to provide stability. Steering knuckle withstands the load which given on the front wheels and functions as the wheel's axis. Balljoint and king support the rotation of the suspension arm. When the car is in idle position, knuckle hold the weight of the car, it gets braking force when it's braking and cornering. Knuckle is designed to have the strength that could withstand load and to have a good safety factor value. Knuckle is designed using Fusion software then simulated using Fusion simulation software with a static load, moment braking force, and cornering force as the loads in this simulation. The simulation works in ideal condition. The result of this simulation is satisfying. This simulation produces a maximum displacement of 0.01281mm, the maximum shear stress is 3.707 MPa on the stub hole, and the safety factor is 5.24. The material used for this product is mild steel AISI 1018.

  11. An efficient recursive least square-based condition monitoring approach for a rail vehicle suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. Y.; Alfi, S.; Bruni, S.

    2016-06-01

    A model-based condition monitoring strategy for the railway vehicle suspension is proposed in this paper. This approach is based on recursive least square (RLS) algorithm focusing on the deterministic 'input-output' model. RLS has Kalman filtering feature and is able to identify the unknown parameters from a noisy dynamic system by memorising the correlation properties of variables. The identification of suspension parameter is achieved by machine learning of the relationship between excitation and response in a vehicle dynamic system. A fault detection method for the vertical primary suspension is illustrated as an instance of this condition monitoring scheme. Simulation results from the rail vehicle dynamics software 'ADTreS' are utilised as 'virtual measurements' considering a trailer car of Italian ETR500 high-speed train. The field test data from an E464 locomotive are also employed to validate the feasibility of this strategy for the real application. Results of the parameter identification performed indicate that estimated suspension parameters are consistent or approximate with the reference values. These results provide the supporting evidence that this fault diagnosis technique is capable of paving the way for the future vehicle condition monitoring system.

  12. Multiobjective Robust Design of the Double Wishbone Suspension System Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfu Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the suspension system is one of the most important factors in the vehicle design. For the double wishbone suspension system, the conventional deterministic optimization does not consider any deviations of design parameters, so design sensitivity analysis and robust optimization design are proposed. In this study, the design parameters of the robust optimization are the positions of the key points, and the random factors are the uncertainties in manufacturing. A simplified model of the double wishbone suspension is established by software ADAMS. The sensitivity analysis is utilized to determine main design variables. Then, the simulation experiment is arranged and the Latin hypercube design is adopted to find the initial points. The Kriging model is employed for fitting the mean and variance of the quality characteristics according to the simulation results. Further, a particle swarm optimization method based on simple PSO is applied and the tradeoff between the mean and deviation of performance is made to solve the robust optimization problem of the double wishbone suspension system.

  13. Multiobjective Robust Design of the Double Wishbone Suspension System Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuqun

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the suspension system is one of the most important factors in the vehicle design. For the double wishbone suspension system, the conventional deterministic optimization does not consider any deviations of design parameters, so design sensitivity analysis and robust optimization design are proposed. In this study, the design parameters of the robust optimization are the positions of the key points, and the random factors are the uncertainties in manufacturing. A simplified model of the double wishbone suspension is established by software ADAMS. The sensitivity analysis is utilized to determine main design variables. Then, the simulation experiment is arranged and the Latin hypercube design is adopted to find the initial points. The Kriging model is employed for fitting the mean and variance of the quality characteristics according to the simulation results. Further, a particle swarm optimization method based on simple PSO is applied and the tradeoff between the mean and deviation of performance is made to solve the robust optimization problem of the double wishbone suspension system. PMID:24683334

  14. Multiobjective robust design of the double wishbone suspension system based on particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xianfu; Lin, Yuqun

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the suspension system is one of the most important factors in the vehicle design. For the double wishbone suspension system, the conventional deterministic optimization does not consider any deviations of design parameters, so design sensitivity analysis and robust optimization design are proposed. In this study, the design parameters of the robust optimization are the positions of the key points, and the random factors are the uncertainties in manufacturing. A simplified model of the double wishbone suspension is established by software ADAMS. The sensitivity analysis is utilized to determine main design variables. Then, the simulation experiment is arranged and the Latin hypercube design is adopted to find the initial points. The Kriging model is employed for fitting the mean and variance of the quality characteristics according to the simulation results. Further, a particle swarm optimization method based on simple PSO is applied and the tradeoff between the mean and deviation of performance is made to solve the robust optimization problem of the double wishbone suspension system.

  15. Effects of grazing system on production and parasitism of dairy breed heifers and steers grazing wet marginal grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Thamsborg, S.M.; Andersen, Refsgaard

    2006-01-01

    Production and endoparasitism of first grazing season Holstein heifers and steers were investigated over two grazing seasons. Studies were conducted on low-lying peaty soil. In year 2000, 40 animals were included in a 2x2 factorial, replicated experiment with two sexes (steers v. heifers) and two...

  16. Simulation and experimental study of a remote steering system for ECRH/ECCD antenna beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirkov, A.V.; Denisov, G.G.; Kasparek, W.; Wagner, D.; Gantenbein, G.; Haug, M.; Hollmann, F.

    2001-01-01

    The present design for the ITER electron cyclotron wave launcher is based on individual circular corrugated waveguides running up to the vacuum vessel. At each waveguide end near to the plasma, a pair of movable mitre bends provides steering of the beam between 0 deg. and 40 deg. An alternative to this concept could be corrugated square or rectangular waveguides. These waveguides show imaging characteristics, which can be used for remote scanning of the beam, thus avoiding movable parts near to the plasma. To obtain a safe data base for the realisation of this concept, theoretical and experimental studies were carried out. The calculations show that a scanning range of more than ±10 deg. is possible with negligible loss into side lobes. Furthermore, concepts to improve the scanning range can be derived from the calculations. Measurements of amplitude and phase distribution in the output plane of the waveguide and in the far-field show very good agreement with theory for a beam polarisation perpendicular to the scanning direction. For beams polarised parallel to the scanning direction, where the propagation in the waveguide is determined mainly by the grooved walls, a reduced beam quality is measured, which can be attributed to imperfect machining of the grooves. The results show also, that the imaging characteristics are in principle maintained after the introduction of a pair of mitre bends with the bending plane perpendicular to the scanning plane. Finally, the application to ITER is discussed and concepts to improve the scanning range are given

  17. Numerical study on cavitation inception in the rotary valve of the hydraulic power steering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Gwang Nyeon; Cho, Myung Hwan; Yoo, Jung Yul; Park, Sun Hong

    2009-01-01

    The rotary valve directs the power steering oil to either side of a power piston and relieves the driver of the effort to turn the wheel, when a driver begins to operate the vehicle. It is well known that the hiss noise occurring at that moment is caused mainly by cavitation of the oil inside the rotary valve. In this paper, two types of rotary valve (round and straight type) have been analyzed numerically using three-dimensional cavitation model embedded in the commercial code, FLUENT v6.2 and the results have been compared with the measured hiss noise level in a semi-anechoic chamber. The volume of the oil vapor generated from cavitation was larger in Round type valve which has a convex shape of the sleeve grooves than in Straight type valve which has a rectangular shape of the sleeve grooves. The hiss noise level of Round type valve was higher than that of Straight type valve as well. These results mean that the hiss noise can be reduced by the change of the shape of the grooves.

  18. FxLMS Method for Suppressing In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motor Vertical Force Based on Vehicle Active Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration of SRM obtains less attention for in-wheel motor applications according to the present research works. In this paper, the vertical component of SRM unbalanced radial force, which is named as SRM vertical force, is taken into account in suspension performance for in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles (IWM-EV. The analysis results suggest that SRM vertical force has a great effect on suspension performance. The direct cause for this phenomenon is that SRM vertical force is directly exerted on the wheel, which will result in great variation in tyre dynamic load and the tyre will easily jump off the ground. Furthermore, the frequency of SRM vertical force is broad which covers the suspension resonance frequencies. So it is easy to arouse suspension resonance and greatly damage suspension performance. Aiming at the new problem, FxLMS (filtered-X least mean square controller is proposed to improve suspension performance. The FxLMS controller is based on active suspension system which can generate the controllable force to suppress the vibration caused by SRM vertical force. The conclusion shows that it is effective to take advantage of active suspensions to reduce the effect of SRM vertical force on suspension performance.

  19. Modal and Dynamic Analysis of a Vehicle with Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangji Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel kinetic dynamic suspension (KDS system is presented for the cooperative control of the roll and warp motion modes of off-road vehicles. The proposed KDS system consists of two hydraulic cylinders acting on the antiroll bars. Hence, the antiroll bars are not completely replaced by the hydraulic system, but both systems are installed. In this paper, the vibration analysis in terms of natural frequencies of different motion modes in frequency domain for an off-road vehicle equipped with different configurable suspension systems is studied by using the modal analysis method. The dynamic responses of the vehicle with different configurable suspension systems are investigated under different road excitations and maneuvers. The results of the modal and dynamic analysis prove that the KDS system can reduce the roll and articulation motions of the off-road vehicle without adding extra bounce stiffness and deteriorating the ride comfort. Furthermore, the roll stiffness is increased and the warp stiffness is decreased by the KDS system, which could significantly enhance handing performance and off-road capability.

  20. An Ultra-low Frequency Modal Testing Suspension System for High Precision Air Pressure Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoling YUAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As a resolution for air pressure control challenges in ultra-low frequency modal testing suspension systems, an incremental PID control algorithm with dead band is applied to achieve high-precision pressure control. We also develop a set of independent hardware and software systems for high-precision pressure control solutions. Taking control system versatility, scalability, reliability, and other aspects into considerations, a two-level communication employing Ethernet and CAN bus, is adopted to complete such tasks as data exchange between the IPC, the main board and the control board ,and the pressure control. Furthermore, we build a single set of ultra-low frequency modal testing suspension system and complete pressure control experiments, which achieve the desired results and thus confirm that the high-precision pressure control subsystem is reasonable and reliable.

  1. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as... personnel hazards during normal or heavy weather operation. (b) A suitable hand tiller may be acceptable as...

  2. Preliminary investigations of design philosophies and features applicable to large magnetic suspension and balance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcher, C. P.; Fortescue, P. W.; Allcock, G. A.; Goodyer, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The technology which is required to allow the principles of magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBS) to be applied to the high Reynolds number transonic testing of aircraft models is examined. A test facility is presented as comprising a pressurized transonic cryogenic wind tunnel, with the MSBS providing full six degree of freedom control. The electro-magnets which are superconducting and fed from quiet, bipolar power supplies are examined. A model control system having some self adaptive characteristics is discussed.

  3. Microbial spoilage, instability risk of antacid suspension in the presence of commonly used preservative system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jamshaid Ali; Khan, Imran Ullah; Iqbal, Zafar; Nasir, Fazli; Muhammad, Salar; Hannan, Peer Abdul; Ullah, Irfan

    2015-09-01

    Manifestation of microbial spoilage of any product by bacteria and to assess the effectiveness of the anti-microbial preservatives (parabens) used for the prevention and stability purpose. The aim of the present work is to study the effectiveness of preservatives used in the antacid suspensions and to analyze the effect of microbial growth on the quality of respective antacid suspensions. Samples of various antacid suspensions were randomly collected from local market and Government hospital pharmacies. Three different antacid formulations were prepared in the laboratory. All the formulations were preliminarily evaluated on the basis of organoleptic characteristics, pH, viscosity and assay. Efficacy of the preservative system in suspension formulation was determined by inoculating the samples in its final container, with specific strains of bacteria i.e. Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, taking samples from the inoculated preparation at specified intervals of time i.e. 0 time, 07 days, 14 days and 28 days, growing it on nutrient agar medium and colony forming units (CFUs) were scored by plate count. At the same time the samples were also subjected to qualitative and quantitative testing. The decrease in CFU and alteration in assay, pH and viscosity was observed in all the formulations except formulation M2 and F3 that showed stability throughout the study period.

  4. Motion control of a large gap magnetic suspension system for microrobotic manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, David; Khamesee, Mir Behrad [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2007-06-07

    Magnetic suspension systems have shown a great deal of promise in the field of microrobotics. This paper discusses the performance of a new large gap magnetic suspension system developed by the researchers. The magnetic drive unit consists of six electromagnets attached to a soft iron pole piece and yoke. Levitation of an 11.19 g microrobot prototype is demonstrated for step, ramp and periodic input trajectories using PID control. The working envelope of the microrobot is 30 x 22 x 20 mm{sup 3}, with an RMS error on the order of 18 {mu}m in the vertical direction and 8 {mu}m in the horizontal direction. It is demonstrated that the levitated microrobot is able to track the desired trajectory precisely and that the system has potential application for micromanipulation.

  5. Motion control of a large gap magnetic suspension system for microrobotic manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, David; Khamesee, Mir Behrad

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic suspension systems have shown a great deal of promise in the field of microrobotics. This paper discusses the performance of a new large gap magnetic suspension system developed by the researchers. The magnetic drive unit consists of six electromagnets attached to a soft iron pole piece and yoke. Levitation of an 11.19 g microrobot prototype is demonstrated for step, ramp and periodic input trajectories using PID control. The working envelope of the microrobot is 30 x 22 x 20 mm 3 , with an RMS error on the order of 18 μm in the vertical direction and 8 μm in the horizontal direction. It is demonstrated that the levitated microrobot is able to track the desired trajectory precisely and that the system has potential application for micromanipulation

  6. Adaptive Control of Electromagnetic Suspension System by HOPF Bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aming Hao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available EMS-type maglev system is essentially nonlinear and unstable. It is complicated to design a stable controller for maglev system which is under large-scale disturbance and parameter variance. Theory analysis expresses that this phenomenon corresponds to a HOPF bifurcation in mathematical model. An adaptive control law which adjusts the PID control parameters is given in this paper according to HOPF bifurcation theory. Through identification of the levitated mass, the controller adjusts the feedback coefficient to make the system far from the HOPF bifurcation point and maintain the stability of the maglev system. Simulation result indicates that adjusting proportion gain parameter using this method can extend the state stability range of maglev system and avoid the self-excited vibration efficiently.

  7. Design of a New Integrated Structure of the Active Suspension System and Emergency Lane Change Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-bo; Liu, Hai-mei; Zhang, Lan-chun; Bei, Shao-yi

    2017-09-01

    An integrated structure of the active suspension system was proposed in order to solve the problem of the individual control of the height of the body or the adjustable damping of the active suspension system of the electric vehicle, which improve the vibration reduction performance of the vehicle. The air bag was used to replace the traditional spiral spring, and the traditional shock absorber was replaced by the damping adjustable shock absorber, and the control module received the body acceleration sensor and the horizontal height sensor signal. The system controlled adjustable damping coefficient of shock absorber through the height of the car body the output of the air pump relay and the height control valve and the output of the electromagnetic valve of the adjustable damping shock absorber, and the emergency lane change test was carried out under different modes of speed of 60km/h. The experimental results indicated that the damping value was greater, average roll angle, yaw angle and average vehicle lateral acceleration were small when vehicle body was in the state of emergency lane change, which verified the feasibility of the integrated control strategy and structure design of the active suspension system. The research has important theoretical research value and engineering application prospect for designing and controlling strategy of vehicle chassis integrated control system.

  8. Hysteresis-induced bifurcation and chaos in a magneto-rheological suspension system under external excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hailong; Zhang Ning; Wang Enrong; Min Fuhong

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-rheological damper (MRD) is a promising device used in vehicle semi-active suspension systems, for its continuous adjustable damping output. However, the innate nonlinear hysteresis characteristic of MRD may cause the nonlinear behaviors. In this work, a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) MR suspension system was established first, by employing the modified Bouc–Wen force–velocity (F–v) hysteretic model. The nonlinear dynamic response of the system was investigated under the external excitation of single-frequency harmonic and bandwidth-limited stochastic road surface. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) was used to detect the chaotic area of the frequency and amplitude of harmonic excitation, and the bifurcation diagrams, time histories, phase portraits, and power spectrum density (PSD) diagrams were used to reveal the dynamic evolution process in detail. Moreover, the LLE and Kolmogorov entropy (K entropy) were used to identify whether the system response was random or chaotic under stochastic road surface. The results demonstrated that the complex dynamical behaviors occur under different external excitation conditions. The oscillating mechanism of alternating periodic oscillations, quasi-periodic oscillations, and chaotic oscillations was observed in detail. The chaotic regions revealed that chaotic motions may appear in conditions of mid-low frequency and large amplitude, as well as small amplitude and all frequency. The obtained parameter regions where the chaotic motions may appear are useful for design of structural parameters of the vibration isolation, and the optimization of control strategy for MR suspension system. (paper)

  9. Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Calatayud, Sebastien Borreani, Juan C. Colado, Fernando F Martín, Michael E. Rogers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29 performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC. Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p < 0.001. Individually, the suspended push-up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation.

  10. Discrete-time sliding mode control for MR vehicle suspension system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, J W; Choi, S B [Smart Structures and Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Wereley, N M [Smart Structures Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)], E-mail: seungbok@inha.ac.kr

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents control performance of a full-vehicle suspension system featuring magnetorheological (MR) dampers via a discrete-time sliding mode control algorithm (DSMC). A cylindrical MR damper is designed by incorporating Bingham model of the MR fluid and the field-dependent damping characteristics of the MR damper are evaluated. A full-vehicle suspension model installed with independent four MR dampers is constructed and the governing equations which include vertical, pitch and roll motion are derived. A discrete-time control model is established with considering system uncertainties and a discrete-time sliding mode controller which has inherent robustness to model uncertainty and external disturbance is formulated. Vibration control performances under bump excitation are evaluated and presented.

  11. Discrete-time sliding mode control for MR vehicle suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, J W; Choi, S B; Wereley, N M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents control performance of a full-vehicle suspension system featuring magnetorheological (MR) dampers via a discrete-time sliding mode control algorithm (DSMC). A cylindrical MR damper is designed by incorporating Bingham model of the MR fluid and the field-dependent damping characteristics of the MR damper are evaluated. A full-vehicle suspension model installed with independent four MR dampers is constructed and the governing equations which include vertical, pitch and roll motion are derived. A discrete-time control model is established with considering system uncertainties and a discrete-time sliding mode controller which has inherent robustness to model uncertainty and external disturbance is formulated. Vibration control performances under bump excitation are evaluated and presented.

  12. Global attractors for the coupled suspension bridge system with temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dell'Oro, Filippo; Giorgi, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 4 (2016), s. 864-875 ISSN 0170-4214 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : absorbing set * coupled bridge system * global attractor Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mma.3526/abstract

  13. DESIGN AN INTELLIGENT CONTROLLER FOR FULL VEHICLE NONLINEAR ACTIVE SUSPENSION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Aldair, A. A.; Wang, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of designed the controller for a vehicle suspension system is to reduce the discomfort sensed by passengers which arises from road roughness and to increase the ride handling associated with the pitching and rolling movements. This necessitates a very fast and accurate controller to meet as much control objectives, as possible. Therefore, this paper deals with an artificial intelligence Neuro-Fuzzy (NF) technique to design a robust controller to meet the control objectives....

  14. DC electrostatic gyro suspension system for the Gravity Probe B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Huei

    1994-12-01

    The Gravity Probe B experiment is a satellite-based experiment primarily designed to test two aspects of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity by observing the spin axis drift of near-perfect gyroscopes in a 650-km circular polar orbit. The goal of this experiment is to measure the drift angles to an accuracy of 0.3 milli-arcsec after one year in orbit. As a result, electrostatically suspended free-spinning gyroscopes operating at a very low temperature became the final choice for their ultra-low Newtonian torque-induced drift rate. The Conventional AC current-driven suspension system faces two fundamental difficulties for ground gyro testing. Field emission causes rotor charging and arcing with an imperfect electrode or rotor surfaces because the electric field intensity needed to support a solid rotor in the 1-g field is more than 107 V/m. The system not only becomes unstable at a high rotor charge, which can be more than 500 volts, but may also lose control in case of arcing. Both the high voltage AC suspension signal and the high frequency (1 MHz) signal for rotor position sensing interfere with the superconducting SQUID magnetometer for spin axis readout through inductive coupling. These problems were resolved by using DC voltage to generate a suspension force and a low frequency position sensor. In addition to the Input/Output linearization algorithm developed to remove the system nonlinearity for global stability and dynamic performance, we also minimized the electric field intensity to reduce rotor charging. Experimental results verified the desired global stability and satisfactory dynamic performance. The problem of rotor charging is virtually eliminated. More importantly, the DC system is compatible with the SQUID readout system in the Science Mission configuration. Consequently, experiments in low magnetic field at a sub-micro-gauss level for SQUID design verification and trapped flux distribution study were finally realizable in ground environment

  15. Estimation of Road Loads and Vibration Transmissibility of Torsion Bar Suspension System in a Tracked Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagneza, G. P. S.; Chandramohan, Sujatha

    2018-05-01

    Designing the suspension system of a tracked combat vehicle (CV) is really challenging as it has to satisfy conflicting requirements of good ride comfort, vehicle handling and stability characteristics. Many studies in this field have been reported in literature and it has been found that torsion bars satisfy the designer's conflicting requirements of good ride and handling and thus have reserved a place for themselves as the most widely used suspension system for military track vehicles. Therefore, it is imperative to evaluate the effectiveness of the torsion bar under dynamic conditions of undulating terrain and validating the same by correlating it with computer simulation results. Thus in the present work, the dynamic simulation of a 2N + 4 degrees of freedom (DOF) mathematical model has been carried out using MATLAB Simulink and the vibration levels were also measured experimentally on a 12 wheel stationed high mobility military tracked infantry combat vehicle (ICV BMP-II) traversing different terrain, that is, Aberdeen proving ground (APG) and Sinusoidal, at a constant vehicle speed. The dynamic force transmitted to the hull CG through the 12 torsion bar suspension systems was computed to be around 26,700 N and found to match the measured values. The vibration isolation of the torsion bar in bounce was found to be effective, with a transmissibility from the road wheel to the hull of about 0.6.

  16. Final Report: Model interacting particle systems for simulation and macroscopic description of particulate suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Mucha

    2007-08-30

    Suspensions of solid particles in liquids appear in numerous applications, from environmental settings like river silt, to industrial systems of solids transport and water treatment, and biological flows such as blood flow. Despite their importance, much remains unexplained about these complicated systems. Mucha's research aims to improve understanding of basic properties of suspensions through a program of simulating model interacting particle systems with critical evaluation of proposed continuum equations, in close collaboration with experimentalists. Natural to this approach, the original proposal centered around collaboration with studies already conducted in various experimental groups. However, as was detailed in the 2004 progress report, following the first year of this award, a number of the questions from the original proposal were necessarily redirected towards other specific goals because of changes in the research programs of the proposed experimental collaborators. Nevertheless, the modified project goals and the results that followed from those goals maintain close alignment with the main themes of the original proposal, improving efficient simulation and macroscopic modeling of sedimenting and colloidal suspensions. In particular, the main investigations covered under this award have included: (1) Sedimentation instabilities, including the sedimentation analogue of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (for heavy, particle-laden fluid over lighter, clear fluid). (2) Ageing dynamics of colloidal suspensions at concentrations above the glass transition, using simplified interactions. (3) Stochastic reconstruction of velocity-field dependence for particle image velocimetry (PIV). (4) Stochastic modeling of the near-wall bias in 'nano-PIV'. (5) Distributed Lagrange multiplier simulation of the 'internal splash' of a particle falling through a stable stratified interface. (6) Fundamental study of velocity fluctuations in sedimentation

  17. Effect on the vibration of the suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dahil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the damping effect of shock absorbs in vehicles, different vehicles acceleration values were measured while they were passing over speed bumps at different speeds. The vehicles’ vibration magnitudes caused by road roughness were analyzed. In this study the measurements were conducted with two different vehicles, multiple drivers and at different speeds. The vibration valves were determined with a HVM 100 device, in different field conditions and at 20 - 40 and 60 km/h by transferring the results to the system. According to the results of statistical analysis damping effect of the shock absorbers in the vehicles changed in different speed ranges and field conditions and it was seen that driver’s performance was significantly affected due to the vibration.

  18. Effect of yearling steer sequence grazing of perennial and annual forages in an integrated crop and livestock system on grazing performance, delayed feedlot entry, finishing performance, carcass measurements, and systems economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentürklü, Songul; Landblom, Douglas G; Maddock, Robert; Petry, Tim; Wachenheim, Cheryl J; Paisley, Steve I

    2018-06-04

    In a 2-yr study, spring-born yearling steers (n = 144), previously grown to gain <0.454 kg·steer-1·d-1, following weaning in the fall, were stratified by BW and randomly assigned to three retained ownership rearing systems (three replications) in early May. Systems were 1) feedlot (FLT), 2) steers that grazed perennial crested wheatgrass (CWG) and native range (NR) before FLT entry (PST), and 3) steers that grazed perennial CWG and NR, and then field pea-barley (PBLY) mix and unharvested corn (UC) before FLT entry (ANN). The PST and ANN steers grazed 181 d before FLT entry. During grazing, ADG of ANN steers (1.01 ± SE kg/d) and PST steers (0.77 ± SE kg/d) did not differ (P = 0.31). But even though grazing cost per steer was greater (P = 0.002) for ANN vs. PST, grazing cost per kg of gain did not differ (P = 0.82). The ANN forage treatment improved LM area (P = 0.03) and percent i.m. fat (P = 0.001). The length of the finishing period was greatest (P < 0.001) for FLT (142 d), intermediate for PST (91 d), and least for ANN (66 d). Steer starting (P = 0.015) and ending finishing BW (P = 0.022) of ANN and PST were greater than FLT steers. Total FLT BW gain was greater for FLT steers (P = 0.017), but there were no treatment differences for ADG, (P = 0.16), DMI (P = 0.21), G: F (P = 0.82), and feed cost per kg of gain (P = 0.61). However, feed cost per steer was greatest for FLT ($578.30), least for ANN ($276.12), and intermediate for PST ($381.18) (P = 0.043). There was a tendency for FLT steer HCW to be less than ANN and PST, which did not differ (P = 0.076). There was no difference between treatments for LM area (P = 0.094), backfat depth (P = 0.28), marbling score (P = 0.18), USDA yield grade (P = 0.44), and quality grade (P = 0.47). Grazing steer net return ranged from an ANN system high of $9.09/steer to a FLT control system net loss of -$298 and a PST system that was slightly less than the ANN system (-$30.10). Ten-year (2003 to 2012) hedging and net return

  19. A multiobjective ? control strategy for energy harvesting in regenerative vehicle suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavola, Alessandro; Di Iorio, Fabio; Tedesco, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    A significant amount of energy induced by road unevenness and vehicle roll and pitch motions is usually dissipated by conventional shock-absorbers. In this paper, a novel active multiobjective ? control design methodology is proposed which explicitly includes, besides the usual control objectives on ride comfort, road handling and suspension stroke, the amount of energy to be harvested as an additional, though conflicting, control objective and allows the designer to directly trade-off among them depending on the application. An electromechanical regenerative suspension system is considered where the viscous damper is replaced by a linear electrical motor which is actively governed. It is shown that the proposed control law is able to achieve remarkable improvements on the amount of the harvested energy with respect to passive or semi-active control strategies while maintaining the other objectives at acceptable levels. Simulative studies undertaken via CarSim are also reported that confirm the potentiality and flexibility of the proposed control design strategy.

  20. Nonlinear Dynamics Analysis of the Semiactive Suspension System with Magneto-Rheological Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines dynamical behavior of a nonlinear oscillator which models a quarter-car forced by the road profile. The magneto-rheological (MR suspension system has been established, by employing the modified Bouc-Wen force-velocity (F-v model of magneto-rheological damper (MRD. The possibility of chaotic motions in MR suspension is discovered by employing the method of nonlinear stability analysis. With the bifurcation diagrams and corresponding Lyapunov exponent (LE spectrum diagrams detected through numerical calculation, we can observe the complex dynamical behaviors and oscillating mechanism of alternating periodic oscillations, quasiperiodic oscillations, and chaotic oscillations with different profiles of road excitation, as well as the dynamical evolutions to chaos through period-doubling bifurcations, saddle-node bifurcations, and reverse period-doubling bifurcations.

  1. Driver steering model for closed-loop steering function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolia, Pratiksh; Weiskircher, Thomas; Müller, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a two level preview driver steering control model for the use in numerical vehicle dynamics simulation is introduced. The proposed model is composed of cascaded control loops: The outer loop is the path following layer based on potential field framework. The inner loop tries to capture the driver's physical behaviour. The proposed driver model allows easy implementation of different driving situations to simulate a wide range of different driver types, moods and vehicle types. The expediency of the proposed driver model is shown with the help of developed driver steering assist (DSA) function integrated with a conventional series production (Electric Power steering System with rack assist servo unit) system. With the help of the DSA assist function, the driver is prevented from over saturating the front tyre forces and loss of stability and controllability during cornering. The simulation results show different driver reactions caused by the change in the parameters or properties of the proposed driver model if the DSA assist function is activated. Thus, the proposed driver model is useful for the advanced driver steering and vehicle stability assist function evaluation in the early stage of vehicle dynamics handling and stability evaluation.

  2. Analysis of Structural and Material Aspects of Selected Elements of a Hydropneumatic Suspension System in a Passenger Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konieczny Ł.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses results of analyses of design solutions and materials commonly used in gas springs for hydropneumatic suspension systems. The authors have discussed main advantages resulting from application of such a design solution in passenger car suspension systems. Fundamental correlations defining the parameters characterising a gas spring with constant gas mass have been referred to. Also materials used in the manufacture of selected gas spring elements have been described

  3. A study of a steering system algorithm for pleasure boats based on stability analysis of a human-machine system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Fujio; Toyama, Shigehiro; Ishiduki, Souta; Seta, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    Maritime accidents of small ships continue to increase in number. One of the major factors is poor manoeuvrability of the Manual Hydraulic Steering Mechanism (MHSM) in common use. The manoeuvrability can be improved by using the Electronic Control Steering Mechanism (ECSM). This paper conducts stability analyses of a pleasure boat controlled by human models in view of path following on a target course, in order to establish design guidelines for the ECSM. First, to analyse the stability region, the research derives the linear approximated model in a planar global coordinate system. Then, several human models are assumed to develop closed-loop human-machine controlled systems. These human models include basic proportional, derivative, integral and time-delay actions. The stability analysis simulations for those human-machine systems are carried out. The results show that the stability region tends to spread as a ship's velocity increases in the case of the basic proportional human model. The derivative action and time-delay action of human models are effective in spreading the stability region in their respective ranges of frontal gazing points.

  4. A study of a steering system algorithm for pleasure boats based on stability analysis of a human-machine system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Fujio; Toyama, Shigehiro; Ishiduki, Souta; Seta, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Maritime accidents of small ships continue to increase in number. One of the major factors is poor manoeuvrability of the Manual Hydraulic Steering Mechanism (MHSM) in common use. The manoeuvrability can be improved by using the Electronic Control Steering Mechanism (ECSM). This paper conducts stability analyses of a pleasure boat controlled by human models in view of path following on a target course, in order to establish design guidelines for the ECSM. First, to analyse the stability region, the research derives the linear approximated model in a planar global coordinate system. Then, several human models are assumed to develop closed-loop human-machine controlled systems. These human models include basic proportional, derivative, integral and time-delay actions. The stability analysis simulations for those human-machine systems are carried out. The results show that the stability region tends to spread as a ship's velocity increases in the case of the basic proportional human model. The derivative action and time-delay action of human models are effective in spreading the stability region in their respective ranges of frontal gazing points. (paper)

  5. The effects of suction and pin/lock suspension systems on transtibial amputees' gait performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Gholizadeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The suction sockets that are commonly prescribed for transtibial amputees are believed to provide a better suspension than the pin/lock systems. Nevertheless, their effect on amputees' gait performance has not yet been fully investigated. The main intention of this study was to understand the potential effects of the Seal-in (suction and the Dermo (pin/lock suspension systems on amputees' gait performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten unilateral transtibial amputees participated in this prospective study, and two prostheses were fabricated for each of them. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to evaluate the temporal-spatial, kinematics and kinetics variables during normal walking. We also asked the participants to complete some part of Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ regarding their satisfaction and problems with both systems. The results revealed that there was more symmetry in temporal-spatial parameters between the prosthetic and sound limbs using the suction system. However, the difference between two systems was not significant (p<0.05. Evaluation of kinetic data and the subjects' feedback showed that the participants had more confidence using the suction socket and the sockets were more fit for walking. Nevertheless, the participants had more complaints with this system due to the difficulty in donning and doffing. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that even though the suction socket could create better suspension, fit, and gait performance, overall satisfaction was higher with the pin/lock system due to easy donning and doffing of the prosthesis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: irct.ir IRCT2014012816395N1.

