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Sample records for suspension metered dose

  1. Factors influencing aerodynamic particle size distribution of suspension pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Poonam; Stein, Stephen W; Myrdal, Paul B

    2015-02-01

    Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) are frequently used for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) of the residual particles delivered from a pMDI plays a key role in determining the amount and region of drug deposition in the lung and thereby the efficacy of the inhaler. In this study, a simulation model that predicts the APSD of residual particles from suspension pMDIs was utilized to identify the primary determinants for APSD. These findings were then applied to better understand the effect of changing drug concentration and micronized drug size on experimentally observed APSDs determined through Andersen Cascade Impactor testing. The experimental formulations evaluated had micronized drug mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) between 1.2 and 2.6 μm and drug concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1% (w/w) with 8.5% (w/w) ethanol in 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFA-134a). It was determined that the drug concentration, micronized drug size, and initially atomized droplet distribution have a significant impact in modulating the proportion of atomized droplets that contain multiple suspended drug particles, which in turn increases the residual APSD. These factors were found to be predictive of the residual particle MMAD for experimental suspension HFA-134a formulations containing ethanol. The empirical algebraic model allows predicting the residual particle size for a variety of suspension formulations with an average error of 0.096 μm (standard deviation of 0.1 μm).

  2. Inhaled corticosteroid metered-dose inhalers: how do variations in technique for solutions versus suspensions affect drug distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Christie A; Tsourounis, Candy

    2013-03-01

    To assess the literature that evaluates how variations in metered-dose inhaler (MDI) technique affect lung distribution for inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) formulated as MDI suspensions and solutions. PubMed (up to November 2012) and Cochrane Library (up to November 2012) were searched using the terms metered-dose inhalers, HFA 134a, Asthma/*drug therapy, and inhaled corticosteroids. In addition, reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. All articles in English from the data sources that assessed MDI technique comparing total lung distribution (TLD) of MDI solutions or suspensions formulated with ICSs were included in the review. Five relevant studies were identified. Five controlled studies compared how variations in MDI technique affect TLD for ICS MDI solutions with suspensions. MDI solutions resulted in greater TLD compared with larger particle MDI suspensions. Delayed or early inspiration upon device actuation of MDI solutions resulted in less TLD than coordinated actuation, but with a 3- to 4-times greater TLD than MDI suspensions inhaled using a standard technique. A sixth study evaluated inspiratory flow rates (IFR) for small, medium, and large particles. Rapid and slow IFRs resulted in similar TLD for small particles, while far fewer particles reached the airways with medium and large particles at rapid, rather than slow, IFRs. Based on the literature evaluated, standard MDI technique should be used for ICS suspensions. ICS MDI solutions can provide a higher average TLD than larger-particle ICS suspensions using standard technique, discoordinated inspiration and medication actuation timing, or rapid and slow IFRs. ICS MDI solutions allow for a more forgiving technique, which makes them uniquely suitable options for patients with asthma who have difficultly with MDI technique.

  3. Comparative study of budesonide as a nebulized suspension vs pressurized metered-dose inhaler in adult asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaard, H; Nikander, K; Munch, E

    1998-01-01

    The study objective was to compare the effect of budesonide administered as a nebulized suspension as compared to a spray with a spacer in adult asthmatics. In a double-blind, double-dummy crossover study, 26 adult patients with moderately severe unstable asthma were randomized to three 4-week treatment periods with budesonide 0.8 mg b.i.d. administered by a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) with spacer (Nebuhaler) and budesonide 1 mg and 4 mg b.i.d. administered by a Pari Inhalier Boy jet nebulizer. The nebulizer was activated only during inspiration. The total mass output was similar from the two devices but their fraction of small particles differed by a factor of 2 in favour of pMDI. Effect was evaluated from daily home measurements of peak expiratory flow (PEF), need of beta 2-agonist and symptom scores. Plasma cortisol and budesonide levels were measured in a subgroup of 10 patients. A consistent trend showed the nebulizer treatment to be at least as efficient as the pMDI plus spacer treatment. In actual fact, the apparent order of effect was: 4 mg nebulized suspension treatment > or = 1 mg nebulized suspension treatment > or = 0.8 mg pMDI with spacer treatment. Plasma budesonide and plasma cortisol also exhibited dose-related levels independent of device. The adverse effects reported appeared to be related to the dose rather than delivery device. Accordingly, the effect was related to total mass output, rather than to the small particle fraction of the budesonide aerosol. These results attest to the efficiency of jet-nebulized budesonide suspension, and indicate nebulized budesonide to be equipotent to standard budesonide therapy delivered by pMDI with Nebuhaler, provided nebulization is synchronized with inspiration and no loss of aerosol occurs during expiration.

  4. Influence of Formulation Factors on the Aerosol Performance of Suspension and Solution Metered Dose Inhalers: A Systematic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Poonam; Sandell, Dennis; Conti, Denise S; Holt, Jay T; Hickey, Anthony J; Saluja, Bhawana

    2017-09-01

    Metered dose inhalers (MDIs) are complex drug-device combination products widely used to treat pulmonary disorders. The efficacy, driven by aerosol performance of the products, depends on a multitude of factors including, but not limited to, the physicochemical properties of drug and nature and amount of excipient(s). Under the quality by design (QbD) paradigm, systematic investigations are necessary to understand how changes in critical quality attributes (CQAs) of formulation, device, and manufacturing process influence key product performance parameters, such as delivered dose (DD) and fine particle dose (FPD). The purpose of this work is to provide a better understanding of the effects of different levels of excipients and drug particle size distribution on the aerosol performance of MDI products, while using two fundamentally different MDI products as relevant model systems, Proventil® HFA (albuterol sulfate suspension) and Qvar® (beclomethasone dipropionate solution). These MDI products, as model systems, provided mid-points around which a design of experiments (DOE), consisting of 22 suspension and 9 solution MDI formulations, were defined and manufactured. The DOE included formulations factors with varying ethanol (2 to 20% w/w and 7 to 9% w/w for the suspension and solution, respectively) and oleic acid concentrations (0.005 to 0.25% w/w and 0 to 2% w/w for the suspension and solution, respectively) and drug volumetric median particle size distribution (PSD D50, 1.4 to 2.5 μm for the suspension). The MDI formulations were analyzed using compendial methods to elucidate the effect of these formulation variables (ethanol, oleic acid, and PSD D50) on DD and FPD. The outcomes of this study allowed defining design spaces for the formulation factors, such that DD and FPD would remain within specific pre-defined requirements. The systematic approach utilized in this work can contribute as a QbD tool to evaluate the extent to which the formulation factors

  5. Influence of suspension stabilisers on the delivery of protein-loaded porous poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles via pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Elizabeth; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Alpar, Oya; Greenleaf, David

    2014-08-01

    This work investigates the feasibility of delivering large (≈ 25 μm) porous poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles containing a model protein via pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI). Porous PLGA microparticles were prepared by modified double emulsion method as pMDI suspension based systems containing suspension stabilisers in 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFA 227). Physical suspension stability was assessed by visual and optical suspension techniques. Aerosolisation characteristics were investigated using aerosol particle sizing, dose delivery through the valve (DTV) and shot weight. An optimum concentration of suspensions stabiliser was required to achieve physical pMDI suspension stability; values of; 0.0075%w/w PVP K30 or 0.075%w/w PEG 300 were required. Formulations that exhibited good physical stability also showed optimum aerosolisation characteristics. When employing 0.0075% PVP K30 DTV at the start and end of can life was 98.11(±10.01) % and 75.06 (±7.01) % respectively verses values of 37.39 (±11.12) % and 5.57 (±1.72) % without the inclusion of PVP K30. Porous PLGA microparticles show potential as macromolecule/protein carrier and also to target lower regions of the lungs when prepared as pMDI suspension formulations in HFA 227 using suspension stabilisers to achieve consistent dose delivery through the life of the pMDI, however, inter-relationship between the device and the formulation need to be considered to achieve suitable respiratory delivery.

  6. The surface characterisation and comparison of two potential sub-micron, sugar bulking excipients for use in low-dose, suspension formulations in metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jeff; Crean, Barry; Davies, Martyn; Toon, Richard; Jinks, Phil; Roberts, Clive J

    2008-09-01

    This study compares the surface characteristics and surface energetics of two potential bulking excipients, anhydrous sub-micron alpha-lactose and sub-micron sucrose, for use with low-dose, suspension formulations in pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). Both sub-micron bulking excipients are processed from parent materials (alpha-lactose monohydrate/alpha-lactose monohydrate and silk grade sucrose, respectively) so the surface characteristics of each material were determined and compared. Additionally, the surface energetics and adhesive interactions between each sub-micron bulking excipient and some chosen active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) used in pMDI formulations were also determined. From this data, it was possible to predict the potential degree of interaction between the APIs and each sub-micron bulking excipient, thus determining suitable API-excipient combinations for pMDI formulation optimisation. Salmon calcitonin was also investigated as a potential API due to the current interest in, and the potential low-dose requirements for, the pulmonary delivery of proteins. The size and morphology of each sub-micron excipient (and parent materials) were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the crystalline nature of each sub-micron excipient and parent material was assessed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface chemistry of each sub-micron excipient was analysed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface energies of each sub-micron excipient, along with their respective parent materials and any intermediates, were determined using two techniques. The surface energies of these materials were determined via (a) single particle adhesive interactions using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and (b) 'bulk' material surface interactions using contact angle measurements (CA). From the CA data, it was possible to calculate the theoretical work of adhesion values for each API-excipient interaction using the surface component

  7. Comparison of the bioavailability and systemic effects of beclometasone dipropionate suspension for nebulization and beclometasone dipropionate via a metered-dose inhaler after single-dose administration in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, G; Acerbi, D

    2003-02-01

    Pharmacokinetic properties of a drug, and selection and correct usage of an appropriate delivery device, are factors that can affect the outcome of inhaled therapyThe use of nebulization can overcome problems that are associated with other delivery systems used for inhalation therapyThe objective of this open, randomized, single-dose study was to compare the systemic exposure and safety of beclometasone dipropionate (BDP) suspension for nebulization with BDP via metered-dose inhaler (MDI) in healthy subjects. Following a run-in period to assess basal 24-h serum cortisol levels and cortisol urinary excretion, 12 healthy males were administered BDP 1,600 microg given via MDI and were then randomized to receive a single dose of either 1,600 microg (n = 6) or 3,200 microg BDP (n = 6) suspension for nebulization given via a nebulizer Results with respect to systemic exposure to beclometasone-17-monopropionate (B17MP) (the active metabolite of BDP) and systemic effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were determined by evaluation of a number of pharmacokinetic parameters for plasma B17MP and serum and urinary cortisol, respectively. A statistically significantly greater peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of B17MP was reported with BDP via MDI (1,587 pg ml(-1)) compared with BDP 1,600 microg (455 pg ml(-1)) and BDP 3,200 microg suspensions for nebulization (758 pg ml(-1)), and was achieved more rapidly (Tmax) (1.3 h, 3 h, and 2.5 h, respectively). In addition, elimination half-life (t 1/2(el)) was statistically significantly shorter with BDP via MDI (4.6 h) than with both dosages of BDP suspensions for nebulization (7.4 h and 6.3 h with 1600 microg and 3,200 microg, respectively), as was mean residence time (MRT) (5.4 h, 11.1 h, and 10.0 h, respectively). Total systemic exposure to B17MP (as determined by the area under the concentration-time curve: AUCinfinity) was comparable for BDP via MDI (6,883 pg ml(-1) h(-1)) and BDP 3,200 microg suspension for

  8. Topical Metered-dosing Dispenser Performance Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Kupiec, Thomas C; Vu, Nicole T

    2016-01-01

    Topical metered-dosing dispensers are designed for dosing accuracy and ease-of-use by the patients while protecting the packaged products from environmental exposure and contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, precision, and residual of available topical metered-dosing dispensers with different types of topical cream for practical application. Triplicate samples of five different dispensers were tested. This test was completed using three types of commercial topical cream-bases of dissimilar Total Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Load Percentages, Transdermal Penetration Percentages, and Specific Gravities. The dispensers were evaluated according to specified dose-uniformity criteria for a total dispensing capacity of 30 mL at 0.5 mL per dose for 60 doses. The study shows Topi-CLICK performed with the best precision and accuracy of dosing in comparison to the airless-pump type dispensers. While the dispensing was highly variable with airless pumps and may require calibration for each packaged product, remarkably the performance of Topi-CLICK was not affected by different types of cream-bases and does not require additional metering calibration. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  9. Aerosol Therapy: Nebulizer vs Metered Dose Inhaler

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newhouse, M; Dolovich, M

    1987-01-01

    ... aerosol generation using metered-dose inhalers. Previously, aerosol delivery by means of intermittent positive pressure breathing devices attached to nebulizers enjoyed unwarranted popularity for decades, only to be abandoned when convincing evidence became available that they were no better than nebulizers alone for administering bronchodilato...

  10. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from the source. The study included the interventional radiolo- gists, radiographers and nurses ...

  11. Recent patents in pressurised metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehtezazi, Touraj

    2012-04-01

    In this paper recent patents in pressurised metered dose inhalers have been reviewed. The patents are related to novel valves, dose-counters, formulations, add-on devices, reduction of propellant leakage and inkjet technology. Recently patented dose-counters provide mechanisms that are less susceptible to inaccuracy, and are battery-less electronic dose-counters with the help of miniature electromechanical generators. Regarding the formulation aspect, recent patents provide methods for combinational pMDIs and more stable products. Advantages of recently patented valves are being spring-free and less subject to loss of prime. Recent developments in micromachining have allowed patents that incorporate inkjet technology to develop inhalers that are similar to pMDIs, but produce uniform aerosol droplets. Coating canisters with suitable polymers has reduced need for excipients. Recently patented add-on devices reduce aerosol deposition in the spacer by creating turbulence on the walls of the chamber. Blockage of nozzles in actuators is prevented by providing tapered nozzle channels. In conclusion, these patents show better understanding of pMDIs and provide methods to achieve products with much improved reliability, aerosol performance and stability.

  12. The Ozone Layer and Metered Dose Inhalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The stratospheric ozone layer plays a crucial role in protecting living organisms against ultraviolet radiation. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC contained in metered-dose inhalers (MDIs contribute to ozone depletion and in accordance with the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer established 10 years ago, phase-out strageies have been developed worldwide for this category of agents. Alternatives to CFC-containing inhalers have been developed, such as powder inhalers and those using hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs as propellants, which have been shown to be as safe and effective as CFC-containing inhalers and even offer interesting advantages over older inhalers. The transition to non-CFC MDIs requires a major effort to make the new products available and to ensure adequate comparision with the previous ones. It also requires a harmonization of actions taken by industry, government, licencing bodies and patients or health professional associations to ensure adequate information and education to the public and respiratory care providers.

  13. Accidental Cutaneous Burns Secondary to Salbutamol Metered Dose Inhaler

    OpenAIRE

    Kale, Ashutosh; Shackley, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of accidental cutaneous burns caused by salbutamol metered dose inhaler. A 9-year-old boy underwent dental extraction at a children's hospital and was incidentally noted to have burn injuries on dorsum of both hands. On questioning, the boy revealed that a few days ago his 14-year-old brother, who is an asthmatic, playfully sprayed his salbutamol metered dose inhaler on the back of both his hands with the inhaler's mouth piece being in direct contact with the patient's skin. ...

  14. Ipratropium bromide delivered by metered-dose aerosol to infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two methods of administration of ipratropium bromide (Atrovent; Boehringer Ingelheim) to wheezing children'< 25 months of age were compared: (i) the conventional nebulisation (15 children); and (ii) a metered-dose aerosol plus spacer and mask (MDA group, 17 children). The drug induced a significant and similar fall in ...

  15. An alternative arrangement of metered dosing fluid using centrifugal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Arafat; Ehsan, Md.

    2017-06-01

    Positive displacement dosing pumps are extensively used in various types of process industries. They are widely used for metering small flow rates of a dosing fluid into a main flow. High head and low controllable flow rates make these pumps suitable for industrial flow metering applications. However their pulsating flow is not very suitable for proper mixing of fluids and they are relatively more expensive to buy and maintain. Considering such problems, alternative techniques to control the fluid flow from a low cost centrifugal pump is practiced. These include - throttling, variable speed drive, impeller geometry control and bypass control. Variable speed drive and impeller geometry control are comparatively costly and the flow control by throttling is not an energy efficient process. In this study an arrangement of metered dosing flow was developed using a typical low cost centrifugal pump using bypass flow technique. Using bypass flow control technique a wide range of metered dosing flows under a range of heads were attained using fixed pump geometry and drive speed. The bulk flow returning from the system into the main tank ensures better mixing which may eliminate the need of separate agitators. Comparative performance study was made between the bypass flow control arrangement of centrifugal pump and a diaphragm type dosing pump. Similar heads and flow rates were attainable using the bypass control system compared to the diaphragm dosing pump, but using relatively more energy. Geometrical optimization of the centrifugal pump impeller was further carried out to make the bypass flow arrangement more energy efficient. Although both the systems run at low overall efficiencies but the capital cost could be reduced by about 87% compared to the dosing pump. The savings in capital investment and lower maintenance cost very significantly exceeds the relatively higher energy cost of the bypass system. This technique can be used as a cost effective solution for

  16. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    accurately measures the radiation emitted from the source. The study included the interventional radiolo ... mined as most sensitive to radiation. The use of a thyroid guard also decreases the effective dose by approx- ... al radiation is necessary. Thermo- luminescent dosimetry is used to measure radiation and the apparatus.

  17. Accidental Cutaneous Burns Secondary to Salbutamol Metered Dose Inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of accidental cutaneous burns caused by salbutamol metered dose inhaler. A 9-year-old boy underwent dental extraction at a children's hospital and was incidentally noted to have burn injuries on dorsum of both hands. On questioning, the boy revealed that a few days ago his 14-year-old brother, who is an asthmatic, playfully sprayed his salbutamol metered dose inhaler on the back of both his hands with the inhaler's mouth piece being in direct contact with the patient's skin. On examination, there was a rectangular area of erythema with superficial peeling on the dorsum of both hands, the dimensions of which exactly matched those of the inhaler's mouthpiece. It is possible that the injury could have been a chemical burn from the pharmaceutical/preservative/propellant aerosol or due to the physical effect of severe cooling of the skin or mechanical abrasive effect of the aerosol blasts or a combination of some or all the above mechanisms. This case highlights the importance of informing children and parents of the potentially hazardous consequences of misusing a metered dose inhaler.

  18. Accidental cutaneous burns secondary to salbutamol metered dose inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Ashutosh; Shackley, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of accidental cutaneous burns caused by salbutamol metered dose inhaler. A 9-year-old boy underwent dental extraction at a children's hospital and was incidentally noted to have burn injuries on dorsum of both hands. On questioning, the boy revealed that a few days ago his 14-year-old brother, who is an asthmatic, playfully sprayed his salbutamol metered dose inhaler on the back of both his hands with the inhaler's mouth piece being in direct contact with the patient's skin. On examination, there was a rectangular area of erythema with superficial peeling on the dorsum of both hands, the dimensions of which exactly matched those of the inhaler's mouthpiece. It is possible that the injury could have been a chemical burn from the pharmaceutical/preservative/propellant aerosol or due to the physical effect of severe cooling of the skin or mechanical abrasive effect of the aerosol blasts or a combination of some or all the above mechanisms. This case highlights the importance of informing children and parents of the potentially hazardous consequences of misusing a metered dose inhaler.

  19. Advances in metered dose inhaler technology: hardware development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Stephen W; Sheth, Poonam; Hodson, P David; Myrdal, Paul B

    2014-04-01

    Pressurized metered dose inhalers (MDIs) were first introduced in the 1950s and they are currently widely prescribed as portable systems to treat pulmonary conditions. MDIs consist of a formulation containing dissolved or suspended drug and hardware needed to contain the formulation and enable efficient and consistent dose delivery to the patient. The device hardware includes a canister that is appropriately sized to contain sufficient formulation for the required number of doses, a metering valve capable of delivering a consistent amount of drug with each dose delivered, an actuator mouthpiece that atomizes the formulation and serves as a conduit to deliver the aerosol to the patient, and often an indicating mechanism that provides information to the patient on the number of doses remaining. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art of MDI hardware and includes discussion of enhancements made to the device's core subsystems. In addition, technologies that aid the correct use of MDIs will be discussed. These include spacers, valved holding chambers, and breath-actuated devices. Many of the improvements discussed in this article increase the ability of MDI systems to meet regulatory specifications. Innovations that enhance the functionality of MDIs continue to be balanced by the fact that a key advantage of MDI systems is their low cost per dose. The expansion of the health care market in developing countries and the increased focus on health care costs in many developed countries will ensure that MDIs remain a cost-effective crucial delivery system for treating pulmonary conditions for many years to come.

  20. Non-CFC metered dose inhalers: the patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, P A; Greenleaf, D

    1999-09-10

    There have been many patent applications to the European Patent Office over the past decade involving the transition of pressurised metered dose inhalers from the CFCs to non-CFC propellants. In addition to those where formulations are changed, there are those relating to specific drugs or drug classes, processes of manufacture and modifications to the container/closure system. Many of these have been opposed, usually on the grounds of obviousness. However, due to the length of time for the opposition process and the fact that there are few non-CFC pressurised inhalers on the market yet, the complete picture of which patents are valid has yet to unfold.

  1. The influence of initial atomized droplet size on residual particle size from pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Poonam; Stein, Stephen W; Myrdal, Paul B

    2013-10-15

    Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) are widely used for the treatment of diseases of the lung, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The mass median aerodynamic diameter of the residual particles (MMADR) delivered from a pMDI plays a key role in determining the amount and location of drug deposition in the lung and thereby the efficacy of the inhaler. The mass median diameter of the initial droplets (MMDI), upon atomization of a formulation, is a significant factor influencing the final particle size. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent that MMDI and initial droplet geometric standard deviation (GSD) influence the residual aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSDR) of solution and suspension formulations. From 48 solution pMDI configurations with varying ethanol concentrations, valve sizes and actuator orifice diameters, it was experimentally found that the effective MMDI ranged from 7.8 to 13.3 μm. Subsequently, computational methods were utilized to determine the influence of MMDI on MMADR, by modulating the MMDI for solution and suspension pMDIs. For solution HFA-134a formulations of 0.5% drug in 10% ethanol, varying the MMDI from 7.5 to 13.5 μm increased the MMADR from 1.4 to 2.5 μm. For a suspension formulation with a representative particle size distribution of micronized drug (MMAD=2.5 μm, GSD=1.8), the same increase in MMDI resulted in an increase in the MMADR from 2.7 to only 3.3 μm. Hence, the same increase in MMDI resulted in a 79% increase in MMADR for the solution formulation compared to only a 22% increase for the suspension formulation. Similar trends were obtained for a range of drug concentrations and input micronized drug sizes. Thus, APSDR is more sensitive to changes in MMDI for solution formulations than suspension formulations; however, there are situations in which hypothetically small micronized drug in suspension (e.g. 500 nm MMAD) could resemble trends observed for solution formulations

  2. Development of an intelligent adapter for metered dose inhalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Mingrong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To better coordinate the interaction of inhalation and aerosol release, an intelligent adapter (IA was developed for metered dose inhalers (MDIs. The adapter included three main units: a signal acquisition device, a micro-control-unit (MCU, and an actuation mechanism. To fully study the effectiveness of the intelligent adapter, an inhalation simulation experiment was done, and two bands of MDI were used for the experiment. The results indicated that, when inhalation, the intelligent adapter can press down the MDI automatically; moreover, this intelligent adapter could achieve an aerosol-release time Tr of 0.4 s for MDI A and 0.60 s for MDI B, which compares very well with the existing pure mechanical systems at 0.8 s and 1.0 s.

  3. Pharmaceutical Product Development: Intranasal Scopolamine (INSCOP) Metered Dose Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Crady, Camille; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Motion sickness (MS) has been a problem associated with space flight, the modern military and commercial air and water transportation for many years. Clinical studies have shown that scopolamine is the most effective medication for the prevention of motion sickness (Dornhoffer et al, 2004); however, the two most common methods of administration (transdermal and oral) have performance limitations that compromise its utility. Intranasal administration offers a noninvasive treatment modality, and has been shown to counter many of the problems associated with oral and transdermal administration. With the elimination of the first pass effect by the liver, intranasal delivery achieves higher and more reliable bioavailability than an equivalent oral dose. This allows for the potential of enhanced efficacy at a reduced dose, thus minimizing the occurrence of untoward side effects. An Intranasal scopolamine (INSCOP) gel formulation was prepared and tested in four ground-based clinical trials under an active Investigational New Drug (IND) application with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Although there were early indicators that the intranasal gel formulation was effective, there were aspects of formulation viscosity and the delivery system that were less desirable. The INSCOP gel formulation has since been reformulated into an aqueous spray dosage form packaged in a precise, metered dose delivery system; thereby enhancing dose uniformity, increased user satisfaction and palatability, and a potentially more rapid onset of action. Recent reports of new therapeutic indications for scopolamine has prompted a wide spread interest in new scopolamine dosage forms. The novel dosage form and delivery system of INSCOP spray shows promise as an effective treatment for motion sickness targeted at the armed forces, spaceflight, and commercial sea, air, and space travel markets, as well as prospective psychotherapy for mental and emotional disorders.

  4. Determination of physical and chemical stability in pressurised metered dose inhalers: potential new techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Jesslynn; Traini, Daniela; Boyd, Ben J; Gaisford, Simon; Young, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) are subject to rigorous physical and chemical stability tests during formulation. Due to the time and cost associated with product development studies, there is a need for online techniques to fast screen new formulations in terms of physical and chemical (physico-chemical) stability. The problem with achieving this is that pMDIs are by their definition, pressurised, making the direct observation of physico-chemical properties in situ difficult. This review highlights the characterisation tools that can enhance the product development process for pMDIs. Techniques investigated include: laser diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, isothermal ampoule calorimetry, titration calorimetry and gas perfusion calorimetry. The operational principles behind each technique are discussed and complemented with examples from the literature. Laser diffraction is well placed to analyse real-time physical stability as a function of particle size; however, its use is restricted to suspension pMDIs. Raman spectroscopy can be potentially used to attain both suspension and solution pMDI spectra in real time; however, the majority of experiments are ex-valve chemical composition mapping. Calorimetry is an effective technique in capturing both chemical and physical degradations of APIs in real time but requires redevelopment to withstand pressure for the purposes of pMDI screening.

  5. A 12-week, multicenter, randomized, partially blinded, active-controlled, parallel-group study of budesonide inhalation suspension in adolescents and adults with moderate to severe persistent asthma previously receiving inhaled corticosteroids with a metered-dose or dry powder inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin; Noonan, Michael; Silkoff, Philip E; Uryniak, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    Nebulized budesonide inhalation suspension (BIS) is approved in the United States for children with asthma aged 1 to 8 years. The primary objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of BIS 0.5 mg QD and 2.0 mg BID in terms of the mean change from baseline to end of treatment in predose forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). In this 12-week, partially blinded, randomized study, subjects aged >or=12 years with moderate to severe persistent asthma previously receiving inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) by dry powder inhaler (DPI) or metered-dose inhaler (MDI) continued therapy during a 2- to 3-week run-in period and then switched to BIS 0.5 mg QD, 1.0 mg QD, 1.0 mg BID, or 2.0 mg BID, or budesonide DPI 400 microg BID (active reference arm). Besides FEV1 (the primary variable), other outcome variables included changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) from baseline to weeks 4, 8, and 12 and to the average over the treatment period; as well as changes from baseline to the end of treatment in diary-collected daytime and nighttime asthma symptom scores, rescue medication use, nighttime awakenings due to asthma, morning and evening peak expiratory flow (PEF), percentages of symptom-free and medication-free periods, and the incidence of predefined asthma events. Adverse events were recorded by subjects. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of budesonide were assessed in all treatment arms. Efficacy analyses included data in a modified intent-to-treat approach. Differences in the change from baseline to end of treatment in FEV1 were assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). For secondary variables, changes from baseline to each visit or to the treatmentperiod average were compared among groups using an ANCOVA model. P or=65 years. There was no significant difference in mean change in predose FEV1 between BIS 0.5 mg QD and BIS 2.0 mg BID (0.02 vs 0.01 L). On average, mean values for the BIS dosage groups did not indicate any deterioration from baseline to the treatment

  6. Ipratropium bromide delivered by metered-dose aerosol to infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-21

    Aug 21, 1990 ... metered aerosol method compared with nebulisation of ipra- tropium bromide when given to wheezing infants and toddlers. The former method is convenient for primary health care facilities or home use, since it does not depend upon the availability of the nebuliser apparatus or a gas or electricity source.

  7. Effect of Budesonide by metered dose inhaler with or without spacer & dry powder inhaler on Lung Function

    OpenAIRE

    Dilshad Ali Rizvi; Mohammad Tariq Salman; Joydeep Sircar; Ali Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Aims & objective-To compare the efficacy of Budesonide delivered by metered dose inhaler, metered dose inhaler with spacer and dry powder inhaler on the lung function test parameters. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was undertaken to assess the effect of budesonide administered from fifty patients of chronic stable bronchial asthma were budesonide(400mcg) by metered dose inhaler, metered dose inhaler with spacer and by dry powder inhaler at day 14, 21 and 28 after enrolment ...

  8. Problems Associated with the Use of the Radiochromic Dye Film as a Radiation Dose Meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johnny; Wille, Mads; Olsen, Kjeld J.

    1984-01-01

    A thorough investigation has been made of the problems involved in using a dye film dose meter for precision dosimetry at high doses, using both low- and high-LET radiation. The study includes: time course of coloration following irradiation at various dose levels; dose response after irradiation...... of coloration. The dose response has been found to depend strongly on: the time span between irradiation and measurement; the irradiation temperature; and the dose rate at doses above 50 kGy for low-LET radiation. Irradiation in vacuum (right-pointing angle bracket1 Pa) and in air produced the same dose...

  9. Simulation of internal contamination screening with dose rate meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, T. C. F.; Mendes, B. M.; Hunt, J. G.

    2017-11-01

    Assessing the intake of radionuclides after an accident in a nuclear power plant or after the intentional release of radionuclides in public places allows dose calculations and triage actions to be carried out for members of the public and for emergency response teams. Gamma emitters in the lung, thyroid or the whole body may be detected and quantified by making dose rate measurements at the surface of the internally contaminated person. In an accident scenario, quick measurements made with readily available portable equipment are a key factor for success. In this paper, the Monte Carlo program Visual Monte Carlo (VMC) and MCNPx code are used in conjunction with voxel phantoms to calculate the dose rate at the surface of a contaminated person due to internally deposited radionuclides. A whole body contamination with 137Cs and a thyroid contamination with 131I were simulated and the calibration factors in kBq per μSv/h were calculated. The calculated calibration factors were compared with real data obtained from the Goiania accident in the case of 137Cs and the Chernobyl accident in terms of the 131I. The close comparison of the calculated and real measurements indicates that the method may be applied to other radionuclides. Minimum detectable activities are discussed.

  10. Predicting physical stability in pressurized metered dose inhalers via dwell and instantaneous force colloidal probe microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Sa, Dexter; Chan, Hak-Kim; Chrzanowski, Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Colloidal probe microscopy (CPM) is a quantitative predictive tool, which can offer insight into particle behavior in suspension pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). Although CPM instantaneous force measurements, which involve immediate retraction of the probe upon sample contact, can provide information on inter-particle attractive forces, they lack the ability to appropriately imitate all critical particle pMDI interactions (e.g., particle re-dispersion after prolonged pMDI storage). In this paper, two novel dwell force techniques - indentation and deflection dwell - were employed to mimic long-term particle interactions present in pMDIs, using particles of various internal structures and a model liquid propellant (2H,3H perfluoropentane) as a model system. Dwell measurements involve particle contact for an extended period of time. In deflection dwell mode the probe is held at a specific position, while in indentation dwell mode the probe is forced into the sample with a constant force for the entirety of the contact time. To evaluate the applicability of CPM to predict actual pMDI physical stability, inter-particle force measurements were compared with qualitative and quantitative bulk pMDI measurement techniques (visual quality and light scattering). Measured instantaneous attractive (snap-in) and adhesive (max-pull) forces decreased as a function of increasing surface area, while adhesive forces measured by indentation dwell decreased as a function of dwell contact time for particles containing voids. Instantaneous force measurements provided information on the likelihood of floccule formation, which was predictive of partitioning rates, while indentation dwell force measurements were predictive of formulation re-dispersibility after prolonged storage. Dwell force measurements provide additional information on particle behavior within a pMDI not obtainable via instantaneous measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of patient radiation doses using DAP meter in interventional radiology procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Sam [Dept. of Radiological Technology. Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yong Su [Dept. of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu Univeristy, Kyushu (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    The author investigated interventional radiology patient doses in several other countries, assessed accuracy of DAP meters embedded in intervention equipment in domestic country, conducted measurement of patient doses for 13 major interventional procedures with use of Dose Area Product(DAP) meters from 23 hospitals in Korea, and referred to 8,415 cases of domestic data related to interventional procedures by radiation exposure after evaluation the actual effective of dose reduction variables through phantom test. Finally, dose reference level for major interventional procedures was suggested. In this study, guidelines for patient doses were 237.7 Gy·cm{sup 2} in TACE, 17.3 Gy·cm{sup 2} in AVF, 114.1 Gy·cm{sup 2} in LE PTA and STENT, 188.5 Gy·cm{sup 2} in TFCA, 383.5 Gy·cm{sup 2} in Aneurysm Coil, 64.6 Gy·cm{sup 2} in PTBD, 64.6 Gy·cm{sup 2} in Biliary Stent, 22.4 Gy·cm{sup 2} in PCN, 4.3 Gy·cm{sup 2} in Hickman, 2.8 Gy·cm{sup 2} in Chemo-port, 4.4 Gy·cm{sup 2} in Perm-Cather, 17.1 Gy·cm{sup 2} in PCD, and 357.9 Gy·cm{sup 2} in Vis, EMB. Dose reference level acquired in this study is considered to be able to use as minimal guidelines for reducing patient dose in the interventional radiology procedures. For the changes and advances of materials and development of equipment and procedures in the interventional radiology procedures, further studies and monitoring are needed on dose reference level Korean DAP dose conversion factor for the domestic procedures.

  12. Factors Affecting the Stability and Performance of Ipratropium Bromide; Fenoterol Hydrobromide Pressurized-Metered Dose Inhalers

    OpenAIRE

    Ninbovorl, Jenjira; Sawatdee, Somchai; Srichana, Teerapol

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the stability and performance of ipratropium bromide and fenoterol hydrobromide in a pressurized-metered dose inhaler (pMDI). A factorial design was applied to investigate the effects of three parameters (propellant, water, and ethanol) on the performance of 27 designed formulations of a solution-based pMDI. The formulations that contained a hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) propellant lower than 72% v/v and an ethanol concentration higher t...

  13. Aerosol generation by metered-dose inhalers containing dimethyl ether/propane inverse microemulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerville, Mark L.; Hickey, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Water soluble compounds were incorporated into metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) by using water-in-propellant lecithin microemulsions, in which dimethyl ether (DME) and propane acted as both continuous phase and propellant. Lecithin, water, and water soluble compounds were added to glass MDI containers, valves were crimped on, and propellants were added using a pressure burette. Aerosols were produced using commercially available actuators, and inertial impaction was used to determine the mass med...

  14. The efficacy of drug delivery by a pear-shaped spacer and metered dose inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J; Milledge, J S; Moszoro, H; Higgins, A

    1984-10-01

    The efficacy of terbutaline delivered via a 750 ml spacer device (Nebuhaler) compared with a metered dose inhaler alone was studied by means of an open cross-over trial in eight patients with stable asthma. The FEV1 and FVC response curves with cumulative doses up to 8 mg were shifted significantly to the left using the device, whilst side effects were not significantly increased. These results indicate that the spacer significantly improves aerosol drug delivery from a pressurized inhaler, even in patients whose inhalation technique was considered adequate.

  15. Preparation and the Biopharmaceutical Evaluation for the Metered Dose Transdermal Spray of Dexketoprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangding Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to develop a metered dose transdermal spray (MDTS formulation for transdermal delivery of dexketoprofen (DE. DE release from a series of formulations was assessed in vitro. Various qualitative and quantitative parameters like spray pattern, pump seal efficiency test, average weight per metered dose, and dose uniformity were evaluated. The optimized formulation with good skin permeation and an appropriate drug concentration and permeation enhancer (PE content was developed incorporating 7% (w/w, % DE, 7% (v/v, % isopropyl myristate (IPM, and 93% (v/v, % ethanol. In vivo pharmacokinetic study indicated that the optimized formulation showed a more sustainable plasma-concentration profile compared with the Fenli group. The antiinflammatory effect of DE MDTS was evaluated by experiments involving egg-albumin-induced paw edema in rats and xylene-induced ear swelling in mice. Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction was used to evaluate the anti-nociceptive actions of DE MDTS. Pharmacodynamic studies indicated that the DE MDTS has good anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. Besides, skin irritation studies were performed using rat as an animal model. The results obtained show that the MDTS can be a promising and innovative therapeutic system used in transdermal drug delivery for DE.

  16. Electrostatics and inhaled medications: influence on delivery via pressurized metered-dose inhalers and add-on devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Jolyon P; Coppolo, Dominic P; Nagel, Mark W

    2007-01-01

    .... Spacers and valved holding chambers used with pressurized metered-dose inhalers to treat obstructive lung diseases are particularly prone to this behavior, which increases variability in the amount...

  17. An In Vitro Aerosolization Efficiency Comparison of Generic and Branded Salbutamol Metered Dose Inhalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rahimkhani, Saeed Ghanbarzadeh, Ali Nokhodchi, Hamed Hamishehkar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the high rate of pulmonary diseases, respiratory drug delivery systems have been attracted excessive attention for the past decades. Because of limitations and growing drug bill, physicians are encouraged to prescribe generically whenever possible. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there was any significant difference in aerosolization performance between a reference brand Salbutamol (A Metered Dose Inhalers (MDIs and two generic products (B and C. Methods: The aerosolization performance of MDIs was evaluated by calculating aerosolization indexes including fine particle fraction (FPF, fine particle dose (FPD, geometric standard deviation (GSD and mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD by using the next generation impactor. Results: Although aerosolization indexes of MDI A were superior than the Iranian brands, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: These results verified that generic MDIs deliver similar quantities of Salbutamol to the reference brand and aerosolization performance parameters of generic Salbutamol MDIs did not differ significantly from the reference brand.

  18. In vitro performance of three combinations of spacers and pressurized metered dose inhalers for treatment in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, E; Madsen, J; Bisgaard, H

    1998-01-01

    and spacers, with the NebuChamber giving the highest dose, both as delivered dose and in droplets space in the inspiratory line and entrainment of air during inhalation due to inefficient valve control could account for these differences.......The performance of pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and spacers in correct dose recommendations is important, but limited information on dose delivery and fine-particle dose from different combinations of spacers and pMDIs is available. In this study, three combinations of spacers and p...... of aerosol, determined as half-life (t1/2) was around approximately 30 s for the NebuChamber, 9-15 s for the Babyhaler and approximately 10 s for the AeroChamber. The present study confirms that there are significant differences in dose output from different combinations of pressurized metered dose inhalers...

  19. Formulation design of oral pediatric Acetazolamide suspension: dose uniformity and physico-chemical stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoveña, Ana; Suárez-González, Javier; Martín-Rodríguez, Cristina; Fariña, José B

    2017-03-01

    The formulation of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) as oral solution or suspension in pediatrics is a habitual practice, due to the non-existence of many commercialized medicines in pediatric doses. It is also the simplest way to prepare and administer them to this vulnerable population. The design of a formulation that assures the dose and the system stability depends on the physico-chemical properties of the API. In this study, we formulate a class IV API, Acetazolamide (AZM) as suspension for oral administration to pediatric population. The suspension must comply attributes of quality, safety and efficacy for this route of administration. We use simple compounding procedures, as well as fewer pure excipients, as recommended for children. Mass and uniformity content assays and physical and chemical stability studies were performed. To quantify the API an UPLC method was used. We verified the physico-chemical stability of the suspensions and that they passed the mass test of the European Pharmacopeia (EP), but not the dose uniformity test. This reveals that AZM must be formulated as liquid forms with a more complex system of excipients (not usually indicated in pediatrics), or otherwise solid forms capable of assuring uniformity of mass and dose for every dosage unit.

  20. The formulation of a pressurized metered dose inhaler containing theophylline for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bing; Haghi, Mehra; Goud, Mary; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2015-08-30

    Theophylline (TP) is a bronchodilator used orally to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that has been associated with multiple side effects, tempering its present use. This study aims to improve COPD treatment by creating a low-dose pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) inhalable formulation of TP. Aerosol performance was assessed using Andersen Cascade Impaction (ACI). Solubility of TP in HFA 134/ethanol mixture was measured and morphology of the particles analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Calu-3 cell viability, epithelial cell transport and inflammatory-response assays were conducted to study the impact of the formulation on lung epithelial cells. The mass deposition profile of the formulation showed an emitted dose of 250.04±14.48μg per 5 actuations, achieving the designed nominal dose (50μg/dose). SEM showed that the emitted particles were hollow with spherical morphology. Approximately 98% of TP was transported across Calu-3 epithelial cells and the concentration of interleukin-8 secreted from Calu-3 cells following stimulation with tissue necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) resulted in significantly lower level of interleukin-8 released from the cells pre-treated with TP (1.92±0.77ng·ml(-1) TP treated vs. 8.83±2.05ng·ml(-1) TNF-α stimulated, respectively). The solution pMDI formulation of TP developed in present study was shown to be suitable for inhalation and demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects at low doses in Calu-3 cell model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of scattered gamma radiation in the calibration of environmental dose rate meters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Hedemann Jensen, P.

    1992-01-01

    Practical free-field and shadow-shield calibration techniques using a variety of environmental dose rate meters were studied, and experimental and theoretical determinations were made of the contribution of scattered photons to the air kerma rate from certificated Cs-137, Co-60 and Ra-226 gamma...... negligibly to the detector response relative to that from ground and air. Shadow-shield measurements were used to deduce the contribution to the response from the scattered radiation in free-field geometries and the experimentally obtained results were found to agree agree extremely well with those...... the detector responses. Insignificant differences of the order of 1 % between the results for the two geometries were found both experimentally and theoretically. It is thus concluded that the scattered radiation from surrounding buildings farther away than around 15 m from a calibration set-up contributes...

