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Sample records for suspended solids tss

  1. SEBARAN TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS PADA PROFIL VERTIKAL DI PERAIRAN SELAT MADURA KABUPATEN BANGKALAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Dwi Siswanto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sebaran sedimen tersuspensi (Total Suspended Solid (TSS dapat dipelajari secara horizontal maupun vertikal. Akumulasi sedimen tersuspensi (TSS secara horizontal sangat dipengaruhi oleh arus permukaan maupun gelombang yang dibangkitkan oleh angin. Keterdapatan TSS ini diduga berpengaruh terhadap sebarannya pada profil vertical. Kedua kondisi sebaran sedimen tersuspensi (TSS berpengaruh terhadap optimalisasi penetrasi cahaya matahari di perairan. Sedimen tersuspensi (TSS menjadi salah satu factor fisika yang penting sebagai indicator kondisi perairan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sebaran Total Suspended Solid (TSS di perairan Kabupaten Bangkalan. Materi utama yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah contoh air dan data parameter lingkungan (pasang surut dan kecerahan yang diambil pada 7 stasiun pada bulan Agustus-September 2013 di Perairan Selat Madura, Kabupaten Bangkalan. Metode gravimetric (SNI-06-6989.3-2004 digunakan untuk analisa Total Suspended Solid (TSS. Data parameter lingkungan dianalisa secara deskriptif. Analisa TSS menunjukkan nilai yang berbeda pada beberapa stasiun penelitian untuk setiap minggunya. Konsentrasi TSS terendah sebesar 35 mg/L (Stasiun 3, profil permukaan, minggu pertama dan tertinggi sebesar 620 mg/L (Stasiun 4, profil dasar, minggu pertama. Secara umum, konsentrasi TSS secara vertikal (dari permukaan-dasar cenderung semakin besar, diduga dipengaruhi oleh jenis substrat dan parameter arus yang berpeluang untuk menimbulkan pengadukan di profil dasar. Kondisi lingkungan (kecerahan dan arus menunjukkan bahwa daerah dengan konsentrasi TSS yang tinggi cenderung memilki nilai kecerahan yang rendah dengan kecepatan arus yang lebih besar.Kata Kunci: kecerahan, pola arus, Total Suspended Solid (TSS DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS IN THE VERTICAL PROFILE IN THE MADURA STRAIT WATERS BANGKALAN DISTRICTABSTRACTDistribution of suspended sediment (Total Suspended Solid (TSS can be studied through

  2. Stochastic modeling of total suspended solids (TSS) in urban areas during rain events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Luca; Krejci, Vladimir; Rauch, Wolfgang; Kreikenbaum, Simon; Fankhauser, Rolf; Gujer, Willi

    2005-10-01

    The load of total suspended solids (TSS) is one of the most important parameters for evaluating wet-weather pollution in urban sanitation systems. In fact, pollutants such as heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phosphorous and organic compounds are adsorbed onto these particles so that a high TSS load indicates the potential impact on the receiving waters. In this paper, a stochastic model is proposed to estimate the TSS load and its dynamics during rain events. Information on the various simulated processes was extracted from different studies of TSS in urban areas. The model thus predicts the probability of TSS loads arising from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in combined sewer systems as well as from stormwater in separate sewer systems in addition to the amount of TSS retained in treatment devices in both sewer systems. The results of this TSS model illustrate the potential of the stochastic modeling approach for assessing environmental problems.

  3. Using total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity as proxies for evaluation of metal transport in river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrabadi, T.; Ruegner, H.; Sirdari, Z.Z.; Schwientek, M.; Grathwohl, P.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out in Haraz basin (Iran) that is located in south of the Caspian Sea. The goal of this study was to establish correlations amongst total suspended solids concentration (TSS) and turbidity with total pollutant concentrations to evaluate the dissolved and particle-bound concentrations of major toxic metals. It also aimed to validate TSS and/or turbidity measurements as proxies to monitor pollutant fluxes. Eight metals, namely nickel, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, cobalt, arsenic and strontium were analyzed for dissolved and total concentrations in water at ten locations within the catchment. TSS and turbidity were also measured. Sampling campaigns were designed to cover both the rainy (December) and the dry (May) season within the basin. The robust relationship between TSS (202–1212 mg/l) and turbidity (63–501 NTUs) in both seasons warranted their interchangeable potential as proxies within the observed ranges. Total element concentrations were plotted in separate attempts versus TSS and turbidity for all locations and both events. Very good linear correlations were attained where the slopes represent the metals concentration on suspended solids and the intercept the dissolved concentration in water. The results achieved by these linear regressions were in very good agreement with independently measured values for dissolved concentration and concentrations on river bed sediments taken at the same locations. This demonstrates that turbidity and/or TSS measurements may be used for monitoring of metal loads if once calibrated against total concentration of metals. The results also revealed that in the lower Haraz catchment metal concentrations on suspended and river bed sediment were homogeneously distributed along the investigated river stretch. This is assumed to be due to intensive gravel and sand mining activities in the upper and middle part of the catchment. - Highlights: • Turbidity is evaluated as a feasible proxy to predict

  4. Determination of the concentration of total suspends solids (TSS) and heavy metals in basin rio Morote, Nicoya, Guanacaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Murillo, Ricardo; Leon, Sandra; Saravia, Ana Yuri; Mena Sanchez, Carlos de

    2009-01-01

    The total concentration of suspends solids and heavy metals were determined of the Basin of rio Morote. The study spanned six sampling campaigns between April 2003 and May 2005. Sampling points were selected to correspond to places from the high basin to the mouth of the rio Morote in the Golfo de Nicoya. Suspends total solids concentration (TSS) on average exceeds 200 mg/L during the rainy season at the mouth. Enrichment of metals as: Cu, Ni, Cd and Fe was found in riverbed sediments; but not in Pb. The concentration of Zn has been near the limit value (200 mg/kg) in the dry season, value which has been established for the Environmental Protection Agency of United States (EPA). (author) [es

  5. PEMANFAATAN ECENG GONDOK (EICHORNIA CRASSIPES SEBAGAI MEDIA BIOREMEDIASI TERHADAP PENURUNAN KADAR TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izam Nur Hakim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan rata-rata kadar TSS sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan dengan tanaman eceng gondok. Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimen semu. Obyek dalam penelitian ini adalah limbah cair industri tempe skala rumah tangga dari proses perendaman kedelai selama 24 jam di Kelurahan Pasar Batang, Kecamatan Brebes, Kabupaten Brebes. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan observasi dan tes laboratorium. Data yang didapat dari penelitian ini diolah dengan statistik uji t berpasangan dengan derajat kemaknaan (?=0,05. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa kadar rata-rata pretest TSS adalah 6043,0 mg/l. Kadar rata-rata TSS kelompok kontrol pada perendaman 2 hari sebesar 4551,42 mg/l (p=0,023, perendaman 4 hari sebesar 4677,17mg/l (p=0,002, dan perendaman 6 hari 4392,33 mg/l (p=0,003. Kadar rata-rata TSS kelompok perlakuan dengan eceng gondok pada perendaman 2 hari sebesar 3776,17 mg/l (p=0,001, perendaman 4 hari sebesar 2356,67 mg/l (p=0,0001, dan perendaman 6 hari sebesar 1265 mg/l (p=0,0001. Maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa ada perbedaan rata-rata kadar TSS sebelum dan sesudah penanaman Eceng Gondok pada limbah cair. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in average levels of TSS before and after treatment with water hyacinth plants. This type of research is a quasi-experimental. Objects in this study was wastewater from the household soybean soaking for 24 hours at the Pasar Batang village, Brebes district, Brebes city. Techniques of data collection is done by observation and laboratory tests. Data obtained from this study treated with a paired t test statistic with degrees of significance (? = 0.05. Based on survey results revealed that the average pretest levels of TSS was 6043.0 mg / l. Average levels of TSS in the control group 2 days of immersion of 4551.42 mg / l (p = 0.023, immersion four days of 4677.17 mg / l (p = 0.002, and 6 days of immersion 4392.33 mg / l (p = 0.003. Average

  6. APPLICATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS FOR DECREASING OF CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD AND TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS OF TOFU INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

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    Suyata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tofu industrial wastewater has high COD and TSS level, which it cause an environmental pollution. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease the value of COD and TSS of tofu industrial wastewater before discharge into the water body. Decreasing of COD and TSS values can be carried out using an electrochemical method. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of potential, electrode distance, pH, and time to decrease of COD and TSS value of the tofu industrial wastewater. The experiment has been performed by electrolysis tofu industrial wastewater using PbO2 as anode and Pb as cathode. The result of the research showed that under the optimum conditions of 12 V voltage, 1 cm electrode distance, pH 1, and electrolysis time of 120 minutes, decreasing COD and TSS of 96.33% and 87.87% respectively

  7. Effect of fermentation time of mixture of solid and liquid wastes from tapioca industry to percentage reduction of TSS (Total Suspended Solids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandia, S.; Tanata, S.; Rachel, M.; Octiva, C.; Sialagan, N.

    2018-02-01

    The waste from tapioca industry is as an organic waste that contains many important compounds such as carbohydrate, protein, and glucose. This research as aimed to know the effect of fermentation time from solid waste combined with waste-water from the tapioca industry to percentage reduction of TSS. The study was started by mixing the solid and liquid wastes from tapioca industry at a ratio of 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, and 30:70 (w/w) with a starter from solid waste of cattle in a batch anaerobic digester. The percentage reduction of TSS was 72.2289 at a ratio by weight of the composition of solid and liquid wastes from tapioca industry was 70:30 after 30 days of fermentation time.

  8. PENGGUNAAN BIOCATALYS ELECTROLYSIS DALAM PENURUNAN KONSENTRASI TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS DAN CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD LIMBAH DOMESTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiharyanto Oktiawan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Secara umum air limbah kegiatan rumah tangga (domestik dibuang langsung menuju badan air seperti sungai dan danau. Pengolahan limbah cair secara biologis (aerob sering menghasilkan lumpur dalam jumlah besar. Jumlah lumpur dapat dikurangi dengan pengolahan anaerob. Sistem bioelektrokimia merupakan salah satu terobosan teknologi yang memungkinkan untuk mengolah limbah sekaligus menghasilkan energi berupa gas metana. Penggunaan biocatalys electrolysis dapat mengatasi kelemahan proses anaerob secara konvensional dalam penurunan konsentrasi TSS dan COD limbah domestik salah satunya mampu menghasilkan gas H2 dari proses elektrolisis. Penambahan daya ekternal sebesar 6 volt mampu menyisihkan TSS sampai kadar 82 mg/l dari kadar semula 157 mg/l. Tegangan 12 volt mampu menurunkan kadar COD sampai 47,46 mg/l dari kadar awal 223 mg/l. Penyisihan TSS paling rendah pada waktu elektrolisis 15 menit dengan kadar 87 mg/l. Penambahan waktu elektrolisis sebanding dengan penurunan konsentrasi COD limbah domestik. Pada penelitian ini kualitas maupun kuantitas gas metana tidak diketahui secara jelas. Selain gas metan, produk fermentasi juga belum diketahui.

  9. Total Suspended Solid (TSS Distributed by Tidal Currents during Low to High Tide Phase in the Waters of Sayung, Demak: Its Relations to Water Quality Parameters

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    Ulung Jantama Wisha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sayung waters is a region highly vulnerable to catastrophic erosion along the coast, which is directly followed by an increase suspended sediments and particles from the bottom of the waters that was stirred by oceanography factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration and distribution of the latest TSS condition and its effect on water quality parameters in the waters of Sayung. The sampling method is using purposive sampling, with the stations spread out along the coastal area of Sayung, the main data consist of current, tide, bathymetry, coastline and water quality, and the secondary data consist of RBI map and tide forecasting, those data is analyzed numerically and statistically. TSS value ranged between 23,1-199,6 mg.L-1, the distribution of TSS is simulated in the condition of ebb to tide with current speed ranged between 0-0.41 ms-1, that distribution also influenced by physical water factors such as salinity, temperature, and density and has  impacts to enhancing the turbidity and indirectly decrease the photosynthesis activity and inhibit the oxygen cycle in the Sayung waters.

  10. Turbidity and total suspended solid concentration dynamics in streamflow from California oak woodland watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Lewis; Kenneth W. Tate; Randy A. Dahlgren; Jacob Newell

    2002-01-01

    Resource agencies, private landowners, and citizen monitoring programs utilize turbidity (water clarity) measurements as a water quality indicator for total suspended solids (TSS – mass of solids per unit volume) and other constituents in streams and rivers. The dynamics and relationships between turbidity and TSS are functions of watershed-specific factors and...

  11. Development of a field test method for total suspended solids analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Total suspended solids (TSS) are all particles in water that will not pass through a glass fiber filter with a pore size less : than 2 m, including sediments, algae, nutrients, and metals. TSS is an important water quality parameter because of its ...

  12. Quantifying suspended solids in small rivers using satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro, Celso M; McIntyre, Neil; Lechner, Alex M; Callow, Ian

    2018-09-01

    The management of suspended solids and associated contaminants in rivers requires knowledge of sediment sources. In-situ sampling can only describe the integrated impact of the upstream sources. Empirical models that use surface reflectance from satellite images to estimate total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations can be used to supplement measurements and provide spatially continuous maps. However, there are few examples, especially in narrow, shallow and hydrologically dynamic rivers found in mountainous areas. A case study of the Didipio catchment in Philippines was used to address these issues. Four 5-m resolution RapidEye images, from between the years 2014 and 2016, and near-simultaneous ground measurements of TSS concentrations were used to develop a power law model that approximates the relationship between TSS and reflectance for each of four spectral bands. A second dataset using two 2-m resolution Pleiades-1A and a third using a 6-m resolution SPOT-6 image along with ground-based measurements, were consistent with the model when using the red band data. Using that model, encompassing data from all three datasets, gave an R 2 value of 65% and a root mean square error of 519mgL -1 . A linear relationship between reflectance and TSS exists from 1mgL -1 to approximately 500mgL -1 . In contrast, for TSS measurements between 500mgL -1 and 3580mgL -1 reflectance increases at a generally lower and more variable rate. The results were not sensitive to changing the pixel location within the vicinity of the ground sampling location. The model was used to generate a continuous map of TSS concentration within the catchment. Further ground-based measurements including TSS concentrations that are higher than 3580mgL -1 would allow the model to be developed and applied more confidently over the full relevant range of TSS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  14. Suspended Solids Profiler Shop Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Suspended Solids Profiler (SSP) Instrument is planned to be installed in the AZ-101 tank to measure suspended solids concentrations during mixer pump testing. The SSP sensor uses a reflectance measurement principle to determine the suspended solids concentrations. The purpose of this test is to provide a documented means of verifying that the functional components of the SSP operate properly

  15. An inexpensive optical sensor system for monitoring total suspended solids in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami Gumaan Daraigan; Mohd Zubir Matjafri; Khiruddin Abdullah; Azlan Abdul Aziz; Abdul Aziz Tajuddin; Mohd Firdaus Othman

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to design and develop an optical transsmissometer sensor for measuring total suspended solids TSS concentrations in water samples. The proposed optical sensor has the advantages of being relatively inexpensive, and easy to make and operate. An optical algorithm has been developed and used for the measurement of total suspended solids concentrations. The developed optical sensor components include light emitting diodes LEDs that are used for measuring transmitted light. The concentrations of total suspended solids TSS are determined from transmitted light through the water samples. The transmitted light is measured in terms of the output voltage of the photodetector of the sensor system. The readings are measured using a digital multimeter. The results indicate that the level of the photocurrent is linearly proportional to the total suspended solids concentration. The proposed algorithm produces a high correlation coefficient and low root mean square error. (Author)

  16. Temporal and spatial variations in total suspended and dissolved solids in the upper part of Manoa stream, Hawaii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Fares, Ali; Tran, Dai Ngia

    2011-01-01

    Hawaiian watersheds are small, steep, and receive high intensity rainfall events of non-uniform distribution. These geographic and weather patterns result in flashy streams of strongly variable water quality even within various stream segments. Total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids

  17. Loads of nitrate, phosphorus, and total suspended solids from Indiana watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Aubrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Transport of excess nutrients and total suspended solids (TSS) such as sediment by freshwater systems has led to degradation of aquatic ecosystems around the world. Nutrient and TSS loads from Midwestern states to the Mississippi River are a major contributor to the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone, an area of very low dissolved oxygen concentration in the Gulf of Mexico. To better understand Indiana’s contribution of nutrients and TSS to the Mississippi River, annual loads of nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, and TSS were calculated for nine selected watersheds in Indiana using the load estimation model, S-LOADEST. Discrete water-quality samples collected monthly by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management’s Fixed Stations Monitoring Program from 2000–2010 and concurrent discharge data from the U. S. Geological Survey streamflow gages were used to create load models. Annual nutrient and TSS loads varied across Indiana by watershed and hydrologic condition. Understanding the loads from large river sites in Indiana is important for assessing contributions of nutrients and TSS to the Mississippi River Basin and in determining the effectiveness of best management practices in the state. Additionally, evaluation of loads from smaller upstream watersheds is important to characterize improvements at the local level and to identify priorities for reduction.

  18. Predicting runoff of suspended solids and particulate phosphorus for selected Louisiana soils using simple soil tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Wang, Jim J; Zhang, Hailin

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the relationships among total suspended solids (TSS) and particulate phosphorus (PP) in runoff and selected soil properties. Nine Louisiana soils were subjected to simulated rainfall events, and runoff collected and analyzed for various parameters. A highly significant relationship existed between runoff TSS and runoff turbidity. Both runoff TSS and turbidity were also significantly related to runoff PP, which on average accounted for more than 98% of total P (TP) in the runoff. Runoff TSS was closely and positively related to soil clay content in an exponential fashion (y=0.10e0.01x, R2=0.91, Psoil electrical conductivity (EC) (y=0.02 x(-3.95), R2=0.70, Psoil suspension turbidity" (SST) which measures turbidity in a 1:200 soil/water suspension, exhibited highly significant linear relationships with runoff TSS (y=0.06x-4.38, R2=0.82, Psoil clay content and EC in a multiple regression, suggesting that SST was able to account for the integrated effect of clay content and electrolytic background on runoff TSS. The SST test could be used for assessment and management of sediment and particulate nutrient losses in surface runoff.

  19. Distribution of Total Suspended Solids Concentration in a River

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    Ahmad Hanif Asyhar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of either industrial or nonindustrial wastewater into a river has a potential to cause riverpollution. Because each load of wastewater discharged into a river contains physical, chemical, and biological parametersthat determine water quality, so that it can affect the dissolved oxygen concentration in a river. Therefore the conductedresearch was aimed to determine the pattern of pollutant dispersion in Surabaya River within the section that is closed tothe Karang Pilang Monitoring Station - Surabaya. Parameter used in this research was Total Suspended Solids (TSS. Themethod used was the finite volume method with Quadratic Upwind Interpolation Convective Kinematics (QUICK schemeby means of developing models of dispersion water pollutants in a river. The governing equation was controlled by the lawsof mass conservation, momentum conservation, and pollution transport equation. Further, these equations were solvedusing numerical calculation and followed by numerical simulation. From the numerical simulation results, it can beconcluded that the magnitude of pollutant dispersion is determined by the initial discharged TSS concentrations into theriver, however the longitudinal direction is more dominantly influenced than in lateral directions.

  20. (suspended solids and metals) removal efficiencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Presented in this paper are the results of correlational analyses and logistic regression between metal substances (Cd, Cu,. Pb, Zn), as well as suspended solids removal, and physical pond parameters of 19 stormwater retention pond case studies obtained from the International Stormwater BMP database.

  1. Assessment of the contribution of sewer deposits to suspended solids loads in combined sewer systems during rain events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannouche, A; Chebbo, G; Joannis, C

    2014-04-01

    Within the French observatories network SOERE "URBIS," databases of continuous turbidity measurements accumulating hundreds of events and many dry weather days are available for two sites with different features (Clichy in Paris and Ecully in Lyon). These measurements, converted into total suspended solids (TSS) concentration using TSS-turbidity relationships and combined with a model of runoff event mean concentration, enable the assessment of the contribution of sewer deposits to wet weather TSS loads observed at the outlet of the two watersheds. Results show that the contribution of sewer deposits to wet weather suspended solid's discharges is important but variable (between 20 and 80 % of the mass at the outlet depending on the event), including a site allegedly free of (coarse) sewer deposits. The uncertainties associated to these results are assessed too.

  2. Suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, total suspended solids, turbidity, and particle-size fractions for selected rivers in Minnesota, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment-laden rivers and streams pose substantial environmental and economic challenges. Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, and transports harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011 indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in the driftless region of southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. During the 2011 spring runoff, the single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis- St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been determined to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. Because of this, the MPCA was interested in quantifying the differences between SSC and TSS in different parts of the State. Comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. The largest percent difference between SSC and TSS was measured at the South Branch Buffalo River at Sabin, and the smallest difference was observed at the Des Moines

  3. Evaluation of stream water quality data generated from MODIS images in modeling total suspended solid emission to a freshwater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayana, Essayas K; Worqlul, Abeyou W; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2015-08-01

    Modeling of suspended sediment emission into freshwater lakes is challenging due to data gaps in developing countries. Existing models simulate sediment concentration at a gauging station upstream and none of these studies had modeled total suspended solids (TSS) emissions by inflowing rivers to freshwater lakes as there are no TSS measurements at the river mouth in the upper Blue Nile basin. In this study a 10year TSS time series data generated from remotely sensed MODIS/Terra images using established empirical relationship is applied to calibrate and validate a hydrology model for Lake Tana in Upper Blue Nile Basin. The result showed that at a monthly time scale TSS at the river mouth can be replicated with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NS) of 0.34 for calibration and 0.21 for validation periods. Percent bias (PBIAS) and ratio of the root-mean-square error to the standard deviation of measured data (RSR) are all within range. Given the inaccessibility and costliness to measure TSS at river mouths to a lake the results found here are considered useful for suspended sediment budget studies in water bodies of the basin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sedimentation of suspended solids in ultrasound field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikulina Vera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical effects of aquatic environment that occur in an ultrasonic field change the sedimentation rate of coagulated suspension. This might only happen in case of cavitation of ultrasonic filed that causes a change of potentials of the medium. Research of the influence of ultrasonic vibrations on coagulation of suspended solids within water purification allows expanding their scope of implementation. The objective of the research is to estimate the effect of ultrasound on the sedimentation of the suspended solids, to determine of the efficiency of the process in relation to the dose of the coagulant, and to calculate the numerical values of the constants in the theoretical equation. The experiment condition was held in the water with the clay substances before the introduction of the coagulant. The method of magnetostriction ultrasonic generator was applied to receive ultrasonic vibration. Estimate of concentration of clay particles in water was performed using photometry. As a result of the research, the obtained data allow determining the increase in efficiency of suspended particles sedimentation related to the dose of coagulant, depending on time of ultrasonic treatment. The experiments confirmed the connection between the effect of sedimentation in the coagulation process, the coagulant dose and the time of scoring. Studies have shown that the increase in the duration of ultrasonic treatment causes a decrease of administered doses of coagulant.

  5. Karakteristik Total Padatan Tersuspensi (Total Suspended Solid Dan Kekeruhan (Turbidity Secara Vertikal Di Perairan Teluk Benoa, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Hendrawan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Benoa bay is one of estuary that located in the Southern part of Bali Island, and as a strategic tourism destination. The increased of the human activity has an important role to give an ecological pressure for the seawater ecosystem in the Benoa bay. Total suspended solid (TSS and turbidity is one of the important indicators that could be determining the quality of the seawater. As the estuary, Benoa bay received fresh water from the river discharge that also potentially carries any material to the bay. In addition, port activity is also has an important role in contributing a various material to the Benoa bay. From this research, we found that the TSS concentration and the turbidity are higher in the surface water and also in the bottom layer. TSS concentration and the turbidity also varied from the bay mouth trough the line of vessel onto the inner of bay. TSS concentration and turbidity in the bay mouth has a smaller concentration rather than in the inner part of bay. TSS concentration and turbidity in the inner of bay could be caused by the port activity. In addition, seawater circulation is also has an importan factor to contributing the TSS concentration and the turbidity. Sea current would be erroted the seabottom and with the different shape of the topography could be increased the TSS and turbidity.

  6. Bulk metal concentrations versus total suspended solids in rivers: Time-invariant & catchment-specific relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Touraj; Ruegner, Hermann; Schwientek, Marc; Bennett, Jeremy; Fazel Valipour, Shahin; Grathwohl, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can act as carriers of potentially bioavailable metal species and are thus an emerging area of interest in river system monitoring. The delineation of bulk metals concentrations in river water into dissolved and particulate components is also important for risk assessment. Linear relationships between bulk metal concentrations in water (CW,tot) and total suspended solids (TSS) in water can be used to easily evaluate dissolved (CW, intercept) and particle-bound metal fluxes (CSUS, slope) in streams (CW,tot = CW + CSUS TSS). In this study, we apply this principle to catchments in Iran (Haraz) and Germany (Ammer, Goldersbach, and Steinlach) that show differences in geology, geochemistry, land use and hydrological characteristics. For each catchment, particle-bound and dissolved concentrations for a suite of metals in water were calculated based on linear regressions of total suspended solids and total metal concentrations. Results were replicable across sampling campaigns in different years and seasons (between 2013 and 2016) and could be reproduced in a laboratory sedimentation experiment. CSUS values generally showed little variability in different catchments and agree well with soil background values for some metals (e.g. lead and nickel) while other metals (e.g. copper) indicate anthropogenic influences. CW was elevated in the Haraz (Iran) catchment, indicating higher bioavailability and potential human and ecological health concerns (where higher values of CSUS/CW are considered as a risk indicator).

  7. Resuspended contaminated sediments cause sublethal stress to oysters: A biomarker differentiates total suspended solids and contaminant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Katelyn J; Dafforn, Katherine A; Simpson, Stuart L; Ringwood, Amy H; Johnston, Emma L

    2015-06-01

    Resuspended contaminated sediments represent an important route of contaminant exposure for aquatic organisms. During resuspension events, filter-feeding organisms are exposed to contaminants, in both the dissolved form (at the gills) and the particulate form (in the digestive system). In addition, these organisms must manage the physical stress associated with an increase in total suspended solids (TSS). To date, few studies have experimentally compared the contributions to biological stress of contaminated and clean suspended solids. The authors mixed field-collected sediments (cellular biomarkers (lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione) were measured to evaluate sublethal toxicity. Lysosomal membrane stability was the most sensitive biomarker for distinguishing effects from resuspended contaminated sediments, as increasing amounts of contaminated TSS increased lysosomal membrane destabilization. The authors' results illustrate the importance of considering contaminant exposures from resuspended sediments when assessing the toxicity of contaminants to aquatic organisms. © 2015 SETAC.

  8. Coincident patterns of waste water suspended solids reduction, water transparency increase and chlorophyll decline in Narragansett Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkman, David G; Smayda, Theodore J

    2016-06-15

    Dramatic changes occurred in Narragansett Bay during the 1980s: water clarity increased, while phytoplankton abundance and chlorophyll concentration decreased. We examine how changes in total suspended solids (TSS) loading from wastewater treatment plants may have influenced this decline in phytoplankton chlorophyll. TSS loading, light and phytoplankton observations were compiled and a light- and temperature-dependent Skeletonema-based phytoplankton growth model was applied to evaluate chlorophyll supported by TSS nitrogen during 1983-1995. TSS loading declined 75% from ~0.60×10(6)kgmonth(-1) to ~0.15×10(6)kgmonth(-1) during 1983-1995. Model results indicate that nitrogen reduction related to TSS reduction was minor and explained a small fraction (~15%) of the long-term chlorophyll decline. The decline in NBay TSS loading appears to have increased water clarity and in situ irradiance and contributed to the long-term chlorophyll decline by inducing a physiological response of a ~20% reduction in chlorophyll per cell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Organics and Suspended Solids Removal from Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Y. Hmood

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR method is used for treating samples of waste water taken from hospitals in Mosul. Many run periods are used (6-24 hours for             6 months. It is found that the organics and suspended solids removal increase with increasing the period of run, it is in the range ( 96-82 % and ( 100-95 % respectively, while the pH values are nearly neutral (7.05 to 7.5.     BOD5 and SS concentrations of the effluent are within the limits of Iraqi standards,  40:30 mg/l respectively. Hence, SBR method could be used for treating hospitals, small factories and some  residential sectors waste waters.  

  10. Characterization and morphology of solids suspended in rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la

    2000-01-01

    This work presents the results obtained from the analysis of rain water in Mexico. The study treats over the characterization and morphology of the solids suspended in form of particles in the atmosphere. The solids suspended were obtained of the pluvial precipitations after these have been centrifuged. Subsequently of the separation, the particulate matter was analysed by Sem and X-ray dispersive energy

  11. Turbidity and Total Suspended Solids on the Lower Cache River Watershed, AR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Berrios, Carlos A; Bouldin, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    The Cache River Watershed (CRW) in Arkansas is part of one of the largest remaining bottomland hardwood forests in the US. Although wetlands are known to improve water quality, the Cache River is listed as impaired due to sedimentation and turbidity. This study measured turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS) in seven sites of the lower CRW; six sites were located on the Bayou DeView tributary of the Cache River. Turbidity and TSS levels ranged from 1.21 to 896 NTU, and 0.17 to 386.33 mg/L respectively and had an increasing trend over the 3-year study. However, a decreasing trend from upstream to downstream in the Bayou DeView tributary was noted. Sediment loading calculated from high precipitation events and mean TSS values indicate that contributions from the Cache River main channel was approximately 6.6 times greater than contributions from Bayou DeView. Land use surrounding this river channel affects water quality as wetlands provide a filter for sediments in the Bayou DeView channel.

  12. Improved Methods for Correlating Turbidity and Suspended Solids for Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This technical note describes techniques normally used to measure turbidity and suspended solids in waters, how the two parameters relate to each other and to various environmental impacts, and why...

  13. Study on submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaiyakunjaram, R; Shanmugam, P

    2016-09-01

    This study deals with the treatment of high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater using flat sheet Submerged Anaerobic Membrane (0.4μm) Bioreactor (SAMBR) acclimatized with hypersaline anaerobic seed sludge for recovering biogas. The treatability of SAMBR achieved higher CODremoval efficiency (90%) and biogas yield (0.160L.g(-1) CODremoved) coincided with high r(2) values between permeate flux and TSS (0.95), biogas and COD removed (0.96). The acidification of hypersaline influent wastewater by biogas mixing with high CO2, achieved quadruplet benefit of gas liquid and solid separation, in-situ pH and NH3 control, in-situ CH4 enrichment, and prevention of membrane fouling. The initial high VFA became stable as time elapsed reveals the hydrolysing ability of particulate COD into soluble COD and into biogas, confirms the suitability of SAMBR for high suspended solids tannery wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A New Model for Simulating TSS Washoff in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Crobeddu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the formulation and validation of the conceptual Runoff Quality Simulation Model (RQSM that was developed to simulate the erosion and transport of solid particles in urban areas. The RQSM assumes that solid particle accumulation on pervious and impervious areas is infinite. The RQSM simulates soil erosion using rainfall kinetic energy and solid particle transport with linear system theory. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the RQSM to show the influence of each parameter on the simulated load. Total suspended solid (TSS loads monitored at the outlet of the borough of Verdun in Canada and at three catchment outlets of the City of Champaign in the United States were used to validate the RQSM. TSS loads simulated by the RQSM were compared to measured loads and to loads simulated by the Rating Curve model and the Exponential model of the SWMM software. The simulation performance of the RQSM was comparable to the Exponential and Rating Curve models.

  15. The spatial and temporal variation of total suspended solid concentration in Pearl River Estuary during 1987-2015 based on remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chongyang; Li, Weijiao; Chen, Shuisen; Li, Dan; Wang, Danni; Liu, Jia

    2018-03-15

    The movement and migration of total suspended solid (TSS) are the essential component of global material cycling and change. Based on the TSS concentrations retrieved from 112 scenes of Landsat remote sensing imageries during 1987-2015, the spatial and temporal variations of TSS concentration in high flow season and low flow seasons of six sub-regions (west shoal, west channel, middle shoal, east channel, east shoal and Pearl River Estuary Chinese White Dolphin National Nature Reserve and its adjacent waters (NNR)) of Pearl River Estuary (PRE) were analyzed and compared by statistical simulation. It was found that TSS concentrations in east and west shoals were about 23mg/L and 64mg/L higher than that of the middle shoal, respectively. There was a significant decreasing trend of TSS concentration from the northwest (223.7mg/L) to southeast (51.4mg/L) of study area, with an average reduction of 5.86mg/Lperkm, which mainly attributes to unique interaction of runoff and tide in PRE. In high flow season, there existed a significant and definite annual cycle period (5-8years) of TSS concentration change primarily responding to the periodic variation of precipitation. There were five full-fledged period changes of TSS detected in west shoal and west channel (the years of changes in 1988, 1994, 1998, 2003, 2010, 2015), while there were the last four cycle periods found in middle shoal, east channel, east shoal and NNR only. TSS concentrations in shoals and channels of PRE showed a significant decreased trend mainly due to the dam construction at the same time, with an average annual TSS concentration decrease of 5.7-10.1mg/L in high flow season from 1988 to 2015. There was no significant change trend of TSS concentration in NNR before 2003, but the TSS concentration decreased significantly after the establishment of the NNR since June 2003, with an average annual decrease of 9.7mg/L from 2004 to 2015. It was deduced that man-made protection measures had a great influence

  16. Comparison of Suspended Solid Separation in Advanced Storm Overflow Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Sørensen, Morten Steen

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory investigation of the separation of suspended solids in a circular weir overflow and a vortex separator. The basic idea is to evaluate the efficiency of a vortical flow in the overflow chamber, and to compare these results with other overflow structures....

  17. Geochemistry of suspended and settling solids in two freshwater lakes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    This study describes the 1987–1992 time variationof the bulk chemical composition, levels of heavymetals, arsenic, nitrogen and phosporous insuspended and settling solids in Lake Volkerak andLake Zoom (The Netherlands). Suspended and setlingsolids were collected with continuous flowcentrifuges and

  18. Nickel toxicity to benthic organisms: The role of dissolved organic carbon, suspended solids, and route of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Kevin W; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Burton, G Allen

    2016-01-01

    Nickel bioavailability is reduced in the presence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), suspended solids (TSS), and other complexing ligands; however, no studies have examined the relative importance of Ni exposure through different compartments (water, sediment, food). Hyalella azteca and Lymnaea stagnalis were exposed to Ni-amended water, sediment, and food, either separately or in combination. Both organisms experienced survival and growth effects in several Ni compartment tests. The DOC amendments attenuated L. stagnalis Ni effects (survival, growth, and (62)Ni bioaccumulation), and presence of TSS exposures demonstrated both protective and synergistic effects on H. azteca and L. stagnalis. (62)Ni trophic transfer from food to H. azteca and L. stagnalis was negligible; however, bioaccumulating (62)Ni was attributed to (62)Ni-water ((62)Ni flux from food), (62)Ni-TSS, and (62)Ni-food. Overall, H. azteca and L. stagnalis Ni compartment toxicity increased in the following order: Ni-water > Ni-sediment > Ni-all (water, sediment, food) > Ni-food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anaerobic treatment of wastewater with high suspended solids from a bulk drug industry using fixed film reactor (AFFR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangagni Rao, A; Venkata Naidu, G; Krishna Prasad, K; Chandrasekhar Rao, N; Venkata Mohan, S; Jetty, Annapurna; Sarma, P N

    2005-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the treatment of wastewater from a bulk drug industry using an anaerobic fixed film reactor (AFFR) designed and fabricated in the laboratory. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total dissolved solids (TDS) of the wastewater were found to be very high with low biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to COD ratio and high total suspended solid (TSS) concentration. Acclimatization of seed consortia and startup of the reactor was carried out by directly using the wastewater, which resulted in reducing the period of startup to 30 days. The reactor was studied at different organic loading rates (OLR) and it was found that the optimum OLR was 10 kg COD/m(3)/day. The wastewater under investigation, which had a considerable quantity of SS, was treated anaerobically without any pretreatment. COD and BOD of the reactor outlet wastewater were monitored and at steady state and optimum OLR 60-70% of COD and 80-90% of BOD were removed. The reactor was subjected to organic shock loads at two different OLR and the reaction could withstand the shocks and performance could be restored to normalcy at that OLR. The results obtained indicated that AFFR could be used efficiently for the treatment of wastewater from a bulk drug industry having high COD, TDS and TSS.

  20. Removal of total suspended solid by natural coagulant derived from cassava peel waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Asharuddin, S.; Othman, N.; Mohd-Zin, N. S.; Tajarudin, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the performance of starch derived from cassava peel waste as primary coagulant and coagulant aid. Comparable study was also conducted using commercially used aluminium sulfate (alum) as primary coagulant. A series of Jar tests were performed using raw water from Sembrong Barat water treatment plant. It was observed that coagulation test using cassava peel starch (CPS) alone had unappreciable removing ability. However, it was found that combination of alum-CPS successfully achieve up to 90.48% of total suspended solid (TSS) removal under optimized working conditions (pH 9, 7.5mg/L : 100 mg/L of alum : CPS dosage, rapid mixing of 200 rpm for 1 minute; 100 rpm for 2 minutes, slow mixing of 25 rpm for 30 minutes and 30 minutes settling time). This remarks the reduction in alum dosage up to 50% compared to coagulation test using alum alone. Therefore this finding suggesting that CPS can be considered as potential source of sustainable and effective coagulant aid for water treatment especially in developing countries.

  1. Assessment of suspended solids concentration in highway runoff and its treatment implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, M; Renman, G

    2006-09-01

    It is understood that the major pollution from storm water is related to the content of particulate matter. One treatment practice is based on the first flush, i.e. detention of the initial part of the runoff that is considered to contain the highest concentrations of pollutants. This study has evaluated the concentration of total suspended solids in 30 consecutive runoff events during the winter season for an area of 6.7 hectares. A six-lane highway (E4) that has an annual average daily traffic load of 120,000 dominates the area and road de-icing salt (NaCl) and studded tires were in regular use during the studied period. The effluent standard for wastewater of 60 mg TSS per litre applied in EU was used to assess the treatment requirement of storm water. In only two of the events the event mean concentration was below 60 mg 1(-1). In four runoff events a partial event mean concentration below 60 mg 1(-1) was found, in 26 %, 12 %, 11 %, and 2 % respectively of the runoff volume. This would suggest that a capture of the initial part of the runoff for subsequent treatment is less applicable in this type of urban watershed.

  2. Twelve Years of Monitoring Phosphorus and Suspended-Solids Concentrations and Yields in the North Fork Ninnescah River above Cheney Reservoir, South-Central Kansas 1997-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Cheney Reservoir, located on the North Fork Ninnescah River in south-central Kansas, is the primary water supply for the city of Wichita and an important recreational resource. Concerns about taste-and-odor occurrences in Cheney Reservoir have drawn attention to potential pollutants, including total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS). July 2009 was the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the Cheney Reservoir Watershed pollution management plan. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Wichita, has collected water-quality data in the basin since 1996, and has monitored water quality continuously on the North Fork Ninnescah River since 1998. This fact sheet describes 12 years (1997-2008) of computed TP and TSS data and compares these data with water-quality goals for the North Fork Ninnescah River, the main tributary to Cheney Reservoir.

  3. Influence of sampling frequency and load calculation methods on quantification of annual river nutrient and suspended solids loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwan, Ahmed; Singh, Ranvir; Patterson, Maree; Roygard, Jon; Horne, Dave; Clothier, Brent; Jones, Geoffrey

    2018-01-11

    Better management of water quality in streams, rivers and lakes requires precise and accurate estimates of different contaminant loads. We assessed four sampling frequencies (2 days, weekly, fortnightly and monthly) and five load calculation methods (global mean (GM), rating curve (RC), ratio estimator (RE), flow-stratified (FS) and flow-weighted (FW)) to quantify loads of nitrate-nitrogen (NO 3 - -N), soluble inorganic nitrogen (SIN), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS), in the Manawatu River, New Zealand. The estimated annual river loads were compared to the reference 'true' loads, calculated using daily measurements of flow and water quality from May 2010 to April 2011, to quantify bias (i.e. accuracy) and root mean square error 'RMSE' (i.e. accuracy and precision). The GM method resulted into relatively higher RMSE values and a consistent negative bias (i.e. underestimation) in estimates of annual river loads across all sampling frequencies. The RC method resulted in the lowest RMSE for TN, TP and TSS at monthly sampling frequency. Yet, RC highly overestimated the loads for parameters that showed dilution effect such as NO 3 - -N and SIN. The FW and RE methods gave similar results, and there was no essential improvement in using RE over FW. In general, FW and RE performed better than FS in terms of bias, but FS performed slightly better than FW and RE in terms of RMSE for most of the water quality parameters (DRP, TP, TN and TSS) using a monthly sampling frequency. We found no significant decrease in RMSE values for estimates of NO 3 - N, SIN, TN and DRP loads when the sampling frequency was increased from monthly to fortnightly. The bias and RMSE values in estimates of TP and TSS loads (estimated by FW, RE and FS), however, showed a significant decrease in the case of weekly or 2-day sampling. This suggests potential for a higher sampling frequency during flow peaks for more precise

  4. Operational Test Report for the 241-AZ-101 Suspended Solids Profiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STENKAMP, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    This document comprises the Operational Test Report for the 241-AZ-101 Suspended Solids Profiler. This document presents the results of Operational Testing of the 241-AZ-101 Suspended Solids Profiler (SSP). Testing of the SSP was performed in accordance with OTP-260-005, ''SUSPENDED SOLIDS PROFILER OPERATIONAL TEST PROCEDURE''. The objective of the testing was to verify that all equipment and components functioned as designed, following construction completion and turnover to operations

  5. The Prediction Methods for Potential Suspended Solids Clogging Types during Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqiang Du

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementation and development of managed aquifer recharge (MAR have been limited by the clogging attributed to physical, chemical, and biological reactions. In application field of MAR, physical clogging is usually the dominant type. Although numerous studies on the physical clogging mechanism during MAR are available, studies on the more detailed suspended clogging types and its prediction methods still remain few. In this study, a series of column experiments were inducted to show the process of suspended solids clogging process. The suspended solids clogging was divided into three types of surface clogging, inner clogging and mixed clogging based on the different clogging characteristics. Surface clogging indicates that the suspended solids are intercepted by the medium surface when suspended solids grain diameter is larger than pore diameter of infiltration medium. Inner clogging indicates that the suspended solids particles could transport through the infiltration medium. Mixed clogging refers to the comprehensive performance of surface clogging and inner clogging. Each suspended solids clogging type has the different clogging position, different changing laws of hydraulic conductivity and different deposition profile of suspended solids. Based on the experiment data, the ratio of effective medium pore diameter (Dp and median grain size of suspended solids (d50 was proposed as the judgment index for suspended solids clogging types. Surface clogging occurred while Dp/d50 was less than 5.5, inner clogging occurred while Dp/d50 was greater than 180, and mixed clogging occurred while Dp/d50 was between 5.5 and 180. In order to improve the judgment accuracy and applicability, Bayesian method, which considered more ratios of medium pore diameter (Dp and different level of grain diameter of suspended solids (di, were developed to predict the potential suspended solids types.