  6. MAcro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MÆMS) based concept for microwave beam steering in reflectarray antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni Hasan Abadi, Seyed Mohamad Amin, E-mail: momenihasana@wisc.edu; Booske, John H., E-mail: jhbooske@wisc.edu; Behdad, Nader, E-mail: behdad@wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-08-07

    We present a new approach to perform beam steering in reflecting type apertures such as reflectarray antennas. The proposed technique exploits macro-scale mechanical movements of parts of the structure to achieve two-dimensional microwave beam steering without using any solid-state devices or phase shifters integrated within the aperture of the antenna. The principles of operation of this microwave beam steering technique are demonstrated in an aperture occupied by ground-plane-backed, sub-wavelength capacitive patches with identical dimensions. We demonstrate that by tilting the ground plane underneath the entire patch array layer, a phase shift gradient can be created over the aperture of the reflectarray that determines the direction of the radiated beam. Changing the direction and slope of this phase shift gradient on the aperture allows for performing beam steering in two dimensions using only one control parameter (i.e., tilt vector of the ground plane). A proof-of-concept prototype of the structure operating at X-band is designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized. Experiments demonstrate that small mechanical movements of the ground plane (in the order of 0.05λ{sub 0}) can be used to steer the beam direction in the ±10° in two dimensions. It is also demonstrated that this beam scanning range can be greatly enhanced to ±30° by applying this concept to the same structure when its ground plane is segmented.

  7. Evaluation of metal matrix composite to replace spheroidal graphite iron for a critical component, steering knuckle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayarangan, S.; Rajamanickam, N.; Sivananth, V.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A FE model is developed to study the suitability of MMC for steering knuckle. ► Structural analysis of steering knuckle is carried out for 12 load cases. ► The cross section of the critical region is optimized using genetic algorithm. ► The life of the MMC (Al-10 wt.% TiC) knuckle is compared before and after optimization. ► MMC material could replace SG iron for automotive steering knuckle. -- Abstract: Steering knuckle is considered as one of the critical component in automotive suspension system. It is subjected to time varying loads during its service life, leading to fatigue failure. Therefore, its design is an important aspect in the product development cycle. Currently, spheroidal graphite (SG) iron is widely used to manufacture steering knuckle in the commercial automobile sector. It has been observed from the knuckle manufacturers that advanced materials and weight reduction are the real need for the current automobile industry. Due to their high strength to weight ratio, Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have the potential to meet the demanded design requirements of the automotive industry, compared to conventional materials. In this work, an aluminum alloy reinforced with titanium carbide particulate is suggested as an alternate material in place of existing SG iron. Structural analysis of steering knuckle made of alternate material Al-10 wt.% TiC was performed using commercial code ANSYS. The results of steering knuckle made of MMC (Al-10 wt.% TiC) were compared with that of aluminum alloy and SG iron steering knuckles for its performance based on real time load cases. It is found from this analysis, the knuckle strut region has maximum stress and deflection during its life time. The critical strut region cross section area of knuckle was analyzed and geometrically optimized for minimum bending stress and deflection using genetic algorithm available in MatLab. Since, the knuckle experiences time varying loads, fatigue analysis also

  8. 46 CFR 58.25-10 - Main and auxiliary steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main and auxiliary steering gear. 58.25-10 Section 58.25... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-10 Main and auxiliary steering gear. (a) Power-operated main and auxiliary steering gear must be separate systems that are independent throughout their...

  9. Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C; Martín, Fernando F; Rogers, Michael E; Behm, David G; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29) performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p push-up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation. Key PointsCompared with standard push-ups on the floor, suspended push-ups increase core muscle activation.A one-anchor system with a pulley is the best option to increase TRICEP, TRAPS, LUMB and FEM muscle activity.More stable conditions such as the standard push-up or a parallel band system provide greater increases in DELT and PEC muscle activation.A suspended push-up is an effective method to achieve high muscle activity levels in the ABS.

  10. Hysteresis-induced bifurcation and chaos in a magneto-rheological suspension system under external excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailong, Zhang; Enrong, Wang; Fuhong, Min; Ning, Zhang

    2016-03-01

    The magneto-rheological damper (MRD) is a promising device used in vehicle semi-active suspension systems, for its continuous adjustable damping output. However, the innate nonlinear hysteresis characteristic of MRD may cause the nonlinear behaviors. In this work, a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) MR suspension system was established first, by employing the modified Bouc-Wen force-velocity (F-v) hysteretic model. The nonlinear dynamic response of the system was investigated under the external excitation of single-frequency harmonic and bandwidth-limited stochastic road surface. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) was used to detect the chaotic area of the frequency and amplitude of harmonic excitation, and the bifurcation diagrams, time histories, phase portraits, and power spectrum density (PSD) diagrams were used to reveal the dynamic evolution process in detail. Moreover, the LLE and Kolmogorov entropy (K entropy) were used to identify whether the system response was random or chaotic under stochastic road surface. The results demonstrated that the complex dynamical behaviors occur under different external excitation conditions. The oscillating mechanism of alternating periodic oscillations, quasi-periodic oscillations, and chaotic oscillations was observed in detail. The chaotic regions revealed that chaotic motions may appear in conditions of mid-low frequency and large amplitude, as well as small amplitude and all frequency. The obtained parameter regions where the chaotic motions may appear are useful for design of structural parameters of the vibration isolation, and the optimization of control strategy for MR suspension system. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51475246, 51277098, and 51075215), the Research Innovation Program for College Graduates of Jiangsu Province China (Grant No. KYLX15 0725), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. BK20131402).

  11. Steering smog prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Liere (Robert); J.J. van Wijk (Jack)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe use of computational steering for smog prediction is described. This application is representative for many underlying issues found in steering high performance applications: high computing times, large data sets, and many different input parameters. After a short description of the

  12. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, K.; Miranowicz, A.; Nori, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Nov (2016), 1-8, č. článku 38076. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : temporal quantum steering * EPR steering Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  13. Compact vibration isolation and suspension for Australian International Gravitational Observatory: local control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Jean-Charles; Barriga, Pablo; Zhao, Chunnong; Ju, Li; Blair, David G

    2009-11-01

    High performance vibration isolators are required for ground based gravitational wave detectors. To attain very high performance at low frequencies we have developed multistage isolators for the proposed Australian International Gravitational Observatory detector in Australia. New concepts in vibration isolation including self-damping, Euler springs, LaCoste springs, Roberts linkages, and double preisolation require novel sensors and actuators. Double preisolation enables internal feedback to be used to suppress low frequency seismic noise. Multidegree of freedom control systems are required to attain high performance. Here we describe the control components and control systems used to control all degrees of freedom. Feedback forces are injected at the preisolation stages and at the penultimate suspension stage. There is no direct actuation on test masses. A digital local control system hosted on a digital signal processor maintains alignment and position, corrects drifts, and damps the low frequency linear and torsional modes without exciting the very high Q-factor test mass suspension. The control system maintains an optical cavity locked to a laser with a high duty cycle even in the absence of an autoalignment system. An accompanying paper presents the mechanics of the system, and the optical cavity used to determine isolation performance. A feedback method is presented, which is expected to improve the residual motion at 1 Hz by more than one order of magnitude.

  14. Compact vibration isolation and suspension for Australian International Gravitational Observatory: Local control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Jean-Charles; Barriga, Pablo; Zhao, Chunnong; Ju, Li; Blair, David G.

    2009-11-01

    High performance vibration isolators are required for ground based gravitational wave detectors. To attain very high performance at low frequencies we have developed multistage isolators for the proposed Australian International Gravitational Observatory detector in Australia. New concepts in vibration isolation including self-damping, Euler springs, LaCoste springs, Roberts linkages, and double preisolation require novel sensors and actuators. Double preisolation enables internal feedback to be used to suppress low frequency seismic noise. Multidegree of freedom control systems are required to attain high performance. Here we describe the control components and control systems used to control all degrees of freedom. Feedback forces are injected at the preisolation stages and at the penultimate suspension stage. There is no direct actuation on test masses. A digital local control system hosted on a digital signal processor maintains alignment and position, corrects drifts, and damps the low frequency linear and torsional modes without exciting the very high Q-factor test mass suspension. The control system maintains an optical cavity locked to a laser with a high duty cycle even in the absence of an autoalignment system. An accompanying paper presents the mechanics of the system, and the optical cavity used to determine isolation performance. A feedback method is presented, which is expected to improve the residual motion at 1 Hz by more than one order of magnitude.

  15. Novel Approaches to Manipulating Bacterial Pathogen Biofilms: Whole-Systems Design Philosophy and Steering Microbial Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Alexandra S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and manipulating bacterial biofilms is crucial in medicine, ecology and agriculture and has potential applications in bioproduction, bioremediation and bioenergy. Biofilms often resist standard therapies and the need to develop new means of intervention provides an opportunity to fundamentally rethink our strategies. Conventional approaches to working with biological systems are, for the most part, "brute force", attempting to effect control in an input and effort intensive manner and are often insufficient when dealing with the inherent non-linearity and complexity of living systems. Biological systems, by their very nature, are dynamic, adaptive and resilient and require management tools that interact with dynamic processes rather than inert artefacts. I present an overview of a novel engineering philosophy which aims to exploit rather than fight those properties, and hence provide a more efficient and robust alternative. Based on a combination of evolutionary theory and whole-systems design, its essence is what I will call systems aikido; the basic principle of aikido being to interact with the momentum of an attacker and redirect it with minimal energy expenditure, using the opponent's energy rather than one's own. In more conventional terms, this translates to a philosophy of equilibrium engineering, manipulating systems' own self-organisation and evolution so that the evolutionarily or dynamically stable state corresponds to a function which we require. I illustrate these ideas with a description of a proposed manipulation of environmental conditions to alter the stability of co-operation in the context of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection of the cystic fibrosis lung.

  16. Theoretical and FEM analysis of suspension and propulsion system with HTS hybrid electromagnets in an EMS Maglev model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y.D., E-mail: ydchung@suwon.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suwon University, Bongdang Eup, Hwaseong Si 445-743 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C.Y. [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Woram Dong, Uiwang Si 437-757 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Ansan College of Technology, Choji-Dong, Ansan Si 425-792 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Y.S. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Sinchon-dong, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, T.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Ansan College of Technology, Choji-Dong, Ansan Si 425-792 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    We examine levitation and propulsion forces of the proto-type maglev vehicle system based on 3D FEM. The levitation force increases over 15% due to AC current of the guideway. The levitation force by HTS electromagnet (EM) and AC current is larger over 30% than that of only HTS EM. We have been constructed a proto-type electromagnetic suspension (EMS) based maglev vehicle system. The maglev concept utilizes magnetic forces for noncontact suspension, guidance and propulsion. The suspension system with high temperature superconducting (HTS) hybrid electromagnet (EM) is composed of HTS coils and normal coils, which consume little power to keep large suspension gap. The magnetic forces realize to guide the vehicle, propel the vehicle along the guide-way and assist in braking action. The proto-type EMS-based Maglev model is designed to keep the suspension gap of 20 mm. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the maglev vehicle based on the EMS model to obtain the designing parameters for levitation and propulsion forces. The magnetic field distributions of the electromagnetic forces with hybrid EM and propulsion stator coils are analyzed based on three dimension (3D) finite element method (FEM) analysis. From the simulation results, appropriately design parameters of the suspension, guidance and propulsion were obtained.

  17. Theoretical and FEM analysis of suspension and propulsion system with HTS hybrid electromagnets in an EMS Maglev model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Jang, J.Y.; Yoon, Y.S.; Ko, T.K.

    2011-01-01

    We examine levitation and propulsion forces of the proto-type maglev vehicle system based on 3D FEM. The levitation force increases over 15% due to AC current of the guideway. The levitation force by HTS electromagnet (EM) and AC current is larger over 30% than that of only HTS EM. We have been constructed a proto-type electromagnetic suspension (EMS) based maglev vehicle system. The maglev concept utilizes magnetic forces for noncontact suspension, guidance and propulsion. The suspension system with high temperature superconducting (HTS) hybrid electromagnet (EM) is composed of HTS coils and normal coils, which consume little power to keep large suspension gap. The magnetic forces realize to guide the vehicle, propel the vehicle along the guide-way and assist in braking action. The proto-type EMS-based Maglev model is designed to keep the suspension gap of 20 mm. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the maglev vehicle based on the EMS model to obtain the designing parameters for levitation and propulsion forces. The magnetic field distributions of the electromagnetic forces with hybrid EM and propulsion stator coils are analyzed based on three dimension (3D) finite element method (FEM) analysis. From the simulation results, appropriately design parameters of the suspension, guidance and propulsion were obtained.

  18. Compressible Fluid Suspension Performance Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoogterp, Francis

    2003-01-01

    ... compressible fluid suspension system that was designed and installed on the vehicle by DTI. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate the possible performance benefits of the compressible fluid suspension system...

  19. Beam Steering Devices Reduce Payload Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Scientists have long been able to shift the direction of a laser beam, steering it toward a target, but often the strength and focus of the light is altered. For precision applications, where the quality of the beam cannot be compromised, scientists have typically turned to mechanical steering methods, redirecting the source of the beam by swinging the entire laser apparatus toward the target. Just as the mechanical methods used for turning cars has evolved into simpler, lighter, power steering methods, so has the means by which researchers can direct lasers. Some of the typical contraptions used to redirect lasers are large and bulky, relying on steering gimbals pivoted, rotating supports to shift the device toward its intended target. These devices, some as large and awkward as a piece of heavy luggage, are subject to the same issues confronted by mechanical parts: Components rub, wear out, and get stuck. The poor reliability and bulk not to mention the power requirements to run one of the machines have made mechanical beam steering components less than ideal for use in applications where weight, bulk, and maneuverability are prime concerns, such as on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a microscope. The solution to developing reliable, lighter weight, nonmechanical steering methods to replace the hefty steering boxes was to think outside the box, and a NASA research partner did just that by developing a new beam steering method that bends and redirects the beam, as opposed to shifting the entire apparatus. The benefits include lower power requirements, a smaller footprint, reduced weight, and better control and flexibility in steering capabilities. Such benefits are realized without sacrificing aperture size, efficiency, or scanning range, and can be applied to myriad uses: propulsion systems, structures, radiation protection systems, and landing systems.

  20. Macrostructure of smectite-water systems. Influence of anionic poly-electrolytes on the organisation of montmorillonite suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morvan, Mikel

    1993-01-01

    In its first part, this research thesis reports a bibliographical study which aimed at highlighting the main aspects of smectite swelling, discusses the organisation of smectite suspension, and briefly presents the knowledge on clay-polymer mixtures. Then, the author describes the method he used to characterise clay suspensions (relaxation, MNR, osmometric techniques, small-angle X-ray diffraction), and theoretical elements required to interpret results. He addresses more particularly the organisation of smectite-water systems with either a natural smectite (montmorillonite) or a synthetic one (laponite) which have different geometries. The last part addresses the interactions between a montmorillonite suspension and sodium polyacrylates. The author, based on the use of small-angle X-ray diffraction and the measurement of the polyelectrolyte osmotic pressure, proposes a new interpretation of the action mechanism of an anionic polyelectrolyte of low molecular mass within a montmorillonite suspension

  1. Development of a Computational Steering Framework for High Performance Computing Environments on Blue Gene/P Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Danani, Bob K.

    2012-01-01

    of simulation results in a post-processing step is now transformed into a real-time interactive workflow that significantly reduces development and testing time. Computational steering provides the capability to direct or re-direct the progress of a simulation

  2. Numerical simulation of shock absorbers heat load for semi-active vehicle suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demić Miroslav D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation, based on modelling, has a significant role during to the process of vehicle development. It is especially important in the first design stages, when relevant parameters are to be defined. Shock absorber, as an executive part of a semi-active suspension system, is exposed to thermal loads which can lead to its damage and degradation of characteristics. Therefore, this paper attempts to analyze a conversion of mechanical work into heat energy by use of a method of dynamic simulation. The issue of heat dissipation from the shock absorber has not been taken into consideration.

  3. Superconducting electromagnets for large wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boom, R.W.; Abdelsalam, M.K.; Bakerek, K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a new design study of a Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS) for airplane models in a large 8 ft x 8 ft wind tunnel. New developments in the design include: use of a superconducting solenoid as a model core instead of magnetized iron; combination of permanent magnet material in the model wings along with four race-track coils to produce the required roll torque; and mounting of all the magnets in an integral cold structure instead of in separate cryostats. Design of superconducting solenoid model cores and practical experience with a small-scale prototype are discussed

  4. Adaptive Neural-Sliding Mode Control of Active Suspension System for Camera Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The camera always suffers from image instability on the moving vehicle due to the unintentional vibrations caused by road roughness. This paper presents a novel adaptive neural network based on sliding mode control strategy to stabilize the image captured area of the camera. The purpose is to suppress vertical displacement of sprung mass with the application of active suspension system. Since the active suspension system has nonlinear and time varying characteristics, adaptive neural network (ANN is proposed to make the controller robustness against systematic uncertainties, which release the model-based requirement of the sliding model control, and the weighting matrix is adjusted online according to Lyapunov function. The control system consists of two loops. The outer loop is a position controller designed with sliding mode strategy, while the PID controller in the inner loop is to track the desired force. The closed loop stability and asymptotic convergence performance can be guaranteed on the basis of the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, the simulation results show that the employed controller effectively suppresses the vibration of the camera and enhances the stabilization of the entire camera, where different excitations are considered to validate the system performance.

  5. Adaptive neural networks control for camera stabilization with active suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The camera always suffers from image instability on the moving vehicle due to unintentional vibrations caused by road roughness. This article presents an adaptive neural network approach mixed with linear quadratic regulator control for a quarter-car active suspension system to stabilize the image captured area of the camera. An active suspension system provides extra force through the actuator which allows it to suppress vertical vibration of sprung mass. First, to deal with the road disturbance and the system uncertainties, radial basis function neural network is proposed to construct the map between the state error and the compensation component, which can correct the optimal state-feedback control law. The weights matrix of radial basis function neural network is adaptively tuned online. Then, the closed-loop stability and asymptotic convergence performance is guaranteed by Lyapunov analysis. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controller effectively suppresses the vibration of the camera and enhances the stabilization of the entire camera, where different excitations are considered to validate the system performance.

  6. Steering operational synergies in terrestrial observation networks: opportunity for advancing Earth system dynamics modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Baatz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Advancing our understanding of Earth system dynamics (ESD depends on the development of models and other analytical tools that apply physical, biological, and chemical data. This ambition to increase understanding and develop models of ESD based on site observations was the stimulus for creating the networks of Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER, Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs, and others. We organized a survey, the results of which identified pressing gaps in data availability from these networks, in particular for the future development and evaluation of models that represent ESD processes, and provide insights for improvement in both data collection and model integration. From this survey overview of data applications in the context of LTER and CZO research, we identified three challenges: (1 widen application of terrestrial observation network data in Earth system modelling, (2 develop integrated Earth system models that incorporate process representation and data of multiple disciplines, and (3 identify complementarity in measured variables and spatial extent, and promoting synergies in the existing observational networks. These challenges lead to perspectives and recommendations for an improved dialogue between the observation networks and the ESD modelling community, including co-location of sites in the existing networks and further formalizing these recommendations among these communities. Developing these synergies will enable cross-site and cross-network comparison and synthesis studies, which will help produce insights around organizing principles, classifications, and general rules of coupling processes with environmental conditions.

  7. Steering operational synergies in terrestrial observation networks: opportunity for advancing Earth system dynamics modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatz, Roland; Sullivan, Pamela L.; Li, Li; Weintraub, Samantha R.; Loescher, Henry W.; Mirtl, Michael; Groffman, Peter M.; Wall, Diana H.; Young, Michael; White, Tim; Wen, Hang; Zacharias, Steffen; Kühn, Ingolf; Tang, Jianwu; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Braud, Isabelle; Flores, Alejandro N.; Kumar, Praveen; Lin, Henry; Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Jones, Julia; Gholz, Henry L.; Vereecken, Harry; Van Looy, Kris

    2018-05-01

    Advancing our understanding of Earth system dynamics (ESD) depends on the development of models and other analytical tools that apply physical, biological, and chemical data. This ambition to increase understanding and develop models of ESD based on site observations was the stimulus for creating the networks of Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER), Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs), and others. We organized a survey, the results of which identified pressing gaps in data availability from these networks, in particular for the future development and evaluation of models that represent ESD processes, and provide insights for improvement in both data collection and model integration. From this survey overview of data applications in the context of LTER and CZO research, we identified three challenges: (1) widen application of terrestrial observation network data in Earth system modelling, (2) develop integrated Earth system models that incorporate process representation and data of multiple disciplines, and (3) identify complementarity in measured variables and spatial extent, and promoting synergies in the existing observational networks. These challenges lead to perspectives and recommendations for an improved dialogue between the observation networks and the ESD modelling community, including co-location of sites in the existing networks and further formalizing these recommendations among these communities. Developing these synergies will enable cross-site and cross-network comparison and synthesis studies, which will help produce insights around organizing principles, classifications, and general rules of coupling processes with environmental conditions.

  8. Evaluation of indeterminacy of initial data for cad system of electric engine suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipin, D. Ya; Izmerov, O. V.; Shorokhov, S. G.; Nadtochey, D. G.

    2018-03-01

    The research of the variants of the suspension of the traction electric motor of diesel locomotives was performed. It was found that the method of designing the suspension does not take into consideration the possible changes of the characteristics of the parts in operation conditions. Variants of the suspension design were proposed and patented, which provide the work reliability despite the operating conditions.

  9. Design of Immune-Algorithm-Based Adaptive Fuzzy Controllers for Active Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Shieh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to integrate the artificial immune systems and adaptive fuzzy control for the automobile suspension system, which is regarded as a multiobjective optimization problem. Moreover, the fuzzy control rules and membership controls are then introduced for identification and memorization. It leads fast convergence in the search process. Afterwards, by using the diversity of the antibody group, trapping into local optimum can be avoided, and the system possesses a global search capacity and a faster local search for finding a global optimal solution. Experimental results show that the artificial immune system with the recognition and memory functions allows the system to rapidly converge and search for the global optimal approximate solutions.

  10. High angle of attack position sensing for the Southampton University magnetic suspension and balance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David H.

    1987-01-01

    An all digital five channel position detection system is to be installed in the Southampton University Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (SUMSBS). The system is intended to monitor a much larger range of model pitch attitudes than has been possible hitherto, up to a maximum of a 90 degree angle of attack. It is based on the use of self-scanning photodiode arrays and illuminating laser light beams, together with purpose built processing electronics. The principles behind the design of the system are discussed, together with the results of testing one channel of the system which was used to control the axial position of a magnetically suspended model in SUMSBS. The removal of optically coupled heave position information from the axial position sensing channel is described.

  11. Establishment of Aquilaria malaccensis Callus, cell suspension and adventitious root systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazlina Noordin; Rusli Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Aquilaria malaccensis is a tropical forest tree from the family Thymelaeaceae, an endangered forest species and was listed in CITES since 1995. Locally known as Pokok Karas, this tree produces agar wood or gaharu, a highly valuable, resinous and fragrant forest product. Karas has been highly recognized for its vast medicinal values and gaharu has been widely use for perfumery, incense and religious purposes. The phyto chemical studies of agar wood showed that Sesqui terpenoid and Phenyl ethy chromone derivatives are the principal compounds that have anti allergic and anti microbe activities. Cell and organ culture systems provide large scale production of biomass and offers feasibilities for the production of secondary metabolites. This paper describes the work done for establishing reproducible systems for callus initiation and production of cell suspension cultures as well as production of adventitious roots that will later be amenable for the production of secondary metabolites of A. malaccensis. Hence, further manipulation with Methyl Jasmonate, a chemical elicitor could be done to induce secondary metabolites using callus, cell suspension and adventitious roots systems. (author)

  12. Robust control of nonlinear MAGLEV suspension system with mismatched uncertainties via DOBC approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Zolotas, Argyrios; Chen, Wen-Hua; Michail, Konstantinos; Li, Shihua

    2011-07-01

    Robust control of a class of uncertain systems that have disturbances and uncertainties not satisfying "matching" condition is investigated in this paper via a disturbance observer based control (DOBC) approach. In the context of this paper, "matched" disturbances/uncertainties stand for the disturbances/uncertainties entering the system through the same channels as control inputs. By properly designing a disturbance compensation gain, a novel composite controller is proposed to counteract the "mismatched" lumped disturbances from the output channels. The proposed method significantly extends the applicability of the DOBC methods. Rigorous stability analysis of the closed-loop system with the proposed method is established under mild assumptions. The proposed method is applied to a nonlinear MAGnetic LEViation (MAGLEV) suspension system. Simulation shows that compared to the widely used integral control method, the proposed method provides significantly improved disturbance rejection and robustness against load variation. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen steering inequalities with state information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeloch, James; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between entropic Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR)-steering inequalities and their underlying uncertainty relations along with the hypothesis that improved uncertainty relations lead to tighter EPR-steering inequalities. In particular, we discuss how using information about the state of a quantum system affects one's ability to witness EPR-steering. As an example, we consider the recent improvement to the entropic uncertainty relation between pairs of discrete observables (Berta et al., 2010 [10]). By considering the assumptions that enter into the development of a steering inequality, we derive correct steering inequalities from these improved uncertainty relations and find that they are identical to ones already developed (Schneeloch et al., 2013 [9]). In addition, we consider how one can use state information to improve our ability to witness EPR-steering, and develop a new continuous variable symmetric EPR-steering inequality as a result.

  14. Suspension-thermal noise in spring–antispring systems for future gravitational-wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Jan; Mow-Lowry, Conor M.

    2018-01-01

    Spring–antispring systems have been investigated in the context of low-frequency seismic isolation in high-precision optical experiments. These systems provide the possibility to tune the fundamental resonance frequency to, in principle, arbitrarily low values, and at the same time maintain a compact design. It was argued though that thermal noise in spring–antispring systems would not be as small as one may naively expect from lowering the fundamental resonance frequency. In this paper, we present calculations of suspension-thermal noise for spring–antispring systems potentially relevant in future gravitational-wave detectors, i.e. the beam-balance tiltmeter, and the Roberts linkage. We find a concise expression of the suspension-thermal noise spectrum, which assumes a form very similar to the well-known expression for a simple pendulum. For systems such as the Roberts linkage foreseen as passive seismic isolation, we find that while they can provide strong seismic isolation due to a very low fundamental resonance frequency, their thermal noise is determined by the dimension of the system and is insensitive to fine-tunings of the geometry that can strongly influence the resonance frequency. By analogy, i.e. formal similarity of the equations of motion, this is true for all horizontal mechanical isolation systems with spring–antispring dynamics. This imposes strict requirements on mechanical spring–antispring systems for seismic isolation in potential future low-frequency gravitational-wave detectors as we discuss for the four main concepts, atom-interferometric, superconducting, torsion-bars, and conventional laser interferometer, and generally suggests that thermal noise needs to be evaluated carefully for high-precision experiments implementing spring–antispring dynamics.

  15. System concept definition of the Grumman superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proise, M.

    1994-01-01

    Grumman, under contract to the Army Corps of Engineers, completed a System Concept Definition (SCD) study to design a high-speed 134 m/s (300 m.p.h.) magnetically levitated (Maglev) transportation system. The primary development goals were to design a Maglev that is safe, reliable, environmentally acceptable, and low-cost. The cost issue was a predominant one, since previous studies have shown that an economically viable Maglev system (one that is attractive to investors for future models of passenger and/or freight transportation) requires a cost that is about $12.4 M/km ($20 Million per mile). The design is based on the electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system using superconducting iron-core magnets mounted along both sides of the vehicle. The EMS system has several advantages compared to the electrodynamic suspension (EDS) Maglev systems such as low stray magnetic fields in the passenger cabin and the surrounding areas, uniform load distribution along the full length of the vehicle, and small pole pitch for smoother propulsion and ride comfort. It is also levitated at all speeds and incorporates a wrap-around design of safer operation. The Grumman design has all the advantages of an EMS system identified above, while eliminating (or significantly improving) drawbacks associated with normal magnet powered EMS systems. Improvements include larger gap clearance, lighter weight, lower number of control servos, and higher off line switching speeds. The design also incorporates vehicle tilt (plus or minus 9 deg) for higher coordinated turn and turn out speed capability.

  16. An approach for multi-objective optimization of vehicle suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulocheris, D.; Papaioannou, G.; Christodoulou, D.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a half car model of with nonlinear suspension systems is selected in order to study the vertical vibrations and optimize its suspension system with respect to ride comfort and road holding. A road bump was used as road profile. At first, the optimization problem is solved with the use of Genetic Algorithms with respect to 6 optimization targets. Then the k - ɛ optimization method was implemented to locate one optimum solution. Furthermore, an alternative approach is presented in this work: the previous optimization targets are separated in main and supplementary ones, depending on their importance in the analysis. The supplementary targets are not crucial to the optimization but they could enhance the main objectives. Thus, the problem was solved again using Genetic Algorithms with respect to the 3 main targets of the optimization. Having obtained the Pareto set of solutions, the k - ɛ optimality method was implemented for the 3 main targets and the supplementary ones, evaluated by the simulation of the vehicle model. The results of both cases are presented and discussed in terms of convergence of the optimization and computational time. The optimum solutions acquired from both cases are compared based on performance metrics as well.

  17. T-S Fuzzy Model Based Control Strategy for the Networked Suspension Control System of Maglev Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The control problem for the networked suspension control system of maglev train with random induced time delay and packet dropouts is investigated. First, Takagi-Sugeno (T-S fuzzy models are utilized to represent the discrete-time nonlinear networked suspension control system, and the parameters uncertainties of the nonlinear model have also been taken into account. The controllers take the form of parallel distributed compensation. Then, a sufficient condition for the stability of the networked suspension control system is derived. Based on the criteria, the state feedback fuzzy controllers are obtained, and the controller gains can be computed by using MATLAB LMI Toolbox directly. Finally, both the numerical simulations and physical experiments on the full-scale single bogie of CMS-04 maglev train have been accomplished to demonstrate the effectiveness of this proposed method.

  18. Simulation of disturbance rejection control of half-car active suspension system using active disturbance rejection control with decoupling transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbullah, Faried; Faris, Waleed F.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) has become a popular control alternative due to its easy applicability and robustness to varying processes. In this article, ADRC with input decoupling transformation (ADRC-IDT) is proposed to improve ride comfort of a vehicle with an active suspension system using half-car model. The ride performance of the ADRC-IDT is evaluated and compared with decentralized ADRC control as well as the passive system. Simulation results show that both ADRC and ADRC-IDT manage to appreciably reduce body accelerations and able to cope well with varying conditions typically encountered in an active suspension system. Also, it is sufficient to control only the body motions with both active controllers to improve ride comfort while maintaining good road holding and small suspension working space.

  19. Analysis Of The Method Of Predictive Control Applicable To Active Magnetic Suspension Systems Of Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnyta-Mazurek Paulina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional controllers are usually synthesized on the basis of already known parameters associated with the model developed for the object to be controlled. However, sometimes it proves extremely difficult or even infeasible to find out these parameters, in particular when they subject to changes during the exploitation lifetime. If so, much more sophisticated control methods have to be applied, e.g. the method of predictive control. Thus, the paper deals with application of the predictive control approach to follow-up tracking of an active magnetic suspension where the mathematical and simulation models for such a control system are disclosed with preliminary results from simulation investigations of the control system in question.

  20. Development of Matlab Simulink model for dynamics analysis of passive suspension system for lightweight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, M. S.; Ismail, K. A.; Taha, Z.; Aiman, M. F.

    2017-10-01

    In designing suitable isolators to reduce unwanted vibration in vehicles, the response from a mathematical model which characterizes the transmissibility ratio of the input and output of the vehicle is required. In this study, a Matlab Simulink model is developed to study the dynamic behaviour performance of passive suspension system for a lightweight electric vehicle. The Simulink model is based on the two degrees of freedom system quarter car model. The model is compared to the theoretical plots of the transmissibility ratios between the amplitudes of the displacements and accelerations of the sprung and unsprung masses to the amplitudes of the ground, against the frequencies at different damping values. It was found that the frequency responses obtained from the theoretical calculations and from the Simulink simulation is comparable to each other. Hence, the model may be extended to a full vehicle model.