  2. Humidity affects the morphology of particles emitted from beclomethasone dipropionate pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, James W; Bhambri, Pallavi; Church, Tanya K; Lewis, David A; McDermott, Mark T; Elbayomy, Shereen; Finlay, Warren H; Vehring, Reinhard

    2017-03-30

    The effects of propellant type, cosolvent content, and air humidity on the morphology and solid phase of the particles produced from solution pressurized metered dose inhalers containing the corticosteroid beclomethasone dipropionate were investigated. The active ingredient was dissolved in the HFA propellants 134a and 227ea with varying levels of the cosolvent ethanol and filled into pressurized metered dose inhalers. Inhalers were actuated into an evaporation chamber under controlled temperature and humidity conditions and sampled using a single nozzle, single stage inertial impactor. Particle morphology was assessed qualitatively using field emission scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam-helium ion microscopy. Drug solid phase was assessed using Raman microscopy. The relative humidity of the air during inhaler actuation was found to have a strong effect on the particle morphology, with solid spheroidal particles produced in dry air and highly porous particles produced at higher humidity levels. Air humidification was found to have no effect on the solid phase of the drug particles, which was predominantly amorphous for all tested formulations. A critical level of air relative humidity was required to generate porous particles for each tested formulation. This critical relative humidity was found to depend on the amount of ethanol used in the inhaler, but not on the type of propellant utilized. The results indicate that under the right circumstances water vapor saturation followed by nucleated water condensation or ice deposition occurs during particle formation from evaporating propellant-cosolvent-BDP droplets. This finding reveals the importance of condensed water or ice as a templating agent for porosity when particle formation occurs at saturated conditions, with possible implications on the pharmacokinetics of solution pMDIs and potential applications in particle engineering for drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Metered-dose inhalers with spacers vs nebulizers for pediatric asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K J; Cunningham, S J; Crain, E F

    1995-02-01

    To determine whether the administration of beta-agonists by metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with a spacer device is as effective as the administration of beta-agonists by nebulizer for the treatment of acute asthma exacerbations in children. Randomized trial with two arms. Urban pediatric emergency department (ED) in Bronx, NY. Convenience sample of 152 children 2 years and older with a history of at least two episodes of wheezing presenting to the ED with an acute asthma exacerbation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive standard doses of a beta-agonist (albuterol) by an MDI with spacer or by a nebulizer. Dosing intervals and the use of other medications were determined by the treating physician. Baseline characteristics and asthma history were recorded. Asthma severity score, peak expiratory flow rate in children 5 years or older, and oxygen saturation were determined at presentation and before admission or discharge. The groups did not differ in age, sex, ethnicity, age of onset of asthma, or asthma severity score at presentation. There were no significant differences between the groups in outcomes, including mean changes in respiratory rate, asthma severity score, and peak expiratory flow rate, oxygen saturation, number of treatments given, administration of steroids in the ED, and admission rate. Patients given MDIs with spacers required shorter treatment times in the ED (66 minutes vs 103 minutes, P vs 20%, P nebulizer group had a significantly greater mean percent increase in heart rate from baseline to final disposition (15% vs 5%, P nebulizers for the treatment of children with acute asthma exacerbations in the ED.

  4. Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of an ibuprofen-pseudoephedrine cold suspension in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelotte, Cathy K; Prior, Mary Jane; Pendley, Charles; Zimmerman, Brenda; Lavins, Bernard J

    2010-07-01

    Two studies were conducted to characterize multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and potential drug interactions of ibuprofen and pseudoephedrine combined in a suspension and to evaluate safety of this combination in children with common cold, flu, or sinusitis. In the pharmacokinetic study, 24 healthy children aged 4-11 years were administered ibuprofen -pseudoephedrine suspension at 7.5 and 1.125 mg/kg, respectively, every 6 hours for 5 doses. Serial blood samples were drawn over 6 hours after final dose for assessment of steady-state pharmacokinetics. In the open-label, multicenter safety study, more than 100 children aged 2-11 years experiencing symptomatic rhinitis were enrolled. Ibuprofen -pseudoephedrine suspension was administered as needed at similar mg/kg doses every 6-8 hours for up to 3 days. Subjects enrolled in the pharmacokinetic study showed no accumulation of either drug; their weight-adjusted clearances were independent of age, and results were comparable with those from previous single-ingredient studies. For ibuprofen, oral clearance (Cl/F) was 77.5 + or - 16.4 mL/kg/h and volume of distribution (Vd/F) was 0.147 + or - 0.037 L/kg. For pseudoephedrine, Cl/F was 12.3 + or - 2.2 mL/kg/min and Vd/F was 2.52 + or - 0.47 L/kg. In the safety study, adverse events were reported for 18.4% of subjects; most were mild to moderate intensity. There was little difference in incidence of adverse events among different age and weight groups. In conclusion, administration of combined ibuprofen and pseudoephedrine in children demonstrated similar pharmacokinetics when compared with reports of the pharmacokinetics for the single-ingredient products, consistent with no apparent drug interactions. The combination suspension was generally well tolerated.

  5. Solution or suspension - Does it matter for lipid based systems? In vivo studies of chase dosing lipid vehicles with aqueous suspensions of a poorly soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, A T; Holm, R; Müllertz, A

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the potential of co-administering an aqueous suspension with a placebo lipid vehicle, i.e. chase dosing, was investigated in rats relative to the aqueous suspension alone or a solution of the drug in the lipid vehicle. The lipid investigated in the present study was Labrafil M2125CS and three evaluated poorly soluble model compounds, danazol, cinnarizine and halofantrine. For cinnarizine and danazol the oral bioavailability in rats after chase dosing or dosing the compound dissolved in Labrafil M21515CS was similar and significantly higher than for the aqueous suspension. For halofantrine the chase dosed group had a tendency towards a low bioavailability relative to the Labrafil M2125CS solution, but still a significant higher bioavailability relative to the aqueous suspension. This could be due to factors such as a slower dissolution rate in the intestinal phase of halofantrine or a lower solubility in the colloidal structures formed during digestion, but other mechanisms may also be involved. The study thereby supported the potential of chase dosing as a potential dosing regimen in situations where it is beneficial to have a drug in the solid state, e.g. due to chemical stability issues in the lipid vehicle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Teaching time for metered-dose inhalers in the emergency setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Yuka; Bourbeau, Jean; Ernst, Pierre; Duquette, Guylaine; Schwartzman, Kevin

    2002-08-01

    In some acute-care settings, practitioners are reluctant to institute bronchodilator therapy with metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) as standard management. Such therapy requires that personnel ensure optimal use of these devices. We prospectively evaluated the time required to teach patients correct inhaler use for the emergency treatment of asthma and COPD, and patient factors associated with duration of teaching. MDI arm within a single-center randomized clinical trial comparing bronchodilator administration by MDI with a delivery enhancement device (MDI/DED) vs delivery by wet nebulizer. All subjects were treated for asthma or COPD exacerbations at the respiratory acute-care day hospital of the Montreal Chest Institute, immediately after presentation to our emergency department. Inhaler-use education was provided according to a predetermined protocol. Subjects' baseline characteristics were obtained from medical charts, spirometry, and questionnaires; satisfaction was evaluated by questionnaire. All inhaler-use education was observed and timed. Sixty-one patients with asthma (median age, 46 years) and 32 patients with COPD (median age, 68.5 years) were randomized to treatment by MDI/DED. Mean FEV1 (percent predicted) was 63.5% for patients with asthma and 39.5% for patients with COPD. Five patients could not complete MDI teaching and therefore received subsequent treatment by wet nebulization. For the 88 other patients, the median teaching time was 6.5 min. Shorter teaching-time requirements were independently associated with higher initial arterial oxygen saturation, home DED use after previous MDI instruction, and a single initial bronchodilator treatment by wet nebulization. Most subjects expressed satisfaction with MDI/DED teaching and treatment. Successful MDI/DED teaching followed by self-medication is feasible in the emergency setting, based on a simple protocol. A single bronchodilator dose administered by wet nebulization may facilitate subsequent MDI

  7. Tuning aerosol particle size distribution of metered dose inhalers using cosolvents and surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Imran Y; Smyth, Hugh D C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to understand the influence of cosolvent and surfactant contributions to particle size distributions emitted from solution metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) based on the propellant HFA 227. Two sets of formulations were prepared: (a) pMDIs-HFA 227 containing cosolvent (5-15% w/w ethanol) with constant surfactant (pluronic) concentration and (b) pMDIs-HFA 227 containing surfactant (0-5.45% w/w pluronic) with constant cosolvent concentration. Particle size distributions emitted from these pMDIs were analyzed using aerodynamic characterization (inertial impaction) and laser diffraction methods. Both cosolvent and surfactant concentrations were positively correlated with median particle sizes; that is, drug particle size increased with increasing ethanol and pluronic concentrations. However, evaluation of particle size distributions showed that cosolvent caused reduction in the fine particle mode magnitude while the surfactant caused a shift in the mode position. These findings highlight the different mechanisms by which these components influence droplet formation and demonstrate the ability to utilize the different effects in formulations of pMDI-HFA 227 for independently modulating particle sizes in the respirable region. Potentially, the formulation design window generated using these excipients in combination could be used to match the particle size output of reformulated products to preexisting pMDI products.

  8. EVALUATION OF THE METERED-DOSE INHALER TECHNIQUE AMONG HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nadi F. Zeraati

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Poor inhaler technique is a common problem both in asthmatic patients and healthcare providers, which contributes to poor asthma control. This study was performed to evaluate the adequacy of metered-dose inhaler (MDI technique in a sample of physicians and nurses practicing in hospitals of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. A total of 173 healthcare providers voluntary participated in this study. After the participants answered a questionnaire aimed at identifying their involvement in MDI prescribing and counseling, a trained observer assessed their MDI technique using a checklist of nine steps. Of the 173 participants, 35 (20.2% were physicians and 138 (79.8% were nurses. Only 12 participants (6.93% performed all steps correctly. Physicians performed essential steps significantly better than nurses (85.7% vs. 63.8%, P < 0.05. The majority of healthcare providers responsible for instructing patients on the correct MDI technique were unable to perform this technique correctly, indicating the need for regular formal training programs on inhaler techniques.

  9. Oral thermal injury associated with puncture of a salbutamol metered-dose inhaler in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Shawn D; Blois, Shauna; Hayes, Galina; Vince, Andrew R

    2012-08-01

    To describe the clinical features, diagnostic work-up, treatment, and outcome of a dog with oral thermal injury secondary to chewing on a salbutamol metered-dose inhaler (MDI). A Boxer dog was presented after chewing on a salbutamol MDI. The dog was anxious, tachycardic and had moderate hypokalemia. The dog was treated with potassium supplementation and discharged after 24-hour hospitalization. Five hours after the discharge, the dog represented for dysphagia, anorexia, cervical pain, and a left-sided head tilt. Oral examination revealed edematous and erythematous swelling of the soft palate causing airway compromise; histopathology demonstrated vascular necrosis and infarction. The dog was treated with supportive care including the placement of a tracheostomy tube. The dog recovered fully and was discharged 8 days after initial presentation. Salbutamol toxicity has been documented previously in dogs but oral thermal injury associated with a salbutamol MDI has not been reported in dogs. Although a rare complication, dogs who have been exposed to MDIs should have a thorough oral exam and be monitored closely for signs of respiratory compromise. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  10. Factors affecting the stability and performance of ipratropium bromide; fenoterol hydrobromide pressurized-metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninbovorl, Jenjira; Sawatdee, Somchai; Srichana, Teerapol

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the stability and performance of ipratropium bromide and fenoterol hydrobromide in a pressurized-metered dose inhaler (pMDI). A factorial design was applied to investigate the effects of three parameters (propellant, water, and ethanol) on the performance of 27 designed formulations of a solution-based pMDI. The formulations that contained a hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) propellant lower than 72% v/v and an ethanol concentration higher than 27% v/v remained as clear solutions. Nine formulations that contained the HFA propellant higher than 74% v/v precipitated. The results indicated that it was not only the HFA propellant content of the formulations that was related to the formulation instability but also ethanol content. Only six formulations from the 18 formulations, that did not precipitate, produced drug contents that were within the acceptable range (80-120%). These six formulations generated aerosols with mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) of approximately 2 μm with a fine particle fraction (FPF; particle size, MMAD and FPF did not change significantly after 6 months of storage (P > 0.05).

  11. The Effect of Spacer Morphology on the Aerosolization Performance of Metered-Dose Inhalers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Sepideh; Nokhodchi, Ali; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory drug delivery has been attracted great interest for the past decades, because of the high incidence of pulmonary diseases. However, despite its invaluable benefits, there are some major drawbacks in respiratory drug delivery, mainly due to the relatively high drug deposition in undesirable regions. One way to improve the efficiency of respiratory drug delivery through metered-dose inhalers (MDI) is placing a respiratory spacer between the inhaler exit and the mouth. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of type and shape of spacer on the aerosolization performance of MDIs. Methods: A commercial Beclomethasone Dipropionate (BDP) MDI alone or equipped with two different spacer devices (roller and pear type) widely distributed in the world pharmaceutical market was used. The effect of spacers was evaluated by calculating aerosolization indexes such as fine particle fraction (FPF), mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) using the next generation impactor. Results: Although one of the spacers resulted in superior outcomes than the other one, but it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The results confirmed that the type and shape of spacer did not substantially influence the aerosolization performance of MDIs. PMID:27478789

  12. Efficacy of metered-dose inhalers for children with acute asthma exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Anne Eng Neo; Tang, Jenny Poh Lin; Ling, Ho; Hoe, Teoh Oon; Chong, Ng Kee; Moh, Chay Oh; Huak, Chan Yiong

    2011-05-01

    To compare the effectiveness of the administration of inhaled beta-agonists delivered via a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with spacers--as part of an evidence-based asthma pathway developed to manage acute asthma exacerbations in children at the emergency room level and in inpatient management--against administration via nebulization. Case with historical control. KK Women's and Children's Hospital (Singapore). A total of 19,951 children (infants to older children) aged 18 years and younger who attended the emergency room for asthma exacerbations. Average length of stay, proportion admitted to high dependency or intensive care, proportion readmitted for unresolved symptoms within 72 hr, cost per patient and overall. There was no increase in the mean proportion of emergency room attendances admitted to inpatient care with use of an MDI (mean difference 0.97%, 95% CI: -1.6-3.5%, P = 0.447), nor of children admitted to intensive care (0.21 vs. 0.20 pre- and post-pathway, P = 0.827) or to high dependency units (2.21 vs. 1.37 pre- and post-pathway, P = 0.200) but a significant reduction in the within 72 hr re-attendance rate (mean difference 1.4%, 95% CI: 0.78-2.0%, P < 0.001) with use of an MDI. The average length and cost per patient for an inpatient stay for acute asthma exacerbations was reduced with use of an MDI. The use of an MDI with spacer as part of an evidence-based asthma pathway was effective in the management of acute asthma exacerbations in the emergency room setting and for inpatient management. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Efficacy and safety of budesonide administered by pressurized metered-dose inhaler in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Eli O; Pearlman, David S; Eckerwall, Gӧran; Uryniak, Tom; DePietro, Michael; Lampl, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    Budesonide is approved for delivery using a nebulized solution and dry-powder inhaler, but its use through a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) in pediatric patients with asthma has not been determined. To examine the efficacy and safety of 160 μg twice daily of budesonide through a pMDI vs placebo in children 6 to younger than 12 years with asthma and a demonstrated need for inhaled corticosteroids. A 6-week, international, multicenter, double-blinded, parallel-group, phase 2 study randomized 304 pediatric patients (mean age, 9 years; 21.7% inhalations) twice daily of budesonide through a pMDI or placebo after a 7- to 21-day run-in period. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in morning peak expiratory flow (PEF); safety end points included adverse events, vital signs, and discontinuations. Budesonide treatment significantly improved morning PEF vs placebo; mean treatment effect (budesonide vs placebo) was 13.6 L/min (P vs placebo for forced expiratory volume in 1 second, evening PEF, forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% of pulmonary volume, reliever medication use, nighttime awakenings, awakenings with reliever use, and percentage of patients with at least 15- and at least 30-L/min increase in morning PEF from baseline. The numbers of patients experiencing adverse events and discontinuations were smaller in the budesonide than in the placebo group. No serious adverse events were reported. Budesonide at 160 μg twice daily through a pMDI was generally well tolerated and significantly improved lung function, symptoms, rescue medication use, and nighttime awakenings vs placebo in children 6 to younger than 12 years with asthma and a demonstrated need for inhaled corticosteroids. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Pressurized Metered Dose Inhaler Spray Characteristics and Particle Size Distribution on Drug Delivery Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Morteza; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2017-10-01

    A key issue in pulmonary drug delivery is improvement of the delivery device for effective and targeted treatment. Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) are the most popular aerosol therapy device for treating lung diseases. This article studies the effect of spray characteristics: injection velocity, spray cone angle, particle size distribution (PSD), and its mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) on drug delivery. An idealized oral airway geometry, extending from mouth to the main bronchus, was connected to a pMDI device. Inhalation flow rates of 15, 30, and 60 L/min were used and drug particle tracking was a one-way coupled Lagrangian model. The results showed that most particles deposited in the pharynx, where the airway has a reduced cross-sectional area. Particle deposition generally decreased with initial spray velocity and with increased spray cone angle for 30 and 60 L/min flow rates. However, for 15 L/min flow rate, the deposition increased slightly with an increase in the spray velocity and cone angle. The effect of spray cone angle was more significant than the initial spray velocity on particle deposition. When the MMAD of a PSD was reduced, the deposition efficiency also reduces, suggesting greater rates of particle entry into the lung. The deposition rate showed negligible change when the MMAD was more than 8 μm. Spray injection angle and velocity change the drug delivery efficacy; however, the efficiency shows more sensitivity to the injection angle. The 30 L/min airflow rate delivers spray particles to the lung more efficiently than 15 and 60 L/min airflow rate, and reducing MMAD can help increase drug delivery to the lung.

  15. A Rationale for Going Back to the Future: Use of Disposable Spacers for Pressurised Metered Dose Inhalers

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Sanders; Ronald Bruin

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of pressurised metered dose inhalers (MDIs) in the mid-1950s completely transformed respiratory treatment. Despite decades of availability and healthcare support and development of teaching aids and devices to promote better use, poor pMDI user technique remains a persistent issue. The main pMDI user aid is the spacer/valved holding chamber (VHC) device. Spacer/chamber features (size, shape, configuration, construction material, and hygiene considerations) can vie with clinic...

  16. Effect of InspirEase on the deposition of metered-dose aerosols in the human respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, S.P.; Woodman, G.; Clarke, S.W.; Sackner, M.A.

    1986-04-01

    A radiotracer technique has been used to assess the effects of a 700-ml collapsible holding chamber (InspirEase, Key Pharmaceuticals Inc.) on the deposition of metered-dose aerosols in ten patients with obstructive airways disease (mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), 64.5 percent of predicted). Patterns of deposition obtained by patients' usual techniques with the metered-dose inhaler (MDI) were compared with those by correct MDI technique (actuation coordinated with slow deep inhalation and followed by ten seconds of breath-holding) and with those by InspirEase. Deposition of aerosol was assessed by placing Teflon particles labelled with 99mTc inside placebo canisters, and inhaling maneuvers were monitored by respiratory inductive plethysmography (Respitrace). Nine of the ten patients had imperfect technique with the MDI, the most prevalent errors being rapid inhalation and failure to hold their breath adequately. With patients' usual MDI techniques, 6.5 +/- 1.2 percent (mean +/- SE) of the dose reached the lungs. This was increased to 11.2 +/- 1.3 percent (p less than 0.02) with correct technique and increased further to 14.8 +/- 1.4 percent (p less than 0.05) with InspirEase. Oropharyngeal deposition exceeded 80 percent of the dose for the MDI alone but was only 9.5 +/- 0.9 percent with InspirEase (p less than 0.01); 59.2 +/- 2.1 percent of the dose was retained within InspirEase itself. It is concluded that InspirEase gives whole lung deposition of metered-dose aerosols greater than that from a correctly used MDI, while oropharyngeal deposition is reduced approximately nine times.

  17. Evaluation of Metered Dose Inhaler Use Technique and Response to Educational Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, G P; Mohan, A; Guleria, R; Poulose, Rosemary; George, J

    2015-01-01

    Prescribing inhalers without imparting adequate education regarding proper technique of their usage may result in suboptimal clinical improvement and wastage of medication. Training interventions using a standard check-list may help improve faulty techniques and enhance drug efficacy. Patients using metered dose inhaler (MDI) were included in the study. Inhaler technique was first evaluated at baseline using a standard check-list of recommended steps (National Institute of Health guidelines; see Table) and scores were given for each step correctly performed. Those who could not perform all steps correctly were given training intervention. The patients were assigned to two methods of educational intervention; one group was trained by providing written material giving step-wise instructions while the other group was given an actual physical demonstration using a placebo device. The technique was re-evaluated and scored following each educational session, and continued till the patient achieved a full score, or for a maximum of 3 sessions, whichever occurred earlier. Median score was calculated after each session and was compared between the two groups. Each patient was followed up after two months and the re-evaluated the same way. One hundred and seventeen subjects were enrolled in the study (59 in the written group and 57 in the practical demonstration group). At baseline, only 1 of the 117 subjects could perform all the steps of inhaler usage correctly. This patient was, therefore, not provided the inhaler technique education. The overall median (range) score of the whole group was 3 (range 1-8). This score rose to 6, 7 and 8 after each of the three subsequent educational intervention sessions. At one-month follow-up, the median score dropped to 7 and improved with a repeat educational session as previously done. A significant difference was observed in the median score improvement achieved in the practical demonstration group compared with the written instruction

  18. An international intercomparison of passive dosemeters, electronic dosemeters and dose rate meters used for environmental radiation measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Thompson, I.M.G.

    1995-01-01

    To assist towards the harmonisation within the EC countries, the Eastern European countries and the USA, of the measurement of environmental dose rates from photon radiation an EC sponsored intercomparison of environmental dose rate meters, electronic dosemeters and TL dosemeters was performed...... Measurement Stations during the period 12 to 18 June 1994. The chief aims of the experiments were to allow the participants to check their home calibrations of their detectors and to intercompare the dosemeter responses of the individual environmental radiation measurement systems used in the USA, Eastern...

  19. Comparison of bronchodilator responses and deposition patterns of salbutamol inhaled from a pressurised metered dose inhaler, as a dry powder, and as a nebulised solution.

    OpenAIRE

    Zainudin, B M; Biddiscombe, M; Tolfree, S E; Short, M; Spiro, S G

    1990-01-01

    The lung dose and deposition patterns of drug delivered by dry powder inhaler are not known. The effects of inhaling 400 micrograms salbutamol delivered by dry powder inhaler (two 200 micrograms salbutamol Rotacaps), by pressurised metered dose inhaler, and by Acorn nebuliser were studied in nine subjects with chronic stable asthma. Technetium-99m labelled Teflon particles were mixed with micronised salbutamol in the pressurised metered dose inhaler and in the capsules; technetium-99m labelle...

  20. A correlation equation for the mass median aerodynamic diameter of the aerosol emitted by solution metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, James W; Lewis, David; Church, Tanya; Finlay, Warren H; Vehring, Reinhard

    2014-04-25

    A correlation equation for the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the aerosol emitted by solution metered dose inhalers (MDIs) is presented. A content equivalent diameter is defined and used to describe aerosols generated by evaporating metered dose inhaler sprays. A large set of cascade impaction data is analyzed, and the MMAD and geometric standard deviation is calculated for each datum. Using dimensional analysis, the mass median content equivalent diameter is correlated with formulation variables. Based on this correlation in combination with mass balance considerations and the definition of the aerodynamic diameter, an equation for prediction of the MMAD of an inhaler given the pressure of the propellant in the metering chamber of the MDI valve and the surface tension of the propellant is derived. The accuracy of the correlation equation is verified by comparison with literature results. The equation is applicable to both HFA (hydrofluoroalkane) propellants 134a and 227ea, with varying levels of co-solvent ethanol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Salbutamol via metered-dose inhaler with spacer versus nebulization for acute treatment of pediatric asthma in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Fernández, Javier; González-Balenciaga, María; Capapé-Zache, Susana; Vázquez-Ronco, Miguel A; Mintegi-Raso, Santiago

    2004-10-01

    To assess the effectiveness of salbutamol delivered via a metered-dose inhaler with spacer versus a nebulizer for acute asthma treatment in the pediatric emergency department. All consecutive children younger than 14 years old who required treatment of acute asthma exacerbation in the emergency department during May 2002 (prospective cohort, n = 321) and May 2001(retrospective cohort, n = 259) were included. Inhaled salbutamol was administered by metered-dose inhaler with a spacer (and a face mask in children younger than 2 years old) in the prospective cohort and by nebulizer in the retrospective cohort. There were no significant differences between the two cohorts in the mean (+/-SD) age (44.50 +/- 38.64 vs. 48.37 +/- 43.55 months) and asthma treatment, arterial oxygen saturation (96.34 +/- 2.12% vs. 96.19 +/- 6.32%), and heart rate (123.71 +/- 23.63 vs. 129.41 +/- 34.55 beats/min) before emergency department consultation. The number of doses of inhaled bronchodilators was also similar (1.42 +/- 1.01 vs. 1.45 +/- 0.98) as well as the number of children that required a stay in the observation unit, admission to the hospital, or returned for medical care. The overall mean length of stay in the emergency department was slightly shorter in the prospective cohort (82 +/- 48 vs. 89 +/- 52 minutes). The administration of bronchodilators using a metered-dose inhaler with spacer is an effective alternative to nebulizers for the treatment of children with acute asthma exacerbations in the emergency department.

  2. Co-deposition of a triple therapy drug formulation for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using solution-based pressurised metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi, Handoko; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2012-09-01

    The formulation of multi-drug pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) opens up exciting therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We have investigated the formulation of a solution-based triple therapy pMDI containing ipratropium, formoterol, budesonide and ethanol as co-solvent. This system was characterised for in-vitro performance and compared with marketed pMDIs (Atrovent and Symbicort). No significant difference was found in the stage deposition of each drug from the triple therapy formulation, suggesting that the droplets contained a fixed ratio of the three components used. Stage deposition of formoterol and budesonide from the suspension-based marketed Symbicort were significantly different, suggesting that the two drugs were deposited as separate entities. Calculation of the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of each formulation suggested Atrovent (ipratropium, MMAD = 0.9 ± 0.0 µm) to have a small particle size, similar to the triple therapy formulation. Atrovent, like the triple therapy formulation was solution based and it contained ethanol as a co-solvent (triple therapy formulation, MMAD = 1.3 ± 0.0 µm). This study demonstrated the feasibility of formulating a solution-based pMDI containing a triple therapy with identical deposition pattern for the treatment of several respiratory diseases where multi-drug cell targeting is required. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Comparison of bronchodilator responses and deposition patterns of salbutamol inhaled from a pressurised metered dose inhaler, as a dry powder, and as a nebulised solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, B M; Biddiscombe, M; Tolfree, S E; Short, M; Spiro, S G

    1990-06-01

    The lung dose and deposition patterns of drug delivered by dry powder inhaler are not known. The effects of inhaling 400 micrograms salbutamol delivered by dry powder inhaler (two 200 micrograms salbutamol Rotacaps), by pressurised metered dose inhaler, and by Acorn nebuliser were studied in nine subjects with chronic stable asthma. Technetium-99m labelled Teflon particles were mixed with micronised salbutamol in the pressurised metered dose inhaler and in the capsules; technetium-99m labelled human serum albumin was mixed with the salbutamol solution for the nebuliser study. The pressurised metered dose inhaler deposited 11.2% (SEM 0.8%) of the dose within the lungs; this was significantly more than the dose deposited by the dry powder inhaler (9.1% (0.6%], but did not differ significantly from the dose delivered by the nebuliser (9.9% (0.7%]. Distribution within the peripheral third of the lung was significantly greater with the nebuliser than with the other two systems; FEV1 improved to a significantly greater extent after inhalation of 400 micrograms salbutamol from the pressurised metered dose inhaler (35.6% from baseline) than from the nebuliser (25.8%) or dry powder inhaler (25.2%). Thus after inhalation of similar doses of salbutamol a larger proportion of drug was deposited within the lungs when it was inhaled from a metered dose inhaler than from a dry powder system; the nebuliser achieved the greatest peripheral deposition. The bronchodilator response seems to depend on the amount of drug within the lungs rather than its pattern of distribution.

  4. Comparison of bronchodilator responses and deposition patterns of salbutamol inhaled from a pressurised metered dose inhaler, as a dry powder, and as a nebulised solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, B M; Biddiscombe, M; Tolfree, S E; Short, M; Spiro, S G

    1990-01-01

    The lung dose and deposition patterns of drug delivered by dry powder inhaler are not known. The effects of inhaling 400 micrograms salbutamol delivered by dry powder inhaler (two 200 micrograms salbutamol Rotacaps), by pressurised metered dose inhaler, and by Acorn nebuliser were studied in nine subjects with chronic stable asthma. Technetium-99m labelled Teflon particles were mixed with micronised salbutamol in the pressurised metered dose inhaler and in the capsules; technetium-99m labelled human serum albumin was mixed with the salbutamol solution for the nebuliser study. The pressurised metered dose inhaler deposited 11.2% (SEM 0.8%) of the dose within the lungs; this was significantly more than the dose deposited by the dry powder inhaler (9.1% (0.6%], but did not differ significantly from the dose delivered by the nebuliser (9.9% (0.7%]. Distribution within the peripheral third of the lung was significantly greater with the nebuliser than with the other two systems; FEV1 improved to a significantly greater extent after inhalation of 400 micrograms salbutamol from the pressurised metered dose inhaler (35.6% from baseline) than from the nebuliser (25.8%) or dry powder inhaler (25.2%). Thus after inhalation of similar doses of salbutamol a larger proportion of drug was deposited within the lungs when it was inhaled from a metered dose inhaler than from a dry powder system; the nebuliser achieved the greatest peripheral deposition. The bronchodilator response seems to depend on the amount of drug within the lungs rather than its pattern of distribution. Images PMID:2392793

  5. Advances in metered dose inhaler technology with the development of a chlorofluorocarbon-free drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D L; Gabrio, B J

    1999-01-01

    The impending phaseout of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-containing metered dose inhalers (MDIs) has challenged the pharmaceutical industry to rethink and redesign many components of the technology involved in delivering asthma medication to the lungs. Along with the emergence of the first formulation using the nonozone-depleting propellant, hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) 134a to replace CFC propellants, advances in drug delivery technology have improved the performance characteristics of the MDI itself. Although MDIs have remained the mainstay of asthma therapy for 40 years, MDI technology still presents challenges. Some of the shortcomings of existing CFC MDIs affect the reliability of dosing. These challenges have been addressed in the development of the first CFC-free beta-agonist for the treatment of asthma. Airomir CFC-free (salbutamol sulfate; 3M Pharmaceuticals, St. Paul, MN), which is currently available in over 30 countries and was recently approved in the United States (Proventil HFA; Schering-Plough, Madison, NJ), incorporates numerous design and technological improvements which together with the introduction of CFC-free propellants mark the beginning of the next generation of asthma therapy. Although the new generation of CFC-free MDIs incorporates several improvements in dose reproducibility, these changes should be virtually transparent to the patient switching from a CFC MDI to a CFC-free MDI. What may be noticeable is a "softer puff," which is the result of valve and actuator redesign. The taste of the new CFC-free product may also be a little different yet totally acceptable to users.

  6. Variation in hepatitis B immunization coverage rates associated with provider practices after the temporary suspension of the birth dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullooly John P

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics and U.S. Public Health Service recommended suspending the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine due to concerns about potential mercury exposure. A previous report found that overall national hepatitis B vaccination coverage rates decreased in association with the suspension. It is unknown whether this underimmunization occurred uniformly or was associated with how providers changed their practices for the timing of hepatitis B vaccine doses. We evaluate the impact of the birth dose suspension on underimmunization for the hepatitis B vaccine series among 24-month-olds in five large provider groups and describe provider practices potentially associated with underimmunization following the suspension. Methods Retrospective cohort study of children enrolled in five large provider groups in the United States (A-E. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between the birth dose suspension and a child's probability of being underimmunized at 24 months for the hepatitis B vaccine series. Results Prior to July 1999, the percent of children who received a hepatitis B vaccination at birth varied widely (3% to 90% across the five provider groups. After the national recommendation to suspend the hepatitis B birth dose, the percent of children who received a hepatitis B vaccination at birth decreased in all provider groups, and this trend persisted after the policy was reversed. The most substantial decreases were observed in the two provider groups that shifted the first hepatitis B dose from birth to 5–6 months of age. Accounting for temporal trend, children in these two provider groups were significantly more likely to be underimmunized for the hepatitis B series at 24 months of age if they were in the birth dose suspension cohort compared with baseline (Group D OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.7 – 4.4; Group E OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.3 – 4.2. This represented 6% more children in Group D and 9

  7. Albuterol delivery in a neonatal ventilated lung model: Nebulization versus chlorofluorocarbon- and hydrofluoroalkane-pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, R A; Kenney, J K; Keenan, J; Salyer, J W; Ballard, J; Ward, R M

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare albuterol delivery in a neonatal ventilated lung model, using three delivery methods: 1) jet nebulizer; 2) chlorofluorocarbon-pressurized metered dose inhaler (CFC-MDI) actuated into an ACE(R) spacer; and 3) hydrofluoroalkane-pressurized MDI (HFA-MDI) actuated into an ACE(R) spacer. The bench model consisted of a mechanically ventilated infant test lung with ventilator settings to simulate a very low birth weight neonate with moderate lung disease. Albuterol solution (0.5%) was nebulized at the humidifier and temperature port, 125 cm and 30 cm from the Y-piece, respectively. Albuterol metered dose inhalers (MDIs) were actuated into an ACE(R) spacer that was tested in two positions: 1) inline between the endotracheal (ET) tube and the Y-piece; and 2) attached to the ET tube and administered by manual ventilation. Albuterol was collected on a filter at the distal end of the ET tube and was quantitatively analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Albuterol delivery by CFC-MDI (position 1, 4.8 +/- 1.0%, vs. position 2, 3.8 +/- 1.6%, P > 0.05) and HFA-MDI (position 1, 5.7 +/- 1.6%, vs. position 2, 5.5 +/- 2.4%, P > 0.05) were significantly greater than delivery by nebulization at 30 cm (0.16 +/- 0.07%) and 125 cm (0.15 +/- 0.03%) from the Y-piece (P nebulizing 2.5-3.7 mg of albuterol solution. We conclude that albuterol administered by MDI and ACE(R) spacer resulted in more efficient delivery than by nebulization in this mechanically ventilated neonatal lung model. There was no significant difference in drug delivery between CFC-MDI and HFA-MDI; nor did the placement of the spacer significantly affect drug delivery. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Dose uniformity of loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic gel (0.5%) compared with branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension (1%)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Zora T; Davio, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Loteprednol etabonate (LE) ophthalmic gel 0.5% (Lotemax®) is a new polycarbophil-based, nonsettling topical ophthalmic formulation. The formulation is a semisolid gel at rest and a shear thinning fluid when expressed through a dropper tip. The present study was undertaken to determine how the nonsettling character of LE ophthalmic gel affects dose uniformity. Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1% (Pred Forte®) and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension 1% were used as comparators. Methods Drug concentrations of LE ophthalmic gel, Pred Forte, and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension were determined following simulated dosing – consisting of 2 drops, expressed four times daily for 2 weeks, with bottles that were shaken or not shaken immediately prior to expressing the drops. Drug concentrations were determined using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and reported as a percentage of the declared (labeled) concentration. Comparative kinetics of drug particle sedimentation were also determined for each formulation, using dispersion analysis under gravity. Results Mean drug concentrations in drops of all three formulations were within a few percentage points of the declared concentration when the bottles were shaken for 5 seconds prior to dispensing. Only LE ophthalmic gel showed consistent and on-target concentrations when the bottles were unshaken prior to dispensing, with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) percent declared concentration of 102% (1.92%) over the 2-week dosing regimen. Drug concentrations for the branded and generic prednisolone acetate suspensions following expression from unshaken bottles were highly variable (overall relative SDs of 16.8% and 20.3%, respectively), with mean concentrations for both falling significantly below the declared concentration for drops expressed at the beginning of the 2-week dosing regimen and significantly above the declared concentration for drops expressed

  9. Awareness of the ozone layer and acceptance of a new CFC-free metered dose inhaler among asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liam, C K; Lim, K H

    1998-08-01

    University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. To assess the awareness of the ozone layer and the acceptance of the new non-chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellant hydrofluoroalkane 134a salbutamol pressurised metered dose inhaler (MDI) Airomir among asthmatic patients. A total of 113 consecutive asthmatic patients aged 12 years and above from the out- and in-patient services of the hospital were interviewed using a questionnaire. Sixty-five per cent of the patients were aware of the existence of the ozone layer, 23% that CFCs play a role in ozone depletion, and only 10% that current MDIs contained CFCs. All the patients felt that pressurised MDIs should be made CFC-free after they had considered the role of CFCs in the destruction of the ozone layer. Eighty-one per cent of 94 patients who preferred the Airomir inhaler over a multi-dose dry powder inhaler for administering bronchodilator medications were willing to switch to the new inhaler once it became available on the market. Awareness of the damaging effect of CFCs on the ozone layer among asthmatic patients would encourage them to change to an ozone-friendly, CFC-free pressurised MDI.

  10. A Rationale for Going Back to the Future: Use of Disposable Spacers for Pressurised Metered Dose Inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Mark; Bruin, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of pressurised metered dose inhalers (MDIs) in the mid-1950s completely transformed respiratory treatment. Despite decades of availability and healthcare support and development of teaching aids and devices to promote better use, poor pMDI user technique remains a persistent issue. The main pMDI user aid is the spacer/valved holding chamber (VHC) device. Spacer/chamber features (size, shape, configuration, construction material, and hygiene considerations) can vie with clinical effectiveness (to deliver the same dose as a correctly used pMDI), user convenience, cost, and accessibility. Unsurprisingly, improvised, low-cost alternatives (plastic drink bottles, paper cups, and paper towel rolls) have been pressed into seemingly effective service. A UK law change permitting schools to hold emergency inhalers and spacers has prompted a development project to design a low-cost, user-friendly, disposable, and recyclable spacer. This paper spacer requires neither preuse priming nor washing, and has demonstrated reproducible lung delivery of salbutamol sulphate pMDI, comparable to an industry-standard VHC, an alternative paperboard VHC, and pMDI alone. This new device appears to perform better than these other VHC devices at the low flow rates thought achievable by paediatric patients. The data suggest that this disposable spacer may have a place in the single-use emergency setting.

  11. A Rationale for Going Back to the Future: Use of Disposable Spacers for Pressurised Metered Dose Inhalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of pressurised metered dose inhalers (MDIs in the mid-1950s completely transformed respiratory treatment. Despite decades of availability and healthcare support and development of teaching aids and devices to promote better use, poor pMDI user technique remains a persistent issue. The main pMDI user aid is the spacer/valved holding chamber (VHC device. Spacer/chamber features (size, shape, configuration, construction material, and hygiene considerations can vie with clinical effectiveness (to deliver the same dose as a correctly used pMDI, user convenience, cost, and accessibility. Unsurprisingly, improvised, low-cost alternatives (plastic drink bottles, paper cups, and paper towel rolls have been pressed into seemingly effective service. A UK law change permitting schools to hold emergency inhalers and spacers has prompted a development project to design a low-cost, user-friendly, disposable, and recyclable spacer. This paper spacer requires neither preuse priming nor washing, and has demonstrated reproducible lung delivery of salbutamol sulphate pMDI, comparable to an industry-standard VHC, an alternative paperboard VHC, and pMDI alone. This new device appears to perform better than these other VHC devices at the low flow rates thought achievable by paediatric patients. The data suggest that this disposable spacer may have a place in the single-use emergency setting.

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood concentrations of toltrazuril 5% suspension in the horse after oral dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr, M; Kennedy, T

    2000-01-01

    Toltrazuril 5% suspension (Baycox, Bayer Canada, Ontario, Canada) was administered to six adult horses followed by blood collection and assay to determine the concentration of toltrazuril and its principal metabolites, toltrazuril sulfone and toltrazuril sulfoxide. From this data, the maximum concentration (C(max)), elimination half-life (T 1/2), and mean residence times of the plasma were determined from standard pharmacokinetic formulas. After a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight a rapid absorption was found, with a mean peak serum concentration of 11.17 mg/L at 18 hours. Elimination was prolonged, with a mean T 1/2 for elimination of 61.4 hours. In addition, toltrazuril was administered to nine horses, and blood serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of toltrazuril and its principal metabolites were determined. Horses were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups and received either 2.5 mg/kg body weight (Group A), 5.0 mg/kg body weight (Group B), or 7.5 mg/kg body weight (Group C) orally, once daily, for 10 days. Jugular venous blood was collected routinely on treatment days 2, 6, and 10, and CSF was collected on treatment day 10. Assay of toltrazuril and its metabolites revealed a dose-dependent effect within both the blood and CSF compartments. Mean concentrations within the CSF after 10 days of treatment were 0.146 mg/L in Group A, 0.190 mg/L in Group B, and 0.386 mg/L in Group C. Toltrazuril sulfone was the primary metabolite after 10 days of treatment, with concentrations that ranged from 39% to 116% of the parent drug in individual animals. Toltrazuril sulfone was also the predominant metabolite in the serum at treatment day 10; however, it did not always exceed the concentration of toltrazuril sulfoxide in the serum on treatment day 2. In the serum, drug concentrations at treatment day 2 were variable in the low-dose group (Group A), ranging from 4.0 to 11.61 mg/L; less variable in the high-dose group (Group C), ranging from 9

  13. Treatment of acute severe asthma with inhaled albuterol delivered via jet nebulizer, metered dose inhaler with spacer, or dry powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, A C; Schottlender, J; Lombardi, D; Molfino, N A

    1997-07-01

    Despite the increasing use of dry powder formulations in the ambulatory setting, there is a paucity of information on the efficacy of this therapeutic modality to treat acute severe asthma. In addition, studies that compared wet nebulization vs metered dose inhalers formulated with chlorofluorocarbon (CFCMDI) attached to holding chambers have yielded discrepant results. Thus, it is unclear which of the three delivery systems would elicit a superior bronchodilator response, particularly in patients with life-threatening asthma. In a prospective, randomized open design, we studied the response to inhaled albuterol (salbutamol) in 27 adult asthmatics presenting to the emergency department (ED) with an FEV1 nebulizer (Puritan-Bennett Raindrop; Lawrenceville, Ga) impelled with oxygen (O2) at 8 L/min; group B, baseline FEV1 of 0.6 (0.15) L, received albuterol, 400 microg, via a CFCMDI attached to a 145-mL valved aerosol holding chamber (Aerochamber; Trudell Medical; London, ON); and group C, baseline FEV1 of 0.6 (0.17) L, received albuterol powder, 400 microg, by another means (Rotahaler; Glaxo; Research Triangle Park, NC). All groups received the respective treatments on arrival in the ED, every 30 min during the first 2 h, and then hourly until the sixth hour. Clinical parameters and FEV1 were recorded on ED admission and 15 min after each dose of albuterol. At the time of ED admission, all patients also received continuous O2 and one dose of I.V. steroids (dexamethasone, 8 mg). The total dose of inhaled albuterol administered during the 6-h treatment was 45 mg of nebulized solution in group A and 3,600 microg of albuterol aerosol and dry powder in groups B and C, respectively. No significant differences were found in the population demographics, baseline FEV1, and arterial blood gas values on air. FEV1 improved significantly in all patients after the 6 h of treatment. The 6-h area under the curve FEV1 improved similarly with the three delivery methods despite

  14. [Bronchodilators via metered-dose inhaler with spacer in the pediatric emergency department: what is the dosage?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito Fernández, J; Trebolazabala Quirante, N; Landa Garriz, M; Mintegi Raso, S; González Díaz, C

    2006-01-01

    Bronchodilators administrated through a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with spacer are as effective as nebulizers in the treatment of acute asthma exacerbations in childhood. However, consensus is lacking on the most suitable dosage. To assess the effectiveness of distinct salbutamol and terbutaline doses delivered via an MDI with spacer for the treatment of acute asthma in the pediatric emergency department. This was a prospective, double-blind randomized study. All consecutive children (n = 324) between 2 and 14 years of age with acute asthma exacerbations treated in the pediatric emergency department between October 1 and November 30, 2004, were included. Two treatment groups were established: one group received a number of puffs equivalent to half the child's weight (1 puff of salbutamol = 100 microg and 1 puff of terbutaline = 250 microg) and the other group received a number of puffs equivalent to one-third of the child's weight. Three hundred twenty-four episodes were studied; there were 164 children in the first group and 160 in the second. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the mean (6 SD) age (58.34 +/- 34.72 vs 66.04 +/- 36.45 months), arterial oxygen saturation (95.49 +/- 1.93 vs 95.56 +/- 1.97) or pulmonary score (4.04 +/- 1.55 vs 3.97 +/- 1.51) at recruitment and after treatment in the emergency department (arterial oxygen saturation [96.34 +/- 1.60 vs 96.18 +/- 1.77], pulmonary score [1.87 +/- 1.33 vs 1.64 +/- 1.31]). The number of doses administered (2.17 +/- 0.91 vs 2.24 +/- 1.00) and the hospitalization rate (8.56 % vs 6.87 %) were also similar in both groups. The distinct bronchodilator doses administered via an MDI with spacer showed similar effectiveness. These findings should contribute to a reevaluation of the use of high doses of bronchodilators, at least in most acute asthma exacerbations in children.