  6. Removal of oil, grease, and suspended solids from produced water with ceramic crossflow microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, A.S.C.; Flynn, J.T.; Cook, R.G.; Casaday, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper results of studies of two onshore and two offshore pilot plants that use ceramic crossflow microfiltration (CCFM) to separate oil, grease, and suspended solids from produced water are discussed. The method is capable of producing permeate quality with < =5 mg/L (detection limit) of dispersed oil and grease and <1 mg/L of suspended solids

  7. Developing the remote sensing-based early warning system for monitoring TSS concentrations in Lake Mead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imen, Sanaz; Chang, Ni-Bin; Yang, Y Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Adjustment of the water treatment process to changes in water quality is a focus area for engineers and managers of water treatment plants. The desired and preferred capability depends on timely and quantitative knowledge of water quality monitoring in terms of total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations. This paper presents the development of a suite of nowcasting and forecasting methods by using high-resolution remote-sensing-based monitoring techniques on a daily basis. First, the integrated data fusion and mining (IDFM) technique was applied to develop a near real-time monitoring system for daily nowcasting of the TSS concentrations. Then a nonlinear autoregressive neural network with external input (NARXNET) model was selected and applied for forecasting analysis of the changes in TSS concentrations over time on a rolling basis onward using the IDFM technique. The implementation of such an integrated forecasting and nowcasting approach was assessed by a case study at Lake Mead hosting the water intake for Las Vegas, Nevada, in the water-stressed western U.S. Long-term monthly averaged results showed no simultaneous impact from forest fire events on accelerating the rise of TSS concentration. However, the results showed a probable impact of a decade of drought on increasing TSS concentration in the Colorado River Arm and Overton Arm. Results of the forecasting model highlight the reservoir water level as a significant parameter in predicting TSS in Lake Mead. In addition, the R-squared value of 0.98 and the root mean square error of 0.5 between the observed and predicted TSS values demonstrates the reliability and application potential of this remote sensing-based early warning system in terms of TSS projections at a drinking water intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors influencing suspended solids concentrations in activated sludge settling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y; Pipes, W O

    1999-05-31

    A significant fraction of the total mass of sludge in an activated sludge process may be in the settling tanks if the sludge has a high sludge volume index (SVI) or when a hydraulic overload occurs during a rainstorm. Under those conditions, an accurate estimate of the amount of sludge in the settling tanks is needed in order to calculate the mean cell residence time or to determine the capacity of the settling tanks to store sludge. Determination of the amount of sludge in the settling tanks requires estimation of the average concentration of suspended solids in the layer of sludge (XSB) in the bottom of the settling tanks. A widely used reference recommends averaging the concentrations of suspended solids in the mixed liquor (X) and in the underflow (Xu) from the settling tanks (XSB=0. 5{X+Xu}). This method does not take into consideration other pertinent information available to an operator. This is a report of a field study which had the objective of developing a more accurate method for estimation of the XSB in the bottom of the settling tanks. By correlation analysis, it was found that only 44% of the variation in the measured XSB is related to sum of X and Xu. XSB is also influenced by the SVI, the zone settling velocity at X and the overflow and underflow rates of the settling tanks. The method of averaging X and Xu tends to overestimate the XSB. A new empirical estimation technique for XSB was developed. The estimation technique uses dimensionless ratios; i.e., the ratio of XSB to Xu, the ratio of the overflow rate to the sum of the underflow rate and the initial settling velocity of the mixed liquor and sludge compaction expressed as a ratio (dimensionless SVI). The empirical model is compared with the method of averaging X and Xu for the entire range of sludge depths in the settling tanks and for SVI values between 100 and 300 ml/g. Since the empirical model uses dimensionless ratios, the regression parameters are also dimensionless and the model can be

  9. Effectiveness of foam-based and traditional green roofs in reducing nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon and suspended solids in urban installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; Mucha, S.; Williamson, G.

    2017-12-01

    While green roofs have well understood benefits for retaining runoff, there is less of a consensus regarding the potential for retaining and absorbing nutrients or suspended solids from roof runoff that would otherwise travel to waterways. Additionally, there are numerous designs, materials and maintenance plans associated with "green" roofs/surfaces that may greatly impact not only their hydrological benefit but also their pollution mitigation potential. Here we examine the NO3, NH4, total organic carbon (TOC), total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS) retention potential from planted and unplanted foam roofs and traditional soil roofs. Direct precipitation, untreated runoff and throughflow from the different roof types were collected for 3 to 11 rain events over a year (depending on roof). Unplanted and traditional roofs reduced TSS by 80% or better relative to runoff. Traditional roofs showed 50% lower TP than runoff or other roof types. TOC was higher than direct precipitation for all treatments, although there were no differences among the treatments themselves. Taken as averages over the 11 events, NO3 and NH4 concentrations were highly variable for runoff and treatments and significant differences were not detected. Preliminary analysis suggests there were no differences between performance of traditional versus foam-based roofs, although a greater sample size is required to be definitive.

  10. Analysis of suspended solids transport processes in primary settling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patziger, Miklós; Kiss, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    The paper shows the results of a long-term research comprising FLUENT-based numerical modeling, in situ measurements and laboratory tests to analyze suspended solids (SS) transport processes in primary settling tanks (PSTs). The investigated PST was one of the rectangular horizontal flow PSTs at a large municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of a capacity of 500,000 population equivalent. Many middle-sized and large WWTPs are equipped with such PSTs. The numerical PST model was calibrated and validated based on the results of comprehensive in situ flow and SS concentration measurements from low (5 m/h) up to quite high surface overflow rates of 9.5 and 13.0 m/h and on settling and other laboratory tests. The calibrated and validated PST model was also successfully used for evaluation of some slight modifications of the inlet geometry (removing lamellas, installing a flocculation 'box', shifting the inlet into a 'bottom-near' or into a 'high' position), which largely affect PST behavior and performance. The investigations provided detailed insight into the flow and SS transport processes within the investigated PST, which strongly contributes to hydrodynamically driven design and upgrading of PSTs.

  11. Feasibility of using acoustic velocity meters for estimating highly organic suspended-solids concentrations in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Levee 4 canal site below control structure G-88 in the Everglades agricultural area in northwestern Broward County, Florida, to study the relation of acoustic attenuation to suspended-solids concentrations. Acoustic velocity meter and temperature data were obtained with concurrent water samples analyzed for suspended-solids concentrations. Two separate acoustic velocity meter frequencies were used, 200 and 500 kilohertz, to determine the sensitivity of acoustic attenuation to frequency for the measured suspended-solids concentration range. Suspended-solids concentrations for water samples collected at the Levee 4 canal site from July 1993 to September 1994 ranged from 22 to 1,058 milligrams per liter, and organic content ranged from about 30 to 93 percent. Regression analyses showed that attenuation data from the acoustic velocity meter (automatic gain control) and temperature data alone do not provide enough information to adequately describe the concentrations of suspended solids. However, if velocity is also included as one of the independent variables in the regression model, a satisfactory correlation can be obtained. Thus, it is feasible to use acoustic velocity meter instrumentation to estimate suspended-solids concentrations in streams, even when suspended solids are primarily composed of organic material. Using the most comprehensive data set available for the study (500 kiloherz data), the best fit regression model produces a standard error of 69.7 milligrams per liter, with actual errors ranging from 2 to 128 milligrams per liter. Both acoustic velocity meter transmission frequencies of 200 and 500 hilohertz produced similar results, suggesting that transducers of either frequency could be used to collect attenuation data at the study site. Results indicate that calibration will be required for each acoustic velocity meter system to the unique suspended-solids regime existing at each site. More robust solutions may

  12. Remote Sensing and Water Quality Indicators in the West Flood Canal Semarang City: Spatio-temporal Structures of Lansat-8 Derived Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiyanto, Sawitri

    2017-12-01

    One of the waters that has been contaminated by industrial waste and domestic waste is the waters of West Flood Canal in Semarang City which is the estuary of the river system, which passes through the Western City of Semarang which is dense with residential and industrial. So, it is necessary to have information about the assessment of water quality in the estuary of the West Flood Canal. Remote sensing technology can analyze the results of recording the spectral characteristics of water with water quality parameters. One of the parameters for assessing water quality is Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solid, can be estimated through remote sensing technology using multispectral Lansat-8 Satellite images data from April, June, and August, 2017 and there are three selected algorithms. Based on the results of TSS and Chlorophyll-A processing, the TSS shows values greater than or equal to 100 which can be said that West Flood Canal is damaged (hypertrophic). While the chlorophyll-a shows a value less than 100 indicating Eutrophic status (threatened). This is caused by the number of suspended materials in the water surface and also because of the disturbance of water vegetation in the form of weeds that destroy the function of the actual West Canal Flood.

  13. Review of Oceanographic and Geochemical Data Collected in Massachusetts Bay during a Large Discharge of Total Suspended Solids from Boston's Sewage-Treatment System and Ocean Outfall in August 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothner, Michael H.; Butman, Bradford; Casso, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    During the period August 14-23, 2002, the discharge of total suspended solids (TSS) from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority sewage-treatment plant ranged from 32 to 132 milligrams per liter, causing the monthly average discharge to exceed the limit specified in the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit. Time-series monitoring data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in western Massachusetts Bay were examined to evaluate changes in environmental conditions during and after this exceedance event. The rate of sediment trapping and the concentrations of near-bottom suspended sediment measured near the outfall in western Massachusetts Bay increased during this period. Because similar increases in sediment-trapping rate were observed in the summers of 2003 and 2004, however, the increase in 2002 cannot be definitively attributed to the increased TSS discharge. Concentrations of copper and silver in trapped sediment collected 10 and 20 days following the 2002 TSS event were elevated compared to those in pre-event samples. Maximum concentrations were less than 50 percent of toxicity guidelines. Photographs of surficial bottom sediments obtained before and after the TSS event do not show sediment accumulation on the sea floor. Concentrations of silver, Clostridium perfringens, and clay in surficial bottom sediments sampled 10 weeks after the discharge event at a depositional site 3 kilometers west of the outfall were unchanged from those in samples obtained before the event. Simulation of the TSS event by using a coupled hydrodynamic-wave-sediment-transport model could enhance understanding of these observations and of the effects of the exceedance on the local marine environment.

  14. Assessments of lake profiling on temperature, Total Suspended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interpolation were performed on temperature, total suspended solid (TSS) and turbidity (TUR) based on in-situ and ex-situ analyses according to the correlation matrix and linear regression at 14 different depths for the Chomor River and Mahadir Island. The result showed outlet significantly decreased over depth caused the ...

  15. Removal of turbidity and suspended solids backwash water from rapid sand filter by using electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Yari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By appropriate method can be recycled more than 95 percent effluent backwashing the filter. This study aimed to examine the efficiency of the electrocoagulation process on turbidity and suspended solids removal from backwash effluent of rapid sand filter of water treatment plants No 1 in Karaj. Methods: This bench-scale experimental study was carried out on the samples of backwash effluent in a batch system. The Plexiglas tank with a volume of 4 liters, containing of 4 plate electrodes made of aluminum and iron was connected to a direct current power supply. Samples every 15 minutes to measure turbidity and suspended solids collected in the middle of the reactor and examined. Effect of several parameters such as current density, reaction time and voltage were studied. The total number of samples tested were 48. Turbidity and total suspended solids was measured by nephlometry and gravimetric method, respectively. Results: The highest removal efficiency of turbidity and suspended solids in reaction time of 60 minutes, current density of 2 mA and a voltage of 45 mV was observed. The highest removal efficiency of turbidity in aluminum and iron electrodes were 96.83 and 83.77 %, respectively. Also The highest removal efficiency of suspended solids were 96.73 and 86.22 %, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that electro- coagulation process can be a good choice to remove turbidity and suspended from backwash of rapid sand filter. Aluminum electrode efficiency in the removal of turbidity and suspended solids was greater than the iron electrode.

  16. Estrogenic and AhR activities in dissolved phase and suspended solids from wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Sonia; Gomez, Elena; Picot, Bernadette; Cavaillès, Vincent; Casellas, Claude; Balaguer, Patrick; Fenet, Hélène

    2010-05-15

    The distribution of estrogen receptor (ERalpha) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) activities between the dissolved phase and suspended solids were investigated during wastewater treatment. Three wastewater treatment plants with different treatment technologies (waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), trickling filters (TFs) and activated sludge supplemented with a biofilter system (ASB)) were sampled. Estrogenic and AhR activities were detected in both phases in influents and effluents. Estrogenic and AhR activities in wastewater influents ranged from 41.8 to 79 ng/L E(2) Eq. and from 37.9 to 115.5 ng/L TCDD Eq. in the dissolved phase and from 5.5 to 88.6 ng/g E(2) Eq. and from 15 to 700 ng/g TCDD Eq. in the suspended solids. For both activities, WSP showed greater or similar removal efficiency than ASB and both were much more efficient than TF which had the lowest removal efficiency. Moreover, our data indicate that the efficiency of removal of ER and AhR activities from the suspended solid phase was mainly due to removal of suspended solids. Indeed, ER and AhR activities were detected in the effluent suspended solid phase indicating that suspended solids, which are usually not considered in these types of studies, contribute to environmental contamination by endocrine disrupting compounds and should therefore be routinely assessed for a better estimation of the ER and AhR activities released in the environment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Single-objective vs. multi-objective autocalibration in modelling total suspended solids and phosphorus in a small agricultural watershed with SWAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasolomanana, Santatriniaina Denise; Lessard, Paul; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    To obtain greater precision in modelling small agricultural watersheds, a shorter simulation time step is beneficial. A daily time step better represents the dynamics of pollutants in the river and provides more realistic simulation results. However, with a daily evaluation performance, good fits are rarely obtained. With the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE) method embedded in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), two calibration approaches are available, single-objective or multi-objective optimization. The goal of the present study is to evaluate which approach can improve the daily performance with SWAT, in modelling flow (Q), total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP). The influence of weights assigned to the different variables included in the objective function has also been tested. The results showed that: (i) the model performance depends not only on the choice of calibration approach, but essentially on the influential parameters; (ii) the multi-objective calibration estimating at once all parameters related to all measured variables is the best approach to model Q, TSS and TP; (iii) changing weights does not improve model performance; and (iv) with a single-objective optimization, an excellent water quality modelling performance may hide a loss of performance of predicting flows and unbalanced internal model components.

  18. KELIMPAHAN FITOPLANKTON DAN KONSENTRASI TSS SEBAGAI INDIKATOR PENENTU KONDISI PERAIRAN MUARA SUNGAI PORONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulung Jantama Wisha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pembuangan limbah dan lumpur ke Sungai Porong diduga akan berdampak bagi lingkungan sekitarnya, khususnya meningkatnya konsentrasi padatan tersuspensi (TSS dan mempengaruhi sebaran fitoplankton di wilayah tersebut. Tujuan dari dilakukannya penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui konsentrasi muatan padatan tersuspensi, kekeruhan dan kelimpahan fitoplankton di perairan muara Sungai Porong, Kabupaten Sidoarjo. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif. Data yang dikumpulkan sebagai variabel ukur adalah muatan padatan tersuspensi, kekeruhan, kelimpahan fitoplankton dan kecepatan serta arah arus. Variabel pendukung meliputi data pasang surut dan peta bathimetri wilayah muara Sungai Porong. Data yang diperoleh selanjutnya dianalisis menggunakan program Arc GIS 10, sehingga menghasilkan output berupa distribusi spasial. Konsentrasi muatan padatan tersuspensi 542-885 mg/l. konsentrasi kekeruhan 3.7-20.5 NTU. Kelimpahan fitoplankton 153-238 ind/l. Berdasarkan data tersebut dapat diketahui bahwa sebaran muatan padatan tersuspensi dan kekeruhan memiliki kaitan dengan kelimpahan fitoplankton pada saat surut, meskipun pada kuantitas yang tidak selalu sama. Arah sebaran bergerak ke arah Timur atau menjauhi muara sungai. ABUNDANCE OF PHYTOPLANKTON AND TSS VALUE AS AN INDICATOR FOR PORONG RIVER ESTUARY WATER CONDITIONSDisposal of waste and mud into Porong River is expected to have an impact to the surrounding environment, particularly the increasing concentration of suspended solids (TSS and affect the distribution of phytoplankton in the region. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the concentration of TSS and abundance of phytoplankton as an indicator for determinate condition of Porong River Estuary. Determining the location of sampling by purposive sampling method. The data were then analyzed with statistical methods and spatially using ArcGIS 10 program. The concentration of suspended solids charge 542-885 mg

  19. Characterization and morphology of solids suspended in rain water; Caracterizacion y morfologia de solidos suspendidos en agua de lluvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work presents the results obtained from the analysis of rain water in Mexico. The study treats over the characterization and morphology of the solids suspended in form of particles in the atmosphere. The solids suspended were obtained of the pluvial precipitations after these have been centrifuged. Subsequently of the separation, the particulate matter was analysed by Sem and X-ray dispersive energy.

  20. Influence of secondary settling tank performance on suspended solids mass balance in activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patziger, M; Kainz, H; Hunze, M; Józsa, J

    2012-05-01

    Secondary settling is the final step of the activated sludge-based biological waste water treatment. Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are therefore an essential unit of producing a clear effluent. A further important function of SSTs is the sufficient thickening to achieve highly concentrated return sludge and biomass within the biological reactor. In addition, the storage of activated sludge is also needed in case of peak flow events (Ekama et al., 1997). Due to the importance of a high SST performance the problem has long been investigated (Larsen, 1977; Krebs, 1991; Takács et al., 1991; Ekama et al., 1997; Freimann, 1999; Patziger et al., 2005; Bürger et al., 2011), however, a lot of questions are still to solve regarding e.g. the geometrical features (inflow, outflow) and operations (return sludge control, scraper mechanism, allowable maximum values of surface overflow rates). In our study we focused on SSTs under dynamic load considering both the overall unsteady behaviour and the features around the peaks, investigating the effect of various sludge return strategies as well as the inlet geometry on SST performance. The main research tool was a FLUENT-based novel mass transport model consisting of two modules, a 2D axisymmetric SST model and a mixed reactor model of the biological reactor (BR). The model was calibrated and verified against detailed measurements of flow and concentration patterns, sludge settling, accompanied with continuous on-line measurement of in- and outflow as well as returned flow rates of total suspended solids (TSS) and water. As to the inlet arrangement a reasonable modification of the geometry could result in the suppression of the large scale flow structures of the sludge-water interface thus providing a significant improvement in the SST performance. Furthermore, a critical value of the overflow rate (q(crit)) was found at which a pronounced large scale circulation pattern develops in the vertical plane, the density current in

  1. Infrared Spectroscopy of Noh Suspended in Solid Parahydrogen: Part Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanoff, Morgan E.; Mutunga, Fredrick M.; Anderson, David T.

    2015-06-01

    The only report in the literature on the infrared spectroscopy of the parent oxynitrene NOH was performed using Ar matrix isolation spectroscopy at 10 K. In this previous study, they performed detailed isotopic studies to make definitive vibrational assignments. NOH is predicted by high-level calculations to be in a triplet ground electronic state, but the Ar matrix isolation spectra cannot be used to verify this triplet assignment. In our 2013 preliminary report, we showed that 193 nm in situ photolysis of NO trapped in solid parahydrogen can also be used to prepare the NOH molecule. Over the ensuing two years we have been studying the infrared spectroscopy of this species in more detail. The spectra reveal that NOH can undergo hindered rotation in solid parahydrogen such that we can observe both a-type and b-type rovibrational transitions for the O-H stretch vibrational mode, but only a-type for the mode assigned to the bend. In addition, both observed a-type infrared absorption features (bend and OH stretch) display fine structure; an intense central peak with weaker peaks spaced symmetrically to both lower and higher wavenumbers. The spacing between the peaks is nearly identical for both vibrational modes. We now believe this fine structure is due to spin-rotation interactions and we will present a detailed analysis of this fine structure. Currently, we are performing additional experiments aimed at making 15NOH to test these preliminary assignments. The most recent data and up-to-date analysis will be presented in this talk. G. Maier, H. P. Reisenauer, M. De Marco, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 38, 108-110 (1999). U. Bozkaya, J. M. Turney, Y. Yamaguchi, and H. F. Schaefer III, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 164303 (2012). David T. Anderson and Mahmut Ruzi, 68th Ohio State University International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, talk TE01 (2013).

  2. A method and algorithm for correlating scattered light and suspended particles in polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami Gumaan Daraigan; Mohd Zubir Matjafri; Khiruddin Abdullah; Azlan Abdul Aziz; Abdul Aziz Tajuddin; Mohd Firdaus Othman

    2005-01-01

    An optical model has been developed for measuring total suspended solids TSS concentrations in water. This approach is based on the characteristics of scattered light from the suspended particles in water samples. An optical sensor system (an active spectrometer) has been developed to correlate pollutant (total suspended solids TSS) concentration and the scattered radiation. Scattered light was measured in terms of the output voltage of the phototransistor of the sensor system. The developed algorithm was used to calculate and estimate the concentrations of the polluted water samples. The proposed algorithm was calibrated using the observed readings. The results display a strong correlation between the radiation values and the total suspended solids concentrations. The proposed system yields a high degree of accuracy with the correlation coefficient (R) of 0.99 and the root mean square error (RMS) of 63.57 mg/l. (Author)

  3. Infrared Spectroscopy of HNO and Noh Suspended in Solid Parahydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David T.; Ruzi, Mahmut

    2013-06-01

    The only report in the literature on the infrared spectroscopy of the parent oxynitrene NOH was performed using Ar matrix isolation spectroscopy at 10 K. In this previous study, the NOH is synthesized by co-deposition of NO/Ar and a H_2/Ar mixture that is passed through a microwave discharge to create H-atoms. The H-atoms recombine with NO in the Ar matrix to produce mostly HNO, but some NOH is produced as well. In this work we irradiate NO doped parahydrogen solids at 2 K using 193 nm radiation which is known to generate H-atoms as by-products. After the photolysis laser is stopped, we detect growth of HNO and NOH presumably due to reactions of H-atoms with NO analogous to the previous Ar matrix study. The higher energy NOH isomer is predicted by high-level calculations to be in a triplet ground electronic state. Interestingly, the infrared absorptions of NOH for the two observed vibrational modes (bend and OH stretch) display fine structure; an intense central peak with smaller peaks spaced symmetrically to both lower and higher wavenumbers. Further, the spacing between the peaks is the same for both vibrational modes. We believe this fine structure reflects the zero-field splitting of the triplet ground state of NOH (magnetic dipole-dipole interaction) and our most current results and analysis will be presented. G. Maier, H. P. Reisenauer, M. De Marco, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 38, 108-110 (1999). M. Fushitani and T. Momose, Low Temp. Phys. 29, 740-743 (2003). U. Bozkaya, J. M. Turney, Y. Yamaguchi, and H. F. Schaefer III, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 164303 (2012).

  4. Determination of radiocaesium in agriculture-related water samples containing suspended solids using gelling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunami, Hisaya; Shin, Moono; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Shinano, Takuro; Kitajima, Shiori; Tsuchiya, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    After the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011, the radiocaesium, which flowed into the paddy fields via irrigation water, have been widely investigated. When the concentration of radiocaesium in the water samples containing suspended solids were directly measured using a high purity germanium detector with a 2 L marinelli beaker, the radiocaesium concentration might be overestimated due to the sedimentation of the suspended solids during the measurement time. In fact, the values obtained by the direct method were higher than those obtained by the filtering method and/or the gelling method in most of the agriculture-related water samples. We concluded that the gelling method using sodium polyacrylate can be widely adapted for the analysis of the total radiocaesium in the agriculture-related water samples because of its many advantage such as simple preparation procedure, accurate analysis values, excellent long-term stability of geometry and low operating cost. (author)

  5. Experimental Design of Electrocoagulation and Magnetic Technology for Enhancing Suspended Solids Removal from Synthetic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Faiqun Ni'am

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of experiments (DOE is one of the statistical method that is used as a tool to enhance and improve experimental quality. The changes to the variables of a process or system is supposed to give the optimal result (response and quite satisfactory. Experimental design can defined as a test or series of test series by varying the input variables (factors of a process that can known to cause changes in output (response. This paper presents the results of experimental design of wastewater treatment by electrocoagulation (EC technique. A combined magnet and electrocoagulation (EC technology were designed to increase settling velocity and to enhance suspended solid removal efficiencies from wastewater samples. In this experiment, a synthetic wastewater samples were prepared by mixing 700 mg of the milk powder in one litre of water and treated by using an acidic buffer solution. The monopolar iron (Fe plate anodes and cathodes were employed as electrodes. Direct current was varied in a range of between 0.5 and 1.1 A, and flowrate in a range of between 1.00 to 3.50 mL/s. One permanent magnets namely AlNiCo with a magnetic strength of 0.16T was used in this experiment. The results show that the magnetic field and the flowrate have major influences on suspended solids removal. The efficiency removals of suspended solids, turbidity and COD removal efficiencies at optimum conditions were found to be more than 85%, 95%, and 75%, respectively.

  6. Optoelectronic system to measure the concentration and turbidity of suspended solids in the water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    The selection of the site where a nuclear power plant is to be built requires intensive study of the environmental conditions. This work presents the results reached on the development of a measurement system of suspended solids based on turbidity characteristics of the water. The system consists of an optical transducer composed of an emitter and a detector of infrared light, both solid state type, whose electrical signal is electronically treated. The equipment was calibrated and certified against turbidity and concentration standards in laboratory use. The obtained results indicate the reliability of the experimental method. The utilization of the equipment at the shore reinforces its flexibility and commodity of use. (author)

  7. Estuarine Suspended Sediment Dynamics: Observations Derived from over a Decade of Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Reisinger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment dynamics of Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, a shallow-water wind-driven estuary, were investigated by combining field and satellite measurements of total suspended solids (TSS. An algorithm was developed to transform 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Aqua satellite reflectance data into estimated TSS values. The algorithm was developed using a reflectance ratio regression of MODIS Band 1 (red and Band 3 (green with TSS measurements (n = 54 collected by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality for Corpus Christi Bay and other Texas estuaries. The algorithm was validated by independently collected TSS measurements during the period of 2011–2014 with an uncertainty estimate of 13%. The algorithm was applied to the period of 2002–2014 to create a synoptic time series of TSS for Corpus Christi Bay. Potential drivers of long-term variability in suspended sediment were investigated. Median and IQR composites of suspended sediments were generated for seasonal wind regimes. From this analysis it was determined that long-term, spatial patterns of suspended sediment in the estuary are related to wind-wave resuspension during the predominant northerly and prevalent southeasterly seasonal wind regimes. The impact of dredging is also apparent in long-term patterns of Corpus Christi Bay as concentrations of suspended sediments over dredge spoil disposal sites are higher and more variable than surrounding areas, which is most likely due to their less consolidated sediments and shallower depths requiring less wave energy for sediment resuspension. This study highlights the advantage of how long-synoptic time series of TSS can be used to elucidate the major drivers of suspended sediments in estuaries.

  8. Effect of the exposure to suspended solids on the enzymatic activity in the bivalve Sinonovacula constricta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic animals are susceptible to sudden changes of their living environment but they adopt strategies to cope with adverse environmental challenges. Contamination by suspended solids, often associated with a dramatic change in the concentrations of important water-quality variables is a frequent occurrence in China's coastal waters and estuaries. Here we studied the impact of suspended solids on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, as well as adenosine triphosphates (including Na+ K+-ATPase, Mg+ +-ATPase, Ca+ +-ATPase and H+ K+-ATPase in the gills and visceral mass tissues of the molluscan bivalve Sinonovacula constricta exposed (4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 days to various concentrations of suspended solids. Our results showed that the antioxidant enzymes cooperated closely to effectively scavenge superoxide anion free radicals and H2O2 (which can ultimately inhibit gill activity through the modification of SOD and/or CAT enzymatic activities. ATPases activity (considered to be a sensitive indicator of toxicity could play an effective role in the maintenance of functional integrity of the plasma membranes as well as some other intracellular functions. After the exposure, a decrease in the Na+ K+-ATPase, Mg+ +-ATPase, and Ca+ +-ATPase activity of the gills was observed suggesting that they were inhibited by the treatments. These results also indicated that, from day 4 to day 16, exposure to high concentrations of suspended solids had an inhibitory effect on the activity of H+-K+-ATPase in the visceral mass of S. constricta. However, after a period of adaptation the H+-K+-ATPase activity was restored to original levels. Our results suggest that long-term exposure to high levels of suspended solids disturb osmoregulation, gastric acid secretion and digestion, cause oxidative damage, as a consequence of antioxidant enzymes inactivation which eventually damages the gills, affect the food intake

  9. The Removal of Turbidity and TSS of the Domestic Wastewater by Coagulation-Flocculation Process Involving Oyster Mushroom as Biocoagulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardede, Astrid; Budihardjo, Mochamad Arief; Purwono

    2018-02-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) can be utilized as biocoagulant since it has chitin cell wall. Chitin has characteristics of bioactivity, biodegradability, absorption and could bind the metal ions. In this study, Oyster Mushroom is micronized and mixed with wastewater to treat turbidity and Total Suspended Solid (TSS) using coagulation-flocculation process employed jartest method. Various doses of Oyster mushroom, 600 mg/l, 1000 mg/l, and 2000 mg/l were tested in several rapid mixing rates which were 100 rpm, 125 rpm, and 150 rpm for 3 minutes followed by 12 minutes of slow mixing at 45 rpm. The mixture then was settled for 60 minutes with pH level maintained at 6-8. The result showed that the Oyster mushroom biocoagulant was able to remove 84% of turbidity and 90% of TSS. These reductions were achieved with biocoagulant dose of 600 mg/ L at 150 rpm mixing rate.

  10. Suspended solids moderate the degradation and sorption of waste water-derived pharmaceuticals in estuarine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminot, Yann; Fuster, Laura; Pardon, Patrick; Le Menach, Karyn; Budzinski, Hélène

    2018-01-15

    This study focuses on the fate of pharmaceuticals discharged into an estuarine environment, particularly into the Turbidity Maximum Zone (TMZ). Batch experiments were set up to investigate the factors regulating the degradation of 53 selected pharmaceuticals. Treated effluents from Bordeaux city (France) were mixed with water from the estuarine Garonne River during 4weeks under 6 characterized conditions in order to assess the influence of suspended particulates, sterilization, untreated wastewater input and dilution on the degradation kinetics. Of the 53 pharmaceuticals monitored, 43 were quantified at the initial time. Only 7 exhibited a persistent behavior (e.g. carbamazepine, meprobamate) while biotic degradation was shown to be the main attenuation process for 38 molecules (e.g. abacavir, ibuprofen highly degradable). Degradation was significantly enhanced by increasing concentrations of suspended solids. A persistence index based on the half-lives of the compounds has been calculated for each of the 43 pharmaceuticals to provide a practical estimate of their relative stability. The stability of pharmaceuticals in estuarine environments is likely to be highly variable and attenuated primarily by changes in suspended solid concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparability of river suspended-sediment sampling and laboratory analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, Joel T.; Johnson, Gregory D.

    2018-03-06

    Accurate measurements of suspended sediment, a leading water-quality impairment in many Minnesota rivers, are important for managing and protecting water resources; however, water-quality standards for suspended sediment in Minnesota are based on grab field sampling and total suspended solids (TSS) laboratory analysis methods that have underrepresented concentrations of suspended sediment in rivers compared to U.S. Geological Survey equal-width-increment or equal-discharge-increment (EWDI) field sampling and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) laboratory analysis methods. Because of this underrepresentation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, collected concurrent grab and EWDI samples at eight sites to compare results obtained using different combinations of field sampling and laboratory analysis methods.Study results determined that grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis results were biased substantially low compared to EWDI sampling and SSC laboratory analysis results, respectively. Differences in both field sampling and laboratory analysis methods caused grab and TSS methods to be biased substantially low. The difference in laboratory analysis methods was slightly greater than field sampling methods.Sand-sized particles had a strong effect on the comparability of the field sampling and laboratory analysis methods. These results indicated that grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis methods fail to capture most of the sand being transported by the stream. The results indicate there is less of a difference among samples collected with grab field sampling and analyzed for TSS and concentration of fines in SSC. Even though differences are present, the presence of strong correlations between SSC and TSS concentrations provides the opportunity to develop site specific relations to address transport processes not captured by grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis methods.

  12. Hydrology, phosphorus, and suspended solids in five agricultural streams in the Lower Fox River and Green Bay Watersheds, Wisconsin, Water Years 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Baumgart, Paul D.; Fermanich, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    A 3-year study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay to characterize water quality in agricultural streams in the Fox/Wolf watershed in northeastern Wisconsin and provide information to assist in the calibration of a watershed model for the area. Streamflow, phosphorus, and suspended solids data were collected between October 1, 2003, and September 30, 2006, in five streams, including Apple Creek, Ashwaubenon Creek, Baird Creek, Duck Creek, and the East River. During this study, total annual precipitation was close to the 30-year normal of 29.12 inches. The 3-year mean streamflow was highest in the East River (113 ft3/s), followed by Duck Creek (58.2 ft3/s), Apple Creek (26.9 ft3/s), Baird Creek (12.8 ft3/s), and Ashwaubenon Creek (9.1 ft3/s). On a yield basis, during these three years, the East River had the highest flow (0.78 ft3/s/mi2), followed by Baird Creek (0.61 ft3/s/mi2), Apple Creek (0.59 ft3/s/mi2), Duck Creek (0.54 ft3/s/mi2), and Ashwaubenon Creek (0.46 ft3/s/mi2). The overall median total suspended solids (TSS) concentration was highest in Baird Creek (73.5 mg/L), followed by Apple and Ashwaubenon Creeks (65 mg/L), East River (40 mg/L), and Duck Creek (30 mg/L). The median total phosphorus (TP) concentration was highest in Ashwaubenon Creek (0.60 mg/L), followed by Baird Creek (0.47 mg/L), Apple Creek (0.37 mg/L), East River (0.26 mg/L), and Duck Creek (0.22 mg/L).

  13. Chemical composition shape form and size of suspended solids in the atmosphere carried by rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la

    2001-01-01

    The interest of this work is to know about shape form, size and chemical composition of the suspended solids in the atmosphere of Toluca city and which are carried by the rains. The harvest of the samples was carried out during january to november 1999. The separation of the particulate matter from the rain water was realized through centrifugation. The solids were analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy to know the shape form and size and the chemical composition was determined by X-ray dispersive energy in general form and of some particles individually analysed. The p H was measured to the solutions and the quantification of some dissolved ions by the Icp technique was realized. The results of the solids showed C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, P, K, Ca, Ti and Fe. Moreover they present sizes which varying from a ten of nanometers until some tens of microns. (Author)

  14. Calibration of a turbidity meter for making estimates of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    Management of water resources such as a reservoir requires using analytical models which describe such parameters as the suspended sediment field. To select or develop an appropriate model requires making many measurements to describe the distribution of this parameter in the water column. One potential method for making those measurements expeditiously is to measure light transmission or turbidity and relate that parameter to total suspended solids concentrations. An instrument which may be used for this purpose was calibrated by generating curves of transmission measurements plotted against measured values of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients. Results of these experiments indicate that field measurements made with this instrument using curves generated in this study should correlate with total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in the water column within 20 percent.

  15. A passive collection system for whole size fractions in river suspended solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshi Matsunaga; Takahiro Nakanishi; Mariko Atarashi-Andoh; Erina Takeuchi; Katsunori Tsuduki; Syusaku Nishimura; Jun Koarashi; Shigeyoshi Otosaka; Tsutomu Sato; Seiya Nagao

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve difficulties in collection of river suspended solids (SS) such as frequent observations during stochastic rainfall events, a simple passive collection system of SS has been developed. It is composed of sequentially connected two large-scale filter vessels. A portion of river water flows down into the filter vessels utilizing a natural drop of streambed. The system enable us to carry out long-term, unmanned SS collection. It is also compatible with dissolved component collection. Its performance was validated in a forested catchment by applying to radiocesium and stable carbon transport. (author)

  16. Accuracy of different sensors for the estimation of pollutant concentrations (total suspended solids, total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater and stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepot, Mathieu; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Many field investigations have used continuous sensors (turbidimeters and/or ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometers) to estimate with a short time step pollutant concentrations in sewer systems. Few, if any, publications compare the performance of various sensors for the same set of samples. Different surrogate sensors (turbidity sensors, UV-visible spectrophotometer, pH meter, conductivity meter and microwave sensor) were tested to link concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sensors' outputs. In the combined sewer at the inlet of a wastewater treatment plant, 94 samples were collected during dry weather, 44 samples were collected during wet weather, and 165 samples were collected under both dry and wet weather conditions. From these samples, triplicate standard laboratory analyses were performed and corresponding sensors outputs were recorded. Two outlier detection methods were developed, based, respectively, on the Mahalanobis and Euclidean distances. Several hundred regression models were tested, and the best ones (according to the root mean square error criterion) are presented in order of decreasing performance. No sensor appears as the best one for all three investigated pollutants.

  17. Solid and suspended/dissolved waste (N, P, O) from rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2011-01-01

    differences between the dietary treatment groups in the waste produced. On average, 48% of the ingestedNwas recovered in thewater (TANconstituting 64–79%of this)and7% inthesolids. In comparison, 1% of the ingested P was recovered in the water and 43% in the solids. A breakpoint value of 5.6 g standardized......Quantifying aquaculture waste into different waste fractions will make it possible to design different treatment setups for obtaining specific cleaning objectives. The aim of this study was therefore to measure “all” solid and suspended/dissolved (i.e. unsedimented) waste from juvenile rainbow...... trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) fed three commonly applied commercial diets, “all” waste referring to: total nitrogen (N), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN=NH3-N+NH4-N), total phosphorus (P), and organicmatter characterized by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the biological oxygen demand after 5 days (BOD5...

  18. Characteristics of suspended solids affect bifenthrin toxicity to the calanoid copepods Eurytemora affinis and Pseudodiaptomus forbesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Emily; Lesmeister, Sarah; Teh, Swee; Young, Thomas M

    2015-10-01

    Bifenthrin is a pyrethroid pesticide that is highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates. The dissolved concentration is generally thought to be the best predictor of acute toxicity. However, for the filter-feeding calanoid copepods Eurytemora affinis and Pseudodiaptomus forbesi, ingestion of pesticide-bound particles could prove to be another route of exposure. The present study investigated bifenthrin toxicity to E. affinis and P. forbesi in the presence of suspended solids from municipal wastewater effluent and surface water of the San Francisco (CA, USA) Estuary. Suspended solids mitigated the toxicity of total bifenthrin to E. affinis and P. forbesi, but mortality was higher than what would be predicted from dissolved concentrations alone. The results indicate that the toxicity and bioavailability of particle-associated bifenthrin was significantly correlated with counts of 0.5-µm to 2-µm particle sizes. Potential explanations could include direct ingestion of bifenthrin-bound particles, changes in food consumption and feeding behavior, and physical contact with small particles. The complex interactions between pesticides and particles of different types and sizes demonstrate a need for future ecotoxicological studies to investigate the role of particle sizes on aquatic organisms. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. The clam (Chamelea gallina: evaluation of the effects of solids suspended in seawater on bivalve molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatora Angela Angioni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the effects of solids in suspension in seawater on clams (Chamelea gallina. The aim was to investigate the possible correlation between the widespread deaths of clams in the coastal waters of the central and northern Adriatic in the last five years and increased concentrations of solids in suspension. The research involved conducting 96-hour tests on clams farmed in aquariums containing filtered seawater. The tests were preceded by a 7-day adaptation stage to allow the molluscs to acclimatise. During this period, the clams were fed on unicellular seaweed (Dunaliella tertiolecta. The molluscs were exposed to particles of solids in suspension consisting of pools of silica gel (SiO2 granules of various sizes, similar to those constituting silt, whose presence and suspension in the sea considerably increase after heavy rain and heavy seas. The study established that the number of deaths caused by solids suspended in seawater at the concentrations used in the tests was not statistically significant.

  20. Application of Acoustic and Optic Methods for Estimating Suspended-Solids Concentrations in the St. Lucie River Estuary, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Eduardo; Byrne, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic and optic methods were applied to estimate suspended-solids concentrations in the St. Lucie River Estuary, southeastern Florida. Acoustic Doppler velocity meters were installed at the North Fork, Speedy Point, and Steele Point sites within the estuary. These sites provide varying flow, salinity, water-quality, and channel cross-sectional characteristics. The monitoring site at Steele Point was not used in the analyses because repeated instrument relocations (due to bridge construction) prevented a sufficient number of samples from being collected at the various locations. Acoustic and optic instruments were installed to collect water velocity, acoustic backscatter strength (ABS), and turbidity data that were used to assess the feasibility of estimating suspended-solids concentrations in the estuary. Other data collected at the monitoring sites include tidal stage, salinity, temperature, and periodic discharge measurements. Regression analyses were used to determine the relations of suspended-solids concentration to ABS and suspended-solids concentration to turbidity at the North Fork and Speedy Point sites. For samples used in regression analyses, measured suspended-solids concentrations at the North Fork and Speedy Point sites ranged from 3 to 37 milligrams per liter, and organic content ranged from 50 to 83 percent. Corresponding salinity for these samples ranged from 0.12 to 22.7 parts per thousand, and corresponding temperature ranged from 19.4 to 31.8 ?C. Relations determined using this technique are site specific and only describe suspended-solids concentrations at locations where data were collected. The suspended-solids concentration to ABS relation resulted in correlation coefficients of 0.78 and 0.63 at the North Fork and Speedy Point sites, respectively. The suspended-solids concentration to turbidity relation resulted in correlation coefficients of 0.73 and 0.89 at the North Fork and Speedy Point sites, respectively. The adequacy of the

  1. Modeling Trace Element Concentrations in the San Francisco Bay Estuary from Remote Measurement of Suspended Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, J.; Broughton, J.; Kudela, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Suspended and dissolved trace elements are key determinants of water quality in estuarine and coastal waters. High concentrations of trace element pollutants in the San Francisco Bay estuary necessitate consistent and thorough monitoring to mitigate adverse effects on biological systems and the contamination of water and food resources. Although existing monitoring programs collect annual in situ samples from fixed locations, models proposed by Benoit, Kudela, & Flegal (2010) enable calculation of the water column total concentration (WCT) and the water column dissolved concentration (WCD) of 14 trace elements in the San Francisco Bay from a more frequently sampled metric—suspended solids concentration (SSC). This study tests the application of these models with SSC calculated from remote sensing data, with the aim of validating a tool for continuous synoptic monitoring of trace elements in the San Francisco Bay. Using HICO imagery, semi-analytical and empirical SSC algorithms were tested against a USGS dataset. A single-band method with statistically significant linear fit (p Arsenic, Iron, and Lead in the southern region of the Bay were found to exceed EPA water quality criteria for human health and aquatic life. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of monitoring programs using remote observation of trace element concentrations, and provide the foundation for investigation of pollutant sources and pathways over time.

  2. Temporal analysis of E. coli, TSS and wastewater micropollutant loads from combined sewer overflows: implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne-Sophie, Madoux-Humery; Dorner, Sarah M; Sauvé, Sébastien; Aboulfadl, Khadija; Galarneau, Martine; Servais, Pierre; Prévost, Michèle

    2015-05-01

    A combined sewer overflow (CSO) outfall was monitored to assess the impact of temporal mass loads on the appropriateness of treatment options. Instantaneous loads (mass per s) varied by approximately three orders of magnitude during events (n = 9 in spring, summer and the fall) with no significant seasonal variations. The median fraction of total loads discharged with the first 25% of the total volume ranged from 28% (theophylline) to 40% (Total Suspended Solids (TSS)) and loads remained high for the duration of the events. E. coli and TSS loads originated primarily from wastewater (WW) (63% and 75%, respectively). However, a mix of stormwater (SW) and sewer deposit (SD) resuspension contributed from 73 to 95% for the first 50% of the volume discharged of total TSS loads for 2 events. The contribution of SD resuspension was not negligible for Wastewater Micropollutants (WWMPs), especially for carbamazepine. Sustained high loads over the course of CSOs highlight the need to revisit current CSO and SW management strategies that focus on the treatment of early discharge volumes.

  3. Fate of cocaine drug biomarkers in sewer system: the role of suspended solids in biotransformation and sorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram; Brock, Andreas Libonati; Polesel, Fabio

    on the fate of illicit drugs in sewer systems. This study aims at assessing the role of suspended solids on the biotransformation and sorption in raw sewage of eight illicit drug biomarkers (cocaine, heroin, methadone, mephedrone, ketamine, methamphetamine, MDMA and THC and their urinary metabolites...