  1. Structural observation of long-span suspension bridges for safety assessment: implementation of an optical displacement measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, L Lages; Ribeiro, A Silva; Rebordão, J M

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the implementation of an optical displacement measurement system in the observation scenario of a long-span suspension bridge and its contribution for structural safety assessment. The metrological background required for quality assurance of the measurements is described, namely, the system's intrinsic parameterization and integration in the SI dimensional traceability chain by calibration, including its measurement uncertainty assessment

  2. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXI, I--MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING REAR END SUSPENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM AND REAR AXLE SUSPENSION USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) AIR INDUCTION AND EXHAUST SYSTEM, (2) VALVE MECHANISM, (3) TROUBLESHOOTING THE AIR SYSTEM, (4) PURPOSE OF VEHICLE SUSPENSION, (5) TANDEM…

  3. Suspension tests on a larger scale. Report from the status seminar on magnetic suspension techniques. Testing of the electrodynamic system started

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogg, D; Muckli, W

    1976-07-01

    A world record speed for electromagnetically suspended vehicles as well as successful suspension tests with forced-circulation cooled superconducting magnets were the outstanding success reports at the fifth status seminar 'Magnetic suspension techniques' on 31st March and 1st April in Bad Kissingen. The research work on magnetic suspension techniques in the railborne long-distance travel is supported by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT) within the frameworke of the programme 'Railway engineering - New technologies'.

  4. Fault Detection Based on Tracking Differentiator Applied on the Suspension System of Maglev Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fault detection method based on the optimized tracking differentiator is introduced. It is applied on the acceleration sensor of the suspension system of maglev train. It detects the fault of the acceleration sensor by comparing the acceleration integral signal with the speed signal obtained by the optimized tracking differentiator. This paper optimizes the control variable when the states locate within or beyond the two-step reachable region to improve the performance of the approximate linear discrete tracking differentiator. Fault-tolerant control has been conducted by feedback based on the speed signal acquired from the optimized tracking differentiator when the acceleration sensor fails. The simulation and experiment results show the practical usefulness of the presented method.

  5. The behaviour of a vehicle’s suspension system on dynamic testing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihon, L.; Lontiş, N.; Deac, S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a car suspension’s behaviour on dynamic testing conditions through theoretical and mathematical simulation on specific model, on the single traction wheel, according to the real vehicle and by experiment on the test bench by reproducing the road’s geometry and vehicle’s speed and measuring the acceleration and damping response of the suspension system on that wheel. There are taking in consideration also the geometry and properties of the tyre-wheel model and physical wheel’s properties. The results are important due to the suspension’s model properties which allows to extend the theory and applications to the whole vehicle for improving the vehicle’s dynamics.

  6. Techniques for extreme attitude suspension of a wind tunnel model in a magnetic suspension and balance system. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David Huw

    1989-01-01

    Although small scale magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBSs) for wind tunnel use have been in existence for many years, they have not found general application in the production testing of flight vehicles. One reason for this is thought to lie in the relatively limited range of attitudes over which a wind tunnel model may be suspended. Modifications to a small MSBS to permit the suspension and control of axisymmetric models over angles of attack from less than zero to over ninety degrees are reported. Previous work has shown that existing arrangement of ten electromagnets was unable to generate one of the force components needed for control at extreme attitudes. Examination of possible solutions resulted in a simple alteration to rectify this deficiency. To generate the feedback signals to control the suspended model, an optical position sensing system using collimated laser beams and photodiode arrays was installed and tested. An analytical basis was developed for distributing the demands for force and moment needed for model stabilization amonge the electromagnets over the full attitude range. This was implemented by an MSBS control program able to continually adjust the distribution for the instantaneous incidence in accordance with prescheduled data. Results presented demonstrate rotations of models from zero to ninety degrees at rates up to ninety degrees per second, with pitching rates rising to several hundred degrees per second in response to step-change demands. A study of a design for a large MSBS suggests that such a system could be given the capability to control a model in six degrees of freedom over an unlimited angle of attack range.

  7. A Proposal Of Simulation Model Of A Wind-Steering System For Sailing Yachts, Based On Single-Stage Servo-Pendulum Coupled With Main Rudder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piętak Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate possible application of fast design prototyping methods for wind-steering systems used in offshore sailing yachts. The development of such methods would help to speed up the construction work and reduce the scope of necessary experimental research, prior to implementation of the system. In the present work, based on an analysis of existing designs of windvane systems, a preliminary selection of the system configuration has been undertaken, in terms of a compromise between efficiency, performance, and design complexity. Construction design of a single-stage, servo – pendulum system, has been developed by using the Autodesk Inventor design package. Next, based on the design data, a simulation model of the system, has been produced by using Matlab - Simulink software and SimMechanics library. The model was further verified in terms of kinematics mapping with the use of Matlab visualization tools.

  8. Model predictive control of an air suspension system with damping multi-mode switching damper based on hybrid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Yuan, Chaochun; Cai, Yingfeng; Wang, Shaohua; Chen, Long

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the hybrid modeling and the model predictive control of an air suspension system with damping multi-mode switching damper. Unlike traditional damper with continuously adjustable damping, in this study, a new damper with four discrete damping modes is applied to vehicle semi-active air suspension. The new damper can achieve different damping modes by just controlling the on-off statuses of two solenoid valves, which makes its damping adjustment more efficient and more reliable. However, since the damping mode switching induces different modes of operation, the air suspension system with the new damper poses challenging hybrid control problem. To model both the continuous/discrete dynamics and the switching between different damping modes, the framework of mixed logical dynamical (MLD) systems is used to establish the system hybrid model. Based on the resulting hybrid dynamical model, the system control problem is recast as a model predictive control (MPC) problem, which allows us to optimize the switching sequences of the damping modes by taking into account the suspension performance requirements. Numerical simulations results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed control method finally.

  9. A novel magnetic suspension cum linear actuator system for satellite cryo coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivadasan, K.K.

    1994-01-01

    Stirling cycle cryogenic coolers have been widely used for device cooling in satellites. Various types of magnetic bearings and linear actuators find application in such systems. The most widely used configurations have two-axis-radially-active suspension stations placed at either ends of a reciprocating shaft in the compression and expansion sections. Separate or integral liner motors are provided in each section for axial shaft movement. It may be noted that such configurations are rather complicated and less reliable because of the presence of numerous electro-mechanical components, sensors and electronic servo channels. In this paper, a simple and reliable scheme is suggested which axially stabilizes and linearly perturbs the piston so that the need for a separate motor for axial actuation can be totally dispensed with. The piston is radially supported by passive repulsive bearings. In the axial direction, a servo actuator ''balances'' the piston and also actuates it bi-directionally. Implemented of this ''bearing cum motor theme,'' reduces the number of electromechanical and electronic components required to operate the system and hence minimizes the chances of system failure. Apart from this, the system's power consumption is reduced and efficiency is improved as electrical heating losses caused by quiescent-operating currents are removed and electromagnetic losses on the moving parts are minimized. The necessary system parameters have been derived using finite element analysis techniques. Finally, the proposed design is validated by computer-aided system simulation

  10. Adaptive sliding control of non-autonomous active suspension systems with time-varying loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Chang; Huang, An-Chyau

    2005-04-01

    An adaptive sliding controller is proposed in this paper for controlling a non-autonomous quarter-car suspension system with time-varying loadings. The bound of the car-body loading is assumed to be available. Then, the reference coordinate is placed at the static position under the nominal loading so that the system dynamic equation is derived. Due to spring nonlinearities, the system property becomes asymmetric after coordinate transformation. Besides, in practical cases, system parameters are not easy to be obtained precisely for controller design. Therefore, in this paper, system uncertainties are lumped into two unknown time-varying functions. Since the variation bound of one of the unknown functions is not available, conventional adaptive schemes and robust designs are not applicable. To deal with this problem, the function approximation technique is employed to represent the unknown function as a finite combination of basis functions. The Lyapunov direct method can thus be used to find adaptive laws for updating coefficients in the approximating series and to prove stability of the closed-loop system. Since the position and velocity measurements of the unsprung mass are lumped into the unknown function, there is no need to install sensors on the axle and wheel assembly in the actual implementation. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of the proposed strategy.

  11. Analysis of Vehicle Steering and Driving Bifurcation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical method of vehicle steering bifurcation analysis is based on the nonlinear autonomous vehicle model deriving from the classic two degrees of freedom (2DOF linear vehicle model. This method usually neglects the driving effect on steering bifurcation characteristics. However, in the steering and driving combined conditions, the tyre under different driving conditions can provide different lateral force. The steering bifurcation mechanism without the driving effect is not able to fully reveal the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics. Aiming at the aforementioned problem, this paper analyzed the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics with the consideration of driving effect. Based on the 5DOF vehicle system dynamics model with the consideration of driving effect, the 7DOF autonomous system model was established. The vehicle steering and driving bifurcation dynamic characteristics were analyzed with different driving mode and driving torque. Taking the front-wheel-drive system as an example, the dynamic evolution process of steering and driving bifurcation was analyzed by phase space, system state variables, power spectral density, and Lyapunov index. The numerical recognition results of chaos were also provided. The research results show that the driving mode and driving torque have the obvious effect on steering and driving bifurcation characteristics.

  12. Fatigue Life Prediction of Package of Suspension Automotive Under Random Vibration Based on Road Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Reza Kashyzadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a suitable suspension system for passenger comfort and vehicle steering is an obvious order and direct impact on the safety of passengers must be considered, to do so different kinds of tests must be exerted, one of these is fatigue testing which is one of the most significant ones. Another issue is the high cost in practical ways, and to cope with this issue various ways must be assessed and analyzed, one of the best and the most efficient ways is modelling and testing in virtual software environments. In the present paper, predict fatigue life of suspension component and package of automotive suspension are the main purposes. First, using MATLAB software, road roughness according to the intercity roads for constant vehicle velocity (100 Km/h has been studied. After that frequency response of components has been analysed, its critical points determined to calculate the fatigue life of the part, and the amount of critical stress obtained based on Von Misses, Tresca and Max Principle criterion for a quarter car model (passive suspension System in 206 Peugeot. Fatigue life of the vehicle components are calculated in terms of kilo-Meters in specialized fatigue software such as 116944, 92638.9, 46388.9 and 191388.9 Km respectively wheel hub, pitman arm, suspension arm and package of suspension. Finally, to prove the given results of the finite element method compared with reported results by other researchers and the results match very well with those.

  13. Vehicle Systems Engineering and Integration Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    liter turbo diesel Bolt on armor required upgraded suspension, engine, and steering Mattracks or wheels Imbalance in cupola required motorized...liter turbo diesel engine, a new transmission, improved suspension and frame for an increased armor capability, 1,800- 4,400 lb payload and GVW 18,000...space (14 cubic feet), enhanced 6500 turbo diesel engine, higher capacity transmission, air induction system and exhaust systems. Lessons

  14. BEAMLINE-CONTROLLED STEERING OF SOURCE-POINT ANGLE AT THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, L.; Fystro, G.; Shang, H.; Smith, M.

    2017-06-25

    An EPICS-based steering software system has been implemented for beamline personnel to directly steer the angle of the synchrotron radiation sources at the Advanced Photon Source. A script running on a workstation monitors "start steering" beamline EPICS records, and effects a steering given by the value of the "angle request" EPICS record. The new system makes the steering process much faster than before, although the older steering protocols can still be used. The robustness features of the original steering remain. Feedback messages are provided to the beamlines and the accelerator operators. Underpinning this new steering protocol is the recent refinement of the global orbit feedback process whereby feedforward of dipole corrector set points and orbit set points are used to create a local steering bump in a rapid and seamless way.

  15. Steering Your Mysterious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    Steering the Mysterious Mind, describes a unique, novel concept for a way to gain control of your mind. The five basic elements of human life, that is; Creativity, Content­ment, Confidence, Calmness, and Concentration (C5) have been introduced in my previous book Unlock Your Personalization. Posi....... Compare it with going to the gym where you work on the physical body. In the same way as with arms and legs, the mind is a mus­cle which you exercise through C5 practice. Steering the mind on your personal goal will help you to be creative....

  16. A Semiactive and Adaptive Hybrid Control System for a Tracked Vehicle Hydropneumatic Suspension Based on Disturbance Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shousong Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The riding conditions for a high-speed tracked vehicle are quite complex. To enhance the adaptability of suspension systems to different riding conditions, a semiactive and self-adaptive hybrid control strategy based on disturbance velocity and frequency identification was proposed. A mathematical model of the semiactive, self-adaptive hybrid suspension control system, along with a performance evaluation function, was established. Based on a two-degree-of-freedom (DOF suspension system, the kinematic relations and frequency zero-crossing detection method were defined, and expressions for the disturbance velocity and disturbance frequency of the road were obtained. Optimal scheduling of the semiactive hybrid damping control gain (csky, cground, chybrid and self-adaptive control gain (cv under different disturbances were realized by exploiting the particle swarm multiobjective optimization algorithm. An experimental study using a carefully designed test rig was performed under a number of typical riding conditions of tracked vehicles, and the results showed that the proposed control strategy is capable of accurately recognizing different disturbances, shifting between control modes (semiactive/self-adaptive, and scheduling the damping control gain according to the disturbance identification outcomes; hence, the proposed strategy could achieve a good trade-off between ride comfort and ride safety and efficiently increase the overall performance of the suspension under various riding conditions.

  17. Optimisation of active suspension control inputs for improved performance of active safety systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čorić, Mirko; Deur, Joško; Xu, Li; Tseng, H. Eric; Hrovat, Davor

    2018-01-01

    A collocation-type control variable optimisation method is used to investigate the extent to which the fully active suspension (FAS) can be applied to improve the vehicle electronic stability control (ESC) performance and reduce the braking distance. First, the optimisation approach is applied to the scenario of vehicle stabilisation during the sine-with-dwell manoeuvre. The results are used to provide insights into different FAS control mechanisms for vehicle performance improvements related to responsiveness and yaw rate error reduction indices. The FAS control performance is compared to performances of the standard ESC system, optimal active brake system and combined FAS and ESC configuration. Second, the optimisation approach is employed to the task of FAS-based braking distance reduction for straight-line vehicle motion. Here, the scenarios of uniform and longitudinally or laterally non-uniform tyre-road friction coefficient are considered. The influences of limited anti-lock braking system (ABS) actuator bandwidth and limit-cycle ABS behaviour are also analysed. The optimisation results indicate that the FAS can provide competitive stabilisation performance and improved agility when compared to the ESC system, and that it can reduce the braking distance by up to 5% for distinctively non-uniform friction conditions.

  18. Influence of the Applied Working Fluid and the Arrangement of the Steering Edges on Multi-Vane Expander Performance in Micro ORC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Rak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Micro-power domestic organic Rankine cycle (ORC systems are nowadays of great interest. These systems are considered for combined heat and power (CHP generation in domestic and distributed applications. The main issues of ORC systems design is selection of the expander and the working fluid. Thanks to their positive features, multi-vane expanders are especially promising for application in micro-power ORC systems. These expanders are very simple in design, small in dimensions, inexpensive and feature low gas flow capacity and expansion ratio. The application of multi-vane expanders in ORC systems is innovative and currently limited to prototype applications. However, a literature review indicates the growing interest in these machines and the potential for practical implementation. For this reason, it is necessary to conduct detailed studies on the multi-vane expanders operation in ORC systems. In this paper the results of experimental and numerical investigations on the influence of the applied working fluid and the arrangement of the steering edges on multi-vane expander performance in micro ORC system are reported. The experiments were performed using the specially designed lab test-stand, i.e. the domestic ORC system. Numerical simulations were proceeded in ANSYS CFX software (ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA and were focused on determining the expander performance under various flow conditions of different working fluids. Detailed numerical analysis of the arrangement of the machine steering edges showed existence of optimal mutual position of the inlet and outlet port for which the multi-vane expander achieves maximum internal work and internal efficiency.

  19. Demonstration of a switchable damping system to allow low-noise operation of high-Q low-mass suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Jan-Simon; Barr, Bryan W.; Bell, Angus S.; Cunningham, William; Danilishin, Stefan L.; Dupej, Peter; Gräf, Christian; Hough, James; Huttner, Sabina H.; Jones, Russell; Leavey, Sean S.; Pascucci, Daniela; Sinclair, Martin; Sorazu, Borja; Spencer, Andrew; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Strain, Kenneth A.; Wright, Jennifer; Zhang, Teng; Hild, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Low-mass suspension systems with high-Q pendulum stages are used to enable quantum radiation pressure noise limited experiments. Utilizing multiple pendulum stages with vertical blade springs and materials with high-quality factors provides attenuation of seismic and thermal noise; however, damping of these high-Q pendulum systems in multiple degrees of freedom is essential for practical implementation. Viscous damping such as eddy-current damping can be employed, but it introduces displacement noise from force noise due to thermal fluctuations in the damping system. In this paper we demonstrate a passive damping system with adjustable damping strength as a solution for this problem that can be used for low-mass suspension systems without adding additional displacement noise in science mode. We show a reduction of the damping factor by a factor of 8 on a test suspension and provide a general optimization for this system.

  20. Multi-Layer Traffic Steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Polignano, Michele; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the potentials of traffic steering in the Radio Resource Control (RRC) Idle state by evaluating the Absolute Priorities (AP) framework in a multilayer Long Term Evolution (LTE) macrocell scenario. Frequency priorities are broadcast on the system information and RRC Idle...... periods are not significantly long. Finally, better alignment between the RRC Connected and Idle mobility procedures is observed, guarantying significant decrease of handovers/reselections and potential battery life savings by minimizing the Inter-Frequency (IF) measurement rate in the RRC Idle....

  1. A high-force controllable MR fluid damper–liquid spring suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, Pramod; Wang, Xiaojie; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present research is to investigate the feasibility of incorporating a liquid spring in a semi-active suspension system for use in heavy off-road vehicles. A compact compressible magneto-rheological (MR) fluid damper–liquid spring (CMRFD–LS) with high spring rate is designed, developed and tested. Compressible MR fluids with liquid spring and variable damping characteristics are used. These fluids can offer unique functions in reducing the volume/weight of vehicle struts and improving vehicle dynamic stability and safety. The proposed device consists of a cylinder and piston–rod arrangement with an internal annular MR fluid valve. The internal pressures in the chambers on either side of the piston develop the spring force, while the pressure difference across the MR valve produces the damping force, when the fluid flows through the MR valve. Harmonic characterization of the CMRFD–LS is performed and the force–displacement results are presented. A fluid-mechanics based model is also developed to predict the performance of the system at different operating conditions and compared to the experimental results. Good agreement between the experimental results and theoretical predictions has been achieved. (paper)

  2. Drowsy Driver Detection via Steering Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina ABDUL RAHIM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this project is to produce a safety system especially for fatigue car driver so as to prevent from accidents. The statistic on road fatality shows that human error constitute of 64.84 % road accidents fatality and 17.4 % due to technical factors. These systems encompassed the approach of hand pressure applied on the steering wheel. The steering will be installed with pressure sensors. At the same time these sensors can be used to measure gripping force while driving.

  3. Design and Trajectory Analysis of Incompletely Restrained Cable-Suspension Swing System Driven by Two Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naige Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to simulate the swing conditions of a suspended platform of a construction shaft, marine ships, cars, etc., an incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables (IRCSWs2 was designed and parameter trajectories of displacements, angles and tensions were systematically investigated. Firstly, the motion mechanism of the IRCSWs2 is described and the corresponding kinematic model is established. For further evaluating the analytical expressions, the ADAMS simulation model and the physical prototype experimental model were developed. The basic consistency and slight difference among the three models are illustrated by a comparison of different parameters. The approximately linear relationship between the driving displacements of two cables and the swing angles of the platform was obtained. Finally, the effects of various parameters on displacements, angles and tensions were analysed, and the results indicate that the translation of a suspended platform is slight during its swing and that the novel IRCSWs2 can be used to drive heavy loads using a relatively small driving force, which is useful for simulating swing environmental conditions long-term, in addition to being cost-effective.

  4. Changes in the cholinergic system of rat sciatic nerve and skeletal muscle following suspension induced disuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. C.; Misulis, K. E.; Dettbarn, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Muscle disused induced changes in the cholinergic system of sciatic nerve, slow twitch soleus (SOL) and fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle were studied in rats. Rats with hindlimbs suspended for 2 to 3 weeks showed marked elevation in the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in sciatic nerve (38%), in SOL (108%) and in EDL (67%). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in SOL increased by 163% without changing the molecular forms pattern of 4S, 10S, 12S, and 16S. No significant changes in activity and molecular forms pattern of AChE were seen in EDL or in AChE activity of sciatic nerve. Nicotinic receptor binding of 3H-acetylcholine was increased in both muscles. When measured after 3 weeks of hindlimb suspension the normal distribution of type 1 fibers in SOL was reduced and a corresponding increase in type IIa and IIb fibers is seen. In EDL no significant change in fiber proportion is observed. Muscle activity, such as loadbearing, appears to have a greater controlling influence on the characteristics of the slow twitch SOL muscle than upon the fast twitch EDL muscle.

  5. The Effect of Hindlimb Suspension on the Reproductive System of Young Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Janet; Grindeland, R.; Baer, L.; Guran, G.; Fung, C.; Wade, C.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Colonization of space requires the ability to reproduce in reduced gravity. Following spaceflight, astronauts and male rats exhibit decreased testosterone (T). This has important implications as T effects the testes and accessory sex glands. To our knowledge no studies have examined the effects of spaceflight on accessory sex glands. Due to the rarity of spaceflight opportunities, ground models have been used to simulate weightlessness. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-term (21 d) weightlessness on the reproductive system of male rats. Weightlessness was simulated using the Morey-Holton hindlimb suspension (HLS) model. Age 10 week old, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing (209.0 +9.7g) were randomly assigned (n=10/group) to either HLS or ambulatory control. In HLS rats, testes mass was 33% lower (pmale rats. This discrepancy may have been due to the age of animal and timing of sampling. T levels vary dramatically during testes development as well as within normal diurnal cycles. In young HLS rats, testes weight was reduced but not plasma T. Subsequently there was no effect on accessory sex glands. However, this may not be the case in older rats. More studies using standardized methods are needed to gain a better understanding of male reproduction function and capability in weightlessness. Funding provided by NASA.

  6. The impact of force feedback level on steering performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, S.; Terken, J.; Hogema, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Steer-by-wire systems provide designers the ability to customize and personalize force feedback on the steering wheel, based on individual preferences. Earlier studies using subjective responses have shown that there are individual differences in preferences for force feedback. It has also been

  7. A Frictionless Steering Mechanism for the Front Steering ECCD ITER Upper Port Launcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavan, R; Henderson, M A; Sanchez, F

    2005-01-01

    A FS launcher is being designed for the ITER upper port, which offers enhanced physics performance over the RS launcher. A two mirror system is used to decouple the focusing and steering aspects of the launcher and provide a relatively small beam waist ( 1.6 m from the steering mirror). The resulting NTM stabilization efficiency (maximum CD density divided by the local bootstrap current >1.6) is above marginal for the q = 2 and 3/2 rational flux surfaces of the relevant ITER equilibria (scenarios 2, 3a and 5) and a factor of ∼3 relative to an equivalent RS launcher. The performance of the FS launcher strongly depends on the reliability of the steering mechanism, which is used to rotate the plasma facing steering mirror. CRPP has designed a frictionless steering mechanism assembled in a compact cartridge capable of up to ±10 deg. rotation (corresponding to a poloidal steering range of up to ±20 deg. for the microwave beam around a fixed axis of rotation) that offers a high operation reliability despite the close proximity to the thermal and neutron flux coming from the ITER plasma

  8. Three-bead steering microswimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Mohd Suhail; Farutin, Alexander; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2018-02-01

    The self-propelled microswimmers have recently attracted considerable attention as model systems for biological cell migration as well as artificial micromachines. A simple and well-studied microswimmer model consists of three identical spherical beads joined by two springs in a linear fashion with active oscillatory forces being applied on the beads to generate self-propulsion. We have extended this linear microswimmer configuration to a triangular geometry where the three beads are connected by three identical springs in an equilateral triangular manner. The active forces acting on each spring can lead to autonomous steering motion; i.e., allowing the swimmer to move along arbitrary paths. We explore the microswimmer dynamics analytically and pinpoint its rich character depending on the nature of the active forces. The microswimmers can translate along a straight trajectory, rotate at a fixed location, as well as perform a simultaneous translation and rotation resulting in complex curved trajectories. The sinusoidal active forces on the three springs of the microswimmer contain naturally four operating parameters which are more than required for the steering motion. We identify the minimal operating parameters which are essential for the motion of the microswimmer along any given arbitrary trajectory. Therefore, along with providing insights into the mechanics of the complex motion of the natural and artificial microswimmers, the triangular three-bead microswimmer can be utilized as a model for targeted drug delivery systems and autonomous underwater vehicles where intricate trajectories are involved.

  9. Relation between front suspension layout and handling performance. Analysis depending on the Taguchi method and ADAMS; Front suspension layout to soda tokusei no kankei ni tsuite. Kiko kaiseki gengo wo mochiita hinshitsu kogaku ni yoru kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, K [Daihatsu Motor Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A variation of suspension layout gives an influence to the vehicle dynamics. Examined the suspension layout variation to make the handling performance change small. Analyzed the effect of suspension layout variation about steering response delay and gain besides the tire wear effect and movable load. 3 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Bi-directional 35-Gbit/s 2D beam steered optical wireless downlink and 5-Gbit/s localized 60-GHz communication uplink for hybrid indoor wireless systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalid, A.M.; Baltus, P.G.M.; Dommele, A.R.; Mekonnen, K.A.; Cao, Z.; Oh, C.W.; Matters, M.K.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    We present a full-duplex dynamic indoor optical wireless system using 2D passive optical beam steering for downlink and 60-GHz communication for upstream transmission. We demonstrate 35-Gb/s NRZ-OOK downstream multicasting and 5-Gb/s NRZ-ASK upstream communication.

  11. Dynamics of highly polydisperse colloidal suspensions as a model system for bacterial cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jiye; Kim, Jeongmin; Sung, Bong June

    2016-08-01

    There are various kinds of macromolecules in bacterial cell cytoplasm. The size polydispersity of the macromolecules is so significant that the crystallization and the phase separation could be suppressed, thus stabilizing the liquid state of bacterial cytoplasm. On the other hand, recent experiments suggested that the macromolecules in bacterial cytoplasm should exhibit glassy dynamics, which should be also affected significantly by the size polydispersity of the macromolecules. In this work, we investigate the anomalous and slow dynamics of highly polydisperse colloidal suspensions, of which size distribution is chosen to mimic Escherichia coli cytoplasm. We find from our Langevin dynamics simulations that the diffusion coefficient (D_{tot}) and the displacement distribution functions (P(r,t)) averaged over all colloids of different sizes do not show anomalous and glassy dynamic behaviors until the system volume fraction ϕ is increased up to 0.82. This indicates that the intrinsic polydispersity of bacterial cytoplasm should suppress the glass transition and help maintain the liquid state of the cytoplasm. On the other hand, colloids of each kind show totally different dynamic behaviors depending on their size. The dynamics of colloids of different size becomes non-Gaussian at a different range of ϕ, which suggests that a multistep glass transition should occur. The largest colloids undergo the glass transition at ϕ=0.65, while the glass transition does not occur for smaller colloids in our simulations even at the highest value of ϕ. We also investigate the distribution (P(θ,t)) of the relative angles of displacement for macromolecules and find that macromolecules undergo directionally correlated motions in a sufficiently dense system.

  12. A transgenic plant cell-suspension system for expression of epitopes on chimeric Bamboo mosaic virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthamilselvan, Thangarasu; Lee, Chin-Wei; Cho, Yu-Hsin; Wu, Feng-Chao; Hu, Chung-Chi; Liang, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Na-Sheng; Hsu, Yau-Heiu

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel strategy to produce vaccine antigens using a plant cell-suspension culture system in lieu of the conventional bacterial or animal cell-culture systems. We generated transgenic cell-suspension cultures from Nicotiana benthamiana leaves carrying wild-type or chimeric Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) expression constructs encoding the viral protein 1 (VP1) epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Antigens accumulated to high levels in BdT38 and BdT19 transgenic cell lines co-expressing silencing suppressor protein P38 or P19. BaMV chimeric virus particles (CVPs) were subsequently purified from the respective cell lines (1.5 and 2.1 mg CVPs/20 g fresh weight of suspended biomass, respectively), and the resulting CVPs displayed VP1 epitope on the surfaces. Guinea pigs vaccinated with purified CVPs produced humoral antibodies. This study represents an important advance in the large-scale production of immunopeptide vaccines in a cost-effective manner using a plant cell-suspension culture system. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Roll and pitch independently tuned interconnected suspension: modelling and dynamic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangzhong; Zhang, Nong; Roser, Holger M.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a roll and pitch independently tuned hydraulically interconnected passive suspension is presented. Due to decoupling of vibration modes and the improved lateral and longitudinal stability, the stiffness of individual suspension spring can be reduced for improving ride comfort and road grip. A generalised 14 degree-of-freedom nonlinear vehicle model with anti-roll bars is established to investigate the vehicle ride and handling dynamic responses. The nonlinear fluidic model of the hydraulically interconnected suspension is developed and integrated with the full vehicle model to investigate the anti-roll and anti-pitch characteristics. Time domain analysis of the vehicle model with the proposed suspension is conducted under different road excitations and steering/braking manoeuvres. The dynamic responses are compared with conventional suspensions to demonstrate the potential of enhanced ride and handling performance. The results illustrate the model-decoupling property of the hydraulically interconnected system. The anti-roll and anti-pitch performance could be tuned independently by the interconnected systems. With the improved anti-roll and anti-pitch characteristics, the bounce stiffness and ride damping can be optimised for better ride comfort and tyre grip.

  14. Design, Modeling And Control Of Steering And Braking For An Urban Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Maciua, Dragos

    1996-01-01

    This report describes research which involved the design modification, modeling and control of automatic steering and braking systems for an urban electric vehicle. The vehicle is equipped with four-wheel independent drive, four-wheel independent braking and four-wheel steering. Control algorithms were developed for steering and braking. Simulation results show the feasibility of the algorithms.

  15. Robust non-fragile finite-frequency H∞ static output-feedback control for active suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Changzheng; Yu, Shenbo

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with the problem of non-fragile H∞ static output-feedback control of vehicle active suspension systems with finite-frequency constraint. The control objective is to improve ride comfort within the given frequency range and ensure the hard constraints in the time-domain. Moreover, in order to enhance the robustness of the controller, the control gain perturbation is also considered in controller synthesis. Firstly, a new non-fragile H∞ finite-frequency control condition is established by using generalized Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (GKYP) lemma. Secondly, the static output-feedback control gain is directly derived by using a non-iteration algorithm. Different from the existing iteration LMI results, the static output-feedback design is simple and less conservative. Finally, the proposed control algorithm is applied to a quarter-car active suspension model with actuator dynamics, numerical results are made to show the effectiveness and merits of the proposed method.