  15. Comparative study of budesonide as a nebulized suspension vs pressurized metered-dose inhaler in adult asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Nikander, K; Munch, E

    1998-01-01

    the two devices but their fraction of small particles differed by a factor of 2 in favour of pMDI. Effect was evaluated from daily home measurements of peak expiratory flow (PEF), need of beta 2-agonist and symptom scores. Plasma cortisol and budesonide levels were measured in a subgroup of 10 patients...

  16. Relative bioavailability of salbutamol to the lung following inhalation via a novel dry powder inhaler and a standard metered dose inhaler

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, M.; Peers, E.M.; Parry-Billings, M; CHRYSTYN, H

    1997-01-01

    Aims The number of dry powder inhaler (DPI) devices could increase because they are easier to use than a metered dose inhaler (MDI). Using urinary excretion, the relative bioavailability of salbutamol to the lungs and the body for a prototype DPI has been compared with an MDI.

  17. Scintigraphic Assessment of Deposition of Radiolabeled Fluticasone Delivered from a Nebulizer and Metered Dose Inhaler in 10 Healthy Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, K E; Tyrrell, D; Yang, M; Abraham, L A; Anderson, G A; Mansfield, C S

    2017-09-29

    Aerosolized medications are increasingly being used to treat respiratory diseases in dogs. No previous studies assessing respiratory tract deposition of radiolabeled aerosols have been performed in conscious dogs. Assess respiratory tract deposition of radiolabeled, inhalant corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate labeled with (99m) Tc) delivered from a nebulizer and metered dose inhaler (MDI) to healthy dogs. Ten healthy Foxhounds. Prospective, randomized, cross-over pilot study. Initial inhalation method (nebulizer or MDI) was randomly assigned. Treatments were crossed over after a 7-day washout period. Treatments initially were performed using sedation. Dogs were imaged using 2-dimensional planar scintigraphy, with respiratory tract deposition quantified by manual region-of-interest analysis. Deposition calculated as percentage of delivered dose. Six of 10 dogs were randomly selected and reassessed without sedation. Inhalation method had significant effect on respiratory tract deposition (P = 0.027). Higher deposition was achieved by nebulization with mean deposition of 4.2% (standard deviation [SD], 1.4%; range, 1.9-6.1%); whereas MDI treatment achieved a mean of 2.3% (SD, 1.4%; range, 0.2-4.2%). Nebulization achieved higher respiratory tract deposition than MDI in 7 of 10 dogs. No statistical difference (P = 0.68) was found between mean respiratory tract deposition achieved in dogs when unsedated (3.8%; SD, 1.5%) or sedated (3.6%; SD, 1.7%). Study confirms respiratory tract deposition of inhalant medications delivered from a nebulizer and MDI in healthy dogs, breathing tidally with and without sedation. Respiratory tract deposition in these dogs was low compared to reported deposition in adult humans, but similar to reported deposition in children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Evaluation of the Metered-Dose Inhaler Technique among Health Care Providers Practicing in Hamadan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nadi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Poor inhaler technique is a common problem both in asthma patients and health care providers , which contributes to poor asthma control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correctness of metered-dose inhaler (MDI technique in a sample of physicians , pharmacists and nurses practicing in Hamadan University hospitals. A total of 176 healthcare providers (35 internists and general physicians , 138 nurses and 3 pharmacists were participated voluntary in this study. After the participants answered a questionnaire aimed at identifying their involvement in MDI prescribing and counseling , a trained observer assessed their MDI technique using a checklist of ten steps.Of the 176 participants , 35(20% were physician , and 3 subjects (2% were pharmacists , and 138 (78% were nurses. However only 6 participants (3.4% performed all steps correctly. Physicians performed significantly better than non-physicians (8.6% vs. 2.13%.The majority of healthcare providers responsible for instructing patients on the correct MDI technique were unable to perform this technique correctly ‘indicating the need for regular formal training programmes on inhaler techniques.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of Salbutamol Delivered from the Unit Dose Dry Powder Inhaler: Comparison with the Metered Dose Inhaler and Diskus Dry Powder Inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alison; Riddell, Kylie; Joshi, Shashidhar; Chan, Robert; Mehta, Rashmi

    2017-06-01

    To compare the systemic exposure of salbutamol following delivery from the unit dose dry powder inhaler (UD-DPI) system with that from the Diskus(®) and metered dose inhaler (MDI). This open-label, two-part, six-way crossover, randomized single-dose study in healthy subjects evaluated salbutamol systemic exposure of three dose strengths (using three inhalations: 3 × 150 μg [450 μg], 3 × 200 μg [600 μg], and 3 × 250 μg [750 μg]) and 2% of drug in lactose blends (1.6% and 1.0% [600 μg dose only] by weight) following delivery through the UD-DPI compared with systemic exposure from the Diskus and MDI (600 μg dose). Systemic exposure in the presence of charcoal block was also evaluated. Primary treatment comparisons were area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 12 hours [AUC0-12] and maximum plasma concentration [Cmax]. Delivery of salbutamol 600 μg from the UD-DPI resulted in total systemic exposure similar to that from the Diskus and approximately half of that from the MDI (AUC0-12 geometric least squares mean ratio [GMR] [90% confidence interval (CI)] for UD-DPI [1.6% blend]/Diskus: 0.91 [0.83-1.00]; UD-DPI [1.6% blend]/MDI: 0.46 [0.42-0.50]. Cmax GMR [90% CI] for UD-DPI [1.6% blend]/Diskus: 1.20 [1.07-1.33]; UD-DPI [1.6% blend]/MDI: 0.58 [0.52-0.64]). Results were consistent between the 1.6% and the 1.0% blends and systemic exposure for the 3 dose strengths of salbutamol (1.6% blend) showed increases that were 12-16% greater than dose proportional. Systemic exposure due to pulmonary absorption (as calculated from AUC0-12 in the presence and absence of charcoal block) was 48% for the UD-DPI, 24% for Diskus, and 37% for MDI of the total salbutamol systemic exposure, and the corresponding estimated lung dose was 65% for the UD-DPI and 34% for the Diskus relative to the MDI. Salbutamol total systemic exposure following UD-DPI was similar to that from the Diskus and was lower than that following the MDI. The

  20. Comparison of patient-reported outcomes during treatment with adjustable- and fixed-dose budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler versus fixed-dose fluticasone propionate/salmeterol dry powder inhaler in patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard D; Patrick, Donald L; Parasuraman, Bhash; Martin, Paula; Goldman, Mitchell

    2010-03-01

    Assessment of patient-reported outcomes is important in evaluating the impact of asthma treatment. This study was conducted to compare effects of adjustable- and fixed-dose budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler with fixed-dose fluticasone propionate/salmeterol dry powder inhaler regimens on patient-reported outcomes in patients aged > or =18 years with moderate to severe asthma. In this phase III, randomized, open-label study, 1225 patients were randomized 2:1 to fixed-dose budesonide/formoterol 160/4.5 microg x 2 inhalations (320/9 mug) twice daily or fixed-dose fluticasone propionate/salmeterol 250/50 microg twice daily for 1 month. In the subsequent 6 months, patients receiving fixed-dose fluticasone propionate/salmeterol continued therapy, whereas those receiving fixed-dose budesonide/formoterol were randomized 1:1 to fixed-dose or adjustable-dose budesonide/formoterol (adjustable from 320/9 microg twice daily to 320/9 microg once daily or 640/18 microg twice daily). Mean improvements from baseline to end of treatment in the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (standardized) overall and individual domain scores and the Asthma Control Questionnaire score were clinically important (> or =0.5 points) for all treatments. Patients in both budesonide/formoterol groups reported greater treatment satisfaction on the Asthma Treatment Satisfaction Measure questionnaire than patients in the fluticasone propionate/salmeterol dry powder inhaler group for the attributes of timely relief of symptoms (p inhaler regimens versus fixed-dose fluticasone propionate/salmeterol dry powder inhaler.

  1. Efficacy and cost comparisons of bronchodilatator administration between metered dose inhalers with disposable spacers and nebulizers for acute asthma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuper, Sunil; Chandra, Alpana; Ahmed, Aziz; Bista, Sabin; Moghekar, Ajit; Verma, Rajesh; Chong, Cynthia; Shim, Chang; Cohen, Hillel; Choksi, Sonia

    2011-03-01

    Despite demonstration of equivalent efficacy of beta agonist delivery using a metered dose inhaler (MDI) with spacer vs. nebulizer in asthma patients, use of a nebulizer remains standard practice. We hypothesize that beta agonist delivery with a MDI/disposable spacer combination is an effective and low-cost alternative to nebulizer delivery for acute asthma in an inner-city population. This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with 60 acute asthma adult patients in two inner-city emergency departments. Subjects (n = 60) received albuterol with either a MDI/spacer combination or nebulizer. The spacer group (n = 29) received albuterol by MDI/spacer followed by placebo nebulization. The nebulizer group (n = 29) received placebo by MDI/spacer followed by albuterol nebulization. Peak flows, symptom scores, and need for rescue bronchodilatator were monitored. Median values were compared with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Patients in the two randomized groups had similar baseline characteristics. The severity of asthma exacerbation, median peak flows, and symptom scores were not significantly different between the two groups. The median (interquartile range) improvement in peak flow was 120 (75-180) L/min vs. 120 (80-155) L/min in the spacer and nebulizer groups, respectively (p = 0.56). The median improvement in the symptom score was 7 (5-9) vs. 7 (4-9) in the spacer and nebulizer groups, respectively (p = 0.78). The median cost of treatment per patient was $10.11 ($10.03-$10.28) vs. $18.26 ($9.88-$22.45) in the spacer and nebulizer groups, respectively (p nebulizer to MDI/spacer beta agonist delivery for emergency management of acute asthma in the inner-city adult population. MDI/spacer may be a more economical alternative to nebulizer delivery. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Anhydrous reverse micelle nanoparticles: new strategy to overcome sedimentation instability of peptide-containing pressurized metered-dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengwei; Wu, Han; Yang, Beibei; Chen, Longkai; Huang, Ying; Quan, Guilan; Zhu, Chune; Li, Xing; Pan, Xin; Wu, Chuanbin

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel anhydrous reverse micelle nanoparticles (ARM-NPs) system to overcome the sedimentation instability of peptide-containing pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs). A bottom-up method was utilized to fabricate ARM-NPs. Tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA)/water system, freeze-drying and lipid inversion method were successively used to produce the ARM-NPs for pMDI. Various characteristics of ARM-NPs were investigated including particle size, morphology, secondary structure of the peptide drug, aerosolization properties and storage stability. As revealed by the results, ARM-NPs with spherical shape possessed 147.7 ± 2.0 nm of particle size with 0.152 ± 0.021 PdI. The ARM-NPs for pMDI had satisfactory fine particle fraction (FPF) value of 46.99 ± 1.33%, while the secondary structure of the peptide drug was unchanged. Stability tests showed no pronounced sedimentation instability for over 12 weeks at 4-6 °C. Furthermore, a hypothesis was raised to explain the formation mechanism of ARM-NPs, which was verified by the differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The lecithin employed in the reverse micelle vesicles could serve as a steric barrier between peptide drugs and bulk propellant, which prevented the instability of peptide drugs in hydrophobic environment. Homogenous particle size could avoid Ostwald ripening phenomenon of particles in pMDIs. It was concluded that the ARM-NPs for pMDI could successfully overcome sedimentation instability by the steric barrier effect and homogeneous particle size.

  3. Mucolytic treatment with N-acetylcysteine L-lysinate metered dose inhaler in dogs: airway epithelial function changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkiewicz, R P; App, E M; Coffiner, M; Fossion, J; Maes, P; King, M

    1994-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine L-lysinate Nacystelyn (L-NAC) is a newly synthesized mucolytic agent, of which the action in vivo has not been well defined. In six healthy mongrel dogs, the rheological properties of mucus, its mucociliary and cough clearability, and the transepithelial potential difference (PD) of the tracheobronchial epithelium were evaluated after placebo and L-NAC metered dose inhaler (MDI) aerosols. The principal index of mucus rigidity, log G*, decreased at all airway sites with L-NAC administration, i.e. the mucus became less rigid and more deformable (the overall change in G* was 0.29 log units, i.e. ca. twofold decrease). The viscoelasticity-derived mucus transportability parameters, mucociliary (MCI) and cough (CCI) clearability indices, increased with L-NAC MDI, particularly CCI, which predicts the effect of mucus rheology on cough clearability. PD increased significantly with L-NAC administration at all measurement sites, which appears to be a novel effect for a direct acting mucolytic agent. Tracheal mucus linear velocity (TMV) increased after L-NAC compared with placebo, as did the normalized frog palate transport rate (NFPTR). The increase in NFPTR was greater than that predicted from the mucus rheological properties alone, suggesting that L-NAC still resident in the collected mucus stimulated the frog palate cilia. The index of mucus flux, the collection rate in mg.min-1, was higher with L-NAC compared with placebo. From our results, we conclude that L-NAC shows potential benefit in terms of improving mucus rheological properties and clearability. It may act, in part, by stimulating the fresh secretion of mucus of lower viscoelasticity. The stimulation of mucociliary clearance could be related to ion flux changes, as indicated by the increase in PD.

  4. Comparison of the clinical effects of combined salmeterol/fluticasone delivered by dry powder or pressurized metered dose inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Masayuki; Shirai, Toshihiro; Hirashima, Junko; Iikura, Motoyasu; Sugiyama, Haruhito

    2016-04-01

    The salmeterol/fluticasone combination (SFC) inhaler is currently the most widely used maintenance drug for asthmatics worldwide. Although the effectiveness of SFC as either a dry powder inhaler (DPI) or a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) is well documented, there is limited data comparing the clinical efficacies of the two devices. To address this issue, we carried out a randomized crossover trial in which asthmatic patients (n = 47; mean age, 62.5 ± 16.5 years old) received a 12-week treatment of SFC DPI (50/250 μg twice daily) or SFC pMDI (four puffs of 25/125 μg daily). After a 4-week washout period, patients received another crossover treatment for 12 weeks. Respiratory resistance and reactance were measured by forced oscillation technique (MostGraph-01), spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and an asthma control test (ACT) every 4 weeks. The mean forced expiratory volume1.0 at the baseline was 2.16 ± 0.86 (L). Respiratory system resistance at 5 Hz (R5), the difference between R5 and R at 20 Hz (R5 - R20), and FeNO improved in both treatment groups, while reactance at 5 Hz (X5) and ACT score improved only in the pMDI group. In patients >70 years old (n = 21), R5, R5 - R20, ΔX5, and FeNO improved only in the pMDI group. These results suggest that SFC by pMDI produces a stronger anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory effect even in patients whose asthma is well controlled by SFC delivered by DPI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nebulizers vs metered-dose inhalers with spacers for bronchodilator therapy to treat wheezing in children aged 2 to 24 months in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Annette; Chou, Katherine J; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Crain, Ellen F

    2003-01-01

    To determine if administration of albuterol by a metered-dose inhaler with a spacer device is as efficacious as administration of albuterol by nebulizer to treat wheezing in children aged 2 years and younger. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pediatric emergency department. From a convenience sample of wheezing children aged 2 to 24 months, 85 patients were enrolled in the nebulizer group and 83 in the spacer group. The nebulizer group received a placebo metered-dose inhaler with a spacer followed by nebulized albuterol. The spacer group received albuterol by a metered-dose inhaler with a spacer followed by nebulized isotonic sodium chloride solution. Treatments were given every 20 minutes by a single investigator blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was admission rate. Pulmonary Index score and oxygen saturation were measured initially and 10 minutes after each treatment. The nebulizer group had a significantly higher mean (SD) initial Pulmonary Index score compared with the spacer group (7.6 [2.5] vs 6.6 [2.0]; P =.002). With the initial Pulmonary Index score controlled, children in the spacer group were admitted less (5% vs 20%; P =.05). Analyses also revealed an interaction between group and initial Pulmonary Index score; lower admission rates in the spacer group were found primarily in children having a more severe asthma exacerbation. Our data suggest that metered-dose inhalers with spacers may be as efficacious as nebulizers for the emergency department treatment of wheezing in children aged 2 years or younger.

  6. An evaluation of impact of educational interventions on the technique of use of metered-dose inhaler by patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Avadhi Nirajkumar; Patel, P P; Gandhi, A M; Desai, M K

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of two educational interventions that are demonstration versus pictorial Leaflet in patients using metered-dose inhaler (MDI). This interventional study was done in patients who were prescribed drugs through MDI at Tuberculosis and Chest Department. The patients were enrolled in Group A or Group B as per random number table method. The method of use of MDI was assessed using a checklist based on the technique described in the WHO Guide to good prescribing. Patients in Group A were taught the use of MDI by demonstration of the technique by the investigator. Patients in Group B were educated about the technique by a pictorial leaflet based on the technique. Patients were followed up after 15 days and assessed for correct technique for use of the MDI. A total 100 patients were included in the study and were allotted to Group A (47) and Group B (53). Ninety-five percent of the patients had been taught by the treating physician about the method of use of MDI. All the patients at the baseline placed the lips tightly around the mouthpiece and held the aerosol as indicated in the manufacturer's instructions while the step least followed was coughing up the sputum before inhalation. The average steps correctly followed by the patients in Group A and B at baseline were 5.17 ± 2.07 and 5.11 ± 2.04, respectively. These improved significantly to 9.19 ± 0.67 and 6.67 ± 0.63 in Group A and B, respectively, postintervention. The five essential steps of using MDI were followed by 25.53% and 26.41% patients preintervention. An improvement in the technique of use of MDI was observed in 85.11% and 49.06% patients (P = 0.003) postintervention. All the ten steps of the technique were followed by 34.04% patients from Group A and none from Group B at postintervention evaluation (P = 0.0001). The inhalation technique for the use of MDI used by the patients is inappropriate. Educational interventions such as demonstration or

  7. Dose uniformity of topical corticosteroid preparations: difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% versus branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stringer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available William Stringer1, Roy Bryant21Module 3 Pharma Services, St. Petersburg, Florida; 2Encompass Pharmaceutical Services, Norcross, Georgia, USAPurpose: To compare the dose uniformity of difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Durezol® with both branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1% under different simulated patient usage conditions.Methods: Drug concentrations of difluprednate emulsion, branded prednisolone acetate suspension (Pred Forte® and generic prednisolone acetate suspension following three storage conditions (upright, then shaken; upright, not shaken; inverted, not shaken were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography assay and results were reported as percent of declared concentration. Two drops were dispensed every four hours four times daily.Results: Regardless of bottle orientation and shaking, all difluprednate emulsion concentrations at each time point analyzed were within 15% of declared concentration. Both branded and generic prednisolone acetate suspension concentrations varied substantially throughout the study. For the bottle stored upright and not shaken, 46% of the branded concentrations were not within 15% of declared concentration; for the bottle stored upright and shaken prior to use, 60% failed to meet this criterion. None of the branded concentrations from the inverted and not shaken bottle was within 15% of declared concentration. Generic prednisolone concentrations demonstrated the poorest dose uniformity, with 96% of the concentrations from the inverted and not shaken bottle not within 15% of declared concentration; 94% of the concentrations from the upright and shaken bottle and 87% from the upright and not shaken bottle similarly failed to meet this criterion.Conclusions: Dose uniformity of Durezol emulsion was predictable in all simulated patient usage conditions, whereas the drop concentrations of Pred Forte and generic prednisolone acetate suspensions were highly variable

  8. Dose uniformity of topical corticosteroid preparations: difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% versus branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, William; Bryant, Roy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare the dose uniformity of difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Durezol®) with both branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1% under different simulated patient usage conditions. Methods Drug concentrations of difluprednate emulsion, branded prednisolone acetate suspension (Pred Forte®) and generic prednisolone acetate suspension following three storage conditions (upright, then shaken; upright, not shaken; inverted, not shaken) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography assay and results were reported as percent of declared concentration. Two drops were dispensed every four hours four times daily. Results Regardless of bottle orientation and shaking, all difluprednate emulsion concentrations at each time point analyzed were within 15% of declared concentration. Both branded and generic prednisolone acetate suspension concentrations varied substantially throughout the study. For the bottle stored upright and not shaken, 46% of the branded concentrations were not within 15% of declared concentration; for the bottle stored upright and shaken prior to use, 60% failed to meet this criterion. None of the branded concentrations from the inverted and not shaken bottle was within 15% of declared concentration. Generic prednisolone concentrations demonstrated the poorest dose uniformity, with 96% of the concentrations from the inverted and not shaken bottle not within 15% of declared concentration; 94% of the concentrations from the upright and shaken bottle and 87% from the upright and not shaken bottle similarly failed to meet this criterion. Conclusions Dose uniformity of Durezol emulsion was predictable in all simulated patient usage conditions, whereas the drop concentrations of Pred Forte and generic prednisolone acetate suspensions were highly variable throughout the study. Drop concentrations are more predictable with Durezol emulsion than with either prednisolone acetate suspension. PMID:20957058

  9. Evaluation of two doses of ceftiofur crystalline free acid sterile suspension for treatment of metritis in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, C L; Stanisiewski, E; Lucas, M J; Cornell, C P; Watkins, J; Bryson, L; Tena, J K S; Hallberg, J; Chenault, J R

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate efficacy of a 2-dose regimen of ceftiofur crystalline free acid sterile suspension (CCFA-SS) for treatment of acute metritis in lactating dairy cows under field conditions and to provide additional safety and injection site tolerance data for injections at the base of the ear. Cows at 15 dairies with rectal temperature ≥ 39.5°C and fetid uterine discharge ≤ 10 d postcalving were randomly assigned by blocks of 2, based on order of entry and without regard to parity, to treatment with saline (1.5 mL/45.5 kg of body weight, n=509) or CCFA-SS (6.6 mg of ceftiofur equivalents/kg of body weight, n=514). Treatments were administered by subcutaneous injection in the posterior aspect of the ear where it attaches to the head; the first dose was administered on study d 0 and the second dose was administered in the contra lateral ear on study d 3. Rectal temperatures were recorded on study d 1 to 4 and 5 or 6 and cows were clinically evaluated daily from study d 1 to 13. Cows that exhibited increased adverse clinical signs of poor health or complications associated with metritis were categorized as a treatment failure and administered escape therapy. Each cow received a veterinary physical examination on study d 5 or 6 to determine if she should be removed from the study and on study d 14 to determine clinical cure or failure to cure. Clinical cure was defined as rectal temperature cows enrolled, 7 were completely censored due to protocol deviations and 34 were removed for protocol deviations or medical conditions not related to metritis. Clinical cure rate was higher for CCFA-SS than for saline (74.3 vs. 55.3%) and rectal temperatures for each of study d 1 to 5 or 6 were lower for CCFA-SS than saline. Injection procedure indices showed that CCFA-SS could be practically and safely administered using commercial dairy facilities. Although injection site scores were higher for CCFA-SS than saline at study d 5 or 6 and 14, ≥98

  10. Prospective, randomized cross-over trial to assess the ability of a dry-powder inhaler to reverse the local side effects of pressurized metered-dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, R K; Watson, G; Taylor, W; Jones, A S; Roland, N J

    2008-11-01

    To determine whether a corticosteroid dry-powder inhaler could reverse the pharyngeal and laryngeal side effects produced by a corticosteroid pressurised metered-dose inhaler. Prospective, randomized, controlled, cross-over, evaluator-blinded study. University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Thirty-seven adults recruited over a 12-month period from Ear, Nose and Throat clinics at our University hospital. Patients were randomized into three groups using a computer-generated random number list and sealed opaque envelopes. Scores were achieved on respiratory symptom and vocal performance questionnaires. Acoustic analysis was performed followed by a standardized biopsy of the posterior pharyngeal wall. Histological markers of inflammation were correlated with pharyngitis. The data were tested for normality using the Kalmogorov-Smirnov test. The Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance was used to investigate differences between medians and ranges. The data were further investigated for correlations using the Spearman test. Discriminant analysis was used to examine the effect of the three groups on each variable. Discomfort scores (median and range) were significantly lower after dry-powder inhaler use than with either a spacer or water gargle (p inhaler therapy. The reduction in pharyngitis in each of the three groups was not significant. Vocal performance scores improved with dry-powder inhaler use. Jitter, shimmer, and closed-phase quotient scores improved with dry-powder inhaler use (p inhaler was restored (p 0.01). A dry-powder inhaler may alleviate the local side effects produced by a pressurized metered-dose inhaler. Laryngeal dysfunction appears to be particularly responsive to the absence of propellant. More observational and randomized controlled trials are necessary to examine existing inhalers and specifically, how and why they cause local side effects.

  11. In vitro/in vivo correlation and modeling of emitted dose and lung deposition of inhaled salbutamol from metered dose inhalers with different types of spacers in noninvasively ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Raghda R S; M A Ali, Ahmed; Salem, Heba F; Abdelrahman, Maha M; Said, Amira S A; Abdelrahim, Mohamed E A

    2017-11-01

    Substituting spacer by another in noninvasive ventilation (NIV) involves many variables, e.g. total emitted dose (TED), mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), type of spacer, total lung deposition and total systemic absorption, which must be adjusted to ensure patient optimum therapy. Data mining based on artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms were used to model in vitro inhalation process, predict and optimize bioavailability from inhaled doses delivered by metered dose inhaler (MDI) using different spacers in NIV. Modeling of data indicated that in vitro performance of MDI-spacer systems was dependent mainly on fine particle dose (FPD), fine particle fraction (FPF), MMAD and to lesser extent on spacer type. Ex vivo model indicated that amount of salbutamol collected on facemask filter was directly affected by FPF. In vivo model (24hQ) depended directly on spacer type, FPF and TED. Female patients showed higher 0.5hQ and 24hQ values than males. AeroChamber VC spacer demonstrated higher TED and 24hQ in vivo values. Results indicated suitability of MDI-spacer systems in achieving appropriate in vitro inhalation performance. The possibility of modeling and predicting both ex vivo and in vivo capabilities of MDI-spacer systems from knowledge of in vitro attributes enabled detailed focus on important variables required to deliver safe and accurate doses of salbutamol to ventilated patients.

  12. Effect of a volumatic spacer and mouth rinsing on systemic absorption of inhaled corticosteroids from a metered dose inhaler and dry powder inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selroos, O; Halme, M

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High doses of inhaled corticosteroids are absorbed systemically and may cause long term side effects. As rinsing the mouth out after use and inhaling through a spacing device may reduce systemic absorption this has been further investigated. METHODS: Three crossover studies were carried out to assess the effect of budesonide given by dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler) with and without mouth rinsing and beclomethasone dipropionate given by metered dose inhaler with or without a spacing device (Volumatic) on serum cortisol concentrations and urinary cortisol excretion in patients with asthma taking an inhaled corticosteroid. Each treatment period was two weeks with in a two week washout period. Serum cortisol concentrations at 0800 hours on day 14 and the 24 hour urinary excretion of cortisol were measured. In study 1 24 patients taking beclomethasone dipropionate 500 micrograms twice a day inhaled with (n = 10) or without (n = 14) a Volumatic spacing device were switched to a budesonide dry powder inhaler, 600 micrograms to be taken twice a day without mouth rinsing. In study 2 10 patients took budesonide 800 micrograms twice a day with and without mouth rinsing and without swallowing the rinsing water. In study 3 17 patients took budesonide 800 micrograms twice daily with mouth rinsing and beclomethasone dipropionate 500 micrograms twice daily with the spacing device and mouth rinsing. RESULTS: In study 1 no difference was seen between budesonide without mouth rinsing and beclomethasone dipropionate without a spacer: beclomethasone with spacer caused less suppression of cortisol (mean (SD) serum cortisol concentration: beclomethasone and spacer 487(148), budesonide 368(145) nmol/l). In study 2 mouth rinsing caused less suppression of morning serum cortisol concentrations (rinsing 440(63), no rinsing 375(56) nmol/1). In study 3 there was no difference in serum or urinary cortisol concentrations between twice daily beclomethasone dipropionate 500 micrograms

  13. Antipyretic Efficacy and Safety of Ibuprofen Versus Acetaminophen Suspension in Febrile Children: Results of 2 Randomized, Double-Blind, Single-Dose Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Shyamalie; Kellstein, David

    2017-10-01

    Two blinded single-dose studies randomized children 6 months to 11 years old with fever to receive ibuprofen (IBU) pediatric suspension 7.5 mg/kg or acetaminophen (APAP) suspension 10 to 15 mg/kg. The primary efficacy parameter was time-weighted sum of temperature differences (TWSTD) from baseline through 8 hours for each study. Secondary end points included TWSTD from baseline through 6 hours, time to onset and duration of temperature control, and proportion with temperature control. Studies were pooled for post hoc analyses of efficacy and adverse event end points. The primary efficacy parameter significantly favored IBU over APAP in study 1 and the pooled analysis (both P children, with a comparable safety profile.

  14. Systemic beta-adrenoceptor responses to salbutamol given by metered-dose inhaler alone and with pear shaped spacer attachment: comparison of electrocardiographic, hypokalaemic and haemodynamic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, B J; McDevitt, D G; Struthers, A D

    1989-06-01

    1. Seven normal subjects were given cumulative doubling doses of inhaled salbutamol either by metered-dose inhaler (MDI) alone, or in conjunction with a pear shaped spacer attachment (PSS). Dose increments were made every 20 min from 100 micrograms to 2000 micrograms. 2. Plasma potassium (K), electrocardiographic (ECG) and haemodynamic (HR, SBP and DBP) responses were measured at each dose increment. 3. There were falls in K (as mean and 95% CI) in response to salbutamol (P less than 0.001): 3.70 mmol l-1 (3.46-3.95) to 3.20 mmol l-1 (2.91-3.49) MDI, 3.78 mmol l-1 (3.61-3.95) to 3.18 mmol l-1 (3.06-3.30) PSS. 4. Salbutamol produced marked ECG effects including T wave flattening (P less than 0.001): 0.46 mV (0.24-0.68) to 0.22 mV (0.07-0.37) MDI, 0.50 mV (0.23-0.77) to 0.24 mV (0.07-0.41) PSS; and Q-Tc interval prolongation (P less than 0.001): 0.382 s (0.372-0.392) to 0.409 s (0.397-0.421) MDI, 0.378 s (0.358-0.398) to 0.410 s (0.388-0.432) PSS. U waves occurred in five subjects with MDI and in four with PSS. S-T segment depression was present in two subjects with MDI and in three with PSS. These changes were not however associated with ventricular extrasystoles. There were also significant chronotropic effects (P less than 0.001): 63 beats min-1 (57-70) to 79 beats min-1 (69-89) MDI, 58 beats min-1 (53-63) to 75 beats min-1 (69-81) PSS. 5. Comparison of dose-response curves for MDI alone and with PSS showed no significant differences, for any of the variables measured.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Aerodynamic particle size analysis of aerosols from pressurized metered-dose inhalers: Comparison of andersen 8-stage cascade impactor, next generation pharmaceutical impactor, and model 3321 aerodynamic particle sizer aerosol spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Jolyon P.; Nagel, Mark W.; Wiersema, Kimberly J.; Doyle, Cathy C.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare three different methods for the aerodynamic assessment of (1) chloroflurocarbon (CFC)-fluticasone propionate (Flovent), (2) CFC-sodium cromoglycate (Intal), and (3) hydrofluoroalkane (HFA)-beclomethasone dipropionate (Qvar) delivered by pressurized metered dose inhaler. Particle size distributions were compared determining mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), geometric standard deviation (GSD), and fine particle fraction

  16. The treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis vaginitis. An open controlled prospective study comparing a single dose of metronidazole tablets, benzoyl metronidazole suspension and tinidazole tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, B; Smyth, E

    1985-03-23

    Metronidazole tablets, benzoyl metronidazole suspension and tinidazole tablets each given as a single 2 g bolus dose in an open controlled prospective study were found to be effective forms of treatment for Trichomonas vaginalis vaginitis. The cure rates on wet smear preparations were 100%, 100% and 94,8% respectively, and symptomatic and observed improvements were excellent. There was a statistically significant difference between the response rates associated with both metronidazole preparations and tinidazole. The results of this study indicate that single-dosage bolus therapy can confidently be recommended in trichomonal infections and that it has a number of advantages.

  17. A comparison of albuterol administered by metered-dose inhaler and spacer with albuterol by nebulizer in adults presenting to an urban emergency department with acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kenneth B; Milne, Scott; Hamilton, Cathy; Hall, Kent

    2002-04-01

    To determine the efficacy of albuterol by metered-dose inhaler (MDI) and spacer compared to a nebulizer. A prospective, open-label study. Large urban emergency department (ED). All consecutive adult asthma patients over a 2.5-year period. ED personnel used a standardized treatment algorithm, which included albuterol administered by nebulization, for patients presenting to the ED during the first 12 months of the study. The treatment algorithm then was switched to one that utilized albuterol administered by MDI/spacer as the primary mode of delivery for the following 18 months. As part of the conversion to MDI/spacer, ED staff counseled patients on self-management and supplied patients with a peak flowmeter, an MDI/spacer, and an inhaled steroid for home use. Pulmonary function, clinical outcome, laboratory data, and financial data were assembled and analyzed from 2,342 ED visits and 1,420 patients. While there was no significant difference in hospital admission rates between patients in the MDI/spacer group and the nebulizer group (13.2% and 14.6%, respectively), there was a statistically greater improvement in peak flow rates in the MDI/spacer group (126.8 vs 111.9 L/min, respectively; p = 0.002). The MDI/spacer group also spent significantly less time in the ED (163.6 and 175 min, respectively; p = 0.007), had a lower total albuterol dose (1,125 microg and 6,700 microg, respectively; p inhaled corticosteroid for patients' home use. Albuterol administered by MDI/spacer is an efficacious and cost-effective alternative to nebulization in adults with acute asthma who present at a large urban ED.

  18. Treatment of patients hospitalized for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: comparison of an oral/metered-dose inhaler regimen and an intravenous/nebulizer regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Sean P; Blum, James; Oldenburg, Frederick A; Rodgerson, Lorraine; Branscombe, John M; Harrow, Edward M

    2002-02-01

    Compare the therapeutic efficacy of an oral/metered-dose inhaler (oral/MDI) regimen to an intravenous/nebulizer (I.V./neb) regimen of methylprednisolone, cefuroxime, and inhaled albuterol and ipratropium bromide in patients hospitalized for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Randomized, nonblinded, therapeutic trial. Two community hospitals in Bangor, Maine. 34 individuals with severe COPD. The mean admission forced expiratory volume in the first second was 0.75 L (oral/MDI 0.78 L, I.V./neb 0.71 L). Baseline demographic, laboratory, comorbidity, and ventilatory values determined in 19 patients who received the oral/MDI regimen and 15 patients treated with the I.V./neb regimen indicated comparability of the two groups. Outcome variables that compared oral/MDI to I.V./neb, including mean change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (0.12 L vs 0.13 L), mean length of stay (4.3 vs 5.1 d), and treatment failures (32% vs 33%), showed no significant differences. Patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbations can be successfully (and potentially less expensively) treated with an oral/MDI treatment regimen.

  19. Clinical comparability between the CFC and HFA budesonide pressurised metered-dose inhalers in paediatric patients with asthma: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, A; Tutuncu, A; Löhr, I; Carlholm, M; Polanowski, T

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a novel hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) formulation of budesonide (Pulmicort) versus the conventional chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) pMDI formulation in paediatric patients with asthma. This was a Phase III, multicentre, 12-week, double-blind, randomised, parallel-group study involving children (6-12 years of age) with mild to moderate asthma. Patients received either budesonide HFA pMDI or budesonide CFC pMDI 200 mug twice daily, with or without a spacer (NebuChamber/Nebunette). Primary efficacy endpoint: mean percentage change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) from baseline to week 12. Secondary efficacy endpoints included changes in FEV(1) per cent of predicted normal, forced vital capacity, morning and evening peak expiratory flow rate, asthma symptoms and use of rescue medication. A total of 159 patients received treatment (HFA 77, CFC 82). For mean percentage change in FEV(1) from baseline to week 12, the difference between the treatments (CFC pMDI - HFA pMDI) was -3.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] -8.0% to 1.8%) for the full analysis set and was not affected by spacer use. The upper CI was CFC pMDI.

  20. Treatment with budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler in patients with asthma: a focus on patient-reported outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D O'Connor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Richard D O'ConnorSharp Rees-Stealy Medical Group, San Diego, CA, USAAbstract: In the United States, budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI is approved for treatment of asthma in patients aged ≥12 years whose asthma is not adequately controlled with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS or whose disease severity clearly warrants treatment with an ICS and a long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist. This article reviews studies of budesonide/formoterol pMDI in patients with persistent asthma, with a particular focus on patient-reported outcomes (eg, perceived onset of effect, patient satisfaction with treatment, health-related quality of life [HRQL], global assessments, sleep quality and quantity, as these measures reflect patient perceptions of asthma control and disease burden. A search of PubMed and respiratory meetings was performed to identify relevant studies. In two pivotal budesonide/formoterol pMDI studies in adolescents and adults, greater efficacy and similar tolerability were shown with budesonide/formoterol pMDI 160/9 µg and 320/9 µg twice daily versus its monocomponents or placebo. In those studies, improvements in HRQL, patient satisfaction, global assessments of asthma control, and quality of sleep also favored budesonide/formoterol pMDI compared with one or both of its monocomponents or placebo. Budesonide/formoterol pMDI has a rapid onset of effect (within 15 minutes that patients can feel, an attribute that may have benefits for treatment adherence. In summary, budesonide/formoterol pMDI is effective and well tolerated and has additional therapeutic benefits that may be important from the patient’s perspective.Keywords: budesonide, formoterol, patient-reported outcomes, efficacy, tolerability, onset of effect

  1. Onset of effect of budesonide and formoterol administered via one pressurized metered-dose inhaler in patients with asthma previously treated with inhaled corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Harold; Parasuraman, Bhash; Boggs, Robert; Miller, Christopher J; Leidy, Nancy Kline; O'Dowd, Liza

    2008-09-01

    Onset of bronchodilation of budesonide/formoterol in one pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) has not been evaluated in asthma. To evaluate time to onset of clinically significant bronchodilation (> or = 15% improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and patient-perceived onset of effect (OE) in patients previously receiving inhaled corticosteroids. In two 12-week studies, patients 12 years and older with moderate to severe (study 1; n = 596) and mild to moderate (study 2; n = 480) persistent asthma received budesonide/formoterol pMDI, budesonide pMDI plus formoterol dry powder inhaler (study 1 only), budesonide pMDI, formoterol dry powder inhaler, or placebo. Postdose time to 15% or greater improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second and patient-perceived OE (assessed in a subset of patients 18 years and older [study 1, n=553; study 2, n=405]) were evaluated [corrected] More budesonide/formoterol-treated patients achieved onset of clinically significant bronchodilation within 15 minutes (median, 13 minutes) of administration at randomization vs those taking budesonide or placebo (P < .001). More patients receiving budesonide/formoterol vs budesonide and placebo reported feeling their study medication begin to work right away (P < or = .004; end of week 1). Similar results (P < .001) were observed for patient satisfaction with how quickly they felt their medication begin to work (except budesonide/formoterol vs budesonide, study 1 [P = .073]). Time to onset of clinically significant bronchodilation and patient-perceived OE of budesonide/formoterol and formoterol were similar. Budesonide/formoterol demonstrated a more rapid onset of clinically significant bronchodilation and a greater percentage of patients who perceived their medication working right away vs budesonide or placebo.

  2. Randomized controlled trial of salbutamol aerosol therapy via metered dose inhaler-spacer vs. jet nebulizer in young children with wheezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerojanawong, J; Manuyakorn, W; Prapphal, N; Harnruthakorn, C; Sritippayawan, S; Samransamruajkit, R

    2005-05-01

    The jet nebulizer is a common device used for administering aerosol medication in young children. However, compared to a metered dose inhaler-spacer (MDI-spacer), it takes more time and personnel. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of salbutamol aerosol therapy given via these two devices in young wheezing children. A prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in children up to 5 years old who had acute wheezing and were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. The first group received 2 puffs of placebo via MDI-spacer, followed by 0.15 mg/kg salbutamol respiratory solution via jet nebulizer. The second group received 2 puffs (100 microg/puff) of salbutamol via MDI-spacer, followed by placebo via jet nebulizer. Clinical scores and tidal breathing pulmonary function test were evaluated before and after treatment. Pulmonary function parameters included those derived from flow volume loops (volume to peak tidal expiratory flow over total expiratory volume, V(PTEF)/V(E); time to peak tidal expiratory flow over total expiratory time, T(PTEF)/T(E); and ratio of tidal expiratory flow at 25% remaining expiration to peak expiratory flow, 25/PF), compliance (Crs), and resistance (Rrs) of the respiratory system. The efficacy of both methods was compared by using analysis of covariance. Forty-seven wheezing children were studied (24 received salbutamol via MDI-spacer, and 23 received it via jet nebulizer). There was no statistical difference between the two groups regarding clinical scores and all pulmonary function parameters. However, heart rate was significantly increased after treatment in the jet nebulizer group when compared to those in the MDI-spacer group (P = 0.004). In conclusion, the efficacy of salbutamol aerosol therapy via MDI-spacer compared to jet nebulizer in young wheezing children was not different in terms of clinical score and

  3. Nebulized wet aerosol treatment in emergency department--is it essential? Comparison with large spacer device for metered-dose inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelberg, A; Chen, E; Noviski, N; Priel, I E

    1997-12-01

    To determine the efficacy of a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with a large spacer device as compared to nebulized wet aerosols in the treatment of an unselected population with severe airflow limitation. Randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. University Hospital Department of Emergency Medicine (DEM). Fifty patients, referred to the DEM between October 1, 1994 and March 31, 1995 with a severe, acute obstructive pulmonary event. Thirteen patients were diagnosed as having COPD; 37 patients were diagnosed as having asthma. Patients received either placebo MDI through a 750-mL cone-shaped spacer (Glaxo) [2 puffs] and nebulized salbutamol aerosol 0.5 mL in 1.5 mL saline solution (group 1, n=25) or salbutamol MDI and 0.5 mL saline solution in 1.5 mL saline solution administered in the same manner as above (group 2, n=25). The above treatment was repeated three times every 15 min, unless side effects appeared. Upon enrollment into the study, the FEV1 in group 1 was 0.78+/-0.7 L (mean+/-SD), 32% of predicted, and in group 2, 0.74+/-0.51 L, 29% of predicted (p=0.83). The FEV1 values after the first, second, and third interventions were as follows: in group 1, 1.18+/-0.99 L, 1.40+/-0.8, and 1.47+/-0.79, respectively, and in group 2, 1.17+/-0.99 L, 1.46+/-1.01, and 1.54+/-0.79 (p=0.83, 0.36, and 0.48, respectively). We observed no difference in spirometric measurements between the two groups at any time. Even in the setting of the unselected group of patient referrals to the DEM for episodes of severe airflow limitation, the clinical and the objective bronchodilator responses to the administration of salbutamol are independent of the method of delivery: MDI with a large spacer vs aerosol nebulization.