  4. Comparison between thermo balance and classic gravimetric method for determination of suspended solids in sludge from wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper two methods for determination of suspended solids in sludge from wastewater treatment plants (activated, thickened and dry, in a range from 0.1 to 20-25%) are compared. Results are similar from statistic point of view between classic gravimetric method and thermo balance method. However the later seems better for its rapid and easy execution. [it

  5. The Analysis of Septic Tank Performance in Regard to Suspended Solids and Organic Matter Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Kirjanova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 117 The aim of this work was to evaluate the removal of suspended solids (SS and 7-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD7 in a three chamber septic tank depending on theoretical wastewater retention time and the degree of septic tank cleanliness. It was found out that the performance of the septic tank depended on the degree of its cleanliness: when the septic tank was clean and retention time was three days, SS and BOS7 removal efficiency was 77±10% and 67±14% respectively, whereas two months later, after septic tank desludging, SS removal efficiency decreased to 53±22% and BOD7 to 32±31%. The performance of the septic tank also depended on theoretical wastewater retention time: when some amount of solids was accumulated at the bottom of the septic tank and wastewater retention time was one day, SS and BOS7 removal efficiency was 45±40% and 33±16% respectively; when retention time was three days, SS removal efficiency increased to 53±22% but BOD7 removal efficiency remained similar to one day retention time, i.e. 32±31%.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Spatial and temporal variation in suspended sediment, organic matter, and turbidity in a Minnesota prairie river: implications for TMDLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Christian F; Brooks, Kenneth N; Heneley, Daniel; Magner, Joseph A

    2010-06-01

    The Minnesota River Basin (MRB), situated in the prairie pothole region of the Upper Midwest, contributes excessive sediment and nutrient loads to the Upper Mississippi River. Over 330 stream channels in the MRB are listed as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, with turbidity levels exceeding water quality standards in much of the basin. Addressing turbidity impairment requires an understanding of pollutant sources that drive turbidity, which was the focus of this study. Suspended volatile solids (SVS), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity were measured over two sampling seasons at ten monitoring stations in Elm Creek, a turbidity impaired tributary in the MRB. Turbidity levels exceeded the Minnesota standard of 25 nephelometric units in 73% of Elm Creek samples. Turbidity and TSS were correlated (r (2) = 0.76), yet they varied with discharge and season. High levels of turbidity occurred during periods of high stream flow (May-June) because of excessive suspended inorganic sediment from watershed runoff, stream bank, and channel contributions. Both turbidity and TSS increased exponentially downstream with increasing stream power, bank height, and bluff erosion. However, organic matter discharged from wetlands and eutrophic lakes elevated SVS levels and stream turbidity in late summer when flows were low. SVS concentrations reached maxima at lake outlets (50 mg/l) in August. Relying on turbidity measurements alone fails to identify the cause of water quality impairment whether from suspended inorganic sediment or organic matter. Therefore, developing mitigation measures requires monitoring of both TSS and SVS from upstream to downstream reaches.

  7. Characterization of suspended solids and total phosphorus loadings from small watersheds in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danz, Mari E.; Corsi, Steven R.; Graczyk, David J.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the daily, monthly, and yearly distribution of contaminant loadings and streamflow can be critical for the successful implementation and evaluation of water-quality management practices. Loading data for solids (suspended sediment and total suspended solids) and total phosphorus and streamflow data for 23 watersheds were summarized for four ecoregions of Wisconsin: the Driftless Area Ecoregion, the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion, the North Central Hardwoods Ecoregion, and the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains Ecoregion. The Northern Lakes and Forests and the North Central Hardwoods Ecoregions were combined into one region for analysis due to a lack of sufficient data in each region. Urban watersheds, all located in the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains, were analyzed separately from rural watersheds as the Rural Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region and the Urban Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region. Results provide information on the distribution of loadings and streamflow between base flow and stormflow, the timing of loadings and streamflow throughout the year, and information regarding the number of days in which the majority of the annual loading is transported. The average contribution to annual solids loading from stormflow periods for the Driftless Area Ecoregion was 84 percent, the Northern Lakes and Forests/North Central Hardwoods region was 71 percent, the Rural Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region was 70 percent, and the Urban Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region was 90 percent. The average contributions to annual total phosphorus loading from stormflow periods were 72, 49, 61, and 76 percent for each of the respective regions. The average contributions to annual streamflow from stormflow periods are 20, 23, 31, and 50 percent for each of the respective regions. In all regions, the most substantial loading contributions for solids were in the late winter (February through March), spring (April through May), and

  8. Application of nuclear techniques to the measurement of rock density and transport of solid particles suspended in rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddiki, A.

    1984-10-01

    In order to better understand hydron phenomens in semi-arid regions characterized by torrential rains, we measured solid particles suspended to dums and in rivers. We also determined the density profile of a drilling and density of saline solutions. We designed an automatic nuclear gauge used for measuring the concentration of particles suspended to rivers. The installation, calibration and operations of a LABEN gauge were done in BENI SLIMANE on the 27th and 28th of February, 1984. The first results we obtained were received on the 24th of April, 1984

  9. Comparing peracetic acid and hypochlorite for disinfection of combined sewer overflows: Effects of suspended-solids and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, M; Loconsole, J; Schockling, A J; Nerenberg, R; Pavissich, J P

    2017-12-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is an alternative disinfectant that may be effective for combined sewer overflow (CSO) disinfection, but little is known about the effect of particle size on PAA disinfection efficiency. In this work, PAA and hypochlorite were compared as disinfectants, with a focus on the effect of wastewater particles. Inactivation experiments were conducted on suspended cultures of Escherichia coli and wastewater suspended solids. Tested size fractions included particle diameters disinfection efficiency decreased with increasing solids size. However, solids size had little effect on PAA disinfection. The PAA disinfection efficiency decreased at pH values above 7.5. Live/dead staining revealed that PAA disinfection leaves most cells in a viable but non-culturable condition. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses suggests that PAA and hypochlorite may inactivate E. coli bacteria by similar mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of suspended solids and heavy metals from urban stormwater runoff by a tree box filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronimo, F K F; Maniquiz-Redillas, M C; Tobio, J A S; Kim, L H

    2014-01-01

    Particulates, inorganic and toxic constituents are the most common pollutants associated with urban stormwater runoff. Heavy metals such as chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead are found to be in high concentration on paved roads or parking lots due to vehicle emissions. In order to control the rapid increase of pollutant loads in stormwater runoff, the Korean Ministry of Environment proposed the utilization of low impact developments. One of these was the application of tree box filters that act as a bioretention treatment system which executes filtration and sorption processes. In this study, a tree box filter located adjacent to an impervious parking lot was developed to treat suspended solids and heavy metal concentrations from urban stormwater runoff. In total, 11 storm events were monitored from July 2010 to August 2012. The results showed that the tree box filter was highly effective in removing particulates (up to 95%) and heavy metals (at least 70%) from the urban stormwater runoff. Furthermore, the tree box filter was capable of reducing the volume runoff by 40% at a hydraulic loading rate of 1 m/day and below.

  11. Characteristic of total suspended particulate (TSP) containing Pb and Zn at solid waste landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budihardjo, M. A.; Noveandra, K.; Samadikun, B. P.

    2018-05-01

    Activities conducted at municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLs) potentially cause air pollution. Heavy vehicles in MSWLs release various pollutants that can have negative impacts for humans. One noticeable pollutant at MSWLs is airborne total suspended particulate (TSP) which may contain heavy metals such as Pb and Zn and can cause disease when inhaled by humans. In this study, TSP from a landfill in Semarang, Indonesia was collected and characterized to quantify the concentration of Pb and Zn. Meteorological factors (i.e. temperature, humidity and wind velocity) and landfill activities were considered as factors affecting pollutant concentrations. TSP was sampled using dust samplers while the concentrations of heavy metals in TSP were analyzed using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Pb concentration ranged from 0.84 to 1.78 µg/m3 while Zn concentration was from 7.87 to 8.76 µg/m3. The levels of Pb were below the threshold specified by the Indonesian Government. Meanwhile, the threshold for Zn has not yet been determined.

  12. Genome?resolved metagenomics of a bioremediation system for degradation of thiocyanate in mine water containing suspended solid tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Sumayah F.; Kantor, Rose S.; Huddy, Robert; Thomas, Brian C.; van Zyl, Andries W.; Harrison, Susan T.L.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Thiocyanate (SCN?) is a toxic compound that forms when cyanide (CN?), used to recover gold, reacts with sulfur species. SCN??degrading microbial communities have been studied, using bioreactors fed synthetic wastewater. The inclusion of suspended solids in the form of mineral tailings, during the development of the acclimatized microbial consortium, led to the selection of an active planktonic microbial community. Preliminary analysis of the community composition revealed reduced mic...

  13. Evaluating the Efficiency of Tragacanth Coagulant Aid in Removing Colloidal Materials and Suspended Solids Creating Turbidity from Karun River Water

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Farhadi; Afshin Takdastan; Roghayeh Baghbany

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Colloidal materials and suspended solids cause turbidity in water. To remove turbidity, clarification method is used that includes processes of coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation. Due to the long duration of coagulation process, coagulant aids are applied. Despite the favorable efficiency of synthetic polyelectrolytes as a coagulant aid, due to their harmful effects on human health, in this process, natural organic polymers are used instead. Materials and Methods: I...

  14. Resuspension and transport of suspended solids in Eurajoensalmi Bay. Final report of monitoring activities in 2009-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mykkanen, J.; Kiirikki, M.; Lindfors, A.

    2012-11-01

    The goal of monitoring activities carried out in Eurajoensalmi Bay was to indentify factors affecting dispersal of river waters and suspended solid matter in the estuary area. In addition to suspended solids load and dispersal of river water, also release of sedimented particles from the sea bed in resuspension was studied. River water quality and discharge as well as resuspension in Eurajoensalmi estuary area were monitored with Luode automatic monitoring stations equipped with water quality, water level, wave height and weather sensors. Dynamics of Eurajoensalmi estuary area was studied by installing profiling current meters (ADCP) and water quality sensors to the sea floor at the mouth of Eurajoensalmi. Spatial variation of surface water quality was monitored with a flow-through method from a moving vessel and manual profiling several times during the monitoring period. Collected data was processed and used in determining suspended solids balance of Eurajoensalmi Bay. The balance was determined by creating a regression model for water exchange and sediment flux over the cross section at the mouth of Eurajoensalmi. Regression model was created also to determine resuspension in Eurajoensalmi area. Sediment flux and resuspension were modeled using long term wind data from Kylmaepihlaja meteorological station as a variable to determine overall sediment balance of Eurajoensalmi

  15. Assessment of conservation easements, total phosphorus, and total suspended solids in West Fork Beaver Creek, Minnesota, 1999-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Kieta, Kristen A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined conservation easements and their effectiveness at reducing phosphorus and solids transport to streams. The U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with the Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources and worked collaboratively with the Hawk Creek Watershed Project to examine the West Fork Beaver Creek Basin in Renville County, which has the largest number of Reinvest In Minnesota land retirement contracts in the State (as of 2013). Among all conservation easement programs, a total of 24,218 acres of agricultural land were retired throughout Renville County, and 2,718 acres were retired in the West Fork Beaver Creek Basin from 1987 through 2012. Total land retirement increased steadily from 1987 until 2000. In 2000, land retirement increased sharply because of the Minnesota River Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program, then leveled off when the program ended in 2002. Streamflow data were collected during 1999 through 2011, and total phosphorus and total suspended solids data were collected during 1999 through 2012. During this period, the highest peak streamflow of 1,320 cubic feet per second was in March 2010. Total phosphorus and total suspended solids are constituents that tend to increase with increases in streamflow. Annual flow-weighted mean total-phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.140 to 0.759 milligrams per liter, and annual flow-weighted mean total suspended solids concentrations ranged from 21.3 to 217 milligrams per liter. Annual flow-weighted mean total phosphorus and total suspended solids concentrations decreased steadily during the first 4 years of water-quality sample collection. A downward trend in flow-weighted mean total-phosphorus concentrations was significant from 1999 through 2008; however, flow-weighted total-phosphorus concentrations increased substantially in 2009, and the total phosphorus trend was no longer significant. The high annual flow-weighted mean concentrations for total phosphorus and total suspended solids

  16. Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, G.; Bakker, G. L.; Li, S.; Vreeburg, J. H G; Verberk, J. Q J C; Medema, G. J.; Liu, W. T.; Van Dijk, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected

  17. Assessing catchment-scale erosion and yields of suspended solids from improved temperate grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilotta, G S; Krueger, T; Brazier, R E; Butler, P; Freer, J; Hawkins, J M B; Haygarth, P M; Macleod, C J A; Quinton, J N

    2010-03-01

    This paper quantifies the yields of suspended solids (SS) from a headwater catchment managed as improved temperate grassland, providing the first direct, catchment-scale evidence of the rates of erosion from this land-use in the UK and assessing the threat posed to aquatic ecosystems. High-resolution monitoring of catchment hydrology and the concentrations of SS and volatile organic matter (VOM) were carried out in the first-order channel of the Den Brook headwater catchment in Devon (UK) during the 2006-2007 hydrological season. The widely used 'rating curve' (discharge-concentration) approach was employed to estimate yields of SS, but as demonstrated by previous researchers, this study showed that discharge is a poor predictor of SS concentrations and therefore any yields estimated from this technique are likely to be highly uncertain. Nevertheless, for the purpose of providing estimates of yields that are comparable to previous studies on other land uses/sources, this technique was adopted albeit in an uncertainty-based framework. The findings suggest that contrary to the common perception, grasslands can be erosive landscapes with SS yields from this catchment estimated to be between 0.54 and 1.21 t ha(-1) y(-1). In terms of on-site erosion problems, this rate of erosion does not significantly exceed the commonly used 'tolerable' threshold in the UK ( approximately 1 t ha(-1) y(-1)). In terms of off-site erosion problems, it is argued here that the conventional expression of SS yield as a bulk annual figure has little relevance to the water quality and ecological status of surface waters and therefore an alternative technique (the concentration-frequency curve) is developed within this paper for the specific purpose of assessing the ecological threat posed by the delivery of SS into surface waters. This technique illustrates that concentrations of SS recorded at the catchment outlet frequently exceed the water quality guidelines, such as those of the EU

  18. Electrodialytic extraction of Cu, Pb and Cl from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash suspended in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Lima, Ana Teresa; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    that is least soluble. Hence electrodialytic treatment of the ash suspended in water is not a solution to improve the ash quality in terms of Pb. The water-soluble Cl content per unit weight of the original ash was 12.4%. The removal of water-soluble Cl was efficient and >98% of Cl was removed (calculated......The possibility of using fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in, for example, concrete is considered. MSWI fly ash, however, has too high a concentration of heavy metals, which may cause leaching problems during use or problems with waste handling at the end of the lifetime...... of the concrete. The Cl content in MSWI fly ash is also too high and will cause corrosion problems in reinforced concrete. The possibility of removing some of the unwanted heavy metals (Cu and Pb) together with Cl from an MSWI fly ash suspended in water using an electrodialytic separation method was investigated...

  19. Differences in fluorescence characteristics and bioavailability of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) in sediments and suspended solids in Lihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Shuhang; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Junyi

    2018-05-01

    The spectral characteristics, spatial distribution, and bioavailability of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) in suspended solids and surface sediments of Lihu Lake, China, were investigated through excitation-emission matrix spectra and parallel factor analysis. The average content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the sediments reached 643.28 ± 58.34 mg C/kg and that in suspended solids was 714.87 ± 69.24 mg C/kg. The fluorescence intensity of WSOM totaled 90.87 ± 5.65 and 115.42 ± 8.02 RU/g for the sediments and suspended solids, respectively. The DOC and fluorescence intensity of the WSOM showed an increasing trend moving from the west to the east of the lake. The WSOM in sediments and suspended solids contained two humic-like (C1 and C2) and one tryptophan-like (C3) components. These components had different fluorescent peaks and relative proportions. In the sediments, the relative proportions of C1, C2, and C3 were 33.71% ± 0.71, 26.83% ± 0.68, and 39.50% ± 0.71%, respectively. Meanwhile, C1 (35.77 ± 0.84%), C2 (34.07 ± 0.61%), and C3 (30.16 ± 0.75%) had similar relative percentages in suspended solids. The sediments had a lower humification index (3.02 ± 0.08) than the suspended solids (4.04 ± 0.15). Exchangeable nitrogen for the sediments and suspended solids was dominated by exchangeable ammonium nitrogen and soluble organic nitrogen, respectively. WSOM plays an important role in migration and transformation of nitrogen in sediments and suspended solids. The sediment-derived WSOM exhibited higher lability and biological activity than did the suspended solid-derived WSOM. The relative ratio of the intensity of protein-like fluorescent component to that of the humic-like one can be used as a reference index to evaluate the lability and biological activity of WSOM in sediments and suspended solids.

  20. Occurrence and persistence of fungicides in bed sediments and suspended solids from three targeted use areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Reilly, Timothy J; Sandstrom, Mark W; Kuivila, Kathryn M

    2013-03-01

    To document the environmental occurrence and persistence of fungicides, a robust and sensitive analytical method was used to measure 34 fungicides and an additional 57 current-use pesticides in bed sediments and suspended solids collected from areas of intense fungicide use within three geographic areas across the United States. Sampling sites were selected near or within agricultural research farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of their geographic location. At least two fungicides were detected in 55% of the bed and 83% of the suspended solid samples and were detected in conjunction with herbicides and insecticides. Six fungicides were detected in all samples including pyraclostrobin (75%), boscalid (53%), chlorothalonil (41%) and zoxamide (22%). Pyraclostrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, used frequently in the United States on a variety of crops, was detected more frequently than p,p'-DDE, the primary degradate of p,p'-DDT, which is typically one of the most frequently occurring pesticides in sediments collected within highly agricultural areas. Maximum fungicide concentrations in bed sediments and suspended solids were 198 and 56.7 μg/kg dry weight, respectively. There is limited information on the occurrence, fate, and persistence of many fungicides in sediment and the environmental impacts are largely unknown. The results of this study indicate the importance of documenting the persistence of fungicides in the environment and the need for a better understanding of off-site transport mechanisms, particularly in areas where crops are grown that require frequent treatments to prevent fungal diseases. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. An Evaluation of a Dual Coriolis Meter System for In-Line Monitoring of Suspended Solids Concentrations in Radioactive Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylton, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes stored in underground tanks at several of its sites. In order to comply with various regulations and to circumvent potential problems associated with tank integrity, these wastes must be retrieved from the tanks, transferred to treatment facilities (or other storage locations), and processed to stable waste forms. The sludge wastes will typically be mobilized by some mechanical means (e.g., mixer pump, submerged jet) and mixed with the respective supernatants to create slurries that can be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. Depending on the DOE site, these slurries may be transferred up to six miles. Since the wastes are radioactive, it is critically important for the transfers to be made without plugging a pipeline. To reduce such a risk, the relevant properties of the slurry (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, and particle size distribution) should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be continuously monitored and controlled within specified limits while the transfer is in progress. The baseline method for determining the transport properties of slurries involves sampling and analysis; however, this method is time-consuming, and costly, and it does not provide real-time information. In addition, personnel who collect and analyze the samples are exposed to radiation. It is also questionable as to whether a laboratory analyst can obtain representative aliquots from the sample jar for these solid-liquid mixtures. The alternative method for determining the transport properties is in-line analysis. An in-line instrument is one that is connected to the process, analyzes the slurry as it flows through or by the instrument, and provides the results within seconds. This instrument can provide immediate feedback to operators so that, when necessary, the operators can respond

  2. High Sensitivity TSS Prediction: Estimates of Locations Where TSS Cannot Occur

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Ulf; Kodzius, Rimantas; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2013-01-01

    from mouse and human genomes, we developed a methodology that allows us, by performing computational TSS prediction with very high sensitivity, to annotate, with a high accuracy in a strand specific manner, locations of mammalian genomes that are highly

  3. PENURUNAN COD, TSS DAN TOTAL FOSFAT PADA SEPTIC TANK LIMBAH MATARAM CITRA SEMBADA CATERING DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN WASTEWATER GARDEN (Degradation of COD, TSS and Total Phosphate in Septic Tank Wastewater of Mataram Citra Sembada Catering Using Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dradjat Suhardjo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Sumber limbah berasal dari septictank industri restauran (catering Citra Sembada Catering, termasuk dalam kategori limbah domestik. Limbah tersebut banyak mengandung komponen yang tidak diinginkan bila dibuang ke badan air. Konsentrasi limbah yang masih di atas baku mutu, di antaranya akan memunculkan masalah pencemaran. Reaktor Wastewater Garden yang menggunakan krikil (0,5Cm-1cm dan 6 jenis tanaman yaitu : melati air (Echinodoras paleafias, Cyperus (Cyperus, Futoi (Hippochaetes lymnenalis, Pisang air (Typhonodorum indleyanum, Pickerel rush (Pontedoria cordata, Cattail (Typha latifulia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat efektivitas reaktor Wastewater Garden, apabila digunakan untuk menurunkan konsentrasi Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solid (TSS dan Fosfat Total sebagai faktor pencemar pada limbah industri restauran (Citra Sembada Catering yang tertampung pada septictank. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan reaktor Wastewater Garden dengan sistem batch dan dimensi reaktor lm x 0.5m x lm. Zona air limbah 75 cm, dan zona substrat atau krikil 80 cm, akar tanaman ditanam sedalam l0-15 cm. Metode penelitian yang digunakan berdasarkan SNI, di mana COD mengacu pada SNI 06-6989.2-2004 metode refluks tertutup secara spektrofotometri, TSS mengacu pada SK SNI M-03-1990-F metode pengujian secara gravimetri dan Fosfat total mengacu pada SNI M-52-1990-03 metode asam askorbat dengan alat spektrofotometer. Penelitian ini dilakukan selama 12 hari di mana setiap 3 hari sampel diambil pada outlel kemudian dianalisis. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, diperoleh bahwa penggunaan wastewater garden pada limbah cair Mataram Citra Sembada Catering dapat menurunkan COD dengan efektivitas optimum 40,81% pada hari ke-6, penurunan TSS 89,l2% pada efektifitas optirnum hari ke-12 dan penurunan fosfat total dengan efektivitas optimum pada hari ke-6 yaitu sebesar 99,73 %. Tanaman dapat hidup dengan subur.   ABSTRACT  Wastewater

  4. Removal of Cs+, Sr2+, and Co2+ ions from the mixture of organics and suspended solids aqueous solutions by zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Xiang Hong; Fang, Fang; Lu, Chun Hai; Zheng, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Serving as an excellent adsorbent and inorganic ion exchanger in the water purification field, zeolite 4A has in this work presented a strong capability for purifying radioactive waste, such as Sr 2+ , Cs + , and Co 2+ in water. During the processes of decontamination and decommissioning of suspended solids and organics in low-level radioactive wastewater, the purification performance of zeolite 4A has been studied. Under ambient temperature and neutral condition, zeolite 4A absorbed simulated radionuclides such as Sr 2+ , Cs + , and Co 2+ with an absorption rate of almost 90%. Additionally, in alkaline condition, the adsorption percentage even approached 98.7%. After conducting research on suspended solids and organics of zeolite 4A for the treatment of radionuclides, it was found that the suspended clay was conducive to absorption, whereas the absorption of organics in solution was determined by the species of radionuclides and organics. Therefore, zeolite 4A has considerable potential in the treatment of radioactive wastewater

  5. Utilization Of Seeds Durian (Durio Zibethinus Murr) Powder AS Biopolymer Additional Materials Of Coagulant Alum To Improve The Total Solids Removal Suspended (Tss) And Cod Using Leachate Coagulation-flocculation (Studi Kasus: Tpa Jatibarang, Kota Semaran

    OpenAIRE

    Alfa Christianty, Dina; Zaman, Badrus; Purwono, Purwono

    2017-01-01

    TPA Jatibarang menjadi salah satu sumber limbah cair di Semarang di mana lokasinya dekat dengan pemukiman penduduk. Limbah cair yang dihasilkan dari Tempat Pemrosesan Akhir (TPA) sampah berupa air yang dihasilkan dari timbunan sampah yang disebut air lindi (leachate). Lindi TPA Jatibarang umumnya memiliki kandungan senyawa organik yang tinggi dan keberadaannya yang melebihi baku mutu dapat mencemari lingkungan sekitar apabila tidak dilakukan pengolahan terlebih dahulu. Pengolahan lindi mengg...

  6. Concentration and flux of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids for monitored tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Annual and daily concentrations and fluxes of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids were estimated for 18 monitored tributaries to Lake Champlain by using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Seasons regression model. Estimates were made for 21 or 23 years, depending on data availability, for the purpose of providing timely and accessible summary reports as stipulated in the 2010 update to the Lake Champlain “Opportunities for Action” management plan. Estimates of concentration and flux were provided for each tributary based on (1) observed daily discharges and (2) a flow-normalizing procedure, which removed the random fluctuations of climate-related variability. The flux bias statistic, an indicator of the ability of the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season regression models to provide accurate representations of flux, showed acceptable bias (less than ±10 percent) for 68 out of 72 models for total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride. Six out of 18 models for total suspended solids had moderate bias (between 10 and 30 percent), an expected result given the frequently nonlinear relation between total suspended solids and discharge. One model for total suspended solids with a very high bias was influenced by a single extreme value; however, removal of that value, although reducing the bias substantially, had little effect on annual fluxes.

  7. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial communities in unchlorinated drinking water distribution system: an integral study of bulk water, suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Bakker, G L; Li, S; Vreeburg, J H G; Verberk, J Q J C; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; Van Dijk, J C

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  8. Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, G.

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  9. A data reconnaissance on the effect of suspended-sediment concentrations on dissolved-solids concentrations in rivers and tributaries in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.; Anning, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Colorado River is one of the most important sources of water in the western United States, supplying water to over 35 million people in the U.S. and 3 million people in Mexico. High dissolved-solids loading to the River and tributaries are derived primarily from geologic material deposited in inland seas in the mid-to-late Cretaceous Period, but this loading may be increased by human activities. High dissolved solids in the River causes substantial damages to users, primarily in reduced agricultural crop yields and corrosion. The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program was created to manage dissolved-solids loading to the River and has focused primarily on reducing irrigation-related loading from agricultural areas. This work presents a reconnaissance of existing data from sites in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) in order to highlight areas where suspended-sediment control measures may be useful in reducing dissolved-solids concentrations. Multiple linear regression was used on data from 164 sites in the UCRB to develop dissolved-solids models that include combinations of explanatory variables of suspended sediment, flow, and time. Results from the partial t-test, overall likelihood ratio, and partial likelihood ratio on the models were used to group the sites into categories of strong, moderate, weak, and no-evidence of a relation between suspended-sediment and dissolved-solids concentrations. Results show 68 sites have strong or moderate evidence of a relation, with drainage areas for many of these sites composed of a large percentage of clastic sedimentary rocks. These results could assist water managers in the region in directing field-scale evaluation of suspended-sediment control measures to reduce UCRB dissolved-solids loading.

  10. Removal of endocrine disruptors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs through wastewater chlorination: the effect of pH, total suspended solids and humic acids and identification of degradation by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutsopoulos, Constantinos; Koumaki, Elena; Mamais, Daniel; Nika, Maria-Christina; Bletsou, Anna A; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are two groups of emerging pollutants the significance of which rests on their persistent detection in the aquatic environment and their possible adverse effects. Wastewater treatment plants are one of the major ways for transporting such chemicals in the aquatic environment. Chlorination is usually the last stage of treatment before wastewater being disposed to the aquatic environment. This work focuses on the evaluation of the effect of chlorine dose and specific wastewater characteristics (pH, total suspended solids and humic acids) on the removal of target EDCs and NSAIDs through chlorination. Another objective of this study is the identification of chlorination by-products of specific EDCs and NSAIDs and their dependence on contact time. Based on the results it is concluded that the effect of chlorine dose and humic acids concentration on the degradation of target compounds during chlorination is minimal. On the contrary, pH is a critical parameter which highly affects process performance. Moreover, it is concluded that not only the free available chlorine species, but also the properties of EDCs and NSAIDs under different pH conditions can affect chlorination process performance. The effect of TSS on the degradation of the target compounds during chlorination is more profound for chemicals with high Kow values and therefore higher affinity to partition to the particulate phase (i.e. nonylphenols, triclosan). Several degradation by-products were identified through chlorination of nonylphenol, bisphenol A and diclofenac. The dependence of these by-products on chlorination contact time is also demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Contrasts between channels and backwaters in a large, floodplain river: Testing our understanding of nutrient cycling, phytoplankton abundance, and suspended solids dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Jeff N.

    2016-01-01

    In floodplain rivers, variability in hydraulic connectivity interacts with biogeochemistry to determine the distribution of suspended and dissolved substances. Nutrient, chlorophyll a, and suspended solids data spanning longitudinal (5 study reaches across 1300 river km), lateral (main channel and backwaters), and temporal (1994–2011) gradients in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) were used to examine the extent to which observed differences between the main channel and backwaters were consistent with expectations based on current understanding of biogeochemical processes in large rivers. For N and P, the results largely conformed to expectations. N concentrations were greater in the main channel than in the backwaters in 82 to 96% of the observations across river reaches. Maximum TP concentrations generally occurred in backwaters during summer, when backwater TP often exceeded that of the main channel. Flux of P from sediments may be a substantial source of water-column P in UMR backwaters in summer. The data for suspended solids and chlorophyll a suggest that some refinements are needed of our understanding of ecosystem processes in large rivers. During low-discharge conditions, concentrations of inorganic suspended solids often were greater in backwaters than in the main channel, suggesting the importance of sediment resuspension. Chlorophyll a concentrations were usually greater in backwaters than in the main channel, but exceptions indicate that phytoplankton abundance in the main channel of the UMR can sometimes be greater than is typically expected for large rivers.

  12. ANALISIS JULAT PASANG SURUT (TIDAL RANGE DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP SEBARAN TOTAL SEDIMEN TERSUSPENSI (TSS DI PERAIRAN TELUK PARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulung Jantama Wisha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ANALYSIS OF TIDAL RANGE AND ITS EFFECT ON DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS IN THE PARE BAY WATERSPare Bay conditions is closely related to the mechanism of circulation in Makasar Strait. One of the problems that occur in Pare Bay waters is increased turbidity and low dynamics of transport inside the bay, which caused silting in some parts of the bay. The aim of this study was to determine tidal range characteristics and the influence of suspended sediment distribution as analysis of the sedimentation process and siltation at Pare bay. Descriptive quantitative method was used and the survey location was based on purposive sampling method. Tidal type in Pare Bay water was mix mainly semidiurnal tides with Formzahl Value was 0.895. The value of the water level below the lowest tide (Z0 was 1036.44 cm. Mean sea level (MSL value was 1107.97 cm. The vertical datum of MHHWS and MLLWS were 1143.47 cm and 1072.47 cm. Tidal range cycle in spring condition was 102-129,56 cm bigger than cycle in neap condition ranged from 55.53-82.47 cm. TSS concentrations ranged from 0-7.0 mg/L in the surface and ranged from 0- 10.0 mg/L in 5 meters depth. At high tide down, sediment was settling and at the time of high tide, sediment mixed back.Keywords: Pare Bay, suspended solid, tidal range, tide.ABSTRAKKondisi perairan di Teluk Pare sangat berkaitan dengan mekanisme sirkulasi di Selat Makasar, Permasalahan yang terjadi di Teluk Pare salah satunya adalah tingginya tingkat kekeruhan dan rendahnya dinamika transport didalam teluk yang menyebabkan pendangkalan di beberapa bagian teluk. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui karakteristik julat pasang surut dan pengaruhnya terhadap sebaran sedimen tersuspensi sebagai analisis proses sedimentasi dan pendangkalan di perairan Teluk Pare. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah deskriptif kuantitatif, metode penentuan lokasi titik pengambilan sampel air yaitu metode purposive sampling. Tipe pasang surut Teluk

  13. Development of equipment for migration control of radioactive cesium absorbed in suspended solid in the river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuya; Ishikawa, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    To prevent inflow of radiocesium with suspended solids (SS) into farmland and increase in dose rate of the river bank in the midstream and downstream, it is important to reduce SS in the river water; therefore we newly developed the test equipment using non-woven fabrics as a trapping material to capture and reduce the SS in running small river water. Authors installed this equipment into the small river which is located in mountainous area surrounded by forests where radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant were deposited. Two turbidity gauges are installed in inflow and outflow point of this equipment and the turbidity has been continuously measured. From the result of a comparison of turbidity between inflow point and outflow point, a turbidity of inflow point is always higher than outflow point during ordinary water-level; this equipment can capture and reduce the SS in the river water. Through the analysis of particle size distribution, identification of minerals and measurement of concentration of radioactive Cs of the captured SS in the non-woven fabric should be carried out, to clarify the effectiveness of this equipment and non-woven fabrics for reducing the radioactive Cs in small rivers in the future. (author)

  14. Nitrogen and phosphorus associating with different size suspended solids in roof and road runoff in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junliang; Ren, Yufen; Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Xiaoke; Chen, Liding; Liu, Gangcai

    2015-10-01

    Roofs and roads, accounting for a large portion of the urban impervious land surface, have contributed significantly to urban nonpoint pollution. In this study, in Beijing, China, roof and road runoff are sampled to measure the suspended solids (SS), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) contained in particles with different sizes. The SS content in the road runoff (151.59 mg/L) was sevenfold that in the roof runoff (21.13 mg/L, p runoff than in road runoff. The small particulates in the range of 0.45-50 μm consisted of 59 % SS in the roof runoff and 94 % SS in the road runoff. P was mainly attached to particle sizes of 10-50 μm in the roof (73 %) and road (48 %) runoffs, while N was mainly in a dissolved phase state in both runoffs. So, the different associations of N and P raise a challenge in preventing stormwater pollution in urban environments.

  15. POTENSI HAYATI SERAT PURUN TIKUS (ELEOCHARIS DULCIS DALAM PROSES ADSORPSI KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT MERKURI (HG, TSS DAN COD PADA LIMBAH CAIR PERTAMBANGAN EMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chairul Irawan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Activity of gold mining in Kalimantan potentially can give waste that include into “Bahan Beracun Berbahaya (B3” such as mercury. An effort to make out this contamination is adsorption method. Eleocharis dulcis contain high amount of cellulose, about 40,92% so it can be used as an adsorbent. The purpose of this research are studying the capability of eleocharis dulcis as a natural adsorbent, studying the process of biocomposite making from eleocharis dulcis with iron oxide nanoparticle, and studying the influent of result iron oxide nanoparticle added to biocomposite in order to make a lower amount of heavy metal mercury (Hg, Total Suspended Solid (TSS dan Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD in waste water of gold mining. Eleocharis dulcis (PT through delignification process use 1% NaOH solution and then the PT-D is made to become biocomposite with iron oxide nanoparticle apply “one-pot solvothermal reaction” method. The biocomposite have two variation: without amina cluster added (PT-M and with amina cluster added (PT-MA. It’s characterization are consist of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. Adsorption process is applied for 8 hours with mixing rate is 150 rpm. Analysis after adsorption process including three methods: AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer method for Hg analysis, titrimetric method for COD, and gravimetric method for TSS. The result of adsorption process for mercury (Hg, COD, and TSS are optimally at pH 7 which the value of their effectiveness are 65,04%, 80%, and 81,25%. The maximum amount of Hg adsorption capacity for PT-D, PT-M, and PT-MA respectively are 6,504 mg/g, 6,984 mg/g, and 6,911 mg/g. The addition of iron oxide nanoparticle can increase adsorben capability of eleocharis dulcis.

  16. High Sensitivity TSS Prediction: Estimates of Locations Where TSS Cannot Occur

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Ulf

    2013-10-10

    Background Although transcription in mammalian genomes can initiate from various genomic positions (e.g., 3′UTR, coding exons, etc.), most locations on genomes are not prone to transcription initiation. It is of practical and theoretical interest to be able to estimate such collections of non-TSS locations (NTLs). The identification of large portions of NTLs can contribute to better focusing the search for TSS locations and thus contribute to promoter and gene finding. It can help in the assessment of 5′ completeness of expressed sequences, contribute to more successful experimental designs, as well as more accurate gene annotation. Methodology Using comprehensive collections of Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) and other transcript data from mouse and human genomes, we developed a methodology that allows us, by performing computational TSS prediction with very high sensitivity, to annotate, with a high accuracy in a strand specific manner, locations of mammalian genomes that are highly unlikely to harbor transcription start sites (TSSs). The properties of the immediate genomic neighborhood of 98,682 accurately determined mouse and 113,814 human TSSs are used to determine features that distinguish genomic transcription initiation locations from those that are not likely to initiate transcription. In our algorithm we utilize various constraining properties of features identified in the upstream and downstream regions around TSSs, as well as statistical analyses of these surrounding regions. Conclusions Our analysis of human chromosomes 4, 21 and 22 estimates ~46%, ~41% and ~27% of these chromosomes, respectively, as being NTLs. This suggests that on average more than 40% of the human genome can be expected to be highly unlikely to initiate transcription. Our method represents the first one that utilizes high-sensitivity TSS prediction to identify, with high accuracy, large portions of mammalian genomes as NTLs. The server with our algorithm implemented is

  17. Daily variability of suspended particulate concentrations and yields and their effect on river particulates chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meybeck

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Daily total suspended solids concentrations (TSS, mg L-1, yields (Y, kg day-1 km-2 and runoff (q, L s-1 km-2 in world rivers are described by the median (C50, the upper percentile (C99, the discharge-weighted average concentrations (C*, and by their corresponding yields (Y50, Y99, Y* and runoff (q*, q50, q99. These intra-station descriptors range over two to six orders of magnitude at a given station. Inter-station variability is considered through three sets of dimensionless metrics: (i q*/q50, C*/C50 and Y*/Y50, defining the general temporal variability indicators, and q99/q50, C99/C50 and Y99/Y50, defining the extreme variability indicators; (ii river flow duration (W2 and flux duration (M2 in 2% of time; and (iii the truncated rating curve exponent (b50sup of the C vs q relationship for the upper flows. The TSS and Y variability, measured on US, French and world rivers, are first explained by hydrological variability through the b50sup metric, the variability amplifier, then by basin size, erodibility, relief and lake occurrence. Yield variability is the product of runoff variability × TSS variability. All metrics are considerably modified after river damming. The control of river particulate matter (RPM composition by TSS or yields depends on the targeted component. For major elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Si, Ca, Mg, Na, K, the average RPM chemistry is not dependent on C* and Y* in most world hydroregions, except in the tropical hydrobelt where it is controlled by basin relief. By contrast, the particulate organic carbon content (POC, as a percentage of RPM is inversely correlated to TSS concentrations for (i intra-station measurements in any hydroregion, and (ii inter-station average POC and TSS figures in world rivers. TSS controls heavy metal content (ppm in highly contaminated basins (e.g. Cd in the Seine vs the Rhone, and total metal concentration (ng/L in all cases. Relations between RPM composition and TSS should be taken into account

  18. The use of hand-held 35 mm color infrared imagery for estimates of suspended solids - A progress report. [in water pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. F.; Whisler, F. D.; Robinette, H. R.; Finnie, D.; Cannon, T.

    1975-01-01

    A cost-effective aerial surveillance technique is proposed for detection and identification of suspended solids which would be operational for both governmental monitoring organizations and private individuals operating catfish farms. Sixteen catfish ponds were flown daily for seven days using two hand-held 35 mm cameras with both Kodachrome X and Ektachrome infrared film. Hue, value, and chroma designations were recorded for each pond on each date by three interpreters, and the accepted color was that recorded by at least two of the interpreters, or if there was a three hue range, the median was accepted. Relations between suspended solids and color designations were analyzed graphically, and chroma was discarded due to an apparent lack of correlation. The data obtained were then analyzed by multiple regression. Significant correlations were revealed between hue and value and total and inorganic suspended solids. If perfected, this technique could be developed to sufficent accuracy for large-scale reconnaissance surveys to monitor the quality of rivers and streams.

  19. Resuspension and transport of suspended solids in Eurajoensalmi Bay. Final report of monitoring activities in 2009-2011; Resuspensio ja kiintoaineen kulkeutuminen Eurajoensalmessa. Vesistoemittausten loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mykkanen, J.; Kiirikki, M.; Lindfors, A. [Luode Consulting Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    The goal of monitoring activities carried out in Eurajoensalmi Bay was to indentify factors affecting dispersal of river waters and suspended solid matter in the estuary area. In addition to suspended solids load and dispersal of river water, also release of sedimented particles from the sea bed in resuspension was studied. River water quality and discharge as well as resuspension in Eurajoensalmi estuary area were monitored with Luode automatic monitoring stations equipped with water quality, water level, wave height and weather sensors. Dynamics of Eurajoensalmi estuary area was studied by installing profiling current meters (ADCP) and water quality sensors to the sea floor at the mouth of Eurajoensalmi. Spatial variation of surface water quality was monitored with a flow-through method from a moving vessel and manual profiling several times during the monitoring period. Collected data was processed and used in determining suspended solids balance of Eurajoensalmi Bay. The balance was determined by creating a regression model for water exchange and sediment flux over the cross section at the mouth of Eurajoensalmi. Regression model was created also to determine resuspension in Eurajoensalmi area. Sediment flux and resuspension were modeled using long term wind data from Kylmaepihlaja meteorological station as a variable to determine overall sediment balance of Eurajoensalmi.

  20. CAGE peaks identified as true TSS by TSS classifier - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us FANTOM...p://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/fantom5/datafiles/phase1.3/extra/TSS_classifier/ File size: 32 MB Simple se...arch URL - Data acquisition method - Data analysis method TSS Classifier( http://sourceforge.net/p/tom...ase Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us CAGE peaks identified as true TSS by TSS classifier - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  1. Removal of suspended solids and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters by electrocoagulation: Comparison of electrode materials and electrode connection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solak, Murat [Duezce University, Kaynasli Vocational School, Environmental Protection and Control Department, 81900 Duezce (Turkey); Kilic, Mehmet, E-mail: kavi@mmf.sdu.edu.tr [Sueleyman Demirel University, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Hueseyin, Yazici; Sencan, Aziz [Sueleyman Demirel University, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, 32260 Isparta (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    In this study, removal of suspended solids (SS) and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters by electrocoagulation (EC) process were investigated by using aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe) electrodes which were run in serial and parallel connection systems. To remove these pollutants from the marble processing wastewater, an EC reactor including monopolar electrodes (Al/Fe) in parallel and serial connection system, was utilized. Optimization of differential operation parameters such as pH, current density, and electrolysis time on SS and turbidity removal were determined in this way. EC process with monopolar Al electrodes in parallel and serial connections carried out at the optimum conditions where the pH value was 9, current density was approximately 15 A/m{sup 2}, and electrolysis time was 2 min resulted in 100% SS removal. Removal efficiencies of EC process for SS with monopolar Fe electrodes in parallel and serial connection were found to be 99.86% and 99.94%, respectively. Optimum parameters for monopolar Fe electrodes in both of the connection types were found to be for pH value as 8, for electrolysis time as 2 min. The optimum current density value for Fe electrodes used in serial and parallel connections was also obtained at 10 and 20 A/m{sup 2}, respectively. Based on the results obtained, it was found that EC process running with each type of the electrodes and the connections was highly effective for the removal of SS and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters, and that operating costs with monopolar Al electrodes in parallel connection were the cheapest than that of the serial connection and all the configurations for Fe electrode.