  16. Combining support vector machines with linear quadratic regulator adaptation for the online design of an automotive active suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, J-S; Liu, M-T

    2008-01-01

    As a powerful machine-learning approach to pattern recognition problems, the support vector machine (SVM) is known to easily allow generalization. More importantly, it works very well in a high-dimensional feature space. This paper presents a nonlinear active suspension controller which achieves a high level performance by compensating for actuator dynamics. We use a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) to ensure optimal control of nonlinear systems. An LQR is used to solve the problem of state feedback and an SVM is used to address the question of the estimation and examination of the state. These two are then combined and designed in a way that outputs feedback control. The real-time simulation demonstrates that an active suspension using the combined SVM-LQR controller provides passengers with a much more comfortable ride and better road handling

  17. On the achievable performance using variable geometry active secondary suspension systems in commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, W.J.; Besselink, I.G.M.; Teerhuis, A.P.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to further improve driver comfort in commercial vehicles. The variable geometry active suspension offers an interesting option to achieve this in an energy efficient way. However, the optimal control strategy and the overal performance potential remains unclear. The aim of this paper

  18. Solution or suspension - Does it matter for lipid based systems? In vivo studies of chase dosing lipid vehicles with aqueous suspensions of a poorly soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, A T; Holm, R; Müllertz, A

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the potential of co-administering an aqueous suspension with a placebo lipid vehicle, i.e. chase dosing, was investigated in rats relative to the aqueous suspension alone or a solution of the drug in the lipid vehicle. The lipid investigated in the present study was Labrafil M2125CS and three evaluated poorly soluble model compounds, danazol, cinnarizine and halofantrine. For cinnarizine and danazol the oral bioavailability in rats after chase dosing or dosing the compound dissolved in Labrafil M21515CS was similar and significantly higher than for the aqueous suspension. For halofantrine the chase dosed group had a tendency towards a low bioavailability relative to the Labrafil M2125CS solution, but still a significant higher bioavailability relative to the aqueous suspension. This could be due to factors such as a slower dissolution rate in the intestinal phase of halofantrine or a lower solubility in the colloidal structures formed during digestion, but other mechanisms may also be involved. The study thereby supported the potential of chase dosing as a potential dosing regimen in situations where it is beneficial to have a drug in the solid state, e.g. due to chemical stability issues in the lipid vehicle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Steering Maps and Their Application to Dimension-Bounded Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroder, Tobias; Gittsovich, Oleg; Huber, Marcus; Uola, Roope; Gühne, Otfried

    2016-03-01

    The existence of quantum correlations that allow one party to steer the quantum state of another party is a counterintuitive quantum effect that was described at the beginning of the past century. Steering occurs if entanglement can be proven even though the description of the measurements on one party is not known, while the other side is characterized. We introduce the concept of steering maps, which allow us to unlock sophisticated techniques that were developed in regular entanglement detection and to use them for certifying steerability. As an application, we show that this allows us to go beyond even the canonical steering scenario; it enables a generalized dimension-bounded steering where one only assumes the Hilbert space dimension on the characterized side, with no description of the measurements. Surprisingly, this does not weaken the detection strength of very symmetric scenarios that have recently been carried out in experiments.

  20. Magnetic Suspension Technology Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keckler, C.R.; Groom, N.J.; Britcher, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    In order to identify the state of magnetic suspension technology in such areas as rotating systems, pointing of experiments or subsystems, payload isolation, and superconducting materials, a workshop on Magnetic Suspension Technology was held at the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, on 2-4 Feb. 1988. The workshop included five technical sessions in which a total of 24 papers were presented. The technical sessions covered the areas of pointing, isolation, and measurement, rotating systems, modeling and control, and superconductors. A list of attendees is provided. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report

  1. Load-cell based characterization system for a “Violin-Mode” shadow-sensor in advanced LIGO suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which 40 kg test-mass/mirrors are each suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation and a rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which, together, were to bracket the fibre under test. The aim was to detect transverse Violin-Mode resonances in the suspension fibres. Part of the testing procedure involved tensioning a silica fibre sample and translating it transversely through the illuminating NIR beam, so as to measure the DC responsivity of the detection system to fibre displacement. However, an equally important part of the procedure, reported here, was to keep the fibre under test stationary within the beam, whilst trying to detect low-level AC Violin-Mode resonances excited on the fibre, in order to confirm the primary function of the sensor. Therefore, a tensioning system, incorporating a load-cell readout, was built into the test fibre’s holder. The fibre then was excited by a signal generator, audio power amplifier, and distant loudspeaker, and clear resonances were detected. A theory for the expected fundamental resonant frequency as a function of fibre tension was developed and is reported here, and this theory was found to match closely with the detected resonant frequencies as they varied with tension. Consequently, the resonances seen were identified as being proper Violin-Mode fundamental resonances of the fibre, and the operation of the Violin-Mode detection system was validated.

  2. Load-cell based characterization system for a "Violin-Mode" shadow-sensor in advanced LIGO suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2016-07-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which 40 kg test-mass/mirrors are each suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation and a rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which, together, were to bracket the fibre under test. The aim was to detect transverse Violin-Mode resonances in the suspension fibres. Part of the testing procedure involved tensioning a silica fibre sample and translating it transversely through the illuminating NIR beam, so as to measure the DC responsivity of the detection system to fibre displacement. However, an equally important part of the procedure, reported here, was to keep the fibre under test stationary within the beam, whilst trying to detect low-level AC Violin-Mode resonances excited on the fibre, in order to confirm the primary function of the sensor. Therefore, a tensioning system, incorporating a load-cell readout, was built into the test fibre's holder. The fibre then was excited by a signal generator, audio power amplifier, and distant loudspeaker, and clear resonances were detected. A theory for the expected fundamental resonant frequency as a function of fibre tension was developed and is reported here, and this theory was found to match closely with the detected resonant frequencies as they varied with tension. Consequently, the resonances seen were identified as being proper Violin-Mode fundamental resonances of the fibre, and the operation of the Violin-Mode detection system was validated.

  3. Load-cell based characterization system for a “Violin-Mode” shadow-sensor in advanced LIGO suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V. [SUPA (Scottish Universities Physics Alliance) Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which 40 kg test-mass/mirrors are each suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation and a rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which, together, were to bracket the fibre under test. The aim was to detect transverse Violin-Mode resonances in the suspension fibres. Part of the testing procedure involved tensioning a silica fibre sample and translating it transversely through the illuminating NIR beam, so as to measure the DC responsivity of the detection system to fibre displacement. However, an equally important part of the procedure, reported here, was to keep the fibre under test stationary within the beam, whilst trying to detect low-level AC Violin-Mode resonances excited on the fibre, in order to confirm the primary function of the sensor. Therefore, a tensioning system, incorporating a load-cell readout, was built into the test fibre’s holder. The fibre then was excited by a signal generator, audio power amplifier, and distant loudspeaker, and clear resonances were detected. A theory for the expected fundamental resonant frequency as a function of fibre tension was developed and is reported here, and this theory was found to match closely with the detected resonant frequencies as they varied with tension. Consequently, the resonances seen were identified as being proper Violin-Mode fundamental resonances of the fibre, and the operation of the Violin-Mode detection system was validated.

  4. Design and development of a MLS based compact active suspension system, featuring air spring and energy harvesting capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of an novel Magnetic Lead Screw based active suspension system for passenger vehicles, using a new MLS topology. The design is based on performance specifications found from ISO road profiles, with a maximum harvested energy approach. By integrating...... the PMSM motor with the MLS, it possible to construct a very compact design with an integrated air spring. The prototype is build and frictional losses and efficiency for the MLS damper unit are measured. Additional the stall force and stall torque are measured for the build prototype to validate...

  5. Dynamic model and workspace analysis of novel incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naige Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables is introduced in this article. Based on wrench of forces theory and Lagrange’s equation of first kind, the static and dynamics models of incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables are established, respectively. In order to obtain an intuitive understanding of the trajectory analysis, a dynamics model consisting of governing equation and geometric constraint conditions which is a set of the mixed differential-algebraic equation in mathematics is established. A typical feedback controller and an inverse model were set up to estimate the driving function. The effective workspace, which is used to guarantee an efficient swing process, mostly depends on the geometrical shape rather than the volume itself which was calculated by trajectory analysis. In order to estimate system features and ensure a limited range of tension in underconstrained spatial cable system, the probable location of unbalanced loading was evaluated by pointwise evaluation techniques during normal work.

  6. Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.; Chaud, X.; Gautier-Picard, P.

    1996-01-01

    Superconductors, especially high T c ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO

  7. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    fluid-fluid interface [2]. Together with Remco Tuinier, Henk has recently completed a book in this area which is to appear later this year. A major theme in Henk's research is that of phase transitions in lyotropic liquid crystals. Henk, together with Daan Frenkel and Alain Stroobants, realized in the 1980s that a smectic phase in dispersions of rod-like particles can be stable without the presence of attractive interactions, similar to nematic ordering as predicted earlier by Onsager [3]. Together with Gert-Jan Vroege he wrote a seminal review in this area [4]. Henk once said that 'one can only truly develop one colloidal model system in one's career' and in his case this must be that of gibbsite platelets. Initially Henk's group pursued another polymorph of aluminium hydroxide, boehmite, which forms rod-like particles [5], which already displayed nematic liquid crystal phases. The real breakthrough came when the same precursors treated the produced gibbsite platelets slightly differently. These reliably form a discotic nematic phase [6] and, despite the polydispersity in their diameter, a columnar phase [7]. A theme encompassing a wide range of soft matter systems is that of colloidal dynamics and phase transition kinetics. Many colloidal systems have a tendency to get stuck in metastable states, such as gels or glasses. This is a nuisance if one wishes to study phase transitions, but it is of great practical significance. Such issues feature in many of Henk's publications, and with Valerie Anderson he wrote a highly cited review in this area [8]. Henk Lekkerkerker has also invested significant effort into the promotion of synchrotron radiation studies of colloidal suspensions. He was one of the great supporters of the Dutch-Belgian beamline 'DUBBLE' project at the ESRF [9]. He attended one of the very first experiments in Grenoble in 1999, which led to a Nature publication [7]. He was strongly involved in many other experiments which followed and also has been a

  8. Administrative license suspension: Does length of suspension matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, James C; Scherer, Michael

    2017-08-18

    Administrative license revocation (ALR) laws, which provide that the license of a driver with a blood alcohol concentration at or over the illegal limit is subject to an immediate suspension by the state department of motor vehicles, are an example of a traffic law in which the sanction rapidly follows the offense. The power of ALR laws has been attributed to how swiftly the sanction is applied, but does the length of suspension matter? Our objectives were to (a) determine the relationship of the ALR suspension length to the prevalence of drinking drivers relative to sober drivers in fatal crashes and (b) estimate the extent to which the relationship is associated to the general deterrent effect compared to the specific deterrent effect of the law. Data comparing the impact of ALR law implementation and ALR law suspension periods were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques on the ratio of drinking drivers to nondrinking drivers in fatal crashes from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). States with an ALR law with a short suspension period (1-30 days) had a significantly lower drinking driver ratio than states with no ALR law. States with a suspension period of 91-180 days had significantly lower ratios than states with shorter suspension periods, while the three states with suspension lengths of 181 days or longer had significantly lower ratios than states with shorter suspension periods. The implementation of any ALR law was associated with a 13.1% decrease in the drinking/nondrinking driver fatal crash ratio but only a 1.8% decrease in the intoxicated/nonintoxicated fatal crash ratio. The ALR laws and suspension lengths had a significant general deterrent effect, but no specific deterrent effect. States might want to keep (or adopt) ALR laws for their general deterrent effects and pursue alternatives for specific deterrent effects. States with short ALR suspension periods should consider lengthening them to 91 days or longer.

  9. Multiobjective suspension control problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, de A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a (controller) design problem in the field of suspension systems for transport vehicles. A ten degrees-of-freedom model for a tractor-semitrailer vehicle is presented, using parameters derived from a real vehicle, which should be used for design and verification purposes. Road

  10. Simple suspension culture system of human iPS cells maintaining their pluripotency for cardiac cell sheet engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Yuji; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a simple three-dimensional (3D) suspension culture method for the expansion and cardiac differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is reported. The culture methods were easily adapted from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D culture without any additional manipulations. When hiPSCs were directly applied to 3D culture from 2D in a single-cell suspension, only a few aggregated cells were observed. However, after 3 days, culture of the small hiPSC aggregates in a spinner flask at the optimal agitation rate created aggregates which were capable of cell passages from the single-cell suspension. Cell numbers increased to approximately 10-fold after 12 days of culture. The undifferentiated state of expanded hiPSCs was confirmed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR, and the hiPSCs differentiated into three germ layers. When the hiPSCs were subsequently cultured in a flask using cardiac differentiation medium, expression of cardiac cell-specific genes and beating cardiomyocytes were observed. Furthermore, the culture of hiPSCs on Matrigel-coated dishes with serum-free medium containing activin A, BMP4 and FGF-2 enabled it to generate robust spontaneous beating cardiomyocytes and these cells expressed several cardiac cell-related genes, including HCN4, MLC-2a and MLC-2v. This suggests that the expanded hiPSCs might maintain the potential to differentiate into several types of cardiomyocytes, including pacemakers. Moreover, when cardiac cell sheets were fabricated using differentiated cardiomyocytes, they beat spontaneously and synchronously, indicating electrically communicative tissue. This simple culture system might enable the generation of sufficient amounts of beating cardiomyocytes for use in cardiac regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Ride Quality Assessment of Bus Suspension System through Modal Frequency Response Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Kong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The ride dynamic characteristics of an urban bus were investigated through simulations with suspension component characteristics and were validated through field measurements. It was performed on highway road at a constant forward speed. A random vibration bus model with two parallel tracks of terrain profile was synthesized with superposition between the left and right sides as well as time delay between front and rear. The bus frequency response model was introduced with embedded modal extraction data to enhance computation efficiency. The simulation results of the bus model were derived in terms of acceleration PSD and frequency-weighted root mean square acceleration along the vertical axes at three locations, namely, driver side, middle, and rear passenger side, to obtain the overall bus ride performance. Another two sets of new leaf spring design were proposed as suspension parameter analysis. The simulation approach provides reasonably good results in evaluating passenger perception on ride and shows that the proposed new spring design can significantly improve the ride quality of the driver and passengers.

  12. System-spanning dynamically jammed region in response to impact of cornstarch and water suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Sokol, Benjamin; Mukhopadhyay, Shomeek; Maharjan, Rijan; Brown, Eric

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally characterize the structure of concentrated suspensions of cornstarch and water in response to impact. Using surface imaging and particle tracking at the boundary opposite the impactor, we observed that a visible structure and particle flow at the boundary occur with a delay after impact. We show the delay time is about the same time as the strong stress response, confirming that the strong stress response results from deformation of the dynamically jammed structure once it spans between the impactor and a solid boundary. A characterization of this strong stress response is reported in a companion paper [Maharjan, Mukhopadhyay, Allen, Storz, and Brown, Phys. Rev. E 97, 052602 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevE.97.052602]. We observed particle flow in the outer part of the dynamically jammed region at the bottom boundary, with a net transverse displacement of up to about 5% of the impactor displacement, indicating shear at the boundary. Direct imaging of the surface of the outer part of the dynamically jammed region reveals a change in surface structure that appears the same as the result of dilation in other cornstarch suspensions. Imaging also reveals cracks, like a brittle solid. These observations suggest the dynamically jammed structure can temporarily support stress according to an effective modulus, like a soil or dense granular material, along a network of frictional contacts between the impactor and solid boundary.

  13. Automotive mechatronic systems. General developments and examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isermann, R. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungstechnik, FG Regelungstechnik und Prozessautomatisierung

    2006-08-15

    Automobiles are showing an increasing integration of mechanics with digital electronics and information processing. This integration is between the components (hardware) and by the information-driven functions (software), resulting in integrated systems called mechatronic systems. Their development involves finding an optimal balance between the basic mechanical structure, sensor and actuator implementation, communication, automatic information processing and overall control. This contribution summarizes some ongoing developments for mechatronic systems in automobiles, shows design approaches and examples and considers the various embedded control functions and systems integrity. Some examples of automotive mechatronic systems are shown in more detail. Great progress can be observed in braking systems (ABS, ESP), the first brake-by-wire electro-hydraulic brake system (EHB), steering systems (electrical power steering, active front steering) and active suspension systems. (orig.)

  14. Development of active rear steer actuator. Development of four wheel steer actuator for active safety; Active rear steer actuator no kaihatsu. Yobo anzen ni muketa 4WS actuator no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, T [Aisin Seiki Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Recently, ecology, energy saving and safety have become important issues. And Active Safety is spotlighted in vehicle control area. Many researches and developments on four wheel steer system have been done to improve vehicle stability. We have developed the Active Rear Steer system with electromechanical Actuator, which is mass-productive, compact, and high response and durable. 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. STEER Coastal Use Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Use Mapping Project is designed to collect critical information on human activities in and near the St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER). The project...

  16. The beam steering system of the cyclotron U-120K; Sistema razvodki puchkov tsiklotrona U-120K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkova, A; Ivan, J; Trejbal, Z; Dmitrievskij, V P; Pavlov, D V; Chesnov, A F; Chesnova, S I

    1991-12-31

    The calculation of the beam transport system of the isochronous cyclotron U-120K is presented. This system realizes the beam transport with given parameters to six distant targets specializing in the production of radioactive isotopes, the biomedicine investigation, the experimental nuclear physics. At chosen parameters of lenses and bending magnets the beam size is {<=} 1x1 cm and the energy resolution in the monoenergetic line is less than 0.1%. 4 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab.

  17. Portable high-intensity focused ultrasound system with 3D electronic steering, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms: a preclinical study in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Lee, Jae Young; Hwang, Eui Jin; Hwang, In Pyeong; Woo, Sung Min; Lee, Chang Joo; Park, Eun Joo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and accuracy of a new portable ultrasonography-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USg-HIFU) system with a 3-dimensional (3D) electronic steering transducer, a simultaneous ablation and imaging module, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms. To address the accuracy of the transducer, hydrophones in a water chamber were used to assess the generation of sonic fields. An animal study was also performed in five pigs by ablating in vivo thighs by single-point sonication (n=10) or volume sonication (n=10) and ex vivo kidneys by single-point sonication (n=10). Histological and statistical analyses were performed. In the hydrophone study, peak voltages were detected within 1.0 mm from the targets on the y- and z-axes and within 2.0-mm intervals along the x-axis (z-axis, direction of ultrasound propagation; y- and x-axes, perpendicular to the direction of ultrasound propagation). Twenty-nine of 30 HIFU sessions successfully created ablations at the target. The in vivo porcine thigh study showed only a small discrepancy (width, 0.5-1.1 mm; length, 3.0 mm) between the planning ultrasonograms and the pathological specimens. Inordinate thermal damage was not observed in the adjacent tissues or sonic pathways in the in vivo thigh and ex vivo kidney studies. Our study suggests that this new USg-HIFU system may be a safe and accurate technique for ablating soft tissues and encapsulated organs.

  18. Portable high-intensity focused ultrasound system with 3D electronic steering, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms: a preclinical study in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Lee, Jae Young; Hwang, Eui Jin; Hwang, In Pyeong; Woo, Sung Min; Lee, Chang Joo; Park, Eun Joo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Dept. of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and accuracy of a new portable ultrasonography-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USg-HIFU) system with a 3-dimensional (3D) electronic steering transducer, a simultaneous ablation and imaging module, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms. To address the accuracy of the transducer, hydrophones in a water chamber were used to assess the generation of sonic fields. An animal study was also performed in five pigs by ablating in vivo thighs by single-point sonication (n=10) or volume sonication (n=10) and ex vivo kidneys by single-point sonication (n=10). Histological and statistical analyses were performed. In the hydrophone study, peak voltages were detected within 1.0 mm from the targets on the y- and z-axes and within 2.0-mm intervals along the x-axis (z-axis, direction of ultrasound propagation; y- and x-axes, perpendicular to the direction of ultrasound propagation). Twenty-nine of 30 HIFU sessions successfully created ablations at the target. The in vivo porcine thigh study showed only a small discrepancy (width, 0.5-1.1 mm; length, 3.0 mm) between the planning ultrasonograms and the pathological specimens. Inordinate thermal damage was not observed in the adjacent tissues or sonic pathways in the in vivo thigh and ex vivo kidney studies. Our study suggests that this new USg-HIFU system may be a safe and accurate technique for ablating soft tissues and encapsulated organs.

  19. Measuring the Impact of Gastrointestinal Variables on the Systemic Outcome of Two Suspensions of Posaconazole by a PBPK Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, Bart; Talattof, Arjang; Paixão, Paulo; Bermejo, Marival; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Löbenberg, Raimar; Amidon, Gordon L

    2018-03-29

    For the last two decades, the application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models has grown exponentially in the field of oral absorption and in a regulatory context. Although these models are widely used, their predictive power should be validated and optimized in order to rely on these models and to know exactly what is going on "under the hood". In this study, an automated sensitivity analysis (ASA) was performed for 11 gastrointestinal (GI) variables that are integrated into the PBPK software program Simcyp®. The model of interest was a previously validated workspace that was able to predict the intraluminal and systemic behavior of two different suspensions of posaconazole in the Simcyp® Simulator. The sensitivity of the following GI parameters was evaluated in this model: gastric and duodenal pH, gastric and duodenal bicarbonate concentrations (reflecting buffer capacity), duodenal bile salts concentration, gastric emptying, the interdigestive migrating motor complex (IMMC), small intestinal transit time (SITT), gastric and jejunal volumes, and permeability. The most sensitive parameters were gastric/duodenal pH and gastric emptying, for both suspensions. The outcome of the sensitivity analyses highlights the important GI variables that must be integrated into an in vivo predictive dissolution test to help and create a rational and scientific framework/design for product development of novel and generic drug products.

  20. Failure analysis of a helical compression spring for a heavy vehicle's suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youli Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed why a compression coil spring fractured at the transition position from the bearing coil to the first active coil in service, while the nominal stress here should always be much less than that at the inside coil position of a fully active coil. Visual observations indicated that a wear scar was formed on the first active coil and the fracture surface showed radiating ridges emanating from the wear scar. Scanning electron microscopy examination showed crescent shaped region and beach marks, typical of fatigue failure. ZnCaph phosphate layer and painting around the contact zone were worn out due to contact and friction and resulted in corrosion and corrosion pits induced local stress concentration. Stress analysis indicated severe stress singularities at the edges of the contact zone, which facilitated cycle slip and fatigue crack nucleation. Recommendations were also made for improving the fatigue performance of the suspension springs.

  1. Conditional steering under the von Neumann scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kaushiki; Paul, Biswajit; Karmakar, Sumana; Sarkar, Debasis; Mukherjee, Amit; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Roy, Arup

    2017-08-01

    In Phys. Lett. A 166, 293 (1992), 10.1016/0375-9601(92)90711-T, Popescu and Rohrlich characterized nonlocality of pure n -partite entangled systems by studying bipartite violation of local realism when n -2 number of parties perform projective measurements on their particles. A pertinent question in this scenario is whether similar characterization is possible for n -partite mixed entangled states also. In the present work we have followed an analogous approach so as to explore whether given a tripartite mixed entangled state the conditional bipartite states obtained by performing projective measurement on the third party demonstrate a weaker form of nonlocality, quantum steering. We also compare this phenomenon of conditional steering with existing notions of tripartite correlations.

  2. Prilog optimalnom projektovanju aktivnog sistema za oslanjanje vozila / A contribution to optimal design of vehicle active suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Demić

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available U ovom radu prikazanje sistem za aktivno oslanjanje vozila, uz korišćenje ravanskog modela vozila, bez filtera u povratnim spregama sistema za regulaciju. Za optimizaciju parametara PI kontrolera korišćena je metoda stohastičke parametarske optimizacije. Cilj optimizacije bio je istovremeno minimiziranje vibracijskih ubrzanja oslonjene mase i standardnog odstupanja sila u kontaktima točkova i tla, što poboljšava udobnost i ponašanje vozila na putu. / In this paper, an active suspension system is developed by use of a vehicle plane model without feedback filters in control system. A method of stochastic parameters optimization has been utilized in order to optimize PI controller parameters. The basic optimization goal was a simultaneous minimization of sprung mass acceleration and standard deviation of forces in tire-to-ground contact area, so as to improve vehicle comfort and handling performances.

  3. Self-testing through EPR-steering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šupić, Ivan; Hoban, Matty J

    2016-01-01

    The verification of quantum devices is an important aspect of quantum information, especially with the emergence of more advanced experimental implementations of quantum computation and secure communication. Within this, the theory of device-independent robust self-testing via Bell tests has reached a level of maturity now that many quantum states and measurements can be verified without direct access to the quantum systems: interaction with the devices is solely classical. However, the requirements for this robust level of verification are daunting and require high levels of experimental accuracy. In this paper we discuss the possibility of self-testing where we only have direct access to one part of the quantum device. This motivates the study of self-testing via EPR-steering, an intermediate form of entanglement verification between full state tomography and Bell tests. Quantum non-locality implies EPR-steering so results in the former can apply in the latter, but we ask what advantages may be gleaned from the latter over the former given that one can do partial state tomography? We show that in the case of self-testing a maximally entangled two-qubit state, or ebit, EPR-steering allows for simpler analysis and better error tolerance than in the case of full device-independence. On the other hand, this improvement is only a constant improvement and (up to constants) is the best one can hope for. Finally, we indicate that the main advantage in self-testing based on EPR-steering could be in the case of self-testing multi-partite quantum states and measurements. For example, it may be easier to establish a tensor product structure for a particular party’s Hilbert space even if we do not have access to their part of the global quantum system. (paper)

  4. Creation of quantum steering by interaction with a common bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhe; Xu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Bo

    2018-05-01

    By applying the hierarchy equation method, we computationally study the creation of quantum steering in a two-qubit system interacting with a common bosonic bath. The calculation does not adopt conventional approximate approaches, such as the Born, Markov, rotating-wave, and other perturbative approximations. Three kinds of quantum steering, i.e., Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering (EPRS), temporal steering (TS), and spatiotemporal steering (STS), are considered. Since the initial state of the two qubits is chosen as a product state, there does not exist EPRS at the beginning. During the evolution, we find that STS as well as EPRS are generated at the same time. An inversion relationship between STS and TS is revealed. By varying the system-bath coupling strength from weak to ultrastrong regimes, we find the nonmonotonic dependence of STS, TS, and EPRS on the coupling strength. It is interesting to study the dynamics of the three kinds of quantum steering by using an exactly numerical method, which is not considered in previous researches.

  5. Mechanical design aspects of a "Long-Waveguide" version of the remote steering ECRH upper port launcher for ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronden, D. M. S.; van den Berg, M.; Bongers, W. A.; Elzendoorn, B. S. Q.; M. F. Graswinckel,; Lamers, B.; Van Nigtevecht, K.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.; Henderson, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The current status of the mechanical design of the remote steering electron cyclotron resonance heating upper port launching system for ITER is presented. Although an alternative front steering launcher has now been selected as the reference design for ITER, the development of a remote steering

  6. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beier, Eugene; /Pennsylvania U.; Butler, Joel; /Fermilab; Dawson, Sally; /Brookhaven; Edwards, Helen; /Fermilab; Himel, Thomas; /SLAC; Holmes, Stephen; /Fermilab; Kim, Young-Kee; /Fermilab /Chicago U.; Lankford, Andrew; /UC, Irvine; McGinnis, David; /Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei; /Fermilab; Raubenheimer, Tor; /SLAC /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOVA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the

  7. A prospective, randomized, controlled study of a suspension positioning system used with elderly bedridden patients with neurogenic fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mei-Yin; Lin, Shi-Quan; zhou, Ye-Wen; Zhou, Ye-Wen; Liu, Si-Ya; Lin, Ai; Lin, Xi-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Elderly patients with acute neurological impairment are prone to severe disability, fecal incontinence (FI), and resultant complications. A suspension positioning system (SPS), based on the orthopedic suspension traction system commonly used for conservative treatment of pediatric femoral fracture and uncomplicated adult pelvic fracture, was developed to facilitate FI management in patients immobilized secondary to an acute neurological condition. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the system, a prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted between October 2009 and July 2012. Two hundred (200) elderly, bedridden, hospitalized patients with acute, nonchronic neurological impairment were randomly assigned to receive routine FI nursing care (ie, individualized dietary modification, psychological support, health education, and social support for caregivers and family members [control group]) or routine incontinence care plus the SPS (experimental group) during the day. Rates of perianal fecal contamination, skin breakdown, incontinence associated dermatitis, pressure ulcer development, and lower urinary tract infection (LUTI) were significantly lower in the SPS than in the control group (P <0.05). Length of hospitalization and costs of care were also lower in the SPS group (P <0.05). Patient quality-of-life (QoL) and FI QoL scores were similar at baseline but significantly higher (better) at the 6-month follow-up interview in the SPS than in the control group (P <0.05). In this study, the rate of FI-associated morbidities was lower and 6-month patient QoL scores were higher in the SPS than in the control group. No adverse events were observed, and all patients completed the study. Further clinical studies are needed to examine the long-term effects of SPS use among neurologically impaired FI patients.

  8. Comparative analysis of the operation efficiency of the continuous and relay control systems of a multi-axle wheeled vehicle suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhileykin, M. M.; Kotiev, G. O.; Nagatsev, M. V.

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of the multi-axle wheeled vehicles (MWV) automotive engineers are increasing their cruising speed. One of the promising ways to improve ride comfort of the MWV is the development of the dynamic active suspension systems and control laws for such systems. Here, by the dynamic control systems we mean the systems operating in real time mode and using current (instantaneous) values of the state variables. The aim of the work is to develop the MWV suspension optimal control laws that would reduce vibrations on the driver’s seat at kinematic excitation. The authors have developed the optimal control laws for damping the oscillations of the MWV body. The developed laws allow reduction of the vibrations on the driver’s seat and increase in the maximum speed of the vehicle. The laws are characterized in that they allow generating the control inputs in real time mode. The authors have demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed control laws by means of mathematical simulation of the MWV driving over unpaved road with kinematic excitation. The proposed optimal control laws can be used in the MWV suspension control systems with magnetorheological shock absorbers or controlled hydropneumatic springs. Further evolution of the research line can be the development of the energy-efficient MWV suspension control systems with continuous control input on the vehicle body.

  9. Multipass Steering: A Reference Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Michael; Tiefenback, Michael

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a reference implementation of a protocol to compute corrections that bring all beams in one of the CEBAF linear accelerators (linac) to axis, including, with a larger tolerance, the lowest energy pass using measured beam trajectory data. This method relies on linear optics as representation of the system; we treat beamline perturbations as magnetic field errors localized to regions between cryomodules, providing the same transverse momentum kick to each beam. We produce a vector of measured beam position data with which we left-multiply the pseudo-inverse of a coefficient array, A, that describes the transport of the beam through the linac using parameters that include the magnetic offsets of the quadrupole magnets, the instrumental offsets of the BPMs, and the beam initial conditions. This process is repeated using a reduced array to produce values that can be applied to the available correcting magnets and beam initial conditions. We show that this method is effective in steering the beam to a straight axis along the linac by using our values in elegant, the accelerator simulation program, on a model of the linac in question. The algorithms in this reference implementation provide a tool for systematic diagnosis and cataloging of perturbations in the beam line. Supported by Jefferson Lab, Old Dominion University, NSF, DOE.

  10. Vibration isolation analysis of new design OEM damper for malaysia vehicle suspension system featuring MR fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuh, M. H.; Muhamad, P.; Norfazrina, H. M. Y.; Ismail, M. A.; Tanasta, Z.

    2018-01-01

    The applications of semi-active damper employing magnetorheological (MR) fluids keep increasing in fulfilling the demand to control undesired vibration effect. The aim of this study is to introduce the new design of damper for Malaysian vehicle model as well to evaluate its effectiveness in promoting comfort. The vibration isolation performance of the OEM damper featuring MR fluid was analysed physically under real road profile excitation experimentally. An experiment using quarter car rig suspension and LMS SCADAS Mobile was conducted to demonstrate the influence of current in controlling the characteristics of MR fluid in alter the damping behaviour under 5 cm bump impact. Subsequently, the displacement values were measured with respect to time. The new design OEM damper featuring MR fluid was validated by comparing the data with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) passive damper results under the same approach of testing. Comparison of numerical data of the new design OEM damper shown that it can reduce the excitation amplitude up to 40% compared to those obtained by OEM passive damper. Finally, the new design OEM damper featuring MR fluid has effectively isolated the disturbance from the road profile and control the output force.