  4. TPP-dendrimer nanocarriers for siRNA delivery to the pulmonary epithelium and their dry powder and metered-dose inhaler formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielski, Elizabeth; Zhong, Qian; Mirza, Hamad; Brown, Matthew; Molla, Ashura; Carvajal, Teresa; da Rocha, Sandro R P

    2017-07-15

    The regulation of genes utilizing the RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism via the delivery of synthetic siRNA has great potential in the treatment of a variety of lung diseases. However, the delivery of siRNA to the lungs is challenging due to the poor bioavailability of siRNA when delivered intraveneously, and difficulty in formulating and maintaining the activity of free siRNA when delivered directly to the lungs using inhalation devices. The use of non-viral vectors such as cationic dendrimers can help enhance the stability of siRNA and its delivery to the cell cytosol. Therefore, in this work, we investigate the ability of a triphenylphosphonium (TPP) modified generation 4 poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer (G4NH2-TPP) to enhance the in vitro transfection efficiency of siRNA in a model of the pulmonary epithelium and their aerosol formulations in pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Complexes of siRNA and G4NH2-TPP were prepared with varying TPP densities and increasing N/P ratios. The complexation efficiency was modulated by the presence of the TPP on the dendrimer surface, allowing for a looser complexation compared to unmodified dendrimer as determined by gel electrophoresis and polyanion competition assay. An increase in TPP density and N/P ratio led to an increase in the in vitro gene knockdown of stably green fluorescent protein (eGFP) expressing lung alveolar epithelial (A549) cells. G4NH2-12TPP dendriplexes (G4NH2 PAMAM dendrimers containing 12 TPP molecules on the surface complexed with siRNA) at N/P ratio 30 showed the highest in vitro gene knockdown efficiency. To assess the potential of TPP-dendriplexes for pulmonary use, we also developed micron particle technologies for both pMDIs and DPIs and determined their aerosol characteristics utilizing an Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI). Mannitol microparticles encapsulating 12TPP-dendriplexes were shown to be effective in producing aerosols suitable for deep lung

  5. Cellular internalization and transport of biodegradable polyester dendrimers on a model of the pulmonary epithelium and their formulation in pressurized metered-dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyder, Rodrigo S; Zhong, Qian; Bazito, Reinaldo C; da Rocha, Sandro R P

    2017-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of generation and surface PEGylation of degradable polyester-based dendrimers nanocarriers on their interactions with an in vitro model of the pulmonary epithelium as well as to assess the ability to formulate such carriers in propellant-based, portable oral-inhalation devices to determine their potential for local and systemic delivery of drugs to and through the lungs. Hydroxyl (-OH) terminated polyester dendrimers of generation 3 and 4 (G3, and G4) were synthesized using a divergent approach. G4 was surface-modified with PEG (1,000Da). All dendrimers and their building blocks were determined to be highly compatible with the model pulmonary epithelium, with toxicity profiles much more favorable than non-degradable polyamidoamine dendrimers (PAMAM). The transport of the species from the apical to basolateral side across polarized Calu-3 monolayers showed to be generation and surface-chemistry (PEGylation) dependent. The extent of the transport is modulated by their interaction with the polarized epithelium and their transient opening of the tight junctions. G3 was the one most efficiently internalized by the epithelium, and had a small impact on the integrity of the monolayer. On the other hand, the PEGylated G4 was the one least internalized by the polarized epithelium, and at the same time had a more pronounced transient impact on the cellular junctions, resulting in more efficient transport across the cell monolayer. PEGylation of the dendrimer surface played other roles as well. PEGylation modulated the degradation profile of the dendrimer, slowing the process in a step-wise fashion - first the PEG layer is shed and then the dendrimer starts degrading. PEGylation also helped increase the solvation of the nanocarriers by the hydrofluoroalkane propellant used in pressurized metered-dose inhalers, resulting in formulations with excellent dispersibility and aerosol quality (deep lung deposition of 88

  6. Efficacy of salbutamol by nebulizer versus metered dose inhaler with home-made non-valved spacer in acute exacerbation of childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, S; Mollah, A H; Basak, R; Islam, K T; Chowdhury, Y S

    2012-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate and to compare the efficacy of jet nebulizer and metered dose inhaler (MDI) with home-made non-valved spacer (HM NVS) to deliver aerosolized salbutamol in acute exacerbation of asthma in children. HM NVS was made by 500ml plastic mineral water bottle. It was perforated at the bottom for the insertion of MDI and proximal end was cut for placing the mouth. This prospective randomized study was conducted in the department of Pediatrics, Dhaka Medical College Hospital, during April 2007 to March 2008 with 50 known cases (2-12 years) of bronchial asthma with acute exacerbation. After randomized enrollment, each patient received three doses of salbutamol either through a jet nebulizer or through a HM NVS. Oxygen saturation (SaO2), wheeze, heart rate, respiratory rate were recorded throughout the treatment period. Data were analyzed with SPSS for Windows 10.0 at p value nebulizer group versus 69.4 months in MDI with HM NVS group. Baseline clinical characteristics in nebulizer group were SaO2 87.7±2.5 versus 89.0±1.8 percent, RR 59.2±7.3 vs. 63.2±4.8 per minute, HR 155.4±11.8 versus 149.0±10.8 per minute and wheeze in 22(88.0%) cases versus 21(84.0%) cases respectively (p>0.05). After therapy improvement was noted among the nebulizer group (SaO2 87.7±2.5 vs. 94.3±2.8 percent; RR 59.2±7.3 vs. 39.3±4.9 per minute; HR 155.4±11.8 vs. 151.60±17.3 per minute; wheeze 88% vs. 8%) as well as in the MDI with HM NVS group (SaO2 89.0±1.8 vs. 94.8±1.8 percent; RR 63.2±4.8 vs. 38.7±6.4 per minute; HR 149.0±10.8 vs. 144.5±13.5 per minute; wheeze 84% vs. 16%) [pnebulizer group and HM NVS group (SaO2 94.3±2.8 vs. 94.8±1.8 percent, RR 39.3±4.9 vs. 38.7±6.4 per minute, HR 151.60±17.3 vs. 144.5±13.5 per minute and wheeze persisted in 2(8.0%) cases versus 4(16.0%) cases respectively) [p>0.05]. The overall response to these modalities of treatment was satisfactory in nebulizer (19/25) and HM NVS (17/25). Salbutamol delivered through both

  7. Doses monitoring in radiology: calibration of air kerma-area product (P{sub KA}) meters; Monitoracao de doses em radiologia: a calibracao de medidores do produto kerma-area (P{sub KA})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terini, Ricardo Andrade; Campelo, Maria Carolina de Santana; Almeida Junior, Jose Neres de, E-mail: rterini@pucsp.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo (PUC-SP), SP (Brazil); Herdade, Silvio Bruni; Pereira, Marco Aurelio Guedes [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Energia e Ambiente

    2013-11-15

    Materials and methods: different qualities of both incident and transmitted beams were utilized in conditions similar to a clinical setting, analyzing the influence from the reference dosimeter, from the distance between meters, from the filtration and from the average beam energy. Calibrations were performed directly against a standard 30 cm{sup 3} cylindrical chamber or a parallel-plate monitor chamber, and indirectly against the PDC meter. Results: the lowest energy dependence was observed for transmitted beams. The cross calibration between the Diamentor E2 and the PDC meters, and the PDC presented the greatest propagation of uncertainties. Conclusion: the calibration coefficient of the PDC meter showed to be more stable with voltage, while the Diamentor E2 calibration coefficient was more variable. On the other hand, the PDC meter presented greater uncertainty in readings (5.0%) than with the use of the monitor chamber (3.5%) as a reference. (author)

  8. Randomized, open-label, single-dose, crossover, relative bioavailability study in healthy adults, comparing the pharmacokinetics of rabeprazole granules administered using soft food or infant formula as dosing vehicle versus suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, An; Solanki, Bhavna; Treem, William

    2012-07-01

    A sprinkle capsule formulation containing enteric-coated, delayed-release rabeprazole granules is being developed for the treatment of children with gastrointestinal reflux disease. The granules are designed to be mixed with vehicles that facilitate delivery to children, who may be unable to swallow solid formulations. The primary objective of this study-conducted on the sponsor's initiative-was to compare the bioavailability of rabeprazole granules when mixed with various dosing vehicles (small amount of soft food or infant formula) with that of a rabeprazole suspension with inactive vehicle granules (reference), to determine which dosing vehicle can be used to deliver rabeprazole in children. Tolerability was also assessed. This single-center, single-dose, randomized, open-label, 5-period crossover study was conducted in 35 healthy adult subjects. In a randomized sequence, fasting subjects received a single dose of 10-mg rabeprazole granules per treatment period, mixed with small amounts of 1 of 5 dosing vehicles (a strawberry-flavored suspension of rabeprazole granules with inactive vehicle granules reconstituted with water, yogurt [1 tablespoon], applesauce [1 tablespoon], or infant formula [5 mL], or a suspension of rabeprazole granules with inactive vehicle tablet reconstituted with water). Full plasma pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of rabeprazole and its thioether metabolite were collected; concentrations were estimated via LC-MS/MS. PK properties were estimated using noncompartmental methods; 90% CIs around least squares mean test-to-reference ratios were calculated for C(max) and AUC values. All treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were recorded and assessed for severity (mild, moderate, or severe) and relationship to study drug. A total of 35 subjects were enrolled (mean age, 38 years; 54.3% female; 100% white; mean weight, 71.4 kg). Thirty-four subjects completed the study. Rabeprazole and rabeprazole thioether plasma PK properties were comparable

  9. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail: nur-aira@nm.gov.my; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muzakkir, Amir [Sinaran Utama Teknologi Sdn Bhd, 43650, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr{sup −1}). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr{sup −1} determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  10. Your Glucose Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Your Glucose Meter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test and record how much sugar (called ...

  11. A Single-Dose, Two-Way Crossover, Open-Label Bioequivalence Study of an Amphetamine Extended-Release Oral Suspension in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Carolyn; Stark, Jeffrey G; McMahen, Russ; Engelking, Dorothy

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of a new extended-release amphetamine oral suspension (AMP XR-OS) with a standard extended-release mixed amphetamine salts product, Adderall XR®. In this single-dose, open-label, randomized, two-period, two-treatment crossover study, 42 healthy adult volunteers received 15 mL of AMP XR-OS in one period and a 30 mg Adderall XR capsule in another period (both containing 18.8 mg of amphetamine base) under fasted conditions. Blood samples were analyzed for d- and l-amphetamine concentrations, and pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, AUC0-5, AUC5-last, and AUCinf were calculated to determine bioequivalence. Safety was monitored throughout the study. The 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the log-transformed Cmax, AUC0-5, AUC5-last, and AUCinf fell within the accepted 80% to 125% range for establishing bioequivalence for d- and l-amphetamine. The most common adverse events were nausea and decreased appetite. AMP XR-OS is bioequivalent to Adderall XR in healthy adult participants.

  12. Asthma control in patients receiving inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonist fixed combinations. A real-life study comparing dry powder inhalers and a pressurized metered dose inhaler extrafine formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolini Gabriele

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although patients have more problems using metered dose inhalers, clinical comparisons suggest they provide similar control to dry powder inhalers. Using real-life situations this study was designed to evaluate asthma control in outpatients with moderate to severe persistent asthma and to compare efficacy of fixed combinations of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and long acting beta-agonists (LABA. Methods This real-life study had a cross-sectional design. Patients using fixed combinations of ICS and LABA had their asthma control and spirometry assessed during regular visits. Results 111 patients were analyzed: 53 (47.7% received maintenance therapy of extrafine beclomethasone-formoterol (BDP/F pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI, 25 (22.5% fluticasone-salmeterol (FP/S dry powder inhaler (DPI, and 33 (29.7% budesonide-formoterol (BUD/F DPI. Severity of asthma at time of diagnosis, assessed by the treating physician, was comparable among groups. Asthma control was achieved by 45.9% of patients; 38.7% were partially controlled and 15.3% were uncontrolled. In the extrafine BDF/F group, asthma control total score, daytime symptom score and rescue medication use score were significantly better than those using fixed DPI combinations (5.8 ± 6.2 vs. 8.5 ± 6.8; 1.4 ± 1.8 vs. 2.3 ± 2.1; 1.8 ± 2.2 vs. 2.6 ± 2.2; p = 0.0160; p = 0.012 and p = 0.025, respectively and the mean daily ICS dose were significantly lower. Conclusions pMDI extrafine BDP/F combination demonstrated better asthma control compared to DPIs formulated with larger particles. This could be due to the improved lung deposition of the dose or less reliance on the optimal inhalation technique or both.

  13. AREA MONITORING OF AMBIENT DOSE RATES IN PARTS OF SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA USING A GPS-INTEGRATED RADIATION SURVEY METER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeyode, I C; Rabiu, J A; Alatise, O O; Makinde, V; Akinboro, F G; Al-Azmi, D; Mustapha, A O

    2017-04-01

    A radiation monitoring system comprising a Geiger-Muller counter connected to a smart phone via Bluetooth was used for a dose rate survey in some parts of south-western Nigeria. The smart phone has the Geographical Positioning System, which provides the navigation information and saves it along with the dose rate data. A large number of data points was obtained that shows the dose rate distribution within the region. The results show that the ambient dose rates in the region range from 60 to 520 nSv -1 and showed a bias that is attributable to the influence of geology on the ambient radiation dose in the region. The geology influence was demonstrated by superimposing the dose rate plot and the geological map of the area. The potential applications of the device in determining baseline information and in area monitoring, e.g. for lost or abandoned sources, radioactive materials stockpiles, etc., were discussed in the article, particularly against the background of Nigeria's plan to develop its nuclear power program. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Assessment of ambient dose equivalent rate performance of an automatic survey meter as an instrument to quantify the presence of radiation in soils

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, E M; Okuno, E

    2002-01-01

    Those who work in radiation protection are faced with various quantities that were created to account for the effects of ionizing radiation in the human body. As far as the experimental point of view is concerned, each available equipment is planned to measure a distinct quantity, for a specific radiation protection application, and it is not always clear which one it is. This paper shows a series of tests, planned and applied to a portable gamma ray spectrometer, in order to assure that the monitoring low dose levels of radiation with it is reliable. The equipment is fully automated and does not allow modifications of the conversion factors from counts to ambient dose equivalent. It is therefore necessary to assure that the values provided by the equipment are correct and refer to the actual situation one expects to find in practice. The system is based on an NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, mounted with its electronics in a portable case, suitable for field measurements. It measures ambient dose equivalent r...

  15. Comparison of the systemic bioavailability of mometasone furoate after oral inhalation from a mometasone furoate/formoterol fumarate metered-dose inhaler versus a mometasone furoate dry-powder inhaler in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosoglou T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Teddy Kosoglou,1 James Hubbell,2 Fengjuan Xuan,3 David L Cutler,1 Alan G Meehan,4 Bhavna Kantesaria,5 Bret A Wittmer6,† 1Clinical Pharmacology, 2Exploratory Drug Metabolism, 3Early Development Statistics, 4Medical Communications, 5Drug Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA; 6Commonwealth Biomedical Research, LLC, Madisonville, KY, USA†Dr Bret A Wittmer passed away on May 9, 2012.Background: Coadministration of mometasone furoate (MF and formoterol fumarate (F produces additive effects for improving symptoms and lung function and reduces exacerbations in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The present study assessed the relative systemic exposure to MF and characterized the pharmacokinetics of MF and formoterol in patients with COPD.Methods: This was a single-center, randomized, open-label, multiple-dose, three-period, three-treatment crossover study. The following three treatments were self-administered by patients (n = 14 with moderate-to-severe COPD: MF 400 µg/F 10 µg via a metered-dose inhaler (MF/F MDI; DULERA®/ZENHALE® without a spacer device, MF/F MDI with a spacer, or MF 400 µg via a dry-powder inhaler (DPI; ASMANEX® TWISTHALER® twice daily for 5 days. Plasma samples for MF and formoterol assay were obtained predose and at prespecified time points after the last (morning dose on day 5 of each period of the crossover. The geometric mean ratio (GMR as a percent and the corresponding 90% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for treatment comparisons.Results: Systemic MF exposure was lower (GMR 77%; 90% CI 58, 102 following administration by MF/F MDI compared to MF DPI. Additionally, least squares geometric mean systemic exposures of MF and formoterol were lower (GMR 72%; 90% CI 61, 84 and (GMR 62%; 90% CI 52, 74, respectively, following administration by MF/F MDI in conjunction with a spacer compared to MF/F MDI without a spacer. MF/F MDI had a

  16. [Metered-dose inhaler with spacer vs nebulization for severe and potentially severe acute asthma treatment in the pediatric emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannier, N; Timsit, S; Cojocaru, B; Leis, A; Wille, C; Garel, D; Bocquet, N; Chéron, G

    2006-03-01

    To compare treatment with beta 2 agonist delivered either by a spacer device or a nebulizer in children with severe or potentially severe acute asthma. In this randomized trial, children 4 to 15 years, cared for in the emergency department for severe or potentially severe acute asthma, received 6 times either nebulizations of salbutamol (0.15mg/kg) or puffs of a beta 2 agonist (salbutamol 50 microg/kg or terbutaline 125 microg/kg). The primary outcome was the hospitalization rate. Secondary outcomes included percentage improvement in Bishop score, in PEF, SaO(2), respiratory and heart rates, side effects, length of stay and relapses 10 and 30 days later. Groups did not differ for baseline data. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups (nebulizer N=40, spacer N=39) for baseline characteristics before emergency department consultation except for length of acute asthma in the spacer group. Clinical evolution after treatment, hospitalization rate, relapse were similar including the more severe subgroup. In the spacer group, tachycardia was less frequent (Pvs 108+/-13 min, Pmetered-dose inhaler with spacer is an effective alternative to nebulizers for the treatment of children with severe or potentially severe acute asthma in the emergency department. Time gained can be used for asthma education.

  17. Independent suspension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaikin, Don

    1992-01-01

    ... independent suspension. INDEPENDENCE! An independent system is simply one in which each of the vehicle's wheels is free to react totally separate from any of the other wheels. If the right rear wheel hits a bump, the left rear wheel is undisturbed. Since the whole car does not bounce and shake every time one of the wheels hits a potho...

  18. Bioavailability of two oral suspension and two oral tablet formulations of acyclovir 400 mg: two single-dose, open-label, randomized, two-period crossover comparisons in healthy Mexican adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Aguirre, Jose Antonio; Absalón-Reyes, Jose Antonio; Novoa-Heckel, Germán; de Lago, Alberto; Oliva, Iván; Rodríguez, Zulema; González-de la Parra, Mario; Burke-Fraga, Victoria; Namur, Salvador

    2007-06-01

    Acyclovir is an important antiviral drug, used extensively for treatment of herpes simplex and varicella zoster. Six oral generic formulations of acyclovir are available in Mexico; however, a literature search failed to identify data information concerning the bioavailability of these formulations in the Mexican population. The aim of these 2 studies was to compare the bioavailability of 4 oral formulations of acyclovir 400 mg--2 tablet formulations and 2 suspension formulations--with their corresponding listed drug references in Mexico (a list issued by Mexican Health Authorities). Two separate, single-dose, open-label, randomized, 2-period crossover studies were conducted at the Centro de Estudios Científicos y Clínicos Pharma, S.A. de C.V. (clinical unit), Mexico City, Mexico. For each study, a different set of eligible subjects were selected. They included healthy Mexican volunteers of either sex. For each study, subjects were randomly assigned to receive 1 test formulation of acyclovir 400 mg followed by the reference formulation, or vice versa, with a 1-week washout period between doses. After a 12-hour (overnight) fast, subjects received a single 400-mg dose (tablet or 10-mL suspension) of the corresponding formulation. For the analysis of pharmacokinetic properties, including C(max), AUC from time 0 (baseline) to time t (AUC(0-t)), and AUC from baseline to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)), blood samples were drawn at baseline, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after dosing. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the natural logarithm (ln)-transformed ratios of Cmax and AUC were within the predetermined equivalence range of 80% to 125% and if P healthy subjects, single, 400-mg doses of the test brand of acyclovir administered either in tablet or suspension form, appeared to be bioequivalent to the reference brand based on the rate and extent of absorption in accordance with the definition of the US Food and Drug

  19. Dose-response to salbutamol via a novel palm sized nebuliser (Aerodose Inhaler), conventional nebuliser (Pari LC Plus) and metered dose inhaler (Ventolin Evohaler) in moderate to severe asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Brian J; Sims, Erika J; Taylor, Karla; Cockburn, Wendy; Fishman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The Aerodose inhaler is a novel, palm-sized, breath actuated device which requires little patient coordination. This study compared the dose-response of salbutamol delivered by the Aerodose Inhaler (Aerogen Inc., Mountain View, USA) vs Pari LC Plus jet nebulizer (Pari LC Plus; Pari GmbH, Starnberg, Germany) and Ventolin Evohaler HFA pMDI (Evohaler; Allen & Hanburys [GlaxoSmithkline], Uxbridge, UK). Twenty-two moderate to severe asthmatic patients, mean (s.d.) age: 44.7 (9.4), FEV(1): 58.1 (12.0), received 4 cumulative doubling doses of salbutamol in a randomised, investigator blind, balanced crossover design. Spirometry and systemic safety variables (heart rate, blood pressure, T wave amplitude, QTc interval and potassium) were measured at baseline and after each dose. Parallel regression analysis revealed that microgram relative potency ratios for the Aerodose Inhaler to be five times more efficient for FEV(1) than either the Pari LC Plus (0.202, 90% CI: 0.189-0.216) or the Evohaler (0.202, 90% CI: 0.189-0.216), while there was no difference between Pari LC Plus vs Evohaler. Similarly, Aerodose Inhaler vs. Pari LC Plus showed approximately five-fold greater potency for all systemic parameters, except blood pressure. As compared to the Evohaler, Aerodose Inhaler had equivalent potency for plasma potassium and T wave amplitude, but demonstrated greater potency for heart rate and QT(c) interval. This study has indicated therefore, that Aerodose Inhaler is approximately five times as efficient as the Pari LC Plus and Evohaler in relative lung delivery of salbutamol in moderate to severe asthmatics.

  20. Ultrasonic flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Snijders, G.J.; Volker, A.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an ultrasonic flow meter comprising a flow tube for the fluid whose flow rate is to be determined. The flow meter comprises a transmitting element for emitting ultrasonic waves, which is provided on the outer jacket of the flow tube. A receiving element, which is provided on

  1. Optical cycle power meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A bicycle power meter for measuring power generated when riding a bicycle, the power meter comprising a position-sensitive radiation detector (409) attachable to a component of a crank set (404) of bicycle, and a radiation source (408) attachable to the component of the crank set and configured...

  2. Pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence comparison of a single 100-mg dose of cefteram pivoxil powder suspension and tablet formulations: a randomized-sequence, open-label, two-period crossover study in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jianjun; Di, Bin; Wu, Chun Yong; Hu, Qin; Li, Jian Hua; Zhu, Yubing; Fan, Hongwei; Xiao, DaWei; Wang, Guang Ji

    2008-04-01

    Cefteram pivoxil (CFTM-PI) is an oral antibiotic available in powder suspension and tablet formulations indicated in China for the treatment of bacterial infections. Although these 2 formulations are marketed in China, published information regarding their pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence in the Chinese population is not available. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of the powder suspension (test) and tablet (reference) formulations of CFTM-PI 100 mg available in China. This single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, 2-period crossover study was performed at the Nanjing First Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. Eligible subjects were healthy male volunteers who were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive a single 100-mg dose of the test or reference formulation, followed by a 1-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a 12-hour overnight fast. Plasma was assayed using a high-performance liquid chromatography method. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties, including C(max), AUC from time 0 (baseline) to 6 hours (AUC(0-6)), and AUC from baseline to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)), blood samples were obtained at intervals over the 6-hour period after study drug administration. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the log-transformed ratios of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined equivalence range (80%-125%) as established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Tolerability was assessed by monitoring vital signs and laboratory tests (hematology, blood biochemistry, hepatic function, and urinalysis), and by questioning subjects about adverse events (AEs). Twenty-four Chinese male subjects (mean [range] age,24.2 [23-32] years;weight,64.3 [58-67] kg; height, 172 [167-185] cm) enrolled; all completed the study. No period or sequence effect was observed. The 90% CIs for the log-transformed ratios of C(max), AUC(0-6;), and

  3. Dose-response to salbutamol via a novel palm sized nebuliser (Aerodose® Inhaler), conventional nebuliser (Pari LC Plus) and metered dose inhaler (Ventolin™ Evohaler™) in moderate to severe asthmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Brian J; Sims, Erika J; Taylor, Karla; Cockburn, Wendy; Fishman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Aims The Aerodose® inhaler is a novel, palm-sized, breath actuated device which requires little patient coordination. This study compared the dose–response of salbutamol delivered by the Aerodose® Inhaler (Aerogen Inc., Mountain View, USA) vs Pari LC Plus jet nebulizer (Pari LC Plus; Pari GmbH, Starnberg, Germany) and Ventolin™ Evohaler™ HFA pMDI (Evohaler; Allen & Hanburys [GlaxoSmithkline], Uxbridge, UK). Methods Twenty-two moderate to severe asthmatic patients, mean (s.d.) age: 44.7 (9.4), FEV1: 58.1 (12.0), received 4 cumulative doubling doses of salbutamol in a randomised, investigator blind, balanced crossover design. Spirometry and systemic safety variables (heart rate, blood pressure, T wave amplitude, QTc interval and potassium) were measured at baseline and after each dose. Results Parallel regression analysis revealed that microgram relative potency ratios for the Aerodose® Inhaler to be five times more efficient for FEV1 than either the Pari LC Plus (0.202, 90% Cl: 0.189–0.216) or the Evohaler (0.202, 90% Cl: 0.189–0.216), while there was no difference between Pari LC Plus vs Evohaler. Similarly, Aerodose® Inhaler vs. Pari LC Plus showed approximately five-fold greater potency for all systemic parameters, except blood pressure. As compared to the Evohaler, Aerodose® Inhaler had equivalent potency for plasma potassium and T wave amplitude, but demonstrated greater potency for heart rate and QTc interval. Conclusions This study has indicated therefore, that Aerodose® Inhaler is approximately five times as efficient as the Pari LC Plus and Evohaler in relative lung delivery of salbutamol in moderate to severe asthmatics. PMID:15606434

  4. Ramp Metering Status in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongren Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an update of the major improvement in terms of ramp metering design and operations in California. These updates include ramp metering policies, ramp metering development plans, ramp metering design manual, and ramp metering and system management initiatives.

  5. Peak flow meter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A peak flow meter is commonly used by a person with asthma to measure the amount of air that can be ... become narrow or blocked due to asthma, peak flow values will drop because the person cannot blow ...

  6. A Cost Analysis of Salbutamol Administration by Metered-Dose Inhalers with Spacers versus Nebulization for Patients with Wheeze in the Pediatric Emergency Department: Evidence from Observational Data in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spin, Paul; Sketris, Ingrid; Hill-Taylor, Barbara; Ward, Courtney; Hurley, Katrina F

    2017-01-01

    Despite evidence demonstrating the advantages of metered-dose inhalers with spacers (MDI-s), nebulization (NEB) remains the primary method of asthma treatment in some pediatric emergency departments (PEDs). There is a perception that delivering salbutamol by MDI-s is more costly than by NEB. This research evaluates the relative costs of MDI-s and NEB using local, hospital-specific, patient-level data. Regression models estimated associations between the salbutamol inhalation method and costs, length of stay (LOS) in the PED and hospital, and the probability of admission. Our population was a random sample of 822 patients presenting with wheeze to the PED in 2008/2009. Control variables included age, sex, triage acuity, time of PED visit, other medications, and vitals. Costs were calculated using the prices and quantities of medical resources used per treatment. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was used. Treatment with MDI-s versus NEB was associated with an absolute decrease in hospitalization of 4.4% (p<0.05) and a 25-hour (p<0.001) reduction in average inpatient stay, after controlling for triage acuity and patient characteristics. This resulted in savings of $24/patient in the PED and $180/patient overall (p<0.001). Inpatient care accounted for more than 90% of total patient costs. Our results suggest economic gains associated with MDI-s for salbutamol inhalation in PEDs. Sensitivity analyses show that this conclusion is not affected by changes in model parameters that may differ by jurisdiction. Since most facilities already collect the data used for this study, our methods could be adopted for a cross-jurisdictional account of the cost effectiveness of MDI-s.

  7. Hidrofluoralcano como propelente dos aerossóis pressurizados de dose medida: histórico, deposição pulmonar, farmacocinética, eficácia e segurança Hydrofluoroalkane as a propellant for pressurized metered-dose inhalers: history, pulmonary deposition, pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio C. Ibiapina

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Rever a literatura sobre o hidrofluoralcano como propelente dos inaladores de dose medida contendo medicamentos empregados na asma. FONTES DOS DADOS: O levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado em bancos de dados eletrônicos - MEDLINE, MDConsult, HighWire, Medscape e LILACS - e por pesquisa direta - referentes aos últimos 15 anos -, utilizando-se as seguintes palavras-chaves: hidrofluoralcano, asma e infância. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Foram selecionados 43 artigos originais abordando a questão da substituição do clorofluorcarbono pelo hidrofluoralcano. Este gás mostrou-se como uma alternativa de propelente segura, com deposição pulmonar de 50 a 60% e eficácia significativa quando comparado com placebo (p OBJECTIVE: To review the literature about hydrofluoroalkane as a propellent of pressurized metered-dose inhalers containing anti-asthma drugs. SOURCES OF DATA: Bibliographic search in electronic databases (MEDLINE, MDConsult, HighWire, Medscape and LILACS and direct search referring to the past 15 years, using the key words hydrofluoroalkane, asthma and childhood were carried out. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: 43 original articles on the replacement of clorofluorcarbon by hydrofluoralkane were selected. Hydrofluoralkane showed to be a safe propellent, with pulmonary deposition ranging from 50 to 60%, and to have significant efficacy, when compared with placebo (p < 0.003 in controlled clinical trials. Most works using hydrofluoralkane included beclomethasone diproprionate. Approximate annual cost of a treatment with beclomethasone diproprionate/hydrofluoralkane was lower than with beclomethasone diproprionate/clorofluorcarbon. Some studies assessed salbutamol, fluticasone, flunisolide and the association fluticasone-salmeterol, with hydrofluoralkane as propellent in pressurized metered-dose inhalers. CONCLUSIONS: Efficacy and safety of hydrofluoralkane as propellent of bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids in adults was evidenced

  8. Conducted interference on smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyer, Cornelis H.A.; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The increasing conducted interference caused by modern electronic equipment is causing more problems for electronic, or static, energy meters. These meters are called smart meters when equipped with a communication link, and are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. It is known that

  9. Considerations for Designing In Vitro Bioequivalence (IVBE) Studies for Pressurized Metered Dose Inhalers (pMDIs) with Spacer or Valved Holding Chamber (S/VHC) Add-on Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, Dennis; Mitchell, Jolyon P

    2015-06-01

    The choice of analytical test methods and associated statistical considerations are considered for the laboratory testing of pressurized metered dose inhaler-spacer/valved holding chamber (pMDI-S/VHC) combinations for in vitro bioequivalence (IVBE). Four scenarios are presented for comparing TEST ("second entry" or "generic") versus REF ("innovator"): (1) innovator and second entry product pMDI alone without any S/VHC (baseline comparison); (2) innovator and second entry pMDI product with the same S/VHC; (3) innovator pMDI product with existing S/VHC and second entry product with a different S/VHC; and (4) introduction of a second, different S/VHC to be used with a given innovator pMDI product. The following aspects should be reviewed in the preparatory stage of designing experiments to establish IVBE: (a) the inclusion of delayed inhalation; (b) the utilization of age-appropriate flow rates; and (c) the use of anatomically appropriate face models for evaluation of devices with a facemask. Statistical considerations that fit in with such experimental methods include: selection of pMDI batches and S/VHC lots; choice of sample size and acceptance criteria; bracketing or worst case approaches; and balanced/paired designs. A stepwise approach for selection of impactor stage groupings is presented, and an approach to determine realistic acceptance criteria based on REF product characteristics is suggested. An example of an efficient statistical design of experiment is provided for each scenario, together with alternate approaches for calculation of confidence intervals for the mean TEST/REF relationship. It is important to appreciate that the optimal design depends on balancing numerous considerations and will thus likely differ from case to case; hence, the designs presented here should be seen as illustrations rather than the only option available. More effective approaches may be found that suit a particular case at hand. The information provided will assist in

  10. A pilot study to assess lung deposition of HFA-beclomethasone and CFC-beclomethasone from a pressurized metered dose inhaler with and without add-on spacers and using varying breathhold times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Chet L; Colice, Gene L

    2010-12-01

    The study objective of this pilot study was to determine the lung delivery of HFA-134a-beclomethasone dipropionate (HFA-BDP; QVAR™) and CFC-beclomethasone dipropionate (CFC-BDP; Becloforte™) with and without the add-on spacers, Aerochamber™, and Volumatic™. The smaller particles of HFA-BDP were presumed to produce greater lung deposition using spacers, with and without a delay [i.e., metered dose inhaler (MDI) actuation into the spacer and subsequent inhalation 0 and 2 sec later], compared with the larger particles of CFC-BDP. The study included a comparison of breathhold effects (i.e., 1 and 10-sec breatholds) on lung deposition. The study was an open-label design and utilized healthy subjects (n = 12 males). Each arm of the study contained three subjects; thus, outcomes were not powered to assess statistical significance. HFA-BDP and CFC-BDP were radiolabeled with technetium-99m and delivered to subjects. Results showed that the small particle HFA-BDP lung deposition averaged 52% and was not affected by the use of Aerochamber with or without a spacer delay. The oropharyngeal deposition of HFA-BDP was reduced from approximately 28% to 4% with the Aerochamber. Lung deposition with the large particle CFC-BDP was 3-7% and generally decreased with Aerochamber or Volumatic. A 2-sec time delay between actuation and breath plus the spacer reduced lung deposition slightly but reduced oropharygeal deposition substantially (84% down to 3-20%) using the Aerochamber or Volumatic with and without a spacer delay. HFA-BDP lung deposition was dependent on the breathhold. Lung deposition with HFA-BDP was reduced by 16% with a 1-sec versus 10-sec breathhold. The difference was measured in the increased exhaled fraction, confirming that smaller particles need time to deposit and are exhaled if there is a reduced breathhold. The large particle CFC-BDP lung deposition was not affected by breathhold. The use of Aerochamber or Volumatic spacers with HFA-BDP did not alter lung

  11. Design and construction of portable survey meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singseeta, W.; Thong-aram, D.; Pencharee, S.

    2017-09-01

    This work was aimed to design and construction of portable survey meter for radiation dose measuring. The designed system consists of 4 main parts consisting of low voltage power supply, radiation detection, radiation measurement and data display part on android phone. The test results show that the ripple voltage of low voltage power supply is less than 1%, the maximum integral counts are found to be 104 counts per second and the maximum distance of wireless commination between the server and the client is about 10 meter. It was found that the developed system had small size and light weight for portable instrument.

  12. Transformer and Meter Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoms, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Numerically-controlled 5-axis machine tool uses transformer and meter to determine and indicate whether tool is in home position, but lacks built-in test mode to check them. Tester makes possible test, and repair of components at machine rather then replace them when operation seems suspect.

  13. Viscosity of alkaline suspensions of ground black and white pepper samples: An indication or an identification of high dose radiation treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, G. A.; Leffke, A.; Mager, M.; Helle, N.; Bögl, K. W.

    1994-11-01

    Forty-nine pepper samples were taken from retail food stores of different cities in Germany. Most of the black and all white pepper samples showed high viscosity values after jellification in alkaline solution. After irradiation with a γ-ray dose of 6 kGy, viscosity was largely reduced in each case. Some black pepper samples showed a low viscosity level already before irradiation. However, thermoluminescence analysis did not reveal any sign for irradiation treatment prior to examination. Furthermore, the low viscosity level of these samples could not be correlated with a low starch content. It is concluded that the viscosity levels of irradiated white pepper samples clearly reveal high dose irradiation treatment. In case of black peppers it is judged that the method can be used to screen for irradiated samples since it is fast, easy and cheap. However, a positive result should be confirmed by another technique, e.g. thermoluminescence.

  14. Calibration of reference KAP-meters at SSDL and cross calibration of clinical KAP-meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Per O; Friberg, Eva G; Ovrebø, Kirsti M; Bjerke, Hans H

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) in Norway established a calibration service for reference air-kerma product meter (KAP-meter). The air-kerma area product, P(KA), is a dosimetric quantity that can be directly related to the patient dose and used for risk assessment associated with different x-ray examinations. The calibration of reference KAP-meters at the SSDL gives important information on parameters influencing the calibration factor for different types of KAP-meters. The use of reference KAP-meters calibrated at the SSDL is an easy and reliable way to calibrate or verify the P(KA) indicated by the x-ray equipment out in the clinics. Twelve KAP-meters were calibrated at the SSDL by use of the substitution method at five diagnostic radiation qualities (RQRs). The calibration factors varied from 0.94 to 1.18. The energy response of the individual KAP-meters varied by a total of 20% between the different RQRs and the typical chamber transmission factors ranged from 0.78 to 0.91. It is important to use a calibrated reference KAP-meter and a harmonised calibration method in the P(KA) calibration in hospitals. The obtained uncertainty in the P(KA) readings is comparable with other calibration methods if the information in the calibration certificate is correct used, corrections are made and proper positioning of the KAP-chamber is performed. This will ensure a reliable estimate of the patient dose and a proper optimisation of conventional x-ray examinations and interventional procedures.

  15. Quality assurance test of delivered dose uniformity of multiple-dose inhaler and dry powder inhaler drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsong, Yi; Dong, Xiaoyu; Shen, Meiyu; Lostritto, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    The delivered dose uniformity is one of the most critical requirements for dry powder inhaler (DPI) and metered dose inhaler products. In 1999, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a Draft Guidance entitled Nasal Spray and Inhalation Solution, Suspension, and Spray Drug Products-Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls Documentation and recommended a two-tier acceptance sampling plan that is a modification of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) sampling plan of dose content uniformity (USP34). This sampling acceptance plan is also applied to metered dose inhaler (MDI) and DPI drug products in general. The FDA Draft Guidance method is shown to have a near-zero probability of acceptance at the second tier. In 2000, under the request of The International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium, the FDA developed a two-tier sampling acceptance plan based on two one-sided tolerance intervals (TOSTIs) for a small sample. The procedure was presented in the 2005 Advisory Committee Meeting of Pharmaceutical Science and later published in the Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics (Tsong et al., 2008). This proposed procedure controls the probability of the product delivering below a pre-specified effective dose and the probability of the product delivering over a pre-specified safety dose. In this article, we further propose an extension of the TOSTI procedure to single-tier procedure with any number of canisters.

  16. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    Special issue in honour of Henk Lekkerkerker's 65th birthday Professor Henk N W Lekkerkerker is a world-leading authority in the field of experimental and theoretical soft condensed matter. On the occasion of his 65th birthday in the summer of 2011, this special issue celebrates his many contributions to science. Henk Lekkerkerker obtained his undergraduate degree in chemistry at the University of Utrecht (1968) and moved to Calgary where he received his PhD in 1971. He moved to Brussels as a NATO fellow at the Université Libre de Bruxelles and was appointed to an assistant professorship (1974), an associate professorship (1977) and a full professorship (1980) in physical chemistry at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. In 1985 he returned to The Netherlands to take up a professorship at the Van 't Hoff Laboratory, where he has been ever since. He has received a series of awards during his career, including the Onsager Medal (1999) of the University of Trondheim, the Bakhuys Roozeboom Gold Medal (2003) of the Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), the ECIS-Rhodia European Colloid and Interface Prize (2003), and the Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society (2008). He was elected a member of KNAW in 1996, was awarded an Academy Chair position in 2005, and has held several visiting lectureships. Henk's work focuses on phase transitions in soft condensed matter, and he has made seminal contributions to both the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. Here we highlight three major themes running through his work, and a few selected publications. So-called depletion interactions may lead to phase separation in colloid-polymer mixtures, and Henk realised that the partitioning of polymer needs to be taken into account to describe the phase behaviour correctly [1]. Colloidal suspensions can be used as model fluids, with the time- and length-scales involved leading to novel opportunities, notably the direct observation of capillary waves at a

  17. Smart metering design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weranga, K S K; Chandima, D P

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the present day trends and the requirements, this Brief focuses on smart metering of electricity for next generation energy efficiency and conservation. The contents include discussions on the smart metering concepts and existing technologies and systems as well as design and implementation of smart metering schemes together with detailed examples.

  18. Peak flow meter use - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100202.htm Peak flow meter use - Series—Peak flow meter use - part one To use the sharing ... slide 7 out of 7 Overview A peak flow meter helps you check how well your asthma ...

  19. Good standards for smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenkamp, R.A.; Huitema, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines what lessons can be learned from the rollout of smart meters in the Netherlands to improve the European smart meter standardization. This study is based on the case of the Dutch meter rollout which preparations started in 2005 but finally was delayed until 2011 by governmental

  20. Advanced metering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szydlowski, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to facilitate energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities. This is accomplished by a balanced program of technology development, facility assessment, and use of cost-sharing procurement mechanisms. Technology development focuses upon the tools and procedures used to identify and evaluate efficiency improvements. For facility assessment, FEMP provides metering equipment and trained analysts to federal agencies exhibiting a commitment to improve energy-use efficiency. To assist in implementing energy-efficiency measures, FEMP helps federal agencies with identifying efficiency opportunities and in implementing energy-efficiency and demand-side management programs at federal sites. As the lead laboratory for FEMP, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provides technical assistance to federal agencies to better understand and characterize energy systems. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked PNL to provide technical assistance to characterize and modernize energy systems at FORSCOM installations. As part of that technical assistance, PNL performed an in-depth examination of automatic meter-reading system technologies currently available. The operating characteristics and relative merits of all the major systems were reviewed in the context of applicability to federal installations. That review is documented in this report.

  1. Suspension as an Emergency Power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amanda L. Tyler

    2009-01-01

    ... Legislation B. Suspension During Reconstruction: Putting Down the Klan in South Carolina IV. UNDERSTANDING SUSPENSION AS AN EMERGENCY POWER A. Reading the Suspension Clause in Context B. Giving Meaning to the Suspension Power C. Mapping the Suspension Clause Within the Constitution V. SUSPENSION AND THE SEPARATION OF POWERS CONCLUSION [A] suspensio...

  2. Micro-gen metering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elland, J.; Dickson, J.; Cranfield, P.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to investigate the regulation of domestic electricity metering work and identify the most economic options for micro-generator installers to undertake work on electricity meters. A micro-generation unit is defined as an energy conversion system converting non-electrical energy into electrical energy and can include technologies such as photovoltaic systems, small-scale wind turbines, micro-hydroelectric systems, and combined heat and power systems. Details of six tasks are given and cover examination of the existing framework and legal documentation for metering work, the existing technical requirements for meter operators, meter operator personnel accreditation, appraisal of options for meter changes and for micro-generation installation, document change procedures, industry consultation, and a review of the costs implications of the options.

  3. 21 CFR 520.88c - Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension. 520.88c... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88c Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension. (a) Specifications. Each 0.8-milliliter dose contains amoxicillin trihydrate...

  4. Electrorheology of nanofiber suspensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yin, Jianbo; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2011-01-01

    .... In this review, we especially focus on the recent researches on electrorheology of various nanofiber-based suspensions, including inorganic, organic, and inorganic/organic composite nanofibers...