  2. Removal of suspended solids and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters by electrocoagulation: Comparison of electrode materials and electrode connection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solak, Murat; Kilic, Mehmet; Hueseyin, Yazici; Sencan, Aziz

    2009-01-01

    In this study, removal of suspended solids (SS) and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters by electrocoagulation (EC) process were investigated by using aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe) electrodes which were run in serial and parallel connection systems. To remove these pollutants from the marble processing wastewater, an EC reactor including monopolar electrodes (Al/Fe) in parallel and serial connection system, was utilized. Optimization of differential operation parameters such as pH, current density, and electrolysis time on SS and turbidity removal were determined in this way. EC process with monopolar Al electrodes in parallel and serial connections carried out at the optimum conditions where the pH value was 9, current density was approximately 15 A/m 2 , and electrolysis time was 2 min resulted in 100% SS removal. Removal efficiencies of EC process for SS with monopolar Fe electrodes in parallel and serial connection were found to be 99.86% and 99.94%, respectively. Optimum parameters for monopolar Fe electrodes in both of the connection types were found to be for pH value as 8, for electrolysis time as 2 min. The optimum current density value for Fe electrodes used in serial and parallel connections was also obtained at 10 and 20 A/m 2 , respectively. Based on the results obtained, it was found that EC process running with each type of the electrodes and the connections was highly effective for the removal of SS and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters, and that operating costs with monopolar Al electrodes in parallel connection were the cheapest than that of the serial connection and all the configurations for Fe electrode.

  3. Removal of suspended solids and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters by electrocoagulation: comparison of electrode materials and electrode connection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Murat; Kiliç, Mehmet; Hüseyin, Yazici; Sencan, Aziz

    2009-12-15

    In this study, removal of suspended solids (SS) and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters by electrocoagulation (EC) process were investigated by using aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe) electrodes which were run in serial and parallel connection systems. To remove these pollutants from the marble processing wastewater, an EC reactor including monopolar electrodes (Al/Fe) in parallel and serial connection system, was utilized. Optimization of differential operation parameters such as pH, current density, and electrolysis time on SS and turbidity removal were determined in this way. EC process with monopolar Al electrodes in parallel and serial connections carried out at the optimum conditions where the pH value was 9, current density was approximately 15 A/m(2), and electrolysis time was 2 min resulted in 100% SS removal. Removal efficiencies of EC process for SS with monopolar Fe electrodes in parallel and serial connection were found to be 99.86% and 99.94%, respectively. Optimum parameters for monopolar Fe electrodes in both of the connection types were found to be for pH value as 8, for electrolysis time as 2 min. The optimum current density value for Fe electrodes used in serial and parallel connections was also obtained at 10 and 20 A/m(2), respectively. Based on the results obtained, it was found that EC process running with each type of the electrodes and the connections was highly effective for the removal of SS and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters, and that operating costs with monopolar Al electrodes in parallel connection were the cheapest than that of the serial connection and all the configurations for Fe electrode.

  4. Transformation and sorption of illicit drug biomarkers in sewer systems: understanding the role of suspended solids in raw wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram; Brock, Andreas Libonati; Polesel, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    substrates (primary metabolic processes) and transformation of illicit drug biomarkers (secondary metabolic processes) by suspended biomass. Sixteen drug biomarkers were targeted, including mephedrone, methadone, cocaine, heroin, codeine and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and their major human metabolites. Batch...

  5. Removal of Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} ions from the mixture of organics and suspended solids aqueous solutions by zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xiang Hong; Fang, Fang; Lu, Chun Hai [College of Nuclear Technology and Automation Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu (China); Zheng, Lei [Southwest University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education, Mianyang (China)

    2017-04-15

    Serving as an excellent adsorbent and inorganic ion exchanger in the water purification field, zeolite 4A has in this work presented a strong capability for purifying radioactive waste, such as Sr{sup 2+}, Cs{sup +}, and Co{sup 2+} in water. During the processes of decontamination and decommissioning of suspended solids and organics in low-level radioactive wastewater, the purification performance of zeolite 4A has been studied. Under ambient temperature and neutral condition, zeolite 4A absorbed simulated radionuclides such as Sr{sup 2+}, Cs{sup +}, and Co{sup 2+} with an absorption rate of almost 90%. Additionally, in alkaline condition, the adsorption percentage even approached 98.7%. After conducting research on suspended solids and organics of zeolite 4A for the treatment of radionuclides, it was found that the suspended clay was conducive to absorption, whereas the absorption of organics in solution was determined by the species of radionuclides and organics. Therefore, zeolite 4A has considerable potential in the treatment of radioactive wastewater.

  6. The Applicability of the Distribution Coefficient, KD, Based on Non-Aggregated Particulate Samples from Lakes with Low Suspended Solids Concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aine Marie Gormley-Gallagher

    Full Text Available Separate phases of metal partitioning behaviour in freshwater lakes that receive varying degrees of atmospheric contamination and have low concentrations of suspended solids were investigated to determine the applicability of the distribution coefficient, KD. Concentrations of Pb, Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg and Mn were determined using a combination of filtration methods, bulk sample collection and digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Phytoplankton biomass, suspended solids concentrations and the organic content of the sediment were also analysed. By distinguishing between the phytoplankton and (inorganic lake sediment, transient variations in KD were observed. Suspended solids concentrations over the 6-month sampling campaign showed no correlation with the KD (n = 15 for each metal, p > 0.05 for Mn (r2 = 0.0063, Cu (r2 = 0.0002, Cr (r2 = 0.021, Ni (r2 = 0.0023, Cd (r2 = 0.00001, Co (r2 = 0.096, Hg (r2 = 0.116 or Pb (r2 = 0.164. The results implied that colloidal matter had less opportunity to increase the dissolved (filter passing fraction, which inhibited the spurious lowering of KD. The findings conform to the increasingly documented theory that the use of KD in modelling may mask true information on metal partitioning behaviour. The root mean square error of prediction between the directly measured total metal concentrations and those modelled based on the separate phase fractions were ± 3.40, 0.06, 0.02, 0.03, 0.44, 484.31, 80.97 and 0.1 μg/L for Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, Hg, Ni, Cr and Co respectively. The magnitude of error suggests that the separate phase models for Mn and Cu can be used in distribution or partitioning models for these metals in lake water.

  7. Unique Results and Lessons Learned From the TSS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nobie H.

    2016-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Space Shuttle missions, TSS-1 in 1993 and TSS-1R in 1996, were the height of space tether technology development in the U.S. Altogether, the investment made by NASA and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) over the thirteen-year period of the TSS Program totaled approximately $400M-exclusive of the two Space Shuttle flights provided by NASA. Since those two pioneering missions, there have been several smaller tether flight experiments, but interest in this promising technology has waned within NASA as well as the DOD agencies. This is curious in view of the unique capabilities of space tether systems and the fact that they have been flight validated in earth orbit and shown to perform better than the preflight dynamic or electrodynamic theoretical predictions. While it is true that the TSS-1 and TSS-1R missions experienced technical difficulties, the causes of these early developmental problems are now known to have been engineering design flaws, material selection, and procedural issues that (1) are unrelated to the basic viability of space tether technology, and (2) can be readily corrected. The purpose of this paper is to review the dynamic and electrodynamic fundamentals of space tethers and the unique capabilities they afford (that are enabling to certain types of space missions); to elucidate the nature, cause, and solution of the early developmental problems; and to provide an update on progress made in development of the technology.

  8. Remote sensing and water quality indicators in the Korean West coast: Spatio-temporal structures of MODIS-derived chlorophyll-a and total suspended solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Cheol; Son, Seunghyun; Kim, Yong Hoon; Khim, Jong Seong; Nam, Jungho; Chang, Won Keun; Lee, Jung-Ho; Lee, Chang-Hee; Ryu, Jongseong

    2017-08-15

    The Yellow Sea is a shallow marginal sea with a large tidal range. In this study, ten areas located along the western coast of the Korean Peninsula are investigated with respect to remotely sensed water quality indicators derived from NASA MODIS aboard of the satellite Aqua. We found that there was a strong seasonal trend with spatial heterogeneity. In specific, a strong six-month phase-lag was found between chlorophyll-a and total suspended solid owing to their inversed seasonality, which could be explained by different dynamics and environmental settings. Chlorophyll-a concentration seemed to be dominantly influenced by temperature, while total suspended solid was largely governed by local tidal forcing and bottom topography. This study demonstrated the potential and applicability of satellite products in coastal management, and highlighted find that remote-sensing would be a promising tool in resolving orthogonality of large spatio-temporal scale variabilities when combining with proper time series analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Concentration, flux, and trend estimates with uncertainty for nutrients, chloride, and total suspended solids in tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura

    2016-12-20

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission and the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, estimated daily and 9-month concentrations and fluxes of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids from 1990 (or first available date) through 2014 for 18 tributaries of Lake Champlain. Estimates of concentration and flux, provided separately in Medalie (2016), were made by using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) regression model and update previously published WRTDS model results with recent data. Assessment of progress towards meeting phosphorus-reduction goals outlined in the Lake Champlain management plan relies on annual estimates of phosphorus flux. The percent change in annual concentration and flux is provided for two time periods. The R package EGRETci was used to estimate the uncertainty of the trend estimate. Differences in model specification and function between this study and previous studies that used WRTDS to estimate concentration and flux using data from Lake Champlain tributaries are described. Winter data were too sparse and nonrepresentative to use for estimates of concentration and flux but were sufficient for estimating the percentage of total annual flux over the period of record. Median winter-to-annual fractions ranged between 21 percent for total suspended solids and 27 percent for dissolved phosphorus. The winter contribution was largest for all constituents from the Mettawee River and smallest from the Ausable River. For the full record (1991 through 2014 for total and dissolved phosphorus and chloride and 1993 through 2014 for nitrogen and total suspended solids), 6 tributaries had decreasing trends in concentrations of total phosphorus, and 12 had increasing trends; concentrations of dissolved phosphorus decreased in 6 and increased in 8 tributaries; fluxes of total phosphorus decreased in 5 and

  10. Build-up and wash-off dynamics of atmospherically derived Cu, Pb, Zn and TSS in stormwater runoff as a function of meteorological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Louise U; Cochrane, Thomas A; O'Sullivan, Aisling

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric pollutants deposited on impermeable surfaces can be an important source of pollutants to stormwater runoff; however, modelling atmospheric pollutant loads in runoff has rarely been done, because of the challenges and uncertainties in monitoring their contribution. To overcome this, impermeable concrete boards (≈ 1m(2)) were deployed for 11 months in different locations within an urban area (industrial, residential and airside) throughout Christchurch, New Zealand, to capture spatially distributed atmospheric deposition loads in runoff over varying meteorological conditions. Runoff was analysed for total and dissolved Cu, Zn, Pb, and total suspended solids (TSS). Mixed-effect regression models were developed to simulate atmospheric pollutant loads in stormwater runoff. In addition, the models were used to explain the influence of different meteorological characteristics (e.g. antecedent dry days and rain depth) on pollutant build-up and wash-off dynamics. The models predicted approximately 53% to 69% of the variation in pollutant loads and were successful in predicting pollutant-load trends over time which can be useful for general stormwater planning processes. Results from the models illustrated the importance of antecedent dry days on pollutant build-up. Furthermore, results indicated that peak rainfall intensity and rain duration had a significant relationship with TSS and total Pb, whereas, rain depth had a significant relationship with total Cu and total Zn. This suggested that the pollutant speciation phase plays an important role in surface wash-off. Rain intensity and duration had a greater influence when the pollutants were predominantly in their particulate phase. Conversely, rain depth exerted a greater influence when a high fraction of the pollutants were predominantly in their dissolved phase. For all pollutants, the models were represented by a log-arctan relationship for pollutant build-up and a log-log relationship for pollutant wash

  11. Hyperspectral sensing for turbid water quality monitoring in freshwater rivers: Empirical relationship between reflectance and turbidity and total solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiunn-Lin; Ho, Chung-Ru; Huang, Chia-Ching; Srivastav, Arun Lal; Tzeng, Jing-Hua; Lin, Yao-Tung

    2014-11-28

    Total suspended solid (TSS) is an important water quality parameter. This study was conducted to test the feasibility of the band combination of hyperspectral sensing for inland turbid water monitoring in Taiwan. The field spectral reflectance in the Wu river basin of Taiwan was measured with a spectroradiometer; the water samples were collected from the different sites of the Wu river basin and some water quality parameters were analyzed on the sites (in situ) as well as brought to the laboratory for further analysis. To obtain the data set for this study, 160 in situ sample observations were carried out during campaigns from August to December, 2005. The water quality results were correlated with the reflectivity to determine the spectral characteristics and their relationship with turbidity and TSS. Furthermore, multiple-regression (MR) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used to model the transformation function between TSS concentration and turbidity levels of stream water, and the radiance measured by the spectroradiometer. The value of the turbidity and TSS correlation coefficient was 0.766, which implies that turbidity is significantly related to TSS in the Wu river basin. The results indicated that TSS and turbidity are positively correlated in a significant way across the entire spectrum, when TSS concentration and turbidity levels were under 800 mg·L(-1) and 600 NTU, respectively. Optimal wavelengths for the measurements of TSS and turbidity are found in the 700 and 900 nm range, respectively. Based on the results, better accuracy was obtained only when the ranges of turbidity and TSS concentration were less than 800 mg·L(-1) and less than 600 NTU, respectively and used rather than using whole dataset (R(2) = 0.93 versus 0.88 for turbidity and R(2) = 0.83 versus 0.58 for TSS). On the other hand, the ANN approach can improve the TSS retrieval using MR. The accuracy of TSS estimation applying ANN (R(2) = 0.66) was better than with the MR approach (R

  12. Hyperspectral Sensing for Turbid Water Quality Monitoring in Freshwater Rivers: Empirical Relationship between Reflectance and Turbidity and Total Solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Lin Wu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Total suspended solid (TSS is an important water quality parameter. This study was conducted to test the feasibility of the band combination of hyperspectral sensing for inland turbid water monitoring in Taiwan. The field spectral reflectance in the Wu river basin of Taiwan was measured with a spectroradiometer; the water samples were collected from the different sites of the Wu river basin and some water quality parameters were analyzed on the sites (in situ as well as brought to the laboratory for further analysis. To obtain the data set for this study, 160 in situ sample observations were carried out during campaigns from August to December, 2005. The water quality results were correlated with the reflectivity to determine the spectral characteristics and their relationship with turbidity and TSS. Furthermore, multiple-regression (MR and artificial neural network (ANN were used to model the transformation function between TSS concentration and turbidity levels of stream water, and the radiance measured by the spectroradiometer. The value of the turbidity and TSS correlation coefficient was 0.766, which implies that turbidity is significantly related to TSS in the Wu river basin. The results indicated that TSS and turbidity are positively correlated in a significant way across the entire spectrum, when TSS concentration and turbidity levels were under 800 mg·L−1 and 600 NTU, respectively. Optimal wavelengths for the measurements of TSS and turbidity are found in the 700 and 900 nm range, respectively. Based on the results, better accuracy was obtained only when the ranges of turbidity and TSS concentration were less than 800 mg·L−1 and less than 600 NTU, respectively and used rather than using whole dataset (R2 = 0.93 versus 0.88 for turbidity and R2 = 0.83 versus 0.58 for TSS. On the other hand, the ANN approach can improve the TSS retrieval using MR. The accuracy of TSS estimation applying ANN (R2 = 0.66 was better than with the MR

  13. Thermal simulation of storage in TSS-Galleries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lain Huerta, R.; Martinez Santiago, T.; Ramirez Oyangueren, P.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the experiment ''thermal simulation of storage in TSS-galleries'' what is been developed in salt mine of Asse, Germany. The report has 3 part: 1) Analysis of objectives and general description of boundary layers. 2) Geomechanics parameters of salt mine. 3) Thermal modelization, thermomechanics modelization and data acquisition

  14. Correlation Water Velocity and TSS with Natural Radionuclides Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri Harningsih; Muzakky; Agus Taftazani

    2007-01-01

    Correlation water velocity and TSS with natural radionuclides activity has been studied. For that purpose, the study is to correlation water velocity and TSS with radionuclides on water and sediment samples in alongside river Code Yogyakarta. This research selected radionuclides, for examples Ra-226, Pb-212, Ac- 228, and K-40. Election of this radionuclides to spread over gamma gross composition alongside river of Code. Gamma gross influenced by water velocity and TSS, so that require to correct between water velocity and TSS to radionuclides. Sampling water and sediment conducted when dry season of August, 2006 at 11 locations, start from Boyong Bridge until Pacar Bridge. Result of analysis showed that water velocity range from 8-1070 L/dt and TSS range from 2.81 E-06 - 8.02 E-04 mg/L. The accumulation of radionuclides in water samples non correction water velocity for Ra-226: 0.302-2.861 Bq/L, Pb-212: 0.400-3.390 Bq/L, Ac- 228: 0.0029-0.0047 Bq/L and K-40: 0.780-9.178 Bq/L. The accumulation of radionuclide in water samples correction water velocity for Ra-226: 1.112-70.454 Bq/L, Pb-212: 0.850-77.113 Bq/L, Ac-228: 0.7187- 60.859 Bq/L and K-40: 2.420-208.8 Bq/L. While distribution of radionuclide in sediment for the Ra-226: 0.0012-0.0211 Bq/kg, Pb-212: 0.0017-0.0371 Bq/kg, Ac-228: 0.0021-0.0073 Bq/kg and K-40: 0.0006-0.0084 Bq/kg. (author)

  15. Some Results On The Modelling Of TSS Manufacturing Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel MÎNZU

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modelling of a particular class of manufacturing lines, governed by a decentralised control strategy so that they balance themselves. Such lines are known as “bucket brigades” and also as “TSS lines”, after their first implementation, at Toyota, in the 70’s. A first study of their behaviour was based upon modelling as stochastic dynamic systems, which emphasised, in the frame of the so-called “Normative Model”, a sufficient condition for self-balancing, that means for autonomous functioning at a steady production rate (stationary behaviour. Under some particular conditions, a simulation analysis of TSS lines could be made on non-linear block diagrams, showing that the state trajectories are piecewise continuous in between occurrences of certain discrete events, which determine their discontinuity. TSS lines may therefore be modelled as hybrid dynamic systems, more specific, with autonomous switching and autonomous impulses (jumps. A stability analysis of such manufacturing lines is allowed by modelling them as hybrid dynamic systems with discontinuous motions.

  16. Trends in nutrients and suspended solids at the Fall Line of five tributaries to the Chesapeake Bay in Virginia, July 1988 through June 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C.F.; Belval, D.L.; Campbell, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected at the Fall Line of five tributaries to the Chesapeake Bay in Virginia during a 6- to 7-year period. The water-quality data were used to estimate loads of nutrients and suspended solids from these tributaries to the non-tidal part of Chesapeake Bay Basin and to identify trends in water quality. Knowledge of trends in water quality is required to assess the effectiveness of nutrient manage- ment strategies in the five basins. Multivariate log-linear regression and the seasonal Kendall test were used to estimate flow-adjusted trends in constituent concentration and load. Results of multivariate log-linear regression indicated a greater number of statistically significant trends than the seasonal Kendall test; how-ever, when both methods indicated a significant trend, both agreed on the direction of the trend. Interpre- tation of the trend estimates for this report was based on results of the parametric regression method. No significant trends in total nitrogen concentration were detected at the James River monitoring station from July 1988 through June 1995, though total Kjeldahl nitrogen concen- tration decreased slightly in base-flow samples. Total phosphorus concentration decreased about 29 percent at this station during the sampling period. Most of the decrease can be attributed to reductions in point-source phosphorus loads in 1988 and 1989, especially the phosphate detergent ban of 1988. No significant trends in total suspended solids were observed at the James River monitoring station, and no trends in runoff- derived constituents were interpreted for this river. Significant decreases were detected in concentrations of total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen, and total suspended solids at the Rappahannock River monitoring station between July 1988 and June 1995. A similar downward trend in total phosphorus concentration was significant at the 90-percent confidence level, but not the

  17. Suspended ceilings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, C.

    1991-05-01

    The retrofitting of existing conventional ceiling systems to suspended ceiling type systems represents an interesting energy savings solution since this method, in addition to providing additional protection against space heat loss and thermal bridges, also creates the possibility of housing, in the void, additional mechanical and electrical lines which may be necessary due to other savings interventions. This paper reviews the various suspended ceiling systems (e.g., those making use of mineral fibre, gypsum panels, wood, vermiculite, etc.) currently marketed in Europe, and reports, for each, some key technical, economic and architectural advantages which include thermal efficiency, noise abatement, as well as, resistance to fire and humidity. Information is also given on the relative installation and maintenance requirements.

  18. Effects of Humic Acid and Suspended Solids on the Removal of Heavy Metals from Water by Adsorption onto Granular Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danious P. Sounthararajah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals constitute some of the most dangerous pollutants of water, as they are toxic to humans, animals, and aquatic organisms. These metals are considered to be of major public health concern and, therefore, need to be removed. Adsorption is a common physico-chemical process used to remove heavy metals. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC and suspended solids (SS are associated pollutants in water systems that can interact with heavy metals during the treatment process. The interactions of DOC and SS during the removal of heavy metals by granular activated carbon were investigated in batch and fixed-bed column experiments. Batch adsorption studies indicated that Langmuir adsorption maxima for Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni at pH 6.5 were 11.9, 11.8, 3.3, 2.0, and 1.8 mg/g, respectively. With the addition of humic acid (HA (DOC representative, they were 7.5, 3.7, 3.2, 1.6, and 2.5 mg/g, respectively. In the column experiment, no breakthrough (complete removal was obtained for Pb and Cu, but adding HA provided a breakthrough in removing these metals. For Zn, Cd and Ni, this breakthrough occurred even without HA being added. Adding kaolinite (representative of SS had no effect on Pb and Cu, but it did on the other metals.

  19. Occurrence of tributyltin (TBT)-resistant bacteria is not related to TBT pollution in Mekong River and coastal sediment: with a hypothesis of selective pressure from suspended solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Fujiyo; Mochizuki, Hiroko; Nakamura, Shinji; Iwata, Hisato; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Fujimori, Yoshifumi; Nishimura, Fumitake; Tuyen, Bui Cach; Tana, Touch Seang; Suzuki, Satoru

    2007-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is organotin compound that is toxic to aquatic life ranging from bacteria to mammals. This study examined the concentration of TBT in sediment from and near the Mekong River and the distribution of TBT-resistant bacteria. TBT concentrations ranged from TBT-resistant bacteria ranged TBT-resistant bacteria ranged from TBT in the sediment and of TBT-resistant bacteria were unrelated, and chemicals other than TBT might induce TBT resistance. TBT-resistant bacteria were more abundant in the dry season than in the rainy season. Differences in the selection process of TBT-resistant bacteria between dry and rainy seasons were examined using an advection-diffusion model of a suspended solid (SS) that conveys chemicals. The estimated dilution-diffusion time over a distance of 120 km downstream from a release site was 20 days during dry season and 5 days during rainy season, suggesting that bacteria at the sediment surface could be exposed to SS for longer periods during dry season.

  20. Effect of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS and hydraulic retention time (HRT on the performance of activated sludge process during the biotreatment of real textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adequate information is available on colour and organics removal in batch mode using pure microbial cultures from dye contaminated wastewater. There was a need to develop environment friendly and cost effective treatment technique for actual field conditions. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the potential of acclimatized mixed microbial consortia for the removal of colour and organics from real textile wastewater. Experiments were performed in laboratory scale activated sludge process (ASP unit under steady state condition, varying mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS (2500, 3500 and 5000 mg/l and hydraulic retention time (HRT (18, 24 and 36 h. The results showed that decolourization and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal increased with increase in MLVSS and HRT. At 18 h HRT, decolourization was found to be 46, 54 and 67%, which increased to 67, 75 and 90% (36 h HRT at 2500, 3500 and 5000 mg/l MLVSS, respectively. COD removal was found to be 62, 73 and 77% (at 18 h HRT which increased to 77, 85 and 91% (36 h HRT at 2000, 3500 and 5000 mg/l MLVSS, respectively. On the basis of the results obtained in this study suitable treatment techniques can be developed for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with variety of dyes in continuous mode of operation. This shall have the advantage of treatment of larger quantity of wastewater in shorter duration.

  1. Effects of Humic Acid and Suspended Solids on the Removal of Heavy Metals from Water by Adsorption onto Granular Activated Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sounthararajah, Danious P; Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Kandasamy, Jaya; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2015-08-27

    Heavy metals constitute some of the most dangerous pollutants of water, as they are toxic to humans, animals, and aquatic organisms. These metals are considered to be of major public health concern and, therefore, need to be removed. Adsorption is a common physico-chemical process used to remove heavy metals. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and suspended solids (SS) are associated pollutants in water systems that can interact with heavy metals during the treatment process. The interactions of DOC and SS during the removal of heavy metals by granular activated carbon were investigated in batch and fixed-bed column experiments. Batch adsorption studies indicated that Langmuir adsorption maxima for Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni at pH 6.5 were 11.9, 11.8, 3.3, 2.0, and 1.8 mg/g, respectively. With the addition of humic acid (HA) (DOC representative), they were 7.5, 3.7, 3.2, 1.6, and 2.5 mg/g, respectively. In the column experiment, no breakthrough (complete removal) was obtained for Pb and Cu, but adding HA provided a breakthrough in removing these metals. For Zn, Cd and Ni, this breakthrough occurred even without HA being added. Adding kaolinite (representative of SS) had no effect on Pb and Cu, but it did on the other metals.

  2. Inhibition of type VI secretion by an anti-TssM llama nanobody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Son Nguyen

    Full Text Available The type VI secretion system (T6SS is a secretion pathway widespread in Gram-negative bacteria that targets toxins in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Although most T6SSs identified so far are involved in inter-bacterial competition, a few are directly required for full virulence of pathogens. The T6SS comprises 13 core proteins that assemble a large complex structurally and functionally similar to a phage contractile tail structure anchored to the cell envelope by a trans-membrane spanning stator. The central part of this stator, TssM, is a 1129-amino-acid protein anchored in the inner membrane that binds to the TssJ outer membrane lipoprotein. In this study, we have raised camelid antibodies against the purified TssM periplasmic domain. We report the crystal structure of two specific nanobodies that bind to TssM in the nanomolar range. Interestingly, the most potent nanobody, nb25, competes with the TssJ lipoprotein for TssM binding in vitro suggesting that TssJ and the nb25 CDR3 loop share the same TssM binding site or causes a steric hindrance preventing TssM-TssJ complex formation. Indeed, periplasmic production of the nanobodies displacing the TssM-TssJ interaction inhibits the T6SS function in vivo. This study illustrates the power of nanobodies to specifically target and inhibit bacterial secretion systems.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER QUALITY PARAMETER RETRIEVAL ALGORITHMS FOR ESTIMATING TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS AND CHLOROPHYLL-A CONCENTRATION USING LANDSAT-8 IMAGERY AT POTERAN ISLAND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Laili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Landsat-8 satellite imagery is now highly developed compares to the former of Landsat projects. Both land and water area are possibly mapped using this satellite sensor. Considerable approaches have been made to obtain a more accurate method for extracting the information of water area from the images. It is difficult to generate an accurate water quality information from Landsat images by using some existing algorithm provided by researchers. Even though, those algorithms have been validated in some water area, but the dynamic changes and the specific characteristics of each area make it necessary to get them evaluated and validated over another water area. This paper aims to make a new algorithm by correlating the measured and estimated TSS and Chla concentration. We collected in-situ remote sensing reflectance, TSS and Chl-a concentration in 9 stations surrounding the Poteran islands as well as Landsat 8 data on the same acquisition time of April 22, 2015. The regression model for estimating TSS produced high accuracy with determination coefficient (R2, NMAE and RMSE of 0.709; 9.67 % and 1.705 g/m3 respectively. Whereas, Chla retrieval algorithm produced R2 of 0.579; NMAE of 10.40% and RMSE of 51.946 mg/m3. By implementing these algorithms to Landsat 8 image, the estimated water quality parameters over Poteran island water ranged from 9.480 to 15.801 g/m3 and 238.546 to 346.627 mg/m3 for TSS and Chl-a respectively.

  4. Impact of catastrophic events on small mountainous rivers: Temporal and spatial variations in suspended- and dissolved-solid fluxes along the Choshui River, central western Taiwan, during typhoon Mindulle, July 2-6, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliman, J. D.; Lee, T. Y.; Huang, J. C.; Kao, S. J.

    2017-05-01

    Small mountainous rivers deliver disproportionately large quantities of suspended and dissolved solids to the global ocean, often in response to catastrophic events such as earthquakes or floods. Here we report on the impact of a major flood on the Choshui River, central-western Taiwan, generated by typhoon Mindulle, July 2-6, 2004, five years after the nearby Mw 7.6 Chichi earthquake. Water samples taken at 3-h intervals at three stations along main stem, as well as from two downriver tributaries, allow us to delineate the temporal and spatial variability in concentrations and fluxes of suspended and dissolved constituents within the middle and lower portions of the river in response to this flood. High suspended-sediment concentrations, some as high as 200 g/l, reflected the rapid erosion of landslide scars and debris deposits generated by super-typhoon Herb in 1996 and the 1999 Chichi earthquake. Dissolved-solid and suspended-sediment discharges totaled 0.22 and 70 million tons (mt), 50 mt of which were discharged in just two days. Particulate organic carbon (POC) discharge, most of which was pre-modern in age, was 195,000 t. More than half of the discharged water, POC and dissolved solids came from upriver, whereas about 70% of the suspended sediment and 60% of the dissolved nitrate came from two downriver tributaries, the Chenyoulan and Qingshui rivers. Spatial and temporal differences in the character and discharge of suspended and dissolved solids within and between rivers in the Choshui drainage basin reflect different geologies, landslide histories, the effects of human impact, and the abrupt draining of the Tsaoling landslide lake in the Qingshui basin, as well as the possible shifting of importance of groundwater vs. overland flow. Neither wind-blown pollutants nor sea salts appear to have contributed significantly to dissolved solid character or discharge. Sediment contribution from the landslides in the Chenyoulan basin generated by super-typhoon Herb

  5. Investigation of TC and TSS Removal Efficiencies at Ahvaz West WTP Effluent Using the Land‒plant Treatment Process

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    Afshin Takdastan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the conventional (primary and secondary treatment processes are known to remove up to 95–99% of some micro-organisms, they do not provide adequate treatment to make the effluent suitable for direct reuse, mainly due to the presence of high concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms. Obtaining reusable effluents, therefore, requires the use of processes that can be justified both technical and economic grounds. One such indigenous, low cost option is the land-plant process that can be used for advanced wastewater treatment. It is the objective of the present study to determine the efficiency of the local soil in Ahvaz and that of the vetiver plant in reducing the microbial load in the effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants. A pilot study was thus carried out including three Lysimeters installed in West Ahvaz Wastewater Treatment Plant. Local soil was used in one Lysimeter, local soil with vetiver plant in the second one, and an artificial assortment of soil comprising local soil, silica sand (0.5-1mm, and sand (15-30mm in the third. In addition, the effluent from the secondary settling outlet at the WTP was transferred by pumping at the three filtration rates of 0.2, 0.6, and 1 ml/min into the system with three replications for each rate and samples were collected from both inlet and outlet flows. The average removal efficiencies of Total Suspended Solids (TSS and Total Coliform (TC in the effluent from the three Lysimeters with local soil with vetiver, local soil without vetiver, and artificial soil assortment for the filtration rate of 0.2 ml/min were: 67.75% and 99.7%, 58.33% and 99.6%, and 56.25% and 99.5%, respectively. For a filtration rate of 0.6 ml/min, these values were: 53.33% and 98.93%, 48.8 and 98.77%, and 47.68% and 98.64%. Finally, the values obtained for a filtration rate of 0.6 ml/min were: 50% and 93.96%, 46.42 and 91.34%, and 44/04% and 88/81%, respectively. The results from the study showed that the

  6. Effect of the mixed liquor suspended solid on permeate in a membrane bioreactor system applied for the treatment of sewage mixed with wastewater of the milk from the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, José M; Molina-Muñoz, Marisa; Moreno, Begoña; González-López, Jesús; Hontoria, Ernesto

    2007-06-01

    The performance of a bench-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) equipped with ultrafiltration membranes (ZENON) was investigated at different mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentrations (3069, 4314 and 6204 mg/L). The pilot plant was located in the wastewater treatment plant of the city of Granada (Puente de los Vados, Granada, Spain), which receives the wastewater of the milk from the dairy industry of Granada. The results showed the capacity of the MBR systems to remove organic material (COD and BOD5), suspended solids, turbidity, color and microbial indicators such as E. coli and coliphages. Therefore, the results suggest that the transmembrane pressure (TMP) was influence by the MLSS concentration assayed. However, an increase in the MLSS concentration increases the nitrification processes and consequently the amount of NO3- in permeate.

  7. LOCAL ALGORITHM FOR MONITORING TOTAL SUSPENDED SEDIMENTS IN MICRO-WATERSHEDS USIN DRONES AND REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS. CASE STUDY: TEUSACÁ RIVER, LA CALERA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sáenz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An empirical relationship of Total Suspended Sediments (TSS concentrations and reflectance values obtained with Drones’ aerial photos and processed using remote sensing tools was set up as the main objective of this research. A local mathematic algorithm for the micro-watershed of the Teusacá River at La Calera, Colombia, was developed based on the computing of four component of bands from consumed-grade cameras obtaining from each their corresponding reflectance values from procedures for correcting digital camera imagery and using statistical analysis for study the fit and RMSE of 25 regressions. The assessment was characterized by the comparison of reflectance values and 34 in-situ data measurements concentrations between 1.6 and 33 mg L−1 taken from the superficial layer of the river in two campaigns. A large data set of empirical and referenced algorithm from literature were used to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the relationship. For estimation of TSS, a higher accuracy was achieved using the Tassan’s algorithm with the BAND X/ BANDX ratio. The correlation coefficient with R2 = X demonstrate the feasibility of use remote sensed data with consumed-grade cameras as an effective tool for a frequent monitoring and controlling of water quality parameters such as Total Suspended Solids of watersheds, these being the most vulnerable and less compliance with environmental regulations.

  8. Impacts of Insufficient Observations on the Monitoring of Short- and Long-Term Suspended Solids Variations in Highly Dynamic Waters, and Implications for an Optimal Observation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal water regions represent some of the most fragile ecosystems, exposed to both climate change and human activities. While remote sensing provides unprecedented amounts of data for water quality monitoring on regional to global scales, the performance of satellite observations is frequently impeded by revisiting intervals and unfavorable conditions, such as cloud coverage and sun glint. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate the impacts of varied sampling strategies (time and frequency and insufficient observations on the monitoring of short-term and long-term tendencies of water quality parameters, such as suspended solids (SS, in highly dynamic coastal waters. Taking advantage of the first high-frequency in situ SS dataset (at 30 min sampling intervals from 2007 to 2008, collected in Deep Bay, China, this paper presents a quantitative analysis of the influences of sampling strategies on the monitoring of SS, in terms of sampling frequency and time of day. Dramatic variations of SS were observed, with standard deviation coefficients of 48.9% and 54.1%, at two fixed stations; in addition, significant uncertainties were revealed, with the average absolute percent difference of approximately 13%, related to sampling frequency and time, using nonlinear optimization and random simulation methods. For a sampling frequency of less than two observations per day, the relative error of SS was higher than 50%, and stabilized at approximately 10%, when at least four or five samplings were conducted per day. The optimal recommended sampling times for SS were at around 9:00, 12:00, 14:00, and 16:00 in Deep Bay. The “pseudo” MODIS SS dataset was obtained from high-frequency in situ SS measurements at 10:30 and 14:00, masked by the temporal gap distribution of MODIS coverage to avoid uncertainties propagated from atmospheric correction and SS models. Noteworthy uncertainties of daily observations from the Terra/Aqua MODIS were found, with mean relative

  9. The True Seed of Shalott (TSS Technology Production on Trisula Variety in East Java

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    P.E.R. Prahardini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the onion increasing production problem is the lack of quality seeds availability. In order to provide high quality seeds of high yield and available throughout the year, an improvement of seed technology is required. One of the developing onion seed technologies is onion seeding through TSS (true seed of shallot. TSS technology development is expected to overcome the problem of onion seeding in Indonesia. East Java as one of the production centers of onion requires in developing onion seeding technology through TSS. This study aims to apply and develop TSS production technology using Trisula varieties which has been done from April to December 2016 in Tulungrejo village, Bumiaji district, Batu. The result of TSS production technology implementation indicates that Trisula variety is able to produce 110,5 kg TSS. Based on its agro-ecology, Batu area has the potential as the center of TSS production in East Java. Keywords: Onion, Technology, Trisula Varieties, True Seed of Shalot

  10. Developing of Total Suspended Sediment Model Using Landsat-8 Satellite Image and In-Situ Data at The Surabaya Coast, East Java, Indonesia

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    Teguh Hariyanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The decrease of coastal-water quality in the Surabaya coastal region can be recognized from the conceentration of Total Suspended Sediment(TSS . As a result we need a system for monitoring sediment concentration in the coastal region of Surabaya which regularly measures TSS. The principle to model and monitor TSSconcentration using remote sensing methods is by the integration of Landsat-8OLI satellites image processing using some ofTSS-models then those are analyzed for looking its suitability with TSS value direcly measured in the field ( in-situ measurement. The TSS value modeled from all algorithms validated usingcorrelation analysis and linear regression . The result shows that TSS model with the highest correlation value is TSS algorithm by Budiman (2004with r value 0.991. Hence this algorithm can be used to investigate TSS-distribution which represent the coastal water quality of Surabaya with TSS value between 75 mg/L to 125 mg/L.

  11. Use of acoustic backscatter and vertical velocity to estimate concentration and dynamics of suspended solids in Upper Klamath Lake, south-central Oregon: Implications for Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tamara M.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Vertical velocity and acoustic backscatter measurements by acoustic Doppler current profilers were used to determine seasonal, subseasonal (days to weeks), and diel variation in suspended solids in a freshwater lake where massive cyanobacterial blooms occur annually. During the growing season, the suspended material in the lake is dominated by the buoyancy-regulating cyanobacteria, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Measured variables (water velocity, relative backscatter [RB], wind speed, and air and water temperatures) were averaged over the deployment season at each sample time of day to determine average diel cycles. Phase shifts between diel cycles in RB and diel cycles in wind speed, vertical water temperature differences (delta T(degree)), and horizontal current speeds were found by determining the lead or lag that maximized the linear correlation between the respective diel cycles. Diel cycles in RB were more in phase with delta T(degree) cycles, and, to a lesser extent, wind cycles, than to water current cycles but were out of phase with the cycle that would be expected if the vertical movement of buoyant cyanobacteria colonies was controlled primarily by light. Clear evidence of a diel cycle in vertical velocity was found only at the two deepest sites in the lake. Cycles of vertical velocity, where present, were out of phase with expected vertical motion of cyanobacterial colonies based on the theoretical cycle for light-driven vertical movement. This suggests that water column stability and turbulence were more important factors in controlling vertical distribution of colonies than light. Variations at subseasonal time scales were determined by filtering data to pass periods between 1.2 and 15 days. At subseasonal time scales, correlations between RB and currents or air temperature were consistent with increased concentration of cyanobacterial colonies near the surface when water column stability increased (higher air temperatures or weaker currents) and

  12. Suspending Zeolite Particles In Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is in the process of removing waste (sludge and salt cake) from million gallon waste tanks. The current practice for removing waste from the tanks is adding water, agitating the tanks with long shaft vertical centrifugal pumps, and pumping the sludge/salt solution from the tank to downstream treatment processes. This practice has left sludge heels (tilde 30,000 gallons) in the bottom of the tanks. SRS is evaluating shrouded axial impeller mixers for removing the sludge heels in the waste tanks. The authors conducted a test program to determine mixer requirements for suspending sludge heels using the shrouded axial impeller mixers. The tests were performed with zeolite in scaled tanks which have diameters of 1.5, 6.0, and 18.75 feet. The mixer speeds required to suspend zeolite particles were measured at each scale. The data were analyzed with various scaling methods to compare their ability to describe the suspension of insoluble solids with the mixers and to apply the data to a full-scale waste tank. The impact of changes in particle properties and operating parameters was also evaluated. The conclusions of the work are: Scaling of the suspension of fast settling zeolite particles was best described by the constant power per unit volume method. Increasing the zeolite particle concentration increased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Decreasing the zeolite particle size from 0.7 mm 0.3 mm decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Increasing the number of mixers in the tank decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. A velocity of 1.6 ft/sec two inches above the tank bottom is needed to suspend zeolite particles

  13. Effects of variation of flow and accumulation of suspended solids on the performance of anaerobic/aerobic biofilm system applied to grey water treatment. kenkiter dot koki roshoho no shori seino ni oyobosu ryuryo hendo oyobi kendaku busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, T; Sagehashi, M; Otsuka, N; Okada, M; Murakami, A [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-04-10

    In this study, effects of variation of flow and accumulation of suspended solids (SS) on the performance of anaerobic/aerobic biofilm system were investigated through the laboratory test using synthetic wastewater and the field test using grey water. Effects of flow variation scarcely appeared on the time change of effluent quality in both cases where daily average hydraulic retention time (HRT) in anaerobic filter was 20h and that of aerobic filter was 6.7h. In the field test, however, removal rate of organic substances was lower (20-30%) than that of the laboratory test (90%), since SS content in grey water accumulated in the anaerobic filter which led dissolution of organic substances from accumulated SS, blocking, and short-circuit flow. Moreover, it was confirmed by the batch test that constituent of grey water has lower resolution for microorganisms and is more difficult to nitrate than synthetic waste water. 24 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Near-Bed Monitoring of Suspended Sediment during a Major Flood Event Highlights Deficiencies in Existing Event-Loading Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Grinham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rates of fluvial sediment discharge are notoriously difficult to quantify, particularly during major flood events. Measurements are typically undertaken using event stations requiring large capital investment, and the high cost tends to reduce the spatial coverage of monitoring sites. This study aimed to characterise the near-bed suspended sediment dynamics during a major flood event using a low-cost approach. Monitoring nodes consisted of a total suspended sediment (TSS logger, a single stage sampler, and a time-lapse camera for a total cost of less than US$420. Seven nodes were deployed across an elevation gradient on the stream bank of Laidley Creek, Queensland, Australia, and two of these nodes successfully characterised the near-bed suspended sediment dynamics across a major flood event. Near-bed TSS concentrations were closely related to stream flow, with the contribution of suspended bed material dominating the total suspended load during peak flows. Observed TSS concentrations were orders of magnitude higher than historical monitoring data for this site collected using the State government event station. This difference was attributed to the event station pump inlet screening the suspended bed material prior to sample collection. The ‘first flush’ phenomenon was detected and attributed to a local resuspension of muddy crusts immediately upstream of the study site. This low-cost approach will provide an important addition to the existing monitoring of fluvial sediment discharge during flood events.

  15. Effect of Plant Growth Regulator on Red Onion Cultivation from True Seed Shallot (TSS

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    Tri Sudaryono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Red onion is one of the strategic horticultural commodities, considering this commodity is very high consumption as a daily spice and fluctuating price. Therefore is not surprising that these commodities are contributing to inflation. Efforts to meet increasing consumption needs, it is necessary to find the right strategy to increase domestic red onion production. One of the strategies considered to increase domestic red onion production is the use of botanical seed (TSS as a source of seed on shallot cultivation. There are 2 main weaknesses of red onion cultivation with TSS as a source of seeds. The two weaknesses are TSS low growing power, which is naturally only in the 50-60 % range and the number of tubers produced is less than 3 cloves per plant. In order to solve the problem, research has been done to know the effect of plant growth regulator on the growth and red onion production from TSS and also get the description of red onion farming from TSS and tuber as seed source. The research was conducted from June to November 2017 at BPP Pare, Kediri Regency, East Java. The results showed that the use of young coconut water on TSS obtained red onion plants are able to produce the number of tubers per plant more than 3 cloves. In detail as much as 22.22 % produces the number of tubers range 4-5 per plant; 56.56 % yields 5-6 bulb range; and as much as 22.22 % produces tubers > 6. As well, wet weight of tubers when harvested weighing more than 99 g per plant. If converted per hectare, TSS red onion plants treated with young coconut water can produce a range of 30 -35 tons of wet bulb. This production is doubled compared to the production of shallots grown from tubers. Based on the analysis of the farm, red onion from TSS treated with young coconut water gives a profit of Rp 224,860,000 per hectare with B/C ratio of 3.397. This profit is more than 1.75 times compared to the profit of red onion tuber farming which is only Rp 93.787.000, - with B

  16. Structure of the T6SS lipoprotein TssJ1 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, Craig S.; Assmus, Mark; Nano, Francis E.; Boraston, Alisdair B.