  11. Modelling Supplementation Strategies for Beef Steer Rearing and Fattening Systems in Southern Chile Modelación de Estrategias de Suplementación en la Recría y Engorda de Novillos en el Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Toro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model was developed to analyze beef production systems in Southern Chile. The study considered the identification of the main components of systems under different beef steer management strategies, using pasture with or without supplementation and back grounding cattle on pasture followed by a winter period of confined feeding with pasture silage and concentrates. Validation of model outputs using 200 kg LW Hereford steers against real experimental data showed no significant differences (P ≥ 0.01 between simulated and observed final weights. In order to analyze the interaction between the stocking rate (SR and supplementation, three SR of 2, 2.5 and 3 steers ha-1 with and without pasture silage supplementation at the rate of 5 kg DMd-1 steer-1 for the length of the entire period were simulated. Means were compared by the least significant difference (LSD, P ≤ 0.05. Significant differences were found in terms of final weights, which decreased with increasing SR regardless of the supplementation level, although silage supplementation tended to reduce differences between SR. A second set of simulation runs was carried out to simulate on-farm finishing of the steers through a final phase of confined feeding based on a ration of silage and concentrates. Final weights differed between SR and systems and results showed that the optimum corresponded to 2.5 steers ha-1, since at this SR the largest income corresponded to the smallest mean cost. It is concluded that a stocking rate of 2.5 steers ha-1 is feasible if winter supplementation is available, independently of a finishing period in feedlot.Un modelo matemático fue desarrollado para analizar sistemas de producción de carne bovina en el Sur de Chile. El estudio consideró la identificación de los componentes en diferentes estrategias usadas en novillos de carne, usando praderas con y sin suplementación y la recría seguida por una engorda a corral en invierno con ensilaje de

  12. Consideration on the dynamics of course-driver-vehicle system of four-wheel steering vehicles. annex. Static directional stability and approximation of general motion by chain of steady-state circular turns; 4WS sha no shinro-driver-jidoshakei no undo rikigaku ni kansuru ichikosatsu. Seiteki hoko anteisei oyobi teijoen senkai de tsunagu kinjisei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togo, K [Yomiuri Koto Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo (Japan); Kondo, M [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    One of the authors intended before to understand the fundamentals of automobile steering emphasizing the importance of the driver`s forward view point. This idea was called Kondo`s hypothesis by several Professors and has been used and developed by many researchers in Japan. Using this thought, dynamical properties and steering of four-wheel steering vehicles, of which two points of the vehicle`s body can trace the designated course, are studied in this paper. Some numerical calculations have shown the tendency similar to the actual steering now used by a Japanese manufacturer. This idea would be useful in the automatic driving systems such as ITS. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 1 tab.

  13. Human Systems Priority Steering Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    NDIA 8th Annual Disruptive Technologies Conference 8 November 2011 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the NDIA Disruptive Technologies Conference

  14. Three-axial evaluation of whole-body vibration in agricultural telehandlers: The effects of an active cab-suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffaro, Federica; Preti, Christian; Micheletti Cremasco, Margherita; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2017-10-01

    Agricultural and earth-moving machinery operators are particularly exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV), which has severe effects on health and affects comfort and performance. Few studies have investigated vibrational safety and comfort issues in telescopic handlers. These vehicles are widespread in many off-road applications-such as construction, agriculture, and mining-used to handle loads and to lift persons and equipment. This study investigated the effects of an active hydro-pneumatic cab-suspension system fitted to a telehandler on a driver's vibration exposure along the x-, y-, and z-axes, through both objective and subjective assessments. Sixteen healthy professional telehandler drivers took part in the study. Objective measurements were acquired at the operator's seat, and subjective ratings were taken while participants drove the telehandler with either a deactivated or activated suspension system at 12 kph on an ISO 5008 smooth track. The results showed that the activation of the cab-suspension system reduced the root-mean-square acceleration along the x- and z-axes (p =.038 and p =.000, respectively). Moreover, the frequency analysis showed a reduction in the acceleration along the z-axis in the range of 2-25 Hz (p suspension systems are discussed.

  15. Motion stability of high-speed maglev systems in consideration of aerodynamic effects: a study of a single magnetic suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Yu, Yang

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the intrinsic mechanism of aerodynamic effects on the motion stability of a high-speed maglev system was investigated. The concept of a critical speed for maglev vehicles considering the aerodynamic effect is proposed. The study was carried out based on a single magnetic suspension system, which is convenient for proposing relevant concepts and obtaining explicit expressions. This study shows that the motion stability of the suspension system is closely related to the vehicle speed when aerodynamic effects are considered. With increases of the vehicle speed, the stability behavior of the system changes. At a certain vehicle speed, the stability of the system reaches a critical state, followed by instability. The speed corresponding to the critical state is the critical speed. Analysis reveals that when the system reaches the critical state, it takes two forms, with two critical speeds, and thus two expressions for the critical speed are obtained. The conditions of the existence of the critical speed were determined, and the effects of the control parameters and the lift coefficient on the critical speed were analyzed by numerical analysis. The results show that the first critical speed appears when the aerodynamic force is upward, and the second critical speed appears when the aerodynamic force is downward. Moreover, both critical speeds decrease with the increase of the lift coefficient.

  16. Bulling among yearling feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, R E; Jensen, R; Braddy, P M; Horton, D P; Christie, R M

    1976-09-01

    In a survey to determine the cause of illness and deaths among yearling feedlot cattle, bulling was found to be one of the major problems. During the years 1971-1974, 54,913 (2.88%) steers became bullers and represented an annual loss of around +325,000. Some of the causes of bulling were found to be hormones, either as implants or in the feed. In 1974, from 1,988 necropsies, it was determined that 83 steers died from riding injuries.

  17. Steering assistance for backing up articulated vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Zoebel

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Articulated vehicles belong to the category of nonholonomous wheelers. Under the aspect of control theory they require a sophisticated handling. This corresponds to the experience of unexercised drivers, for instance maneuvering a car and its caravan into a parking box. In this context some adequate advice for the right steering movements would give an appreciable assistance. Here a visual assistance is proposed and realized. The decisive advice for the driver is derived from kinematic modeling. The system is designed to be integrated into standard cars and trucks. For testing purposes the actual system has been incorporated into an existing backing up simulator.

  18. High-yield synthesis of vaterite microparticles in gypsum suspension system via ultrasonic probe vibration/magnetic stirring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Pan, Zihe; Cheng, Huaigang; Chen, Zuliang; Cheng, Fangqin

    2018-06-01

    Vaterite-type calcium carbonate particles have some unique properties such as high hydrophilicity, large surface areas, and hierarchical structures consisting of primary vaterite particles in comparison with calcite or aragonite-type polymorphs. In this paper, gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) suspension is used to synthesize micro-sized vaterite CaCO3 through magnetic stirring (MS) and ultrasonic probe vibration (UPV) methods. The effects of ammonia concentration, CO2 flow rate, solid-liquid ratio on the gypsum carbonation process, mineral phase composition, morphology and particle size distribution of CaCO3 are investigated. The results show that the carbonation process is significantly influenced by ammonia concentration, CO2 flow rate and ultrasound. Comparing with magnetic stirring, ultrasonic probe vibration take less time to reach the complete carbonate reaction. Gypsum is transformed to vaterite with the conversion rate about ∼95% when the mole ratio of NH4+/Ca2+ is 2.4 otherwise the carbonation reaction was uncompleted with gypsum residues left. Comparing with MS method, the UPV method resulted in smaller size and narrower size distribution of as-prepared microparticles and approximately 80% reduction of the particle size was achieved. It is established that increasing the solid-liquid ratio resulted in larger particle size in MS system and smaller particle size in UPV system. Increasing CO2 flow rate caused the particle size decreased in MS system and increased in UPV system.

  19. IMPROVEMENT EFFORTS TO LEARN LESSONS ACTIVITIES CHASSIS POWER TRANSFER STANDARD COMPETENCE AND CORRECT STEERING SYSTEM WITH LEARNING METHOD DISCOVERY INQUIRY CLASS XIB SMK MUHAMMADIYAH GAMPING ACADEMIC YEAR 2013/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Suharto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study to determine the increase learners' learning activities subjects chassis and power transfer competency standard steering system repair discovery learning through the implementation of class XI inquiry Lightweight Vehicle Technology SMK Muhammadiyah Gamping, Sleman academic year 2013/2014. This research including action research   Research conducted at SMK Muhammadiyah Gamping XIB class academic year 2013/2014 with a sample of 26 students. Techniques of data collection using questionnaire sheet, observation sheets and documentation to determine the increase in student activity. Instrument validation study using experts judgment. Analysis using descriptive statistics using the technique .   The results showed that the increased activity of the first cycle to the second cycle include an increase of 57.7 % Visual activities; Oral activities amounted to 61.6 %; Listening activities amounted to 23.04 %; Writing activities by 8.7 %; Mental activities of 73.1 %; Emotional activities of 42.3 % ( for the spirit of the students in learning activities ; Motor activities amounted to -7.7 % ( decrease negative activity . Based on these results can be known to most students in SMK Muhammadiyah Gamping gave a positive opinion on the use of inquiry and discovery learning method has a view that the use of inquiry discovery learning methods can be useful for students and schools themselves. Learners who have a good perception of the use of discovery learning method of inquiry he has known and fully aware of the standards of achievement of competence theory fix the steering system. Learning discovery learning methods on achievement of competency standards inquiry repair steering systems theory pleased with the learning process, they are also able to: 1 increase the motivation to learn, 2 improving learning achievement; 3 enhancing creativity; 4 listen, respect, and accept the opinion of the participants other students; 5 reduce boredom

  20. Demand side management using profile steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Toersche, Hermen; Hoogsteen, Gerwin; van der Klauw, Thijs; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2015-01-01

    Many Demand Side Management (DSM) approaches use energy prices as steering signals. This paper shows that such steering signals may result in power quality problems and high losses. As an alternative, this paper proposes to use desired (e.g., flat) power profiles as steering signals and presents an

  1. An AC modulated near infrared gain calibration system for a "Violin-Mode" transimpedance amplifier, intended for advanced LIGO suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2016-07-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which a 40 kg test-mass/mirror is suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation, and a "tall-thin" rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which together were to bracket the fibre under test. The photodiode was positioned so as to be sensitive (primarily) to transverse "Violin-Mode" vibrations of such a fibre, via the oscillatory movement of the shadow cast by the fibre, as this moved across the face of the detector. In this prototype shadow sensing system the photodiode was interfaced to a purpose-built transimpedance amplifier, this having both AC and DC outputs. A quasi-static calibration was made of the sensor's DC responsivity, i.e., incremental rate of change of output voltage versus fibre position, by slowly scanning a fused-silica fibre sample transversely through the illuminating beam. The work reported here concerns the determination of the sensor's more important AC (Violin-Mode) responsivity. Recognition of the correspondence between direct AC modulation of the source, and actual Violin-Mode signals, and of the transformative role of the AC/DC gain ratio for the amplifier, at any modulation frequency, f, resulted in the construction of the AC/DC calibration source described here. A method for determining in practice the transimpedance AC/DC gain ratio of the photodiode and amplifier, using this source, is illustrated by a specific numerical example, and the gain ratio for the prototype sensing system is reported over the frequency range 1 Hz-300 kHz. In fact, a maximum DC responsivity of 1.26 kV.m-1 was measured using the prototype photodiode sensor and amplifier discussed here. Therefore, the measured AC/DC transimpedance gain ratio

  2. An AC modulated near infrared gain calibration system for a "Violin-Mode" transimpedance amplifier, intended for advanced LIGO suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N A; Tokmakov, K V

    2016-07-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which a 40 kg test-mass/mirror is suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation, and a "tall-thin" rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which together were to bracket the fibre under test. The photodiode was positioned so as to be sensitive (primarily) to transverse "Violin-Mode" vibrations of such a fibre, via the oscillatory movement of the shadow cast by the fibre, as this moved across the face of the detector. In this prototype shadow sensing system the photodiode was interfaced to a purpose-built transimpedance amplifier, this having both AC and DC outputs. A quasi-static calibration was made of the sensor's DC responsivity, i.e., incremental rate of change of output voltage versus fibre position, by slowly scanning a fused-silica fibre sample transversely through the illuminating beam. The work reported here concerns the determination of the sensor's more important AC (Violin-Mode) responsivity. Recognition of the correspondence between direct AC modulation of the source, and actual Violin-Mode signals, and of the transformative role of the AC/DC gain ratio for the amplifier, at any modulation frequency, f, resulted in the construction of the AC/DC calibration source described here. A method for determining in practice the transimpedance AC/DC gain ratio of the photodiode and amplifier, using this source, is illustrated by a specific numerical example, and the gain ratio for the prototype sensing system is reported over the frequency range 1 Hz-300 kHz. In fact, a maximum DC responsivity of 1.26 kV.m(-1) was measured using the prototype photodiode sensor and amplifier discussed here. Therefore, the measured AC/DC transimpedance gain

  3. Eyelid reanimation with gold weight implant and tendon sling suspension: evaluation of excursion and velocity using the FACIAL CLIMA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the efficacy of static techniques, namely gold weight implant and tendon sling, in the reanimation of the paralytic eyelid. Upper eyelid rehabilitation in terms of excursion and blinking velocity is performed using the automatic motion capture system, FACIAL CLIMA. Seventy-four patients underwent a total of 101 procedures including 58 upper eyelid gold weight implants and 43 lower eyelid tendon suspension with 27 patients undergoing both procedures. The presence of lagophtalmos, eye dryness, corneal ulcer, epiphora and lower lid ptosis/ectropion was assessed preoperatively. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare preoperative versus postoperative measurements of upper eyelid excursion and blinking velocity determined with FACIAL CLIMA. Significance was set at p CLIMA revealed significant improvement of eyelid excursion and velocity of blinking (p CLIMA system is a reliable method to quantify upper eyelid excursion and blinking velocity and to detect the exact position of the lower eyelid. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a falling ball rheometer with applications to opaque systems: measurements of the rheology of suspensions of rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, R.L.; Mondy, L.A.; Stoker, G.G.; Milliken, W.J.; Graham, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    With falling ball rheometry, we have measured the apparent relative viscosity of suspensions of large, neutrally buoyant, rigid rods in a viscous Newtonian fluid, while approximately maintaining the rods in a randomly oriented configuration. A new technique for measuring the time of flight of a ball between two positions is used. This computerized technique, based upon an eddy current detector, enables us to determine the position of a metallic (nonmagnetic) ball falling through an opaque suspension, with high accuracy (less than 1.5% error). The rods for the suspensions had a nominal aspect ratio of 10 and experiments were carried out at a single volume fraction, 0.05. Two populations of rods were used to having nominal diameters of 1.5875 mm and 3.175 mm. To within the errors of these experiments, suspensions from both populations had the same relative viscosity, with the overall average being 1.457. This viscosity was significantly different from that of a similar suspension (volume fraction=0.05) of rods of nominal aspect ratio 20 and it agreed well with theoretical results for the viscosity of a dilute suspension of randomly oriented rods

  5. Development and Application of Binary Suspensions in the Ternary System Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 for S-HVOF Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Annegret; Kratzsch, Robert; Barbosa, Maria; Kulissa, Nick; Kunze, Oliver; Toma, Filofteia-Laura

    2018-04-01

    Compositions in the system Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 are among the most used ceramic materials for thermally sprayed coating solutions. Cr2O3 coatings present good sliding wear resistance; Al2O3 coatings show excellent insulation behavior and TiO2 striking corrosion properties. In order to combine these properties, coatings containing more than one oxide are highly interesting. The conventional spraying process is limited to the availability of binary feedstock powders with defined compositions. The use of suspensions offers the opportunity for tailor-made chemical compositions: within the triangle of Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3, each mixture of oxides can be created. Criteria for the selection of raw materials as well as the relevant aspects for the development of binary suspensions in the Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 system to be used as feedstock for thermal spraying are presented. This formulation of binary suspensions required the development of water-based single-oxide suspensions with suitable behavior; otherwise, the interaction between the particles while mixing could lead up to a formation of agglomerates, which affect both the stability of the spray process and the coating properties. For the validation of this formulation procedure, binary Cr2O3-TiO2 and Al2O3-TiO2 suspensions were developed and sprayed using the S-HVOF process. The binary coatings were characterized and discussed in terms of microstructure and microhardness.

  6. Development and Application of Binary Suspensions in the Ternary System Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 for S-HVOF Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Annegret; Kratzsch, Robert; Barbosa, Maria; Kulissa, Nick; Kunze, Oliver; Toma, Filofteia-Laura

    2018-03-01

    Compositions in the system Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 are among the most used ceramic materials for thermally sprayed coating solutions. Cr2O3 coatings present good sliding wear resistance; Al2O3 coatings show excellent insulation behavior and TiO2 striking corrosion properties. In order to combine these properties, coatings containing more than one oxide are highly interesting. The conventional spraying process is limited to the availability of binary feedstock powders with defined compositions. The use of suspensions offers the opportunity for tailor-made chemical compositions: within the triangle of Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3, each mixture of oxides can be created. Criteria for the selection of raw materials as well as the relevant aspects for the development of binary suspensions in the Cr2O3-TiO2-Al2O3 system to be used as feedstock for thermal spraying are presented. This formulation of binary suspensions required the development of water-based single-oxide suspensions with suitable behavior; otherwise, the interaction between the particles while mixing could lead up to a formation of agglomerates, which affect both the stability of the spray process and the coating properties. For the validation of this formulation procedure, binary Cr2O3-TiO2 and Al2O3-TiO2 suspensions were developed and sprayed using the S-HVOF process. The binary coatings were characterized and discussed in terms of microstructure and microhardness.

  7. Dissipation induced asymmetric steering of distant atomic ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guangling; Tan, Huatang; Chen, Aixi

    2018-04-01

    The asymmetric steering effects of separated atomic ensembles denoted by the effective bosonic modes have been explored by the means of quantum reservoir engineering in the setting of the cascaded cavities, in each of which an atomic ensemble is involved. It is shown that the steady-state asymmetric steering of the mesoscopic objects is unconditionally achieved via the dissipation of the cavities, by which the nonlocal interaction occurs between two atomic ensembles, and the direction of steering could be easily controlled through variation of certain tunable system parameters. One advantage of the present scheme is that it could be rather robust against parameter fluctuations, and does not require the accurate control of evolution time and the original state of the system. Furthermore, the double-channel Raman transitions between the long-lived atomic ground states are used and the atomic ensembles act as the quantum network nodes, which makes our scheme insensitive to the collective spontaneous emission of atoms.

  8. Collision-model approach to steering of an open driven qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Konstantin; Luoma, Kimmo; Strunz, Walter T.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate quantum steering of an open quantum system by measurements on its environment in the framework of collision models. As an example we consider a coherently driven qubit dissipatively coupled to a bath. We construct local nonadaptive and adaptive as well as nonlocal measurement scenarios specifying explicitly the measured observable on the environment. Our approach shows transparently how the conditional evolution of the open system depends on the type of the measurement scenario and the measured observables. These can then be optimized for steering. The nonlocal measurement scenario leads to maximal violation of the used steering inequality at zero temperature. Further, we investigate the robustness of the constructed scenarios against thermal noise. We find generally that steering becomes harder at higher temperatures. Surprisingly, the system can be steered even when bipartite entanglement between the system and individual subenvironments vanishes.

  9. The Analysis of The Fault of Electrical Power Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis the common fault types of primary Electrical Power Steering system, meanwhile classify every fault. It provides the basis for further troubleshooting and maintenance. At the same time this paper propose a practical working principle of fault-tolerant, in order to make the EPS system more security and durability.

  10. Predictions of Helmet Pad Suspension System Performance using Isolated Pad Impact Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    Equation 2 and Equation 3, respectively. 3. METHOD The primary method of data collection for this report is detailed in the 2008 Joint Live Fire ...tests and the helmet system tests (see Figure 3). All testing was performed with a monorail drop tower (see Figure 4) at three conditioning...right) and system test setup (right and center left) Figure 5. MEP monorail drop test setup with a hemispherical impactor (left and center left

  11. Magnetic levitation/suspension system by high-temperature superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, I.; Hsu, J.; Jamn, G.; Lin, C.E.; Wu, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, with the advance of materials processing techniques, such as top-seeding and melt-texturing (TSMT) method, very large single-grained Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) samples up to several centimeters in diameter can be produced. Each sample is capable of levitating over kilograms of weight. A HTS magnetic levitation (MagLev) transportation prototype has been constructed at National Cheng-Kung University (NCKU) to validate the concept of HTS-MagLev system based on Meissner effect. This HTS-MagLev is an inherent stable levitation system, unlike traditional MagLev system that requires sensors and feedback circuits to dynamically adjust its unstable levitation position. In this report, the results of various magnetic levitation parameters, such as different permanent magnet configurations, relative levitation stability, levitation force, etc., as well as magnetic field intensity and distribution will be discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. A Parallel and Distributed Surrogate Model Implementation for Computational Steering

    KAUST Repository

    Butnaru, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the influence of multiple parameters in a complex simulation setting is a difficult task. In the ideal case, the scientist can freely steer such a simulation and is immediately presented with the results for a certain configuration of the input parameters. Such an exploration process is however not possible if the simulation is computationally too expensive. For these cases we present in this paper a scalable computational steering approach utilizing a fast surrogate model as substitute for the time-consuming simulation. The surrogate model we propose is based on the sparse grid technique, and we identify the main computational tasks associated with its evaluation and its extension. We further show how distributed data management combined with the specific use of accelerators allows us to approximate and deliver simulation results to a high-resolution visualization system in real-time. This significantly enhances the steering workflow and facilitates the interactive exploration of large datasets. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Application of an automated wireless structural monitoring system for long-span suspension bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, M.; Lynch, J. P.; Linden, G. W. van der; Hipley, P.; Sheng, L.-H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an automated wireless structural monitoring system installed at the New Carquinez Bridge (NCB). The designed system utilizes a dense network of wireless sensors installed in the bridge but remotely controlled by a hierarchically designed cyber-environment. The early efforts have included performance verification of a dense network of wireless sensors installed on the bridge and the establishment of a cellular gateway to the system for remote access from the internet. Acceleration of the main bridge span was the primary focus of the initial field deployment of the wireless monitoring system. An additional focus of the study is on ensuring wireless sensors can survive for long periods without human intervention. Toward this end, the life-expectancy of the wireless sensors has been enhanced by embedding efficient power management schemes in the sensors while integrating solar panels for power harvesting. The dynamic characteristics of the NCB under daily traffic and wind loads were extracted from the vibration response of the bridge deck and towers. These results have been compared to a high-fidelity finite element model of the bridge.

  14. Application of AN Automated Wireless Structural Monitoring System for Long-Span Suspension Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, M.; Lynch, J. P.; van der Linden, G. W.; Hipley, P.; Sheng, L.-H.

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes an automated wireless structural monitoring system installed at the New Carquinez Bridge (NCB). The designed system utilizes a dense network of wireless sensors installed in the bridge but remotely controlled by a hierarchically designed cyber-environment. The early efforts have included performance verification of a dense network of wireless sensors installed on the bridge and the establishment of a cellular gateway to the system for remote access from the internet. Acceleration of the main bridge span was the primary focus of the initial field deployment of the wireless monitoring system. An additional focus of the study is on ensuring wireless sensors can survive for long periods without human intervention. Toward this end, the life-expectancy of the wireless sensors has been enhanced by embedding efficient power management schemes in the sensors while integrating solar panels for power harvesting. The dynamic characteristics of the NCB under daily traffic and wind loads were extracted from the vibration response of the bridge deck and towers. These results have been compared to a high-fidelity finite element model of the bridge.

  15. Electrical steering of vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this paper is systems that need be designed such that no single fault can cause failure at the overall level. A methodology is presented for analysis and design of fault-tolerant architectures, where diagnosis and autonomous reconfiguration can replace high cost triple redundancy...

  16. Steering of Educational Processes in a Digital Medium Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    by systems theory we outline a more adequate way of teaching in the new medium environment – a teaching that can manage the new situation and use the new possibilities provided by the digital media. The argumentation builds on empirical findings from the action research project Socio Media Education (SME......This paper is about challenges to steering and leadership of educational interaction in classrooms provided by the new medium environment that comes with digital media. In the new medium environment, the old way of steering what is going on in the classroom appears not to work since...

  17. Decoupling Suspension Controller Based on Magnetic Flux Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The suspension module control system model has been established based on MIMO (multiple input and multiple output state feedback linearization. We have completed decoupling between double suspension points, and the new decoupling method has been applied to CMS04 magnetic suspension vehicle in national mid-low-speed maglev experiment field of Tangshan city in China. Double suspension system model is very accurate for investigating stability property of maglev control system. When magnetic flux signal is taken back to the suspension control system, the suspension module’s antijamming capacity for resisting suspension load variety has been proved. Also, the external force interference has been enhanced. As a result, the robustness and stability properties of double-electromagnet suspension control system have been enhanced.

  18. Decoupling suspension controller based on magnetic flux feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenqing; Li, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Cui, Peng

    2013-01-01

    The suspension module control system model has been established based on MIMO (multiple input and multiple output) state feedback linearization. We have completed decoupling between double suspension points, and the new decoupling method has been applied to CMS04 magnetic suspension vehicle in national mid-low-speed maglev experiment field of Tangshan city in China. Double suspension system model is very accurate for investigating stability property of maglev control system. When magnetic flux signal is taken back to the suspension control system, the suspension module's antijamming capacity for resisting suspension load variety has been proved. Also, the external force interference has been enhanced. As a result, the robustness and stability properties of double-electromagnet suspension control system have been enhanced.

  19. Self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme of motor-driven active suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Sun, Weichao

    2017-09-01

    Active suspension systems have advantages on mitigating the effects of vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, which are one of the most important component parts in influencing the performances of vehicles. However, high amount of energy consumption restricts the application of active suspension systems. From the point of energy saving, this paper presents a self-powered criterion of the active suspension system to judge whether a motor-driven suspension can be self-powered or not, and then a motor parameter condition is developed as a reference to design a self-powered suspension. An energy regeneration implementation scheme is subsequently proposed to make the active suspension which has the potential to be self-powered achieve energy-saving target in the real application. In this implementation scheme, operating electric circuits are designed based on different working status of the actuator and power source and it is realizable to accumulate energy from road vibration and supply energy to the actuator by switching corresponding electric circuits. To apply the self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme, an active suspension system is designed with a constrained H∞ controller and calculation results indicate that it has the capability to be self-powered. Simulation results show that the performances of the self-powered active suspension are nearly the same as those of the active suspension with an external energy source and can achieve energy regeneration at the same time.

  20. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  1. Differential impact of amino acids on OXPHOS system activity following carbohydrate starvation in Arabidopsis cell suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, João Henrique F; Quinhones, Carla G S; Schertl, Peter; Brito, Danielle S; Eubel, Holger; Hildebrandt, Tatjana; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Braun, Hans-Peter; Araújo, Wagner L

    2017-12-01

    Plant respiration mostly depends on the activity of glycolysis and the oxidation of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle to synthesize ATP. However, during stress situations plant cells also use amino acids as alternative substrates to donate electrons through the electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF)/ETF:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) complex to the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC). Given this, we investigated changes of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system in Arabidopsis thaliana cell culture under carbohydrate starvation supplied with a range of amino acids. Induction of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVDH) activity was observed under carbohydrate starvation which was associated with increased amounts of IVDH protein detected by immunoblotting. Furthermore, activities of the protein complexes of the mETC were reduced under carbohydrate starvation. We also observed that OXPHOS system activity behavior is differently affected by different amino acids and that proteins associated with amino acids catabolism are upregulated in cells following carbohydrate starvation. Collectively, our results support the contention that ETF/ETFQO is an essential pathway to donate electrons to the mETC and that amino acids are alternative substrates to maintain respiration under carbohydrate starvation. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. Effect of castration and carcass suspension method on the quality and fatty acid profile of beef from male dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Yingqun; Allen, Paul; Harrison, Sabine M; Kerry, Joseph P

    2018-02-12

    The use of bulls rather than steers for beef production offers some considerable advantages; however, the eating quality of bull beef is an issue of marketing concern. This study assessed the physicochemical characteristics of young Holstein-Friesian (HF) bull and steer beef. Steer carcasses were suspended by the Achilles tendon (AS) and by pelvic suspension (PS). HF steer beef had higher redness, yellowness and chroma values, whereas bulls had higher ultimate pH and darker muscle. Warner-Bratzler shear force, cook loss at different ageing times, moisture, and insoluble and total collagen were higher for HF bull beef, whereas intramuscular fat, soluble collagen and collagen solubility were higher for steer beef. HF steer beef had a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whereas bull beef had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. In comparison to AS, PS increased redness and chroma after 24 h blooming; PS improved tenderness up to 7 days of ageing and accelerated the ageing process. For young dairy cattle, steer beef would likely have superior eating quality but a relatively less favourable nutritional fatty acid profile to bull beef. Suspension method affected the tenderness and colour intensity of dairy steer beef at different ageing times. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose and ionic strength on stability of mineral suspensions in potash ore flotation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, M; Laskowski, J S; Ansari, A

    2003-04-15

    The adsorption of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose from aqueous solutions varying in ionic strength from that of distilled water to 50% NaCl/KCl brine (about 3.5 mol/dm(3)) onto illite and dolomite has been studied. The purpose of this work was to investigate the solvency effects in the phenomena underlying the potash flotation process that is carried out in saturated brine. Based on viscosity measurements, the adsorption results were analyzed in terms of a simple model of polymer macromolecules in solution. Suspension stability measurements carried out concomitantly with adsorption tests showed the ranges of carboxymethyl cellulose concentration over which the tested suspensions either were aggregated or were restabilized.

  4. Steering healthcare service delivery: a regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gyan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore regulation in India's healthcare sector and makes recommendations needed for enhancing the healthcare service. The literature was reviewed to understand healthcare's regulatory context. To understand the current healthcare system, qualitative data were collected from state-level officials, public and private hospital staff. A patient survey was performed to assess service quality (QoS). Regulation plays a central role in driving healthcare QoS. India needs to strengthen market and institutional co-production based approaches for steering its healthcare in which delivery processes are complex and pose different challenges. This study assesses current healthcare regulation in an Indian state and presents a framework for studying and strengthening regulation. Agile regulation should be based on service delivery issues (pull approach) rather than monitoring and sanctions based regulatory environment (push approach). Healthcare pitfalls across the world seem to follow similar follies. India's complexity and experience is useful for emerging and developed economies. The author reviewed around 70 publications and synthesised them in healthcare regulatory contexts. Patient's perception of private providers could be a key input towards steering regulation. Identifying gaps across QoS dimensions would be useful in taking corrective measures.

  5. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of stable colloidal suspension of graphene using two-electrode cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danial, Wan Hazman, E-mail: hazmandanial@gmail.com; Majid, Zaiton Abdul, E-mail: zaiton@kimia.fs.utm.my; Aziz, Madzlan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Chutia, Arunabhiram [Institute of Fluid Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Sahnoun, Riadh [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The present work reports the synthesis and characterization of graphene via electrochemical exfoliation of graphite rod using two-electrode system assisted by Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) as a surfactant. The electrochemical process was carried out with sequence of intercalation of SDS onto the graphite anode followed by exfoliation of the SDS-intercalated graphite electrode when the anode was treated as cathode. The effect of intercalation potential from 5 V to 9 V and concentration of the SDS surfactant of 0.1 M and 0.01 M were investigated. UV-vis Spectroscopic analysis indicated an increase in the graphene production with higher intercalation potential. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis showed a well-ordered hexagonal lattice of graphene image and indicated an angle of 60° between two zigzag directions within the honeycomb crystal lattice. Raman spectroscopy analysis shows the graphitic information effects after the exfoliation process.

  6. Multiobjective optimization of a steering linkage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleesonsom, S.; Bureerat, S. [Sustainable and Infrastructure Research and Development Center, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen (Thailand)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, multi-objective optimization of a rack-and-pinion steering linkage is proposed. This steering linkage is a common mechanism used in small cars with three advantages as it is simple to construct, economical to manufacture, and compact and easy to operate. In the previous works, many researchers tried to minimize a steering error but minimization of a turning radius is somewhat ignored. As a result, a multi-objective optimization problem is assigned to simultaneously minimize a steering error and a turning radius. The design variables are linkage dimensions. The design problem is solved by the hybrid of multi-objective population-based incremental learning and differential evolution with various constraint handling schemes. The new design strategy leads to effective design of rack-and-pinion steering linkages satisfying both steering error and turning radius criteria.