  5. Well profile meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhivotovskiy, Iz.Z.; Iskenderov, V.G.; Perelman, G.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    A well profile meter is proposed which contains in-series connected measurement levers, remote measuring system, signal summators of lever pairs arranged in one vertical plain, and recorders, one of which recorded the operational, and the other all the measurement information. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to exclude ambiguity in determining the intervals of possible groove formation and surplus information recorded by the recorder of all measurement information, it is equipped with threshold blocks for isolating signals corresponding to the minimum and maximum diameters, storage circuit, accumulator, control circuit, synchronization circuit and input keys of the recorder of the entire measurement information. In this case the inlet of the synchronization circuit is connected to the remote measurement system, and one of the outlets is connected to the parallel included inlets of the threshold blocks for isolating signals corresponding to the minimum and maximum diameters. The other outlet of the synchronization circuit is connected to the parallel included inlets of their storage circuit, accumulator and control circuit. The inlet keys of the recorder of all the measurement information are connected by their inlets to the inlets of the summator of the lever pairs and the outlet of the control circuit. The outlets are connected to the recorder of all measurement information, the outlet of the threshold block of signal isolation corresponding to the maximum diameter, through the storage circuit is connected to 1 of the inlets of the recorder of operational information. The outlet of the threshold block of signal isolation corresponding to the minimum diameter is connected through the accumulator to the other inlet of the recorder of operational information, while the outlets of the storage circuit and the accumulator are connected to the inlets of the control circuit.

  6. Smart Metering System for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios-Garcia, Emilio; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Smart meters are the cornerstone in the new conception of the electrical network or Smart Grid (SG), providing detailed information about users' energy consumption and allowing the suppliers to remotely collect data for billing. Nevertheless, their features are not only useful for the energy...... will expose an example of Smart Meters integration in a Microgrid scenario, which is the Intelligent Microgrid Lab of Aalborg University (AAU). To do this, first the installation available in the Microgrid Lab will be introduced. Then, three different test scenarios and their respective results...... will be presented, regarding the capabilities of this system and the advantages of integration the Smart Meters information in the Microgrid control....

  7. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    -economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, data-mining and the emerging cloud computing technologies make the collection, management, and analysis...... of the so-called big data possible. This can improve energy management, e.g., help utilities improve the management of energy and services, and help customers save money. As this regard, the paper focuses on building an innovative software solution to streamline smart meter data analytic, aiming at dealing...... with the complexity of data processing and data analytics. The system offers an information integration pipeline to ingest smart meter data; scalable data processing and analytic platform for pre-processing and mining big smart meter data sets; and a web-based portal for visualizing data analytics results. The system...

  8. Smart meters in smart manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Rubio, Irene; Florence Sandoval, Antonio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Elena; Andina de la Fuente, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The extent of change in business process and smart manufacturing usage should be taken into account in every energy efficiency project in industries. A significant part of smart metering success depends upon making the business processes more systematic. Smart manufacturing in the dramatically intensified and pervasive application of networked information-based technologies through the manufacturing and supply chain enterprise. There is no doubt that the deployment os smart meters involves ...

  9. Healthcare Energy Metering Guidance (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This brochure is intended to help facility and energy managers plan and prioritize investments in energy metering. It offers healthcare-specific examples of metering applications, benefits, and steps that other health systems can reproduce. It reflects collaborative input from the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories and the health system members of the DOE Hospital Energy Alliance's Benchmarking and Measurement Project Team.

  10. Chlorophyll meter reading and total nitrogen content applied as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed to assess the relationship between the reading of the chlorophyll meter and the total nitrogen (N) content in the leaf in different parts of the crambe plant, depending on the doses of nitrogen applied to the canopy. Randomized block design in a split plot experimental design was used. The plots ...

  11. Chlorophyll meter reading and total nitrogen content applied as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ana Mascarello

    The present study was aimed to assess the relationship between the reading of the chlorophyll meter and the total nitrogen (N) content in the leaf in different parts of the crambe plant, depending on the doses of nitrogen applied to the canopy. Randomized block design in a split-plot experimental design was used. The plots ...

  12. Dosis elevada en el dosímetro personal de una auxiliar de enfermería en Electrofisiología A high dose in the personal dosage meter of nursing assistant in Electrophysiology field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Barquero Sanz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En una sala de Electrofisiología del Servicio de Cardiología en donde se efectúan procedimientos guiados con rayos X de ablación con radiofrecuencia y de implantes de desfibrilador biventricular, se registraron dosis mensuales anormalmente elevadas en el dosímetro personal de solapa de una auxiliar de enfermería que trabaja en la misma, con valores de dosis equivalente personal, Hp(10, de 125 mSv y de dosis equivalente personal superficial, Hp(0.07 de 128.1 mSv. Ante la ansiedad producida en la trabajadora al conocer las lecturas de su dosímetro, y dado que no se dispone de precedentes investigados en la instalación, se ha realizado un estudio para dilucidar si la dosis registrada ha podido ser recibida por la trabajadora o si solo ha sido recibida por el dosímetro. Se hacen medidas con un monitor ambiental en condiciones simuladas de los procedimientos, para estimar las dosis reales que pueda recibir el personal de la sala. Se comparan estos valores con los del rendimiento del equipo de RX en haz directo medidos durante la revisión anual de control de calidad del mismo, concluyéndose que ha sido el dosímetro, y no la trabajadora, el que se ha expuesto a radiación directa, siendo la situación más probable la de que dicho dosímetro cayó sobre el tubo de RX, normalmente orientado hacia el techo, un tiempo del orden de 1 minuto. Paralelamente a estas estimaciones dosimétricas, el Servicio de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales realizó la vigilancia de la salud, concluyendo que la trabajadora no tenía ningún indicio de haber recibido dosis de la magnitud registrada por su dosímetro.In a room of electrophysiology from the cardiology service where procedures are made guided with X-Rays of ablation with radiofrequency and from implants ventricular defibrillation; there were registered monthly doses usually high in the same personal dosimeter flap of a nursing assistant who works there with values of equivalent personal doses, Hp (10

  13. Stability of propranolol in extemporaneously compounded suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensom, Mary H H; Kendrick, Jennifer; Rudolph, Susan; Decarie, Diane

    2013-03-01

    Propranolol is a drug of choice for many diseases occurring in neonates and infants, an age group for which oral suspensions are required almost exclusively. Many adult and elderly patients for whom propranolol is prescribed are also unable to swallow solid dosage forms. In Canada, propranolol is not commercially available in a liquid dosage form, and existing recipes for extemporaneously compounded suspensions of propranolol (1 mg/mL) are limited by concerns regarding diabetes mellitus in certain subpopulations, the need for a more concentrated suspension for patients taking larger doses, and the tediousness of compounding. To evaluate the stability of propranolol suspensions in a sugar-free, commercially available vehicle after storage at room temperature and under refrigeration for up to 120 days. Suspensions of propranolol (2 and 5 mg/mL) were prepared in the sugar-free vehicle (Ora-Blend SF), placed in 100-mL amber plastic prescription bottles, and stored at 25°C and 4°C. Samples were collected from each bottle once weekly for 120 days, stored frozen, and analyzed by a validated, stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography - ultraviolet detection method. A suspension was considered stable if it maintained at least 90% of its initial concentration of propranolol. Physical compatibility was evaluated in terms of colour, taste, precipitation, and pH. Propranolol suspensions 2 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL stored at 25°C maintained at least 94.7% of their initial concentration for 120 days, and suspensions stored at 4°C maintained at least 93.9% of their initial concentration for 120 days. There were no notable changes in pH, and all samples remained physically unchanged except for a slight change in colour, around day 70, of suspensions stored at room temperature. Propranolol suspensions (2 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL) prepared in Ora-Blend SF and stored in plastic prescription bottles at either 25°C or 4°C are expected to remain stable for 120 days.

  14. Inhalation delivery of proteins from ethanol suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W S; Murthy, G G; Edwards, D A; Langer, R; Klibanov, A M

    2001-09-25

    To circumvent inherent problems associated with pulmonary administration of aqueous-solution and dry-powder protein drugs, inhalation delivery of proteins from their suspensions in absolute ethanol was explored both in vitro and in vivo. Protein suspensions in ethanol of up to 9% (wt/vol) were readily aerosolized with a commercial compressor nebulizer. Experiments with enzymic proteins revealed that nebulization caused no detectable loss of catalytic activity; furthermore, enzyme suspensions in anhydrous ethanol retained their full catalytic activity for at least 3 weeks at room temperature. With the use of Zn(2+)-insulin, conditions were elaborated that produced submicron protein particles in ethanol suspensions. The latter (insulin/EtOH) afforded respirable-size aerosol particles after nebulization. A 40-min exposure of laboratory rats to 10 mg/ml insulin/EtOH aerosols resulted in a 2-fold drop in the blood glucose level and a marked rise in the serum insulin level. The bioavailability based on estimated deposited lung dose of insulin delivered by inhalation of ethanol suspension aerosols was 33% (relative to an equivalent s.c. injection), i.e., comparable to those observed in rats after inhalation administration of dry powder and aqueous solutions of insulin. Inhalation of ethanol in a relevant amount/time frame resulted in no detectable acute toxic effects on rat lungs or airways, as reflected by the absence of statistically significant inflammatory or allergic responses, damage to the alveolar/capillary barrier, and lysed and/or damaged cells.

  15. Suspension Trauma / Orthostatic Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emphasis Programs Directives Severe Violators TOPICS By Sector Construction Health Care Agriculture Maritime Oil and Gas Federal ... such fatalities often are referred to as "harnessinduced pathology" or "suspension trauma." Signs & symptoms that may be ...

  16. Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor will have you try bladder retraining, Kegel exercises, medicines, or other options. If you tried ... retropubic colposuspension; Needle suspension; Burch colposuspension Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  17. Rheology of organoclay suspension

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hato, MJ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors have studied the rheological properties of clay suspensions in silicone oil, where clay surfaces were modified with three different types of surfactants. Dynamic oscillation measurements showed a plateau-like behavior for all...

  18. Articulated suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, Donald B. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention provides a rough terrain vehicle which maintains a substantially constant weight, and therefore traction, on all wheels, despite one wheel moving considerably higher or lower than the others, while avoiding a very soft spring suspension. The vehicle includes a chassis or body to be supported and a pair of side suspensions at either side of the body. In a six wheel vehicle, each side suspension includes a middle wheel, and front and rear linkages respectively coupling the front and rear wheels to the middle wheel. A body link pivotally connects the front and rear linkages together, with the middle of the body link rising or falling by only a fraction of the rise or fall of any of the three wheels. The body link pivotally supports the middle of the length of the body. A transverse suspension for suspending the end of the body on the side suspensions includes a middle part pivotally connected to the body about a longitudinal axis and opposite ends each pivotally connected to one of the side suspensions along at least a longitudinal axis.

  19. Solution or suspension - Does it matter for lipid based systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A T; Holm, R; Müllertz, A

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the potential of co-administering an aqueous suspension with a placebo lipid vehicle, i.e. chase dosing, was investigated in rats relative to the aqueous suspension alone or a solution of the drug in the lipid vehicle. The lipid investigated in the present study was Labrafil M2125CS...... or a lower solubility in the colloidal structures formed during digestion, but other mechanisms may also be involved. The study thereby supported the potential of chase dosing as a potential dosing regimen in situations where it is beneficial to have a drug in the solid state, e.g. due to chemical stability...

  20. An electronic pressure-meter nociception paw test for mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Cunha

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to describe and validate an electronic mechanical test for quantification of the intensity of inflammatory nociception in mice. The electronic pressure-meter test consists of inducing the animal hindpaw flexion reflex by poking the plantar region with a polypropylene pipette tip adapted to a hand-held force transducer. This method was compared to the classical von Frey filaments test in which pressure intensity is automatically recorded after the nociceptive hindpaw flexion reflex. The electronic pressure-meter and the von Frey filaments were used to detect time versus treatment interactions of carrageenin-induced hypernociception. In two separate experiments, the electronic pressure-meter was more sensitive than the von Frey filaments for the detection of the increase in nociception (hypernociception induced by small doses of carrageenin (30 µg. The electronic pressure-meter detected the antinociceptive effect of non-steroidal drugs in a dose-dependent manner. Indomethacin administered intraperitoneally (1.8-15 mg/kg or intraplantarly (30-300 µg/paw prevented the hypersensitive effect of carrageenin (100 µg/paw. The electronic pressure-meter also detected the hypernociceptive effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2; 10-100 ng in a dose-dependent manner. The hypernociceptive effect of PGE2 (100 ng was blocked by dipyrone (160 and 320 µg/paw but not by intraplantar administration of indomethacin (300 µg/paw. The present results validate the use of the electronic pressure-meter as more sensitive than the von Frey filaments in mice. Furthermore, it is an objective and quantitative nociceptive test for the evaluation of the peripheral antinociceptive effect of anti-inflammatory analgesic drugs, which inhibit prostaglandin synthesis (indomethacin or directly block the ongoing hypernociception (dipyrone.

  1. Automated monitoring of milk meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Andre, G.

    2009-01-01

    Automated monitoring might be an alternative for periodic checking of electronic milk meters. A computer model based on Dynamic Linear Modelling (DLM) has been developed for this purpose. Two situations are distinguished: more milking stands in the milking parlour and only one milking stand in the

  2. MULTICHANNEL DISTRIBUTION METER: A VERITABLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    replaced by their digital counterparts, which come with the capability of automatic disconnection. Yet, in every other ... neutral lines to detect pilferages in digital meters, while a light emitting diode (LED), a light dependent ..... Conditions in a Developing Economy”, Nigerian. Journal of Technology, Vol. 6 No. 1 September 1982.

  3. Smart metering. Conformance tests for electricity meters; Smart Metering. Konformitaetstests an Stromzaehlern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bormann, Matthias; Pongratz, Siegfried [VDE Pruef- und Zertifizierungsinstitut, Offenbach (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Introduction of communication technologies into today's energy network enables the interworking between the domains of smart metering, smart grid, smart home and e-mobility as well as the creation and provisioning of new innovative services such as efficient load adjustment. Due to this convergence the new energy networks are becoming increasingly complex. Ensuring the interworking between all network elements (e.g. electricity meters, gateways) in these smart energy networks is of utmost importance. To this end conformance and interoperability tests have to be defined to ensure that services work as expected. (orig.)

  4. Inalador dosimetrado com espaçador artesanal versus nebulizador no tratamento da crise de sibilância na criança Metered-dose inhaler with home-made spacer versus nebulizers to treat moderate wheezing attacks in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Consuelo Santana Vilarinho

    2003-10-01

    oximetria. A comparação dos parâmetros clínicos e de saturação de oxigênio, entre os grupos, não mostrou diferença significativa após as doses de salbutamol, havendo equivalência clínica entre doses diferentes (três vezes menor no grupo IDE, em relação ao grupo NEB; os tempos de preparo e administração da medicação e o custo do tratamento foram significativamente menores no grupo IDE. O grau de satisfação das famílias foi semelhante nos dois grupos. CONCLUSÃO: O inalador dosimetrado com espaçador artesanal pode ser utilizado na admini stração de salbutamol a crianças em crise de sibilância, com algumas vantagens em relação ao nebulizador.OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of salbutamol administration by metered-dose inhaler with a home-made spacer versus jet nebulizer in children with moderate wheezing attacks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A randomized, single-blinded trial was performed with a convenience sample of children presenting wheezing. The children were enrolled in an emergency room and randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: home-made spacer group or nebulizer group. Clinical scores and oxygen saturation were recorded at baseline and 15 minutes after salbutamol administration. Treatment with salbutamol (100 µg/3 kg in the spacer group, and 250 µg/3 kg in the nebulizer group was repeated at 20-minute intervals, until the child was considered to have improved significantly, with no need of any further dose, or until three doses were delivered. Treatment cost, time spent to prepare and deliver the drug, and level of parental satisfaction with the treatment were recorded. RESULTS: Fifty-four children with age between 22 days and 11.7 years were enrolled - 27 in each group. Baseline and demographic characteristics were similar for both groups. The spacer was as effective as the nebulizer in terms of clinical score and oxygen saturation. The different doses (100 µg/3 kg with the spacer, and 250 µg/3 kg with the nebulizer were

  5. Federal Building Metering Guidance (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(e), Metering of Energy Use)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    Guidance defines which federal buildings are appropriate to meter, provides metering prioritization recommendations for agencies with limited resources, and discusses the requirement for agencies to submit metering implementation plans to the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. 77 FR 40586 - Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... 7823 includes numerous stakeholders in the Smart Grid space, particularly customers, Smart Meter... National Institute of Standards and Technology Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter Upgradeability Test Framework; Request for Comments AGENCY: National...

  7. Smart Metering System for Microgrids

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios-Garcia, Emilio; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.; Moreno-Munoz, Antonio; Ipsen, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    Smart meters are the cornerstone in the new conception of the electrical network or Smart Grid (SG), providing detailed information about users' energy consumption and allowing the suppliers to remotely collect data for billing. Nevertheless, their features are not only useful for the energy suppliers, but they can also play a big role in the control of the Microgrid since the recorded power and energy profiles can be integrated in energy management systems (EMS). In addition, basic power qua...

  8. Viscosity of colloidal suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, E.G.D. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States); Schepper, I.M. de [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Simple expressions are given for the effective Newtonian viscosity as a function of concentration as well as for the effective visco-elastic response as a function of concentration and imposed frequency, of monodisperse neutral colloidal suspensions over the entire fluid range. The basic physical mechanisms underlying these formulae are discussed. The agreement with existing experiments is very good.

  9. Flywheel Magnetic Suspension Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzolo, Alan; Kenny, Andrew; Sifford, Curtiss; Thomas, Erwin; Bhuiyan, Mohammad; Provenza, Andrew; Kascak, Albert; Montague, Gerald; Lei, Shuliang; Kim, Yeonkyu; hide

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of many areas of the flywheel magnetic suspension (MS) R&D being performed at the Texas A&M Vibration Control and Electromechanics Lab (TAMU-VCEL). This includes system response prediction, actuator optimization and redundancy, controller realizations and stages, sensor enhancements and backup bearing reliability.

  10. Cryonic Suspension and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George P.; Hall, Clare

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes three central problems which adversely affect use, development, and perfection of cryonic suspension of individuals: the extent to which a physician may be guilty of malpractice in assisting with a suspension; the need for a recognition of suspension; and the present effect of the law's anachronistic treatment of estate devolution upon a…

  11. Capacitive level meter for liquid hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Koichi; Sobue, Masamitsu; Asamoto, Kai; Nishimura, Yuta; Abe, Satoshi; Numazawa, Takenori

    2011-01-01

    A capacitive level meter working at low temperatures was made to use in magnetic refrigerator for hydrogen liquefaction. The liquid level was measured from the capacitance between parallel electrodes immersed in the liquid. The meter was tested for liquid nitrogen, hydrogen, and helium. The operation was successful using an AC capacitance bridge. The estimated sensitivity of the meter is better than 0.2 mm for liquid hydrogen. The meter also worked with pressurized hydrogen. © 2010.

  12. Heteropolar Magnetic Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misovec, Kathleen; Johnson, Bruce; Downer, James; Eisenhaure, David; Hockney, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Compact permanent-magnet/electromagnet actuator has six degrees of freedom. Heteropolar magnetic actuator conceived for use as actively controlled vibration-isolating suspension device. Exerts forces along, and torques about, all three principal coordinate axes to resist all three components of translational vibration and all three components of rotational vibration. Inner cylinder suspended magnetically within outer cylinder. Electro-magnet coils interact with fields of permanent magnets to provide active control of suspending force and torque.

  13. Multitasking metering enhances generation, transmission operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, E.

    2008-11-15

    The Dairyland Power Cooperative (DPC) which operates from La Crosse, Wisconsin has the capacity to generate and transmit 1000 MW of power to 25 member cooperatives and 20 municipalities who serve over 500,000 customers. When DPC was experiencing diminished service within its analog cellular-based data communications system, it was presented with an opportunity to install a new automated telecommunications system that would provide secure collection of meter readings from all of its substations. DPC decided to evaluate an advanced multifunctional digital meter from Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The SEL-734 Revenue Metering System offers complete instantaneous metering functions, including voltages, currents, power, energy and power factor. Other capabilities include predictive demand, time-of-use metering, automatic voltage monitoring, harmonics metering and synchrophasor measurement. From a metering perspective, DPC wanted to perform daily load profiles and interval-by-interval metering of their delivery points for billing purposes. They also wanted to provide real-time monitoring of electricity being delivered for both generation and transmission purposes and to make that information available to a distribution SCADA system for their members. The SEL-734 Revenue Meter was well suited to those needs. The SEL-734 provides very high-accuracy energy metering, load profile data collection, instantaneous power measurements, power quality monitoring, and communicates simultaneously over a modem, serial ports, and wide area networks (WAN). The meter is backed with a ten-year warranty as well as field support engineers. 5 figs.

  14. Discussion series on PURPA related topics: metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, J I

    1980-08-01

    Time-differentiated metering of electricity consumption and demand is required in both rate-structure experimentation and the implementation of most time-of-use rate designs. Time-differentiated metering takes three major forms: multi-register watthour meters, magnetic-tape recording meters, and remote automatic meter-reading systems. The majority of projects selected magnetic-tape meters for their flexibility with respect to rate structure, load-survey capabilities, and ready availability. The small-scale, experimental nature of the projects reduced the significance of the large difference in per-unit cost and operational/maintenance complexity between this form of metering and the multi-register form. Magnetic-tape meters are not likely candidates for system-wide implementation of time-differentiated metering. Automatic remote-meter-reading systems were not adequately available during the project years; those projects attempting to use these were unable to bring them to full operational status before project termination, due to the many problems of design, quality control, and equipment acquisition encountered. Delays in acquisition and problems of quality control also followed the selection of magnetic-tape meters and multi-register meters by a number of the projects. Though less complex than automatic remote-reading systems, these technologies are still new and more complex than standard watthour metering. Thus, both equipment vendors and utilities encountered numerous problems in getting properly functioning meters to the service entrances on time. A variety of factors contributed to installation delays, including unforeseen space limitations, incompatible wiring, problems of task organization, and customer reluctance.

  15. 31 CFR 10.82 - Expedited suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited suspension. 10.82 Section... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.82 Expedited suspension. (a... suspension. A suspension under this section will commence on the date that written notice of the suspension...

  16. An accurate and portable solid state neutron rem meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakes, T.M. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Bellinger, S.L. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States); Miller, W.H. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Missouri University Research Reactor, Columbia, MO (United States); Myers, E.R. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States); Fronk, R.G.; Cooper, B.W [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States); Sobering, T.J. [Electronics Design Laboratory, Kansas State University, KS (United States); Scott, P.R. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States); Ugorowski, P.; McGregor, D.S; Shultis, J.K. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States); Caruso, A.N., E-mail: carusoan@umkc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2013-08-11

    Accurately resolving the ambient neutron dose equivalent spanning the thermal to 15 MeV energy range with a single configuration and lightweight instrument is desirable. This paper presents the design of a portable, high intrinsic efficiency, and accurate neutron rem meter whose energy-dependent response is electronically adjusted to a chosen neutron dose equivalent standard. The instrument may be classified as a moderating type neutron spectrometer, based on an adaptation to the classical Bonner sphere and position sensitive long counter, which, simultaneously counts thermalized neutrons by high thermal efficiency solid state neutron detectors. The use of multiple detectors and moderator arranged along an axis of symmetry (e.g., long axis of a cylinder) with known neutron-slowing properties allows for the construction of a linear combination of responses that approximate the ambient neutron dose equivalent. Variations on the detector configuration are investigated via Monte Carlo N-Particle simulations to minimize the total instrument mass while maintaining acceptable response accuracy—a dose error less than 15% for bare {sup 252}Cf, bare AmBe, an epi-thermal and mixed monoenergetic sources is found at less than 4.5 kg moderator mass in all studied cases. A comparison of the energy dependent dose equivalent response and resultant energy dependent dose equivalent error of the present dosimeter to commercially-available portable rem meters and the prior art are presented. Finally, the present design is assessed by comparison of the simulated output resulting from applications of several known neutron sources and dose rates.

  17. Worldwide safety experience with ceftibuten pediatric suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenberg, B E

    1995-07-01

    Ceftibuten suspension was administered to 1312 pediatric patients in clinical trials at a dosage of 9 mg/kg once daily, with a maximal daily dose of 400 mg. Adverse experiences were collected by voluntary reports by physicians from direct observations, parental and/or patient complaints in 1152 patients. In 160 patients gastrointestinal adverse experiences were elicited at each visit in addition to voluntary reports. Patients had a mean age of 4.9 years, the male: female ratio was 1:1 and 72% were white. Fifty-five percent (719 of 1312) of patients were treated in otitis media studies, 33% (438 of 1312) were treated in a pharyngitis study and 12% (155 of 1312) were treated in other studies. Adverse experiences occurred in 10% (138 of 1312) of all patients receiving ceftibuten suspension. The most common voluntarily reported treatment-related adverse events were diarrhea 3% (34 of 1152) and vomiting 2% (22 of 1152). For elicited adverse events related to treatment, the most common were also diarrhea 9% (14 of 160) and vomiting 3% (5 of 160). There were no deaths and only 0.9% (12 of 1312) patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. Abnormal laboratory values related to therapy were uncommon and no patient discontinued treatment because of abnormal laboratory values. No cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, serum sickness-like reactions or pseudomembranous colitis have been observed with ceftibuten suspension in research studies to date.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. 48 CFR 209.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 209.407... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 209.407 Suspension. ...

  19. Comparison of the effects of immediate-release omeprazole oral suspension, delayed-release lansoprazole capsules and delayed-release esomeprazole capsules on nocturnal gastric acidity after bedtime dosing in patients with night-time GERD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P O; Koch, F K; Ballard, E D; Bagin, R G; Gautille, T C; Checani, G C; Hogan, D L; Pratha, V S V

    2007-01-15

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients on proton pump inhibitors before breakfast or dinner have acid recovery at night. Bedtime immediate-release omeprazole (IR-OME) demonstrated better control of nocturnal pH than pantoprazole before dinner. To compare repeated once daily bedtime dosing of IR-OME, lansoprazole and esomeprazole on nocturnal gastric acidity. Open-label, randomized, crossover study enrolling 54 patients with nocturnal GERD symptoms comparing IR-OME, lansoprazole and esomeprazole at steady state for nocturnal acid breakthrough (NAB), percentage of time with gastric pH > 4 and median gastric pH. Onset of nocturnal acid control with IR-OME was rapid. During the first half of the night, percentage of time with gastric pH > 4 and median gastric pH were significantly higher after IR-OME compared to esomeprazole or lansoprazole (P < 0.001, both comparisons). Over the 8-h night-time period, acid control with IR-OME was significantly better than lansoprazole (P < 0.001), and comparable to esomeprazole. IR-OME reduced NAB compared with esomeprazole and lansoprazole (61% vs. 92% and 92%; P < 0.001, both comparisons). Bedtime IR-OME provided more rapid control of night-time gastric pH and decreased NAB compared with esomeprazole and lansoprazole. Nocturnal acid control with IR-OME was superior to lansoprazole and comparable to esomeprazole. Bedtime dosing with IR-OME may be effective for patients with night-time heartburn.

  20. Simplified Processing Method for Meter Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colotelo, Alison H. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Downs, Janelle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ham, Kenneth D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Montgomery, Sadie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vernon, Christopher R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Steven A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Simple/Quick metered data processing method that can be used for Army Metered Data Management System (MDMS) and Logistics Innovation Agency data, but may also be useful for other large data sets. Intended for large data sets when analyst has little information about the buildings.

  1. FLOW METERS WITH VERY GOOD PERFORMANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Dimitrie CAZACU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the theoretical calculus of a patented flow meter, concerning such the thermodynamic and aerodynamic calculus, as well as the offered precision to measure the flow of the air in any meteorological conditions. In the same time we remark that the proposed flow meter, by its positioning, has not loss of head.

  2. A prepaid meter using mobile communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    prepaid card remotely through mobile communication based on customer requests. A prior billing is bound to do away with the problems of unpaid bills and human error in meter readings, thereby ensuring justified revenue for the utility. The proposed prepaid meter is implemented in a software model and Matlab has been ...

  3. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... to utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...... of the bandwidth requirements are analysed. For this analysis the assumptions and limitations are defined. The results obtained by the analysis show, that the amount of data collected and transferred by a smart meter is very low compared to the available bandwidth of most internet connections. The results show...

  4. Simple meters get smart? Cost benefit analysis of smart metering infrastructure; Domme meters worden slim? Kosten-batenanalyse slimme meetinfrastructuur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gerwen, R.J.F.; Jaarsma, S.A.; Koenis, F.T.C. [KEMA T and D Consulting, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2005-08-15

    The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs requested a cost-benefit analysis of the large scale introduction of a smart meter infrastructure for gas and electricity consumption by small consumers. The questions asked in the study need to be answered in order to enable a well-founded evaluation of the implementation of smart meters. [mk]. [Dutch] Het Ministerie van Economische Zaken heeft een kosten-batenanalyse laten uitvoeren naar de grootschalige introductie van een slimme meetinfrastructuur voor gas- en elektriciteitsverbruik door kleinverbruikers. De in het onderzoek gestelde vragen moeten beantwoord worden om een goed gefundeerd oordeel te kunnen geven over de invoering van slimme meters.

  5. Comparison of cortisol exposures and pharmacodynamic adrenal steroid responses to hydrocortisone suspension vs. commercial tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Gonzalez-Bolanos, Maria T; Zimmerman, Cheryl L; Boonstra, Timothy; Yaw Addo, O; Brundage, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines on congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) recommend against using hydrocortisone suspension based on a study that examined a commercial suspension. Our objective was to examine the absorption of an extemporaneously prepared hydrocortisone suspension and compare it to tablets. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione adrenal steroid responses. Using a parallel design, 34 children diagnosed with CAH received either suspension (n = 9; median age 1.8 years) or tablets (n = 25; median age 7.5 years). Patients were given their usual morning hydrocortisone formulation and dose; 12 serial blood samples were obtained and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. The mg/m(2) dose-normalized cortisol AUCs were no different in the suspension and tablet groups (P = ·06), nor was there a significant difference in the C(max) or T(max) (P = .08 and P = .41, respectively). Although there were no differences in the 17-hydroxyprogesterone change-from-baseline AUCs, baseline concentrations, or the nadir concentrations when comparing suspension and tablet formulations, the androstenedione values were significantly lower as expected in the younger aged suspension group. Our results offer compelling evidence that an extemporaneously prepared hydrocortisone suspension provides comparable cortisol exposures to commercially available tablet formulations in children and can be used to safely and effectively treat CAH. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  6. Analysis Of Vehicle Lateral Stability Estimating Suspension Characteristics On The Snowy And Dry Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidas Žuraulis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the lateral dynamics of the vehicle withindependent suspension. The tests have been made driving inan incremental acceleration mode under conditions of a circulartrajectory within 10, 15 and 20-meter radius. The literature reviewprovides a summary of recent research re-lated to the topics discussedin this article. The article looks at the interaction of thesnowy and dry road with wheels and its influence on the lateraloscillation of a vehicle. The displacement of different sides ofvehicle suspension and its variation in acting lateral accelerationhave also been estimated. Data on the performed tests of theconducted research have been graphically plotted thus presentingthe summarized results and conclusions.

  7. 49 CFR 238.427 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 238.427 Section 238.427... Equipment § 238.427 Suspension system. (a) General requirements. (1) Suspension systems shall be designed to... equipment. (2) Passenger equipment shall meet the safety performance standards for suspension systems...

  8. 78 FR 57525 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  9. 48 CFR 2909.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 2909.407... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2909.407 Suspension. (a) The Senior... authorized to make an exception, regarding suspension by another agency suspending official under the...

  10. 14 CFR 1267.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 1267.670 Section 1267.670... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that...

  11. 22 CFR 1008.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1008.670 Section 1008.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive...

  12. 2 CFR 182.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 182.670 Section 182.670 Grants... Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient from... guidance on nonprocurement debarment and suspension (2 CFR part 180, which implements Executive Orders...

  13. 40 CFR 36.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 36.670 Section 36.670... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 36.670 Suspension. Suspension means... contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension...

  14. 78 FR 5734 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  15. 77 FR 53775 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  16. 29 CFR 94.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension. 94.670 Section 94.670 Labor Office of the... § 94.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a... Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive Order 12689...

  17. 45 CFR 1173.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1173.670 Section 1173.670 Public... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1173.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that...

  18. 45 CFR 1641.11 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1641.11 Section 1641.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION DEBARMENT, SUSPENSION AND REMOVAL OF RECIPIENT AUDITORS Suspension § 1641.11 Suspension. (a) IPAs suspended from providing audit...

  19. 77 FR 2646 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  20. 31 CFR 19.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 19.1015 Section 19.1015 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending...

  1. 41 CFR 105-68.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 105-68.1015 Section 105-68.1015 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an...

  2. 15 CFR 29.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 29.670 Section 29.670... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that...

  3. 13 CFR 147.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 147.670 Section 147...-FREE WORKPLACE (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 147.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that...

  4. 78 FR 2622 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  5. 10 CFR 607.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 607.670 Section 607.670 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive...

  6. 76 FR 9666 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  7. 29 CFR 1471.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1471.1015 Section 1471.1015 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending...

  8. 22 CFR 133.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 133.670 Section 133.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive...

  9. 43 CFR 43.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 43.670 Section 43.670 Public... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 43.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and 2 CFR part 180. Suspension of a recipient is a distinct and separate action from...

  10. 22 CFR 312.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 312.670 Section 312.670 Foreign... § 312.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a... Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive Order 12689...

  11. 34 CFR 84.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 84.670 Section 84.670 Education Office of... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive...

  12. 77 FR 7537 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  13. 19 CFR 146.82 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 146.82 Section 146.82 Customs Duties U... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Penalties; Suspension; Revocation § 146.82 Suspension. (a) For cause. The... for a period not to exceed 90 days. Upon order of the Board the suspension may be continued. If...

  14. 77 FR 24858 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  15. 75 FR 5890 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  16. 76 FR 39782 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  17. 22 CFR 1509.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1509.670 Section 1509.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive...

  18. 22 CFR 210.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 210.670 Section 210.670 Foreign... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that...

  19. 45 CFR 1206.1-4 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1206.1-4 Section 1206.1-4 Public... GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance § 1206.1-4 Suspension. (a) General. The responsible Corporation official may suspend...

  20. 31 CFR 20.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 20.670 Section 20.670...-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that...

  1. 78 FR 68999 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  2. 29 CFR 1472.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1472.670 Section 1472.670 Labor Regulations... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1472.670 Suspension. Suspension means an... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement...

  3. 24 CFR 21.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 21.670 Section 21.670... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.670 Suspension. Suspension means an... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement...

  4. 77 FR 9856 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  5. 49 CFR 32.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 32.670 Section 32.670 Transportation... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive...

  6. 21 CFR 1405.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 1405.670 Section 1405.670 Food and... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that...

  7. 50 CFR 13.27 - Permit suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit suspension. 13.27 Section 13.27... GENERAL PERMIT PROCEDURES Permit Administration § 13.27 Permit suspension. (a) Criteria for suspension... Government. Such suspension shall remain in effect until the issuing officer determines that the permittee...

  8. 45 CFR 1155.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1155.670 Section 1155.670 Public... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive...

  9. 78 FR 57523 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  10. 5 CFR 919.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 919.1015 Section 919.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an...

  11. 78 FR 2624 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  12. 76 FR 2596 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  13. 75 FR 52861 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  14. 28 CFR 83.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 83.670 Section 83.670... WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that...

  15. 39 CFR 957.27 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 957.27 Section 957.27 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.27 Suspension. (a) Any firm or individual suspended under chapter 3, section 7 of the Postal Service Purchasing Manual who believes that the suspension has not been in...

  16. 7 CFR 3021.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 3021.670 Section 3021.670 Agriculture... Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient from... Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive Order 12689...

  17. 76 FR 5284 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  18. 78 FR 69001 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  19. 45 CFR 630.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 630.670 Section 630.670 Public Welfare... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement...

  20. 20 CFR 439.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 439.670 Section 439.670 Employees... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 439.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive...

  1. 75 FR 9111 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  2. 77 FR 63753 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  3. 77 FR 2650 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  4. 78 FR 5736 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and a...

  5. Optimization of nonlinear quarter car suspension-seat-driver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkar, Mahesh P; Vikhe Patil, Gahininath J; Zaware Patil, Rahul N

    2016-11-01

    In this paper a nonlinear quarter car suspension-seat-driver model was implemented for optimum design. A nonlinear quarter car model comprising of quadratic tyre stiffness and cubic stiffness in suspension spring, frame, and seat cushion with 4 degrees of freedom (DoF) driver model was presented for optimization and analysis. Suspension system was aimed to optimize the comfort and health criterion comprising of Vibration Dose Value (VDV) at head, frequency weighted RMS head acceleration, crest factor, amplitude ratio of head RMS acceleration to seat RMS acceleration and amplitude ratio of upper torso RMS acceleration to seat RMS acceleration along with stability criterion comprising of suspension space deflection and dynamic tyre force. ISO 2631-1 standard was adopted to assess ride and health criterions. Suspension spring stiffness and damping and seat cushion stiffness and damping are the design variables. Non-dominated Sort Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) and Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization - Crowding Distance (MOPSO-CD) algorithm are implemented for optimization. Simulation result shows that optimum design improves ride comfort and health criterion over classical design variables.

  6. Soft-sensing, non-intrusive multiphase flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wrobel, K.; Schiferli, W.

    2009-01-01

    For single phase flow meters more and better non-intrusive or even clamp-on meters become available. This allows for a wider use of meters and for easier flow control. As the demand for multiphase meters is increasing, the current aim is to develop a non-intrusive multiphase flow meter. The

  7. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This spectacle in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three performances for...

  8. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three perfo...

  9. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local pop...

  10. Assessment of a new p-Mosfet usable as a dose rate insensitive gamma dose sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vettese, F.; Donichak, C.; Bourgeault, P. [DGA/Centre d`etudes du Bouchet/DPN, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1995-12-31

    Dosimetric response of unbiased MOS devices has been assessed at dose rates greater than 2000 cGy/h. Application have been made to a personal dosemeter / dose rate meter to measure the absorbed tissue dose received in the case of acute external irradiation. (D.L.). 10 refs.

  11. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1. Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model...

  12. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  13. Informatics Solutions for Smart Metering Systems Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica OPREA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper different aspects regarding smart metering systems integration have been depicted. Smart metering systems, renewable energy sources integration and advanced tariff systems implementation require informatics solution that could automatically collect and process data, forecast the behavior of electricity consumers, analyze trends regarding electricity prices, optimize the consumption of consumers, provide friendly interfaces, etc. They are advanced technologies that represent solutions for insufficient conventional primary energy sources, gas emissions, dependency on energy sources located outside European Union and issues related to energy efficiency. This paper mainly describes several informatics solutions correlated with operational requirements for smart metering system and our proposal for simplified architecture of smart metering systems, with three distinct levels (base level, middle level and top level and load profile calculation methods.

  14. SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter (CIB-10) is a collection of orthorectified panchromatic (grayscale) images. The data were acquired between 1986 and 1993 by the...

  15. New consumer services provided by smart metering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daminov Ildar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the issues of smart metering market and considers different services provided by smart metering from consumer point of view. Firstly, smart metering deployment challenges emerging and conventional tariffs, which modify a consumer behavior and thus, the entire electric energy market can be optimized since the customer is motivated to consume less energy. Secondly, the authors illustrate changes in electricity quality, which have an impact on consumer relations with utility. Additionally, two main indices of grid resilience – SAIDI and SAIFI – are exemplified to reveal the improvement potential of smart metering implementation in certain regions of Russia that also influence the consumer. Finally, in-home display and privacy problem directly reflect the consumer’s behavior, thus the private life rights should not be violated as they are guaranteed by law.

  16. VT USGS NED DEM (10 meter) - statewide

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This dataset is derived from the multi-resolution National Elevation Dataset (NED), at resolutions of both 1/3 arc-second (approx. 10 meters) and...

  17. EMMNet: Sensor Networking for Electricity Meter Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ting Lin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  18. EMMNet: Sensor Networking for Electricity Meter Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters. PMID:22163551

  19. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Nency Takara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05, Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® meters were 428 (263-688 L/min, 450 (350-800 L/min, 420 (310-720 L/min, 380 (300-735 L/min, 400 (310-685 L/min and 415 (335-610 L/min, respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone® (p<0.001 and Galemed ® (p<0.01 meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed® meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone® meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  20. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Glaucia Nency; Ruas, Gualberto; Pessoa, Bruna Varanda; Jamami, Luciana Kawakami; Di Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires; Jamami, Mauricio

    2010-05-01

    To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF) from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05), Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph meters were 428 (263-688 L/min), 450 (350-800 L/min), 420 (310-720 L/min), 380 (300-735 L/min), 400 (310-685 L/min) and 415 (335-610 L/min), respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone(R) (p<0.001) and Galemed (p<0.01) meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  1. Capacitive level meter for liquid rare gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, R.; Kikuchi, J.; Shibamura, E.; Yamashita, M.; Yoshimura, T.

    2003-08-01

    An international project to search μ→eγ decay includes the use of a liquid xenon gamma ray detector. So, a liquid level meter working at a low temperature with low outgassing is needed and the prototype is constructed. The meter shows the liquid level by measuring the capacitance between electrodes with small intervals immersed in the liquid. The operation was successful with the estimated precision of 1 mm in RMS or better.

  2. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Stewart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been driven by the desire for increased data regarding time of use and end-use (such as use by shower, toilet, garden, etc. as well as by the ability of the technology to reduce labour costs for meter reading. Technology development in the water sector generally lags that seen in the electricity sector. In the coming decade, the deployment of intelligent water metering will transition from being predominantly “pilot or demonstration scale” with the occasional city-wide roll-out, to broader mainstream implementation. This means that issues which have hitherto received little focus must now be addressed, namely: the role of real-time data in customer engagement and demand management; data ownership, sharing and privacy; technical data management and infrastructure security, utility workforce skills; and costs and benefits of implementation.

  3. REVIEW ARTICLE REVIE REVIEW A dose audit of fluoroscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-06

    Aug 6, 2009 ... The large variability in the radia- tion dose delivered shows that fluoroscopic examinations stand to gain from dose optimisation. The usefulness and potential use of DAP meters for dose optimisation in radiology are shown. In line with efforts to opti- mise the dose from diagnostic radiography examinations, ...

  4. A Light-Weight Metering File System for Sustainable Real-Time Meter Data Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangman Yi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A real-time smart metering system has strict requirements, since every piece of data gathered from various meters every hour is of importance, and each component consisting of metering infrastructure should be sustainable. Therefore, it is necessary to efficiently manage the meter data set in smart metering networks as well as in a server. Therefore, we propose a dedicated file system, a LIght-weight Metering File System (LIMFS, which is capable of not only efficiently storing and searching meter data but also performing distributed fault-tolerant meter data management for real-time smart meter devices. The proposed LIMFS exploits accumulated data sliding storage (ADSS for lost data recovery and latest-first error-ignorant data management (LEDM to reduce memory wastage, coping with dynamic report interval. Experimental results demonstrate that LIMFS has as a small enough overhead to be considered negligible, and provides flexible memory capacity according to dynamic report interval, in spite of lost data recovery functionality.