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of the type VI secretion-system protein TssJ1 from P. aeruginosa was solved by iodide SAD at a resolution of 1.4 Å. The type VI secretion system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been shown to be responsible for the translocation of bacteriolytic effectors into competing bacteria. A mechanistic understanding of this widely distributed secretion system is developing and structural studies of its components are ongoing. Two representative structures of one highly conserved component, TssJ, from Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens have been published. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of TssJ1 from P. aeruginosa is presented at 1.4 Å resolution. The overall structure is conserved among the three proteins. This finding suggests that the homologues function in a similar manner and bolsters the understanding of the structure of this family of proteins

  17. The Type VI Secretion TssEFGK-VgrG Phage-Like Baseplate Is Recruited to the TssJLM Membrane Complex via Multiple Contacts and Serves As Assembly Platform for Tail Tube/Sheath Polymerization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick R Brunet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Type VI secretion system (T6SS is a widespread weapon dedicated to the delivery of toxin proteins into eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The 13 T6SS subunits assemble a cytoplasmic contractile structure anchored to the cell envelope by a membrane-spanning complex. This structure is evolutionarily, structurally and functionally related to the tail of contractile bacteriophages. In bacteriophages, the tail assembles onto a protein complex, referred to as the baseplate, that not only serves as a platform during assembly of the tube and sheath, but also triggers the contraction of the sheath. Although progress has been made in understanding T6SS assembly and function, the composition of the T6SS baseplate remains mostly unknown. Here, we report that six T6SS proteins-TssA, TssE, TssF, TssG, TssK and VgrG-are required for proper assembly of the T6SS tail tube, and a complex between VgrG, TssE,-F and-G could be isolated. In addition, we demonstrate that TssF and TssG share limited sequence homologies with known phage components, and we report the interaction network between these subunits and other baseplate and tail components. In agreement with the baseplate being the assembly platform for the tail, fluorescence microscopy analyses of functional GFP-TssF and TssK-GFP fusion proteins show that these proteins assemble stable and static clusters on which the sheath polymerizes. Finally, we show that recruitment of the baseplate to the apparatus requires initial positioning of the membrane complex and contacts between TssG and the inner membrane TssM protein.

  18. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse

    2008-01-01

    This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. A newly designed remediation cell, where the solids were kept in suspension by airflow, was tested. The results show that electric current could remove copper from suspended tailings...... efficiency from 1% to 80% compared to experiments with no stirring but with the same operational conditions. This showed the crucial importance of having the solids in suspension and not settled during the remediation....

  19. Multi-residue determination of the sorption of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals to wastewater suspended particulate matter using pressurised liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David R; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2011-11-04

    Presented is the first comprehensive study of drugs of abuse on suspended particulate matter (SPM) in wastewater. Analysis of SPM is crucial to prevent the under-reporting of the levels of analyte that may be present in wastewater. Analytical methods to date analyse the aqueous part of wastewater samples only, removing SPM through the use of filtration or centrifugation. The development of an analytical method to determine 60 compounds on SPM using a combination of pressurised liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (PLE-SPE-LC-MS/MS) is reported. The range of compounds monitored included stimulants, opioid and morphine derivatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, dissociative anaesthetics, drug precursors, and their metabolites. The method was successfully validated (parameters studied: linearity and range, recovery, accuracy, reproducibility, repeatability, matrix effects, and limits of detection and quantification). The developed methodology was applied to SPM samples collected at three wastewater treatment plants in the UK. The average proportion of analyte on SPM as opposed to in the aqueous phase was 10% with regard to methadone, EDDP, EMDP, BZP, fentanyl, nortramadol, norpropoxyphene, sildenafil and all antidepressants (dosulepin, amitriptyline, nortriptyline, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine). Consequently, the lack of SPM analysis in wastewater sampling protocol could lead to the under-reporting of the measured concentration of some compounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Treating floodplain lakes of large rivers as study units for variables that vary within lakes; an evaluation using chlorophyll a and inorganic suspended solids data from floodplain lakes of the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, B.R.; Rogala, J.R.; Houser, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Contiguous floodplain lakes ('lakes') have historically been used as study units for comparative studies of limnological variables that vary within lakes. The hierarchical nature of these studies implies that study variables may be correlated within lakes and that covariate associations may differ not only among lakes but also by spatial scale. We evaluated the utility of treating lakes as study units for limnological variables that vary within lakes based on the criteria of important levels of among-lake variation in study variables and the observation of covariate associations that vary among lakes. These concerns were selected, respectively, to ensure that lake signatures were distinguishable from within-lake variation and that lake-scale effects on covariate associations might provide inferences not available by ignoring those effects. Study data represented chlorophyll a (CHL) and inorganic suspended solids (ISS) data from lakes within three reaches of the Upper Mississippi River. Sampling occurred in summer from 1993 through 2005 (except 2003); numbers of lakes per reach varied from 7 to 19, and median lake area varied from 53 to 101 ha. CHL and ISS levels were modelled linearly, with lake, year and lake x year effects treated as random. For all reaches, the proportions of variation in CHL and ISS attributable to differences among lakes (including lake and lake x year effects) were substantial (range: 18%-73%). Finally, among-lake variation in CHL and ISS was strongly associated with covariates and covariate effects that varied by lakes or lake-years (including with vegetation levels and, for CHL, log(ISS)). These findings demonstrate the utility of treating floodplain lakes as study units for the study of limnological variables and the importance of addressing hierarchy within study designs when making inferences from data collected within floodplain lakes.

  1. HEURÍSTICA PARA EL EQUILIBRADO DE LÍNEAS DE ENSAMBLES DEL TIPO TSS HEURISTIC FOR THE TSS ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Palominos Belmar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es presentar una heurística para el problema de equilibrado de líneas para células conformadas en "U". Particularmente para el sistema de fabricación denominado Toyota Sewing System (TSS, que representa un nuevo concepto de organización en una línea de producción. Si bien este tipo de sistema ha sido abordado en la literatura bajo el título de sistemas de producción autoequilibrado, en donde el equilibrio se logra mediante la utilización de dos reglas básicas, creemos que estas reglas no son suficientes para lograr el autoequilibrio. Por lo cual incorporamos el concepto de zonas de enlace que facilita el equilibrado de la línea. De los resultados obtenidos mediante simulación, concluimos que la heurística es eficiente para este tipo de sistemas de producción.The purpose of this paper is to present a heuristic for the assembly line balancing problem in U-shaped cells, particularly for the manufacturing system called Toyota Sewing System (TSS, which represents a new production line organization concept. Although this type of system has been approached in the literature under the name of self-balanced production system, where the balance is achieved using two basic rules, we believe that these rules are not sufficient to achieve self-balance, so we have incorporated the concept of linkage zones that facilitate balancing the line. From the results obtained by simulation we conclude that the heuristic is efficient for this kind of production system.

  2. The influence of ozonated time on the degree of depreciation of BOD, COD, TSS and phosphate in hospital liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isyuniarto and Andrianto

    2009-01-01

    The influence of ozonated time towards degree depreciation of Bode, COD, TSS and phosphate in hospital liquid waste was done. This research aim study influence of lime adding and ozone using to reduce of BOD, COD, TSS and phosphate in hospital waste. Added of lime mean for total increase ion OH - , while parameter of ozonization time mean to complete organic compounds oxidation in waste and flock formation. From this research it was found that optimum lime addition was 1.1% (% weight) and ozonization time was 20 minutes. In this condition it was achieved degree of BOD = 18.88 mg/l; COD = 25.68 mg/l, TSS = 80 mg/l and phosphate = 1.52 mg/l. This condition fulfil quality standard decided, that has to BOD = 75 mg/l; COD = 100 mg/l, TSS = 100 mg/l and phosphate = 2.0 mg/l. (author)

  3. Analysis of Multi Temporal Satellite Imagery for Total Suspended Sediments in a Wave-Active Coastal Area-Gaza Strip Coastal Water, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midyan D.I. Aldabash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sediment load materials is one of the key factors that determine the surface water quality, both of oceanic and river water, and it specifies water optical properties. Thus it provides a background for a plenty of applications and projects in the water and oceanography community. Landsat detects and classifies reflected solar energy from bodies on the earth's surface. Suspended sediments existing in water column have an optical influences. So that, Landsat images could detect suspended sediments concentration in such a water surface. In this study we have three main objectives to be achieved as; TSS Concentration maps generation in the Gaza Strip coastal zone, achieving analysis processes on TSS trend itself and TSS related coastal phenomenon, and investigation of the ability of Landsat images to detect TSS comprehensively in a wavy coastal zone. For this purpose two landsat TM5 images acquired in 1999 and 2010, one Landsat TM7 images acquired in 2003, and 2 Landsat Oli 8 images acquired in 2014 and 2015 were used for TSS mapping. In addition, 64 TSS in-situ tested samples were also to calculate a correlation equation between Digital Numbers - DN in each image pixels and TSS values in the ground data. All image analysis and remote sensing steps have been done in this study using Integrated Land and Water Information System - ILWIS software version ILWIS academic 3.3. Green and Red bands in all used Landsat images contained the highest linear correlation factors -R- for the images acquired in 1999, 2003, 2010, 2014, and 2015. Resulted correlation factors were higher by reducing time difference between acquisition time and sampling time. Generated maps showed that circulation in Gaza coastal area are counterclockwise, and it brings the sediments from Nile River Delta toward Gaza Strip.

  4. Suspended graphene variable capacitor

    OpenAIRE

    AbdelGhany, M.; Mahvash, F.; Mukhopadhyay, M.; Favron, A.; Martel, R.; Siaj, M.; Szkopek, T.

    2016-01-01

    The tuning of electrical circuit resonance with a variable capacitor, or varactor, finds wide application with the most important being wireless telecommunication. We demonstrate an electromechanical graphene varactor, a variable capacitor wherein the capacitance is tuned by voltage controlled deflection of a dense array of suspended graphene membranes. The low flexural rigidity of graphene monolayers is exploited to achieve low actuation voltage in an ultra-thin structure. Large arrays compr...

  5. A Satellite Imagery Approach to Monitor Turbidity and Total Suspended Sediments in Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, B.; Hamidi, S.; Hosseiny, S. M. H.; Ekhtari, N.

    2017-12-01

    Fox River is a major source of land-based pollutants, nutrients, and sediment that flows into the southern Green Bay (GB). GB supplies one-third of the total nutrient loading to Lake Michigan. This can play a significant role in the biological functioning of the Bay and development of managerial scenarios. To name a few, it can degrade the quality of the aquatic life, add to the costs for treatment processes, and reduce coastal quality. Water quality evaluation is a time consuming and costly process. Spaceborne imagery data provides a cheap and valuable source of information as an alternative for field monitoring of the water resources. Sediment is an optically active variable; hence; remote sensing techniques can be utilized to estimate Total Suspended Sediments (TSS) and Turbidity (TU) of water. In this study, we developed relationships between remote sensing imagery data with daily in situ measurements of TSS and TU in the summers of 2011 to 2014. Surface reflectance (SR) values obtained from Band 1 of MYD09GQ dataset-a level 2 product of MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This band covers SR between 620 and 670nm, in which, the wavelength is sensitive to mineral suspended matters most. After elimination of days with cloud contamination, 118 pairs of data remained for analysis. Several possible functions were tested and exponential function was the best estimator of the SR-TSS and SR-TU relationships with R2 values of 0.8269 and 0.8688, respectively. We then used 2014 data to validate the proposed functions. The model was able to estimate TSS and TU with NRMSE values of 0.36 and 0.30. It indicates that the model can be well-applied to predict TSS and TU within a reasonable margin of error. Then, equations were used to map the spatiotemporal dynamics of sediment in GB. Area of the plume ranges between 12 to 180 km2 while 50% of the time the area of the turbid plume is more than 106 km2. Expectedly, the concentration of sediment is much higher

  6. Structural Characterization and Oligomerization of the TssL Protein, a Component Shared by Bacterial Type VI and Type IVb Secretion Systems*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Eric; Zoued, Abdelrahim; Spinelli, Silvia; Watson, Paul J. H.; Aschtgen, Marie-Stéphanie; Journet, Laure; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a macromolecular system distributed in Gram-negative bacteria, responsible for the secretion of effector proteins into target cells. The T6SS has a broad versatility as it can target both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. It is therefore involved in host pathogenesis or killing neighboring bacterial cells to colonize a new niche. At the architecture level, the T6SS core apparatus is composed of 13 proteins, which assemble in two subcomplexes. One of these subcomplexes, composed of subunits that share structural similarities with bacteriophage tail and baseplate components, is anchored to the cell envelope by the membrane subcomplex. This latter is constituted of at least three proteins, TssL, TssM, and TssJ. The crystal structure of the TssJ outer membrane lipoprotein and its interaction with the inner membrane TssM protein have been recently reported. TssL and TssM share sequence homology and characteristics with two components of the Type IVb secretion system (T4bSS), IcmH/DotU and IcmF, respectively. In this study, we report the crystal structure of the cytoplasmic domain of the TssL inner membrane protein from the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Sci-1 T6SS. It folds as a hook-like structure composed of two three-helix bundles. Two TssL molecules associate to form a functional complex. Although the TssL trans-membrane segment is the main determinant of self-interaction, contacts between the cytoplasmic domains are required for TssL function. Based on sequence homology and secondary structure prediction, we propose that the TssL structure is the prototype for the members of the TssL and IcmH/DotU families. PMID:22371492

  7. Removal of COD and TSS From Dye Solution Using Sand Filtration and Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Juniar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in order to obtain proper compositions and the standard condition for the simple filtration equipments and optimum operational conditions in adsorption column. The research was carried out by analyzing parameters COD and TSS. The result showed that the process was able to reduced parameters observed from filtration step until the process in adsorptions column. The optimum conditions for sand filter equipment were 10 cm sand height, at least 7 cm fibers, 3-4 cm gravel. In the adsorption column, the optimum conditions for green waste water were flow rate at 40 ml/min 60 min adsorptions time, and 60 cm bed height. While purple for waste water; 20 mL/min of flowrate, 60 min of adsorption time, and the 60 cm of bed height

  8. Concentration Measurements of Suspended Load using ADV with Influence of the Particle Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula

    2017-04-01

    ADV backscatter data can be used under certain conditions to gain information about the concentrations of suspended loads. This was shown in many studies before (Fugate and Friedrichs 2002; Chanson et al 2008; Ha et al. 2009). This paper reports on a pre-study to investigate the influence of particle size on concentration measurements for suspended sediment load with ADV. The study was conducted in a flume in the Oskar-von-Miller-Institute using fresh water from a river including the natural suspended load. The ADV used in the experiments was a Vectrino Profiler (Nortek). In addition water samples were taken for TSS and TOC. For the measurements a surge was generated in the flume to ensure that also particles of larger size will be present in the water phase. The measurements and samples were taken during the whole surge event. Therefore we were able to find a good correlation between the backscatter data of the ADV and the TSS as well as TOC results. For the decreasing part of the flow event the concentration of TOC in the suspended load of the water phase is decreasing much slower than the TSS and results in a damped decrease of the backscatter values. This means that the results for concentration measurements might be slightly influenced by the size of the particles. Further evaluations of measurements conducted with a LISST SL (Sequoia) will be investigated to show the trend of the particle sizes during this process and fortify this result. David C. Fugate, Carl T. Friedrichs, Determining concentration and fall velocity of estuarine particle populations using ADV, OBS and LISST, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 22, Issues 11-13, 2002 H.K. Ha, W.-Y. Hsu, J.P.-Y. Maa, Y.Y. Shao, C.W. Holland, Using ADV backscatter strength for measuring suspended cohesive sediment concentration, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 29, Issue 10, 2009 Hubert Chanson, Maiko Takeuchi, Mark Trevethan, Using turbidity and acoustic backscatter intensity as surrogate measures of

  9. Magnetically suspended railway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, C

    1977-07-28

    The invention concerns the emergency support of a magnetically suspended railway. On failure of the magnetic suspension/tracking system, the vehicles touch down on the rail configuration by means of emergency gliding elements like sliding shoes, skids, or the like. In doing this, the touch-down shock of the emergency gliding elements has to be limited to a force maximum as small as possible. According to the invention a spring-attenuator combination is used for this purpose, the spring characteristic being linear while the attenuator has a square-law characteristic for the compressing and a linear characteristic for the yielding motion. The force maximum thus achieved is exactly half the size of the physically smallest possible force maximum for an emergency gliding element springed without damping.

  10. Competition for spectral irradiance between epilimnetic optically active dissolved and suspended matter and phytoplankton in the metalimnion. Consequences for limnology and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracchini, Luca; Dattilo, Arduino Massimo; Falcucci, Margherita; Hull, Vincent; Tognazzi, Antonio; Rossi, Claudio; Loiselle, Steven Arthur

    2011-06-01

    In deep lakes, water column stratification isolates the surface water from the deeper bottom layers, creating a three dimensional differentiation of the chemical, physical, biological and optical characteristics of the waters. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and total suspended solids (TSS) play an important role in the attenuation of ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation. In the present analysis of spectral irradiance, we show that the wavelength composition of the metalimnetic visible irradiance was influenced by epilimnetic spatial distribution of CDOM. We found a low occurrence of blue-green photons in the metalimnion where epilimnetic concentrations of CDOM are high. In this field study, the spatial variation of the spectral irradiance in the metalimnion correlates with the observed metalimnetic concentrations of chlorophyll a as well as chlorophyll a : chlorophyll b/c ratios. Dissolved oxygen, pH, and nutrients trends suggest that chlorophyll a concentrations were representative of the phytoplankton biomass and primary production. Thus, metalimnetic changes of spectral irradiance may have a direct impact on primary production and an indirect effect on the spatial trends of pH, dissolved oxygen, and inorganic nutrients in the metalimnion.

  11. A Semi-Analytic Model for Estimating Total Suspended Sediment Concentration in Turbid Coastal Waters of Northern Western Australia Using MODIS-Aqua 250 m Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passang Dorji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the concentration of total suspended sediment (TSS in coastal waters is of significance to marine environmental monitoring agencies to determine the turbidity of water that serve as a proxy to estimate the availability of light at depth for benthic habitats. TSS models applicable to data collected by satellite sensors can be used to determine TSS with reasonable accuracy and of adequate spatial and temporal resolution to be of use for coastal water quality monitoring. Thus, a study is presented here where we develop a semi-analytic sediment model (SASM applicable to any sensor with red and near infrared (NIR bands. The calibration and validation of the SASM using bootstrap and cross-validation methods showed that the SASM applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-Aqua band 1 data retrieved TSS with a root mean square error (RMSE and mean averaged relative error (MARE of 5.75 mg/L and 33.33% respectively. The application of the SASM over our study region using MODIS-Aqua band 1 data showed that the SASM can be used to monitor the on-going, post and pre-dredging activities and identify daily TSS anomalies that are caused by natural and anthropogenic processes in coastal waters of northern Western Australia.

  12. Avaliação da concentração de mercúrio em sedimentos e material particulado no rio Acre, estado do Acre, Brasil Mercury concentration assessment in botton sediments and suspended solids from Acre river, in the State of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Fernando Silva Mascarenhas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação dos teores de mercúrio em sistemas aquáticos sem influência direta de fontes antropogênicas conhecidas não tem sido conduzida com freqüência na região Amazônica. Visando contribuir para esclarecer a ocorrência de valores elevados de Hg em peixes consumidos pela população de Rio Branco - AC, o Instituto Evandro Chagas - IEC, realizou um estudo para quantificar os teores de Hg em sedimentos de fundo e material particulado no rio Acre e alguns afluentes, além da caracterização físico-química das águas entre as cidades de Brasiléia e Assis Brasil. As amostras de sedimentos foram peneiradas na fração Mercury levels assessment in aquatic systems areas without influences of antropogenic sources have not been well studied in the Amazon region. For the identification of the origin of high values of Hg in fish consumed by population of Rio Branco City - AC, the Evandro Chagas Institute - IEC, studied the mercury levels in sediments, suspended solids and studied also the physical-chemical characterization of waters, in the Acre river and also some in afluents, between Brasiléia and Assis Brasil cities. Bottom sediments samples were sieved to <250 mesh fraction after drying. The suspended solid was obtained by precipitation with Al2SO4. About 250 mg of the material was submitted the acid digestion and the determinations of Hg were made by Could Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The physical-chemical parameters pH, electric conductivity, temperature and dissolved total solids, were studied in the field, by potenciometric methods. The Hg levels in bottom sediments range 0,018 and 0,184 mug g-1, mean of 0,054 ± 0,034 mug g-1, while the suspended solids varied between 0,067 and 0,220 mug g-1, average of 0,098 ± 0,037 mug g-1. The waters were slightly acid with pH varying among 5,80 - 6,95 and conductivity electric 151,60 - 1.151,00 muS cm-1. The mercury levels in the analyzed materials was below of standard levels for

  13. Pre-aged soil organic carbon as a major component of the Yellow River suspended load: Regional significance and global relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shuqin; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Montluçon, Daniel B.; McIntyre, Cameron; Zhao, Meixun

    2015-03-01

    Large rivers connect the continents and the oceans, and corresponding material fluxes have a global impact on marine biogeochemistry. The Yellow River transports vast quantities of suspended sediments to the ocean, yet the nature of the particulate organic carbon (POC) carried by this system is not well known. The focus of this study is to characterize the sources, composition and age of suspended POC collected near the terminus of this river system, focusing on the abundance and carbon isotopic composition (13C and 14C) of specific biomarkers. The concentrations of vascular plant wax lipids (long-chain (≥C24) n-alkanes, n-fatty acids) and POC co-varied with total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations, indicating that both were controlled by the overall terrestrial sediment flux. POC exhibited relatively uniform δ13C values (-23.8 to -24.2‰), and old radiocarbon ages (4000-4640 yr). However, different biomarkers exhibited a wide range of 14C ages. Short-chain (C16, C18) fatty acid 14C ages were variable but generally the youngest organic components (from 502 yr to modern), suggesting they reflect recently biosynthesized material. Lignin phenol 14C ages were also variable and relatively young (1070 yr to modern), suggesting rapid export of carbon from terrestrial primary production. In contrast, long-chain plant wax lipids display relatively uniform and significantly older 14C ages (1500-1800 yr), likely reflecting inputs of pre-aged, mineral-associated soil OC from the Yellow River drainage basin. Even-carbon-numbered n-alkanes yielded the oldest 14C ages (up to 26 000 yr), revealing the presence of fossil (petrogenic) OC. Two isotopic mass balance approaches were explored to quantitively apportion different OC sources in Yellow River suspended sediments. Results indicate that the dominant component of POC (53-57%) is substantially pre-aged (1510-1770 yr), and likely sourced from the extensive loess-paleosol deposits outcropping within the drainage basin. Of

  14. Burkholderia mallei tssM encodes a putative deubiquitinase that is secreted and expressed inside infected RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, John; Burtnick, Mary N; Brett, Paul J; Waag, David M; Spurgers, Kevin B; Ribot, Wilson J; Schell, Mark A; Panchal, Rekha G; Gherardini, Frank C; Wilkinson, Keith D; Deshazer, David

    2009-04-01

    Burkholderia mallei, a category B biothreat agent, is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the zoonotic disease glanders. The B. mallei VirAG two-component regulatory system activates the transcription of approximately 60 genes, including a large virulence gene cluster encoding a type VI secretion system (T6SS). The B. mallei tssM gene encodes a putative ubiquitin-specific protease that is physically linked to, and transcriptionally coregulated with, the T6SS gene cluster. Mass spectrometry and immunoblot analysis demonstrated that TssM was secreted in a virAG-dependent manner in vitro. Surprisingly, the T6SS was found to be dispensable for the secretion of TssM. The C-terminal half of TssM, which contains Cys and His box motifs conserved in eukaryotic deubiquitinases, was purified and biochemically characterized. Recombinant TssM hydrolyzed multiple ubiquitinated substrates and the cysteine at position 102 was critical for enzymatic activity. The tssM gene was expressed within 1 h after uptake of B. mallei into RAW 264.7 murine macrophages, suggesting that the TssM deubiquitinase is produced in this intracellular niche. Although the physiological substrate(s) is currently unknown, the TssM deubiquitinase may provide B. mallei a selective advantage in the intracellular environment during infection.

  15. Burkholderia mallei tssM Encodes a Putative Deubiquitinase That Is Secreted and Expressed inside Infected RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophages▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, John; Burtnick, Mary N.; Brett, Paul J.; Waag, David M.; Spurgers, Kevin B.; Ribot, Wilson J.; Schell, Mark A.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Gherardini, Frank C.; Wilkinson, Keith D.; DeShazer, David

    2009-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei, a category B biothreat agent, is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the zoonotic disease glanders. The B. mallei VirAG two-component regulatory system activates the transcription of ∼60 genes, including a large virulence gene cluster encoding a type VI secretion system (T6SS). The B. mallei tssM gene encodes a putative ubiquitin-specific protease that is physically linked to, and transcriptionally coregulated with, the T6SS gene cluster. Mass spectrometry and immunoblot analysis demonstrated that TssM was secreted in a virAG-dependent manner in vitro. Surprisingly, the T6SS was found to be dispensable for the secretion of TssM. The C-terminal half of TssM, which contains Cys and His box motifs conserved in eukaryotic deubiquitinases, was purified and biochemically characterized. Recombinant TssM hydrolyzed multiple ubiquitinated substrates and the cysteine at position 102 was critical for enzymatic activity. The tssM gene was expressed within 1 h after uptake of B. mallei into RAW 264.7 murine macrophages, suggesting that the TssM deubiquitinase is produced in this intracellular niche. Although the physiological substrate(s) is currently unknown, the TssM deubiquitinase may provide B. mallei a selective advantage in the intracellular environment during infection. PMID:19168747

  16. Effects of effects of suspended sediment on early-life stage survival of Yaqui chub, an endangered USA–Mexico borderlands cyprinid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkalow, Stephani L. Clark; Bonar, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of total suspended sediment (TSS) can have negative consequences on fishes, such as altering food supply, lowering food acquisition, clogging gills, and disrupting reproduction. While effects of TSS on salmonids and estuarine fish are well studied, less is known about possible negative impacts of suspended sediment on desert fishes. Several imperiled desert fishes inhabit streams and springs near the U.S.–Mexico border and are potentially threatened by increased sediment loads from borderlands activity such as livestock grazing, road building, illegal traffic, and law enforcement patrols. One such species is the Yaqui Chub Gila purpurea, a federally listed endangered cyprinid. We exposed Yaqui Chub embryos and fry (mean TL = 12.6 mm; SE = 0.42) to a range of TSS levels commonly found in one of the only streams they inhabit, Black Draw, which crosses the Arizona–Mexico border. We tested effects of 0; 300; 500; 1,000; 5,000; and 10,000 mg/L TSS loads on fry and embryos over a 5-d period in three replicate containers for each treatment. Fifty percent hatch rate (i.e., median lethal concentration, LC50) was 3,977 mg/L for embryos. The LC50 for fry (concentration at which half died) was 8,372 mg/L after 12 h of exposure; however, after 5-d exposure, LC50 leveled at 1,197 mg/L. The TL of fry did not change significantly in any treatment over the 5-d period. Suspended sediment in Black Draw reached concentrations lethal to Yaqui Chub embryo and fry during four floods in 2012. Although some desert fishes have evolved in rivers and streams subject to elevated TSS and are tolerant to high TSS concentrations, other fish species are less tolerant and may be impacted by land practices which increase erosion into stream systems. Management of critically endangered desert fishes should include considerations of the effects of increased suspended sediment.

  17. Thermal simulation of drift emplacement (TSS): In-situ instrumentation and numerical modeling of stress measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusermann, S.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of the planned demonstration test Thermal Simulation of Drift Emplacement (TSS) BGR is carrying out in-situ-measurements of rock stresses, rock deformability and permeability of salt rock and backfill material. The following techniques developed and proved by BGR during the last years are planned to be used in the TSS project: overcoring technique, dilatometer technique, hard inclusion technique, slot-cutting techniques, large-flatjack technique, compensation tests in laboratory, vacuum tests, injection tests, and tracer tests. The purpose of measurements is to determine: the initial stress state; stress gradients around test drifts; stress change caused by mining activities, by creep and stress relaxation and by temperature; the in-situ load-deformation behavior of rock salt; the permeability of rock salt around test drifts; the compaction behavior of backfill material; and the load-deformation behavior of rock salt and borehole grout in laboratory tests

  18. Pengaruh Laju Alir Inlet Reaktor MSL terhadap Reduksi BOD, COD, TSS, dan Minyak/Lemak Limbah Cair Industri Minyak Goreng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmariza Sy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted by treating edible oil industry wastewater used Multi Soil Layering (MSL method. The MSL reactor was built from a 200x120x200 cm concrete basin. Andisol soil was mixed with sawdust and fine charcoal at each ratio 5:1:1 based on dry weight as an impermeable layer. The flow rate variations were 250, 500, 1000, and 1500 L/m2.day. The observed pollutant parameters were BOD, COD, TSS, oil/fat, and pH. The results showed that MSL reactor was effective to decrease the pollutant content of edible oil industry wastewater. The reactor could reduce concentration of effluent parameters below standard except for oil/fat parameters at high flow rates. In the effluent was found BOD 0.66-14.22 mg/L, COD 5-69 mg/L, TSS 9-26 mg/L, and oil/fat 2-9 mg/L. The flow rate had an effect on reduction efficiency of BOD, COD, TSS, and oil/fat but did not effect pH as all flow rate could raise pH 6.37-6.95 became pH 6.99-7.24. The lower the flow rate the higher the reduction efficiency. The reduction efficiency at flow rates 250 and 1500 L/m2 days for BOD were 99% and 86%, COD were 96% and 71%, TSS were 88% and 77%, and oil/fat were 80% and 60%.ABSTRAK  Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan mengolah air limbah industri minyak goreng menggunakan metoda Multi Soil Layering (MSL. Reaktor MSL dibuat dari beton berbentuk bak ukuran 200x120x200 cm. Tanah andisol dicampur dengan serbuk gergaji dan arang halus pada rasio masing-masing 5:1:1 berdasarkan berat kering sebagai penyusun lapisan impermeable. Variasi laju alir yaitu 250, 500, 1000, dan 1500 L/m2.hari. Parameter pencemar yang dianalisis meliputi BOD, COD, TSS, minyak/lemak, dan pH. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa reaktor MSL sangat efektif untuk menurunkan kandungan zat pencemar limbah cair industri minyak goreng. Reaktor dapat mereduksi konsentrasi parameter outlet sampai dibawah baku mutu yang distandarkan kecuali untuk parameter miyak/lemak pada perlakuan laju alir tinggi. Pada effluen

  19. Flywheel Energy Storage System Suspended by Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ansah, Prince; Hu, Yefa; Misbawu, Adam

    This work presents a prototype flywheel energy storage system (FESS) suspended by hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB) rotating at a speed of 20000rpm with a maximum storage power capacity of 30W with a maximum tip speed of 300m/s. The design presented is an improvement of most existing FESS, as the design incorporates a unique feature in that the upper and the lower rotor and stator core are tapered which enhances larger thrust and much lower radial force to be exerted on the system. Without any adverse effect being experienced by the model. The work also focuses on the description of developing a prototype FESS suspended by HMB using solid works as a basis of developing in the nearer future a more improved FESS suspended by HMB capable of injecting the ever increasing high energy demand situation in the 21st century and beyond.

  20. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct...... and attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast...

  1. A comparison between ultraviolet disinfection and copper alginate beads within a vortex bioreactor for the deactivation of bacteria in simulated waste streams with high levels of colour, humic acid and suspended solids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon F Thomas

    Full Text Available We show in this study that the combination of a swirl flow reactor and an antimicrobial agent (in this case copper alginate beads is a promising technique for the remediation of contaminated water in waste streams recalcitrant to UV-C treatment. This is demonstrated by comparing the viability of both common and UV-C resistant organisms in operating conditions where UV-C proves ineffective - notably high levels of solids and compounds which deflect UV-C. The swirl flow reactor is easy to construct from commonly available plumbing parts and may prove a versatile and powerful tool in waste water treatment in developing countries.

  2. A comparison between ultraviolet disinfection and copper alginate beads within a vortex bioreactor for the deactivation of bacteria in simulated waste streams with high levels of colour, humic acid and suspended solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Simon F; Rooks, Paul; Rudin, Fabian; Atkinson, Sov; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M; Mason, Paul T; Allen, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    We show in this study that the combination of a swirl flow reactor and an antimicrobial agent (in this case copper alginate beads) is a promising technique for the remediation of contaminated water in waste streams recalcitrant to UV-C treatment. This is demonstrated by comparing the viability of both common and UV-C resistant organisms in operating conditions where UV-C proves ineffective - notably high levels of solids and compounds which deflect UV-C. The swirl flow reactor is easy to construct from commonly available plumbing parts and may prove a versatile and powerful tool in waste water treatment in developing countries.

  3. А mathematical model study of suspended monorail

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor GUTAREVYCH

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical model of suspended monorail track with allowance for elastic strain which occurs during movement of the monorail carriage was developed. Standard forms for single span and double span of suspended monorail sections were established.

  4. А mathematical model study of suspended monorail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor GUTAREVYCH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of suspended monorail track with allowance for elastic strain which occurs during movement of the monorail carriage was developed. Standard forms for single span and double span of suspended monorail sections were established.

  5. Self-Suspended Suspensions of Covalently Grafted Hairy Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2015-03-17

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Dispersions of small particles in liquids have been studied continuously for almost two centuries for their ability to simultaneously advance understanding of physical properties of fluids and their widespread use in applications. In both settings, the suspending (liquid) and suspended (solid) phases are normally distinct and uncoupled on long length and time scales. In this study, we report on the synthesis and physical properties of a novel family of covalently grafted nanoparticles that exist as self-suspended suspensions with high particle loadings. In such suspensions, we find that the grafted polymer chains exhibit unusual multiscale structural transitions and enhanced conformational stability on subnanometer and nanometer length scales. On mesoscopic length scales, the suspensions display exceptional homogeneity and colloidal stability. We attribute this feature to steric repulsions between grafted chains and the space-filling constraint on the tethered chains in the single-component self-suspended materials, which inhibits phase segregation. On macroscopic length scales, the suspensions exist as neat fluids that exhibit soft glassy rheology and, counterintuitively, enhanced elasticity with increasing temperature. This feature is discussed in terms of increased interpenetration of the grafted chains and jamming of the nanoparticles. (Chemical Presented).

  6. Distribution and transportation of suspended sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubel, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A number of studies of the distribution and character of suspended matter in the waters of the Atlantic shelf have documented the variations in the concentration of total suspended matter in both time and space. Very little is known, however, about the ultimate sources of inorganic suspended matter, and even less is known about the routes and rates of suspended sediment transport in shelf waters. Suspended particulate matter constitutes a potential vehicle for the transfer of energy-associated contaminants, radionuclides and oil, back to the coast and therefore to man. The concentrations of total suspended matter in shelf waters are typically so low, however, that the mechanism is ineffective. Studies of suspended particulate matter have a high scientific priority, but in this investigator's opinion the state of knowledge is adequate for preparation of the environmental impact statements that would be required for siting of offshore nuclear power plants and for oil drilling on the Atlantic Continental Shelf

  7. The NTI-tss device for the therapy of bruxism, temporomandibular disorders, and headache – Where do we stand? A qualitative systematic review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelmann, Henrike; Türp, Jens C

    2008-01-01

    Background The NTI-tss device is an anterior bite stop, which, according to the manufacturer, is indicated for the prevention and treatment of bruxism, temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), tension-type headaches, and migraine. The aim of this systematic review was to appraise the currently available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of the NTI-tss splint. Methods We performed a systematic search in nine electronic databases and in NTI-tss-associated websites (last update: December 31, 2007). The reference lists of all relevant articles were perused. Five levels of scientific quality were distinguished. Reporting quality of articles about randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was evaluated using the Jadad score. To identify adverse events, we searched in the identified publications and in the MAUDE database. Results Nine of 68 relevant publications reported about the results of five different RCTs. Two RCTs concentrated on electromyographic (EMG) investigations in patients with TMDs and concomitant bruxism (Baad-Hansen et al 2007, Jadad score: 4) or with bruxism alone (Kavaklı 2006, Jadad score: 2); in both studies, compared to an occlusal stabilization splint the NTI-tss device showed significant reduction of EMG activity. Two RCTs focused exclusively on TMD patients; in one trial (Magnusson et al 2004, Jadad score: 3), a stabilization appliance led to greater improvement than an NTI-tss device, while in the other study (Jokstad et al 2005, Jadad score: 5) no difference was found. In one RCT (Shankland 2002, Jadad score: 1), patients with tension-type headache or migraine responded more favorably to the NTI-tss splint than to a bleaching tray. NTI-tss-induced complications related predominantly to single teeth or to the occlusion. Conclusion Evidence from RCTs suggests that the NTI-tss device may be successfully used for the management of bruxism and TMDs. However, to avoid potential unwanted effects, it should be chosen only if certain a patient will be

  8. The NTI-tss device for the therapy of bruxism, temporomandibular disorders, and headache – Where do we stand? A qualitative systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türp Jens C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NTI-tss device is an anterior bite stop, which, according to the manufacturer, is indicated for the prevention and treatment of bruxism, temporomandibular disorders (TMDs, tension-type headaches, and migraine. The aim of this systematic review was to appraise the currently available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of the NTI-tss splint. Methods We performed a systematic search in nine electronic databases and in NTI-tss-associated websites (last update: December 31, 2007. The reference lists of all relevant articles were perused. Five levels of scientific quality were distinguished. Reporting quality of articles about randomized controlled trials (RCTs was evaluated using the Jadad score. To identify adverse events, we searched in the identified publications and in the MAUDE database. Results Nine of 68 relevant publications reported about the results of five different RCTs. Two RCTs concentrated on electromyographic (EMG investigations in patients with TMDs and concomitant bruxism (Baad-Hansen et al 2007, Jadad score: 4 or with bruxism alone (Kavaklı 2006, Jadad score: 2; in both studies, compared to an occlusal stabilization splint the NTI-tss device showed significant reduction of EMG activity. Two RCTs focused exclusively on TMD patients; in one trial (Magnusson et al 2004, Jadad score: 3, a stabilization appliance led to greater improvement than an NTI-tss device, while in the other study (Jokstad et al 2005, Jadad score: 5 no difference was found. In one RCT (Shankland 2002, Jadad score: 1, patients with tension-type headache or migraine responded more favorably to the NTI-tss splint than to a bleaching tray. NTI-tss-induced complications related predominantly to single teeth or to the occlusion. Conclusion Evidence from RCTs suggests that the NTI-tss device may be successfully used for the management of bruxism and TMDs. However, to avoid potential unwanted effects, it should be chosen only if certain a

  9. The NTI-tss device for the therapy of bruxism, temporomandibular disorders, and headache - where do we stand? A qualitative systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelmann, Henrike; Türp, Jens C

    2008-07-29

    The NTI-tss device is an anterior bite stop, which, according to the manufacturer, is indicated for the prevention and treatment of bruxism, temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), tension-type headaches, and migraine. The aim of this systematic review was to appraise the currently available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of the NTI-tss splint. We performed a systematic search in nine electronic databases and in NTI-tss-associated websites (last update: December 31, 2007). The reference lists of all relevant articles were perused. Five levels of scientific quality were distinguished. Reporting quality of articles about randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was evaluated using the Jadad score. To identify adverse events, we searched in the identified publications and in the MAUDE database. Nine of 68 relevant publications reported about the results of five different RCTs. Two RCTs concentrated on electromyographic (EMG) investigations in patients with TMDs and concomitant bruxism (Baad-Hansen et al 2007, Jadad score: 4) or with bruxism alone (Kavakli 2006, Jadad score: 2); in both studies, compared to an occlusal stabilization splint the NTI-tss device showed significant reduction of EMG activity. Two RCTs focused exclusively on TMD patients; in one trial (Magnusson et al 2004, Jadad score: 3), a stabilization appliance led to greater improvement than an NTI-tss device, while in the other study (Jokstad et al 2005, Jadad score: 5) no difference was found. In one RCT (Shankland 2002, Jadad score: 1), patients with tension-type headache or migraine responded more favorably to the NTI-tss splint than to a bleaching tray. NTI-tss-induced complications related predominantly to single teeth or to the occlusion. Evidence from RCTs suggests that the NTI-tss device may be successfully used for the management of bruxism and TMDs. However, to avoid potential unwanted effects, it should be chosen only if certain a patient will be compliant with follow-up appointments. The

  10. Biogas Production and Removal COD – BOD and TSS from Wastewater Industrial Alcohol (Vinasse by Modified UASB Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utami Isni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production and decreased organic loading of vinasse using a modified UASB bioreactor has been done successfully. Vinasse is waste from the ethanol industry which contains COD: 9.360 mg / L , BOD : 4.013 mg/L, and TSS: 317.5 mg/L. The purpose of this research was to study the performance of bioreactors Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB to decompose the vinasse into biogas or methane. UASB operating principle is to distribute wastewater in the bioreactor to flow upward through the sludge blanket by setting the hidrolic retention time (HRT. Four UASB bioreactor columns were used in this experiment wherein each with a capacity of 50 L in volume; 23 cm inside diameter, and 120 cm. The variations of hydraulic capacity followed the variations of HRT in the range of 72-36 hours. Modifications were carried out on the top of column UASB with the aim of preventing gas losses and increasing the flowrate of gas out from the top of the column. The results showed that HRT increased from 36 h to 72 h followed by an increase in COD removal efficiency of 55.64% to 66.81%; BOD5 from 67.85% to 74.58%; and TSS from 66.69% to 84.19%. The maximum volume of biogas produced was in the range of 5.826 L / day (42.89% methane to 7.930 L / day (methane 58.06%.

  11. Suspended dust in Norwegian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    According to calculations, at least 80 000 people in Oslo and 8 000 in Trondheim were annoyed by too much suspended dust in 2000. The dust concentration is greatest in the spring, presumably because dust is swirling up from melting snow and ice on the streets. Car traffic is the main source of the dust, except for some of the most highly exposed regions where wood-firing from old stoves contributes up to 70 percent of the dust. National targets for air quality include suspended dust, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and benzene. Calculations show that nitrogen dioxide emissions exceeding the limit affected 4 000 people in Oslo and 1 000 people in Trondheim. The sulphur dioxide emissions in the major cities did non exceed the national quality limit; they did exceed the limit in some of the smaller industrial centres. In Trondheim, measurements show that the national limit for benzene was exceeded. Most of the emission of nitrogen dioxide comes from the road traffic. Local air pollution at times causes considerable health- and well-being problems in the larger cities and industrial centres, where a great part of the population may be at risk of early death, infection of the respiratory passage, heart- and lung diseases and cancer

  12. Hyperspectral Imaging Coupled with Random Frog and Calibration Models for Assessment of Total Soluble Solids in Mulberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ru Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemometrics methods coupled with hyperspectral imaging technology in visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR region (380–1030 nm were introduced to assess total soluble solids (TSS in mulberries. Hyperspectral images of 310 mulberries were acquired by hyperspectral reflectance imaging system (512 bands and their corresponding TSS contents were measured by a Brix meter. Random frog (RF method was used to select important wavelengths from the full wavelengths. TSS values in mulberry fruits were predicted by partial least squares regression (PLSR and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM models based on full wavelengths and the selected important wavelengths. The optimal PLSR model with 23 important wavelengths was employed to visualise the spatial distribution of TSS in tested samples, and TSS concentrations in mulberries were revealed through the TSS spatial distribution. The results declared that hyperspectral imaging is promising for determining the spatial distribution of TSS content in mulberry fruits, which provides a reference for detecting the internal quality of fruits.

  13. Viscous bursting of suspended films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrégeas, G.; Martin, P.; Brochard-Wyart, F.