  7. Multiobjective optimization of a steering linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleesonsom, S.; Bureerat, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, multi-objective optimization of a rack-and-pinion steering linkage is proposed. This steering linkage is a common mechanism used in small cars with three advantages as it is simple to construct, economical to manufacture, and compact and easy to operate. In the previous works, many researchers tried to minimize a steering error but minimization of a turning radius is somewhat ignored. As a result, a multi-objective optimization problem is assigned to simultaneously minimize a steering error and a turning radius. The design variables are linkage dimensions. The design problem is solved by the hybrid of multi-objective population-based incremental learning and differential evolution with various constraint handling schemes. The new design strategy leads to effective design of rack-and-pinion steering linkages satisfying both steering error and turning radius criteria

  8. Autonomous Shepherding Behaviors of Multiple Target Steering Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonki; Kim, DaeEun

    2017-11-25

    This paper presents a distributed coordination methodology for multi-robot systems, based on nearest-neighbor interactions. Among many interesting tasks that may be performed using swarm robots, we propose a biologically-inspired control law for a shepherding task, whereby a group of external agents drives another group of agents to a desired location. First, we generated sheep-like robots that act like a flock. We assume that each agent is capable of measuring the relative location and velocity to each of its neighbors within a limited sensing area. Then, we designed a control strategy for shepherd-like robots that have information regarding where to go and a steering ability to control the flock, according to the robots' position relative to the flock. We define several independent behavior rules; each agent calculates to what extent it will move by summarizing each rule. The flocking sheep agents detect the steering agents and try to avoid them; this tendency leads to movement of the flock. Each steering agent only needs to focus on guiding the nearest flocking agent to the desired location. Without centralized coordination, multiple steering agents produce an arc formation to control the flock effectively. In addition, we propose a new rule for collecting behavior, whereby a scattered flock or multiple flocks are consolidated. From simulation results with multiple robots, we show that each robot performs actions for the shepherding behavior, and only a few steering agents are needed to control the whole flock. The results are displayed in maps that trace the paths of the flock and steering robots. Performance is evaluated via time cost and path accuracy to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  9. Autonomous Shepherding Behaviors of Multiple Target Steering Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonki Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a distributed coordination methodology for multi-robot systems, based on nearest-neighbor interactions. Among many interesting tasks that may be performed using swarm robots, we propose a biologically-inspired control law for a shepherding task, whereby a group of external agents drives another group of agents to a desired location. First, we generated sheep-like robots that act like a flock. We assume that each agent is capable of measuring the relative location and velocity to each of its neighbors within a limited sensing area. Then, we designed a control strategy for shepherd-like robots that have information regarding where to go and a steering ability to control the flock, according to the robots’ position relative to the flock. We define several independent behavior rules; each agent calculates to what extent it will move by summarizing each rule. The flocking sheep agents detect the steering agents and try to avoid them; this tendency leads to movement of the flock. Each steering agent only needs to focus on guiding the nearest flocking agent to the desired location. Without centralized coordination, multiple steering agents produce an arc formation to control the flock effectively. In addition, we propose a new rule for collecting behavior, whereby a scattered flock or multiple flocks are consolidated. From simulation results with multiple robots, we show that each robot performs actions for the shepherding behavior, and only a few steering agents are needed to control the whole flock. The results are displayed in maps that trace the paths of the flock and steering robots. Performance is evaluated via time cost and path accuracy to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  10. Quasi-static displacement calibration system for a "Violin-Mode" shadow-sensor intended for Gravitational Wave detector suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the design of, and results from, a calibration system for optical linear displacement (shadow) sensors. The shadow sensors were designed to detect "Violin-Mode" (VM) resonances in the 0.4 mm diameter silica fibre suspensions of the test masses/mirrors of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory gravitational wave interferometers. Each sensor illuminated the fibre under test, so as to cast its narrow shadow onto a "synthesized split photodiode" detector, the shadow falling over adjacent edges of the paired photodiodes. The apparatus described here translated a vertically orientated silica test fibre horizontally through a collimated Near InfraRed illuminating beam, whilst simultaneously capturing the separate DC "shadow notch" outputs from each of the paired split photodiode detectors. As the ratio of AC to DC photocurrent sensitivities to displacement was known, a calibration of the DC response to quasi-static shadow displacement allowed the required AC sensitivity to vibrational displacement to be found. Special techniques are described for generating the required constant scan rate for the test fibre using a DC motor-driven stage, for removing "jitter" at such low translation rates from a linear magnetic encoder, and so for capturing the two shadow-notch signals at each micrometre of the test fibre's travel. Calibration, across the four detectors of this work, gave a vibrational responsivity in voltage terms of (9.45 ± 1.20) MV (rms)/m, yielding a VM displacement sensitivity of (69 ± 13) pm (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over the required measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  11. A method of detecting a structure in a field, a method of steering an agricultural vehicle and an agricultural vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    An agricultural vehicle (2) comprises a steering system providing steering signals, said steering system comprising an imaging device (11) for imaging surroundings of the vehicle and an image processing device (13), said steering system operating to provide by means of the imaging device (11......) an image of the field (21), analyse the image to obtain texture information, assign to a plurality of areas of the image probability-values reflecting the likelihood that the respective area relates to a specific structure (12), assume at least one geometric property of said specific structure (12...

  12. Linear viscoelastic properties of aging suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnomo, E.H.; Purnomo, E.H; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mellema, J.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2006-01-01

    We have examined the linear viscoelastic behavior of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) microgel suspensions in order to obtain insight in the aging processes in these densely packed suspensions at various temperatures below the volume transition temperature. The system is found to display a strong

  13. 41 CFR 105-74.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 105-74.670 Section 105-74.670 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...-GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 105-74.670 Suspension...

  14. 46 CFR 108.641 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 108.641 Section... steering gear. Instructions stating, in order, the different steps to be taken for changing to emergency and secondary steering gear must be posted in the steering gear room and at each secondary steering...

  15. An Improved Genetic Algorithm to Optimize Spatial Locations for Double-Wishbone Type Suspension System with Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By taking account of double-wishbone independent suspension with two unequal-length arms, the coordinate values of articulated geometry are based on structural limitations and constraint equations of alignment parameters. The sensitivities of front wheel alignment parameters are analyzed using the space analytic geometry method with insight module in ADAMS® software. The multiobjective optimization functions are designed to calculate the coordinate values of hardpoints with front suspension since the effect of time delay due to wheelbase can be easily obtained by vehicle speed. The K&C characteristics have been investigated using GA solutions in the simulation environment. The camber angle decreases from 1.152° to 1.05° and toe-in angle reduces from 1.036° to 0.944°. The simulation results demonstrate that the suggested optimization method is able to satisfy the suspension motion to enhance ride comfort. Experimental results, obtained by K&C test bench, also indicate that the optimized suspension can track the desired trajectory while keeping the vehicle performance in various road conditions.

  16. Comparative Studies on the Dissolution Profiles of Oral Ibuprofen Suspension and Commercial Tablets using Biopharmaceutical Classification System Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Leyva, J. C.; García-Flores, M.; Valladares-Méndez, A.; Orozco-Castellanos, L. M.; Martínez-Alfaro, M.

    2012-01-01

    In vitro dissolution studies for solid oral dosage forms have recently widened the scope to a variety of special dosage forms such as suspensions. For class II drugs, like Ibuprofen, it is very important to have discriminative methods for different formulations in physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, which will identify different problems that compromise the drug bioavailability. In the present work, two agitation speeds have been performed in order to study ibuprofen suspension dissolution. The suspensions have been characterised relatively to particle size, density and solubility. The dissolution study was conducted using the following media: buffer pH 7.2, pH 6.8, 4.5 and 0.1 M HCl. For quantitative analysis, the UV/Vis spectrophotometry was used because this methodology had been adequately validated. The results show that 50 rpm was the adequate condition to discriminate the dissolution profile. The suspension kinetic release was found to be dependent on pH and was different compared to tablet release profile at the same experimental conditions. The ibuprofen release at pH 1.0 was the slowest. PMID:23626386

  17. Improving driver comfort in commercial vehicles : modeling and control of a low-power active cabin suspension system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, W.J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Comfort enhancement of commercial vehicles has been an engineering topic ever since the first trucks emerged around 1900. Since then, significant improvements have been made by implementing cabin (secondary) and seat suspensions. Moreover, the invention of the air spring and its application to the

  18. A theoretical model of speed-dependent steering torque for rolling tyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yintao; Oertel, Christian; Liu, Yahui; Li, Xuebing

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that the tyre steering torque is highly dependent on the tyre rolling speed. In limited cases, i.e. parking manoeuvre, the steering torque approaches the maximum. With the increasing tyre speed, the steering torque decreased rapidly. Accurate modelling of the speed-dependent behaviour for the tyre steering torque is a key factor to calibrate the electric power steering (EPS) system and tune the handling performance of vehicles. However, no satisfactory theoretical model can be found in the existing literature to explain this phenomenon. This paper proposes a new theoretical framework to model this important tyre behaviour, which includes three key factors: (1) tyre three-dimensional transient rolling kinematics with turn-slip; (2) dynamical force and moment generation; and (3) the mixed Lagrange-Euler method for contact deformation solving. A nonlinear finite-element code has been developed to implement the proposed approach. It can be found that the main mechanism for the speed-dependent steering torque is due to turn-slip-related kinematics. This paper provides a theory to explain the complex mechanism of the tyre steering torque generation, which helps to understand the speed-dependent tyre steering torque, tyre road feeling and EPS calibration.

  19. Monogamy inequalities for the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and quantum steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Monogamy inequalities for the way bipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering can be distributed among N systems are derived. One set of inequalities is based on witnesses with two measurement settings, and may be used to demonstrate correlation of outcomes between two parties, that cannot be shared with more parties. It is shown that the monogamy for steering is directional. Two parties cannot independently demonstrate steering of a third system, using the same two-setting steering witness, but it is possible for one party to steer two independent systems. This result explains the monogamy of two-setting Bell inequality violations and the sensitivity of the continuous variable (CV) EPR criterion to losses on the steering party. We generalize to m settings. A second type of monogamy relation gives the quantitative amount of sharing possible, when the number of parties is less than or equal to m, and takes a form similar to the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters relation for entanglement. The results enable characterization of the tripartite steering for CV Gaussian systems and qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states.

  20. Automation of Armored Four Wheel Counter Steer Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    additions to the cabin, such as displays, servos , and controls, require a small footprint and cannot impede critical systems (e.g., fire control) or...autopilot. The steering system engages until the man- ual/emergency override button is pressed . To engage the velocity control mode, the operator...engaged if the need arises. Once the error is cleared, pressing the manual override button places the system back into ready mode. FIGURE 3. The software

  1. Suspension for the low frequency facility

    CERN Document Server

    Cella, G; Di Virgilio, A; Gaddi, A; Viceré, A

    2000-01-01

    We introduce the working principles of the VIRGO Low Frequency Facility (LFF), whose main aim is the measurement of the thermal noise in the VIRGO suspension system. We evaluate the displacement thermal noise of a mirror, which is an intermediate element of a double pendulum suspension system. This double pendulum will be suspended to the last stage of a VIRGO Super-Attenuator (SA), the prototype VIRGO suspension system being tested at the Pisa section of INFN. In the proposed configuration, we evaluate the spectrum of the thermal noise for different choices of the parameters: based on this study, we comment on the future directions to be undertaken in the LFF experiment.

  2. How Insect Flight Steering Muscles Work

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Simon M.; Schwyn, Daniel A.; Mokso, Rajmund; Wicklein, Martina; Müller, Tonya; Doube, Michael; Stampanoni, Marco; Krapp, Holger G.; Taylor, Graham K.

    2014-01-01

    Dipteran flies are amongst the smallest and most agile of flying animals. Their wings are driven indirectly by large power muscles, which cause cyclical deformations of the thorax that are amplified through the intricate wing hinge. Asymmetric flight manoeuvres are controlled by 13 pairs of steering muscles acting directly on the wing articulations. Collectively the steering muscles account for

  3. Steering the dynamics within reduced space through quantum learning control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sik

    2003-01-01

    In quantum dynamics of many-body systems, to identify the Hamiltonian becomes more difficult very rapidly as the number of degrees of freedom increases. In order to simplify the dynamics and to deduce dynamically relevant Hamiltonian information, it is desirable to control the dynamics to lie within a reduced space. With a judicious choice for the cost functional, the closed loop optimal control experiments can be manipulated efficiently to steer the dynamics to lie within a subspace of the system eigenstates without requiring any prior detailed knowledge about the system Hamiltonian. The procedure is simulated for optimally controlled population transfer experiments in the system of two degrees of freedom. To show the feasibility of steering the dynamics to lie in a specified subspace, the learning algorithms guiding the dynamics are presented along with frequency filtering. The results demonstrate that the optimal control fields derive the system to the desired target state through the desired subspace

  4. Constitutive relation for the system-spanning dynamically jammed region in response to impact of cornstarch and water suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Rijan; Mukhopadhyay, Shomeek; Allen, Benjamin; Storz, Tobias; Brown, Eric

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally characterize the impact response of concentrated suspensions consisting of cornstarch and water. We observe that the suspensions support a large normal stress—on the order of MPa—with a delay after the impactor hits the suspension surface. We show that neither the delay nor the magnitude of the stress can yet be explained by either standard rheological models of shear thickening in terms of steady-state viscosities, or impact models based on added mass or other inertial effects. The stress increase occurs when a dynamically jammed region of the suspension in front of the impactor propagates to the opposite boundary of the container, which can support large stresses when it spans between solid boundaries. We present a constitutive relation for impact rheology to relate the force on the impactor to its displacement. This can be described in terms of an effective modulus but only after the delay required for the dynamically jammed region to span between solid boundaries. Both the modulus and the delay are reported as a function of impact velocity, fluid height, and weight fraction. We report in a companion paper the structure of the dynamically jammed region when it spans between the impactor and the opposite boundary [Allen et al., Phys. Rev. E 97, 052603 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevE.97.052603]. In a direct follow-up paper, we show that this constitutive model can be used to quantitatively predict, for example, the trajectory and penetration depth of the foot of a person walking or running on cornstarch and water [Mukhopadhyay et al., Phys. Rev. E 97, 052604 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevE.97.052604].

  5. Effect of suspension systems on the physiological and psychological responses to sub-maximal biking on simulated smoothand bumpy tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlestad, John; Fairlie-Clarke, Tony; Whittaker, Arthur; Davie, Mark; Watt, Ian; Grant, Stanley

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physiological and psychological responses of cyclists riding on a hard tail bicycle and on a full suspension bicycle. Twenty males participated in two series of tests. A test rig held the front axle of the bicycle steady while the rear wheel rotated against a heavy roller with bumps (or no bumps) on its surface. In the first series of tests, eight participants (age 19-27 years, body mass 65-82 kg) were tested on both the full suspension and hard tail bicycles with and without bumps fitted to the roller. The second series of test repeated the bump tests with a further six participants (age 22-31 years, body mass 74-94 kg) and also involved an investigation of familiarization effects with the final six participants (age 21-30 years, body mass 64-80 kg). Heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO(2)), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and comfort were recorded during 10 min sub-maximal tests. Combined data for the bumps tests show that the full suspension bicycle was significantly different (P < 0.001) from the hard tail bicycle on all four measures. Oxygen consumption, heart rate and RPE were lower on average by 8.7 (s = 3.6) ml . kg(-1) . min(-1), 32.1 (s = 12.1) beats . min(-1) and 2.6 (s = 2.0) units, respectively. Comfort scores were higher (better) on average by 1.9 (s = 0.8) units. For the no bumps tests, the only statistically significant difference (P = 0.008) was in VO(2), which was lower for the hard tail bicycle by 2.2 (s = 1.7) ml . kg(-1) . min(-1). The results indicate that the full suspension bicycle provides a physiological and psychological advantage over the hard tail bicycle during simulated sub-maximal exercise on bumps.

  6. Auditory orientation in crickets: Pattern recognition controls reactive steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, James F. A.; Hedwig, Berthold

    2005-10-01

    Many groups of insects are specialists in exploiting sensory cues to locate food resources or conspecifics. To achieve orientation, bees and ants analyze the polarization pattern of the sky, male moths orient along the females' odor plume, and cicadas, grasshoppers, and crickets use acoustic signals to locate singing conspecifics. In comparison with olfactory and visual orientation, where learning is involved, auditory processing underlying orientation in insects appears to be more hardwired and genetically determined. In each of these examples, however, orientation requires a recognition process identifying the crucial sensory pattern to interact with a localization process directing the animal's locomotor activity. Here, we characterize this interaction. Using a sensitive trackball system, we show that, during cricket auditory behavior, the recognition process that is tuned toward the species-specific song pattern controls the amplitude of auditory evoked steering responses. Females perform small reactive steering movements toward any sound patterns. Hearing the male's calling song increases the gain of auditory steering within 2-5 s, and the animals even steer toward nonattractive sound patterns inserted into the speciesspecific pattern. This gain control mechanism in the auditory-to-motor pathway allows crickets to pursue species-specific sound patterns temporarily corrupted by environmental factors and may reflect the organization of recognition and localization networks in insects. localization | phonotaxis

  7. Wireless traffic steering for green cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces wireless traffic steering as a paradigm to realize green communication in multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks. By matching network resources and dynamic mobile traffic demand, traffic steering helps to reduce on-grid power consumption with on-demand services provided. This book reviews existing solutions from the perspectives of energy consumption reduction and renewable energy harvesting. Specifically, it explains how traffic steering can improve energy efficiency through intelligent traffic-resource matching. Several promising traffic steering approaches for dynamic network planning and renewable energy demand-supply balancing are discussed. This book presents an energy-aware traffic steering method for networks with energy harvesting, which optimizes the traffic allocated to each cell based on the renewable energy status. Renewable energy demand-supply balancing is a key factor in energy dynamics, aimed at enhancing renewable energy sustainability to reduce on-grid energy consum...

  8. Operator space approach to steering inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Zhi; Marciniak, Marcin; Horodecki, Michał

    2015-01-01

    In Junge and Palazuelos (2011 Commun. Math. Phys. 306 695–746) and Junge et al (2010 Commun. Math. Phys. 300 715–39) the operator space theory was applied to study bipartite Bell inequalities. The aim of the paper is to follow this line of research and use the operator space technique to analyze the steering scenario. We obtain a bipartite steering functional with unbounded largest violation of steering inequality, as well as constructing all ingredients explicitly. It turns out that the unbounded largest violation is obtained by a non maximally entangled state. Moreover, we focus on the bipartite dichotomic case where we construct a steering functional with unbounded largest violation of steering inequality. This phenomenon is different to the Bell scenario where only the bounded largest violation can be obtained by any bipartite dichotomic Bell functional. (paper)

  9. Biogas production from steer manures in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cuong H.; Saggar, Surinder; Vu, Cuong C.

    2017-01-01

    manures collected from two different experiments of steers fed diets containing feed supplements. BMP was 110.1 (NLkg-1 VS) for manure from steers receiving a control diet, significantly lower 79.0 (NL kg-1 VS) for manure from steers fed a diet containing 0.3% tannin (%DM), but then showed an increasing...... trend to 90.9 and 91.2 (NL kg-1 VS) for manures from steers receiving 0.4 and 0.5% tannin (%DM) supplements, respectively. Similarly, the CH4 production (NL kg-1 VS) of manure from steers was 174 for control, 142 for control supplemented concentrate (C), 143 for control added rice straw treated...

  10. On the Benefits of Semi-Active Suspensions with Inerters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Jie Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inerters have become a hot topic in recent years especially in vehicle, train, building suspension systems, etc. Eight different layouts of suspensions were analyzed with a quarter-car model in this paper. Dimensionless root mean square (RMS responses of the sprung mass vertical acceleration, the suspension travel, and the tire deflection are derived which were used to evaluate the performance of the quarter-car model. The behaviour of semi-active suspensions with inerters using Groundhook, Skyhook, and Hybrid control has been evaluated and compared to the performance of passive suspensions with inerters. Sensitivity analysis was applied to the development of a high performance semi-active suspension with an inerter. Numerical simulations indicate that a semi-active suspension with an inerter has much better performance than the passive suspension with an inerter, especially with the Hybrid control method, which has the best compromise between comfort and road holding quality.

  11. Integration of uniform design and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization to the robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system under different wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Chang; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a systematic method, integrating the uniform design (UD) of experiments and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), to solve the problem of a robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system. Based on the new nonlinear creep model derived from combining Hertz contact theory, Kalker's linear theory and a heuristic nonlinear creep model, the modeling and dynamic analysis of a 24 degree-of-freedom railway vehicle system were investigated. The Lyapunov indirect method was used to examine the effects of suspension parameters, wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii on critical hunting speeds. Generally, the critical hunting speeds of a vehicle system resulting from worn wheels with different wheel rolling radii are lower than those of a vehicle system having original wheels without different wheel rolling radii. Because of worn wheels, the critical hunting speed of a running railway vehicle substantially declines over the long term. For safety reasons, it is necessary to design the suspension system parameters to increase the robustness of the system and decrease the sensitive of wheel noises. By applying UD and QPSO, the nominal-the-best signal-to-noise ratio of the system was increased from -48.17 to -34.05 dB. The rate of improvement was 29.31%. This study has demonstrated that the integration of UD and QPSO can successfully reveal the optimal solution of suspension parameters for solving the robust design problem of a railway vehicle suspension system.

  12. Steering particles by breaking symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bet, Bram; Samin, Sela; Georgiev, Rumen; Burak Eral, Huseyin; van Roij, René

    2018-06-01

    We derive general equations of motions for highly-confined particles that perform quasi-two-dimensional motion in Hele-Shaw channels, which we solve analytically, aiming to derive design principles for self-steering particles. Based on symmetry properties of a particle, its equations of motion can be simplified, where we retrieve an earlier-known equation of motion for the orientation of dimer particles consisting of disks (Uspal et al 2013 Nat. Commun. 4), but now in full generality. Subsequently, these solutions are compared with particle trajectories that are obtained numerically. For mirror-symmetric particles, excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical solutions is found. For particles lacking mirror symmetry, the analytic solutions provide means to classify the motion based on particle geometry, while we find that taking the side-wall interactions into account is important to accurately describe the trajectories.

  13. Vehicle systems: coupled and interactive dynamics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantsevich, Vladimir V.

    2014-11-01

    This article formulates a new direction in vehicle dynamics, described as coupled and interactive vehicle system dynamics. Formalised procedures and analysis of case studies are presented. An analytical consideration, which explains the physics of coupled system dynamics and its consequences for dynamics of a vehicle, is given for several sets of systems including: (i) driveline and suspension of a 6×6 truck, (ii) a brake mechanism and a limited slip differential of a drive axle and (iii) a 4×4 vehicle steering system and driveline system. The article introduces a formal procedure to turn coupled system dynamics into interactive dynamics of systems. A new research direction in interactive dynamics of an active steering and a hybrid-electric power transmitting unit is presented and analysed to control power distribution between the drive axles of a 4×4 vehicle. A control strategy integrates energy efficiency and lateral dynamics by decoupling dynamics of the two systems thus forming their interactive dynamics.

  14. Suspension trauma; Le traumatisme de suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, S. [Le Centre de sante et de services sociaux du rocher Perce, Chandler, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed the precautions that should be taken to avoid falls from wind turbines or transmission towers. Suspension trauma was explained by a medical doctor in terms of physiology and the body's normal circulation and the elements that disturb normal physiology when in suspension. The trauma occurs following a fall, which carries the risk of 1or more disorders, such as massive hemorrhage, high cardiac pulse, and constriction of blood vessels. Nausea, vertigo, cardiac arrhythmia and sweating occur 15 to 20 minutes following the fall. The presentation emphasized the importance of having qualified personnel at the site and wearing proper harnesses and equipment that supports the neck. figs.

  15. Test of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering based on the all-versus-nothing proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfeng; Chen, Jing-Ling; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Su, Hong-Yi; Deng, Dong-Ling; Wang, Zhenghan; Oh, C H

    2014-03-06

    In comparison with entanglement and Bell nonlocality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is a newly emerged research topic and in its incipient stage. Although Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering has been explored via violations of steering inequalities both theoretically and experimentally, the known inequalities in the literatures are far from well-developed. As a result, it is not yet possible to observe Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering for some steerable mixed states. Recently, a simple approach was presented to identify Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering based on all-versus-nothing argument, offering a strong condition to witness the steerability of a family of two-qubit (pure or mixed) entangled states. In this work, we show that the all-versus-nothing proof of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering can be tested by measuring the projective probabilities. Through the bound of probabilities imposed by local-hidden-state model, the proposed test shows that steering can be detected by the all-versus-nothing argument experimentally even in the presence of imprecision and errors. Our test can be implemented in many physical systems and we discuss the possible realizations of our scheme with non-Abelian anyons and trapped ions.

  16. Chaos vibration of pinion and rack steering trapezoidal mechanism containing two clearances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Daogao; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Tong; Zheng, Sifa; Zhao, Wenjing; Pan, Zhijie

    2017-08-01

    The multi-clearances of breaking type steering trapezoidal mechanism joints influences vehicle steering stability. Hence, to ascertain the influence of clearance value on steering stability, this paper takes the steering mechanism of a certain vehicle type as a prototype that can be simplified into a planar six-bar linkage, then establishes the system dynamic differential equations after considering the two clearances of tie rods and the steering knuckle arms. The influence of the clearance parameters on the movement stability of the steering mechanism is studied using a numerical computation method. Results show that when the two clearances are equal, the planar movement of the tie rods changes from period-doubling to chaos as the clearances increase. When the two clearances are 0.25 mm and 1.5 mm respectively, the planar movements of the two side tie rods come into chaos, causing the steering stability to deteriorate. Moreover, with the increase of clearances, turning moment fluctuates more intensively and the peak value increases.

  17. Automated beam steering using optimal control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, C. K. (Christopher K.)

    2004-01-01

    We present a steering algorithm which, with the aid of a model, allows the user to specify beam behavior throughout a beamline, rather than just at specified beam position monitor (BPM) locations. The model is used primarily to compute the values of the beam phase vectors from BPM measurements, and to define cost functions that describe the steering objectives. The steering problem is formulated as constrained optimization problem; however, by applying optimal control theory we can reduce it to an unconstrained optimization whose dimension is the number of control signals.

  18. Vehicle lateral dynamics stabilization using active suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobný V.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the investigation of active nonlinear suspension control in order to stabilize the lateral vehicle motion in similar way as systems like ESP do. The lateral stabilization of vehicle based on braking forces can be alternatively provided by the different setting of suspension forces. The basis of this control is the nonlinear property of the tyres. The vehicle has at least four wheels and it gives one or more redundant vertical forces that can be used for the different distribution of vertical suspension forces in such a way that resulting lateral and/or longitudinal forces create the required correction moment for lateral dynamic vehicle stabilization.

  19. Adiabatic photo-steering theory in topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2014-12-01

    Feasible external control of material properties is a crucial issue in condensed matter physics. A new approach to achieving this aim, named adiabatic photo-steering, is reviewed. The core principle of this scheme is that several material constants are effectively turned into externally tunable variables by irradiation of monochromatic laser light. Two-dimensional topological insulators are selected as the optimal systems that exhibit a prominent change in their properties following the application of this method. Two specific examples of photo-steered quantum phenomena, which reflect topological aspects of the electronic systems at hand, are presented. One is the integer quantum Hall effect described by the Haldane model, and the other is the quantum spin Hall effect described by the Kane-Mele model. The topological quantities associated with these phenomena are the conventional Chern number and spin Chern number, respectively. A recent interesting idea, time-reversal symmetry breaking via a temporary periodic external stimulation, is also discussed.

  20. Genetic algorithm–based varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control for four-wheel independent steering vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Gao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of vehicle dynamics, the four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamics stability control method is studied, and a four-wheel independent steering varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control system is proposed with the help of expert control method. In the article, a four-wheel independent steering linear quadratic regulator controller for model following purpose is designed first. Then, by analyzing the four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamic characteristics and the influence of linear quadratic regulator control parameters on control performance, a linear quadratic regulator control parameter adjustment strategy based on vehicle steering state is proposed to achieve the adaptive adjustment of linear quadratic regulator control parameters. In addition, to further improve the control performance, the proposed varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control system is optimized by genetic algorithm. Finally, simulation studies have been conducted by applying the proposed control system to the 8-degree-of-freedom four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamics model. The simulation results indicate that the proposed control system has better performance and robustness and can effectively improve the stability and steering safety of the four-wheel independent steering vehicle.

  1. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control Method Based on Nonlinear Integral Sliding Surface for Agricultural Vehicle Steering Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taochang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic steering control is the key factor and essential condition in the realization of the automatic navigation control of agricultural vehicles. In order to get satisfactory steering control performance, an adaptive sliding mode control method based on a nonlinear integral sliding surface is proposed in this paper for agricultural vehicle steering control. First, the vehicle steering system is modeled as a second-order mathematic model; the system uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics as well as the external disturbances are regarded as the equivalent disturbances satisfying a certain boundary. Second, a transient process of the desired system response is constructed in each navigation control period. Based on the transient process, a nonlinear integral sliding surface is designed. Then the corresponding sliding mode control law is proposed to guarantee the fast response characteristics with no overshoot in the closed-loop steering control system. Meanwhile, the switching gain of sliding mode control is adaptively adjusted to alleviate the control input chattering by using the fuzzy control method. Finally, the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method are verified by a series of simulation and actual steering control experiments.

  2. Workshop on automated beam steering and shaping (ABS). Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, M [ed.

    1999-09-10

    A workshop on Automated Beam Steering and Shaping (ABS) was held at CERN in December 1998. This was the first workshop dedicated to this subject. The workshop had two major goals: to review the present status of ABS algorithms and systems around the world and to create a worldwide ABS community. These proceedings contain summary reports from all sessions, contributions from several presentations held at the workshop, and a complete set of abstracts for all presentations. (orig.)

  3. Optimum steering of photon beam lines in SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.; Fong, B.; Lee, M.; Ziemann, V.

    1993-04-01

    A common operational requirement for many synchrotron light sources is to maintain steered photon beamlines with minimum corrector strength values. To solve this problem for SPEAR, we employed the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) matrix-inversion technique to minimize corrector strengths while constraining the photon beamlines to remain on target. The result was a reduction in corrector strengths, yielding increased overhead for the photon-beam position feedback systems

  4. Workshop on automated beam steering and shaping (ABS). Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindroos, M.

    1999-01-01

    A workshop on Automated Beam Steering and Shaping (ABS) was held at CERN in December 1998. This was the first workshop dedicated to this subject. The workshop had two major goals: to review the present status of ABS algorithms and systems around the world and to create a worldwide ABS community. These proceedings contain summary reports from all sessions, contributions from several presentations held at the workshop, and a complete set of abstracts for all presentations. (orig.)

  5. Genuine Multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    We develop the concept of genuine N-partite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering. This nonlocality is the natural multipartite extension of the original EPR paradox. Useful properties emerge that are not guaranteed for genuine multipartite entangled states. In particular, there is a close link with the task of one-sided, device-independent quantum secret sharing. We derive inequalities to demonstrate multipartite EPR steering for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and Gaussian continuous variable states in loophole-free scenarios.

  6. Steering, Entanglement, Nonlocality, and the EPR Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Wiseman, H. M.; Jones, S. J.; Doherty, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of steering was introduced by Schrodinger in 1935 as a generalization of the EPR paradox for arbitrary pure bipartite entangled states and arbitrary measurements by one party. Until now, it has never been rigorously defined, so it has not been known (for example) what mixed states are steerable (that is, can be used to exhibit steering). We provide an operational definition, from which we prove (by considering Werner states and Isotropic states) that steerable states are a strict ...