  5. Suspension biomechanics of swimming microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Takuji

    2009-10-06

    Micro-organisms play a vital role in many biological, medical and engineering phenomena. Some recent research efforts have demonstrated the importance of biomechanics in understanding certain aspects of micro-organism behaviours such as locomotion and collective motions of cells. In particular, spatio-temporal coherent structures found in a bacterial suspension have been the focus of many research studies over the last few years. Recent studies have shown that macroscopic properties of a suspension, such as rheology and diffusion, are strongly affected by meso-scale flow structures generated by swimming microbes. Since the meso-scale flow structures are strongly affected by the interactions between microbes, a bottom-up strategy, i.e. from a cellular level to a continuum suspension level, represents the natural approach to the study of a suspension of swimming microbes. In this paper, we first provide a summary of existing biomechanical research on interactions between a pair of swimming micro-organisms, as a two-body interaction is the simplest many-body interaction. We show that interactions between two nearby swimming micro-organisms are described well by existing mathematical models. Then, collective motions formed by a group of swimming micro-organisms are discussed. We show that some collective motions of micro-organisms, such as coherent structures of bacterial suspensions, are satisfactorily explained by fluid dynamics. Lastly, we discuss how macroscopic suspension properties are changed by the microscopic characteristics of the cell suspension. The fundamental knowledge we present will be useful in obtaining a better understanding of the behaviour of micro-organisms.

  6. Smart Card Payment metering gas and electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.L. [Landis and Gyr (United Kingdom) Ltd., Telford, (United Kingdom); Kriby, R. [Midlands Electricity plc, Kingswinford, (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Utilities, both gas and electricity, require and operate a variety of regular payment facilities. The range used by any particular utility is primarily a result of history and usually reflects the maturity of customer car and/or regulatory policies. This paper outlines the use of smart card metering, not to be confused with pre-payment metering, which establishes an enhanced level of service to both the customer and utility through the implementation of a simple 2 way communication system. The infrastructure of the smart card system is similar to that used for a token based system, with the smart card used to replace the token for credit transfer to the meter. It involves the use of a customer card which is credited from a Point of Sale (POS), along with the latest tariff details and any messages specific for that customer. These in turn are transferred to the meter when the card is inserted. The current meter readings, readings taken at a particular time and date, and meter status messages are written back to the card for transfer to the POS when credit is next purchased. In the future this infrastructure will be needed irrespective of advances in metering technology, and the Smart card is a secure and convenient way of ensuring correct customer identification and integrity of data. Possibilities are envisaged to extend the use of the system into other payment areas as well as being able to support innovative payment methods in the future. The response from customers, regulatory and welfare bodies, and the staff of the utility is extremely positive and the future of payment systems is considered to be secure in smart card technology. (author).

  7. The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2001-11-20

    The KFM is a homemade fallout meter that can be made using only materials, tools, and skills found in millions of American homes. It is an accurate and dependable electroscope-capacitor. The KFM, in conjunction with its attached table and a watch, is designed for use as a rate meter. Its attached table relates observed differences in the separations of its two leaves (before and after exposures at the listed time intervals) to the dose rates during exposures of these time intervals. In this manner dose rates from 30 mR/hr up to 43 R/hr can be determined with an accuracy of {+-}25%. A KFM can be charged with any one of the three expedient electrostatic charging devices described. Due to the use of anhydrite (made by heating gypsum from wallboard) inside a KFM and the expedient ''dry-bucket'' in which it can be charged when the air is very humid, this instrument always can be charged and used to obtain accurate measurements of gamma radiation no matter how high the relative humidity. The heart of this report is the step-by-step illustrated instructions for making and using a KFM. These instructions have been improved after each successive field test. The majority of the untrained test families, adequately motivated by cash bonuses offered for success and guided only by these written instructions, have succeeded in making and using a KFM. NOTE: ''The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter'', was published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory report in1979. Some of the materials originally suggested for suspending the leaves of the Kearny Fallout Meter (KFM) are no longer available. Because of changes in the manufacturing process, other materials (e.g., sewing thread, unwaxed dental floss) may not have the insulating capability to work properly. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has not tested any of the suggestions provided in the preface of the report, but they have been used by other groups. When using these

  8. Anti-Theft Automatic Metering Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Das

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electricity is now more than a necessity and its need is increasing day by day resulting in power theft and power scarcity. The purpose of this project is to provide automatic control and monitoring of the Domestic Energy Meter enabling the Electricity Department to read meter readings without anyone visiting each house and also prevent electricity theft .This can be achieved by the use of a Microcontroller Unit that continuously monitors and records the Energy Meter readings in its permanent memory location. This system also makes use of a GSM module for remote monitoring and control of Energy Meter with the help of an interfacing circuitry. The Microcontroller based system continuously records the readings and the live meter reading can be sent to the Electricity department after a count period or on request. This system also can be used to disconnect the power supply to the house in case of non-payment of electricity bills. The Substation will be the receiving end. The data received is fed to a microcontroller at the Substation which will automatically calculate the bill based on tariff provider and display it.

  9. Privacy friendly aggregation of smart meter readings, even when meters crash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.

    2017-01-01

    A well studied privacy problem in the area of smart grids is the question of how to aggregate the sum of a set of smart meter readings in a privacy friendly manner, i.e., in such a way that individual meter readings are not revealed to the adversary. Much less well studied is how to deal with

  10. An evaporation based digital microflow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, C.; Frijns, A. J. H.; Mandamparambil, R.; Zevenbergen, M. A. G.; den Toonder, J. M. J.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we present a digital microflow meter operating in the range 30-250 nl min-1 for water. The principle is based on determining the evaporation rate of the liquid via reading the number of wetted pore array structures in a microfluidic system, through which continuous evaporation takes place. A proof-of-principle device of the digital flow meter was designed, fabricated, and tested. The device was built on foil-based technology. In the proof-of-principle experiments, good agreement was found between set flow rates and the evaporation rates estimated from reading the number of wetted pore structures. The measurement range of the digital flow meter can be tuned and extended in a straightforward manner by changing the pore structure of the device.

  11. Coordinated Ramp Metering and Intersection Signal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Su

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The operations of freeway ramp metering and urban traffic network signal control are independent in most areas. Such situation may cause some conflict between traffic streams of the two subsystems, or, at least, their dynamic interactions have not been taken into account from an overall system viewpoint. Traffic performance can be improved if the controls of these two subnetworks are integrated. This paper proposes a novel signal control strategy for the feeding intersection and a coordination strategy for integrating it with the corresponding freeway onramp metering. UP ALINEA with queue-overwrite is used for the ramp metering. A signal optimization, which takes into account the available ramp space and traffic demand, is developed for intersection signal control. A calibrated micro-simulation is used to compare the proposed control/coordination strategies and current control plans in the field. Simulation result shows that, even though the overall system performance only gets a marginal improvement, intersection delay reduces significantly.

  12. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  13. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  14. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  15. A comparative study on the metering accuracy for given installation conditions of metering facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Her, Jae Young; Lee, Seung Jun; Ha, Young Cheol; Ahn, Seung Hee; Lee, Cheol Gu [R and D Center, Korea Gas Co., (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The object of this study is to improve metering facilities of Korea Gas Corporation(KOGAS) metering station which are being operated in unfavorable straight pipe length condition (metropolitan area). For experiment, a test facilities was modeled based on Dogsan metering station (one of KOGAS metering stations) which has the most unfavorable conditions in metropolitan area. The test facilities was set up in Jungdong metering station (one of KOGAS metering stations) supplying natural gas to a power plant and city gas companies. The tests were performed with flowconditioner which was installed in the former straight pipe of a turbine meter and an Orifice meter, and the tests keep going with changing both diameter ratio({beta} = d/D) and flowrate(Q{sub v}). In other words, the tests were performed according to flowrate change for fixed diameter ratio. After the test was completed, the diameter ratio was increased by 0.1 and the same procedures were conducted again. The test was conducted for diameter ratio from 0.3 to 0.7. For Orifice meter, the error showed 0.4 %(Test maximum flowrate=3,030 Nm{sup 3}/h) and 0.8 %(Test maximum flowrate=9,204 Nm{sup 3}/h) for {beta}=0.3 and 0.7, respectively. For Turbine meter, the error showed -0.5 %(Test maximum flowrate=3,030 Nm{sup 3}/h) and -0.1 %(Test maximum flowrate=9,204 Nm{sup 3}/h) for {beta}=0.3 and 0.7, respectively. 44 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and service...

  17. Robust Meter Network for Water Distribution Pipe Burst Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghwi Jung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A meter network is a set of meters installed throughout a water distribution system to measure system variables, such as the pipe flow rate and pressure. In the current hyper-connected world, meter networks are being exposed to meter failure conditions, such as malfunction of the meter’s physical system and communication system failure. Therefore, a meter network’s robustness should be secured for reliable provision of informative meter data. This paper introduces a multi-objective optimal meter placement model that maximizes the detection probability, minimizes false alarms, and maximizes the robustness of a meter network given a predefined number of meters. A meter network’s robustness is defined as its ability to consistently provide quality data in the event of meter failure. Based on a single-meter failure simulation, a robustness indicator for the meter network is introduced and maximized as the third objective of the proposed model. The proposed model was applied to the Austin network to determine the independent placement of pipe flow and pressure meters with three or five available meters. The results showed that the proposed model is a useful tool for determining meter locations to secure high detectability and robustness.

  18. Characterizing Fullerene Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have indicated that fullerenes can form stable colloidal suspensions in water when introduced to the aqueous phase through solvent exchange, sonication, or extended mixing. The colloidal suspensions created using these techniques have effective aqueous phase concentratio...

  19. Comparative bioavailability of ceftibuten in capsule and suspension forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C C; Affrime, M; Radwanski, E; Lim, J; Colucci, R; Cayen, M N

    1996-01-01

    The comparative bioavailability of ceftibuten, a new third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic given orally once daily, in capsule and suspension dosage forms, was assessed in healthy male subjects. In three separate studies, subjects received either a 400-mg dose as a suspension or one laboratory-batch, 400-mg capsule; one laboratory-batch, 400-mg capsule or two laboratory-batch, 200-mg capsules; or one production-batch, 400-mg capsule or two laboratory-batch, 200-mg capsules. Plasma samples were assayed for ceftibuten using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the data were assessed using pharmacokinetic and statistical methods. Confidence intervals for the maximum plasma concentration and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity were within 80% to 125% of guidelines, demonstrating the bioequivalence of the two treatments within each of the three studies. One 400-mg capsule (laboratory or production batch) was bioequivalent to two 200-mg capsules used in a clinical efficacy trial; the 400-mg suspension was bioequivalent to a 400-mg capsule (laboratory batch). Thus we concluded that the capsule and the suspension dosage forms were bioequivalent.

  20. Heavy vehicle pitch dynamics and suspension tuning

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2008-01-01

    The influence of suspension tuning of passenger cars on bounce and pitch ride performance has been explored in a number of studies, while only minimal efforts have been made for establishing similar rules for heavy vehicles. This study aims to explore pitch dynamics and suspension tunings of a two-axle heavy vehicle with unconnected suspension, which could also provide valuable information for heavy vehicles with coupled suspensions. Based on a generalised pitch-plane model of a two-axle heav...

  1. Pico meter metrology for the GAIA mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.A.; Nijenhuis, J.N.; Vink, R.J.P.; Kamphues, F.G.; Gielesen, W.L.M.; Coatantiec, C.

    2009-01-01

    To measure the relative motions of GAIA's telescopes, the angle between the telescopes is monitored by an all Silicon Carbide Basic Angle Monitoring subsystem (BAM OMA). TNO is developing this metrology system. The stability requirements for this metrology system go into the pico meter and pico

  2. An evaporation based digital microflow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, C; Frijns, A J H; Mandamparambil, R; Zevenbergen, M A G; den Toonder, J M J

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a digital microflow meter operating in the range 30-250 nl min-1 for water. The principle is based on determining the evaporation rate of the liquid via reading the number of wetted pore array structures in a microfluidic system, through which continuous evaporation takes

  3. Meter wavelength radio astronomy in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J.; Reyes, F.; Alvarez, H.; Aparici, J.; Carr, T.; Phillips, J.; Levy, J.; Lebo, G.

    Current meter-wavelength research at Maipu consists largely of a galactic survey for the southern sky, a search for secondary calibration sources, pulsar studies, a search for atmospheric pulses from Saturn, and the continuing investigation of Jovian S bursts above 30 MHz.

  4. Meter Designs Reduce Operation Costs for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center collaborated with Quality Monitoring and Control (QMC) of Humble, Texas, through a Space Act Agreement to design a balanced flow meter for the Space Shuttle Program. QMC founded APlus-QMC LLC to commercialize the technology, which has contributed to 100 new jobs, approximately $250,000 in yearly sales, and saved customers an estimated $10 million.

  5. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  6. Smart wavelength meter for integrated photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benelajla, Meryem; Taballione, Caterina; Boller, Klaus J.

    2017-01-01

    Thermally tunable SiN waveguide microring resonators in connection with neural network readout algorithms appear promising for use as integrated optical wavelength meters. So far, we have observed long-term reliability and a temperature immunity of the readout across several degrees of ambient

  7. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the second of two papers, describing probe measurements of deposit buildup and removal (shedding), conducted in a 350 MWth suspension-fired boiler, firing straw and wood. Investigations of deposit buildup and shedding have been made by use of an advanced online deposit probe and a s...

  8. Rotational diffusion in dense suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, M. H. J.; Frenkel, D.; Lowe, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    We have computed the rotational diffusion coefficient for a suspension of hard spheres. We find excellent agreement with experimental results over a density range up to, and including, the colloidal crystal. However, we find that theories derived to second order in the volume fraction overestimate

  9. Transmission function of pneumatic suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Turenko, A.; Bogomolov, V.; Klimenko, V.; Shilov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The transmission function of pneumatic suspension at assumption, that walls of pneumatic elastic element is absolute not stretched; the rubber buffers of compression and of retreat are absent; description of shock absorber is linear and symmetric; the processes of compression and expansion of air are adiabatic; motion of the oscillating system carry out without separation of wheel from a road is received.

  10. 49 CFR 570.61 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 570.61 Section 570.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... 10,000 Pounds § 570.61 Suspension system. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut...

  11. 49 CFR 570.8 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 570.8 Section 570.8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... Pounds or Less § 570.8 Suspension systems. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut or...

  12. 49 CFR 393.207 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 393.207 Section 393.207... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.207 Suspension systems. (a) Axles. No axle positioning part shall be cracked, broken, loose or missing...

  13. 45 CFR 1210.3-3 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1210.3-3 Section 1210.3-3 Public... § 1210.3-3 Suspension. (a) The ACTION State Director may suspend a Volunteer for up to 30 days in order... Volunteer. Suspension is not warranted if the State Director determines that sufficient grounds already...

  14. 48 CFR 2509.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 2509.407 Section 2509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2509.407 Suspension. ...

  15. 32 CFR 26.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 26.670 Section 26.670 National... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 26.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient from...

  16. 41 CFR 105-74.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 105-74.670...-GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 105-74.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient from...

  17. 48 CFR 609.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 609.407 Section 609.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 609.407 Suspension. ...

  18. 25 CFR 558.5 - License suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License suspension. 558.5 Section 558.5 Indians NATIONAL... MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS § 558.5 License suspension. (a) If, after the issuance of a gaming license, the... tribe shall suspend such license and shall notify in writing the licensee of the suspension and the...

  19. 48 CFR 1309.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1309.407 Section 1309.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 1309.407 Suspension. ...

  20. 36 CFR 1212.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1212.670 Section... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1212.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient from...

  1. 25 CFR 23.52 - Grant suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant suspension. 23.52 Section 23.52 Indians BUREAU OF... Grant Administration Provisions and Requirements § 23.52 Grant suspension. (a) When a grantee has... assistance, suspend the grant. The notice preceding the suspension shall include the effective date of the...

  2. 22 CFR 34.20 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 34.20 Section 34.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY DEBT COLLECTION Collection Adjustments § 34.20 Suspension. The suspension of collection action shall be made in accordance with the standards set forth in...

  3. 32 CFR 552.80 - Suspension period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension period. 552.80 Section 552.80 National... Suspension period. All solicitation privileges suspended by installation commanders will be for a specific time. Normally, it will not exceed 2 years. When the suspension period expires, the agent may reapply...

  4. 48 CFR 509.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 509.407 Section 509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 509.407 Suspension. ...

  5. 7 CFR 3015.123 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 3015.123 Section 3015.123 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Grant and Subgrant Closeout, Suspension and Termination § 3015.123 Suspension. (a) When a recipient has materially failed to comply with the provisions...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1806 - Piperazine suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine suspension. 520.1806 Section 520.1806... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1806 Piperazine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains piperazine monohydrochloride equivalent to...

  7. 48 CFR 9.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 9.407 Section 9.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 9.407 Suspension. ...

  8. 48 CFR 909.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 909.407 Section 909.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 909.407 Suspension. ...

  9. 48 CFR 809.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 809.407 Section 809.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 809.407 Suspension. ...

  10. 48 CFR 1509.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 1509.407 Section 1509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension and Ineligibility 1509.407 Suspension. ...

  11. 21 CFR 522.1289 - Lufenuron suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lufenuron suspension. 522.1289 Section 522.1289 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Lufenuron suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous suspension contains 10...

  12. 32 CFR 776.82 - Interim suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim suspension. 776.82 Section 776.82... Complaint Processing Procedures § 776.82 Interim suspension. (a) Where the Rules Counsel determines there is... interim suspension, pending completion of a professional responsibility investigation. The covered...

  13. 48 CFR 409.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 409.407 Section 409.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension and Ineligibility 409.407 Suspension. ...

  14. 48 CFR 2009.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 2009.407 Section 2009.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2009.407 Suspension. ...

  15. 75 FR 24494 - Nonprocurement Debarment and Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...; ] ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION 2 CFR Chapter 58 Nonprocurement Debarment and Suspension AGENCY: U.S... proposed debarment and suspension regulations. These proposed regulations will apply to nonprocurement... Management and Budget (OMB) in a document on nonprocurement debarment and suspension published in the Federal...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1630 - Oxfendazole suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxfendazole suspension. 520.1630 Section 520.1630... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1630 Oxfendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains: (1) 90.6 milligrams (mg) oxfendazole (9...

  17. 32 CFR 552.79 - Suspension action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension action. 552.79 Section 552.79 National... Suspension action. (a) When suspended for cause, immediately notify the company and the agent, in writing, of the reason. When the installation commander determines that suspension should be extended throughout...

  18. 36 CFR 223.141 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 223.141 Section... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Suspension and Debarment of Timber Purchasers § 223.141 Suspension. (a) The suspending official may, in the public interest, suspend a purchaser on the basis of...

  19. 22 CFR 127.8 - Interim suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim suspension. 127.8 Section 127.8 Foreign... Interim suspension. (a) The Managing Director of the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls or the Director of the Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance is authorized to order the interim suspension of...

  20. 38 CFR 48.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 48.670...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient from...

  1. 48 CFR 309.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 309.407 Section 309.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 309.407 Suspension. ...

  2. 48 CFR 1409.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1409.407 Section 1409.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 1409.407 Suspension. ...

  3. Assessment of the implementation regulations for smart meters; Beoordeling uitvoeringsregelingen Slimme Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boekema, J.

    2011-03-15

    TNO (Netherlands) assessed whether the smart meter is reliable and future proof. By request of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (ELI) an assessment was conducted of the requirements for smart meters and, as formulated in the Order in Council 'Decree on remotely readable metering devices', based on 48 tests regarding security, privacy and future stability. Taking into account a number of described recommendations, TNO deems the legislation and implementation schemes sufficient to allow for safe, reliable and future proof implementation of smart meters in the Netherlands. [Dutch] TNO heeft beoordeeld of de slimme meter betrouwbaar en toekomstvast is. Ten behoeve van het ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie (ELI) zijn de eisen die aan slimme meters worden gesteld, en zoals verwoord in de AmvB 'Besluit op afstand uitleesbare meetinrichtingen', beoordeeld aan de hand van 48 toetsen over zekerheid (security), persoonlijke levenssfeer (privacy) en toekomstvastheid. Met inachtneming van een aantal omschreven aanbevelingen, vindt TNO wetgeving en uitvoeringsregelingen zodanig dat daarmee een veilige, betrouwbare en toekomstvaste slimme meter geimplementeerd kan worden in Nederland.

  4. KVP meter errors induced by plastic wrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferies, D.; Morris, J.W.; White, V.P. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether erroneous kVp meter readings, induced by plastic wrap, affected the actual kVp (output) of a dental X-ray machine. To evaluate the effect of plastic wrap on dental X-ray machine kVp meters, a radiation output device was used to measure output in mR/ma.s. An intraoral dental X-ray unit (S.S. White Model {number sign}90W) was used to make the exposures. First, the kVp meter was not covered with plastic wrap and output readings were recorded at various kVp settings with the milliamperage and time held constant. Secondly, the same kVp settings were selected before the plastic wrap was placed. Milliamperage and time were again held to the same constant. The X-ray console was then covered with plastic wrap prior to measuring the output for each kVp. The wrap possessed a static charge. This charge induced erroneous kVp meter readings. Out-put readings at the various induced kVp settings were then recorded. A kVp of 50 with no wrap present resulted in the same output as a kVp of 50 induced to read 40 or 60 kVp by the presence of wrap. Similar results were obtained at other kVp settings. This indicates that the plastic wrap influences only the kVp meter needle and not the actual kilovoltage of the X-ray machine. Dental X-ray machine operators should select kVp meter readings prior to placing plastic wrap and should not adjust initial settings if the meter is deflected later by the presence of wrap. The use of such a procedure will result in proper exposures, fewer retakes, and less patient radiation. If plastic wrap leads to consistent exposure errors, clinicians may wish to use a 0.5% sodium hypochlorite disinfectant as an alternative to the barrier technique.

  5. Subcutaneous Implants of a Cholesterol-Triglyceride-Buprenorphine Suspension in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Guarnieri, M.; Brayton, C.; Sarabia-Estrada, R.; Tyler, B.; McKnight, P.; DeTolla, L.

    2017-01-01

    A Target Animal Safety protocol was used to examine adverse events in male and female Fischer F344/NTac rats treated with increasing doses of a subcutaneous implant of a lipid suspension of buprenorphine. A single injection of 0.65 mg/kg afforded clinically significant blood levels of drug for 3 days. Chemistry, hematology, coagulation, and urinalysis values with 2- to 10-fold excess doses of the drug-lipid suspension were within normal limits. Histopathology findings were unremarkable. The s...

  6. Whole body vibration exposures in forklift operators: comparison of a mechanical and air suspension seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Ryan P; Ploger, James D; Johnson, Peter W

    2010-11-01

    Using a repeated measures design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures when 12 forklift operators drove the same forklift with a mechanical suspension and an air suspension seat. A portable PDA-based WBV data acquisition system collected and analysed time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 WBV measurement standards. Tri-axial measurements of weighted vibration (A(w)), crest factor, vibration dose values, time-weighted average-peak, raw (+) peak, raw (-) peak and static compression dose (S(ed)) were compared between seats. There were significant differences in z-axis WBV exposures with the air suspension seat, yielding lower WBV exposures. In addition, there were differences between seats in how they attenuated WBV exposures based on the driver's weight. In the mechanical suspension seat, WBV exposures were weight-dependent, with lighter drivers having higher WBV exposures, whereas with the air suspension seat, the same trends were not as prevalent. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study contributes to the understanding of how different seat suspensions can influence WBV transmission and how some components of vibration transmission are dependent on the weight of the driver. Additional systematic studies are needed to quantify how various factors can influence WBV exposures.

  7. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz.

  8. Metronidazole metabolism following oral benzoylmetronidazole suspension in children with giardiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeida, M A; Daneshmend, T K; Ali, H M; Kaye, C M

    1986-08-01

    A suspension of benzoylmetronidazole (6.4% w/v) was given orally at a dose of 15-25 ml, equivalent to 0.6-1 g metronidazole, once a day for three days to 11 children with giardiasis. Blood samples were collected after the first and third doses for analysis of plasma metronidazole and its main oxidative metabolite by high performance liquid chromatography. Peak metronidazole concentrations were 22.60 +/- 8.52 mg/l (mean +/- S.D.) after the first dose, and 30.22 +/- 10.06 mg/l after the third dose, occurring at 3.6 +/- 1.4 and 4.4 +/- 2.9 hours post-dose, respectively. Peak concentrations of the metabolite were 4.26 +/- 1.94 mg/l after the first dose and 7.96 +/- 3.63 mg/l after the third dose, occurring 7.2 +/- 1.6 and 9.1 +/- 3.3 h post-dose, respectively. Calculation of plasma metronidazole half-life and clearance values was not possible. This study shows that oral administration of metronidazole as its benzoyl ester slows the rate of metronidazole absorption, followed by sustained plasma concentrations and a prolonged elimination phase. Giardiasis does not appear to prevent metronidazole absorption. Concurrent giardiasis is unlikely to influence metronidazole therapy for systemic anaerobic infections.

  9. Household Smart Water Metering in Spain: Insights from the Experience of Remote Meter Reading in Alicante

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hug March; alvaro-Francisco Morote; Antonio-Manuel Rico; David Saurí

    2017-01-01

    .... Beyond reducing certain labor costs, such as those related to manual meter reading, such detailed and continuous flow of information is said to enhance network efficiency and improve water planning...

  10. Metering error quantification under voltage and current waveform distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Jia; Xie, Zhi; Zhang, Ran

    2017-09-01

    With integration of more and more renewable energies and distortion loads into power grid, the voltage and current waveform distortion results in metering error in the smart meters. Because of the negative effects on the metering accuracy and fairness, it is an important subject to study energy metering combined error. In this paper, after the comparing between metering theoretical value and real recorded value under different meter modes for linear and nonlinear loads, a quantification method of metering mode error is proposed under waveform distortion. Based on the metering and time-division multiplier principles, a quantification method of metering accuracy error is proposed also. Analyzing the mode error and accuracy error, a comprehensive error analysis method is presented which is suitable for new energy and nonlinear loads. The proposed method has been proved by simulation.

  11. Effective viscosity of actively swimming algae suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewoldt, Randy; Caretta, Lucas; Chengala, Anwar; Sheng, Jian

    2010-11-01

    Suspensions of actively swimming microorganisms exhibit an effective viscosity which may depend on volume fraction, cell shape, and the nature of locomotion (e.g. "pushers" vs. "pullers"). Here we report experimental measurements of shear viscosity for suspensions of unicellular green algae (Dunaliella primolecta, a biflagellated "puller"). We use a cone-and-plate rheometer to measure the dynamic shear viscosity for both motile and non-motile suspensions of D. primolecta. Viscosity increases with concentration for both cases, but the active suspensions of "pullers" have a comparatively lower effective viscosity than passive suspensions. This observation contrasts recently proposed theories which predict that "pullers" should instead have a higher viscosity than non-motile suspensions. Additionally, we observe shear-induced migration of active suspensions and consider its impact on the resulting effective shear viscosity.

  12. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  13. Energy Theft in the Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Stephen; Podkuiko, Dmitry; McDaniel, Patrick

    Global energy generation and delivery systems are transitioning to a new computerized "smart grid". One of the principle components of the smart grid is an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI replaces the analog meters with computerized systems that report usage over digital communication interfaces, e.g., phone lines. However, with this infrastructure comes new risk. In this paper, we consider adversary means of defrauding the electrical grid by manipulating AMI systems. We document the methods adversaries will use to attempt to manipulate energy usage data, and validate the viability of these attacks by performing penetration testing on commodity devices. Through these activities, we demonstrate that not only is theft still possible in AMI systems, but that current AMI devices introduce a myriad of new vectors for achieving it.

  14. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  15. Fibre optic power meter calibration uncertainties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available 2010 - EngineerIT Technical Fibre optic power meter calibration uncertainties by Mariesa Nel, NMISA and Bertus Theron, CSIR-Defence, Peace, Safety and Security This article discusses the determination of uncertainty contributions when performing a... and Instrumentation News EngineerIT - June 2010 41 Most of these uncertainty contributions can either be obtained from a calibration certificate, specifications, or empirical measurements. In the next two sections detail are given on how to determine...

  16. Robust Tensioned Kevlar Suspension Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joseph B.; Naylor, Bret J.; Holmes, Warren A.

    2012-01-01

    One common but challenging problem in cryogenic engineering is to produce a mount that has excellent thermal isolation but is also rigid. Such mounts can be achieved by suspending the load from a network of fibers or strings held in tension. Kevlar fibers are often used for this purpose owing to their high strength and low thermal conductivity. A suite of compact design elements has been developed to improve the reliability of suspension systems made of Kevlar.

  17. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  18. Dynamics of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Vanchna; Banerjee, Varsha; Sharma, Manish

    2012-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles. Their relaxation times are strongly size-dependent. The dominant mode of relaxation is also governed by the size of the particles. As a result the dynamics is greatly altered due to polydispersity in the sample. We study the effect of polydispersity on the response functions. These exhibit significant changes as the parameters characterizing polydispersity are varied. We also provide a procedure to extract the particle size dist...

  19. Polymorphism in Bacterial Flagella Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenger, Walter J.

    Bacterial flagella are a type of biological polymer studied for its role in bacterial motility and the polymorphic transitions undertaken to facilitate the run and tumble behavior. The naturally rigid, helical shape of flagella gives rise to novel colloidal dynamics and material properties. This thesis studies methods in which the shape of bacterial flagella can be controlled using in vitro methods and the changes the shape of the flagella have on both single particle dynamics and bulk material properties. We observe individual flagellum in both the dilute and semidilute regimes to observe the effects of solvent condition on the shape of the filament as well as the effect the filament morphology has on reptation through a network of flagella. In addition, we present rheological measurements showing how the shape of filaments effects the bulk material properties of flagellar suspensions. We find that the individual particle dynamics in suspensions of flagella can vary with geometry from needing to reptate linearly via rotation for helical filaments to the prevention of long range diffusion for block copolymer filaments. Similarly, for bulk material properties of flagella suspensions, helical geometries show a dramatic enhancement in elasticity over straight filaments while block copolymers form an elastic gel without the aid of crosslinking agents.

  20. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Omeprazole Granule and Suspension Forms in Children: A Randomized, Parallel Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, S; Dehghanzadeh, G; Haghighat, M; Mirzaei, R; Rahimi, H R

    2016-03-01

    Although, omeprazole is widely used for treatment of gastric acid-mediated disorders. However, its pharmacokinetic and chemical instability does not allow simple aqueous dosage form formulation synthesis for therapy of, especially child, these patients. The aim of this study was at first preparation of suspension dosage form omeprazole and second to compare the blood levels of 2 oral formulations/dosage forms of suspension & granule by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The omeprazole suspension was prepared; in this regard omeprazole powder was added to 8.4% sodium bicarbonate to make final concentration 2 mg/ml omeprazole. After that a randomized, parallel pilot trial study was performed in 34 pediatric patients with acid peptic disorder who considered usage omeprazole. Selected patients were received suspension and granule, respectively. After oral administration, blood samples were collected and analyzed for omeprazole levels using validated HPLC method. The mean omeprazole blood concentration before usage the next dose, (trough level) were 0.12±0.08 µg/ml and 0.18±0.15 µg/ml for granule and suspension groups, respectively and mean blood level after dosing (C2 peak level) were 0.68±0.61 µg/ml and 0.86±0.76 µg/ml for granule and suspension groups, respectively. No significant changes were observed in comparison 2 dosage forms 2 h before (P=0.52) and after (P=0.56) the last dose. These results demonstrate that omeprazole suspension is a suitable substitute for granule in pediatrics. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Calibration and features of air-kerma length product meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merimaa, K; Tapiovaara, M; Kosunen, A; Toroi, P

    2012-12-01

    Pencil-type air-kerma length product meters are generally used for quality control and radiation exposure measurements in computed tomography. To ensure reliable results, these meters should be calibrated so that measurements are traceable to international standards. Suitable calibration procedures, together with the properties of these meters, were examined and compared with the international standards and recommendations. The calibration procedure and setup used in this study were slightly modified compared with international recommendations. The special collimator system was found to cause less scatter than similar setups in earlier studies. The energy dependence of the meter response was investigated for several types of meters with standard radiation qualities. With most tested meter types, the total variation due to energy dependence was meter type varied up to 8 % when rotating the meter around its axis; this should be taken into account when making calibrations with a static setup.

  2. Cimetidine Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Subjects: A Comparison of Tablets and Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effect of cimetidine 200 mg tablet with that of cimetidine suspension (200 mg/10 mL, a 20 mL suspension of 800 mg magnesium hydroxide and 912 mg aluminum hydroxide, and matching placebo on intragastric pH of healthy volunteers. There were 13 males and seven females, mean age 23 years (range 20 to 32 and mean weight 72 kg (range 55 to 89. The intragastric pH of each subject was measured over 6 h starting immediately before dosing on each of five study days. Cimetidine plasma levels were measured for 6 h after dosing on each of the cimetidine study days. Cimetidine tablet and suspension were superior to placebo tablet or suspension or to the magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide suspension in the area under the pH time curve from 0 to 6 h, percentage time pH of at least 3.5, change from pretreatment pH area under the pH time curve (0 to 6 h and maximum increase in pH. Mean plasma cimetidine levels were significantly and positively correlated to mean intragastric pH for both cimetidine tablets and cimetidine suspension. Comparing cimetidine concentration (Cmax and lower percentage time plasma cimetidine concentration was at least 0.5 μg/mL (the minimum therapeutic level. These pharmacokinetic variations between cimetidine suspension and tablets may have partially explained the pharmacodynamic differences of the lower area under the pH time curve (0 to 6 h. The results indicate that both cimetidine tablets and cimetidine suspension significantly increase intragastric pH relative to the magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide suspension, placebo tablets or placebo suspension. Based on the assumption that elevation of intragastric pH is an important factor for alleviation of the symptoms and for the healing of peptic disorders, the results of this study suggest that both cimetidine tablets and cimetidine suspension should be effective treatment.

  3. Organ Doses and Effective Doses in Pediatric Radiography: Patient-Dose Survey in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiljunen, T.; Tietaevaeinen, A.; Parviainen, T.; Viitala, A.; Kortesniemi, M. (Radiation Practices Regulation, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-01-15

    Background: Use of the effective dose in diagnostic radiology permits the radiation exposure of diverse diagnostic procedures to be quantified. Fundamental knowledge of patient doses enhances the implementation of the 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) principle. Purpose: To provide comparative information on pediatric examination protocols and patient doses in skull, sinus, chest, abdominal, and pelvic radiography examinations. Material and Methods: 24 Finnish hospitals were asked to register pediatric examination data, including patient information and examination parameters and specifications. The total number of examinations in the study was 1916 (1426 chest, 228 sinus, 96 abdominal, 94 skull, and 72 pelvic examinations). Entrance surface dose (ESD) and dose-area products (DAP) were calculated retrospectively or DAP meters were used. Organ doses and effective doses were determined using a Monte Carlo program (PCXMC). Results: There was considerable variation in examination protocols between different hospitals, indicating large variations in patient doses. Mean effective doses of different age groups ranged from 5 muSv to 14 muSv in skull and sinus examinations, from 25 muSv to 483 muSv in abdominal examinations, and from 6 muSv to 48 muSv in chest examinations. Conclusion: In chest and sinus examinations, the amount of data was extensive, allowing national pediatric diagnostic reference levels to be defined. Parameter selection in pediatric examination protocols should be harmonized in order to reduce patient doses and improve optimization

  4. Investigating water meter performance in developing countries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-07

    Oct 7, 2011 ... refers to the ISO classification for water meters and indicates the ability of the meter to measure low flows. Class D meters have the greatest ability to measure low flows and Class A have the least ability. Pressure measurements were also carried out at the properties (using Hydreka Vistaplus pressure data ...

  5. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating pressure...

  6. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation. (a...

  7. The disc pasture meter: Possible applications in grazing management.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disc meter is a simple inexpensive instrument which may be used to make rapid yield estimates of standing forage. Linear regression relationships between meter reading and pasture dry matter yield are usually fairly good, but these may be affected by a number of different factors. The meter should therefore be ...

  8. Drag Reduction of Bacterial Cellulose Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ogata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction due to bacterial cellulose suspensions with small environmental loading was investigated. Experiments were carried out by measuring the pressure drop in pipe flow. It was found that bacterial cellulose suspensions give rise to drag reduction in the turbulent flow range. We observed a maximum drag reduction ratio of 11% and found that it increased with the concentration of the bacterial cellulose suspension. However, the drag reduction effect decreased in the presence of mechanical shear.

  9. Geometrical correction factors for heat flux meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Papell, S. S.

    1974-01-01

    General formulas are derived for determining gage averaging errors of strip-type heat flux meters used in the measurement of one-dimensional heat flux distributions. The local averaging error e(x) is defined as the difference between the measured value of the heat flux and the local value which occurs at the center of the gage. In terms of e(x), a correction procedure is presented which allows a better estimate for the true value of the local heat flux. For many practical problems, it is possible to use relatively large gages to obtain acceptable heat flux measurements.

  10. Enclosure design for Thirty Meter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, N.; Breckenridge, C.; Vasiljevic, A.

    2008-07-01

    The design of the calotte enclosure for the Thirty-Meter Telescope is currently in the preliminary design phase. Key aspects of the design include an efficient structural/mechanical form, repetition of components, modular construction, and operational efficiency. This paper includes an overall description of the enclosure design, as well as a description of the major structural and mechanical subsystems. The enclosure incorporates features that influence the thermal and aerodynamic environment of the telescope including ventilation openings and wind deflecting features. Other key considerations of the preliminary design include the constructability and maintainability of a dynamic structure of this scale at a remote mountain site.

  11. PRESCILA: a new, lightweight neutron rem meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsher, Richard H; Seagraves, David T; Eisele, Shawna L; Bjork, Christopher W; Martinez, William A; Romero, Leonard L; Mallett, Michael W; Duran, Michael A; Hurlbut, Charles R

    2004-06-01

    Conventional neutron rem meters currently in use are based on 1960's technology that relies on a large neutron moderator assembly surrounding a thermal detector to achieve a rem-like response function over a limited energy range. Such rem meters present an ergonomic challenge, being heavy and bulky, and have caused injuries during radiation protection surveys. Another defect of traditional rem meters is a poor high-energy response above 10 MeV, which makes them unsuitable for applications at high-energy accelerator facilities. Proton Recoil Scintillator-Los Alamos (PRESCILA) was developed as a low-weight (2 kg) alternative capable of extended energy response, high sensitivity, and moderate gamma rejection. An array of ZnS(Ag) based scintillators is located inside and around a Lucite light guide, which couples the scintillation light to a sideview bialkali photomultiplier tube. The use of both fast and thermal scintillators allows the energy response function to be optimized for a wide range of operational spectra. The light guide and the borated polyethylene frame provide moderation for the thermal scintillator element. The scintillators represent greatly improved versions of the Hornyak and Stedman designs from the 1950's, and were developed in collaboration with Eljen Technology. The inherent pulse height advantage of proton recoils over electron tracks in the phosphor grains eliminates the need for pulse shape discrimination and makes it possible to use the PRESCILA probe with standard pulse height discrimination provided by off-the-shelf health physics counters. PRESCILA prototype probes have been extensively tested at both Los Alamos and the German Bureau of Standards, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. Test results are presented for energy response, directional dependence, linearity, sensitivity, and gamma rejection. Initial field tests have been conducted at Los Alamos and these results are also given. It is concluded that PRESCILA offers a viable

  12. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Hussain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability. The paper proposes the use of primary and secondary suspension to suppress the vibrations more effectively.

  13. Time Varying Behavior of the Loudspeaker Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2007-01-01

    The suspension part of the electrodynamic loudspeaker is often modelled as a simple linear spring with viscous damping, however the dynamic behaviour of the suspension is much more complicated than predicted by such a simple model. At higher levels the compliance becomes non-linear and often...... changes during excitation at high levels. This paper investigates how the compliance of the suspension depends on the excitation, i.e. level and frequency content. The measurements are compared with other known measurement methods of the suspension....

  14. Smart Metering. Synergies within medium voltage automation; Synergien durch Smart Metering. Automatisierung auf Mittelspannungsebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Peter [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Transparent interdivisional system solutions are an indispensable and decisive precondition for the optimization of business processes. The implementation of a Smart Metering solution does not only provide data for billing purposes, but also renders important data for network operation. Synergies can be achieved through the use of a common infrastructure which covers both the needs of Smart Metering and network operation. An open architecture of the solution allows for the future integration of further services of the domains Smart Grid and Smart Home. (orig.)

  15. Synergisms between smart metering and smart grid; Synergien zwischen Smart Metering und Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Peter [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    With the implementation of a smart metering solution, it is not only possible to acquire consumption data for billing but also to acquire relevant data of the distribution grid for grid operation. There is still a wide gap between the actual condition and the target condition. Synergies result from the use of a common infrastructure which takes account both of the requirements of smart metering and of grid operation. An open architecture also enables the future integration of further applications of the fields of smart grid and smart home. (orig.)

  16. Development of a calibration methodology and tests of kerma area product meters; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de calibracao e testes de medidores de produto Kerma-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Nathalia Almeida

    2013-07-01

    The quantity kerma area product (PKA) is important to establish reference levels in diagnostic radiology exams. This quantity can be obtained using a PKA meter. The use of such meters is essential to evaluate the radiation dose in radiological procedures and is a good indicator to make sure that the dose limit to the patient's skin doesn't exceed. Sometimes, these meters come fixed to X radiation equipment, which makes its calibration difficult. In this work, it was developed a methodology for calibration of PKA meters. The instrument used for this purpose was the Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC). It was developed to be used as a reference to check the calibration of PKA and air kerma meters that are used for dosimetry in patients and to verify the consistency and behavior of systems of automatic exposure control. Because it is a new equipment, which, in Brazil, is not yet used as reference equipment for calibration, it was also performed the quality control of this equipment with characterization tests, the calibration and an evaluation of the energy dependence. After the tests, it was proved that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument and that the calibration must be performed in situ, so that the characteristics of each X-ray equipment, where the PKA meters are used, are considered. The calibration was then performed with portable PKA meters and in an interventional radiology equipment that has a PKA meter fixed. The results were good and it was proved the need for calibration of these meters and the importance of in situ calibration with a reference meter. (author)

  17. Long Island Smart Metering Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-03-30

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) Smart Meter Pilots provided invaluable information and experience for future deployments of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), including the deployment planned as part of LIPA's Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000220). LIPA will incorporate lessons learned from this pilot in future deployments, including lessons relating to equipment performance specifications and testing, as well as equipment deployment and tracking issues. LIPA ultimately deployed three AMI technologies instead of the two that were originally contemplated. This enabled LIPA to evaluate multiple systems in field conditions with a relatively small number of meter installations. LIPA experienced a number of equipment and software issues that it did not anticipate, including issues relating to equipment integration, ability to upgrade firmware and software over the air (as opposed to physically interacting with every meter), and logistical challenges associated with tracking inventory and upgrade status of deployed meters. In addition to evaluating the technology, LIPA also piloted new Time-of-Use (TOU) rates to assess customer acceptance of time-differentiated pricing and to evaluate whether customers would respond by adjusting their activities from peak to non-peak periods. LIPA developed a marketing program to educate customers who received AMI in the pilot areas and to seek voluntary participation in TOU pricing. LIPA also guaranteed participating customers that, for their initial year on the rates, their electricity costs under the TOU rate would not exceed the amount they would have paid under the flat rates they would otherwise enjoy. 62 residential customers chose to participate in the TOU rates, and every one of them saved money during the first year. 61 of them also elected to stay on the TOU rate without the cost guarantee at the end of that year. The customer who chose not to continue on the rate was also the one who achieved the

  18. A hybrid ICT-solution for smart meter data analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2016-01-01

    conditions and user information, which makes the data sets very sizable and the analytics complex. Data mining and emerging cloud computing technologies make collecting, processing, and analyzing the so-called big data possible. This paper proposes an innovative ICT-solution to streamline smart meter data...... analytics. The proposed solution offers an information integration pipeline for ingesting data from smart meters, a scalable platform for processing and mining big data sets, and a web portal for visualizing analytics results. The implemented system has a hybrid architecture of using Spark or Hive for big......Smart meters are increasingly used worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 min. Smart meter data are typically bundled with social economic data in analytics, such as meter geographic locations, weather...