    1995-11-01

    Soap films break up by an inertial process. We present here the first observations on freely suspended films of long-chain polymers, where viscous effects are dominant and no surfactant is present. A hole is nucleated at time 0 and grows up to a radius R(t) at time t. A surprising feature is that the liquid from the hole is not collected into a rim (as it is in soap films): The liquid spreads out without any significant change of the film thickness. The radius R(t) grows exponentially with time, R~exp(t/τ) [while in soap films R(t) is linear]. The rise time τ~ηe/2γ where η is viscosity, e is thickness (in the micron range), and γ is surface tension. A simple model is developed to explain this growth law.

  14. Intermodal resonance of vibrating suspended cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    The weakly nonlinear free vibrations of a single suspended cable, or a coupled system of suspended cables, may be classified as gravity modes (no tension variations to leading order) and elasto-gravity modes (tension and vertical displacement equally important). It was found earlier [12] that the

  15. Current-use insecticides, phosphates and suspended solids in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-01-01

    Jan 1, 2001 ... event, the slope and soil types of the catchment, the pesticide application, and the size .... previously been prepared with 6 ml methanol and then 6 ml water. ..... kills in estuarine areas adjacent to sugar-cane and vegetable crops .... construction on the ecology of a southern Ontario (Canada) stream. Environ ...

  16. The Influence of Suspended Inert Solid Particles on Zinc Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1996-01-01

    The rate of corrosion of electroplated zinc in near-neutral chloride solutions can be lowered by as much as 75% by adding fine, inert particles of substances such as MnO2, Fe3O4, SiC and TiN to the well-stirred solution. Spreading of local areas of etching is also stopped. Copyright (C) 1996...

  17. Metal extraction by solid-liquid agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    Dissolved metal values are extracted from a liquid e.g. uranium from phosphoric acid by contacting the liquid with agglomerates for a time to load the agglomerate with the metal value, separating the loaded agglomerates from the liquid phase and stripping the metal value from the loaded agglomerate. The agglomerate may be made by combining finely divided solid particles with a binding liquid to form a paste, adding a suspending liquid to form a mixture, the suspending liquid and binding liquid being immiscible in each other and the solid particles being insoluble in the suspending liquid and shearing the mixture to form the agglomerate. (author)

  18. A New Measure for Transported Suspended Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Non-uniform suspended sediment plays an important role in many geographical and biological processes. Despite extensive study, understanding to it seems to stagnate when times to consider non-uniformity and non-equilibrium scenarios comes. Due to unsatisfactory reproducibility, large-scaled flume seems to be incompetent to conduct more fundamental research in this area. To push the realm a step further, experiment to find how suspended sediment exchanges is conducted in a new validated equipment, in which turbulence is motivated by oscillating grids. Analysis shows that 1) suspended sediment exchange is constrained by ωS invariance, 2) ωS of the suspended sediment that certain flow regime could support is unique regardless of the sediment gradation and 3) the more turbulent the flow, the higher ωS of the suspension the flow could achieve. A new measure for suspended sediment ωS, the work required to sustain sediment in suspension transport mode if multiplied by gravitational acceleration, is thus proposed to better describe the dynamics of transported suspended sediment. Except for the further understanding towards suspended sediment transportation mechanics, with this energy measure, a strategy to distribute total transport capacity to different fractions could be derived and rational calculation of non-uniform sediment transport capacity under non-equilibrium conditions be possible.

  19. THE USE OF SILICA SAND, ZEOLITE AND ACTIVE CHARCOAL TO REDUCE BOD, COD AND TSS OF LAUNDRY WASTE WATER AS A BIOLOGY LEARNING RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch Assiddieq

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic environment contaminated with detergent waste in high concentrations can endanger the lives human and biota in the water. This study aimed to determine the decrease of BOD, COD and TSS content of laundry liquid waste by using filter media of silica sand, zeolite, and activated charcoal. Filter medium 1a can reduce BOD level from 98.6 mg/L to 58.80 mg/L (40.36%, while medium 1b can decrease BOD level to 21.20 mg/L (78.48%. It showed that media 1a had not fulfilled the quality standard of BOD of waste water that is 50 mg/L, while media 1b had fulfilled the standard of quality. Filter media 1a can decrease COD level from 210 mg/L to 78.80 mg/L (62.47%, whereas medium 1b can decrease COD to 25.60 mg/L (87.80%. This showed that media 1a and media 1b had met the quality standard of COD of waste water that is 100 mg/L. Filter media 1a can decrease TSS level from 465 mg/L to 122.5 mg/L (73.65%, whereas medium 1b can decrease TSS level to 52.3 mg/L (88.75%. This showed that media 1a and media 1b had met the quality standard of TSS of waste water that is 150 mg/L.

  20. Transport of suspended matter through rock formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlig, B.G.

    1980-01-01

    It may be hypothesized that significant quantities of some waste nuclides could be adsorbed on the surfaces of particles suspended in the flowing groundwater and thereby migrate farther or faster than they would in dissolved form. This thesis deals with one aspect of this proposed migration mechanism, the transport of suspended matter through rock formations. A theoretical examination of the forces effecting suspended particles in flowing groundwater indicates that only two interaction energies are likely to be significant compared to the particles' thermal energies. The responsible interactions are van der Waals attraction between the particles and the rock, and electrolytic double-layer repulsion between the atmospheres of ions near the surfaces of the particles and the rock. This theoretical understanding was tested in column flow adsorption experiments using fine kaolin particles as the suspended matter and crushed basalt as the rock medium. The effects of several parameters on kaolin mobility were explored, including the influences of the following: solution ion concentration, solution cation valence, degree of solution oxygen saturation, solution flow velocity, and degree of rock surface ageing. The experimental results indicate that the migration of suspended matter over kilometer distances in the lithosphere is very unlikely unless the average pore size of the conducting mediumis fairly large (> 1mm), or the flow occurs in large fractures

  1. Self-suspended permanent magnetic FePt ferrofluids

    KAUST Repository

    Dallas, Panagiotis

    2013-10-01

    We present the synthesis and characterization of a new class of self-suspended ferrofluids that exhibit remanent magnetization at room temperature. Our system relies on the chemisorption of a thiol-terminated ionic liquid with very low melting point on the surface of L10 FePt nanoparticles. In contrast, all types of ferrofluids previously reported employ either volatile solvents as the suspending media or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (that lacks permanent magnetization) as the inorganic component. The ferrofluids do not show any sign of flocculation or phase separation, despite the strong interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles due to the strong chemisorption of the ionic liquid as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Composites with high FePt loading (40 and 70. wt%) exhibit a pseudo solid-like rheological behavior and high remanent magnetization values (10.1 and 12.8. emu/g respectively). At lower FePt loading (12. wt%) a liquid like behavior is observed and the remanent and saturation magnetization values are 3.5 and 6.2. emu/g, respectively. The magnetic and flow properties of the materials can be easily fine tuned by controlling the type and amount of FePt nanoparticles used. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  2. Nuclear reactor with a suspended vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemercier, Guy.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a nuclear reactor with a suspended vessel and applies in particular when this is a fast reactor, the core or active part of the reactor being inside the vessel and immersed under a suitable volume of flowing liquid metal to cool it by extracting the calories released by the nuclear fission in the fuel assemblies forming this core [fr

  3. Bed-levelling experiments with suspended load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; De Graaff, J.

    1991-01-01

    Bed-levelling experiments are conducted in a straight laboratory channel. The experiments involve a significant fraction of suspended sediment transport. The purpose of the experiments is to provide data for modelling of the direction of sediment transport on a transverse sloping alluvial river bed,

  4. The Shape of Breasts Suspended in Liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kleijn, S.C.; Rensen, W.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Philips has designed an optical mammography machine. In this machine the breast is suspended into a cup in which the measurements take place. A special fluid is inserted into the cup to prevent the light from going around the breast instead of going through it but this fluid also weakens the signal.

  5. Numerical Simulation of the Motion of Charged Suspended Particle in Multi-Phase Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El Khalek, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    A method for computing Numerical simulation of the motion of charged suspended particle in multi-phase flow between two-long parallel plates is described in detail. The equation of motion of a suspended particle was suggested by Closkin. The equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations and solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta method. The trajectories of particles are calculated by integrating the equation of motion of a single particle. Numerical solutions of the resulting ordinary differential equations provide velocity distributions for both fluid and solid phases and density distributions for the solid. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. Some typical results for both fluid and particle phases and density distributions of the particles are presented graphically

  6. Numerical simulation of the motion of charged suspended particle in multi-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Elkhalek, M M [Nuclear Research Center-Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    A method for computing numerical simulation of the motion of charged suspended particle in multi-phase flow between two-long parallel plates is described in detail. The equation of motion of a suspended particle was suggested by closkin. The equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations and solved numerically by using Runge-Kutta method. The trajectories of particles are calculated by integrating the equation of motion of a single particle. Numerical solutions of the resulting ordinary differential equations provide velocity distributions for both fluid and solid phases and density distributions for the solid. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. Some typical results for both fluid and particle phases and density distributions of the particles are presented graphically. 4 figs.

  7. The removal of N and P in aerobic and anoxic-aerobic digestion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When this sludge is thickened to 3–6% total suspended solids (TSS) and digested. (aerobic or .... wastewater treatment plant (Cape Town, South Africa) in 2. 000 ℓ batches ...... MSc thesis, University of Cape Town, Cape. Town, South Africa.

  8. Production and analysis of lipton Camellia sinensis wine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , specific gravity, alcohol, total acidity, fixed acidity, vitamin C, some inorganic ions, total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solutes (TSS), phytochemical and microbial contents as well as its sensory evaluation. The must had pH and ...

  9. An assessment of pharmaceutical waste management in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... response was not achieved due to some companies' poli- cies, protocol .... chlorine, total suspended solids (TSS), pH, conductivity. (reactions of ions) ... on either cleaning or effluent water, microbial waste, waste disposal or ...

  10. A mercury transport and fate model (LM2-mercury) for mass budget assessment of mercury cycling in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    LM2-Mercury, a mercury mass balance model, was developed to simulate and evaluate the transport, fate, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. The model simulates total suspended solids (TSS), disolved organic carbon (DOC), and total, elemental, divalent, ...

  11. The suspended sentence in French Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law has provided different criminal sanctions as measures of social control. These coercive measures are imposed on the criminal offender by the competent court and aimed at limitting the offender's rights and freedoms or depriving the offender of certain rights and freedoms. These sanctions are applied to the natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and injure or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values, criminal legislations in all countries predict a number of criminal sanctions. These are: 1 imprisonment, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juveniles, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Apart and instead of punishment, warning measures have a significant role in the jurisprudence. Since they emerged in the early 20th century in the system of criminal sanctions, there has been an increase in their application to criminal offenders, especially when it comes to first-time offenders who committed a negligent or accidental criminal act. Warnings are applied in case of crimes that do not have serious consequences, and whose perpetrators are not hardened and incorrigible criminals. All contemporary criminal legislations (including the French legilation provide a warning measure of suspended sentence. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person does not commit another criminal offense and fulfills other obligations. This sanction applies if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a forma! -which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b material -which is the court assessment that the application of this sanction is justified and necessary in a particular case. In many modern criminal legislations, there are two different types of suspended (conditional sentence: 1 ordinary (classical suspended

  12. Impact of pH and Total Soluble Solids on Enzyme Inactivation Kinetics during High Pressure Processing of Mango (Mangifera indica) Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Neelima; Nadella, Tejaswi; Rao, P Srinivasa

    2015-11-01

    This study was undertaken with an aim to enhance the enzyme inactivation during high pressure processing (HPP) with pH and total soluble solids (TSS) as additional hurdles. Impact of mango pulp pH (3.5, 4.0, 4.5) and TSS (15, 20, 25 °Brix) variations on the inactivation of pectin methylesterase (PME), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) enzymes were studied during HPP at 400 to 600 MPa pressure (P), 40 to 70 °C temperature (T), and 6- to 20-min pressure-hold time (t). The enzyme inactivation (%) was modeled using second order polynomial equations with a good fit that revealed that all the enzymes were significantly affected by HPP. Response surface and contour models predicted the kinetic behavior of mango pulp enzymes adequately as indicated by the small error between predicted and experimental data. The predicted kinetics indicated that for a fixed P and T, higher pulse pressure effect and increased isobaric inactivation rates were possible at lower levels of pH and TSS. In contrast, at a fixed pH or TSS level, an increase in P or T led to enhanced inactivation rates, irrespective of the type of enzyme. PPO and POD were found to have similar barosensitivity, whereas PME was found to be most resistant to HPP. Furthermore, simultaneous variation in pH and TSS levels of mango pulp resulted in higher enzyme inactivation at lower pH and TSS during HPP, where the effect of pH was found to be predominant than TSS within the experimental domain. Exploration of additional hurdles such as pH, TSS, and temperature for enzyme inactivation during high pressure processing of fruits is useful from industrial point of view, as these parameters play key role in preservation process design. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.21 Suspended particulates/turbidity. (a) Suspended particulates in the aquatic ecosystem consist of fine-grained mineral particles..., and man's activities including dredging and filling. Particulates may remain suspended in the water...

  14. Long-term patterns and short-term dynamics of stream solutes and suspended sediment in a rapidly weathering tropical watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, James B.; McDowell, William H.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2011-07-01

    The 326 ha Río Icacos watershed in the tropical wet forest of the Luquillo Mountains, northeastern Puerto Rico, is underlain by granodiorite bedrock with weathering rates among the highest in the world. We pooled stream chemistry and total suspended sediment (TSS) data sets from three discrete periods: 1983-1987, 1991-1997, and 2000-2008. During this period three major hurricanes crossed the site: Hugo in 1989, Hortense in 1996, and Georges in 1998. Stream chemistry reflects sea salt inputs (Na, Cl, and SO4), and high weathering rates of the granodiorite (Ca, Mg, Si, and alkalinity). During rainfall, stream composition shifts toward that of precipitation, diluting 90% or more in the largest storms, but maintains a biogeochemical watershed signal marked by elevated K and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. DOC exhibits an unusual "boomerang" pattern, initially increasing with flow but then decreasing at the highest flows as it becomes depleted and/or vigorous overland flow minimizes contact with watershed surfaces. TSS increased markedly with discharge (power function slope 1.54), reflecting the erosive power of large storms in a landslide-prone landscape. The relations of TSS and most solute concentrations with stream discharge were stable through time, suggesting minimal long-term effects from repeated hurricane disturbance. Nitrate concentration, however, increased about threefold in response to hurricanes then returned to baseline over several years following a pseudo first-order decay pattern. The combined data sets provide insight about important hydrologic pathways, a long-term perspective to assess response to hurricanes, and a framework to evaluate future climate change in tropical ecosystems.

  15. Swing damped movement of suspended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.F.; Petterson, B.J.; Werner, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Transportation of large objects such as nuclear waste shipping casks using overhead cranes can induce pendular motion of the object. Residual oscillation from transportation typically must be damped or allowed to decay before the next process can take place. By properly programming the acceleration of the transporting device (e.g., crane) an oscillation damped transport and swing free stop are obtainable. This report reviews the theory associated with formulating such oscillation damped trajectories for a simply suspended object (e.g., simple pendulum). In addition, the use of force servo damping to eliminate initial oscillation of simply suspended objects is discussed. This is often needed to provide a well defined initial state for the system prior to executing an oscillation damped move. Also included are descriptions of experiments using a CIMCORP XR6100 gantry robot and results from these experiments. Finally, sources of error resulting in small residual oscillations are identified and possible solutions presented

  16. Molybdenum-rhenium superconducting suspended nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Mohsin; Christopher Hudson, David; Russo, Saverio [Centre for Graphene Science, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-09

    Suspended superconducting nanostructures of MoRe 50%/50% by weight are fabricated employing commonly used fabrication steps in micro- and nano-meter scale devices followed by wet-etching with Hydro-fluoric acid of a SiO{sub 2} sacrificial layer. Suspended superconducting channels as narrow as 50 nm and length 3 μm have a critical temperature of ≈6.5 K, which can increase by 0.5 K upon annealing at 400 °C. A detailed study of the dependence of the superconducting critical current and critical temperature upon annealing and in devices with different channel widths reveals that desorption of contaminants is responsible for the improved superconducting properties. These findings pave the way for the development of superconducting electromechanical devices using standard fabrication techniques.

  17. The suspended sentence in German criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law in all countries has provided different criminal sanctions as social control measures. These are court-imposed coercive measures that take away or limit certain rights and freedoms of criminal offenders. Sanctions are applied to natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and cause damage or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values jeopardized by the commission of crime, state legislations prescribe several kinds of criminal sanctions: 1 penalties, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juvenile offenders, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Penalties are the basic, the oldest and the most important type of criminal sanctions. They are prescribed for the largest number of criminal offences. Imposed instead of or alongside with penalties, warning measures have particularly important role in jurisprudence. Since they were introduced in the system of criminal sanctions in the early 20th century, there has been a notable increase in the application of these measures, particularly in cases involving negligent and accidental offences, and minor offences that do not cause serious consequences, whose perpetrators are not persons with criminal characteristics. Warning measures (suspended sentence are envisaged in all contemporary criminal legislations, including the German legislation. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of the sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person fulfills the imposed obligations and does not commit another criminal offense. Two conditions must be fulfilled for the application of these sanctions: a the formal requirement, which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b the substantive requirement, which implies the court assessment that the application of these sanctions is justified and necessary in a particular case. Many

  18. Desorption of radioactive cesium by seawater from the suspended particles in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Masaki; Kirishima, Akira; Nagao, Seiya; Takamiya, Kouichi; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu; Akiyama, Daisuke; Sato, Nobuaki

    2017-10-01

    In 2011, the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant dispersed radioactive cesium throughout the environment, contaminating the land, rivers, and sea. Suspended particles containing clay minerals are the transportation medium for radioactive cesium from rivers to the ocean because cesium is strongly adsorbed between the layers of clay minerals, forming inner sphere complexes. In this study, the adsorption and desorption behaviors of radioactive cesium from suspended clay particles in river water have been investigated. The radioactive cesium adsorption and desorption experiments were performed with two kinds of suspended particulate using a batch method with 137 Cs tracers. In the cesium adsorption treatment performed before the desorption experiments, simulated river water having a total cesium concentration ([ 133+137 Cs + ] total ) of 1.3 nM (10 -9  mol/L) was used. The desorption experiments were mainly conducted at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 0.17 g/L. The desorption agents were natural seawater collected at 10 km north of the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant, artificial seawater, solutions of NaCl, KCl, NH 4 Cl, and 133 CsCl, and ultrapure water. The desorption behavior, which depends on the preloaded cesium concentration in the suspended particles, was also investigated. Based on the cesium desorption experiments using suspended particles, which contained about 1000 ng/g loaded cesium, the order of cesium desorption ratios for each desorption agent was determined as 1 M NaCl (80%) > 470 mM NaCl (65%) > 1 M KCl (30%) ≈ seawater (natural seawater and Daigo artificial seawater) > 1 M NH 4 Cl (20%) > 1 M 133 CsCl (15%) ≫ ultrapure water (2%). Moreover, an interesting result was obtained: The desorption ratio in the 470 mM NaCl solution was much higher than that in seawater, even though the Na + concentrations were identical. These results indicate that the cesium desorption mechanism is not a simple ion exchange reaction

  19. Remoção de sólidos em suspensão na água residuária da despolpa de frutos do cafeeiro em filtros constituídos por pergaminho de grãos de café submetido a compressões Removal of suspended solids in the wastewater of the coffee shrub cherry pulping by filters constituted by parchment of the coffee beans subjected to compressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio T. de Matos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A remoção de sólidos em suspensão é fundamental para que se possa aplicar a água residuária gerada na despolpa de frutos do cafeeiro (ARC na fertirrigação de culturas agrícolas. Dentre as opções disponíveis para efetuar a remoção de SS da ARC, está o uso de filtros orgânicos. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do grau de compressão na redução do volume e na eficiência do pergaminho, utilizado como material filtrante, na remoção de sólidos em suspensão (SS na ARC. Numa primeira etapa, foram realizados ensaios nos quais corpos-de-prova de pergaminho triturado (retido entre as peneiras de 2,5 e 3 mm e não-triturado (na condição em que é produzido foram submetidos a diferentes compressões para a redução do volume das colunas filtrantes em 5; 10; 15; 20; 25 e 28%. Numa segunda etapa, os corpos-de-prova foram utilizados como material filtrante da ARC para a avaliação da sua capacidade de remoção de SS presentes nessa água residuária. O pergaminho triturado ofereceu maior resistência à compressão e proporcionou, para as mesmas reduções volumétricas no material filtrante, maior eficiência na remoção de SS da ARC do que o pergaminho não-triturado. Reduções na faixa de 10% a 15% no volume do filtro constituído por pergaminho triturado foram suficientes para obter satisfatórias eficiências na remoção de SS da ARC, enquanto, para filtros constituídos de pergaminho não-triturado, as reduções de volume devem ser superiores a 25%.The removal of suspended solids (SS is fundamental to apply the wastewater from the coffee shrub cherry pulping (ARC on agricultural crops fertigation. Among the available options for the removal of SS from ARC is the use of organic filters. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of the compression degree on either volume reduction or parchment efficiency, when used as medium filter for the removal of suspended solids (SS in

  20. DYNAMIC SUFFICIENCY OF THE MAGNETICALLY SUSPENDED TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Polyakov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The basic criterion of the magnetically suspended train's consumer estimation is a quality of its mechanical motion. This motion is realized in unpredictable conditions and, for purposefulness preservation, should adapt to them. Such adaptation is possible only within the limits of system’s dynamic sufficiency. Sufficiency is understood as presence at system of resources, which allow one to realize its demanded motions without violating actual restrictions. Therefore presence of such resources is a necessary condition of preservation of required purposefulness of train's dynamics, and verification of the mentioned sufficiency is the major component of this dynamic research. Methodology. Methods of the set theory are used in work. Desirable and actual approachability spaces of the train are found. The train is considered dynamically sufficient in zones of the specified spaces overlapping. Findings. Within the limits of the accepted treatment of train's dynamic sufficiency, verification of its presence, as well as a stock (or deficiency of preservations can be executed by the search and the subsequent estimation of such overlapping zones. Operatively (directly during motion it can be realized on the train's ODC with use, for example, of computer mathematics system Mathematica. It possesses extensive opportunities of highly efficient and, at the same time, demanding an expense concerning small resources information manipulation. The efficiency of using of created technique is illustrated on an example of vehicle's acceleration research. Calculation is executed with use of the constructed computer model of interaction of an independent traction electromagnetic subsystem of an artifact with its mechanical subsystem. Originality. The technique of verification of the high-speed magnetically suspended train's dynamic sufficiency is developed. The technique is highly efficient, it provides sufficient presentation and demands an expense of the

  1. Geodetic monitoring of suspended particles in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnik, Rok; Maksimova, Daria; Kovačič, Boštjan

    2017-10-01

    There is a trend in modern approach to the management of space of collecting the spatial data, in order to obtain useful information. In this paper a research of suspended particles in the river Drava and Mura will be introduced. The goal is to connect different fields of water management in countries where the rivers Drava and Mura flows in purpose of water management sustainability. The methods such as GNSS for mapping cross sections of the river, the use of ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) measurement system and water sampling to monitor sediment in the water will be presented.

  2. Motion of Charged Suspended Particle in a Non-Newtonian Fluid between Two Long Parallel Plated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El Khalek, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    The motion of charged suspended particle in a non-Newtonian fluid between two long parallel plates is discussed. The equation of motion of a suspended particle was suggested by Closkin. The equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations and solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta method. The trajectories of particles are calculated by integrating the equation of motion of a single particle. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. The effects of solid particles on flow properties are discussed. Some typical results for both fluid and particle phases and density distributions of the particles are presented graphically

  3. Motion of charged suspended particle in a non-Newtonian fluid between two long parallel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Elkhalek, M M [Nuclear Research Center-Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The motion of charged suspended particle in a non-Newtonian fluid between two long parallel plates is discussed. The equation of motion of a suspended particle was suggested by Closkin. The equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation and solved numerically by using Runge-Kutta method. The trajectories of particles are calculated by integrating the equation of motion of a single particle. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. The effect of solid particles on flow properties are discussed. Some typical results for both fluid and particle phases and density distributions of the particles are presented graphically. 4 figs.

  4. DECREASE OF SOLIDS IN GRAY WATER BY AERATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Alonso Torres-Avalos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The activated sludge process is a biological treatment consisting basically of agitation and aeration of a waste water mixture and a selected microorganisms sludge. The oxidation of organic matter was determined with several tests such as BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Sedimented Solids, SS (Sediment Solids, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids, FVS (fixed and volatile solids and finally a measurement of treated water turbidity. The results obtained for the reduction of the organic load during the first two days of treatment (samples 1, 2 and 3 are visible in each of the organic loading tests; during the last two days according to the samples 4 and 5 the solids showed an increase in organic load. The related organoleptic properties such as color showed a notable decrease. As for the tests performed at pH show a change, samples 1, 2 and 3 approaching a range where they are neutral and the last two samples (4 and 5 the pH has an elevation until it becomes alkaline. The efficiency of the method used for the treatment of residual water during the first days reduced the organic load with a variation of TS and TSS of 760, 569 ppm respectively. This is a viable alternative since this is a low cost method with short term results because organoleptic properties such as odor and color were lost during the first day of treatment.

  5. Acoustic measuring techniques for suspended sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, P.; Felix, D.; Storti, G.; Lattuada, M.; Fleckenstein, P.; Deschwanden, F.

    2016-11-01

    Acoustic signals can be used in various ways for suspended sediment monitoring. One possibility which lends itself particularly well in the context of hydropower plants (HPPs), is to use installations for acoustic discharge measurement (ADM). Such installations already exist at waterways of many HPPs. Similar to certain turbidimeters, the attenuation of the forward scattered signal travelling through the water-sediment mixture is correlated with suspended sediment concentration (SSC). This correlation can be based on reference SSCs, e.g. from gravimetric analyses of bottle samples. Without the need of additional sensors and practically maintenance-free, this method is used successfully in the HPP Fieschertal to warn the HPP operator of high SSC to prevent excessive turbine abrasion. Acoustic methods and systems that allow for estimating both SSC and particle size distribution (PSD) are under development. The simultaneous determination of SSC and PSD is not possible using a single frequency. Therefore, multi-frequency approaches are investigated for generally scattered signals. When backscattered signals are used, a stronger frequency dependency can be exploited. However, the reliable simultaneous determination of particle size (and distribution) and concentration is still a major challenge due to a low signal-to-noise ratio and an ill- posed problem of estimating concentration and size from recorded signals. The optimal setup configuration (angles, frequencies) for such a system is not unique and further investigations are recommended.

  6. Batch fabrication of nanotubes suspended between microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Stöckli, T.; Knapp, H. F.

    2007-01-01

    be done with a simple lift-off process with standard photolithographic resist. An applied electric field is sustained between the microelectrodes during CVD to guide the nanotube growth. Comparison with simulations shows that the location and the orientation of the grown carbon nanotubes (CNT) correspond...... to the regions of maximum electric field, enabling accurate positioning of a nanotube by controlling the shape of the microelectrodes. The CNT bridges are deflected tens of nm when a DC voltage is applied between the nanotube and a gate microelectrode indicating that the clamping through the catalyst particles...... is not only mechanically stable but also electrical conducting. This method could be used to fabricate nanoelectromechanical systems based on suspended double clamped CNTs depending only on photolithography and standard Cleanroom processes....

  7. Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Treatment Technologies for the Removal of Total Dissolved Solids from Coal Mine Water: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mine water (CMW) is typically treated to remove suspended solids, acidity, and soluble metals, but high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) have been reported to impact the environment at several CMW discharge points. Consequently, various states have establishe...

  8. The terminal solid solubility of hydrogen and deuterium in Zr-2.5Nb alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, I G; Pan, Z L; Puls, M P [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1997-02-01

    The presence of hydrides in zirconium based alloys is an important factor in assessing the potential for delayed hydride cracking in pressure tubes and the embrittlement of other in-core components fabricated from these alloys. Consequently, the terminal solid solubility (TSS) of hydrogen in the zirconium alloys used in the Nuclear Industry is an important parameter. However, at the low hydrogen concentrations found in practice, the TSS is difficult to measure accurately and even the measurements of hydrogen concentrations by standard techniques are notoriously difficult to make reproducibly at the nominal levels found in pressure tube materials. The presence of hydrides, their dissolution and nucleation gives rise to a number of internal friction phenomena and changes in Young`s modulus that can be useful from the practical point of view. These phenomena can be used to establish expressions for the TSS as a function of temperature, the hysteresis between dissolution and nucleation and hydrogen supercharging from the gas phase. In particular, such studies show that the hysteresis between the TSS measured during heating and cooling is particularly sensitive to the thermal history of the sample. This paper reviews the phenomena involved and presents some recent results on Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material. (author). 28 refs, 17 figs, 6 tabs.

  9. Energy values of suspended detritus in Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    Energy content of suspended detritus was determined in Andaman Sea waters during April-May 1988. The caloric content of suspended detritus ranged from 987 to 7040 cal. per gram dry wt with an average value of 5530 cal. per gram dry wt. The results...

  10. Dynamic model of movement of mine suspended monorail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor GUTAREVYCH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article we have developed the dynamic model of interaction of rolling stock during the movement, on the suspended monorail, taking into account the side-sway. We have received the motion equations, carried out their analysis and determined the own oscillation frequencies of rolling stock of suspended monorail.

  11. Chlor-alkali industrial contamination and riverine transport of mercury: Distribution and partitioning of mercury between water, suspended matter, and bottom sediment of the Thur River, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hissler, Christophe; Probst, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    Total dissolved and total particulate Hg mass balances were estimated during one hydrological period (July 2001-June 2002) in the Thur River basin, which is heavily polluted by chlor-alkali industrial activity. The seasonal variations of the Hg dynamics in the aquatic environment were assessed using total Hg concentrations in bottom sediment and suspended matter, and total and reactive dissolved Hg concentrations in the water. The impact of the chlor-alkali plant (CAP) remains the largest concern for Hg contamination of this river system. Upstream from the CAP, the Hg partitioning between dissolved and particulate phases was principally controlled by the dissolved fraction due to snow melting during spring high flow, while during low flow, Hg was primarily adsorbed onto particulates. Downstream from the CAP, the Hg partitioning is controlled by the concentration of dissolved organic and inorganic ligands and by the total suspended sediment (TSS) concentrations. Nevertheless, the particulate fluxes were five times higher than the dissolved ones. Most of the total annual flux of Hg supplied by the CAP to the river is transported to the outlet of the catchment (total Hg flux: 70 μg m -2 a -1 ). Downstream from the CAP, the bottom sediment, mainly composed of coarse sediment (>63 μm) and depleted in organic matter, has a weak capacity to trap Hg in the river channel and the stock of Hg is low (4 mg m -2 ) showing that the residence time of Hg in this river is short

  12. RECENT DYNAMICS (1975 - 2012 OF COŞUŞTEA RIVER'S SUSPENDED SEDIMENT LOAD AT CORCOVA HYDROMETRIC STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Adina MOROȘANU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess, from a statistical standpoint, the solid discharge at Corcova hydrometric station for the recent period between 1975 and 2012. The Corcova hydrometric station is located in the lowermost sector of the Coşuştea River Basin, at a distance of 2 km north-west from its confluence with Motru River. The usefulness of this study results from the endeavor to determine the years and months when the river presents an accumulation potential due to a higher transmission rate of the suspended sediment load. The statistical techniques applied in this study made use of the monthly, as well as the annual averages, minimum and maximum values of suspended sediment loads, in order to obtain the multiannual trends, seasonal and monthly differences. Thus, by using the Mann-Kendall test, the statistical distributions and frequency analysis, we could notice that the average solid discharge decreased in the last decades during the winter period, while between April and November, average solid discharge rose slightly, with a greater significance in May. Conversely, minimum solid discharge values were likely to indicate the years and months when the river’s solid intake was low, with the potential for bank erosion. The minimum values of suspended sediment loads showed little variation from year to year in all months, except for May and June, based on the influence of the peak liquid discharge on the potential erosion and sediment transport of Cosustea river. As a general conclusion, the most important aspects turned out to be the variations in April - June period, an interval well known for flash floods and high waters records, as well as for rapid changes in average, minimum and maximum solid flows.

  13. Trusted Silicon Stratus (TSS) Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    business case for a proposed Infrastructure-as-a- Service (IaaS)/ Software -as-a- Service ( SaaS ) cloud architecture. User desires for innovative pricing and...Public Physically Unclonable Function PUF Physically Unclonable Function SaaS Software -as-a- Service SIP Semiconductor Intellectual Property SNL...WORKSHOP NIMBIS SERVICES INCORPORATED FEBRUARY 2011 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT  ROME, NY 13441 UNITED STATES AIR FORCE  AIR FORCE

  14. Impact of surface and residual stresses and electro-/magnetostatic axial loading on the suspended nanomechanical based mass sensors: A theoretical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stachiv, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 21 (2014), "214310-1"-"214310-7" ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP107/12/0800 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : suspended nanomechanical resonators * mass sensors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2014

  15. Methods of and system for swing damping movement of suspended objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.F.; Petterson, B.J.; Strip, D.R.

    1991-03-05

    A payload suspended from a gantry is swing damped in accordance with a control algorithm based on the periodic motion of the suspended mass or by servoing on the forces induced by the suspended mass. 13 figures.

  16. Characterization and radionuclides sorption of suspended particulate matters in freshwater according to their settling kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brach-Papa, C.; Boyer, P.; Amielh, M.; Anselmet, F.

    2004-01-01

    In freshwater, the transfers of radionuclides depend both on exchanges between liquid and solid phases and on mass transfers between suspended matter and bottom sediment. Whereas the former ones depend on chemical processes (such as sorption/desorption, complexation, the latter ones are regulated by hydrological and sedimentary considerations (dispersion, erosion, deposit closely related to the interactions between flow, suspended matter and bed sediment. Some of our previous studies highlight the need to consider the matter heterogeneity and its specific sediment dynamics to correctly report the inhomogeneity of fluxes in time and in space. These considerations lead us to develop experimental methods to distinguish the different matter classes, present in natural water, mainly according to their erosion threshold and settling kinetics. In this context, this paper presents the experimental protocol TALISMEN to characterize a natural bulk suspension according the identification of its main settling kinetics groups. In a first step, this identification is achieved by the use of a settling tank, that allows the monitoring of the suspended solid concentration at various depths, combined to a vertical mono-dimensional settling model applying a multi-class approach. In a second step, the particle groups are isolated and their physico-chemical properties are determined ( i.e mineral composition, specific surface area, particulate organic carbon, in order to fully characterized them. In a last one, the sorption property of each group toward radionuclides is determined by the measurements of its distribution coefficients (Kd). The results confirm the interest to consider these heterogeneities for the modelling of the radionuclides transfer in freshwater. From one group to other, these heterogeneities appear at two levels: 1) their sediment dynamics and 2) their radionuclides sorption properties. These conclusions can be equally applying to others xenobiotics as heavy metals

  17. Introduction to suspended-sediment sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, K. Michael; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of the amount and timing of sediment transport in streams is important to those directly or indirectly responsible for developing and managing water and land resources. Such data are often used to judge the health of watershed and the success or failure of activities designed to mitigate adverse impacts of sediment on streams and stream habitats. This training class presents an introduction to methods currently used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to sample suspended-sediment concentrations in streams. The presentation is narrated, but you control the pace of the presentation. If the computer you are using can view 'MPEG' videos you will be able to take advantage of videos interspersed in the presentation. A test, found at the end of the presentation, can be taken to assess how well you understood the training material. The class, which is registered as class SW4416 with the National Training Center of the USGS, should take two or three hours to complete. In order to use the presentation provided via this Web page, you will need to download a large disc images (linked below) and 'burn' it to a blank CD-ROM using a CD-ROM recorder on your computer. The presentation will only run on a Windows-based personal computer (PC). The presentation was developed using Macromedia Director MX 20041 and is contained in the file 'SIR05-5077.exe' which should autolaunch. If it does not, the presentation can be started by double-clicking on the file name. A sound card and speakers are necessary to take advantage of narrations that accompany the presentation. Text of narrations is provided, if you are unable to listen to narrations. Instructions for installing and running the presentation are included in the file 'Tutorial.htm', which is on the CD. 1 Registered Trademark: Macromedia Incorporated

  18. Suspended sediment drift and dispersion at Hibernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedford, T.; Drozdowski, A.; Hannah, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    Surface water waves and near-bottom currents around the Hibernia oil production platform on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland were examined to determine how the different seasons affect changes in wave magnitude and directions of water currents. Wave observations revealed a strong correlation with seasons, with the larger waves occurring in fall and early winter. There was no obvious seasonality in the size or direction of currents. The benthic boundary layer transport (BBLT) model was used to predict the drift and dispersion pathways of suspended drilling muds discharged from the Hibernia platform. The 2-year study from March 1998 to May 2000 involved 5-day BBLT model simulations covering the complete period of current meter deployment. The study focused on the sensitivity of the drift and dispersion to variability in the physical environment and uncertainty in the bottom stress calculation and particle settling velocity. The BBLT model incorporates a stress dependent particle settling velocity that includes the main features of the flocculations of drill mud fines under marine conditions. The study provides a better understanding of how drill mud concentration levels can change with variations in waves, currents, and bottom stress. It was determined that drift is generally oriented along the northwest/southeast axis, with a typical magnitude of 0.8 cm/sec for the fast settling velocity and 3.1 cm/sec for the slow settling velocity. It was concluded that near-surface or mid-depth discharges of drilling mud in the summer may not reach the sea floor. 17 refs., 13 tabs., 36 figs

  19. Remoção de matéria orgânica e sólidos suspensos por nova configuração de biofiltro aeróbio submerso no pós-tratamento de efluente de reator UASB Removal of organic matter and suspended solids by a new configuration of biological aerated filter in the post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Varela Della Giustina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O pós-tratamento de efluentes de reatores anaeróbios é um processo necessário para o atendimento dos padrões de emissão. Os resultados aqui apresentados mostram a viabilidade de uso de uma nova configuração de biofiltro aeróbio submerso (BAS no pós-tratamento desses efluentes. Os BAS multiestágio apresentam uma câmara anaeróbia (V=12,6L, seguido de uma câmara aeróbia (V=30L e uma câmara anóxica (V=26,4L, todas em série (V total=70L. Neste estudo, foi analisada a remoção de sólidos suspensos (SS, DQO e DBO5. Foram utilizados três BAS multi-estágio preenchidos com três diferentes materiais-suporte: tampas e gargalos PET (165m²/m³, pedra britada n. 4 (50m²/m³ e anéis Pall 1,5'' (135m²/m³. Os reatores foram operados com valores de tempos de detenção hidráulicas (TDH de 4,1, 8,2 e 12,3 horas, e três taxas de aplicação superficial (TAS (21, 12 e 8m³/m².d. A associação dos reatores UASB+BAS possibilitou remoções de DQO total superiores a 90% para os BAS 1 e 3, e 85% para o BAS 2, sendo independente do TDH aplicado. A remoção de SS foi maior no BAS contendo anéis Pall, provavelmente devido ao maior índice de vazios desse material.The post-treatment of effluents from anaerobic reactors is normally a mandatory step to meet the emission standards. The results presented here show the feasibility of using a new configuration of biological aerated filter (BAF in the post-treatment of UASB reactors. The multi-stage BAF presents an anaerobic chamber (V=12.6L, followed by an aerobic chamber (V=30L and an anoxic chamber (V=26.4L, all in series (total V=70L. This study examined the removal of suspended solids (SS, COD and BOD5. Three multi-stage BAF filled with three different packing materials were used: lids and bottlenecks of PET bottles (165m²/m³, gravel n. 4 (50m²/m³ and Pall rings 1.5'' (135m²/m³. The reactors were operated with the values of hydraulic detention time (HDT of 4.1, 8.2 and 12.3 hours, and

  20. Air pollution in Aleppo city, gases,suspended particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Sabra, Sh.; Al-Kharfan, K.

    1994-06-01

    Total suspended particulates measured by using High Volume Air Sampler. The Co and O 3 were measured during weekday and weekend. The concentration of all pollutants at city center are higher than other measured areas. (author). 10 figs., 10 tabs

  1. Particles matter: Transformation of suspended particles in constructed wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis shows that constructed wetlands transform suspended particles in (treated) municipal wastewater through selective precipitation in ponds, biological filtering by plankton communities and physical and biological retention in reed beds. These processes effectively remove faecal indicator

  2. The Ages in a Self-Suspended Nanoparticle Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Praveen; Qi, Haibo; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Telomers ionically tethered to nanometer-sized particles yield self-suspended, nanoparticle-Iaden liquids with unusual dynamical features. By subjecting these suspensions to controlled, modest shear strains, we find that their flow behaviors

  3. Elemental compositions of suspended particles released in glass manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamuro, T; Mizohata, A; Kubota, T [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)

    1980-03-01

    Suspended particles released in glass manufacture were subjected to multielement analysis by means of instrumental neutron activation method and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Suspended particles emitted from glass manufacture generally consist of both particles emitted from glass fusion and those produced through fuel combustion (mainly oil combustion). Elemental compositions of suspended particles emitted from glass fusion were found to be strongly dependent on the kind and recipe of raw materials and additives. Of the various metallic elements involved in suspended particles emitted from glass fusion, the elements, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Pb and so on are regarded to produce the most serious air pollution. The amount of emission of these elements to the environment is, howerer, quite varied from manufacturer to manufacturer. The replacement of electric furnace by oil combustion in opal glass manufacture remarkably reduced the emission of metallic elements to the environment.

  4. Self-suspended permanent magnetic FePt ferrofluids

    KAUST Repository

    Dallas, Panagiotis; Kelarakis, Antonios; Sahore, Ritu; DiSalvo, Francis J.; Livi, Sebastien; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2013-01-01

    on the surface of L10 FePt nanoparticles. In contrast, all types of ferrofluids previously reported employ either volatile solvents as the suspending media or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (that lacks permanent magnetization) as the inorganic

  5. Novel Resuscitation from Lethal Hemorrhage - Suspended Animation for Delayed Resuscitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Safar, Peter

    2002-01-01

    .... We have conceived and documented "suspended animation for delayed resuscitation" with the use of hypothermic saline flush into the aorta within the first 5 minute of no blood flow, using novel...

  6. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Abizia zygia gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Some excipients are currently available for the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. ... Method: The suspending properties of Albizia zygia gum (family ... Characterization tests were carried out on purified Albizia zygia gum.

  7. Suspended sediment apportionment in a South-Korean mountain catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, Axel; Meusburger, Katrin; Park, Ji-Hyung; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Due to the rapid agricultural expansion and intensification during the last decades in South-Korea, large areas of hill slope forests were transformed to paddies and vegetable fields. The intensive agriculture and the easily erodible soils in our catchment are a major reason for the increased erosion causing suspended sediments to infiltrate into the close drinking water reservoir. The drinking water reservoir Lake Soyang provides water supply for over ten million people in Seoul. Landscape managers need to know the exact origin of these sediments before they can create landscape amelioration schemes. We applied a compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) approach (Alewell et al., 2015) to apportion the sources of the suspended sediments between forest and agricultural soil contribution to the suspended sediments in a different catchment and applied the same approach to identify and quantify the different sources of the suspended sediments in the river(s) contributing to Lake Soyang. We sampled eight soil sites within the catchment considering the different landuse types forest, rice paddies, maize and vegetables. Suspended sediments were sampled at three outlets of the different sub-catchments. Soils and suspended sediments are analysed for bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, compound-specific carbon isotopes of plant-wax derived long-chain fatty acids and long-chain n-alkanes. Fatty acid and alkane isotopes are then used in mixing calculations and the mixing model software IsoSource to find out the contribution of the different source soils to the suspended sediments. We present first data of the source soils and the suspended sediments. C. Alewell, A. Birkholz, K. Meusburger, Y. Schindler-Wildhaber, L. Mabit, 2015. Sediment source attribution from multiple land use systems with CSIA. Biogeosciences Discuss. 12: 14245-14269.