  7. Feed efficiency differences and reranking in beef steers fed grower and finisher diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durunna, O N; Mujibi, F D N; Goonewardene, L; Okine, E K; Basarab, J A; Wang, Z; Moore, S S

    2011-01-01

    This 3-yr study used 490 steers to determine whether feedlot steers changed their feed efficiency (FE) ranking when fed a grower diet, then a finisher diet. The steers were crossbreds and were between 5 to 7 mo of age. There were 2 feeding periods each year. Within each year, approximately 90 steers had their diet switched from a grower to a finisher diet (feed-swap group), whereas another 90 steers were fed either the grower (grower-fed group) or the finisher (finisher-fed group) diet throughout the feeding trial. Each feeding test lasted for a minimum of 10 wk, and all steers were fed ad libitum. Individual animal feed intakes were collected using the GrowSafe feeding system, and BW were measured every 2 wk. Residual feed intake (RFI), G:F, and Kleiber ratio (KR) were computed at the end of each feeding period. For each measure of efficiency, animals were classified as low, medium, or high based on 0.5 SD from the mean. The majority of steers did not maintain the previous efficiency class in the second period. Approximately 58, 51, and 51% of steers in the feed-swap group, finisher-fed group, and the grower-fed group, respectively, changed their RFI measure by 0.5 SD. A low rank correlation occurred in all test groups but was less in the feed-swap group. Spearman rank correlations between the 2 feeding periods in the feed-swap group were 0.33, 0.20, and 0.31 for RFI, G:F, and KR, respectively. Classifications based on G:F and KR showed that a greater number of steers (P 0.05) between the proportions of individuals that changed or maintained their FE class. In the groups without a feed-swap, there was no difference (P > 0.05) in the proportion of steers that changed or maintained the same FE class for all FE measures. Our results suggest that diet type and feeding period affect the FE ranking in beef steers. A feedlot diet is ideal for evaluating the FE potential of steers for feedlot profitability; however, we suggest that tests involving less dense diets should

  8. OBSERVACIÓN AL SENTIDO DE LOS PROCESOS PENALES MEXICANOS DESDE EL SISTEMISMO AUTORREFERENCIAL OBSERVATION TO THE MEANING OF THE MEXICAN CRIMINAL TRIALS' MODEL BY THE SELF-STEERING SYSTEMS THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias García Rosas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del trabajo es determinar la finalidad perseguida por los procesos penales mexicanos, pues actualmente no existen referentes sustentables, teóricos ni prácticos, para ello. Se empleó la teoría de sistemas autorreferenciales luhmanniana y el método funcional, realizándose una indagación documental mediante la observación de segundo orden, al tenor de una postura constructivista sobre el conocimiento. Se alcanzó como conclusión que el sentido del proceso penal mexicano es exclusivamente la obtención de la decisión judicial definitiva, excluyéndose otros temas tradicionalmente considerados como fines procesales, entre ellos el hallazgo de la "verdad histórica", paradigma que se rompe con los resultados obtenidos.The purpose of the research here described, was to investigate the meaning of the mexican criminal trials' model, that because there are no theorical or practical sustainable references to establish it. In the study, self-steering systems theory of Niklas Luhmann and his functional method were used, developing a documental research and following a second-order observation thecnique, under a constructivistic epistemological view. Was found that the mexican trials' systemic meaning is accomplishing the definitive judicial solution, excluding other themes traditionally considered trial's goals, such as the "historic truth", paradigm which breaks down with the results achieved.

  9. Robust Tensioned Kevlar Suspension Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joseph B.; Naylor, Bret J.; Holmes, Warren A.

    2012-01-01

    One common but challenging problem in cryogenic engineering is to produce a mount that has excellent thermal isolation but is also rigid. Such mounts can be achieved by suspending the load from a network of fibers or strings held in tension. Kevlar fibers are often used for this purpose owing to their high strength and low thermal conductivity. A suite of compact design elements has been developed to improve the reliability of suspension systems made of Kevlar.

  10. An investigation on motor-driven power steering-based crosswind disturbance compensation for the reduction of driver steering effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyuwon; Kim, Boemjun; Go, Youngil; Park, Jaeyong; Park, Joonhong; Suh, Insoo; Yi, Kyongsu

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a lateral disturbance compensation algorithm for an application to a motor-driven power steering (MDPS)-based driver assistant system. The lateral disturbance including wind force and lateral load transfer by bank angle reduces the driver's steering refinement and at the same time increases the possibility of an accident. A lateral disturbance compensation algorithm is designed to determine the motor overlay torque of an MDPS system for reducing the manoeuvreing effort of a human driver under lateral disturbance. Motor overlay torque for the compensation of driver's steering torque induced by the lateral disturbance consists of human torque feedback and feedforward torque. Vehicle-driver system dynamics have been investigated using a combined dynamic model which consists of a vehicle dynamic model, driver steering dynamic model and lateral disturbance model. The human torque feedback input has been designed via the investigation of the vehicle-driver system dynamics. Feedforward input torque is calculated to compensate additional tyre self-aligning torque from an estimated lateral disturbance. The proposed compensation algorithm has been implemented on a developed driver model which represents the driver's manoeuvreing characteristics under the lateral disturbance. The developed driver model has been validated with test data via a driving simulator in a crosswind condition. Human-in-the-loop simulations with a full-scale driving simulator on a virtual test track have been conducted to investigate the real-time performance of the proposed lateral disturbance compensation algorithm. It has been shown from simulation studies and human-in-the-loop simulation results that the driver's manoeuvreing effort and a lateral deviation of the vehicle under the lateral disturbance can be significantly reduced via the lateral disturbance compensation algorithm.

  11. Aqueous suspensions of {alpha}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiC mixed systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnoux, C.; Baklouti, S.; Chartier, T.; Baumard, J.F. [ENSCI, Limoges (France). LMCTS

    1997-12-31

    The preparation of aqueous {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {alpha}-SiO{sub 2} and {alpha}-SiC suspensions with polyelectrolytes, respectively the NH{sub 4}{sup +} salt of polymethacrylic acid (PMA-NH{sub 4}{sup +}) and acidic form polyethylene imine (PEI-H{sup +}) is investigated. It is based on the adsorption of these polyelectrolytes which in turn depends mainly on the nature of the polyelectrolyte, and the charge density which develops on the powder surface in water. Good dispersion and stability of dispersions are then obtained through electrostatic and steric stabilization. As an application, the preparation of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiC aqueous mixed slurry was investigated as a preliminary step for processing of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiC nanocomposites. (orig.) 2 refs.

  12. Compressed Air Production Using Vehicle Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Ninad Arun Malpure; Sanket Nandlal Bhansali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Generally compressed air is produced using different types of air compressors which consumes lot of electric energy and is noisy. In this paper an innovative idea is put forth for production of compressed air using movement of vehicle suspension which normal is wasted. The conversion of the force energy into the compressed air is carried out by the mechanism which consists of the vehicle suspension system hydraulic cylinder Non-return valve air compressor and air receiver. We are co...

  13. Induction and Analysis of the Alkaloid Mitragynine Content of a Mitragyna speciosa Suspension Culture System upon Elicitation and Precursor Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Nahazima Mohamad Zuldin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations and combinations of the phytohormones 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, kinetin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA on callus induction and to demonstrate the role of elicitors and exogenous precursors on the production of mitragynine in a Mitragyna speciosa suspension culture. The best callus induction was achieved from petiole explants cultured on WPM that was supplemented with 4 mg L−1 2, 4-D (70.83%. Calli were transferred to liquid media and agitated on rotary shakers to establish Mitragyna speciosa cell suspension cultures. The optimum settled cell volume was achieved in the presence of WPM that contained 3 mg L−1 2,4-D and 3% sucrose (9.47±0.4667 mL. The treatment of cultures with different concentrations of yeast extract and salicylic acid for different inoculation periods revealed that the highest mitragynine content as determined by HPLC was achieved from the culture treated with 250 mg L−1 yeast extract (9.275±0.082 mg L−1 that was harvested on day 6 of culturing; salicylic acid showed low mitragynine content in all concentrations used. Tryptophan and loganin were used as exogenous precursors; the highest level of mitragynine production was achieved in cultures treated with 3 μM tryptophan and harvested at 6 days (13.226±1.98 mg L−1.

  14. An investigation of heat exchanger fouling in dust suspension cooling systems using graphite powder and carbon dioxide gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garton, D.A.; Hawes, R.I.; Rose, P.W.

    1966-01-01

    Some experiments have been performed to study the fouling of heat exchanger surfaces where heat is being transferred from a heated fluid to a cooled surface. The fluid studied was a suspension of 4-5 microns mean diameter graphite powder in carbon dioxide gas at near atmospheric pressures. The solids loading range covered was from 5 to 30 lb. graphite/lb. carbon dioxide, and gas Reynolds numbers from 6000 to 16000. Temperature gradients across the cooler of from 20 to 120 deg. C were obtained. The heat transfer ratio is correlated to show the dependence upon the solids loading ratio of the suspension, the gas Reynolds number and the temperature gradient across the cooler. The results have demonstrated that stringent precautions are necessary to ensure complete dryness of the graphite powder and the loop flow surfaces before any quantitative fouling data can be obtained, as the presence of entrained moisture will accelerate the deposition of material on the cold walls of the heat exchanger and can result in plugging. The heat transfer coefficient showed no obvious dependency upon either the gas Reynolds number or the temperature gradient across the cooler over the range investigated. The measured heat transfer coefficient was considerably lower than that obtained when the heat is transferred from a hot wall to a cooler fluid. At a solids loading of 30 lb, graphite/lb. carbon dioxide, the heat transfer coefficient was only 50% of that for heat transfer from a heated wall. At solids loadings below 7 lb/lb., the heat transfer was less than that for a gas alone. (author)

  15. Quantum steering in cascaded four-wave mixing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Lv, Shuchao; Jing, Jietai

    2017-07-24

    Quantum steering is used to describe the "spooky action-at-a-distance" nonlocality raised in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox, which is important for understanding entanglement distribution and constructing quantum networks. Here, in this paper, we study an experimentally feasible scheme for generating quantum steering based on cascaded four-wave-mixing (FWM) processes in hot rubidium (Rb) vapor. Quantum steering, including bipartite steering and genuine tripartite steering among the output light fields, is theoretically analyzed. We find the corresponding gain regions in which the bipartite and tripartite steering exist. The results of bipartite steering can be used to establish a hierarchical steering model in which one beam can steer the other two beams in the whole gain region; however, the other two beams cannot steer the first beam simultaneously. Moreover, the other two beams cannot steer with each other in the whole gain region. More importantly, we investigate the gain dependence of the existence of the genuine tripartite steering and we find that the genuine tripartite steering exists in most of the whole gain region in the ideal case. Also we discuss the effect of losses on the genuine tripartite steering. Our results pave the way to experimental demonstration of quantum steering in cascaded FWM process.

  16. Violation of Continuous-Variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering with Discrete Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeloch, James; Dixon, P. Ben; Howland, Gregory A.; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

    2013-03-01

    In this Letter, we derive an entropic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering inequality for continuous-variable systems using only experimentally measured discrete probability distributions and details of the measurement apparatus. We use this inequality to witness EPR steering between the positions and momenta of photon pairs generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion. We examine the asymmetry between parties in this inequality, and show that this asymmetry can be used to reduce the technical requirements of experimental setups intended to demonstrate the EPR paradox. Furthermore, we develop a more stringent steering inequality that is symmetric between parties, and use it to show that the down-converted photon pairs also exhibit symmetric EPR steering.

  17. Spatially distributed multipartite entanglement enables EPR steering of atomic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Philipp; Prüfer, Maximilian; Strobel, Helmut; Linnemann, Daniel; Frölian, Anika; Gasenzer, Thomas; Gärttner, Martin; Oberthaler, Markus K.

    2018-04-01

    A key resource for distributed quantum-enhanced protocols is entanglement between spatially separated modes. However, the robust generation and detection of entanglement between spatially separated regions of an ultracold atomic system remain a challenge. We used spin mixing in a tightly confined Bose-Einstein condensate to generate an entangled state of indistinguishable particles in a single spatial mode. We show experimentally that this entanglement can be spatially distributed by self-similar expansion of the atomic cloud. We used spatially resolved spin read-out to reveal a particularly strong form of quantum correlations known as Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering between distinct parts of the expanded cloud. Based on the strength of EPR steering, we constructed a witness, which confirmed genuine 5-partite entanglement.

  18. EFFECT OF POULTRY MEAL ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FEEDLOT STEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabrera-Nuñez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of poultry meal on weight gain and carcass yield, under a housing system. 30 Swiss x Zebu steers were used, with an approximate weight of 353 kg, which were assigned under a completely randomized design in three treatments. T1 (control concentrate without poultry meal; T2 concentrate + 30% poultry meal and T3 concentrate + 35% poultry meal. The composition of the concentrate was based on ground sorghum, maize grain, wheat bran, ground mineral salt bale with 18% crude protein and 70% TDN. A significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on the percentage of carcass weight of 53.0 was observed; 59.5 and 58.8% for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The results indicate that supplementation based poultry meal 35% promoted greater yield in feedlot steers.

  19. Design of a steering stabilizer based on CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zhaomin; Yan, Yibin

    2018-04-01

    This design realizes a posture correction device of griping steering wheel based on CAN bus, which is embedded in the steering wheel of vehicles. The system aims to detect the drivers' abnormal griping postures and provides drivers with classification alerts, by combining the recorded griping postures data and the vehicle speed data that are obtained via the CAN bus. The warning information are automatically stored and retained in the device for 12 months. To enhance the alerting effect, the count of this warning message for both the latest month and the last 12 months are displayed on the dashboard panel. In addition to prevent itself from being blocked and self-detect any faults in advance, the appliance also provide a self-test function, which will communicate with the integrated instrument system in vehicle and do simulation test right after the vehicle power on. This appliance can help to urge and ensure drivers to operate the steering wheel correctly, effectively, and timely; prevent some typical incorrect behaviors which commonly happen along with the change of griping postures, such as the using cellphone, and ultimately, reduce the incidence of traffic accidents.

  20. Rheology of organoclay suspension

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hato, MJ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors have studied the rheological properties of clay suspensions in silicone oil, where clay surfaces were modified with three different types of surfactants. Dynamic oscillation measurements showed a plateau-like behavior for all...

  1. Suspension Trauma / Orthostatic Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Suspension Trauma/Orthostatic Intolerance Safety and Health Information Bulletin SHIB 03-24-2004, updated 2011 This Safety ... the harness, the environmental conditions, and the worker's psychological state all may increase the onset and severity ...

  2. The Front Steering Launcher Design for the ITER ECRH Upper Port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, M A; Chavan, R; Heidinger, R; Nikkola, P; Ramponi, G; Saibene, G; Sanchez, F; Sauter, O; Serikov, A; Zohm, H

    2005-01-01

    The ECRH ITER upper port antenna's role is to stabilize the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) on either the q = 2 or 3/2 rational flux surfaces, which requires a narrow current deposition profile (j CD ) over a wide range along the resonance surfaces. The width of j CD should be equivalent to the marginal island width to fully stabilise the NTM. Two antenna concepts are under consideration for the upper port launcher: front steering (FS) and remote steering (RS). The FS launcher decouples the steering and focusing aspects using a two mirror system (one focusing and one steering), achieving a wider steering range and higher current density for NTM stabilisation than required by ITER, offering a threefold increase in NTM stabilization efficiency over the RS launcher. The improved physics performance has motivated the further design study of the FS launcher aiming toward a build to print launcher. The present design is compatible with ≥2.0 MW CW operation and 8 beams per port plug. A frictionless backlashfree system is envisioned for the steering mechanism. An overview of the launcher design, the calculated physics performance and the possibility of using the upper port launcher for extended physics applications (beyond NTM stabilisation) are discussed

  3. On Optimizing Steering Performance of Multi-axle Vehicle Based on Driving Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Zhicheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The steering performance of multi-axle vehicle with independent driving system is affected by the distribution of the wheel driving force. A nonlinear vehicle dynamics model including magic formula tire model for describing 11 DoF four-axle vehicle with dual-front-axle-steering (DFAS system was presented. The influence of different driving force distribution scheme on the steering performance of the vehicle was analyzed. A control strategy for improving the steady response and transient response of the vehicle steering is proposed. The results show: For the steady response, setting different drive force for internal and external wheels according to the actual steering characteristics of the vehicle can effectively improve its steering characteristics; For the transient response, adopting the zero sideslip angle control strategy and using the PID control algorithm to control the driving force of the outside wheel of tear-two-axle, under angle step input, the vehicle sideslip angle can quickly stabilize to 0 and yaw rate also significantly decreases.

  4. The Mystical Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Santiesteban Oliva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mistical suspension, silence, time, absolute, ontology, ineffability, aletheiaIn the mystical ecstasy there is a sensorial and intellectual suspension when contemplating the absolute, the ontological Being. Silence is not only significant: it is revealing. The greatest expression of experience inner silence . The word is insufficient when the ontological reality is revealed. Revelation or truth , the Greek concept of aletheia, takes on greater significance in that transcendental experience. It is also suspended phenomenological time and remains eternity open.

  5. 3D modeling design and engineering analysis of automotive suspension beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Zhi Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automotive suspension is an important device for transmission and torque. The main parameters and dimensions of 40 tons of heavy duty truck spring suspension system are designed in the paper. According to the data, the 3D modeling and virtual assembly of the leaf spring suspension are carried out by using parametric design. Structural stress of spring suspension is analyzed which can provide a guide and basis for the design of the leaf spring suspension.

  6. Networks: structure and action : steering in and steering by policy networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dassen, A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the opportunities to build a structural policy network model that is rooted in social network theories. By making a distinction between a process of steering in networks, and a process of steering by networks, it addresses the effects of network structures on network dynamics as

  7. Steer wrestling : Hemisphere GPS hopes to bring its auto-steering technology to the oilsands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentein, J.

    2009-01-15

    Hemisphere GPS has developed a technology to guide giant dump trucks used in oilsand mining operations. The technology offers the possibility to haul oilsands from northern Alberta mines using driverless, remotely-guided trucks. The GPS system would ensure more accuracy than a human operator. The technology has the potential to be commercialized within the next year, and may be adapted for the mining industry. The unmanned technology would help oilsands mine operators lower their labour costs. Hemisphere GPS gained access to the steer-by-wire technology when it purchased the Australian software company Beeline Technologies Pty Ltd. Hemisphere GPS has also developed prototype unmanned drilling rig technology which has considerable potential in the energy industry. The company has won numerous awards in recognition of its commercial achievements in science and technology. 1 fig.

  8. Equivalent Air Spring Suspension Model for Quarter-Passive Model of Passenger Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Haider J.; Chen, Jie; Nassar, Ameen A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the GENSIS air spring suspension system equivalence to a passive suspension system. The SIMULINK simulation together with the OptiY optimization is used to obtain the air spring suspension model equivalent to passive suspension system, where the car body response difference from both systems with the same road profile inputs is used as the objective function for optimization (OptiY program). The parameters of air spring system such as initial pressure, volume of bag, l...

  9. Chain Dynamics in Magnetorheological Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, A. P.; Furst, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) suspensions are composed of colloidal particles which acquire dipole moments when subjected to an external magnetic field. At sufficient field strengths and concentrations, the dipolar particles rapidly aggregate to form long chains. Subsequent lateral cross-linking of the dipolar chains is responsible for a rapid liquid-to-solid-like rheological transition. The unique, magnetically-activated rheological properties of MR suspensions make them ideal for interfacing mechanical systems to electronic controls. Additionally, the ability to experimentally probe colloidal suspensions interacting through tunable anisotropic potentials is of fundamental interest. Our current experimental work has focused on understanding the fluctuations of dipolar chains. It has been proposed by Halsey and Toor (HT) that the strong Landau-Peierls thermal fluctuations of dipolar chains could be responsible for long-range attractions between chains. Such interactions will govern the long-time relaxation of MR suspensions. We have synthesized monodisperse neutrally buoyant MR suspensions by density matching stabilized ferrofluid emulsion droplets with D2O. This allows us to probe the dynamics of the dipolar chains using light scattering without gravitational, interfacial, and polydispersity effects to resolve the short-wavelength dynamics of the dipolar chains. We used diffusing wave spectroscopy to measure these dynamics. The particle displacements at short times that show an independence to the field strength, but at long times exhibit a constrained, sub-diffusive motion that slows as the dipole strength is increased. The experiments are in good qualitative agreement with Brownian dynamics simulations of dipolar chains. Although there have been several important and detailed studies of the structure and interactions in MR suspensions, there has not been conclusive evidence that supports or contradicts the HT model prediction that long-range interactions exist between

  10. Assessment of a Boat Fractured Steering Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukelic Goran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During regular use of the steering wheel mounted on a boat, two cracks emanating from a fastener hole were noticed which, consequently, caused final fracture of the wheel. To determine the behavior of a boat steering wheel with cracks present, assessment of a fractured wheel was performed. Torque moments of the fasteners were measured prior to removing the steering wheel from the boat. Visual and dye penetrant inspection followed along with the material detection. Besides using experimental procedures, assessment of the fractured wheel was performed using finite element analysis, i.e. stress intensity factor values were numerically determined. Variation of stress intensity factor with crack length is presented. Possible causes of crack occurrence are given and they include excessive values of fastener torque moments coupled with fretting between fastener and fastener hole that was poorly machined. Results obtained by this assessment can be taken for predicting fracture behavior of a cracked steering wheel and as a reference in the design, mounting and exploitation process of steering wheels improving that way their safety in transportation environment.

  11. Development of an optimized tetracycline-inducible expression system to increase the accumulation of interleukin-10 in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortesi, Luisa; Rademacher, Thomas; Schiermeyer, Andreas; Schuster, Flora; Pezzotti, Mario; Schillberg, Stefan

    2012-07-11

    Plant cell suspension cultures can be used for the production of valuable pharmaceutical and industrial proteins. When the recombinant protein is secreted into the culture medium, restricting expression to a defined growth phase can improve both the quality and quantity of the recovered product by minimizing proteolytic activity. Temporal restriction is also useful for recombinant proteins whose constitutive expression affects cell growth and viability, such as viral interleukin-10 (vIL-10). We have developed a novel, tetracycline-inducible system suitable for tobacco BY-2 suspension cells which increases the yields of vIL-10. The new system is based on a binary vector that is easier to handle than conventional vectors, contains an enhanced inducible promoter and 5'-UTR to improve yields, and incorporates a constitutively-expressed visible marker gene to allow the rapid and straightforward selection of the most promising transformed clones. Stable transformation of BY-2 cells with this vector, without extensive optimization of the induction conditions, led to a 3.5 fold increase in vIL-10 levels compared to constitutive expression in the same host. We have developed an effective and straightforward molecular farming platform technology that improves both the quality and the quantity of recombinant proteins produced in plant cells, particularly those whose constitutive expression has a negative impact on plant growth and development. Although we tested the platform using vIL-10 produced in BY-2 cells, it can be applied to other host/product combinations and is also useful for basic research requiring strictly controlled transgene expression.

  12. Improvement of Ride Quality of Railway Vehicle by Semiactive Secondary Suspension System on Roller Rig Using Magnetorheological Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jeong Shin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ride quality became a very important factor in the performance of railway vehicles according to the expansion of high-speed railways and speedup of velocity of railway vehicles. In this study, the results of applying the MR (magnetorheological lateral damper on the secondary suspension to reduce the vibration of the car body, directly relating to the ride quality of railway vehicles, were mentioned. In order to verify the control performance of MR dampers, a 1/5 scaled railway vehicle model was constructed, and numerical simulation and experimental tests were conducted. The MR damper for the experimental tests was produced and was attached between the car body and bogie of a full scaled vehicle, and a vibration controlling test was performed to improve ride quality on a roller rig. The skyhook control algorithm was used as the controlling technique, and regarding the test results, the RMS (root mean square value was found by compensating the frequency of the lateral vibration based on the UIC 513 R Standard about the ride quality of railway vehicles. As a result of the test, it could be confirmed that vibration was reduced by approximately 24% when attaching the MR damper between the bogie and the car body compared to when applying a passive damper.

  13. RF-to-RF Characterization of a Phased Array Receive Antenna Steering System Using a Novel Ring Resonator-Based Integrated Photonic Beamformer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuang, L.; Burla, M.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Meijerink, Arjan; Marpaung, D.A.I.; Khan, M.R.H.; van Etten, Wim; Leinse, Arne; Hoekman, M.; Heideman, Rene

    2009-01-01

    A novel ring resonator-based photonic beamformer has been developed for continuous and squint-free control of the reception angle of broadband phased array antenna systems. The core of the system is a ring resonator based optical beamforming network (OBFN) used for delay synchronization and coherent

  14. Concept of navigation and automatic steering of the measuring dolphin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majohr, J.; Buch, T.; Korte, C. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungstechnik

    2000-07-01

    The Catamaran - Measuring Dolphin (MESSIN) is an unmanned and independently operated craft having been designed for carrying out multiple measuring tasks in the field of marine research and water monitoring especially in shallow waters. An introduction to the navigation, steering and safety systems is given. Furthermore the main components of the track control system and the electronic chart system used here are shown. Results of manoeuvring tests of the MESSIN are represented. This paper gives a contribution to the field of research ''autonomous and full automated vehicle''. (orig.)

  15. Performance Testing of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced with Varied Suspension Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying has become an emerging technology for the production of thermal barrier coatings for the gas turbine industry. Presently, though commercial systems for coating production are available, coatings remain in the development stage. Suitable suspension parameters for coating production remain an outstanding question and the influence of suspension properties on the final coatings is not well known. For this study, a number of suspensions were produced with varied solid loadings, powder size distributions and solvents. Suspensions were sprayed onto superalloy substrates coated with high velocity air fuel (HVAF -sprayed bond coats. Plasma spray parameters were selected to generate columnar structures based on previous experiments and were maintained at constant to discover the influence of the suspension behavior on coating microstructures. Testing of the produced thermal barrier coating (TBC systems has included thermal cyclic fatigue testing and thermal conductivity analysis. Pore size distribution has been characterized by mercury infiltration porosimetry. Results show a strong influence of suspension viscosity and surface tension on the microstructure of the produced coatings.

  16. MODELES ET CALCUL DES SYSTEMES DE SUSPENSION MAGNETIQUE PASSIVE -DEVELOPPEMENTS ET CALCULS ANALYTIQUES EN 2D ET 3D DES INTERACTIONS ENTRE AIMANTS PERMANENTS-

    OpenAIRE

    Allag , Hicham

    2010-01-01

    The passive magnetic suspensions operate using attractive or repulsive forces exerted between permanent magnets. After giving an overview of different possible configurations of magnetic suspensions, the calculation of interactions between permanent magnets was developed. The calculations are realised for parallelepipeds magnets, where the magnetization is represented by distributions of charges or poles (Coulombian approach). All interactions (energy, forces, torques, etc ....) was calculate...

  17. Magnetic suspension and guidance of high speed vehicles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alston, I A; Clark, J M; Hayden, J T

    1972-12-01

    Technical and economical assessments of magnetic suspensions for high speed vehicles and transport systems are reported. In these suspensions the suspending magnet takes the form of a powerful superconducting electromagnet that induces currents while it moves over conducting sheets or loops. A number of vehicle track designs are evaluated for operating cost effectiveness. It is shown that propulsion systems using power collected from the track are more expensive than those using power generated onboard the vehicle, and that the conducting sheet suspension is slightly more expensive than the null flux suspension.

  18. Steering Angle Control of Car for Dubins Path-tracking Using Model Predictive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma Rahma Putri, Dian; Subchan; Asfihani, Tahiyatul

    2018-03-01

    Car as one of transportation is inseparable from technological developments. About ten years, there are a lot of research and development on lane keeping system(LKS) which is a system that automaticaly controls the steering to keep the vehicle especially car always on track. This system can be developed for unmanned cars. Unmanned system car requires navigation, guidance and control which is able to direct the vehicle to move toward the desired path. The guidance system is represented by using Dubins-Path that will be controlled by using Model Predictive Control. The control objective is to keep the car’s movement that represented by dinamic lateral motion model so car can move according to the path appropriately. The simulation control on the four types of trajectories that generate the value for steering angle and steering angle changes are at the specified interval.

  19. Development and market introduction of a hydraulic deep drilling system with rack steering; Entwicklung und Markteinfuehrung einer hydraulischen Tiefbohranlage mit Zahnstangenantrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, M. [DrillTec GUT GmbH, Grossbohr- und Umwelttechnik, Deggendorf (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    The EnEG of 2004 defined geothermal energy as a renewable energy source and in consequence brought about a higher demand for drilling systems for geothermal wells among communities and private investors. Producers are faced with the challenge of developing innovative concepts which enable new applications and also offer improvements in terms of functionality and safety. DrillTec as an international drilling contractor faced this challenge already in 2002. In cooperation with the mother company MAX STREICHER, a prototype was developed which was based on a HDD system. (orig.)

  20. Electrical Steering of Vehicles - Fault-tolerant Analysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg

    2006-01-01

    solutions and still meet strict requirements to functional safety. The paper applies graph-based analysis of functional system structure to find a novel fault-tolerant architecture for an electrical steering where a dedicated AC-motor design and cheap voltage measurements ensure ability to detect all......The topic of this paper is systems that need be designed such that no single fault can cause failure at the overall level. A methodology is presented for analysis and design of fault-tolerant architectures, where diagnosis and autonomous reconfiguration can replace high cost triple redundancy...

  1. Influence of vitamins A, D3 and E status on post-mortem meat quality in steers under winter housing or pasture finishing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, T.; Pickova, J.; Ertbjerg, Per

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the influence of Swedish recommended vitamins A, D3 and E supplementation levels on muscle tenderness and fatty acid (FA) composition under indoor or outdoor finishing programmes. Swedish Red breed steer calves were divided into vitamin supplemented (n512) and non-supplemented (n5...

  2. Fundamentals studies of a magnetically steered vacuum arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walke, Paul

    In recent years demand from production industry for high performance cutting tools, aero and automobile engine parts has prompted research into both existing and novel methods of laying down hard, low friction coatings . A key process for the production of such coatings has been Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) which has proved to be a consistent and reliable tool for industry. For this technique to continue to be improved and more advanced coatings to be produced, research at the fundamental level is required. This thesis describes research investigating the behaviour of the steered arc cathode spot and methods of improving existing steered arc coating technology.The majority of existing steered arc systems use either permanent magnets or a combination of permanent and electromagnets to steer the arc. Described here is a novel system which employs a pair of electromagnetic coils of cylindrical geometry which enable the arc to be positioned on a circular orbit through a range of continuously variable radii. In addition to this the coils are capable of controlling the transverse and normal magnetic field profiles independently of the steering radius selected. This enables the behaviour of the arc spot to be investigated under a range of magnetic field conditions thus allowing the comparison of measured arc behaviour with a new model of arc motion. Care has described the motion of the arc spot as a biased random walk and has derived an analytical solution to describe the time dependent, probability density function for the arc position in two dimensions. Two distributions are proposed (one in each dimension); the first describes the probability density for the arc position in the direction of driven motion, the second the probability density in the direction of arc confinement. The shape of these distributions is dependent upon the transverse and normal components of the applied magnetic field.A series of experiments are described here that measure the shape of these

  3. Relative entropy of steering: on its definition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Eneet; Wilde, Mark M

    2017-01-01

    In Gallego and Aolita (2015 Phys. Rev . X 5 041008), the authors proposed a definition for the relative entropy of steering and showed that the resulting quantity is a convex steering monotone. Here we advocate for a different definition for relative entropy of steering, based on well grounded concerns coming from quantum Shannon theory. We prove that this modified relative entropy of steering is a convex steering monotone. Furthermore, we establish that it is uniformly continuous and faithful, in both cases giving quantitative bounds that should be useful in applications. We also consider a restricted relative entropy of steering which is relevant for the case in which the free operations in the resource theory of steering have a more restricted form (the restricted operations could be more relevant in practical scenarios). The restricted relative entropy of steering is convex, monotone with respect to these restricted operations, uniformly continuous, and faithful. (paper)

  4. Quantum steering of multimode Gaussian states by Gaussian measurements: monogamy relations and the Peres conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Se-Wan; Nha, Hyunchul; Kim, M S

    2015-01-01

    It is a topic of fundamental and practical importance how a quantum correlated state can be reliably distributed through a noisy channel for quantum information processing. The concept of quantum steering recently defined in a rigorous manner is relevant to study it under certain circumstances and here we address quantum steerability of Gaussian states to this aim. In particular, we attempt to reformulate the criterion for Gaussian steering in terms of local and global purities and show that it is sufficient and necessary for the case of steering a 1-mode system by an N-mode system. It subsequently enables us to reinforce a strong monogamy relation under which only one party can steer a local system of 1-mode. Moreover, we show that only a negative partial-transpose state can manifest quantum steerability by Gaussian measurements in relation to the Peres conjecture. We also discuss our formulation for the case of distributing a two-mode squeezed state via one-way quantum channels making dissipation and amplification effects, respectively. Finally, we extend our approach to include non-Gaussian measurements, more precisely, all orders of higher-order squeezing measurements, and find that this broad set of non-Gaussian measurements is not useful to demonstrate steering for Gaussian states beyond Gaussian measurements. (paper)

  5. Speed choice and steering behavior in curve driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsum, W. van; Godthelp, J.

    1996-01-01

    The relation between speed choice and steering performance during curve negotiation was studied in a driving simulator. The hypothesis was that curve radius and steering competence both affect steering error during curve driving, resulting in compensatory speed choice. In this, the control of safety

  6. 46 CFR 167.65-25 - Steering gear tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear tests. 167.65-25 Section 167.65-25... SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-25 Steering gear tests. On all nautical school ships making voyages of more than 48 hours' duration, the entire steering gear, the whistle, the means of...