  19. A hybrid ICT-solution for smart meter data analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2016-01-01

    Smart meters are increasingly used worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 min. Smart meter data are typically bundled with social economic data in analytics, such as meter geographic locations, weather...... conditions and user information, which makes the data sets very sizable and the analytics complex. Data mining and emerging cloud computing technologies make collecting, processing, and analyzing the so-called big data possible. This paper proposes an innovative ICT-solution to streamline smart meter data...... analytics. The proposed solution offers an information integration pipeline for ingesting data from smart meters, a scalable platform for processing and mining big data sets, and a web portal for visualizing analytics results. The implemented system has a hybrid architecture of using Spark or Hive for big...

  20. Stability of diclofenac sodium oral suspensions packaged in amber polyvinyl chloride bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Ronald F; Pascuet, Elena; Ma, Carmen; Vaillancourt, Régis

    2010-01-01

    Prescribing of diclofenac for children usually involves a dose different from commercially available strengths. This drug is available only as tablets, which can be divided only so many times before the dose obtained becomes inaccurate. In addition, children may have difficulty swallowing tablets. For these reasons, a compounding formula for a liquid dosage form is essential to ensure effective delivery of the drug to pediatric patients. To develop a compounding formula for diclofenac sodium and to determine the extended physical and chemical stability of this compound when stored in amber polyvinyl chloride (PVC) prescription bottles under refrigeration and at room temperature. A suspension of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) was prepared from commercially available diclofenac sodium tablets, with Ora-Blend as the suspending and flavouring agent. The suspension was packaged in 60-mL amber PVC prescription bottles and stored at either room temperature (23°C) or under refrigeration (5°C). Samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 27, 56, and 93. Chemical stability was determined using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. At each sampling time, the suspensions were checked for changes in appearance (i.e., colour, layering, caking, ease of resuspension), odour, and pH. The diclofenac sodium suspensions were very stable, retaining at least 99.5% of the original concentration for up to 93 days, regardless of storage temperature. There were no apparent changes in the physical appearance of the suspensions, nor were there any substantial changes in odour or pH. Suspensions of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) were quantitatively stable but difficult to prepare because of the enteric coating of the tablets. Therefore, it is recommended that diclofenac powder be used for the preparation of suspensions. For pediatric use, palatability is a consideration, and a masking agent should be added before administration. An expiry date of up to

  1. A review of co-milling techniques for the production of high dose dry powder inhaler formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michael; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2017-08-01

    Drug delivery by inhalation offers several advantages compared to other dosage forms, including rapid clinical onset, high bioavailability, and minimal systemic side effects. Drug delivery to the lung can be achieved as liquid suspensions or solutions in nebulizers and pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDI), or as dry powders in dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Compared to other delivery systems, DPIs are, in many cases, considered the most convenient as they are breath actuated and do not require the use of propellants. Currently, the delivery of low drug doses for the treatment of lung conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are well established, with numerous commercial products available on the market. The delivery of low doses can be achieved from either standard carrier- or aggregate-based formulations, which are unsuitable in the delivery of high doses due to particle segregation associated with carrier active site saturation and the cohesiveness of micronized aggregates which have poor flow and de-agglomeration properties. High-dose delivery is required for the treatment of lung infection (i.e. antibiotics) and in the emerging application of drug delivery for the management of systemic conditions (i.e. diabetes). Therefore, there is a demand for new methods for production of high-dose dry powder formulations. This paper presents a review of co-mill processing, for the production of high-efficiency inhalation therapies, including the jet mill, mechanofusion, or ball mill methodologies. We investigate the different techniques, additives, and drugs studied, and impact on performance in DPI systems.

  2. Photoelectrochemical studies on aqueous suspensions of some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pensions meet these requirements. The suspension media are equally as important as the suspension particles in generating an efficient photolysis process. Previous studies used semi- conductor particles as major producers of photonic outcome through heterogeneous charge transfer processes at the par- ticle/electrolyte ...

  3. 49 CFR 238.227 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 238.227 Section 238.227 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.227 Suspension system. On or after November 8, 1999— (a) All passenger equipment shall...

  4. Phase diagram of vertically vibrated dense suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Kann, S.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; van der Meer, Roger M.

    2014-01-01

    When a hole is created in a layer of a dense, vertically vibrated suspension, phenomena are known to occur that defy the natural tendency of gravity to close the hole. Here, an overview is presented of the different patterns that we observed in a variety of dense particulate suspensions.

  5. Active suspension for a field sprayer boom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Skovsgaard; Sørensen, Paul Haase

    1998-01-01

    The possibilities of implementing an active boom suspension is investigated. The performance improvement of an active suspension over a traditional passive one is studied in simulation, and shows a significant improvement. A closed-loop control system involving two ultrasonic distance transducers...

  6. Time Variance of the Suspension Nonlinearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Pedersen, Bo Rohde

    2008-01-01

    . This paper investigates the changes in compliance the driving signal can cause, this includes low level short duration measurements of the resonance frequency as well as high power long duration measurements of the non-linearity of the suspension. It is found that at low levels the suspension softens...

  7. 32 CFR 1609.5 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1609.5 Section 1609.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM UNCOMPENSATED PERSONNEL § 1609.5 Suspension. The Director of Selective Service may suspend from duty any uncompensated person...

  8. 25 CFR 242.7 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 242.7 Section 242.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.7 Suspension. All commercial fishing operations may be suspended by order of the Secretary at any...

  9. 39 CFR 955.28 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 955.28 Section 955.28 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE BEFORE THE POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.28 Suspension. (a) Whenever at any time it appears that the parties are in agreement as to...

  10. 32 CFR 552.77 - Suspension approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension approval. 552.77 Section 552.77 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND....77 Suspension approval. The installation commander will personally approve all cases in which...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1289 - Lufenuron suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lufenuron suspension. 520.1289 Section 520.1289 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1289 Lufenuron suspension. (a...

  12. A Probabilistic Model of Meter Perception: Simulating Enculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaan van der Weij

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enculturation is known to shape the perception of meter in music but this is not explicitly accounted for by current cognitive models of meter perception. We hypothesize that the induction of meter is a result of predictive coding: interpreting onsets in a rhythm relative to a periodic meter facilitates prediction of future onsets. Such prediction, we hypothesize, is based on previous exposure to rhythms. As such, predictive coding provides a possible explanation for the way meter perception is shaped by the cultural environment. Based on this hypothesis, we present a probabilistic model of meter perception that uses statistical properties of the relation between rhythm and meter to infer meter from quantized rhythms. We show that our model can successfully predict annotated time signatures from quantized rhythmic patterns derived from folk melodies. Furthermore, we show that by inferring meter, our model improves prediction of the onsets of future events compared to a similar probabilistic model that does not infer meter. Finally, as a proof of concept, we demonstrate how our model can be used in a simulation of enculturation. From the results of this simulation, we derive a class of rhythms that are likely to be interpreted differently by enculturated listeners with different histories of exposure to rhythms.

  13. Aperture meter for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, G J; Redaelli, S

    2011-01-01

    The control of the high intensity beams of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is particular challenging and requires a good modeling of the machine and monitoring of various machine parameters. During operation it is crucial to ensure a minimal distance between the beam edge and the aperture of sensitive equipment, e.g. the superconductingmagnets, which in all cases must be in the shadowof the collimator’s that protect the machine. Possible dangerous situations must be detected as soon as possible. In order to provide the operator with information about the current machine bottlenecks an aperture meter application was developed based on the LHC online modeling toolchain. The calculation of available free aperture takes into account the best available optics and aperture model as well as the relevant beam measurements. This paper describes the design and integration of this application into the control environment and presents results of the usage in daily operation and from validation measurements.

  14. Commissioning subsystems of the 10 meter prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Nathan; Fricke, Tobin; Mow-Lowry, Conor; Hanke, Manuela

    2015-04-01

    The best attempts at detecting the elusive gravitational waves are with L-shaped interferometers. Over the summer of 2014, I helped install subsystems of the 10 meter prototype, a gravitational wave interferometer designed to reach the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL), at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics in Hannover, Germany through the University of Florida's International REU. While there, the frequency reference cavity was aligned and the mode matching the cavity began. We also worked on installing and testing the intensity stabilization servo, which consisted of an out-of-vacuum photodiode for each the in-loop and out-of-loop sensing that were being connected to the LIGO Control and Data System.

  15. Five meter diameter conical furlable antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, J. W.; Freeland, R. E.; Moore, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was made to demonstrate that a 5-meter-diameter, furlable, conical reflector antenna utilizing a line source feed can be fabricated utilizing composite materials and to prove that the antenna can function mechanically and electrically as prototype flight hardware. The design, analysis, and testing of the antenna are described. An RF efficiency of 55% at 8.5 GHz and a surface error of 0.64 mm rms were chosen as basic design requirements. Actual test measurements yielded an efficiency of 53% (49.77 dB gain) and a surface error of 0.61 mm rms. Atmospherically induced corrosion of the reflector mesh resulted in the RF performance degradation. An assessment of the antenna as compared to the current state of the art technology was made. This assessment included cost, surface accuracy and RF performance, structural and mechanical characteristics, and possible applications.

  16. Handheld Multi-Gas Meters Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gustavious [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Wald-Hopkins, Mark David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Akhadov, Valida Dushdurova [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-27

    Handheld multi-gas meters (MGMs) are equipped with sensors to monitor oxygen (O2) levels and additional sensors to detect the presence of combustible or toxic gases in the environment. This report is limited to operational response-type MGMs that include at least four different sensors. These sensors can vary by type and by the monitored chemical. In real time, the sensors report the concentration of monitored gases in the atmosphere near the MGM. In April 2016 the System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program conducted an operationally-oriented assessment of MGMs. Five MGMs were assessed by emergency responders. The criteria and scenarios used in this assessment were derived from the results of a focus group of emergency responders with experience in using MGMs. The assessment addressed 16 evaluation criteria in four SAVER categories: Usability, Capability, Maintainability, and Deployability.

  17. Measurement of radiation dose in dental radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmrot, Ebba; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun

    2005-01-01

    Patient dose audit is an important tool for quality control and it is important to have a well-defined and easy to use method for dose measurements. In dental radiology, the most commonly used dose parameters for the setting of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for intraoral examinations and dose width product (DWP) for panoramic examinations. DWP is the air kerma at the front side of the secondary collimator integrated over the collimator width and an exposure cycle. ESAK or DWP is usually measured in the absence of the patient but with the same settings of tube voltage (kV), tube current (mA) and exposure time as with the patient present. Neither of these methods is easy to use, and, in addition, DWP is not a risk related quantity. A better method of monitoring patient dose would be to use a dose area product (DAP) meter for all types of dental examinations. In this study, measurements with a DAP meter are reported for intraoral and panoramic examinations. The DWP is also measured with a pencil ionisation chamber and the product of DWP and the height H (DWP x H) of the secondary collimator (measured using film) was compared to DAP. The results show that it is feasible to measure DAP using a DAP meter for both intraoral and panoramic examinations. The DAP is therefore recommended for the setting of DRLs.

  18. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))

    2012-01-15

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  19. 48 CFR 9.407-4 - Period of suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 9.407-4 Period of... notice, the suspension shall be terminated unless an Assistant Attorney General requests its extension...

  20. Study of the indirect calibration of clinical air kerma-area meters; Estudo da calibracao indireta de medidores clinicos do produto kerma-area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Junior, Jose N. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Sao Paulo (PUC/SP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Fisica Medica; Silva, Marcia C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Terini, Ricardo A., E-mail: rterini@pucsp.b [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Sao Paulo (DF/PUC/SP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Herdade, Silvio B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Secao Tecnica de Desenvolvimento Tecnologico em Saude Marco A.G. Pereira

    2011-07-01

    Kerma-area product (P{sub KA}) is a quantity which is independent of the distance to the X-ray tube focal spot and that can be used to assess the effective dose in patients. Clinical P{sub KA} meters are usually calibrated on-site by measuring the air kerma with an ion chamber and evaluating the irradiated area by means of a radiographic image. This work presents a preliminary metrological evaluation of the calibration of a device marketed recently (PDC, Patient Dose Calibrator, Radcal), designed for calibrating clinical P{sub KA} meters. Results are also shown of applying the PDC to the cross calibration of a clinical P{sub KA} meter from a radiology equipment. Results confirm a lower energy dependence of the PDC relative to the tested clinical meter. (author)

  1. Next Generation Suspension Dynamics Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, Peter Randall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Higdon, Jonathon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chen, Steven [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research project has the objective to extend the range of application, improve the efficiency and conduct simulations with the Fast Lubrication Dynamics (FLD) algorithm for concentrated particle suspensions in a Newtonian fluid solvent. The research involves a combination of mathematical development, new computational algorithms, and application to processing flows of relevance in materials processing. The mathematical developments clarify the underlying theory, facilitate verification against classic monographs in the field and provide the framework for a novel parallel implementation optimized for an OpenMP shared memory environment. The project considered application to consolidation flows of major interest in high throughput materials processing and identified hitherto unforeseen challenges in the use of FLD in these applications. Extensions to the algorithm have been developed to improve its accuracy in these applications.

  2. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Muhammad Shafique; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This paper is Part 1 in a series of two describing probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal (shedding) in a 350 MWth suspension boiler, firing straw and wood. The influence of fuel type (straw share in wood), probe exposure time, probe surface temperature (500, 550, and 600 °C), and flue...... gas temperature (600–1050 °C) on ash deposit formation rate has been investigated. Investigations of deposit formation rate were made by use of an advanced online deposit probe that allowed nearly continuous measurement of the deposited mass. Two different measures of deposit formation rate are used...... in the analysis of the data. The first is the integral deposit formation rate (IDF-rate) found by dividing the integral mass change over integral time intervals (of order several hours) by the time interval. The IDF-rate is similar to deposit formation rates based on total deposit mass uptake divided by probe...

  3. Naratriptan hydrochloride in extemporaneosly compounded oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y P; Trissel, L A; Fox, J L

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmaceutical acceptability and chemical stability of naratriptan hydrochloride in three extemporaneously compounded suspension formulations. The naratriptan-hydrochloride oral suspensions were prepared from 2.5-mg commercial tablets yielding a nominal naratriptan concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. The suspension vehicles selected for testing were Syrpalta, an equal-parts mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet, and an equal-parts mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet SF. The tablets were crushed and thoroughly triturated to a fine powder using a porcelain mortar and pestle. The powder was incorporated into a portion of the Syrpalta or Ora-Plus suspension vehicle and mixed until homogeneous. The mixtures were then brought to volume with Syrpalta, Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF, as appropriate. The suspensions were packaged in amber, plastic, screw-cap prescription bottles and stored at 23 deg C for seven days and 4 deg C for 90 days. An adequate suspension was never achieved in Syrpalta. The crushed-tablet powder did not produce a uniformly dispersed mixture and exhibited clumping and a high rate of sedimentation. A distinct layer of the solid tablet material settled immediately after shaking. Over the next four hours, a densely packed, yellow, caked layer formed at the bottom of the containers, making resuspension difficult. During storage, the caking became worse. Chemical analysis was not performed. The Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF suspensions had a slight greenish cast and were resuspended without difficulty by shaking for approximately ten seconds, yielding easily poured and homogeneous mixtures throughout the study. Visible settling and layering did not begin for four hours with the Ora-Sweet suspension and 24 hours for the Ora-Sweet SF suspension. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis found that the naratriptan concentration in both suspension-vehicle combinations exhibited little or no loss for seven days at 23

  4. Method and apparatus for reading meters from a video image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Trevor J.; Ferguson, Jeffrey J.

    1997-01-01

    A method and system to enable acquisition of data about an environment from one or more meters using video images. One or more meters are imaged by a video camera and the video signal is digitized. Then, each region of the digital image which corresponds to the indicator of the meter is calibrated and the video signal is analyzed to determine the value indicated by each meter indicator. Finally, from the value indicated by each meter indicator in the calibrated region, a meter reading is generated. The method and system offer the advantages of automatic data collection in a relatively non-intrusive manner without making any complicated or expensive electronic connections, and without requiring intensive manpower.

  5. Deducing Energy Consumer Behavior from Smart Meter Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Heick, Rune; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg

    2017-01-01

    The ongoing upgrade of electricity meters to smart ones has opened a new market of intelligent services to analyze the recorded meter data. This paper introduces an open architecture and a unified framework for deducing user behavior from its smart main electricity meter data and presenting the r...... the recognized home appliances. The framework uses open standard interfaces for exchanging data. The framework has been validated through comprehensive experiments that are related to an European Smart Grid project.......The ongoing upgrade of electricity meters to smart ones has opened a new market of intelligent services to analyze the recorded meter data. This paper introduces an open architecture and a unified framework for deducing user behavior from its smart main electricity meter data and presenting...

  6. Smart Meter Data Analytics: Systems, Algorithms and Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Golab, Lukasz; Golab, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Smart electricity meters have been replacing conventional meters worldwide, enabling automated collection of fine-grained (e.g., every 15 minutes or hourly) consumption data. A variety of smart meter analytics algorithms and applications have been proposed, mainly in the smart grid literature....... However, the focus has been on what can be done with the data rather than how to do it efficiently. In this paper, we examine smart meter analytics from a software performance perspective. First, we design a performance benchmark that includes common smart meter analytics tasks. These include off......-line feature extraction and model building as well a framework for on-line anomaly detection that we propose. Second, since obtaining real smart meter data is difficult due to privacy issues, we present an algorithm for generating large realistic data sets from a small seed of real data. Third, we implement...

  7. Advanced Metering Installations – A Perspective from Federal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earni, Shankar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area

    2016-05-02

    This report is intended to provide guidance to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and other federal agencies to highlight some of the existing practices related to advanced building metering systems. This study identified some of the existing actions related to advanced meter data and proposes how advanced metered data can be employed to develop robust cost effective measurement and verification (M&V) strategies. This report proposes an integrated framework on how advanced meter data can be used to identify energy conservation opportunities and to develop proactive M&V strategies to ensure that the savings for energy projects are being realized. This information will help improve metering, feedback, and dashboard implementations for reducing energy use at DOE facilities, based on lessons learned from various advanced metering implementations.

  8. De Minimis Thresholds for Federal Building Metering Appropriateness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by statute and Presidential Memorandum to establish guidelines for agencies to meter their Federal buildings for energy (electricity, natural gas, and steam) and water. See 42 U.S.C. § 8253(e). DOE issued guidance in February 2006 on the installation of electric meters in Federal buildings. A recent update to the 2006 guidance accounts for more current metering practices within the Federal Government. The updated metering guidance specifies that all Federal buildings shall be considered “appropriate” for energy or water metering unless identified for potential exclusion. In developing the updated guidance to carry out the statue, Congress also directed DOE to (among other things) establish exclusions from the metering requirements based on the de minimis quantity of energy use of a Federal building, industrial process, or structure. This paper discusses the method used to identify de minimis values.

  9. Enhancing Observability in Distribution Grids using Smart Meter Data

    OpenAIRE

    Bhela, Siddharth; Kekatos, Vassilis; Veeramachaneni, Sriharsha

    2016-01-01

    Due to limited metering infrastructure, distribution grids are currently challenged by observability issues. On the other hand, smart meter data, including local voltage magnitudes and power injections, are communicated to the utility operator from grid buses with renewable generation and demand-response programs. This work employs grid data from metered buses towards inferring the underlying grid state. To this end, a coupled formulation of the power flow problem (CPF) is put forth. Exploiti...

  10. Development of a hand-held fast neutron survey meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, T; Tsujimura, N; Yamano, T

    2011-07-01

    A neutron survey meter with a ZnS(Ag) scintillator to measure recoil protons was built. The detection probe weighs ~2 kg, therefore providing us with true portability. Performance tests exhibited satisfactory neutron dosimetry characteristics in unmoderated or lightly moderated fission neutron fields and in particular work environments at a mixed oxide fuel facility. This new survey meter will augment a routine of neutron monitoring that is inconveniently being carried out by moderator-based neutron survey meters.

  11. FUSION OF VENTURI AND ULTRASONIC FLOW METER FOR ENHANCED FLOW METER CHARACTERISTICS USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Santhosh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a technique for measurement of liquid flow using venturi and ultrasonic flow meter(UFM to have following objectives a to design a multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF architecture for using both the sensors, b improve sensitivity and linearity of venturi and ultrasonic flow meter, and c detect and diagnosis of faults in sensor if any. Fuzzy logic algorithm is used to fuse outputs of both the sensor and train the fuzzy block to produces output which has an improved characteristics in terms of both sensitivity and linearity. For identification of sensor faults a comparative test algorithm is designed. Once trained proposed technique is tested in real life, results show successful implementation of proposed objectives.

  12. Investigation and Comparison of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Skoubo, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    . The possibility to independently control the meter-in and meter-out side not only increase the functionality of the system, but also opens up for better performance and/or lowered energy consumption. The focus of the current paper is therefore on investigation and comparison of what may be obtained using...... multivariable control strategies for SMISMO control of a single axis hydraulic system with a differential cylinder, when not taking other measures to improve performance. The paper first presents an experimentally verified model of the system considered, from which a linear model is derived. Based on the model......, the control strategies are discussed and severalH¥ controllers are designed, for which both simulation and experimental results are presented. The controllers are evaluated with regard to performance and robustness and compared to a simple SISO control. Based on the findings, the possibilities and limitations...

  13. Self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme of motor-driven active suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Sun, Weichao

    2017-09-01

    Active suspension systems have advantages on mitigating the effects of vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, which are one of the most important component parts in influencing the performances of vehicles. However, high amount of energy consumption restricts the application of active suspension systems. From the point of energy saving, this paper presents a self-powered criterion of the active suspension system to judge whether a motor-driven suspension can be self-powered or not, and then a motor parameter condition is developed as a reference to design a self-powered suspension. An energy regeneration implementation scheme is subsequently proposed to make the active suspension which has the potential to be self-powered achieve energy-saving target in the real application. In this implementation scheme, operating electric circuits are designed based on different working status of the actuator and power source and it is realizable to accumulate energy from road vibration and supply energy to the actuator by switching corresponding electric circuits. To apply the self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme, an active suspension system is designed with a constrained H∞ controller and calculation results indicate that it has the capability to be self-powered. Simulation results show that the performances of the self-powered active suspension are nearly the same as those of the active suspension with an external energy source and can achieve energy regeneration at the same time.

  14. Restructuring and aging in a capillary suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Erin; Kannowade, Wolfgang; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2014-12-01

    The rheological properties of capillary suspensions, suspensions with small amounts of an added immiscible fluid, are dramatically altered with the addition of the secondary fluid. We investigate a capillary suspension to determine how the network ages and restructures at rest and under applied external shear deformation. The present work uses calcium carbonate suspended in silicone oil (11 % solids) with added water as a model system. Aging of capillary suspensions and their response to applied oscillatory shear is distinctly different from particulate gels dominated by the van der Waals forces. The suspensions dominated by the capillary force are very sensitive to oscillatory flow, with the linear viscoelastic regime ending at a deformation of only 0.1% and demonstrating power-law aging behavior. This aging persists for long times at low deformations or for shorter times with a sudden decrease in the strength at higher deformations. This aging behavior suggests that the network is able to rearrange and even rupture. This same sensitivity is not demonstrated in shear flow where very high shear rates are required to rupture the agglomerates returning the apparent viscosity of capillary suspensions to the same viscosity as for the pure vdW suspension. A transitional region is also present at intermediate water contents wherein the material response depends very strongly on the type, strength, and duration of the external forcing.

  15. Stability of extemporaneously prepared rosuvastatin oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Shtayah, Rania; Qadumi, Ayman; Ghanem, Mashour; Qedan, Rawan; Daibes, Marah; Awwad, Somud Abu; Jaradat, Nidal; Kittana, Naim

    2017-10-01

    The stability of an extemporaneously prepared rosuvastatin suspension stored over 30 days under various storage conditions was evaluated. Rosuvastatin suspension was extemporaneously prepared using commercial rosuvastatin tablets as the source of active pharmaceutical ingredient. The organoleptic properties, dissolution profile, and stability of the formulation were investigated. For the stability studies, samples of the suspension were stored under 2 storage conditions, room temperature (25 °C and 60% relative humidity) and accelerated stability chambers (40 °C and 75% relative humidity). Viscosity, pH, organoleptic properties, and microbial contamination were evaluated according to the approved specifications. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for the analysis and quantification of rosuvastatin in selected samples. Microbiological investigations were also conducted. The prepared suspension showed acceptable organoleptic properties. It showed complete release of rosuvastatin within 15 minutes. The pH of the suspension was 9.8, which remained unchanged during the stability studies. The microbiological investigations demonstrated that the preparation was free of any microbial contamination. In addition, the suspension showed stability within at least the period of use of a 100-mL rosuvastatin bottle. Extemporaneously prepared rosuvastatin 20-mg/mL suspension was stable for 30 days when stored at room temperature. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Limiting foetal doses during a four-vessel angiogram and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-30

    Jun 30, 2017 ... parameters and dose area product (DAP) values were recorded (Table 1). DAP meters are widely used in interventional X-ray units, however, the radiation hazard cannot readily be obtained from the DAP value. Kisielewicz et al. formulated a relationship to estimate the patient entrance surface dose (ESD) ...

  17. Dose-area product measurements during Barium enema radiograph ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to obtain a direct measurement of the typical dose delivered to an average adult patient during a barium enema examination. Measurement was done on a sample of 50 patients at three departments, using a dose-area product (DAP) meter. The comparison of the results with UK median levels ...

  18. Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering for Environmental Benefits Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the concept of Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering (COTM), which provides environmental benefits without sacrificing throughput. In current...

  19. A Scalable Smart Meter Data Generator Using Spark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Danalachi, Sergiu

    2017-01-01

    Today, smart meters are being used worldwide. As a matter of fact smart meters produce large volumes of data. Thus, it is important for smart meter data management and analytics systems to process petabytes of data. Benchmarking and testing of these systems require scalable data, however, it can...... be challenging to get large data sets due to privacy and/or data protection regulations. This paper presents a scalable smart meter data generator using Spark that can generate realistic data sets. The proposed data generator is based on a supervised machine learning method that can generate data of any size...

  20. A Novel Smart Meter Controlling System with Dynamic IP Addresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manembu, Pinrolinvic; Welang, Brammy; Kalua Lapu, Aditya

    2017-01-01

    Smart meters are the electronic devices for measuring energy consumption in real time. Usually, static public IP addresses are allocated to realize the point-to-point (P2P) communication and remote controlling for smart metering systems. This, however, restricts the wide deployment of smart meters......, due to the deficiency of public IP resources. This paper proposes a novel subscription-based communication architecture for the support of dynamic IP addresses and group controlling of smart meters. The paper evaluates the proposed architecture by comparing the traditional P2P architecture...

  1. Control system design of active seat suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, I.

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents an approach to the control system design of seat suspension systems for the active vibration attenuation. The paper presents the studies of the active vibration control strategy based on the reverse dynamics of force actuator and the primary controller. The multi-criteria optimization procedure is utilized in order to calculate the primary controller settings which subsequently define the vibro-isolation characteristics of active suspensions. As an example of the proposed control system design, the seat with a pneumatic suspension is investigated and its vibro-isolation properties are shaped by an appropriate selection of the controller settings.

  2. Suspension for the low frequency facility

    CERN Document Server

    Cella, G; Di Virgilio, A; Gaddi, A; Viceré, A

    2000-01-01

    We introduce the working principles of the VIRGO Low Frequency Facility (LFF), whose main aim is the measurement of the thermal noise in the VIRGO suspension system. We evaluate the displacement thermal noise of a mirror, which is an intermediate element of a double pendulum suspension system. This double pendulum will be suspended to the last stage of a VIRGO Super-Attenuator (SA), the prototype VIRGO suspension system being tested at the Pisa section of INFN. In the proposed configuration, we evaluate the spectrum of the thermal noise for different choices of the parameters: based on this study, we comment on the future directions to be undertaken in the LFF experiment.

  3. On Calibration of pH Meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Ming Zhu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The calibration of pH meters including the pH glass electrode, ISE electrodes,buffers, and the general background for calibration are reviewed. Understanding of basicconcepts of pH, pOH, and electrode mechanism is emphasized. New concepts of pH, pOH,as well as critical examination of activity, and activity coefficients are given. Theemergence of new solid state pH electrodes and replacement of the salt bridge with aconducting wire have opened up a new horizon for pH measurements. A pH buffer solutionwith a conducting wire may be used as a stable reference electrode. The misleadingunlimited linear Nernstian slope should be discarded. Calibration curves with 3 nonlinearportions for the entire 0—14 pH range due to the isoelectric point change effect areexplained. The potential measurement with stirring or unstirring and effects by double layer(DL and triple layer (TL will be discussed.

  4. Meter data everywhere: online energy information services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesmire, R.

    2002-07-01

    The value and importance of web-based energy information services are discussed, emphasizing the advantages of such services to end users and considering ways to encourage end users to make effective use of these advanced metering systems. Results of a survey to investigate key factors in customer acceptance of energy information services show that most energy customers rank guaranteed savings, ease of use and user friendliness as the most important considerations in choosing an energy information service vendor. Among the components end users gave highest rating to the ability provided by energy information services to understand their energy usage, and it is widely agreed that whatever other services EIS may provide, usage analysis is the one that end users are willing to pay a reasonable fee to receive. The pros and cons of in-house-built EIS versus outsourcing was also considered, with the advantage going to outsourcing on account of the shorter implementation time, access to the latest technology, the prospects of freeing up internal resources, and guaranteed system uptime, performance, security and reliability. 3 figs.

  5. EOS suspension test for the assessment of spinal flexibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Caroline; Ilharreborde, Brice; Mazda, Keyvan

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of spinal flexibility is essential for the planning of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. Various radiographic methods have been used but none of them has shown any superiority. The new low-dose stereography system EOS (EOS imaging, Paris, France) captures whole body images in a single scan without vertical distortion. EOS is now used in routine clinical use for AIS follow-up. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and the reproducibility of a new suspension test during the EOS imaging for the assessment of spinal flexibility in AIS. Fifty AIS patients scheduled for surgery were prospectively included. For each patient, a standard EOS radiograph was obtained, then a suspension test in the EOS and a classic traction test on the cotrel frame were performed. The examinations were compared in terms of radiation exposure, tolerance, mean traction force, and Cobb angle reduction for each curve. Axial and sagittal reductions during suspension were analyzed on three-dimensional EOS reconstructions. The tolerance of the suspension test was lower than the traction test but it was less operator dependent. Radiation exposure was 7 times lower during the suspension test. Cobb angle reductions achieved in the proximal and main curves by the two tests were similar. The traction test achieved greater reduction of the distal curve. Flexibility in the axial plane and in the sagittal plane was analyzed with the suspension test. The reduction in apical rotation was not correlated with the reduction in Cobb angle. The EOS suspension test can be used for the assessment of spinal flexibility in AIS. It gives a global vision of the deformity with new flexibility indices in the axial and sagittal planes.

  6. Measuring methods in power metering 2013; Elektrizitaetsmesstechnik 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahmann, Martin; Zayer, Peter (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The book addresses technical and economic issues of power metering, data communication and data processing. Smart metering is the key issue discussed in all 14 contributions: 1. The perspective of Smart Metering in Europe through 2020; 2. Introduction of Smart Metering in Austria; 3. Metering after the amended EnWG 2011; 4. The FNN project ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Technological requirements of Smart Grid and Smart Market; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomic Aspects of Smart Grids and Electromobility''; 7. Load management as a key element of energy transition; 8. Added value in Smart Metering as a result of Smart Home applications, 9. The main cost factors of the new metering systems; 10. BSI protection profile: Smart Meter Gateway certification; 11. The influence of new boundary conditions in metering on intercompany processes; 12. Reliable time allotment via internet; 13. Recommendations of the EEG Clearing Authority on metering problems; 14. Outline quality management manual for state-authorized test services for electric power, gas, water, and heat. [German] Dieses Buch richtet seinen Blick sowohl auf technische wie auch auf energiewirtschaftliche Themen rund um das Thema Mess- und Zaehltechnik sowie die inzwischen immer bedeutsamer werdende zugehoerige Datenkommunikations- und Datenverarbeitungstechnik. Eine zunehmende Betrachtung des Smart Metering als einen Teilaspekt des grossen Themas Smart Grid bildet die gemeinsame Klammer um die Beitraege. Die Themen der 14 Beitraege sind: 1. Perspektive Smart Metering in Europa bis 2020; 2. Smart-Meter-Einfuehrung in Oesterreich; 3. Das Messwesen nach der EnWG-Novelle 2011; 4. Das FNN-Projekt ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Anforderungen durch Smart Grid und Smart Market an die intelligente Messtechnik; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomie-Aspekte zu Smart Grid und Elektromobilitaet''; 7. Lastverschiebung als Baustein der Energiewende; 8. Mehrwerte beim Smart

  7. 48 CFR 42.1302 - Suspension of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1302 Suspension of work. A suspension of work under a construction or architect... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension of work. 42...

  8. Influence of antiorthostatic suspension on resistance to murine Listeria monocytogenes infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. S.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of antiorthostatic suspension, a ground-based modeling system employed to simulate certain aspects of weightlessness that occur during space flight, on the capacity of mice to resist infection with the facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Female BDF1 mice were suspended by the tail in the orthostatic or antiorthostatic position and were infected with a sublethal dose of virulent L. monocytogenes at various times during the suspension. It was found that suspension did not influence the kinetics of bacterial growth in vivo if the infection was started concurrently with the suspension. However, mice that were antiorthostatically suspended 2, 4, or 7 days before the onset of infection exhibited an enhanced capacity to eliminate the challenge infection. Suspending mice on day 2 of the infection did not alter the kinetics of bacterial growth. Finally, the enhancement of resistance to the primary Listeria infection was accompanied by failure of the mice to generate long-term protective immunological memory to the challenge organism. Collectively, these results indicate that the stress of antiorthostatic suspension can influence the capacity of mice to resist bacterial infection.

  9. Evaluation of the Droplet-Microarray Platform for High-Throughput Screening of Suspension Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Anna A; Depew, Claire; Permana, Katya Manuella; Trubitsyn, Alexander; Peravali, Ravindra; Ordiano, Jorge Ángel González; Reischl, Markus; Levkin, Pavel A

    2017-04-01

    Phenotypic cell-based high-throughput screenings play a central role in drug discovery and toxicology. The main tendency in cell screenings is the increase of the throughput and decrease of reaction volume in order to accelerate the experiments, reduce the costs, and enable screenings of rare cells. Conventionally, cell-based assays are performed in microtiter plates, which exist in 96- to 1536-wells formats and cannot be further miniaturized. In addition, performing screenings of suspension cells is associated with risk of losing cell content during the staining procedures and incompatibility with high-content microscopy. Here, we evaluate the Droplet-Microarray screening platform for culturing, screening, and imaging of suspension cells. We demonstrate pipetting-free cell seeding and proliferation of cells in individual droplets of 3-80 nL in volume. We developed a methodology to perform parallel treatment, staining, and fixation of suspension cells in individual droplets. Automated imaging of live suspension cells directly in the droplets combined with algorithms for pattern recognition for image analysis is demonstrated. We evaluated the developed methodology by performing a dose-response study with antineoplastic drugs. We believe that the DMA screening platform carries great potential to be adopted for broad spectrum of screenings of suspension cells.

  10. A Course in Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a course focusing on fluid mechanics and physical chemistry of suspensions. Describes the main themes of the lectures and includes a list of course outlines. Possible textbooks and many journal articles are listed. (YP)

  11. Heat and mass transfer in particulate suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2013-01-01

    Heat and Mass Transfer in Particulate Suspensions is a critical review of the subject of heat and mass transfer related to particulate Suspensions, which include both fluid-particles and fluid-droplet Suspensions. Fundamentals, recent advances and industrial applications are examined. The subject of particulate heat and mass transfer is currently driven by two significant applications: energy transformations –primarily combustion – and heat transfer equipment. The first includes particle and droplet combustion processes in engineering Suspensions as diverse as the Fluidized Bed Reactors (FBR’s) and Internal Combustion Engines (ICE’s). On the heat transfer side, cooling with nanofluids, which include nanoparticles, has attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade both from the fundamental and the applied side and has produced several scientific publications. A monograph that combines the fundamentals of heat transfer with particulates as well as the modern applications of the subject would be...

  12. Numerical Study of Suspension Plasma Spraying

    CERN Document Server

    Farrokhpanah, Amirsaman; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    A numerical study of suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is presented in the current work. The liquid suspension jet is replaced with a train of droplets containing the suspension particles injected into the plasma flow. Atomization, evaporation, and melting of different components are considered for particles as they travel towards the substrate. Effect of different parameters on particle conditions during flight and upon impact on the substrate are investigated. Initially, influence of the torch operating conditions such as inlet flow rate and power are studied. Additionally, effect of injector parameters like injection location, flow rate, and angle are examined. The model used in current study takes high temperature gradients and non-continuum effects into account. Moreover, the important effect of change in physical properties of suspension droplets as a result of evaporation is included in the model. These mainly include variations in heat transfer properties and viscosity. Utilizing this improved model, s...

  13. Suspension of rigid spheres in shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Mona; Esteghamatian, Amir; Wachs, Anthony

    2017-11-01

    Suspension of rigid spheres in a plane Couette flow is studied using three-dimensional particle resolved numerical simulations. We use a fixed mesh that resolves each particle diameter using 24 points and a Distributed Lagrange Multi- plier/Fictitious Domain (DLM/FD) method. The effects of particle volume fraction and particle Reynolds number on the macrcoscopic and microscopic stresses in the suspension are examined. The kinematics of particle are also studied for a range of dilute to dense suspensions and Stokes to inertial flows. For dense suspensions and also for higher particle Reynolds numbers the particle/particle and particle/wall contacts are enhanced. For such cases, lubrication forces need to be taken into account. We compare simulations with and without the lubrication forces to conclude for what range of parameters lubrication should be incorporated into the simulations.

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Mountain Bike Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Titlestad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant distinction between competitive mountain bikes is whether they have a suspension system. Research studies indicate that a suspension system gives advantages, but it is difficult to quantify the benefits because they depend on so many variables, including the physiology and psychology of the cyclist, the roughness of the track and the design of the suspension system. A laboratory based test rig has been built that allows the number of variables in the system to be reduced and test conditions to be controlled. The test rig simulates regular impacts of the rear wheel with bumps in a rolling road. The physiological variables of oxygen consumption and heart rate were measured, together with speeds and forces at various points in the system. Physiological and mechanical test results both confirm a significant benefit in using a suspension system on the simulated rough track, with oxygen consumption reduced by around 30 % and power transmitted through the pedals reduced by 30 % to 60 %.

  15. 21 CFR 26.16 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.16 Suspension. (a) Each party has the right...

  16. Optical analysis of red blood cell suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szołna, Alicja A.; Grzegorzewski, Bronisław

    2008-12-01

    The optical properties of suspensions of red blood cells (RBCs) were studied. Fresh human venues blood was obtained from adult healthy donors. RBCs were suspended in isotonic salt solution, and in autologous plasma. Suspensions with haematocrit 0.25 - 3% were investigated. Novel technique was proposed to determine the scattering coefficient μs for the suspensions. The intensity of He-Ne laser light transmitted through a wedge-shape container filled with a suspension was recorded. To find the dependence of the intensity on the thickness of the sample the container was moved horizontally. The dependence of μs on the haematocrit was determined for RBCs suspended in the isotonic salt solution. RBCs suspended in plasma tend to form rouleaux. For the RBCs suspended in plasma, the scattering coefficient as a function of time was obtained. It is shown that this technique can be useful in the study of rouleaux formation.

  17. Development of a novel vortex flow meter for downhole use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiferli, W.; Cheng, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity of oil and gas wells, the demand for instrumentation to measure conditions inside well tubing below the surface is growing rapidly. A robust meter was designed to measure liquid flows at downhole conditions. The meter is based on a specially-designed bluff body to

  18. Investigating water meter performance in developing countries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-07

    Oct 7, 2011 ... High levels of water losses in distribution systems are the main challenge that water utilities in developing countries cur- rently face. ... industry, especially in developing countries, to make appropriate metering and sub-metering decisions. ... the case study, followed by the research methodology used in.

  19. Real time Aanderaa current meter data collection system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.

    in laboratory. In this paper a method is described to read the real time current meter data and display/print/store on cartridge. For this, binary coded electrical signal available at the top end plate of the current meter is connectEd. by underwater cable...

  20. Inaccuracy of portable peak flow meters : correction is not needed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, PLP; Waalkens, HJ; Duiverman, EJ; vanEssenZandvliet, EEM

    This study examined whether correction of peak expiratory flow (PEF) values for the inaccuracy of the meter would affect asthma management in 102 children (7-14 y old). PEF was recorded with a mini Wright meter twice daily for 2 weeks. As expected, measured PEF overestimated PEF level and asthma

  1. The accuracy of self monitoring blood glucose meter systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, those on meter system B and C were significantly lower and different. Temperature and humidity adversely affected the analytical performance of meter systems B and C in the Kampala environ. Conclusion: Some of the blood glucose monitoring systems in Kampala, Uganda are poor performers and may lead to ...

  2. Investigating water meter performance in developing countries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High levels of water losses in distribution systems are the main challenge that water utilities in developing countries currently face. The water meter is an essential tool for both the utility and the customers to measure and monitor consumption. When metering is inefficient and coupled with low tariffs, the financial ...

  3. Optimal water meter selection system | Johnson | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative frequency of the volume of water passing through a meter at various flow rates and the weighted accuracies of these measured volumes play a pivotal role in establishing a common comparison reference. The time unit selected to calculate the volume of water passing through the meter is guided by the type of ...

  4. 24 CFR 965.401 - Individually metered utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Existing PHA-Owned Projects § 965.401 Individually metered utilities. (a) All utility service shall be individually metered to residents, either through provision of retail service to the residents by the utility... or public service commission. (b) If checkmetering is not permissible, retail service shall be...

  5. Microwave moisture meter for in-shell peanut kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    . A microwave moisture meter built with off-the-shelf components was developed, calibrated and tested in the laboratory and in the field for nondestructive and instantaneous in-shell peanut kernel moisture content determination from dielectric measurements on unshelled peanut pod samples. The meter ...

  6. Designing remote web-based mechanical-volumetric flow meter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, in water and wastewater industry a lot of mechanical-volumetric flow meters are used for the navigation of the produced water and the data of these flow meters, due to use in a wide geographical range, is done physically and by in person presence. All this makes reading the data costly and, in some cases, due to ...

  7. 18 CFR 367.9020 - Account 902, Meter reading expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 902, Meter reading expenses. 367.9020 Section 367.9020 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9020 Account 902, Meter reading...

  8. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunickis M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale.

  9. Development and Testing of Infrared Water Current Meter | Ezenne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuous monitoring of the river flow is essential for assessing water availability. River flow velocity is crucial to simulate discharge hydrographs of water in the hydrological system.This study developed a digital water current meter with infrared. The infrared current meter was tested using Ebonyi River at Obollo-Etiti and ...