  8. On Suspended matter grain size in Baltic sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnova, Ekaterina; Sivkov, Vadim; Zubarevich, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Suspended matter grain size data were gathered during the 25th research vessel "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" cruise (1991, September-October). Initial quantitative data were obtained with a use of the Coulter counter and subsequently modified into volume concentrations (mm3/l) for size intervals. More than 80 samples from 15 stations were analyzed (depth range 0-355 m). The main goal of research was to illustrate the spatial variability of suspended matter concentration and dispersion in Baltic Sea. The mutual feature of suspended matter grain size distribution is the logical rise of particle number along with descending of particle's size. Vertical variability of grain size distribution was defined by Baltic Sea hydrological structure, including upper mixed layer - from the surface to the thermocline - with 35 m thick, cold intermediate layer - from the thermocline to the halocline- and bottom layer, which lied under the halocline. Upper layer showed a rise in total suspended matter concentration (up to 0.6 mm3/l), while cold intermediate level consisted of far more clear water (up to 0.1 mm3/l). Such a difference is caused by the thermocline boarding role. Meanwhile, deep bottom water experienced surges in suspended matter concentration owing to the nepheloid layer presence and "liquid bottom" effect. Coastal waters appeared to have the highest amount of particles (up to 5.0 mm3/l). Suspended matter grain size distribution in the upper mixed layer revealed a peak of concentration at 7 μ, which can be due to autumn plankton bloom. Another feature in suspended matter grain size distribution appeared at the deep layer below halocline, where both O2 and H2S were observed and red/ox barrier is. The simultaneous presence of Fe and Mn (in solutions below red/ox barrier) and O2 leads to precipitation of oxyhydrates Fe and Mn and grain size distribution graph peaking at 4.5 μ.

  9. Numerical analysis of the motion of a suspended charged particle in multi-phase flow. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-khalek, M M [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The motion of a suspended charged particle in a two component viscous fluid through two infinite parallel plates was studied. The motion takes place under constant magnetic field normal to the plane of the motion. The effect of some parameters as particle volume, fluid density, viscosity of the fluid, and the magnetic force used on the motion were investigated. The particle is assumed moving initially from the midpoint of the channel with a velocity equal to the velocity of the fluid. The trajectory of solid spherical suspended charged particle is calculated by integrating the equations of motion of a single particle. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. The differential equations of motion were numerically solved by Runge-Kutta method. Some conclusions about the path lines were deduced. 5 figs.

  10. Influence of feed composition and membrane fouling on forward osmosis performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Carina; Sathyadev Rajmohan, Rajath; Zarebska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    at the beginning and at the end of each experiment, regarding their total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), total suspended solids (TSS), particle size distribution, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Total available nitrogen (TAN), total organic carbon (TOC) and total phosphate (TP). The fouled membranes were...

  11. Drinking water quality assessment of Iyinna Spring, Umuariaga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following parameters: pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), nitrate, sulphate, hardness and chloride were evaluated. The study showed that four of the parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and nitrate) were significantly different among the stations ...

  12. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Stutenbecker, Laura; Bakker, Maarten; Silva, Tiago A.; Schlunegger, Fritz; Lane, Stuart N.; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2018-01-01

    Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( > 1000 km2) over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation-deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc.), transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation). Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity), and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply) in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment concentration through

  13. Magnesium-rich minerals in sediment and suspended particulates of South Florida water bodies: implications for turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, W G; Fisher, M M; Cao, X; Osborne, T; Ellis, L

    2007-01-01

    Fine sediments in shallow water bodies such as Lake Okeechobee are prone to resuspension. Predominantly inorganic "mud" sediment that covers approximately 670 km2 of the lake has been recognized as a persistent source of turbidity. The objective of this study was to determine if mineral components of sediments in Lake Okeechobee and water conveyances of the northern Everglades also occur as suspended sediment and hence constitute a potential abiotic contributor to turbidity. Sediment samples were collected from nine stations within the lake and eight locations north of Water Conservation Area 2A in the Everglades. Water samples were also collected at selected locations. The silt and clay mineralogy of sediment and suspended particles was determined using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray elemental microanalysis, and high-resolution transmission-electron microscopy. Clay fractions of the lake sediment contained the Mg silicate minerals sepiolite and palygorskite, along with smectite, dolomite, calcite, and kaolinite. Sediment silt fractions were dominated by carbonates and/or quartz, with smaller amounts of Ca phosphates and sepiolite. Mineralogy of the mud sediment was similar to that reported for geologic phosphate deposits. This suggests that the mud sediment might have accumulated by stream transport of minerals from these deposits. Suspended solids and mud-sediment mineralogy were similar, except that smectite was more abundant in suspended solids. Everglade samples also contained Mg-rich minerals. The small size, low density, and fibrous or platy nature of the prevalent mud sediment minerals make them an abiotic, hydrodynamically sensitive source of persistent turbidity in a shallow lake. Mitigation efforts focused exclusively on P-induced biogeochemical processes do not address the origin or effects of these minerals. Ecological management issues such as turbidity control, P retention, geologic P input

  14. Development of an indicator for characterizing particle size distribution and quality of stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Qionghua; Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Lian, Bin; Wu, Yaketon; Wang, Xiaochang C

    2018-03-01

    Stormwater particles washed from road-deposited sediments (RDS) are traditionally characterized as either turbidity or total suspended solids (TSS). Although these parameters are influenced by particle sizes, neither of them characterizes the particle size distribution (PSD), which is of great importance in pollutant entrainment and treatment performance. Therefore, the ratio of turbidity to TSS (Tur/TSS) is proposed and validated as a potential surrogate for the bulk PSD and quality of stormwater runoff. The results show an increasing trend of Tur/TSS with finer sizes of both RDS and stormwater runoff. Taking heavy metals (HMs, including Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Ni) as typical pollutants in stormwater runoff, the concentrations (mg/kg) were found to vary significantly during rainfall events and tended to increase significantly with Tur/TSS. Therefore, Tur/TSS is a valid parameter to characterize the PSD and quality of stormwater. The high negative correlations between Tur/TSS and rainfall intensity demonstrate that stormwater with higher Tur/TSS generates under low intensity and, thus, characterizes small volume, finer sizes, weak settleability, greater mobility, and bioavailability. Conversely, stormwater with lower Tur/TSS generates under high intensity and, thus, characterizes large volume, coarser sizes, good settleability, low mobility, and bioavailability. These results highlight the need to control stormwater with high Tur/TSS. Moreover, Tur/TSS can aid the selection of stormwater control measures with appropriate detention storage, pollution loading, and removal effectiveness of particles.

  15. Quantification of Suspended Sediment Load by Double Correlation in the Watershed of Chellif (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchelkia Hamid

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The sediment transport in rivers in Algeria is very high. However, it is poorly quantified in some wadis because of the absence and the shortage of data especially the concentration of fine particles and also the unavailability of gauging stations. To fill this gap, a technique for estimating sediment yield, based on data recorded at the gauging station has been developed. The estimation of suspended sediment yield was conducted by a statistical analysis with double correlation on average daily flow and solid concentrations. The results obtained by applying this model to the watershed Chellif are very encouraging because the correlation coefficients of the found models are between 61% and 91% for the first correlation and between 86% and 97% for the second correlation. The estimated quantity of suspended sediment load is between 2.35 and 4.12 million tonnes per year, it appears important; This is due to the vulnerability of the Chellif basin facing erosion, the importance of its area and the importance of fluid flows in wadi Cheliff and its torrential regime. Mention here some of the results and their significance to the study.

  16. Use of biofilters and suspended-growth reactors to treat VOC's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, A.B.; Loehr, R.C.

    2000-07-01

    The greater limits placed on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by the Clean Air Act Amendments have stimulated evaluation of various VOC treatment methods. Two applicable gas phase treatment technologies are biofiltration and suspended growth reactors. Biofiltration removes contaminants from gas streams that are passed through a bed of biologically active solids. An aerobic suspended-growth reactor (SGR) removes VOCs by biologically treating contaminated air bubbled through an aqueous suspension of active microorganisms. This research compared the performance of a typical compost biofilter to a SGR for the removal of a common VOC (toluene) from gas streams. The objective was to evaluate the impact of mass loading on process performance. Major performance parameters investigated were (1) mass emitted and elimination capacity, (2) off-gas concentrations exiting each type of reactor for various mass loadings, and (3) removal efficiencies obtained by each type of reactor. The results indicated that SGRs can effectively treat gases containing VOCs. For mass loadings ranging from 5 to 30 mg/l-h, the biofilters and SGRs achieved similar VOC removals, in the range of 96--99.7%. Drying of the biofilter medium occurred a high mass loadings. In the SGRs, at mass loadings greater than 17 mg/l-h, process performance decreased when an unknown colored substance was present.

  17. Biogas production from organic wastes in suspended cell cultures and in biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simenonov, I.; Chorukova, E.; Mamatarkova, V.; Nikolov, L.

    2010-01-01

    The results of a comparative study of two biogas production bioprocess systems are presented. The systems submitted to comparison are based on the suspended cells cultures and the biofilm formed on solid inert support. A comprehensive research concept is formulated and discussed. It includes the main considerations regarding the choice of substrate, bioagent as mixed microbial society, type of bioreactors, regimes of functioning, analytical determinations and method of comparison. The main requirements for efficient experimental activity in comparative investigations are formulated. Their satisfaction can grant correctness of the experimental design and data acquisition. On this basis the key parameter of comparison of the two systems is defined as the specific productivity of the bioprocess systems. Under these conditions series of preliminary experiments are carried out for testing the readiness of experimental set ups for long time stable functioning and monitoring devices capabilities to maintain the bioprocess parameters at the determined intervals. These tests grant continuous incessant experimentation with the investigated bioprocess systems. The results obtained show that biofilm bioprocess systems possess up to two and half time higher specific productivity in comparison with the bioprocess systems with the suspended cells. Some visions about the future developments of comparative research on the influence of additional parameters like the mixer rotation steed, organic loads, and higher values of dilution rates are outlined.

  18. Suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresists fabricated with UV photolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Caviglia, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present an easy, fast, reliable and low cost microfabrication technique for fabricating suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresistswith UV photolithography. Two different fabrication processes with epoxy based resins (SU-8 and mr-DWL) using UV exposures at wavelengths...... of 313 nm and 405 nm were optimized and compared in terms of structural stability, control of suspended layer thickness and resolution limits. A novel fabrication process combining the two photoresists SU-8 and mr-DWL with two UV exposures at 365 nm and 405 nm respectively provided a wider processing...... window for definition of well-defined suspended microstructures with lateral dimensions down to 5 μmwhen compared to 313 nm or 365 nm UV photolithography processes....

  19. Analysis of the Danube river suspended load regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukac, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the analysis of the Danube river suspended load regime at the Slovak section of Danube. It is concluded and recommended: Suspended load transport at the Slovak section of Danube decreases in the downstream directions - annual averages: Utilize relation of the Water Research Institute in Medvedov, the relation of the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute is probably slightly underestimated; Distribution of suspended load concentration in the cross-section is influenced mainly with local hydraulic and morphological conditions; Measured flow velocity in the range 0.6 - 2.65 m/sec -1 , influenced with water level slope; Silt particles the most numerous, less numerous sandy and clayey particles; Bratislava 3.54 mil. tonnes, Medvedov 2.22 mil. tonnes, and Komarno 1.96 mil. tonnes; Recommendation to measure actual volume of the Cunovo reservoir, in order to validate sediment transport balance; Recommendation to continue in a complex monitoring programme of sediment transport

  20. Nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, H.

    1991-01-01

    Nanocrystalline solids are polycrystals, the crystal size of which is a few (typically 1 to 10) nanometres so that 50% or more of the solid consists of incoherent interfaces between crystals of different orientations. Solids consisting primarily of internal interfaces represent a separate class of atomic structures because the atomic arrangement formed in the core of an interface is known to be an arrangement of minimum energy in the potential field of the two adjacent crystal lattices with different crystallographic orientations on either side of the boundary core. These boundary conditions result in atomic structures in the interfacial cores which cannot be formed elsewhere (e.g. in glasses or perfect crystals). Nanocrystalline solids are of interest for the following four reasons: (1) Nanocrystalline solids exhibit an atomic structure which differs from that of the two known solid states: the crystalline (with long-range order) and the glassy (with short-range order). (2) The properties of nanocrystalline solids differ (in some cases by several orders of magnitude) from those of glasses and/or crystals with the same chemical composition, which suggests that they may be utilized technologically in the future. (3) Nanocrystalline solids seem to permit the alloying of conventionally immiscible components. (4) If small (1 to 10 nm diameter) solid droplets with a glassy structure are consolidated (instead of small crystals), a new type of glass, called nanoglass, is obtained. Such glasses seem to differ structurally from conventional glasses. (orig.)

  1. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  2. Quantification of Surface Suspended Sediments along a River Dominated Coast with NOAA AVHRR and SeaWiFS Measurements: Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, S. W.; Walker, N. D.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to quantify suspended sediment concentrations accurately over both time and space using satellite data has been a goal of many environmental researchers over the past few decades This study utilizes data acquired by the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Orbview-2 Sea-viewing wide field-of-view (SeaWiFS) ocean colour sensor, coupled with field measurements to develop statistical models for the estimation of near-surface suspended sediment and suspended solids "Ground truth" water samples were obtained via helicopter, small boat and automatic water sampler within a few hours of satellite overpasses The NOAA AVHRR atmospheric correction was modified for the high levels of turbidity along the Louisiana coast. Models were developed based on the field measurements and reflectance/radiance measurements in the visible and near infrared Channels of NOAA-14 and Orbview-2 SeaWiFS. The best models for predicting surface suspended sediment concentrations were obtained with a NOAA AVHRR Channel 1 (580-680nm) cubic model, Channel 2 (725-1100 nm) linear mod$ and SeaWiFs Channel 6 (660-68Onm) power modeL The suspended sediment models developed using SeaWiFS Channel 5 (545-565 nm) were inferior, a result that we attribute mainly to the atmospheric correction technique, the shallow depth of the water samples and absorption effects from non-sediment water constituents.

  3. Colorimetry Technique for Scalable Characterization of Suspended Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartamil-Bueno, Santiago J; Steeneken, Peter G; Centeno, Alba; Zurutuza, Amaia; van der Zant, Herre S J; Houri, Samer

    2016-11-09

    Previous statistical studies on the mechanical properties of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) suspended graphene membranes have been performed by means of measuring individual devices or with techniques that affect the material. Here, we present a colorimetry technique as a parallel, noninvasive, and affordable way of characterizing suspended graphene devices. We exploit Newton's rings interference patterns to study the deformation of a double-layer graphene drum 13.2 μm in diameter when a pressure step is applied. By studying the time evolution of the deformation, we find that filling the drum cavity with air is 2-5 times slower than when it is purged.

  4. Optical fiber end-facet polymer suspended-mirror devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mian; Wu, Jushuai; Zhang, A. Ping; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Wai, P. K. A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a novel optical fiber device based on a polymer suspended mirror on the end facet of an optical fiber. With an own-developed optical 3D micro-printing technology, SU-8 suspended-mirror devices (SMDs) were successfully fabricated on the top of a standard single-mode optical fiber. Optical reflection spectra of the fabricated SU- 8 SMDs were measured and compared with theoretical analysis. The proposed technology paves a way towards 3D microengineering of the small end-facet of optical fibers to develop novel fiber-optic sensors.

  5. Motion of a suspended charged particle in a NON-Newtonian fluid. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Khalek, M M [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The path lines of a solid spherical charged particle suspended in a non-newton electrical conducting viscous fluid through two infinite parallel plates in the presence of a constant magnetic field normal to the plane of particle motion were determined. The effect of some parameters such as particle volume, fluid density, fluid viscosity, and the use magnetic field strength on these path lines were determined. The present solution requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. The differential equations of motion were numerically solved by Runge-Kutta method. Some conclusions about width, maximum height and number of collisions with upper and lower plates were deduced. 4 figs.

  6. Influence of near-bottom re-suspended sediment on benthic light availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Møller; Gallegos, Charles L.; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius

    2012-01-01

    Increased light attenuation in the water column is a common consequence of the increased organic loading that accompanies anthropogenic eutrophication in coastal systems. Frequently, the best water quality correlate of the light attenuation coefficient is the total suspended solids, even in systems......-bottomlight attenuation using an array of in situ light sensors with very close spacing near the sediment–water interface and a radiative transfer (RT) modeling with the software “Hydrolight”. We found that the light attenuation coefficient over 4.5 cm just above the bottom exceeded the attenuation found higher...... in the water column by a factor ranging from 1.6 to >30. RT modeling indicated that light received at the bottom could be overestimated by a factor 4 or more by extrapolating measurements not taking the near-bottomlight attenuation into account. The results may help explain the wide range of seagrass light...

  7. Determination of the origin of suspended matter and sediments in the Elbe estuary using natural tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoer, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The clay mineral composition, the concentrations of carbonates, the proportions of carbon and oxygen isotopes in carbonates and organic matter, as well as the concentrations of different nonanthropogenic metals were used to determine the origin of different grain size fractions of sediments and suspended matter in the Elbe estuary. Analysis of the smectite/kaolinite proportion revealed that solid material · 2 μm from the North Sea is transported up the river, about 40 km beyond the most upstream position of the salt wedge. In the 2-20 μm fraction, the 16 O/ 18 O ratio in carbonates and the kaolinite/chlorite proportion demonstrate a transport of North Sea material between 40 and 20 km upstream of the marine water limit. The transport behavior of the 20-63 μm grain size fraction could be determined by the hafnium concentration, representative for the heavy mineral zircon. In this case, the transport distance beyond the salt wedge was up to 20 km. No information was available on the origin of the fine organic matter, whereas the coarser fractions were derived primarily from debris of salt marsh vegetation. The results demonstrate that in the Elbe estuary mixing between marine and fluvial solid material occurs upstream of the salt wedge and is significantly responsible for the observed decrease in the concentration of various pollutants in sediments and suspended matter along the estuary. The cause of the upstream particle transport is probably a scour lag mechanism based on asymmetries of the flood- and ebb-tide current distribution, especially their differing maximum velocities

  8. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  9. Monitoring of event-based mobilization of hydrophobic pollutants in rivers: calibration of turbidity as a proxy for particle facilitated transport in field and laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rügner, Hermann; Schwientek, Marc; Egner, Marius; Grathwohl, Peter

    2014-08-15

    Transport of many pollutants in rivers is coupled to mobilization of suspended particles which typically occurs during floods. Since the amount of total suspended solids (TSS) in rivers can be monitored by turbidity measurements this may be used as a proxy for the total concentration of particle associated pollutants such as PAHs, PCBs, etc. and several heavy metals. Online turbidity measurements (e.g. by optical backscattering sensors) would then also allow for an assessment of particle and pollutant flux dynamics if once calibrated against TSS and total pollutant concentrations for a given catchment. In this study, distinct flood and thus turbidity events were sampled at high temporal resolution in three contrasting sub-catchments of the River Neckar in Southwest Germany (Ammer, Goldersbach, Steinlach) as well as in the River Neckar itself and investigated for the total amount of PAHs and TSS in water; turbidity (NTU) and grain size distributions of suspended solids were determined as well. Laboratory experiments were performed with natural river bed sediments from different locations (Ammer) to investigate PAH concentrations, TSS and turbidity during sedimentation of suspended particles under controlled conditions (yielding smaller and smaller suspended particles and TSS with time). Laboratory and field results agreed very well and showed that turbidity and TSS were linearly correlated over an extended turbidity range up to 2000 NTU for the field samples and up to 8000 NTU in lab experiments. This also holds for total PAH concentrations which can be reasonably well predicted based on turbidity measurements and TSS vs. PAHs relationships - even for high turbidity values observed during flood events (>2000 NTU). Total PAH concentrations on suspended solids were independent of grain size of suspended particles. This implies that for the rivers investigated the sorption capacity of particles did not change significantly during the observed events. Copyright © 2014

  10. Spatiotemporal dynamics of suspended sediment within an actively urbanizing peri-urban catchment in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Ferreira, Carla; Ferreira, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Suspended sediment levels tend to be enhanced in urban catchments, but vary considerably with (amongst many other factors) the degree of active urban development or redevelopment within the catchment and 'urbanization style'. Relatively little, however, is known about the relationship between suspended solids and urbanization style in peri-urban Mediterranean environments. This paper focuses on spatiotemporal suspended sediment dynamics within a typical Portuguese peri-urban catchment, Ribeira dos Covoes, that is undergoing rapid urbanization. The catchment currently has a 40% urban cover, with 17% impervious surfaces, dispersed between woodland (56%) and agricultural areas (4%). The study uses suspended sediment concentration measurements made at the catchment outlet (ESAC) and in three upstream tributaries: (i) Espírito Santo, with a largest urban area (49%); (ii) Porto Bordalo, 39% urbanized; and (iii) Quinta, 22% urbanized, most of which (18%) being an enterprise park under construction. Water sampling was carried out manually during 10 storm hydrographs between October 2011 and March 2013. Suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) were derived by laboratory analysis of the filtered samples using the gravimetric method. In addition total dissolved solids concentrations (TDS) were estimated using conductivity readings. Greatest SSCs were recorded in the Quinta sub-catchment and at the catchment outlet at ESAC (113-4320 mg L-1 and 200-1656 mg L-1, respectively) than in the Espírito Santo and Porto Bordalo sub-catchments (183-852 mg L-1 and 47-598 mg L-1 respectively, despite their greater impervious cover. The greatest SSCs for Quinta result from it containing the construction site, but it showed lower TDS (56-4010 mg L-1), perhaps due to the coarse sandy nature of the construction site. Higher TDS concentrations, however, were displayed in Porto Bordalo (27-5400 mg L-1), possibly due to the loamy soil. Espírito Santo, comprising sandy-loam soils, displayed 27

  11. Ultrasonic device for real-time sewage velocity and suspended particles concentration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abda, F; Azbaid, A; Ensminger, D; Fischer, S; François, P; Schmitt, P; Pallarès, A

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of a technological research and innovation network in water and environment technologies (RITEAU, Réseau de Recherche et d'Innovation Technologique Eau et Environnement), our research group, in collaboration with industrial partners and other research institutions, has been in charge of the development of a suitable flowmeter: an ultrasonic device measuring simultaneously the water flow and the concentration of size classes of suspended particles. Working on the pulsed ultrasound principle, our multi-frequency device (1 to 14 MHz) allows flow velocity and water height measurement and estimation of suspended solids concentration. Velocity measurements rely on the coherent Doppler principle. A self developed frequency estimator, so called Spectral Identification method, was used and compared to the classical Pulse-Pair method. Several measurements campaigns on one wastewater collector of the French city of Strasbourg gave very satisfactory results and showed smaller standard deviation values for the Doppler frequency extracted by the Spectral Identification method. A specific algorithm was also developed for the water height measurements. It relies on the water surface acoustic impedance rupture and its peak localisation and behaviour in the collected backscattering data. This algorithm was positively tested on long time measurements on the same wastewater collector. A large part of the article is devoted to the measurements of the suspended solids concentrations. Our data analysis consists in the adaptation of the well described acoustic behaviour of sand to the behaviour of wastewater particles. Both acoustic attenuation and acoustic backscattering data over multiple frequencies are analyzed for the extrapolation of size classes and respective concentrations. Under dry weather conditions, the massic backscattering coefficient and the overall size distribution showed similar evolution whatever the measurement site was and were suggesting a global

  12. Discrete Dynamics of Nanoparticle Channelling in Suspended Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Tim; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Andersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We have observed a previously undescribed stepwise oxidation of mono- and few layer suspended graphene by silver nanoparticles in situ at subnanometer scale in an environmental transmission electron microscope. Over the range of 600–850 K, we observe crystallographically oriented channelling...

  13. Turbidity-controlled sampling for suspended sediment load estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - Automated data collection is essential to effectively measure suspended sediment loads in storm events, particularly in small basins. Continuous turbidity measurements can be used, along with discharge, in an automated system that makes real-time sampling decisions to facilitate sediment load estimation. The Turbidity Threshold Sampling method distributes...

  14. Nature of suspended particulate matter and concentrations of heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of metals in bottom sediment in the Tanzanian waters of Lake Victoria and the nature of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were analysed. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment from different locations and to establish their sources. Metal concentrations were higher in ...

  15. Investigation of suspended sediment transport using ultrasonic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1994-01-01

    The results of the initial experimental studies involving the scattering of ultrasonic signals from canonical and non-canonical shaped suspended particles with known elastical qualities are reported. These results have formed the basis for the development of a numerical model for ultrasound...... propagation through low-concentration suspensions of sand particles...

  16. Reduction in density of suspended - sediment - laden natural waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Desa, E.; Smith, D.; Peshwe, V.B.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, J.A.E.

    to 0.4% - 4.5%) that of the density of the same water without suspended sediment. Teh values of peff in a given site differed from one tidal cycle to another (approx equal to 1.9%). These values varied slightly (less than 0.8%) from mid-tide to slack...

  17. A suspended sediment yield predictive equation for river basins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fit was found to be better than those relating mean annual specific suspended sediment yield to basin area or runoff only. Since many stream gauging stations in the country have no records on fluvial sediment, the empirical equation can be used to obtain preliminary estimates of expected sediment load of streams for ...

  18. Opportunities Suspended: The Disparate Impact of Disciplinary Exclusion from School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Gillespie, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Well over three million children, K-12, are estimated to have lost instructional "seat time" in 2009-2010 because they were suspended from school, often with no guarantee of adult supervision outside the school. That's about the number of children it would take to fill every seat in every major league baseball park and every NFL stadium…

  19. Microscopic characterisation of suspended graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bignardi, L.; Dorp, W.F. van; Gottardi, S.; Ivashenko, O.; Dudin, P.; Barinov, A.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Stöhr, M.; Rudolf, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-technique characterisation of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and thereafter transferred to and suspended on a grid for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The properties of the electronic band structure are investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron

  20. A direct simulation method for flows with suspended paramagnetic particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, T.G.; Hulsen, M.A.; Toonder, den J.M.J.; Anderson, P.D.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2008-01-01

    A direct numerical simulation method based on the Maxwell stress tensor and a fictitious domain method has been developed to solve flows with suspended paramagnetic particles. The numerical scheme enables us to take into account both hydrodynamic and magnetic interactions between particles in a

  1. Suspended Education Department Official Had Approved Waiver for Former Employer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basken, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Matteo Fontana, the student-aid official in the U.S. Department of Education who was suspended last month in an ethics case, issued a controversial high-stakes legal ruling in 2004 that benefited his former employer, Sallie Mae, on the day before the nation's top student lender completed its transition from a government-founded lender into a…

  2. Evaluation of the Suspending Properties of the Coprecipitate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending ability of the different ratios was evaluated in magnesium trisilicate suspension, and compared with a suspension prepared with Compound Tragacanth Powder BP (CTP) as well as a commercially available magnesium trisilicate suspension (MTS). The parameters tested were sedimentation rate, flow rate, ...

  3. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Cola acuminata gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calamine suspensions were formulated with CAG between the concentration range of 1 – 4 % w/v and compared with suspensions formulated with two standard suspending agents (tragacanth and acacia gums). Sedimentation volume, flow rate, rheology and redispersibility were used as evaluating parameters.

  4. Turbidity threshold sampling for suspended sediment load estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Lewis; Rand Eads

    2001-01-01

    Abstract - The paper discusses an automated procedure for measuring turbidity and sampling suspended sediment. The basic equipment consists of a programmable data logger, an in situ turbidimeter, a pumping sampler, and a stage-measuring device. The data logger program employs turbidity to govern sample collection during each transport event. Mounting configurations and...

  5. Temporal and spatial changes of cadmium in the near-bottom suspended matter of the Pomeranian Bay - Arkona Deep system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Staniszewski

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the high toxicity of cadmium (Cd towards biota and the considerable quantities of this element entering the environment from anthropogenic sources, interest in its biogeochemistry is increasing. This is also true for the marine environment, which serves as a sink for both natural and anthropogenic Cd loads entering the hydrosphere and the atmosphere. The distribution of Cd in the coastal zone of the marine environment is governed primarily by the flux of the so-called fluffy layer suspended matter (FLSM, which spreads across the top of the sea floor as a several-centimetre-thick layer containing highly concentrated suspended matter. Both total contents and solid speciation of Cd was measured in FLSM collected in the Pomeranian Bay - Arkona Deep system (Western Baltic Proper in the course of the three-year-long study. Seasonal changes in the total Cd content (0.5-1.8 µg g–1 dry matter were attributed to the contribution of organic suspensions originating from algal blooms. The decreasing content of Cd in FLSM offshore is due to the input of Cd-rich suspended matter from the River Odra (Oder, and the decreasing organic matter content in FLSM with increasing depth. The contribution of labile fractions (adsorbed and bound to iron III hydroxides was found to be from 50 to 75% of the total content. In view of the substantial mobility and bioavailability of the fractions, this is a highly alarming feature.

  6. Suspended matter and heavy metal content of the Elbe Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollbrecht, K.

    1980-01-01

    (1) In the River Elbe estuary there is a turbidity zone which is closely bound to the region of brackish waters. Its suspended matter content changes strongly with the tidal rhythm. Suspended matter and river bed sediments influence each other by exchanging their particles. Owing to that mechanism, the heavy metal ions bound or taken up by the suspended matter (sorption) enter the sediments. To obtain an estimation of the estuary's ability to cope with ( self purify ) a strong burden of industrial wastes, it is neccessary to take into consideration the absorbing capacity of both the mean suspension load and the sediments. (2) The concentration of nearly all heavy metal ions investigated in the suspension load decreases remarkably at the very beginning of the turbid zone already, in the Hamburg region. It indicates that the binding process are going on very rapidly and that the metal ion absorbing capacity of the Elbe estuary still requires only the first few miles of this self purification system. The results gained indicate that the suspended matter in Hamburg waters could bind or take up more heavy metal ions than are discharged into this area. (3) The concentration of most ions bound to the suspension material correlates very well with the grain size distribution of the (anorganic) particles. The concentration values decrease along the estuary and lead to a continuous transition to the values of the open sea. Cu, Ni and Cd appear to be captured preferably by organic suspended matter. This behaviour, however, is solely restricted to the turbid zone. In the open sea, after oxidation of the binding organic material, Cu and Ni correspond to the anorganic grain size distribution. (orig./HP) [de

  7. An analysis of bedload and suspended load interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recking, alain; Navratil, Oldrich

    2013-04-01

    Several approaches were used to develop suspension equations. It includes semi-theoretical equations based on the convection diffusion equation (Einstein 1950; Van Rijn 1984; Camenen and Larson 2008; Julien 2010), semi-empirical tools based on energy concept (Velikanov 1954; Bagnold 1966), empirical adjustments (Prosser and Rusttomji 2000). One essential characteristic of all these equations is that most of them were developed by considering continuity between bedload and suspended load, and that the partitioning between these two modes of transport evolves progressively with increasing shear stress, which is the case for fine bed materials. The use of these equations is thus likely to be welcome in estuaries or lowland sandy rivers, but may be questionable in gravel-bed rivers and headwater streams where the bed is usually structured vertically and fine sediments potentially contributing to suspension are stored under a poorly mobile surface armour comprising coarse sediments. Thus one question this work aimed to answer is does the presence of an armour at the bed surface influence suspended load? This was investigated through a large field data set comprising instantaneous measurements of both bedload and suspension. We also considered the river characteristics, distinguishing between lowland rivers, gravel bed rivers and headwater streams. The results showed that a correlation exist between bedload and suspension for lowland and gravel bed rivers. This suggests that in gravel bed rivers a large part of the suspended load is fed by subsurface material, and depends on the remobilization of the surface material. No correlation was observed for head water streams where the sediment production is more likely related to hillslope processes. These results were used with a bedload transport equation for proposing a method for suspended load estimate. The method is rough, but especially for gravel bed rivers, it predicts suspended load reasonably well when compared to

  8. An urban observatory for quantifying phosphorus and suspended solid loads in combined natural and stormwater conveyances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Anthony A; Horsburgh, Jeffery S

    2017-06-01

    Water quality in urban streams and stormwater systems is highly dynamic, both spatially and temporally, and can change drastically during storm events. Infrequent grab samples commonly collected for estimating pollutant loadings are insufficient to characterize water quality in many urban water systems. In situ water quality measurements are being used as surrogates for continuous pollutant load estimates; however, relatively few studies have tested the validity of surrogate indicators in urban stormwater conveyances. In this paper, we describe an observatory aimed at demonstrating the infrastructure required for surrogate monitoring in urban water systems and for capturing the dynamic behavior of stormwater-driven pollutant loads. We describe the instrumentation of multiple, autonomous water quality and quantity monitoring sites within an urban observatory. We also describe smart and adaptive sampling procedures implemented to improve data collection for developing surrogate relationships and for capturing the temporal and spatial variability of pollutant loading events in urban watersheds. Results show that the observatory is able to capture short-duration storm events within multiple catchments and, through inter-site communication, sampling efforts can be synchronized across multiple monitoring sites.

  9. Conservation principles suspended solids distribution modeling to support ATS introduction on a recirculating WWTP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist Victor Bernard; Nielsen, M.K.; Thornberg, D.

    2004-01-01

    distribution in the WWTP as outputs. The calibrated model produces excellent predictions of the SS load to the secondary clarifiers, an essential variable for the operation of the aeration tank settling (ATS) process. A case study illustrated how the calibrated SS distribution model can be used to evaluate...

  10. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( >  1000 km2 over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation–deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc., transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation. Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity, and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment

  11. USING TURBIDITY DATA TO PREDICT SUSPENDED SEDIMENT CONCENTRATIONS: POSSIBILITIES, LIMITATIONS, AND PITFALLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This talk will look at the relationships between turbidity and suspended sediment concentrations in a variety of geographic areas, geomorphic river types, and river sizes; and attempt to give guidance on using existing turbidity data to predict suspended sediment concentrations.

  12. Seasonal changes in suspended sediment load in the Gauthami-Godavari Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, N.P.C.; Rao, B.P.; Rao, K.M.; Rao, V.S.

    Studies carried out on suspended matter characteristics of the the Gautami Godavari Estuary revealed that the concentration of suspended matter (CSM) during southwest monsoon influenced mainly by the increased run off at both Neelarevu and Vrudha...

  13. Impact of sound attenuation by suspended sediment on ADCP backscatter calibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Vermeulen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Although designed for velocity measurements, acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are widely being used to monitor suspended particulate matter in rivers and in marine environments. To quantify mass concentrations of suspended matter, ADCP backscatter is generally calibrated with in situ

  14. Design, analysis and control of cable-suspended parallel robots and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zi, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an essential overview of the authors’ work in the field of cable-suspended parallel robots, focusing on innovative design, mechanics, control, development and applications. It presents and analyzes several typical mechanical architectures of cable-suspended parallel robots in practical applications, including the feed cable-suspended structure for super antennae, hybrid-driven-based cable-suspended parallel robots, and cooperative cable parallel manipulators for multiple mobile cranes. It also addresses the fundamental mechanics of cable-suspended parallel robots on the basis of their typical applications, including the kinematics, dynamics and trajectory tracking control of the feed cable-suspended structure for super antennae. In addition it proposes a novel hybrid-driven-based cable-suspended parallel robot that uses integrated mechanism design methods to improve the performance of traditional cable-suspended parallel robots. A comparative study on error and performance indices of hybr...

  15. The rheology of non-suspended sediment transport mediated by a Newtonian fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pähtz, Thomas; Durán, Orencio

    2017-04-01

    Using a coupled DEM/RANS numerical model of non-suspended sediment transport in a Newtonian fluid (Durán et al., POF 103306, 2012), we find that the gas-like part of the granular transport flow can be described by a universal condition that constrains the average geometry of interparticle collisions. We show that this condition corresponds to a constant sliding friction coefficient μ at an appropriately defined bed surface, thus explaining the success of Bagnold's old idea to describe the sediment transport in analogy to sliding friction. We are currently exploring whether this rheology applies to gas-like granular flows in general. We further find a transition of the gas-like flow to either a solid-like flow (solid-to-gas transition), which is typical for aeolian sediment transport ('saltation'), or a liquid-like flow (liquid-to-gas transition), which is typical for subaqueous sediment transport ('bedload'). The transition occurs at about the location of maximal particle collision frequency. If there is a liquid-like flow below the transition, we find that it can be described by a μ(I) rheology, where I is the visco-intertial number, an appropriately defined average of the viscous and intertial number.

  16. Approximate Series Solutions for Nonlinear Free Vibration of Suspended Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaobing Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents approximate series solutions for nonlinear free vibration of suspended cables via the Lindstedt-Poincare method and homotopy analysis method, respectively. Firstly, taking into account the geometric nonlinearity of the suspended cable as well as the quasi-static assumption, a mathematical model is presented. Secondly, two analytical methods are introduced to obtain the approximate series solutions in the case of nonlinear free vibration. Moreover, small and large sag-to-span ratios and initial conditions are chosen to study the nonlinear dynamic responses by these two analytical methods. The numerical results indicate that frequency amplitude relationships obtained with different analytical approaches exhibit some quantitative and qualitative differences in the cases of motions, mode shapes, and particular sag-to-span ratios. Finally, a detailed comparison of the differences in the displacement fields and cable axial total tensions is made.

  17. Superior thermal conductivity in suspended bilayer hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengru; Guo, Jie; Dong, Lan; Aiyiti, Adili; Xu, Xiangfan; Li, Baowen

    2016-01-01

    We reported the basal-plane thermal conductivity in exfoliated bilayer hexagonal boron nitride h-BN that was measured using suspended prepatterned microstructures. The h-BN sample suitable for thermal measurements was fabricated by dry-transfer method, whose sample quality, due to less polymer residues on surfaces, is believed to be superior to that of PMMA-mediated samples. The measured room temperature thermal conductivity is around 484 Wm−1K−1(+141 Wm−1K−1/ −24 Wm−1K−1) which exceeds that in bulk h-BN, providing experimental observation of the thickness-dependent thermal conductivity in suspended few-layer h-BN. PMID:27142571

  18. Piezoresistance of top-down suspended Si nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koumela, A; Mercier, D; Dupre, C; Jourdan, G; Marcoux, C; Ollier, E; Duraffourg, L; Purcell, S T

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the gauge factor of suspended, top-down silicon nanowires are presented. The nanowires are fabricated with a CMOS compatible process and with doping concentrations ranging from 2 x 10 20 down to 5 x 10 17 cm -3 . The extracted gauge factors are compared with results on identical non-suspended nanowires and with state-of-the-art results. An increase of the gauge factor after suspension is demonstrated. For the low doped nanowires a value of 235 is measured. Particular attention was paid throughout the experiments to distinguishing real resistance change due to strain modulation from resistance fluctuations due to charge trapping. Furthermore, a numerical model correlating surface charge density with the gauge factor is presented. Comparison of the simulations with experimental measurements shows the validity of this approach. These results contribute to a deeper understanding of the piezoresistive effect in Si nanowires.

  19. Relationship between dioxin concentration and particle size for suspended sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, K.; Sakurai, T.; Choi, J.W.; Suzuki, N.; Morita, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of the present study was to find out how the amounts of adsorbed dioxins, i.e., polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), mono-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and non-ortho-PCBs, vary with the particle size of suspended sediment. As dioxins are hydrophobic, they tend to adsorb onto particles suspended in water, and the determination of which dioxin congeners readily dissolve in water or adsorb onto particles is central to the characterization of dioxin behavior in water/sediment systems. Presumably suspension of sediments and the size of the particles govern the transfer of dioxins to aquatic organisms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the relationship between the amount of dioxins and the particle-size distribution of resuspended, rather than settled, sediment.

  20. The acoustic radiation force on a small thermoviscous or thermoelastic particle suspended in a viscous and heat-conducting fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Jonas; Bruus, Henrik

    2015-11-01

    We present a theoretical analysis (arxiv.org/abs/1507.01043) of the acoustic radiation force on a single small particle, either a thermoviscous fluid droplet or a thermoelastic solid particle, suspended in a viscous and heat-conducting fluid. Our analysis places no restrictions on the viscous and thermal boundary layer thicknesses relative to the particle radius, but it assumes the particle to be small in comparison to the acoustic wavelength. This is the limit relevant to scattering of ultrasound waves from sub-micrometer particles. For particle sizes smaller than the boundary layer widths, our theory leads to profound consequences for the acoustic radiation force. For example, for liquid droplets and solid particles suspended in gasses we predict forces orders of magnitude larger than expected from ideal-fluid theory. Moreover, for certain relevant choices of materials, we find a sign change in the acoustic radiation force on different-sized but otherwise identical particles. These findings lead to the concept of a particle-size-dependent acoustophoretic contrast factor, highly relevant to applications in acoustic levitation or separation of micro-particles in gases, as well as to handling of μm- and nm-sized particles such as bacteria and vira in lab-on-a-chip systems.

  1. Elemental Spatiotemporal Variations of Total Suspended Particles in Jeddah City

    OpenAIRE

    Kadi, Mohammad W.

    2014-01-01

    Elements associated with total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in Jeddah city were determined. Using high-volume samplers, TSP samples were simultaneously collected over a one-year period from seven sampling sites. Samples were analyzed for Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Sr. Results revealed great dependence of element contents on spatial and temporal variations. Two sites characterized by busy roads, workshops, heavy population, and heavy trucking have high lev...

  2. Segment Fixed Priority Scheduling for Self Suspending Real Time Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-11

    a compute- intensive system such as a self - driving car that we have recently developed [28]. Such systems run computation-demanding algorithms...Applications. In RTSS, 2012. [12] J. Kim et al. Parallel Scheduling for Cyber-Physical Systems: Analysis and Case Study on a Self - Driving Car . In ICCPS...leveraging GPU can be modeled using a multi-segment self -suspending real-time task model. For example, a planning algorithm for autonomous driving can

  3. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediment Dynamics in the Mississippi Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, D. N.; Skarke, A. D.; Silwal, S.; Dash, P.

    2016-02-01

    The Mississippi Sound is a semi-enclosed estuary between the coast of Mississippi and a chain of offshore barrier islands with relatively shallow water depths and high marine biodiversity that is wildly utilized for commercial fishing and public recreation. The discharge of sediment-laden rivers into the Mississippi Sound and the adjacent Northern Gulf of Mexico creates turbid plumes that can extend hundreds of square kilometers along the coast and persist for multiple days. The concentration of suspended sediment in these coastal waters is an important parameter in the calculation of regional sediment budgets as well as analysis of water-quality factors such as primary productivity, nutrient dynamics, and the transport of pollutants as well as pathogens. The spectral resolution, sampling frequency, and regional scale spatial domain associated with satellite based sensors makes remote sensing an ideal tool to monitor suspended sediment dynamics in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Accordingly, the presented research evaluates the validity of published models that relate remote sensing reflectance with suspended sediment concentrations (SSC), for similar environmental settings, with 51 in situ observations of SSC from the Mississippi Sound. Additionally, regression analysis is used to correlate additional in situ observations of SSC in Mississippi Sound with coincident observations of visible and near-infrared band reflectance collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Aqua satellite, in order to develop a site-specific empirical predictive model for SSC. Finally, specific parameters of the sampled suspended sediment such as grain size and mineralogy are analyzed in order to quantify their respective contributions to total remotely sensed reflectance.