  7. 46 CFR 61.20-1 - Steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear. 61.20-1 Section 61.20-1 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-1 Steering gear. (a) The marine inspector must inspect the steering gear at each inspection for certification for vessels whose Certificate of Inspections...

  8. Use of free steered vehicles. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, W

    1986-01-01

    The UK National Coal Board's Western Area is currently producing 10.5 m/tons per annum from 16 collieries exploiting 26 different seams. This article looks at the use of free steered vehicles (FSV's) in Haig Colliery, Point of Ayr and Silverdale Colliery, covering general applications, installation of coal faces and face salvage by FSV's.

  9. Quantum Steering Beyond Instrumental Causal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, R. V.; Taddei, M. M.; Chaves, R.; Aolita, L.

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically predict, and experimentally verify with entangled photons, that outcome communication is not enough for hidden-state models to reproduce quantum steering. Hidden-state models with outcome communication correspond, in turn, to the well-known instrumental processes of causal inference but in the one-sided device-independent scenario of one black-box measurement device and one well-characterized quantum apparatus. We introduce one-sided device-independent instrumental inequalities to test against these models, with the appealing feature of detecting entanglement even when communication of the black box's measurement outcome is allowed. We find that, remarkably, these inequalities can also be violated solely with steering, i.e., without outcome communication. In fact, an efficiently computable formal quantifier—the robustness of noninstrumentality—naturally arises, and we prove that steering alone is enough to maximize it. Our findings imply that quantum theory admits a stronger form of steering than known until now, with fundamental as well as practical potential implications.

  10. Development of an evaluation procedure in order to compare steerings of customers according fuel consumption; Entwicklung eines Bewertungsverfahrens zum Vergleich von Lenkungen in Kundenhand hinsichtlich Kraftstoffverbrauch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Pauline Hildegard Elisabeth

    2009-07-01

    The newly developed evaluation procedure considers multidiscipline influences on the fuel consumption of a vehicle and thus enables an objective quantification of the influence of different steering systems on the fuel consumption under customer-relevant driving conditions. The energetic analysis and the comparison of the steering systems are based on driving cycles which cover different customer-relevant driving maneuvers. As a condition, different boundary conditions are selected such as input by the driver, vehicle parameter and road conditions. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation is used for the accurate reproduction of the inputs. The results refer to steering systems with hydraulic and electromechanical principles of operation as well as demand-oriented hydraulic steering systems. The potential of improvement of the conventional hydraulic steering system with a pump with adjustable flow rate is experimentally determined.

  11. Decoupling control of vehicle chassis system based on neural network inverse system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyan; Zhao, Wanzhong; Luan, Zhongkai; Gao, Qi; Deng, Ke

    2018-06-01

    Steering and suspension are two important subsystems affecting the handling stability and riding comfort of the chassis system. In order to avoid the interference and coupling of the control channels between active front steering (AFS) and active suspension subsystems (ASS), this paper presents a composite decoupling control method, which consists of a neural network inverse system and a robust controller. The neural network inverse system is composed of a static neural network with several integrators and state feedback of the original chassis system to approach the inverse system of the nonlinear systems. The existence of the inverse system for the chassis system is proved by the reversibility derivation of Interactor algorithm. The robust controller is based on the internal model control (IMC), which is designed to improve the robustness and anti-interference of the decoupled system by adding a pre-compensation controller to the pseudo linear system. The results of the simulation and vehicle test show that the proposed decoupling controller has excellent decoupling performance, which can transform the multivariable system into a number of single input and single output systems, and eliminate the mutual influence and interference. Furthermore, it has satisfactory tracking capability and robust performance, which can improve the comprehensive performance of the chassis system.

  12. Design of a remote steering antenna for ECRH heating in the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaum, B., E-mail: plaum@igvp.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie (IGVP), Univ. Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Lechte, C.; Kasparek, W.; Gaiser, S.; Zeitler, A. [Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie (IGVP), Univ. Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Erckmann, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Weißgerber, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bechtold, A. [NTG Neue Technologie GmbH & Co KG, D-63571 Gelnhausen (Germany); Busch, M.; Szcepaniak, B. [Galvano-T electroplating-electroforming GmbH, D-51570 Windeck-Rosbach (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We report about the design activities for the remote steering antennas for the stellarator W7-X. • The integration into the W7-X system and the manufacturing procedure are described. • Simulations and loss measurements for the waveguide walls were done and are in good agreement. • A method for extending the steering range is presented. • A mechanical deformation analysis showed that the deformation is not critical for the beam quality. - Abstract: For the ECRH heating system of the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X, two remote steering antennas are developed and manufactured. The principle of remote steering antennas is based on the imaging characteristics of corrugated rectangular waveguides, which is well understood and can accurately be simulated. Several details, however, require deeper investigation. The antenna needs a miter-bend and a 24 mm gap. The positions of these elements need to be chosen carefully to reduce losses and stray radiation. The antennas are manufactured from copper by electroforming. This allows to integrate all components, including the corrugated inner walls and the cooling channels, in one vacuum-tight piece. This paper reviews the design process of the remote steering antennas for W7-X as well as technological issues and experimental results from test pieces.

  13. An AC modulated near infrared gain calibration system for a “Violin-Mode” transimpedance amplifier, intended for advanced LIGO suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which a 40 kg test-mass/mirror is suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation, and a “tall-thin” rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which together were to bracket the fibre under test. The photodiode was positioned so as to be sensitive (primarily) to transverse “Violin-Mode” vibrations of such a fibre, via the oscillatory movement of the shadow cast by the fibre, as this moved across the face of the detector. In this prototype shadow sensing system the photodiode was interfaced to a purpose-built transimpedance amplifier, this having both AC and DC outputs. A quasi-static calibration was made of the sensor’s DC responsivity, i.e., incremental rate of change of output voltage versus fibre position, by slowly scanning a fused-silica fibre sample transversely through the illuminating beam. The work reported here concerns the determination of the sensor’s more important AC (Violin-Mode) responsivity. Recognition of the correspondence between direct AC modulation of the source, and actual Violin-Mode signals, and of the transformative role of the AC/DC gain ratio for the amplifier, at any modulation frequency, f, resulted in the construction of the AC/DC calibration source described here. A method for determining in practice the transimpedance AC/DC gain ratio of the photodiode and amplifier, using this source, is illustrated by a specific numerical example, and the gain ratio for the prototype sensing system is reported over the frequency range 1 Hz–300 kHz. In fact, a maximum DC responsivity of 1.26 kV.m"−"1 was measured using the prototype photodiode sensor and amplifier discussed here. Therefore, the measured AC

  14. An AC modulated near infrared gain calibration system for a “Violin-Mode” transimpedance amplifier, intended for advanced LIGO suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V. [SUPA (Scottish Universities Physics Alliance) Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    The background to this work was a prototype shadow sensor, which was designed for retro-fitting to an advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) test-mass/mirror suspension, in which a 40 kg test-mass/mirror is suspended by four approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm diameter fused-silica suspension fibres. The shadow sensor comprised a LED source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation, and a “tall-thin” rectangular silicon photodiode detector, which together were to bracket the fibre under test. The photodiode was positioned so as to be sensitive (primarily) to transverse “Violin-Mode” vibrations of such a fibre, via the oscillatory movement of the shadow cast by the fibre, as this moved across the face of the detector. In this prototype shadow sensing system the photodiode was interfaced to a purpose-built transimpedance amplifier, this having both AC and DC outputs. A quasi-static calibration was made of the sensor’s DC responsivity, i.e., incremental rate of change of output voltage versus fibre position, by slowly scanning a fused-silica fibre sample transversely through the illuminating beam. The work reported here concerns the determination of the sensor’s more important AC (Violin-Mode) responsivity. Recognition of the correspondence between direct AC modulation of the source, and actual Violin-Mode signals, and of the transformative role of the AC/DC gain ratio for the amplifier, at any modulation frequency, f, resulted in the construction of the AC/DC calibration source described here. A method for determining in practice the transimpedance AC/DC gain ratio of the photodiode and amplifier, using this source, is illustrated by a specific numerical example, and the gain ratio for the prototype sensing system is reported over the frequency range 1 Hz–300 kHz. In fact, a maximum DC responsivity of 1.26 kV.m{sup −1} was measured using the prototype photodiode sensor and amplifier discussed here. Therefore, the measured AC

  15. A New Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller with a Disturbance Estimator for Robust Vibration Control of a Semi-Active Vehicle Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Keun Song

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC to improve control performances in the presence of uncertainties related to model errors and external disturbance (UAD. As a first step, an adaptive control law is designed using Lyapunov stability analysis. The control law can update control parameters of the FSMC with a disturbance estimator (DE in which the closed-loop stability and finite-time convergence of tracking error are guaranteed. A solution for estimating the compensative quantity of the impact of UAD on a control system and a set of solutions are then presented in order to avoid the singular cases of the fuzzy-based function approximation, increase convergence ability, and reduce the calculating cost. Subsequently, the effectiveness of the proposed controller is verified through the investigation of vibration control performances of a semi-active vehicle suspension system featuring a magnetorheological damper (MRD. It is shown that the proposed controller can provide better control ability of vibration control with lower consumed power compared with two existing fuzzy sliding mode controllers.

  16. Stability Simulation of a Vehicle with Wheel Active Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brabec Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the possibility of increasing the vehicle driving stability at a higher speed. One of the ways how to achieve higher stability is using the 4WS system. Mathematical description of vehicle general movement is a very complex task. For simulation, models which are aptly simplified are used. For the first approach, so-called single-truck vehicle model (often linear is usually used. For the simulation, we have chosen to extend the model into a two-truck one, which includes the possibility to input more vehicle parameters. Considering the 4WS system, it is possible to use a number of potential regulations. In our simulation model, the regulation system with compound coupling was used. This type of regulation turns the rear wheels depending on the input parameters of the system (steering angle of the front wheels and depending on the output moving quantities of the vehicle, most frequently the yaw rate. Criterion for compensation of lateral deflection centre of gravity angle is its zero value, or more precisely the zero value of its first-order derivative. Parameters and set-up of the simulation model were done in conjunction with the dSAPACE software. Reference performances of the vehicle simulation model were made through the defined manoeuvres. But the simulation results indicate that the rear-wheels steering can have a positive effect on the vehicle movement stability, especially when changing the driving direction at high speed.

  17. Carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, and meat quality of Criollo Argentino and Braford steers raised on forage in a semi-tropical region of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Carlos; Peña, F; García, A; Perea, J; Martos, J; Domenech, V; Acero, R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare the carcass characteristics, cholesterol concentration, fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat and subcutaneous fat, and meat quality of Criollo Argentino and Braford steers reared in an extensive system, without supplementation, and slaughtered at approximately 400kg live weight. The Braford steers had greater (PCriollo Argentino steers. The tissue composition of the 10th rib was: 68.1% vs. 63.6% muscle, 23.9% vs. 20.4% bone and 8.2% vs. 16.3% fat for the Criollo Argentino and Braford breeds, respectively. The meat of Longissimus muscle from Braford steers was lighter, redder, yellower and more tender than that from Criollo Argentino steers. The meat of Longissimus muscle from Braford steers had a higher fat content, similar protein and ash contents and a lower (P⩽0.001) cholesterol concentration than that from Criollo Argentino steers. The subcutaneous depot was the most saturated, while the intramuscular fat had the most polyunsaturated fatty acids. Intramuscular fat showed the highest ∑h fatty acids, and PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios and for MUFA/SFA, 16:0/18:0 and h/H ratios were not significantly different between adipose tissue depots. The influence of breed on the fatty acid profile varies among adipose tissues. In general, both intramuscular fat and subcutaneous fat from Criollo steers contained more unsaturated fatty acids and less saturated fatty acids, than did fat from Braford steers.

  18. An Investigation on the Thermophysical Properties of a Binary Molten Salt System Containing Both Aluminum Oxide and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticle Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, Kunal

    Molten salts are showing great potential to replace current heat transfer and thermal energy storage fluids in concentrated solar plants because of their capability to maximize thermal energy storage, greater stability, cost effectiveness and significant thermal properties. However one of the major drawbacks of using molten salt as heat transfer fluid is that they are in solid state at room temperature and they have a high freezing point. Hence, significant resources would be required to maintain it in liquid form. If molten salt freezes while in operation, it would eventually damage piping network due to its volume shrinkage along with rendering the entire plant inoperable. It is long known that addition of nanoparticle suspensions has led to significant changes in thermal properties of fluids. In this investigation, aluminum oxide and titanium oxide nanoparticles of varying concentrations are added to molten salt/solar salt system consisting of 60% sodium nitrate and 40% potassium nitrate. Using differential scanning calorimeter, an attempt will be made to investigate changes in heat capacity of system, depression in freezing point and changes in latent heat of fusion. Scanning electron microscope will be used to take images of samples to study changes in micro-structure of mixture, ensure uniform distribution of nanoparticle in system and verify authenticity of materials used for experimentation. Due to enormous magnitude of CSP plant, actual implementation of molten salt system is on a large scale. With this investigation, even microscopic enhancement in heat capacity and slight lowering of freezing point will lead to greater benefits in terms of efficiency and cost of operation of plant. These results will further the argument for viability of molten salt as a heat transfer fluid and thermal storage system in CSP. One of the objective of this experimentation is to also collect experimental data which can be used for establishing relation between concentration

  19. 49 CFR 570.60 - Steering system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... are correctly adjusted. Grasp the front and rear of a tire and attempt to turn the tire and wheel assemble left and right. If the free movement at the front or rear tread of the tire exceeds the applicable... in both directions. (1) Inspection procedure. With the engine running on a vehicle with power...

  20. Minimally invasive brow suspension for facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Peter D; Hiltzik, David H; Moche, Jason; Preminger, Aviva

    2003-01-01

    To report a new technique for unilateral brow suspension for facial paralysis that is minimally invasive, limits supraciliary scar formation, does not require specialized endoscopic equipment or expertise, and has proved to be equal to direct brow suspension in durability and symmetry. Retrospective survey of a case series of 23 patients between January 1997 and December 2000. Metropolitan tertiary care center. Patients with head and neck tumors and brow ptosis caused by facial nerve paralysis. The results of the procedure were determined using the following 3-tier rating system: outstanding (excellent elevation and symmetry); acceptable (good elevation and fair symmetry); and unacceptable (loss of elevation). The results were considered outstanding in 12 patients, acceptable in 9 patients, and unacceptable in only 1 patient. One patient developed a hematoma, and 1 patient required a secondary adjustment. The technique has proved to be superior to standard brow suspension procedures with regard to scar formation and equal with respect to facial symmetry and suspension. These results have caused us to abandon direct brow suspension and to use this minimally invasive method in all cases of brow ptosis due to facial paralysis.

  1. Method of Controlling Steering of a Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Atluri, Venkata Prasad (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method of controlling steering of a vehicle through setting wheel angles of a plurality of modular electronic corner assemblies (eModules) is provided. The method includes receiving a driving mode selected from a mode selection menu. A position of a steering input device is determined in a master controller. A velocity of the vehicle is determined, in the master controller, when the determined position of the steering input device is near center. A drive mode request corresponding to the selected driving mode to the plurality of steering controllers is transmitted to the master controller. A required steering angle of each of the plurality of eModules is determined, in the master controller, as a function of the determined position of the steering input device, the determined velocity of the vehicle, and the selected first driving mode. The eModules are set to the respective determined steering angles.

  2. The Use of a Steering Shaping Function to Improve Human Performance in By-Wire Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    nontrivial ways. Included in the problems induced by the staffing of automated systems are biomechanical (Sirouspour & Salcudean, 2003; Sövényi...device (e.g., brake pedal ) and the actuators of the system (e.g., calipers). In this report, we are specifically interested in steer-by-wire subsystems

  3. Mid-sized omnidirectional robot with hydraulic drive and steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carl G.; Perry, Trent; Cook, Douglas; Maxfield, Russell; Davidson, Morgan E.

    2003-09-01

    Through funding from the US Army-Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command's (TACOM) Intelligent Mobility Program, Utah State University's (USU) Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) has developed the T-series of omni-directional robots based on the USU omni-directional vehicle (ODV) technology. The ODV provides independent computer control of steering and drive in a single wheel assembly. By putting multiple omni-directional (OD) wheels on a chassis, a vehicle is capable of uncoupled translational and rotational motion. Previous robots in the series, the T1, T2, T3, ODIS, ODIS-T, and ODIS-S have all used OD wheels based on electric motors. The T4 weighs approximately 1400 lbs and features a 4-wheel drive wheel configuration. Each wheel assembly consists of a hydraulic drive motor and a hydraulic steering motor. A gasoline engine is used to power both the hydraulic and electrical systems. The paper presents an overview of the mechanical design of the vehicle as well as potential uses of this technology in fielded systems.

  4. Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Style, R. W.

    2010-06-30

    During the drying of colloidal suspensions, the desiccation process causes the suspension near the air interface to consolidate into a connected porous matrix or crust. Fluid transport in the porous medium is governed by Darcy\\'s law and the equations of poroelasticity, while the equations of colloid physics govern processes in the suspension. We derive new equations describing this process, including unique boundary conditions coupling the two regions, yielding a moving-boundary model of the concentration and stress profiles during drying. A solution is found for the steady-state growth of a nedimensional crust during constant evaporation rate from the surface. The solution is used to demonstrate the importance of the system boundary conditions on stress profiles and diffusivity in a drying crust. © 2011 The Royal Society.

  5. Optimal platform design using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II and technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution; application to automotive suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeefard, Mohammad Hassan; Khalkhali, Abolfazl; Faghihian, Hamed; Dahmardeh, Masoud

    2018-03-01

    Unlike conventional approaches where optimization is performed on a unique component of a specific product, optimum design of a set of components for employing in a product family can cause significant reduction in costs. Increasing commonality and performance of the product platform simultaneously is a multi-objective optimization problem (MOP). Several optimization methods are reported to solve these MOPs. However, what is less discussed is how to find the trade-off points among the obtained non-dominated optimum points. This article investigates the optimal design of a product family using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) and proposes the employment of technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method to find the trade-off points among the obtained non-dominated results while compromising all objective functions together. A case study for a family of suspension systems is presented, considering performance and commonality. The results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method to obtain the trade-off points with the best possible performance while maximizing the common parts.

  6. Steering, Entanglement, Nonlocality, and the EPR Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Howard; Jones, Steve; Andrew, Doherty

    2007-06-01

    The concept of steering was introduced by Schroedinger in 1935 as a generalization of the EPR paradox for arbitrary pure bipartite entangled states and arbitrary measurements by one party. Until now, it has never been rigorously defined, so it has not been known (for example) what mixed states are steerable (that is, can be used to exhibit steering). We provide an operational definition, from which we prove (by considering Werner states and Isotropic states) that steerable states are a strict subset of the entangled states, and a strict superset of the states that can exhibit Bell-nonlocality. For arbitrary bipartite Gaussian states we derive a linear matrix inequality that decides the question of steerability via Gaussian measurements, and we relate this to the original EPR paradox.

  7. SPS Beam Steering for LHC Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab; Bartosik, Hannes [CERN; Cornelis, Karel [CERN; Norderhaug Drøsdal, Lene [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Papaphilippou, Yannis [CERN; Wenninger, Jorg [CERN

    2014-07-01

    The CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerates beams for the Large Hadron Collider to 450 GeV. In addition it produces beams for fixed target facilities which adds complexity to the SPS operation. During the run 2012-2013 drifts of the extracted beam trajectories have been observed and lengthy optimizations in the transfer lines were performed to reduce particle losses in the LHC. The observed trajectory drifts are consistent with the measured SPS orbit drifts at extraction. While extensive studies are going on to understand, and possibly suppress, the source of such SPS orbit drifts the feasibility of an automatic beam steering towards a “golden” orbit at the extraction septa, by means of the interlocked correctors, is also being investigated. The challenges and constraints related to the implementation of such a correction in the SPS are described. Simulation results are presented and a possible operational steering strategy is proposed.

  8. Pointing Device Performance in Steering Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Ransalu; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S

    2016-06-01

    Use of touch-screen-based interactions is growing rapidly. Hence, knowing the maneuvering efficacy of touch screens relative to other pointing devices is of great importance in the context of graphical user interfaces. Movement time, accuracy, and user preferences of four pointing device settings were evaluated on a computer with 14 participants aged 20.1 ± 3.13 years. It was found that, depending on the difficulty of the task, the optimal settings differ for ballistic and visual control tasks. With a touch screen, resting the arm increased movement time for steering tasks. When both performance and comfort are considered, whether to use a mouse or a touch screen for person-computer interaction depends on the steering difficulty. Hence, a input device should be chosen based on the application, and should be optimized to match the graphical user interface. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Hydroethanolic extract of Carthamus tinctorius induces antidepressant-like effects: modulation by dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in tail suspension test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi-Maleki, Saeid; Mousavi, Zahra

    2017-09-01

    Studies indicate that major deficiency in the levels of monoaminergic transmitters is a reason for severe depression. On the other hand, it is shown that Carthamus tinctorius L. (CT) may improve neuropsychological injuries by regulation of the monoamine transporter action. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the involvement of monoaminergic systems in antidepressant-like effect of CT extract in the tail suspension test (TST) in mice. The mice were intraperitoneally (IP) treated with CT extract (100-400 mg/kg) 1 hr before the TST. To investigate the involvement of monoaminergic systems in antidepressant-like effect, the mice were treated with receptor antagonists 15 min before CT extract treatment (400 mg/kg, IP) and 1 hr before the TST. Findings showed that CT extract (100-400 mg/kg, IP), dose-dependently induced antidepressant-like effect ( P open-field test. Pretreatment of mice with SCH23390, sulpiride, haloperidol, WAY100135, cyproheptadine, ketanserin and p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) inhibited the antidepressant-like effect of CT extract (400 mg/kg, IP), but not with prazosin and yohimbine. Co-administration of CT extract (100 mg/kg, IP) with sub-effective doses of fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, IP) or imipramine (5 mg/kg, IP) increased their antidepressant-like response. Our findings firstly showed that components (especially N-Hexadecanoic acid) of CT extract induce antidepressant-like effects by interaction with dopaminergic (D1 and D2) and serotonergic (5HT1A, 5-HT2A receptors) systems. These findings validate the folk use of CT extract for the management of depression.

  10. Adiabatic photo-steering theory in topological insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Feasible external control of material properties is a crucial issue in condensed matter physics. A new approach to achieving this aim, named adiabatic photo-steering, is reviewed. The core principle of this scheme is that several material constants are effectively turned into externally tunable variables by irradiation of monochromatic laser light. Two-dimensional topological insulators are selected as the optimal systems that exhibit a prominent change in their properties following the application of this method. Two specific examples of photo-steered quantum phenomena, which reflect topological aspects of the electronic systems at hand, are presented. One is the integer quantum Hall effect described by the Haldane model, and the other is the quantum spin Hall effect described by the Kane–Mele model. The topological quantities associated with these phenomena are the conventional Chern number and spin Chern number, respectively. A recent interesting idea, time-reversal symmetry breaking via a temporary periodic external stimulation, is also discussed. (focus issue review)

  11. Advanced Optics for the Remote Steering ITER ECRH Upper Launcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, A; Cirant, S; Moro, A; Platania, P; Sozzi, C

    2005-01-01

    The optics of the ECRH Upper Launcher in ITER based on the Remote Steering concept needs special attention, since any focussing element in front of the waveguide has combined effects on the range of steering angles achievable and the beam width in the plasma region. The effects are studied in detail for a setup composed by 8 beams per port (three ports), for a spherical and a hyperbolic mirror surface. Gaussian beam analysis is compared to beam pattern calculations with the optical physics code GRASP, in order to verify the validity of gaussian optics approximation. The standard description with simply astigmatic beams, not adequate in more complex systems as the proposed two-mirror set-up, requires approximations, which are compared with the generalized astigmatic beam description. The ohmic losses at the end mirrors and the related localized heating due to the very large power density cause deformations that depends on the design of the cooling circuit. The distortion of the beam shape has been evaluated in a realistic case of mirror cooling with a small-channel system. The quantification of the effect depends on the precise evaluation ohmic losses and their enhancement in the long term due to the surface deterioration

  12. Progress on the ITER ECRH upper launcher steering mirror identification and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collazos, Andres; Bertizzolo, Robert; Chavan, Rene; Dolizy, Frederic; Felici, Federico; Henderson, Mark A.; Landis, Jean-Daniel; Sanchez, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the ITER ECRH upper launcher (UL) is to control magnetohydrodynamic activity, in particular neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs), by driving several MW of EC current near the q = 1, 3/2, 2 flux surfaces, where NTMs are expected to occur. The steering of the EC power is done by the steering mechanism assembly (SMA) that comprises a reflecting mirror and a frictionless and backlash free pneumo-mechanical system actuated with pressurised helium gas. The control requirements for this component in terms of steering accuracy and speed are reviewed. With respect to these requirements, the performance of the first SMA prototype is assessed in a mock up of the UL pneumatic configuration. The expected design characteristics of the SMA have been verified and an overall satisfactory performance has been assessed. Furthermore, the main challenges for the future work, such as the pressure and angular position control, have been identified.

  13. Particle interactions in concentrated suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondy, L.A.; Graham, A.L.; Abbott, J.R.; Brenner, H.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of research that focuses on slow flows of suspensions in which colloidal and inertial effects are negligibly small. The authors describe nuclear magnetic resonance imaging experiments to quantitatively measure particle migration occurring in concentrated suspensions undergoing a flow with a nonuniform shear rate. These experiments address the issue of how the flow field affects the microstructure of suspensions. In order to understand the local viscosity in a suspension with such a flow-induced, spatially varying concentration, one must know how the viscosity of a homogeneous suspension depends on such variables as solids concentration and particle orientation. The authors suggest the technique of falling ball viscometry, using small balls, as a method to determine the effective viscosity of a suspension without affecting the original microstructure significantly. They also describe data from experiments in which the detailed fluctuations of a falling ball's velocity indicate the noncontinuum nature of the suspension and may lead to more insights into the effects of suspension microstructure on macroscopic properties. Finally, they briefly describe other experiments that can be performed in quiescent suspensions (in contrast to the use of conventional shear rotational viscometers) in order to learn more about boundary effects in concentrated suspensions

  14. A Photobioreactor System for Precision Cultivation of Photoautotrophic Microorganisms and for High-Content Analysis of Suspension Dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedbal, Ladislav; Trtílek, M.; Červený, Jan; Komárek, Ondřej; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 5 (2008), s. 902-910 ISSN 0006-3592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : algae * cyanobacteria * high-content monitoring * microbial growth * photosynthesis * systems biology Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.936, year: 2008

  15. Remote-Steering Antennas for 140 GHz Electron Cyclotron Heating of the Stellarator W7-X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lechte C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For electron cyclotron resonance heating of the stellarator W7-X at IPP Greifswald, a 140 GHz/10 MW cw millimeter wave system has been built. Two out of 12 launchers will employ a remote-steering design. This paper describes the overall design of the two launchers, and design issues like input coupling structures, manufacturing of corrugated waveguides, optimization of the steering range, integration of vacuum windows, mitrebends and vacuum valves into the launchers, as well as low power tests of the finished waveguides.

  16. Recent progress towards developing a high field, high-T(sub c) superconducting magnet for magnetic suspension and balance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derochemont, L. Pierre; Oakes, Carlton E.; Squillante, Michael R.; Duan, Hong-Min; Hermann, Allen M.; Andrews, Robert J.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Maroni, Victor A.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.; Kelliher, Warren C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews superconducting magnets and high T(sub c) superconducting oxide ceramic materials technology to identify areas of fundamental impasse to the fabrication of components and devices that tap what are believed to be the true potential of these new materials. High T(sub c) ceramics pose problems in fundamentally different areas which need to be solved unlike low T(sub c) materials. The authors map out an experimental plan designed to research process technologies which, if suitably implemented, should allow these deficiencies to be solved. Finally, assessments are made of where and on what regimes magnetic system designers should focus their attention to advance the practical development of systems based on these new materials.

  17. Clogging in constricted suspension flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Alvaro; Lhuissier, Henri; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kähler, Christian J.

    2018-02-01

    The flow of a charged-stabilized suspension through a single constricted channel is studied experimentally by tracking the particles individually. Surprisingly, the behavior is found to be qualitatively similar to that of inertial dry granular systems: For small values of the neck-to-particle size ratio (D /d reported for granular systems and agree for moderate particle volume fraction (ϕ ≈20 % ) with a simple stochastic model for the number of particles at the neck. For larger neck sizes (D /d >3 ), even at the largest ϕ (≈60 %) achievable in the experiments, an uninterrupted particle flow is observed, which resembles that of an hourglass. This particularly small value of D /d (≃3 ) at the transition to a practically uninterrupted flow is attributed to the low effective friction between the particles, achieved by the particle's functionalization and lubrication.

  18. QUALIDADE DA CARCAÇA E DA CARNE DE NOVILHOS ABATIDOS COM PESOS SIMILARES, TERMINADOS EM DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE ALIMENTAÇÃO CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY FROM STEERS SLAUGHTERED WITH SIMILAR WEIGHTS, FINISHED IN DIFFERENT FEEDING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Moletta

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as características qualitativas da carcaça e da carne de novilhos Aberdeen Angus terminados em confinamento, com canade-açúcar + concentrado, ou em pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum + sal comum como suplemento mineral. Abateram-se os novilhos aos 24 meses de idade com pesos similares de 394 e 396 kg, respectivamente. Alimentaram-se os animais confinados com dieta contendo, na matéria seca, 72,3% de cana-de-açúcar e 27,7% de concentrado. Os novilhos apresentaram no início da terminação peso médio de 320 kg e idade média de vinte meses. Não houve diferença nas percentagens de músculo e de osso. A percentagem de gordura foi similar, sendo de 22,8% e 20,7%, respectivamente, para animais terminados em pastagem e confinamento. A suculência, o sabor, a força de cisalhamento e a quebra no descongelamento mostraram-se maiores nos animais terminados em pastagem cultivada, sendo, respectivamente, 6,93 pontos, 6,60 pontos, 9,23 kgf e 8,28%, contra 5,93 pontos, 5,77 pontos, 7,27 kgf e 5,27%, na mesma ordem, para novilhos alimentados em confinamento. Contudo, outras características qualitativas da carne como cor, textura, marmoreio, maciez e quebra na cocção foram similares entre os tratamentos. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Aberdeen Angus, cana-de-açúcar, confinamento, pastagem hibernal. The objective of this work was to study the carcass and meat characteristics of Aberdeen Angus steers finished in feedlot, with sugar cane + concentrate, or on cultivated pasture of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum + common salt as mineral supplement. The steers was slaughtered at 24 months of age with similar weights of 394 and 396 kg, respectively. Confined animals were fed with a diet containing 72.3% chopped sugar cane and 27.7% concentrate, dry matter basis. At the beginning of finishing the average weight of the steers was 320 kg and the age was 20 months. No difference was observed for carcass muscle and bone

  19. Network synthesis and parameter optimization for vehicle suspension with inerter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to design a comfortable-oriented vehicle suspension structure, the network synthesis method was utilized to transfer the problem into solving a timing robust control problem and determine the structure of “inerter–spring–damper” suspension. Bilinear Matrix Inequality was utilized to obtain the timing transfer function. Then, the transfer function of suspension system can be physically implemented by passive elements such as spring, damper, and inerter. By analyzing the sensitivity and quantum genetic algorithm, the optimized parameters of inerter–spring–damper suspension were determined. A quarter-car model was established. The performance of the inerter–spring–damper suspension was verified under random input. The simulation results manifested that the dynamic performance of the proposed suspension was enhanced in contrast with traditional suspension. The root mean square of vehicle body acceleration decreases by 18.9%. The inerter–spring–damper suspension can inhibit the vertical vibration within the frequency of 1–3 Hz effectively and enhance the performance of ride comfort significantly.

  20. Lightweight computational steering of very large scale molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beazley, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    We present a computational steering approach for controlling, analyzing, and visualizing very large scale molecular dynamics simulations involving tens to hundreds of millions of atoms. Our approach relies on extensible scripting languages and an easy to use tool for building extensions and modules. The system is extremely easy to modify, works with existing C code, is memory efficient, and can be used from inexpensive workstations and networks. We demonstrate how we have used this system to manipulate data from production MD simulations involving as many as 104 million atoms running on the CM-5 and Cray T3D. We also show how this approach can be used to build systems that integrate common scripting languages (including Tcl/Tk, Perl, and Python), simulation code, user extensions, and commercial data analysis packages