  10. A prepaid meter using mobile communication | Jain | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper suggests a prepaid energy meter behaving like a prepaid mobile phone. The meter contains a prepaid card analogous to mobile SIM card. The prepaid card communicates with the power utility using mobile communication infrastructure. Once the prepaid card is out of balance, the consumer load is disconnected ...

  11. Design of a Robust Prepaid Energy Metering and Billing System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... detector(GBTD) which detects abnormalities and sends sms alert to power utility for on site visit or investigation. A prior billing is bound to do away with the problems of unpaid bills and human error in meter readings, thereby ensuring justified revenue for the utility. Keywords: SMS, GSM, microcontroller, energy meter, ...

  12. The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT): An International Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be the first truly global ground-based optical/infrared observatory. It will initiate the era of extremely large (30-meter class) telescopes with diffraction limited performance from its vantage point in the northern hemisphere on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA. The astronomy ...

  13. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, ext...

  14. A comparison between two pneumatic suspension architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Scopesi, Marco; Franco, Walter; Quaglia, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess and compare the mathematical models of two pneumatic suspension architectures and show how they can converge, after appropriate simplifications, to a general linear form. After making this model dimensionless, it will be used to study, with a transmissibility analysis, the behaviour of a mono-suspension (quarter-car model). Finally, an example of a design process will be shown to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both architectures and to provide the ...

  15. Rheology of Confined Non-Brownian Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, Walter; Brandt, Luca; Chaudhuri, Pinaki; Lopez, Cyan Umbert; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Picano, Francesco

    2016-01-08

    We study the rheology of confined suspensions of neutrally buoyant rigid monodisperse spheres in plane-Couette flow using direct numerical simulations. We find that if the width of the channel is a (small) integer multiple of the sphere diameter, the spheres self-organize into two-dimensional layers that slide on each other and the effective viscosity of the suspension is significantly reduced. Each two-dimensional layer is found to be structurally liquidlike but its dynamics is frozen in time.

  16. Melting in temperature sensitive suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsayed, Ahmed M.

    We describe two experimental studies about melting in colloidal systems. In particular we studied melting of 1-dimensional lamellar phases and 3-dimensional colloidal crystals. In the first set of experiments we prepared suspensions composed of rodlike fd virus and the thermosensitive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). The phase diagram of this systems is temperature and concentration dependent. Using video microscopy, we directly observed melting of lamellar phases and single lamellae into nematic phase. We found that lamellar phases swell with increasing temperature before melting into the nematic phase. The highly swollen lamellae can be superheated as a result of topological nucleation barriers that slow the formation of the nematic phase. In another set of experiments we prepared colloidal crystals from thermally responsive microgel spheres. The crystals are equilibrium close-packed three-dimensional structures. Upon increasing the temperature slightly above room temperature, particle volume fraction decreased from 0.74 to less than 0.5. Using video microscopy, we observed premelting at grain boundaries and dislocations within bulk colloidal crystals. Premelting is the localized loss of crystalline order at surfaces and defects at sample volume fractions above the bulk melting transition. Particle tracking revealed increased disorder in crystalline regions bordering defects, the amount of which depends on the type of defect, distance from the defect, and particle volume fraction. In total these observations suggest that interfacial free energy is the crucial parameter for premelting in colloidal and in atomic scale crystals.

  17. Ride responses of macpherson suspension systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cheng-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to obtain more correct vehicle ride responses by using a nonlinear ride model considering the effect of Macpherson suspension geometry. Traditional ride model applied to analysis and controller design uses a two degree of freedom linear model, which includes sprung mass and unsprung mass and a spring and a damper vertically connect them. In fact, suspension components do not vertically position above the tire. The motions of body and tire are not going straight up and down. Therefore, the analysis results obtained by the simple model are often different from the experimental values of the actual vehicle. Because of the difference between simple model and actual vehicle, the control strategy almost cannot apply to actual vehicle. In order to understand the effect of suspension geometry on the vehicle ride responses and design a more practical control strategy, a nonlinear model including the geometric parameters of the suspension is constructed in this study. To estimate the initial equilibrium position of the suspension assembly under load, the static equilibrium analysis and mechanism motion analysis are synchronous implemented at the same time. The nonlinear model describes not only the relative position and velocity but also the force transmission between body and tire. Furthermore, by linearize this nonlinear model the development of control strategy for subsequent (semi active suspension system could be expected.

  18. X-ray Mapping of Dynamic Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mohammad; Lenoir, Nicolas; Ovarlez, Guillaume; Hormozi, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    Dense non-colloidal suspensions are materials with broad application both in industrial processes and natural phenomena. In most of these applications, the suspensions are either far from equilibrium or strongly non-Newtonian (i.e., non-colloidal particles are suspended in non-Newtonian fluid) meaning that the flow kinetics are not only strain-dependent but also strain-rate dependent. Therefore, experimental techniques must be developed to analyze the flows of these complex suspensions over a wide range of steady and transient shear rates. Techniques such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance/Imaging (NMR/I) are inapplicable due to low sampling frequency and low image resolution (typically 10 minutes per averaged NMR image of 1x1cm). We introduce a new technique using an X-ray/CT-scan system to study dynamic suspensions. We show our recent results on the application of this technique for the study of shear induced migration of particles in a yield stress matrix fluid in a wide-gap cylindrical Couette cell. This work opens new avenues to study dynamic non-colloidal suspensions and the suspensions with other types of nonlinear suspending fluids such as viscoelastic and shear thickening fluids. NFS(CBET-1554044-CAREER).

  19. Core muscle activity during suspension exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Nicola W; Yeung, Ella W; Cho, Jeran C; Hui, Samson C; Liu, Kimee C; Pang, Coleman H

    2015-03-01

    Suspension exercise has been advocated as an effective means to improve core stability among healthy individuals and those with musculoskeletal complaints. However, the activity of core muscles during suspension exercises has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the level of activation of core muscles during suspension exercises within young and healthy adults. The study was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of core muscles (rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique/transversus abdominis, and superficial lumbar multifidus) during four suspension workouts (hip abduction in plank, hamstring curl, chest press, and 45° row) was investigated. Muscle activity during a 5-s hold period of the workouts was measured by sEMG and normalized to the individual's maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Different levels of muscle activation were observed during the hip abduction in plank, hamstring curl, and chest press. Hip abduction in plank generated the highest activation of most abdominal muscles. The 45° row exercise generated the lowest muscle activation. Among the four workouts investigated, the hip abduction in plank with suspension was found to have the strongest potential strengthening effect on core muscles. Also, suspension training was found to generate relatively high levels of core muscle activation when compared with that among previous studies of core exercises on stable and unstable support surfaces. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Megestrol acetate NCD oral suspension--Par Pharmaceutical: megestrol acetate nanocrystal dispersion oral suspension, PAR 100.2, PAR-100.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Par Pharmaceutical has developed megestrol acetate (Megace ES) oral suspension for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia and a significant weight loss associated with AIDS. Par Pharmaceutical used Elan Corporation's NanoCrystal Dispersion (NCD) technology to develop an advanced, concentrated formulation of megestrol acetate with improved bioavailability, more rapid onset of action, more convenient dosing and a lower dosing regimen compared with the original marketed formulation of megestrol acetate oral suspension. Patients are administered a teaspoon (5mL) of the new NCD formulation once daily, compared with a daily 20mL dosage cup of the original formulation. The new megestrol acetate NCD formulation represents a line-extension of Par's megestrol acetate oral suspension (800mg/20mL, Megace O/S) that has been marketed for anorexia, cachexia and AIDS-related weight loss since July 2001. Par's megestrol acetate is the generic version of Bristol-Myers Squibb's Megace Oral Suspension. NanoCrystal Dispersion (NCD) is a trademark of Elan Corporation. Par Pharmaceutical will market megestol acetate NCD oral suspension under the Megace brand name. The company licensed the Megace name from Bristol-Myers Squib in August 2003. The US FDA approved megestrol acetate oral suspension (625 mg/mL) in July 2005 for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia or a significant, unexplained weight loss in patients with AIDS. The NDA for the product was accepted for review by the agency in September 2004, following its submission in June of that year.Par Pharmaceutical commenced the first of two phase III clinical trials of megestrol acetate oral suspension (PAR 100.2) in cancer-induced anorexia in the first quarter of 2006. However, this trial was discontinued in September 2006 because of slow patient enrolment. The company intends to discuss future development options in this indication with the FDA.New formulations or dosage forms of megestrol acetate concentrated suspension are also in

  1. Compounding rifampin suspensions with improved injectability for nasogastric enteral feeding tube administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Melgardt M; Vogel, Laura; Bogenschutz, Monica C; Fingerhut, Bonnie J; D'Silva, Joseph B; Moore, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Often medications that have to be administered to patients via a nasogastric enteral feeding tubes are only available as tablets and capsules with no suitable commercial liquid alternatives. In such situations, pharmacists and nurses have to compound the tablets and capsule contents into liquid suspension formulations for dosing. The risk of occlusion of the enteral tubes during administration is reduced by employing liquid suspensions that are composed of small and uniform particles, not subject to rapid rates of settling, resistant to caking, and easily and uniformly re-suspended upon agitation. Present techniques often employ a manual process, such as a mortar and pestle, to accomplish the particle size reduction and subsequent incorporation into a suitable liquid diluent. A new compounding device has been invented that employs an automated wet-milling process in a single-use disposable plastic container to compound the suspensions. The two processes were compared using Rifampin capsules and various liquid diluents. A prototype version of the new device was employed in the experiments. The physical characteristics of the compounded suspensions were evaluated by determining sedimentation rate, sedimentation volume, and particle size and shape using laser light scattering, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The use characteristic of the compounded suspensions was evaluated using a nasogastric tube inject ability test. The results indicated that suspensions prepared using the new device were more resistant to sedimentation and caking and were easier to re-disperse into a uniform mixture by gentle shaking. The results were a consequence of the particles generated by the new device which were found to be smaller and more uniform in shape and size. The suspensions prepared using the new device did not cause blockage of the enteral feeding tubes in comparison to those prepared using a mortar and pastle. In conclusion, the results indicate

  2. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  3. In vitro mutagenesis in embryogenic cell suspensions of banana cv. Grande naine (Musa AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalmis Bermúdez-Caraballoso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis is a useful process for clonal propagation and genetic improvement by induction of mutations. This work was carried out with the objective of determining the effect of 60Co source Gamma radiations on embryogenic cell suspensions of banana cv. 'Grande naine' (Musa AAA until conversion to plants. Different doses of radiation (0, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 Gy were applied to embryogenic cell suspensions in the multiplication phase and the embryos were later formed, matured and germinated. To determine the ex vitro response of the population of plants obtained these were transferred to greenhouse. The results showed that with somatic embryos formed fresh mass no differences were observed between the effect of the different doses of radiation applied and the control. However, the radiation dose affected the percentage of somatic embryo formation and germination. Plants with phenotypic variations were regenerated with 40 Gy. The results at the greenhouse showed that as radiation doses increased up to 50 Gy, the frequency of variations increased. With higher doses of radiation the survival of the plants was affected.   Keywords: Gamma radiation, in vitro mutagenesis, radiation dose, radiosensibility, somatic embryo

  4. Response of six neutron survey meters in mixed fields of fast and thermal neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S I; Kim, B H; Chang, I; Lee, J I; Kim, J L; Pradhan, A S

    2013-10-01

    Calibration neutron fields have been developed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) to study the responses of commonly used neutron survey meters in the presence of fast neutrons of energy around 10 MeV. The neutron fields were produced by using neutrons from the (241)Am-Be sources held in a graphite pile and a DT neutron generator. The spectral details and the ambient dose equivalent rates of the calibration fields were established, and the responses of six neutron survey meters were evaluated. Four single-moderator-based survey meters exhibited an under-responses ranging from ∼9 to 55 %. DINEUTRUN, commonly used in fields around nuclear reactors, exhibited an over-response by a factor of three in the thermal neutron field and an under-response of ∼85 % in the mixed fields. REM-500 (tissue-equivalent proportional counter) exhibited a response close to 1.0 in the fast neutron fields and an under-response of ∼50 % in the thermal neutron field.

  5. Weather Impact on Airport Arrival Meter Fix Throughput

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Time-based flow management provides arrival aircraft schedules based on arrival airport conditions, airport capacity, required spacing, and weather conditions. In order to meet a scheduled time at which arrival aircraft can cross an airport arrival meter fix prior to entering the airport terminal airspace, air traffic controllers make regulations on air traffic. Severe weather may create an airport arrival bottleneck if one or more of airport arrival meter fixes are partially or completely blocked by the weather and the arrival demand has not been reduced accordingly. Under these conditions, aircraft are frequently being put in holding patterns until they can be rerouted. A model that predicts the weather impacted meter fix throughput may help air traffic controllers direct arrival flows into the airport more efficiently, minimizing arrival meter fix congestion. This paper presents an analysis of air traffic flows across arrival meter fixes at the Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR). Several scenarios of weather impacted EWR arrival fix flows are described. Furthermore, multiple linear regression and regression tree ensemble learning approaches for translating multiple sector Weather Impacted Traffic Indexes (WITI) to EWR arrival meter fix throughputs are examined. These weather translation models are developed and validated using the EWR arrival flight and weather data for the period of April-September in 2014. This study also compares the performance of the regression tree ensemble with traditional multiple linear regression models for estimating the weather impacted throughputs at each of the EWR arrival meter fixes. For all meter fixes investigated, the results from the regression tree ensemble weather translation models show a stronger correlation between model outputs and observed meter fix throughputs than that produced from multiple linear regression method.

  6. Liquid ultrasonic flow meters for crude oil measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalivoda, Raymond J.; Lunde, Per

    2005-07-01

    Liquid ultrasonic flow meters (LUFMs) are gaining popularity for the accurate measurement of petroleum products. In North America the first edition of the API standard ''Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons by ultrasonic flow meters using transit time technology'' was issued in February 2005. It addresses both refined petroleum products and crude oil applications. Its field of application is mainly custody transfer applications but it does provide general guidelines for the installation and operation of LUFM's other applications such as allocation, check meters and leak detection. As with all new technologies performance claims are at times exaggerated or misunderstood and application knowledge is limited. Since ultrasonic meters have no moving parts they appear to have fewer limitations than other liquid flow meters. Liquids ultrasonic flow meters, like turbine meters, are sensitive to fluid properties. It is increasingly more difficult to apply on high viscosity products then on lighter hydrocarbon products. Therefore application data or experience on the measurement of refined or light crude oil may not necessarily be transferred to measuring medium to heavy crude oils. Before better and more quantitative knowledge is available on how LUFMs react on different fluids, the arguments advocating reduced need for in-situ proving and increased dependency on laboratory flow calibration (e.g. using water instead of hydrocarbons) may be questionable. The present paper explores the accurate measurement of crude oil with liquid ultrasonic meters. It defines the unique characteristics of the different API grades of crude oils and how they can affect the accuracy of the liquid ultrasonic measurement. Flow testing results using a new LUFM design are discussed. The paper is intended to provide increased insight into the potentials and limitations of crude oil measurement using ultrasonic flow meters. (author) (tk)

  7. Rheological behavior of oxide nanopowder suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Simge

    Ceramic nanopowders offer great potential in advanced ceramic materials and many other technologically important applications. Because a material's rheological properties are crucial for most processing routes, control of the rheological behavior has drawn significant attention in the recent past. The control of rheological behavior relies on an understanding of how different parameters affect the suspension viscosities. Even though the suspension stabilization mechanisms are relatively well understood for sub-micron and micron size particle systems, this knowledge cannot be directly transferred to nanopowder suspensions. Nanopowder suspensions exhibit unexpectedly high viscosities that cannot be explained with conventional mechanisms and are still a topic of investigation. This dissertation aims to establish the critical parameters governing the rheological behavior of concentrated oxide nanopowder suspensions, and to elucidate the mechanisms by which these parameters control the rheology of these suspensions. Aqueous alumina nanopowders were chosen as a model system, and the findings were extrapolated to other oxide nanopowder systems such as zirconia, yttria stabilized zirconia, and titania. Processing additives such as fructose, NaCl, HCl, NaOH, and ascorbic acid were used in this study. The effect of solids content and addition of fructose on the viscosity of alumina nanopowder suspensions was investigated by low temperature differential scanning calorimetry (LT-DSC), rheological, and zeta potential measurements. The analysis of bound water events observed in LT-DSC revealed useful information regarding the rheological behavior of nanopowder suspensions. Because of the significance of interparticle interactions in nanopowder suspensions, the electrostatic stabilization was investigated using indifferent and potential determining ions. Different mechanisms, e.g., the effect of the change in effective volume fraction caused by fructose addition and electrostatic

  8. Retrospective evaluation of the accuracy of Roche AccuChek Inform and Nova StatStrip glucose meters when used on critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, Brad S; Blanshan, Chanse T; Deobald, Gayle R; Wockenfus, Amy M

    2014-12-01

    More stringent accuracy guidelines for hospital-use glucose meters have recently been published, but it remains unclear whether glucose meters can meet these accuracy guidelines when measurement is performed on critically ill patients with fresh whole blood samples. We performed a retrospective evaluation of a conventional (Roche Diagnostics [Indianapolis, IN] AccuChek® Inform) and a newer-generation (Nova Biomedical [Waltham, MA] StatStrip®) glucose system by comparing paired (drawn within 5 min of each other) whole blood glucose meter and laboratory serum glucose values obtained from intensive care unit (ICU) patients. We also performed a prospective evaluation of the accuracy of the Nova StatStrip. The median (interquartile range) bias between Roche AccuChek Inform and serum laboratory glucose measurements was 11 (6-18) mg/dL, compared with a median bias between the Nova StatStrip and serum glucose measurements of 1 (-5 to 5) mg/dL. StatStrip met International Organization for Standardization 15197 and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) POCT12-A3 accuracy guidelines using both retrospective and prospective datasets. The newer-generation (StatStrip) glucose meter met more stringent CLSI POCT12-A3 accuracy criteria because of reduced bias compared with the previous-generation device. Reduced glucose meter bias led to fewer insulin dosing discrepancies when the insulin dose determined from serum glucose was compared with that determined from the glucose meter value using the institutional glycemic control protocol.

  9. Checking liquid meters. Marketers find ''master meter program'' provides reliable, economical method to check truck meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lady, P.

    1976-08-01

    With LP-gas prices continuing to increase, LP-gas marketers are becoming increasingly aware of the need for testing liquid meters on trucks used for delivering bulk propane. Many large marketers are aware of the need for consistent testing and are establishing periodic programs for their truck fleets. Because the official test equipment--the volumetric meter power--is expensive and requires a highly trained operator, many dealers are seeking simpler, less expensive testing methods to make sure that their meters are dispensing fuel. The more accurate of the two alternative methods is a master meter which has been calibrated against a prover and whose variations are known for different flow rates. The method's main disadvantage is the possibility that the master meter might be in error. The last method, which uses truck scales, is the least expensive and most readily available to all operators but also is the least accurate and is time-consuming, especially in low-flow tests.

  10. Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Takahashi, N.; Misaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    The chief aims in THE SPHINX PROJECT are research of super lepton physics and new detector experiments. At the second phase of THE SPHINX PROJECT, a hybrid TLC-PAIR METER was designed for measuring high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV) and measuring muon group (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of PAIR METER has been already proposed. In this TLC-PAIR METER, electromagnetic shower induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using TL (Thermoluminescence) sheets with position counters.

  11. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  12. X-ray intensifying screen visible light detection meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, D; Eisenhuth, J; Knight, P; Bui, Q

    1997-06-01

    A light meter has been designed and built for the purpose of measuring the light emitted from an intensifying screen during x-ray irradiation. The meter uses a photodiode detector with a minimal drift amplification system. The meter repeatability was better than 0.5% and was found to be linear. A significant x-ray induced signal was recorded during measurement which needed to be subtracted from readings to deduce the intensification screen light output. The energy response of four screen types was subsequently measured.

  13. Topology-Based Estimation of Missing Smart Meter Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kodaira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart meters often fail to measure or transmit the data they record when measuring energy consumption, known as meter readings, owing to faulty measuring equipment or unreliable communication modules. Existing studies do not address successive and non-periodical missing meter readings. This paper proposes a method whereby missing readings observed at a node are estimated by using circuit theory principles that leverage the voltage and current data from adjacent nodes. A case study is used to demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to successfully estimate the missing readings over an entire day during which outages and unpredictable perturbations occurred.

  14. Federal metering data analysis needs and existing tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Agencies have been working to improve their metering data collection, management, and analysis efforts over the last decade (since EPAct 2005) and will continue to address these challenges as new requirements and data needs come into place. Unfortunately there is no “one-size-fits-all” solution. As agencies continue to expand their capabilities to use metered consumption data to reducing resource use and improve operations, the hope is that shared knowledge will empower others to follow suit. This paper discusses the Federal metering data analysis needs and some existing tools.

  15. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ceres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel 300 mm in diameter. The just suspension impeller speeds were measured using an electrochemical method, and were checked visually. A 2.5 % NaCl water solution was used as the liquid phase, and glass particles with four equivalent diameters between 0.18 and 0.89 mmand volumetric concentration from 2.5 % to 40% were usedasthesolid phase. The criterion values πs=Po√Fr'3(d/D7 were calculated from the particle suspension and power consumption measurements. The dependencies of πs on particle content cv show that larger agitators are more efficient for higher particle content.

  16. Numerical study of suspensions of deformable particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Luca; Rosti, Marco Edoardo

    2017-11-01

    We consider a model non-Newtonian fluid consisting of a suspension of deformable particles in a Newtonian solvent. Einstein showed in his pioneering work that the relative increase in effective viscosity is a linear function of the particle volume fraction for dilute suspensions of rigid particles. Inertia has been shown to introduce deviations from the behaviour predicted by the different empirical fits, an effect that can be related to an increase of the effective volume fraction. We here focus on the effect of elasticity, i.e. visco-elastic deformable particles. To tackle the problem at hand, we perform three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation of a plane Couette flow with a suspension of neutrally buoyant deformable viscous hyper-elastic particles. We show that elasticity produces a shear-thinning effect in elastic suspensions (in comparison to rigid ones) and that it can be understood in terms of a reduction of the effective volume fraction of the suspension. The deformation modifies the particle motion reducing the level of mutual interaction. Normal stress differences will also be considered. European Research Council, Grant No. ERC-2013-CoG- 616186, TRITOS; SNIC (the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing).

  17. Intrinsic viscosity of actively swimming microalgae suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewoldt, Randy; Caretta, Lucas; Chengala, Anwar; Sheng, Jian

    2011-11-01

    Suspensions of actively swimming microorganisms exhibit an effective viscosity which may depend on volume fraction, cell shape, and the nature of locomotion (e.g. ``pushers'' vs. ``pullers''). Although several dilute-regime theories have been offered for active suspensions, no experimental study to our knowledge has been able to resolve the dilute-regime intrinsic viscosity of actively swimming microorganism suspensions. Here we use a cone-and-plate rheometer to experimentally measure the dynamic shear viscosity for motile and non-motile suspensions of unicellular green algae (Dunaliella primolecta, a biflagellated ``puller''). The low viscosity biological samples require careful experimental protocols to avoid settling and flow-induced migration, and to minimize precision error. With these protocols in place we can distinguish the intrinsic viscosity which we show is higher for the motile ``puller'' swimmers compared to the immobilized counterparts. This observation is consistent with recently proposed dilute-regime theories which predict that ``pullers'' should have a higher viscosity than non-motile suspensions.

  18. Open for new ideas. Metering management in the energy service sector; Offen fuer neue Ideen. Metering Management beim Energiedienst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-10-04

    Smarter grids - this is one of the goals of the Rheinfelden energy service. At an early stage already, the energy service began to introduce new business processes like smart metering and related technologies, with an orientation along the requirements of the market and the pertinent legal regulations. A flexible software was used in metering management in order to best achieve the targeted goals. The energy service is now testing the applicability of DSL and GPRS in three smart meter field tests, each in a separate new housing area with different boundary conditions. (orig.)

  19. One-Meter Class Drilling for Planetary Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the proposed effort is to understand and characterize the fundamental limitations of drilling one to three meters into challenging materials which may...

  20. Quantifying uncertainty contributions for fibre optic power meter calibrations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A fibre optic power meter calibration has several uncertainty contributors associated with it. In order to assign a realistic uncertainty to the calibration result it is necessary to realistically estimate the magnitude of each uncertainty...

  1. Electric Power Substitute Meter Management via Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson C. Rodelas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available EPSMvMA is composed of Digital Sub-Meter connected to different components namely the GSM module, Bluetooth module, Power Analyzer Module, LCD Module, Relay Module and Main Microcontroller module. The connection via Mobile is made possible by the modules mentioned. The software that the proponents will be dealing with in the study is C++ language, which will be used in programming the Main Microcontroller module and Visual Basic Language for the Android Phones. The Bluetooth module can access the Android Phones and connect to the digital sub-meter in a limited distance. The users will be at ease since a code embedded to the microcontroller will make the utility sub-meter produce the desired value of electricity (KWH and wherein the computed Sub-meter reading can be viewed through the LCD. This project is accommodating to those person that is always on the go and prudent.

  2. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Hawaii. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker green...

  3. Tweeting : Smart meters raise awareness of energy consumption in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-11-15

    The University of Mississippi (UM) will monitor, analyze and report on energy consumption in its campus buildings in real-time using SmartSynch Smart Meters. The technology uses smart meter data to help identify a detailed pattern of electricity usage with the objective of finding methods to alter behaviour to reduce electricity usage and carbon emissions. SmartSynch installed 16 Smart Meters on campus with additional deployments being planned. The technology will enable the university to monitor energy consumption, track building power performance over time, compare building energy usage, and review the impact of the weather on energy use while reducing its carbon footprint. Additionally, UM will use Facebook, Twitter and an RSS feed to provide regular public updates on its buildings' energy consumption based on SmartSynch Smart Meter data. Each building will have its own profile on the social networking sites. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  4. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Shaded...

  5. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Shaded...

  6. Lightweight Thermally Stable Multi-Meter Aperture Submillimeter Reflectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II effort will be an affordable demonstrated full-scale design for a thermally stable multi-meter submillimeter reflector. The Phase I...

  7. Grayscale Hawaii Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  8. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset, 100 meter, Binary V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AG100B.003 dataset was decommissioned as of December 14, 2016. Users are encouraged to use the ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 100-meter (AG100.003 -...

  9. Guanabara Bay and Pecem LNG flexible metering systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Vinicus Roberto C.; Carvalho, Gustavo L.A.; Bruel, Edson L.; Santana, Jose P.C. de; Vidal, Lud C.C.N. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    This work presents to the community the metering systems installed in the Liquefied Natural (LNG) Gas Flexible Terminals of the Pecem Port and Guanabara Bay. A brief description of the Terminals facilities and its operation is firstly made to provide a background of the systems discussed. Then, the LNG custody transfer metering system, the operational control metering system, the energy balance of the LNG transferring system and the Natural Gas custody transfer metering system - that are our systems of interest - are described in detail. It is intended to use the philosophy adopted in the Guanabara Bay and Pecem Flexible Terminals design as a standard to future installations, integrated with improvements brought by the operation experience that will be obtained in those terminals. (author)

  10. Suppression of radiated emission in fiscal taxi meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong; Yang, Pei-pei; Su, Xing; Zhang, Da-jian; Wang, Ke-xi; Hou, Ming-feng

    2011-12-01

    This paper is based upon National Standards for EMC. For the problem that the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the meter with the THG at 36MHz is seriously more than National Standards, by studying the theory of radiation emission and analyzing the formation mechanism of electromagnetic radiation interference, it proposes three restrain measures: 1.the improvement of the Crystal oscillator's grounding measure; 2.adding a RC filter circuit to the Crystal oscillator circuit; 3.the improvement of the tax's communication cable, solving the problem that radiation harassment the taxi meter seriously exceeds. The experimental result demonstrates that the radiation intensity of tax meter improved with the general measures meet the requirements of the national standard, making more than 32000 taxes in Tianjin install this green meter, protecting the safety of staff and normal operation of the surrounding equipment.

  11. 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree canopy data were derived...

  12. Color Alaska Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Alaska shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Alaska at a resolution of 200 meters. The NED is...

  13. Color Hawaii Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The NED is...

  14. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Hawaii, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  15. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Alaska, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  16. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Alaska. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker green...

  17. Smarter energy from smart metering to the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Hongjian; Poor, H Vincent; Carpanini, Laurence; Fornié, Miguel Angel Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge perspectives and research results in smart energy spanning multiple disciplines across four main topics: smart metering, smart grid modeling, control and optimisation, and smart grid communications and networking.

  18. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and In-ternet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decision......-making. Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world dataset as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns along...

  19. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decisionmaking....... Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world data set as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns...

  20. Solutions For Smart Metering Under Harsh Environmental Condicions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunicina N.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The described case study concerns application of wireless sensor networks to the smart control of power supply substations. The solution proposed for metering is based on the modular principle and has been tested in the intersystem communication paradigm using selectable interface modules (IEEE 802.3, ISM radio interface, GSM/GPRS. The solution modularity gives 7 % savings of maintenance costs. The developed solution can be applied to the control of different critical infrastructure networks using adapted modules. The proposed smart metering is suitable for outdoor installation, indoor industrial installations, operation under electromagnetic pollution, temperature and humidity impact. The results of tests have shown a good electromagnetic compatibility of the prototype meter with other electronic devices. The metering procedure is exemplified by operation of a testing company's workers under harsh environmental conditions.

  1. Solutions For Smart Metering Under Harsh Environmental Condicions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunicina, N.; Zabasta, A.; Kondratjevs, K.; Asmanis, G.

    2015-02-01

    The described case study concerns application of wireless sensor networks to the smart control of power supply substations. The solution proposed for metering is based on the modular principle and has been tested in the intersystem communication paradigm using selectable interface modules (IEEE 802.3, ISM radio interface, GSM/GPRS). The solution modularity gives 7 % savings of maintenance costs. The developed solution can be applied to the control of different critical infrastructure networks using adapted modules. The proposed smart metering is suitable for outdoor installation, indoor industrial installations, operation under electromagnetic pollution, temperature and humidity impact. The results of tests have shown a good electromagnetic compatibility of the prototype meter with other electronic devices. The metering procedure is exemplified by operation of a testing company's workers under harsh environmental conditions.

  2. Stability of dynamic response of suspension bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsoni, Antonio; Ardito, Raffaele; Guerrieri, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The potential occurrence of internal parametric resonance phenomena has been recently indicated as a potential contributory cause of the appearance of critical dynamic states in long-span suspension bridges. At the same time, suspension bridges, in view of their flexibility, are prone to aeroelastic response, such as vortex shedding, torsional divergence and flutter. In this paper, a non-linear dynamic model of a suspension bridge is devised, with the purpose of providing a first attempt toward a unified framework for the study of aeroelastic and internal resonance instabilities. Inspired by the pioneering work of Herrmann and Hauger, the analyses have been based on a linearized formulation that is able to represent the main structural non-linear effects and the coupling given by aerodynamic forces. The results confirm that the interaction between aeroelastic effects and non-linear internal resonance leads to unstable conditions for wind speeds which can be lower than the critical threshold for standard aeroelastic predictions.

  3. Estimation of tracked vehicle suspension parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldélio Bueno Caldeira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to estimate the suspension stiffness and damping coefficient of a tracked vehicle by using an inverse problem technique based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and on Random Restricted Window (R2W. The tracked vehicle has ten road wheels. Each road wheel is linked to a passive and independent suspension. A half car model with seven degrees of freedom describes the bounce and pitch dynamics of the chassis and the vertical dynamics of the wheels. Bounce and pitch accelerations are evaluated when the vehicle traverses a bump terrain. The inverse problem approach minimizes the total quadratic error between estimated and pseudo-experimental data for bounce and pitch accelerations. The viability of a field experiment to estimate the suspension parameters is analyzed, as well as the performance of the employed optimization methods and the effects of the noise on pseudo-experimental data.

  4. Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Style, R. W.

    2010-06-30

    During the drying of colloidal suspensions, the desiccation process causes the suspension near the air interface to consolidate into a connected porous matrix or crust. Fluid transport in the porous medium is governed by Darcy\\'s law and the equations of poroelasticity, while the equations of colloid physics govern processes in the suspension. We derive new equations describing this process, including unique boundary conditions coupling the two regions, yielding a moving-boundary model of the concentration and stress profiles during drying. A solution is found for the steady-state growth of a nedimensional crust during constant evaporation rate from the surface. The solution is used to demonstrate the importance of the system boundary conditions on stress profiles and diffusivity in a drying crust. © 2011 The Royal Society.

  5. Anomalous electrical conductivity of nanoscale colloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Suman; Padhy, Sourav

    2008-10-28

    The electrical conductivity of colloidal suspensions containing nanoscale conducting particles is nontrivially related to the particle volume fraction and the electrical double layer thickness. Classical electrochemical models, however, tend to grossly overpredict the pertinent effective electrical conductivity values, as compared to those obtained under experimental conditions. We attempt to address this discrepancy by appealing to the complex interconnection between the aggregation kinetics of the nanoscale particles and the electrodynamics within the double layer. In particular, we model the consequent alterations in the effective electrophoretic mobility values of the suspension by addressing the fundamentals of agglomeration-deagglomeration mechanisms through the pertinent variations in the effective particulate dimensions, solid fractions, as well as the equivalent suspension viscosity. The consequent alterations in the electrical conductivity values provide a substantially improved prediction of the corresponding experimental findings and explain the apparent anomalous behavior predicted by the classical theoretical postulates.

  6. Radiochromic Plastic Films for Accurate Measurement of Radiation Absorbed Dose and Dose Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W. L.; Miller, Arne; Fidan, S.

    1977-01-01

    Thin radiochromic dye films are useful for measuring large radiation absorbed doses (105–108 rads) and for high-resolution imaging of dose patterns produced by penetrating radiation beams passing through non-homogeneous media. Certain types of amino-substituted triarylmethane cyanides dissolved...... in polymeric solutions can be cast into flexible free-standing thin films of uniform thickness and reproducible response to ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. The increase in optical density versus energy deposited by radiation is linear over a wide range of doses and is for practical purposes independent...... of dose rate (1–1014 rad s−1). Upon irradiation of the film, the profile of the radiation field is registered as a permanent colored image of the dose distribution. Unlike most other types of dyed plastic dose meters, the optical density produced by irradiation is in most cases stable for periods...

  7. Design and Implementation of Smart Electrical Power Meter System

    OpenAIRE

    Mofeed Turky Rashid

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increased importance of Smart Grid, which includes monitoring and control the consumption of customers of electric power. In this paper, Wireless Smart Electrical Power Meter has been designed and implemented which ZigBee wireless sensor network (WSN) will be used for wireless electrical power meter communication supported by PIC microcontroller which used for power unit measurements. PIC microcontroller will be used for evaluating all electric power paramet...

  8. Probabilistic Analysis of Radiation Doses for Shore-Based Individuals in Operation Tomodachi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    3.048 × 10–1 meter (m) mile (mi, international) 1.609 344 × 103 meter (m) micron (μ) 1 × 10–6 meter (m) angstrom (Å) 1 × 10–10 meter (m) barn (b) 1...Marro, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute; Dr. Gerald Falo, Army Institute of Public Health; LCDR Terry Miles , Navy Marine Corps Public...Advisory Board on Dose Reconstruction, Subcommittee No. 1 members (Mr. Harold Beck, Mr. Paul Voilleque, and Dr. Gary Zeman ), who provided a preliminary

  9. Serum-Free Suspension Culture of MDCK Cells for Production of Influenza H1N1 Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding; Peng, Wen-Juan; Ye, Qian; Liu, Xu-Ping; Zhao, Liang; Fan, Li; Xia-Hou, Kang; Jia, Han-Jing; Luo, Jian; Zhou, Lin-Ting; Li, Bei-Bei; Wang, Shi-Lei; Xu, Wen-Ting; Chen, Ze; Tan, Wen-Song

    2015-01-01

    Development of serum-free suspension cell culture processes is very important for influenza vaccine production. Previously, we developed a MDCK suspension cell line in a serum-free medium. In the present study, the growth kinetics of suspension MDCK cells and influenza virus production in the serum-free medium were investigated, in comparison with those of adherent MDCK cells in both serum-containing and serum-free medium. It was found that the serum-free medium supported the stable subculture and growth of both adherent and suspension cells. In batch culture, for both cell lines, the growth kinetics in the serum-free medium was comparable with those in the serum-containing medium and a commercialized serum-free medium. In the serum-free medium, peak viable cell density (VCD), haemagglutinin (HA) and median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) titers of the two cell lines reached 4.51×106 cells/mL, 2.94Log10(HAU/50 μL) and 8.49Log10(virions/mL), and 5.97×106 cells/mL, 3.88Log10(HAU/50 μL), and 10.34Log10(virions/mL), respectively. While virus yield of adherent cells in the serum-free medium was similar to that in the serum-containing medium, suspension culture in the serum-free medium showed a higher virus yield than adherent cells in the serum-containing medium and suspension cells in the commercialized serum-free medium. However, the percentage of infectious viruses was lower for suspension culture in the serum-free medium. These results demonstrate the great potential of this suspension MDCK cell line in serum-free medium for influenza vaccine production and further improvements are warranted.

  10. Remote calibration system of a smart electrical energy meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakariae Jebroni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to control the power grid in real time has opened a new field of research, today researchers are trying to design electrical meters that are completely remote controlled, to create an advanced metering infrastructure. One of the most important processes in the field of measurement is the calibration of measuring instruments. The calibration process of the electrical meters was performed at laboratories. However, the new directives, now, require a regular test of accuracy. Nevertheless, moving each time on site to check the accuracy of a meter can be annoying. To solve this problem our contribution is to propose a new structure of a smart meter that integrates a calibration card, so that, this process is carried out remotely. To be able to calibrate the meter or test its accuracy, we have included an AC-AC converter powered by the electrical grid and that provides a stable voltage independent of the electrical grid in term of frequency and amplitude. The output voltage of the converter is used as the reference signal during calibration or accuracy testing. In this paper, we will present the structure of the calibration card, the study and dimensioning of the converter, as well as the control technique used to eliminate variations of the input voltage. At the end, we will present the results of simulations and experiments.

  11. [Idiopathic loss of lateral tarsal suspension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyano, J; Martín, E; Genol-Saavedra, I; García-Sánchez, J

    2007-06-01

    A 53-year-old man who showed a loss of tarsal suspension in the lateral third of both lower eyelids underwent lateral canthoplasty with a good post-operative result. Disinsertion of the union of the inferior tarsus with the lateral canthus, of unknown cause, is a very uncommon finding that has almost never been reported in the world literature. There are two cases described of eyelid elastolysis with loss of lateral tarsal suspension, as in our case, but both showed eyelid skin atrophy and had histopathologic confirmation. Our case did not have skin atrophy.

  12. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  13. Deflocculation of clay suspensions using sodium polyacrylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, P.

    1984-01-01

    Rheological properties of elutriated kaolin suspensions deflocculated by Na polyacrylate (DAC 3 and DAC 4) were studied and compared to those deflocculated by the conventional Na2CO3 water and glass and imported Dispex N40. The deflocculating effect of Na polyacrylate was comparable to that of Dispex N40. The optimum amounts of Na polyacrylate were determined for suspensions based on 5-type kaolin. The Na polyacrylate can be successfully used for decreasing the water content of ceramic slips for casting and spray drying.

  14. A comparison between two pneumatic suspension architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglia, G.; Scopesi, M.; Franco, W.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work is to assess and compare the mathematical models of two pneumatic suspension architectures and show how they can converge, after appropriate simplifications, to a general linear form. After making this model dimensionless, it will be used to study, with a transmissibility analysis, the behaviour of a mono-suspension (quarter-car model). Finally, an example of a design process will be shown to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both architectures and to provide the reader with a practical design tool.

  15. Reducing Transmitted Vibration Using Delayed Hysteretic Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcen Mokni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous numerical and experimental works show that time delay technique is efficient to reduce transmissibility of vibration in a single pneumatic chamber by controlling the pressure in the chamber. The present work develops an analytical study to demonstrate the effectiveness of such a technique in reducing transmitted vibrations. A quarter-car model is considered and delayed hysteretic suspension is introduced in the system. Analytical predictions based on perturbation analysis show that a delayed hysteretic suspension enhances vibration isolation comparing to the case where the nonlinear damping is delay-independent.

  16. Time varying behaviour of the loudspeaker suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn; Pedersen, Bo Rohde

    2009-01-01

    The compliance of the loudspeaker suspension is known to depend on the recent excitation level history. Previous investigations have shown that the electrical power as well as displacement and velocity plays a role. In this paper the hypothesis that the changes in compliance are caused mainly...... by how much the suspension has been stretched, i.e., the maximum displacement, is investigated. For this purpose the changes in compliance are measured when exposing the loudspeaker to different levels and types of electrical excitation signals, as well as mechanical excitation only. For sinusoidal...

  17. Gravity Drainage Kinetics of Papermaking Fibrous Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybysz Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses application possibilities of filtration and thickening models in evaluation of papermaking suspension drainage rate. The authors proposed their own method to estimate the drainage rate on the basis of an existing Ergun capillary model of liquid flow through a granular material. The proposed model was less sensitive to porosity changes than the Ergun model. An empirical verification proved robustness of the proposed approach. Taking into account discrepancies in the published data concerning how the drainage velocity of papermaking suspension is defined, this study examines which of the commonly applied models matches experimental results the best.

  18. Laser effects on yeast cell suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorovici, A.; Despa, Sanda I.; Paunescu, Teodor G.

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the effects produced by coherent electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet and visible range on the growth of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell suspension. There were made several experiments in which we used different irradiation parameters (power, irradiation time, wavelength) for pointing out those that produce the stimulation or inhibition of the cellular culture growth. Beyond the modifications that appeared in the culture evolution we investigated other physical and chemical changes induced by the laser light on yeast cell suspensions.

  19. Unifying Suspension and Granular flows near Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeGiuli Eric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of dense flows of hard particles are singular as one approaches the jamming threshold where flow ceases, both for granular flows dominated by inertia, and for over-damped suspensions. Concomitantly, the lengthscale characterizing velocity correlations appears to diverge at jamming. Here we review a theoretical framework that gives a scaling description of stationary flows of frictionless particles. Our analysis applies both to suspensions and inertial flows of hard particles. We report numerical results in support of the theory, and show the phase diagram that results when friction is added, delineating the regime of validity of the frictionless theory.

  20. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Nanometric Alumina Suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuanping [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Colloidal processing is an effective and reliable approach in the fabrication of the advanced ceramic products. Successful colloidal processing of fine ceramic powders requires accurate control of the rheological properties. The accurate control relies on the understanding the influences of various colloidal parameters on the rheological properties. Almost all research done on the rheology paid less attention to the interactions of particle and solvent. However, the interactions of the particles are usually built up through the media in which the particles are suspended. Therefore, interactions of the particle with the media, the adsorbed layers on the particle surface, and chemical and physical properties of media themselves must influence the rheology of the suspension, especially for the dense suspensions containing nanosized particles. Relatively little research work has been reported in this area. This thesis addresses the rheological properties of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions, and paying more attention to the interactions between particle and solvent, which in turn influence the particle-particle interactions. Dense nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions with low viscosity were achieved by environmentally-benign fructose additives. The rheology of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions and its variation with the particle volume fraction and concentration of fructose were explored by rheometry. The adsorptions of solute (fructose) and solvent (water) on the nanometric alumina particle surfaces were measured and analyzed by TG/DSC, TOC, and NMR techniques. The mobility of water molecules in the suspensions and its variation with particle volume fractions and fructose additive were determined by the 17O NMR relaxation method. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water and fructose solutions were investigated by AFM. The results indicated that a large number of water layers were physically bound on the particles