  4. Suspended particulate studies over the Madeira Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Various aspects relating to suspended matter over the Madeira Abyssal Plain are discussed. Special attention is paid to the nepheloid layer including resuspension and transport processes; time variabilities in particle concentrations and fluxes; particle morphology, microbiology and chemical composition; phase association of metals. Also, tentative predictions of the behaviour of some radionuclides are made based on theory and data on rare earth elements. Instrumentation developed for the project is detailed - the deep water particle sampler. (author)

  5. Suspended sediment in a high-Arctic river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard-Pedersen, Pernille; Sigsgaard, Charlotte; Kroon, Aart

    2017-01-01

    -2012) of daily measurements from the high-Artic Zackenberg River in Northeast Greenland to estimate annual suspended sediment fluxes based on four commonly used methods: M1) is the discharge weighted mean and uses direct measurements, while M2-M4) are one uncorrected and two bias corrected rating curves......-1 and 61,000±16,000ty-1. Extreme events with high discharges had a mean duration of 1day. The average suspended sediment flux during extreme events was 17,000±5000ty-1, which constitutes a year-to-year variation of 20-37% of the total annual flux. The most accurate sampling strategy was bi...... extrapolating a continuous concentration trace from measured values. All methods are tested on complete and reduced datasets. The average annual runoff in the period 2005-2012 was 190±25mio·m3 y-1. The different estimation methods gave a range of average annual suspended sediment fluxes between 43,000±10,000ty...

  6. The Influence of Turbulent Coherent Structure on Suspended Sediment Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S. H.; Tsai, C.

    2017-12-01

    The anomalous diffusion of turbulent sedimentation has received more and more attention in recent years. With the advent of new instruments and technologies, researchers have found that sediment behavior may deviate from Fickian assumptions when particles are heavier. In particle-laden flow, bursting phenomena affects instantaneous local concentrations, and seems to carry suspended particles for a longer distance. Instead of the pure diffusion process in an analogy to Brownian motion, Levy flight which allows particles to move in response to bursting phenomena is suspected to be more suitable for describing particle movement in turbulence. And the fractional differential equation is a potential candidate to improve the concentration profile. However, stochastic modeling (the Differential Chapmen-Kolmogorov Equation) also provides an alternative mathematical framework to describe system transits between different states through diffusion/the jump processes. Within this framework, the stochastic particle tracking model linked with advection diffusion equation is a powerful tool to simulate particle locations in the flow field. By including the jump process to this model, a more comprehensive description for suspended sediment transport can be provided with a better physical insight. This study also shows the adaptability and expandability of the stochastic particle tracking model for suspended sediment transport modeling.

  7. Simplified Entropic Model for the Evaluation of Suspended Load Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Mirauda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment concentration is a key aspect in the forecasting of river evolution dynamics, as well as in water quality assessment, evaluation of reservoir impacts, and management of water resources. The estimation of suspended load often relies on empirical models, of which efficiency is limited by their analytic structure or by the need for calibration parameters. The present work deals with a simplified fully-analytical formulation of the so-called entropic model in order to reproduce the vertical distribution of sediment concentration. The simplification consists in the leading order expansion of the generalized spatial coordinate of the entropic velocity profile that, strictly speaking, applies to the near-bed region, but that provides acceptable results also near the free surface. The proposed closed-form solution, which highlights the interplay among channel morphology, stream power, secondary flows, and suspended transport features, allows reducing the needed number of field measurements and, therefore, the time of field activities. Its accuracy and robustness were successfully tested based on the comparison with laboratory data reported in literature.

  8. MEMS-Based Fuel Reformer with Suspended Membrane Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuei-Sung; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    We report a MEMS-based fuel reformer for supplying hydrogen to micro-fuel cells for portable applications. A combustor and a reforming chamber are fabricated at either side of a suspended membrane structure. This design is used to improve the overall thermal efficiency, which is a critical issue to realize a micro-fuel reformer. The suspended membrane structure design provided good thermal isolation. The micro-heaters consumed 0.97W to maintain the reaction zone of the MEMS-based fuel reformer at 200°C, but further power saving is necessary by improving design and fabrication. The conversion rate of methanol to hydrogen was about 19% at 180°C by using evaporated copper as a reforming catalyst. The catalytic combustion of hydrogen started without any assistance of micro-heaters. By feeding the fuel mixture of an equivalence ratio of 0.35, the temperature of the suspended membrane structure was maintained stable at 100°C with a combustion efficiency of 30%. In future works, we will test a micro-fuel reformer by using a micro-combustor to supply heat.

  9. Optimal control of suspended sediment distribution model of Talaga lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratianingsih, R.; Resnawati, Azim, Mardlijah, Widodo, B.

    2017-08-01

    Talaga Lake is one of several lakes in Central Sulawesi that potentially to be managed in multi purposes scheme because of its characteristic. The scheme is addressed not only due to the lake maintenance because of its sediment but also due to the Algae farming for its biodiesel fuel. This paper governs a suspended sediment distribution model of Talaga lake. The model is derived from the two dimensional hydrodynamic shallow water equations of the mass and momentum conservation law of sediment transport. An order reduction of the model gives six equations of hyperbolic systems of the depth, two dimension directional velocities and sediment concentration while the bed elevation as the second order of turbulent diffusion and dispersion are neglected. The system is discreted and linearized such that could be solved numerically by box-Keller method for some initial and boundary condition. The solutions shows that the downstream velocity is play a role in transversal direction of stream function flow. The downstream accumulated sediment indicate that the suspended sediment and its changing should be controlled by optimizing the downstream velocity and transversal suspended sediment changing due to the ideal algae growth need.

  10. Studying Suspended Sediment Mechanism with Two-Phase PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinpour, H.; Atkinson, J. F.; Bennett, S. J.; Guala, M.

    2017-12-01

    Suspended sediment transport affects soil erosion, agriculture and water resources quality. Turbulent diffusion is the most primary force to maintain sediments in suspension. Although extensive previous literature have been studying the interactions between turbulent motion and suspended sediment, mechanism of sediments in suspension is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigate suspension of sediments as two distinct phases: one phase of sediments and another phase of fluid with turbulent motions. We designed and deployed a state-of-the-art two-phase PIV measurement technique to discriminate these two phases and acquire velocities of each phase separately and simultaneously. The technique that we have developed is employing a computer-vision based method, which enables us to discriminate sediment particles from fluid tracer particles based on two thresholds, dissimilar particle sizes and different particle intensities. Results indicate that fluid turbulence decreases in the presence of suspended sediments. Obtaining only sediment phase consecutive images enable us to compute fluctuation sediment concentration. This result enlightens understanding of complex interaction between the fluctuation velocities and the fluctuation of associated mass and compares turbulent viscosity with turbulent eddy diffusivity experimentally.

  11. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  12. Anaerobic treatment of complex wastewater and waste activated sludge - Appl. of an upflow anaerobic solid removal (UASR).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.; Sanders, W.T.M.; Wang, K.Y.; Lettinga, G.

    1997-01-01

    The application of one phase anaerobic wastewater systems for the treatment of complex wastewaters containing high amounts of suspended solids or lipids is usually limited by accumulation of these compounds in the sludge bed. This accumulation reduces the solid retention time and methanogenic

  13. Measurements of Two-Phase Suspended Sediment Transport in Breaking Waves Using Volumetric Three-Component Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, F. C. K.; LeClaire, P.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of sediment pickup and distribution in breaking waves is important for modeling sediment transport in the surf zone. Previous studies were mostly concerned with bulk sediment transport under specific wave conditions. The distribution of suspended sediments in breaking waves had not been measured together with coherent flow structures. In this study, two-phase flow measurements were obtained under a train of plunging regular waves on a plane slope using the volumetric three-component velocimetry (V3V) technique. The measurements captured the motions of sediment particles simultaneously with the three-component, three-dimensional (3C3D) velocity fields of turbulent coherent structures (large eddies) induced by breaking waves. Sediment particles (solid glass spheres diameter 0.125 to 0.15 mm, specific gravity 2.5) were separated from fluid tracers (mean diameter 13 µm, specific gravity 1.3) based on a combination of particle spot size and brightness in the two-phase images. The interactions between the large eddies and glass spheres were investigated for plunger vortices generated at incipient breaking and for splash-up vortices generated at the second plunge point. The measured data show that large eddies impinging on the bottom was the primary mechanism which lift sediment particles into suspension and momentarily increased near-bed suspended sediment concentration. Although eddy impingement events were sporadic in space and time, the distributions of suspended sediments in the large eddies were not uniform. High suspended sediment concentration and vertical sediment flux were found in the wall-jet region where the impinging flow was deflected outward and upward. Sediment particles were also trapped and carried around by counter-rotating vortices (Figure 1). Suspended sediment concentration was significantly lower in the impingement region where the fluid velocity was downward, even though turbulent kinetic energy in the down flow was

  14. International Odra project (IOP) 'Interdisciplinary German Polish studies on the behaviour of pollutants in the Oder system'. Sub project 4: the state of suspended particulate matter in the Odra River system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, K.H.; Damke, H.; Kasbohm, J.; Puff, T.; Breitenbach, E.; Theel, O.; Kiessling, A.

    2001-05-20

    The purpose of the present project was to characterise the pollutant freight of suspended matter and suspended-matter-borne sediments in the Oder river system on the basis of large samples drawn at selected sampling sites. One of the major goals was to assess and draw up a balance of the transport regime of suspended matter between the compartments water, suspended matter and sediments. Special attention was given to the composition and structure of suspended matter as well as to the distribution of trace elements in the various components. Furthermore, the study was intended to provide ecology-related information on the basis of selected biogenic components. Statements on the time course of pollution of estuarine waters and the Baltic Sea by way of the Oder can be derived from a characterisation of current fluviatile solids (suspended matter and suspended-matter-borne sediments) and determination of their quantitative proportions. The following research strategy was derived from these goals: for a characterisation of suspended matter in terms of composition, structure and biogenic origin it is necessary to determine the concentration of suspended matter, its granulometric composition, carbon and sulphur content, biogenic opal content, mineral content, phase composition, metal content, structure of suspended flakes and association of diatoms in the suspended flakes and on the periphyton. [German] Das Vorhaben ist darauf ausgerichtet, den Belastungszustand der Schwebstoffe und schwebstoffbuertigen Sedimente im Oderflusssystem anhand von Grossproben ausgewaehlter Probenahmeorte zu charakterisieren. Ein wesentliches Ziel ist die Beurteilung des Transportregimes der Schwebstoffe zwischen den Kompartimenten Wasser, Schwebstoff und Sediment sowie seine Bilanzierung. Dabei gilt die besondere Aufmerksamkeit der Zusammensetzung und der Struktur der Schwebstoffe sowie die Spurenelementspeziation an die unterschiedlichen Bestandteile. Weiterhin werden oekologische Aussagen

  15. Turbidity as an Indicator of Water Quality in Diverse Watersheds of the Upper Pecos River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M. Huey

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS and turbidity vary with stream hydrology and land use. Turbidity, TSS, and microbial concentrations, loads and yields from four watersheds were assessed: an unburned montane forest, a catastrophically burned montane forest, urban land use and rangeland prairie. Concentrations and loads for most water quality variables were greatest during storm events. Turbidity was an effective indicator of TSS, E. coli and Enterococci spp. The greatest threat to public health from microbial contamination occurs during storm runoff events. Efforts to manage surface runoff and erosion would likely improve water quality of the upper Pecos River basin in New Mexico, USA.

  16. An experimental study on suspended sodium droplet combustion (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenji

    2005-03-01

    As part of studies for phenomenological investigation of sodium droplet burning behavior, in our previous experimental studies for suspended single sodium droplet, behavior of ignition process and succeeding combustion, ignition delay time, and droplet temperature history had been investigated. In this study, combustion experiments of suspended sodium droplet were performed in upward dry air flow by expanding the range of free-stream velocity U of air flow into 400 cm/s with initial droplet temperature Ti=300, 350, and 400degC and initial droplet diameter 4 mm at first. Then, the combustion experiments were also performed by changing the initial droplet diameter from 2.3 to 4.4 mm with Ti=350 and 400degC and U=100 cm/s. From the experimental results, the effects of free-stream velocity, initial droplet temperature, and initial droplet diameter on the ignition/burning behavior and ignition delay time were examined. The obtained results are as follows: (1) Ignition phenomena of suspended droplet were observed for all examined experimental conditions up to 400 cm/s. The orange emission observed at the moment of ignition occurs simultaneously over whole droplet surface except the top region of it. (2) The feature of the dependence of ignition delay time on the free-stream velocity is independent of the initial droplet temperature. With the increase of the free-stream velocity, up to 300 cm/s the ignition delay time decreases with decreasing dependency, and then the dependency increases more. (3) The ignition delay time increases with the increase of initial droplet diameter. The dependency increases as the initial droplet diameter increases. The ignition delay time extrapolated toward zero diameters from the obtained results becomes to be essentially zero. (author)

  17. Particles of bottom and suspended sediments: height of rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodzinskaya Anna Gennadievna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, characteristic values of dynamic sizes of bottom and suspended sediments, including their probabilistic assessment, are considered. The article presents the processing results in respect of the experimental data for bottom and suspended sediments, obtained in the laboratory environment using samples and filming methods. The experiments have proven that the dynamic hydraulic size determines the height of rise for the particles of the saltation load, rather than suspended ones. In the laboratory environment, the maximal height of rise is mainly driven by the relative flow depth. According to the assessment made by the co-authors, depths of flows employed in the experiments designated for the identification of heights of rises, were comparable to saltation heights of particles. Besides, the saltation height of particles, having relative density well below 2.65, nearly always exceeded half of the depth of the laboratory flow. Hydrodynamic conditions favourable for the separation and motion of artificial particles in coarse surface tanks are far different from the motion of sand particles on the bottom of lowland rivers. Values of hydraulic resistance ratios typical for laboratory experiments by far exceed their values typical for lowland rivers, and it means that the conditions of the experiments performed in the laboratory were similar to those typical for mountain rivers. The research findings have proven that the particle separation and motion pattern, if artificial particles are made of the materials demonstrating variable density and elasticity values and if loose particles travel over fixed ones, is different from the pattern typical for natural particles having variable coarseness.

  18. Super-bridges suspended over carbon nanotube cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinteri, Alberto; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2008-11-01

    In this paper the new concept of 'super-bridges', i.e. kilometre-long bridges suspended over carbon nanotube cables, is introduced. The analysis shows that the use of realistic (thus defective) carbon nanotube bundles as suspension cables can enlarge the current limit main span by a factor of ~3. Too large compliance and dynamic self-excited resonances could be avoided by additional strands, rendering the super-bridge anchored as a spider's cobweb. As an example, we have computed the limit main spans of the current existing 19 suspended-deck bridges longer than 1 km assuming them to have substituted their cables with carbon nanotube bundles (thus maintaining the same geometry, with the exception of the length) finding spans of up to ~6.3 km. We thus suggest that the design of the Messina bridge in Italy, which would require a main span of ~3.3 km, could benefit from the use of carbon nanotube bundles. We believe that their use represents a feasible and economically convenient solution. The plausibility of these affirmations is confirmed by a statistical analysis of the existing 100 longest suspended bridges, which follow a Zipf's law with an exponent of 1.1615: we have found a Moore-like (i.e. exponential) law, in which the doubling of the capacity (here the main span) per year is substituted by the factor 1.0138. Such a law predicts that the realization of the Messina bridge using conventional materials will only occur around the middle of the present century, whereas it could be expected in the near future if carbon nanotube bundles were used. A simple cost analysis concludes the paper.

  19. Super-bridges suspended over carbon nanotube cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpinteri, Alberto; Pugno, Nicola M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the new concept of 'super-bridges', i.e. kilometre-long bridges suspended over carbon nanotube cables, is introduced. The analysis shows that the use of realistic (thus defective) carbon nanotube bundles as suspension cables can enlarge the current limit main span by a factor of ∼3. Too large compliance and dynamic self-excited resonances could be avoided by additional strands, rendering the super-bridge anchored as a spider's cobweb. As an example, we have computed the limit main spans of the current existing 19 suspended-deck bridges longer than 1 km assuming them to have substituted their cables with carbon nanotube bundles (thus maintaining the same geometry, with the exception of the length) finding spans of up to ∼6.3 km. We thus suggest that the design of the Messina bridge in Italy, which would require a main span of ∼3.3 km, could benefit from the use of carbon nanotube bundles. We believe that their use represents a feasible and economically convenient solution. The plausibility of these affirmations is confirmed by a statistical analysis of the existing 100 longest suspended bridges, which follow a Zipf's law with an exponent of 1.1615: we have found a Moore-like (i.e. exponential) law, in which the doubling of the capacity (here the main span) per year is substituted by the factor 1.0138. Such a law predicts that the realization of the Messina bridge using conventional materials will only occur around the middle of the present century, whereas it could be expected in the near future if carbon nanotube bundles were used. A simple cost analysis concludes the paper.

  20. Analysis towards VMEM File of a Suspended Virtual Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zheng; Jin, Bo; Sun, Yongqing

    With the popularity of virtual machines, forensic investigators are challenged with more complicated situations, among which discovering the evidences in virtualized environment is of significant importance. This paper mainly analyzes the file suffixed with .vmem in VMware Workstation, which stores all pseudo-physical memory into an image. The internal file structure of .vmem file is studied and disclosed. Key information about processes and threads of a suspended virtual machine is revealed. Further investigation into the Windows XP SP3 heap contents is conducted and a proof-of-concept tool is provided. Different methods to obtain forensic memory images are introduced, with both advantages and limits analyzed. We conclude with an outlook.

  1. Easy process to obtain suspended graphene flakes on TEM grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Hugo; Fernandes, Joel; Moura, Cacilda; Schellenberg, Peter; Belsley, Michael; Alves, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Much of the ongoing research on graphene requires free-hanging (suspended) graphene to eliminate any influence from underlying substrates. Several methods have been developed for its preparation but they are either very complex or not completely reliable. Here, we describe a simple method for the transfer of graphene single layers from glass or silicon substrates onto TEM grids. The method uses a carrier film for the transfer process. By optimizing the process yields greater than 60% were achieved. The integrity of the transferred films was confirmed using Raman spectroscopy; successful suspension of both mono- and double-layer graphene sheets was obtained. (paper)

  2. The Ages in a Self-Suspended Nanoparticle Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Praveen

    2010-01-13

    Telomers ionically tethered to nanometer-sized particles yield self-suspended, nanoparticle-Iaden liquids with unusual dynamical features. By subjecting these suspensions to controlled, modest shear strains, we find that their flow behaviors observed using experiments performed on time scales of tens of seconds can be projected to obtain maps of their dynamical response on geological time scales. That such extraordinarily slow dynamic processes can be uncovered from real-time measurements by simply stretching a system provides a simple but powerful tool for interrogating extremely slow motions in other jammed physical states. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. LAGRANGIAN MODELING OF A SUSPENDED-SEDIMENT PULSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.

    1987-01-01

    The one-dimensional Lagrangian Transport Model (LTM) has been applied in a quasi two-dimensional manner to simulate the transport of a slug injection of microbeads in steady experimental flows. A stationary bed segment was positioned below each parcel location to simulate temporary storage of beads on the bottom of the flume. Only one degree of freedom was available for all three bead simulations. The results show the versatility of the LTM and the ability of the LTM to accurately simulate transport of fine suspended sediment.

  4. New pbysical methods used in the study of composition, electronic properties and surface phenomena of solid substances. I. Electronic spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toderean, A; Ilonca, Gh.

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of different kinds of interactions between solids and fotonic, respectively electronic and ionic beams, leads to the development of many new, very sensitive, physical methods for the study of solids. This monograph tries to present some of these methods, useful in compositional analysis, in the study of electronic properties and of the surface processes of solid substances. This is done from the point of view both of physical phenomena underlying them and of the information obtainable with such methods. But the whole monograph is limited only to the methods based on the electronic properties of the elements existing in the solid probes studied and this paper presents only those of them in which the detected beam is an electronic one, like: ELS, DAPS, ILS, AES, AEAPS, INS, TSS, XPS and UPS. (authors)

  5. Numerical Simulation of Flow and Suspended Sediment Transport in the Distributary Channel Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow and suspended sediment transport in distributary channel networks play an important role in the evolution of deltas and estuaries, as well as the coastal environment. In this study, a 1D flow and suspended sediment transport model is presented to simulate the hydrodynamics and suspended sediment transport in the distributary channel networks. The governing equations for river flow are the Saint-Venant equations and for suspended sediment transport are the nonequilibrium transport equations. The procedure of solving the governing equations is firstly to get the matrix form of the water level and suspended sediment concentration at all connected junctions by utilizing the transformation of the governing equations of the single channel. Secondly, the water level and suspended sediment concentration at all junctions can be obtained by solving these irregular spare matrix equations. Finally, the water level, discharge, and suspended sediment concentration at each river section can be calculated. The presented 1D flow and suspended sediment transport model has been applied to the Pearl River networks and can reproduce water levels, discharges, and suspended sediment concentration with good accuracy, indicating this that model can be used to simulate the hydrodynamics and suspended sediment concentration in the distributary channel networks.

  6. Water and suspended sediment dynamics in the Sungai Selangor estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak; Kamarudin Samuding; Nazrul Hizam Yusoff

    2000-01-01

    Observations of salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and tidal current velocity were made in the lower and along the longitudinal axis sungai Selangor estuary over near-spring cycles. The variations of these parameters at the measurement stations and along the channel are presented to illustrate the water and sediment dynamics in the estuary. The results shows that the Sungai Selangor estuary changes from a partially-mixed type during neaps to a well-mixed one during springs. promoted by stronger tidal energy during the higher tidal ranges. The strong neap density stratification is also promoted by the high river discharges during the measurement period maximum concentration of suspended sediment 2000 mg,'/) occurs during maximum current velocities both during flood and ebb. The maximum salinity was achieved during high water slack but the salt water was totally flushed out of estuary during low water springs. The longitudinal axis measurement indicates that a partially-developed zone of turbidity maximum with a sediment concentration over 1000 mg/l was observed at the limit of salt water intrusion in salinity range less than 1 ppt. Tidal pumping as oppose to the estuarine circulation is the more dominant factor in the maximum formation as the salt water is totally excluded at low water. (author)

  7. Suspended animation-like state protects mice from lethal hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Eric; Roth, Mark B

    2007-04-01

    Joseph Priestley observed the high burn rate of candles in pure oxygen and wondered if people would "live out too fast" if we were in the same environment. We hypothesize that sulfide, a natural reducer of oxygen that is made in many cell types, acts as a buffer to prevent unrestricted oxygen consumption. To test this, we administered sulfide in the form of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to mice (Mus musculus). As we have previously shown, H2S decreases the metabolic rate of mice by approximately 90% and induces a suspended animation-like state. Mice cannot survive for longer than 20 min when exposed to 5% oxygen. However, if mice are first put into a suspended animation-like state by a 20-min pretreatment with H2S and then are exposed to low oxygen, they can survive for more than 6.5 h in 5% oxygen with no apparent detrimental effects. In addition, if mice are exposed to a 20-min pretreatment with H2S followed by 1 h at 5% oxygen, they can then survive for several hours at oxygen tensions as low as 3%. We hypothesize that prior exposure to H2S reduces oxygen demand, therefore making it possible for the mice to survive with low oxygen supply. These results suggest that H2S may be useful to prevent damage associated with hypoxia.

  8. Elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rui, E-mail: rui.zhang@ed.ac.uk; Cheung, Rebecca [Scottish Microelectronics Centre, Alexander Crum Brown Road, The University of Edinburgh, King' s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); Koutsos, Vasileios [Institute for Materials and Processes, School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, King' s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FB (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-25

    We report the experimental determination of the elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe{sub 2}, a promising two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting material combined with high optical quality. The suspended WSe{sub 2} membranes have been fabricated by mechanical exfoliation of bulk WSe{sub 2} and transfer of the exfoliated multilayer WSe{sub 2} flakes onto SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates pre-patterned with hole arrays. Then, indentation experiments have been performed on these membranes with an atomic force microscope. The results show that the 2D elastic modulus of the multilayer WSe{sub 2} membranes increases linearly while the prestress decreases linearly as the number of layers increases. The interlayer interaction in WSe{sub 2} has been observed to be strong enough to prevent the interlayer sliding during the indentation experiments. The Young's modulus of multilayer WSe{sub 2} (167.3 ± 6.7 GPa) is statistically independent of the thickness of the membranes, whose value is about two thirds of other most investigated 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, namely, MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2}. Moreover, the multilayer WSe{sub 2} can endure ∼12.4 GPa stress and ∼7.3% strain without fracture or mechanical degradation. The 2D WSe{sub 2} can be an attractive semiconducting material for application in flexible optoelectronic devices and nano-electromechanical systems.

  9. KINETICS OF SUSPENDED EMULSION POLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-zhong Bao; Cheng-xi Wang; Zhi-ming Huang; Zhi-xue Weng

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of suspended emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), in which water acted as the dispersed phase and the mixture of MMA and cyclohexane as the continuous phase, was investigated. It showed that the initial polymerization rate (Rp0) and steady-state polymerization rate (Rp) were proportional to the mass ratio between water and oil phase, and increased as the polymerization temperature, the potassium persulphate concentration ([I]) and the Tween20 emulsifier concentration ([S]) increased. The relationships between the polymerization rate and [I] and [S] were obtained as follows: Rp0 ∝ [I]0.73[S]0.32 and Rp ∝ [I]0.71[S]0.23. The above exponents were close to those obtained from normal MMA emulsion polymerization. It also showed that the average molecular weight of the resulting poly(methyl methacrylate) decreased as the polymerization temperature, [I] and [S] increased. Thus, MMA suspended emulsion polymerization could be considered as a combination of many miniature emulsion polymerizations proceeding in water drops and obeyed the classical kinetics of MMA emulsion polymerization.

  10. Regional estimation of extreme suspended sediment concentrations using watershed characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramblay, Yves; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; St-Hilaire, André; Poulin, Jimmy

    2010-01-01

    SummaryThe number of stations monitoring daily suspended sediment concentration (SSC) has been decreasing since the 1980s in North America while suspended sediment is considered as a key variable for water quality. The objective of this study is to test the feasibility of regionalising extreme SSC, i.e. estimating SSC extremes values for ungauged basins. Annual maximum SSC for 72 rivers in Canada and USA were modelled with probability distributions in order to estimate quantiles corresponding to different return periods. Regionalisation techniques, originally developed for flood prediction in ungauged basins, were tested using the climatic, topographic, land cover and soils attributes of the watersheds. Two approaches were compared, using either physiographic characteristics or seasonality of extreme SSC to delineate the regions. Multiple regression models to estimate SSC quantiles as a function of watershed characteristics were built in each region, and compared to a global model including all sites. Regional estimates of SSC quantiles were compared with the local values. Results show that regional estimation of extreme SSC is more efficient than a global regression model including all sites. Groups/regions of stations have been identified, using either the watershed characteristics or the seasonality of occurrence for extreme SSC values providing a method to better describe the extreme events of SSC. The most important variables for predicting extreme SSC are the percentage of clay in the soils, precipitation intensity and forest cover.

  11. IUTAM symposium on hydrodynamic diffusion of suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.H. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrodynamic diffusion refers to the fluctuating motion of nonBrownian particles (or droplets or bubbles) which occurs in a dispersion due to multiparticle interactions. For example, in a concentrated sheared suspension, particles do not move along streamlines but instead exhibit fluctuating motions as they tumble around each other. This leads to a net migration of particles down gradients in particle concentration and in shear rate, due to the higher frequency of encounters of a test particle with other particles on the side of the test particle which has higher concentration or shear rate. As another example, suspended particles subject to sedimentation, centrifugation, or fluidization, do not generally move relative to the fluid with a constant velocity, but instead experience diffusion-like fluctuations in velocity due to interactions with neighboring particles and the resulting variation in the microstructure or configuration of the suspended particles. In flowing granular materials, the particles interact through direct collisions or contacts (rather than through the surrounding fluid); these collisions also cause the particles to undergo fluctuating motions characteristic of diffusion processes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. A Passively-Suspended Tesla Pump Left Ventricular Assist Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izraelev, Valentin; Weiss, William J.; Fritz, Bryan; Newswanger, Raymond K.; Paterson, Eric G.; Snyder, Alan; Medvitz, Richard B.; Cysyk, Joshua; Pae, Walter E.; Hicks, Dennis; Lukic, Branka; Rosenberg, Gerson

    2009-01-01

    The design and initial test results of a new passively suspended Tesla type LAVD blood pump are described. CFD analysis was used in the design of the pump. Overall size of the prototype device is 50 mm in diameter and 75 mm in length. The pump rotor has a density lower than that of blood and when spinning inside the stator in blood it creates a buoyant centering force that suspends the rotor in the radial direction. The axial magnetic force between the rotor and stator restrain the rotor in the axial direction. The pump is capable of pumping up to 10 liters/min at a 70 mmHg head rise at 8000 RPM. The pump has demonstrated a normalized index of hemolysis level below .02 mg/dL for flows between 2 and 9.7 L/min. An inlet pressure sensor has also been incorporated into the inlet cannula wall and will be used for control purposes. One initial in vivo study showed an encouraging result. Further CFD modeling refinements are planned as well as endurance testing of the device. PMID:19770799

  13. Solid phase transport in series fluidised bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    In a multistage counter-current fluidised bed column, fluidised bed material is recycled within each stage and a fraction is continuously withdrawn to the next lower stage at a rate dependent only on the rate of removal of the fluidised bed material from the base of the column. It has a particular application to the ion exchange treatment of liquids containing suspended solids, for example leach solutions from uranium ores. (author)

  14. Influence of Wheel Eccentricity on Vertical Vibration of Suspended Monorail Vehicle: Experiment and Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaikai Lv; Kaiyun Wang; Zhihui Chen; Chengbiao Cai; Lirong Guo

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of wheel eccentricity on vertical vibration of suspended monorail vehicle based on experiment and simulation. Two sets of tests are conducted in the first Chinese suspended monorail, and the tested acceleration is analyzed and exhibited. A multibody dynamic model of the suspended monorail vehicle is established to simulate the vertical vibration of car body excited by wheel eccentricity. The results show that there are three factors which may cause an abn...

  15. Biohydrogen production in the suspended and attached microbial growth systems from waste pastry hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Hu, Yunyi; Li, Shiyi; Li, Feifei; Tang, Junhong

    2016-10-01

    Waste pastry was hydrolyzed by glucoamylase and protease which were obtained from solid state fermentation of Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae to produce waste pastry hydrolysate. Then, the effects of hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (4-12h) on hydrogen production rate (HPR) in the suspended microbial growth system (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) and attached microbial growth system (continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor, CMISR) from waste pastry hydrolysate were investigated. The maximum HPRs of CSTR (201.8mL/(h·L)) and CMISR (255.3mL/(h·L)) were obtained at HRT of 6h and 4h, respectively. The first-order reaction could be used to describe the enzymatic hydrolysis of waste pastry. The carbon content of the waste pastry remained 22.8% in the undigested waste pastry and consumed 77.2% for carbon dioxide and soluble microbial products. To our knowledge, this is the first study which reports biohydrogen production from waste pastry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended soil – Comparison of two different soil fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian Ran; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation (EDR) can be used for removal of heavy metals from suspended soil, which allows for the soil remediation to be a continuous process. The present paper focused on the processing parameters for remediation of a soil polluted with Cu and As from wood preservation. Six...... electrodialytic treatments lasting from 5 to 22 days with different liquid to solid ratio (L/S) and current intensity were conducted. Among treatments, the highest removal was obtained from the soil fines with 5mA current at L/S 3.5 after 22 days where 96% of Cu and 64% of As were removed. Comparing the removal...... from the original soil and the soil fines in experiments with identical charge transportation, higher removal efficiency was observed from the soil fines. Constant current with 5mA could be maintained at L/S 3.5 for the soil fines while not for the original soil. Doubling current to 10mA could...

  17. THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE, UNIDIRECTIONAL CHARTER OF THE DISSOLVED SALTS AND SUSPENDED LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Florea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is underlined that the hydrologic cycle in nature, reversible and regenerating of fresh water, carries out also an unidirectional and irreversible circulation – by means of a fragment of the hydrologic cycle – of the dissolved salts and stream’s suspended load, entailed by the water drained from continents to ocean. The trend is to transfer soluble salts from land to ocean in the same time with the running water on land in the portion of the hydrologic cycle which refers to the water transfer from continents to ocean in order to equilibrate the annual water balance of the hydrologic cycle. But, one can realize here and there some local salt accumulations in salt soils or in salt lakes within areas without drainage in arid climate; these salts accumulations are cases of local hydrologic cycles „grafted” along the way of water on land (to ocean. The energy necessary to the hydrologic cycle in nature is delivered by the Sun, and the entropy remains at a low level as a consequence of the elimination in this cycle of water vapors with high entropy, and of the receiving of liquid or solid water with low entropy, so that the annual level of entropy is maintained at a low level.

  18. Experimental study on mechanism and shape characteristics of suspended flexible dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-zhong; Fan, Hong-xia; Zhu, Li-jun

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic structures such as groin, longitudinal dike and seawall are common in water conservancy and water transportation engineering projects at home and abroad, which have long been dominated by solid mass structural form. With brush and stone as building materials, this kind of structure has an obvious engineering effect. However, it not only requires huge capital investments, but also has negative impacts on the ecological environment. The suspended flexible dam is an innovative engineering measure, and few theoretical and experimental researches of this type dam can be found at present. This paper studies the mechanism and shape characteristics of this dam and obtains the dynamic equilibrium equation of flexible dam, the float buoyancy expression, and the condition for transformation among three forms of the underwater shape of the dam. The results are valuable in engineering application and can be used as the reference for the future work due to the distinctive design philosophy, the small negative effects on environment and the consistency for sustainable development.

  19. Suspended particle and drug ingredient concentrations in hospital dispensaries and implications for pharmacists' working environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Hioki, Atsushi; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Hiroki; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the present status of working environments for pharmacists, including the concentrations of suspended particles and suspended drug ingredients in dispensaries. We conducted a survey on the work processes and working environment in 15 hospital dispensaries, and measured the concentrations of suspended particles and suspended drug ingredients using digital dust counter and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively. Of 25 types of powdered drugs that were frequently handled in the 15 dispensaries surveyed, 11 could be quantitatively determined. The amounts of suspended particles were relatively high, but below the reference value, in three dispensaries without dust collectors. The sedative-hypnotic drug zopiclone was detected in the suspended particles at one dispensary that was not equipped with dust collectors, and the antipyretic and analgesic drug acetaminophen was detected in two dispensaries equipped with dust collectors. There was no correlation between the daily number of prescriptions containing powdered drugs and the concentration of suspended particles in dispensaries. On the basis of the suspended particle concentrations measured, we concluded that dust collectors were effective in these dispensaries. However, suspended drug ingredients were detected also in dispensaries with dust collectors. These results suggest that the drug dust control systems of individual dispensaries should be properly installed and managed.

  20. Remote sensing of suspended sediment water research: principles, methods, and progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Zhang, Jing

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the principle, data, methods and steps in suspended sediment research by using remote sensing, summed up some representative models and methods, and analyzes the deficiencies of existing methods. Combined with the recent progress of remote sensing theory and application in water suspended sediment research, we introduced in some data processing methods such as atmospheric correction method, adjacent effect correction, and some intelligence algorithms such as neural networks, genetic algorithms, support vector machines into the suspended sediment inversion research, combined with other geographic information, based on Bayesian theory, we improved the suspended sediment inversion precision, and aim to give references to the related researchers.

  1. An experimental study on suspended sodium droplet combustion (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenji

    2004-03-01

    As part of studies for phenomenological investigation of sodium droplet burning behavior, in our previous experimental studies for suspended single sodium droplet, behavior of ignition process and succeeding combustion, ignition delay time, and droplet temperature history had been investigated. In the present study, by using 4 mm diam. suspended sodium droplet, combustion experiments were performed for extended free-stream velocity range of dry air up to 200 cm/s, and for the initial droplet temperature T i =300degC and 400degC, and the effects of the free-stream velocity and initial droplet temperature on the ignition/burning behavior and ignition delay time were examined by using high speed video camera. The obtained experimental results are as follows: (1) Ignition phenomena of suspended spherical shape droplet were observed for all examined experimental conductions except the case of free-stream velocity U=200 cm/s at 300degC, where detachment of droplet from the support due to strained oxide film occurred. (2) The ignition delay time defined as the time to evolution of orange-light emitting zone or flame zone decreases with the increase of the free-stream velocity or of initial droplet temperature. Examples of typical ignition delay time are 0.68 s at U=20 cm/s, 0.52 s at U=100 cm/s, and 0.37 s at 200 cm/s for T i =400degC. (3) The orange-light emission at the moment of ignition occurs simultaneously over whole surface except the top region of the droplet. The intensity of the emission at the moment of ignition takes its maximum at the bottom region or upstream region of the droplet, and the emission intensity during the stable burning period increases with the increase of U. (4) When T i is 300degC, formation of temporal multiple short projections are observed before ignition for all examined free-stream velocities. The projections often do not disappear before ignition when the velocity is relatively high. (5) The layer or cloud composed of aerosol is formed

  2. Mixing and solid suspension in a stirred precipitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.P.

    1986-04-01

    Full-scale mixing and solid suspension studies have been conducted to determine the optimum agitator design for precipitators used in plutonium processing. Design considerations include the geometry of precipitator vessels, feed locations, flow patterns, and product requirements. Evaluations of various agitator designs are based on their capabilities: (1) to achieve uniform mixing of reactants in minimum time, (2) to suspend slurry uniformly throughout the vessel, and (3) to minimize power consumption without inducing air entrainment. Tests of full-scale agitator designs showed that significant improvements in mixing, solid suspension, and energy consumption were achieved

  3. Observation of Van Hove Singularities and Temperature Dependence of Electrical Characteristics in Suspended Carbon Nanotube Schottky Barrier Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Siyu; Nshimiyimana, Jean Pierre; Deng, Ya; Hu, Xiao; Chi, Xiannian; Wu, Pei; Liu, Jia; Chu, Weiguo; Sun, Lianfeng

    2018-06-01

    A Van Hove singularity (VHS) is a singularity in the phonon or electronic density of states of a crystalline solid. When the Fermi energy is close to the VHS, instabilities will occur, which can give rise to new phases of matter with desirable properties. However, the position of the VHS in the band structure cannot be changed in most materials. In this work, we demonstrate that the carrier densities required to approach the VHS are reached by gating in a suspended carbon nanotube Schottky barrier transistor. Critical saddle points were observed in regions of both positive and negative gate voltage, and the conductance flattened out when the gate voltage exceeded the critical value. These novel physical phenomena were evident when the temperature is below 100 K. Further, the temperature dependence of the electrical characteristics was also investigated in this type of Schottky barrier transistor.

  4. 76 FR 39847 - Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation; Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... duty order on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of... Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation; Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of Antidumping... review of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on solid fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate...

  5. 76 FR 49449 - Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order on Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... nitrate (``ammonium nitrate'') from the Russian Federation (``Russia'') would likely lead to continuation... Duty Order on Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation AGENCY: Import... ammonium nitrate suspended investigation. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 11202...

  6. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  7. Interactions of radionuclides with sediments and suspended particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter reviews fundamental principles of the rates and extents of radionuclide uptake by sedimentary and suspended particles, defines sediment-water partition coefficients, and shows how they can explain first order features of radionuclide partitioning in aquatic environments. It then explains how sediment accumulation and mixing rates can be calculated from profiles of radionuclide activity measured in sediment cores. Such rates can be combined with profiles of other chemicals to establish the extent of temporal changes in chemical composition of the overlying water body. Since sediment processing and counting in the laboratory take much longer than the time required to collect the sample, suggestions are made to ensure that the sediment samples are not ruined or comprised during collection and handling in the field, and so are worth all the subsequent time and effort to analyze. (author)

  8. Heat Transfer Correlations for Free Convection from Suspended Microheaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David GOSSELIN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Portability and autonomy for biomedical diagnostic devices are two rising requirements. It is recognized that low-energy heating of such portable devices is of utmost importance for molecular recognition. This work focuses on screen-printed microheaters based on on Joule effect, which constitute an interesting solution for low-energy heating. An experimental study of the natural convection phenomena occurring with such microheaters is conducted. When they are suspended in the air, and because of the thinness of the supporting film, it is shown that the contributions of both the upward and downward faces have to be taken into account. A total Nusselt number and a total convective heat transfer coefficient have been used to describe the natural convection around these microheaters. In addition a relation between the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number is derived, leading to an accurate prediction of the heating temperature (MRE< 2 %.

  9. Suspended 3D pyrolytic carbon microelectrodes for electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Caviglia, Claudia; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    2017-01-01

    with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using potassium ferri-ferrocyanide redox probe in a custom made batch system with magnetic clamping. Different 3D pyrolytic carbon microelectrodes were compared and the optimal design displayed twice the peak current and half the charge transfer......Carbon microelectrodes have a wide range of applications because of their unique material properties and biocompatibility. This work presents the fabrication and characterization of suspended pyrolytic carbon microstructures serving as three-dimensional (3D) carbon microelectrodes...... for electrochemical applications. A 3D polymer template in epoxy based photoresist (SU-8) was fabricated with multiple steps of UV photolithography and pyrolysed at 900 °C to obtain 3D carbon microelectrodes. The pyrolytic carbon microstructures were characterized by SEM, Raman spectroscopy and XPS to determine...

  10. Fluorine and sulfur simultaneously co-doped suspended graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzzi, C.; Sezen, H.; Amati, M.; Gregoratti, L.; Reckinger, N.; Colomer, J.-F.; Snyders, R.; Bittencourt, C.; Scardamaglia, M.

    2017-11-01

    Suspended graphene flakes are exposed simultaneously to fluorine and sulfur ions produced by the μ-wave plasma discharge of the SF6 precursor gas. The microscopic and spectroscopic analyses, performed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and photoelectron spectromicroscopy, show the homogeneity in functionalization yield over the graphene flakes with F and S atoms covalently bonded to the carbon lattice. This promising surface shows potential for several applications ranging from biomolecule immobilization to lithium battery and hydrogen storage devices. The present co-doping process is an optimal strategy to engineer the graphene surface with a concurrent hydrophobic character, thanks to the fluorine atoms, and a high affinity with metal nanoparticles due to the presence of sulfur atoms.

  11. Drift of suspended ferromagnetic particles due to the Magnus effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, S. I.; Pedchenko, B. O.

    2017-01-01

    A minimal system of equations is introduced and applied to study the drift motion of ferromagnetic particles suspended in a viscous fluid and subjected to a time-periodic driving force and a nonuniformly rotating magnetic field. It is demonstrated that the synchronized translational and rotational oscillations of these particles are accompanied by their drift in a preferred direction, which occurs under the action of the Magnus force. We calculate both analytically and numerically the drift velocity of particles characterized by single-domain cores and nonmagnetic shells and show that there are two types of drift, unidirectional and bidirectional, which can be realized in suspensions composed of particles with different core-shell ratios. The possibility of using the phenomenon of bidirectional drift for the separation of core-shell particles in suspensions is also discussed.

  12. Suspended particulate matter in dwellings - the impact of tobacco smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revsbech, P.; Korsgaard, J.; Lundqvist, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The indoor concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was measured in 44 retrofitted and tight dwellings, which had electric cooking and were central heated and where the basic ventilation rate in median amounted 0.23 air changes per hour as measured with a tracer dilution method. The indoor concentration of SPM was in medium 230 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ with a strong correlation to the tobacco consumption (r/sub s/ = 0.716), but with no correlation to the frequency of airing or the basic ventilation rate. Tobacco smoking seems to be the main indoor source of SPM in contemporary dwellings. The importance of these findings is underlined by epidemiologic studies on passive smoking and health. Air quality standards for the ambient air are based on certain risk groups such as infants, children, persons with chronic obstructive lung disorders, and indoor air standards should be based on the same concepts of health protection.

  13. Elemental composition of suspended particles released in refuse incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Mizohata, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Suspended particles released in refuse incineration were subjected to multielement analysis by means of instrumental neutron activation method and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The analytical results were compared with the elemental concentrations observed in the urban atmosphere, and the contribution of the refuse incineration to the urban atmosphere was roughly estimated. Greenberg et al. pointed out on the basis of their analyses that the refuse incineration can account for major portions of the Zn, Cd and Sb observed on urban aerosols. According to our results, the contribution of the refuse incineration for Zn, Cd and Sb is not negligible, but not so serious as in U.S.A. big cities. In Japan big cities there must be other more important sources of these elements. (author)

  14. Non-intrusive measurement and hydrodynamics characterization of gas–solid fluidized beds: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jingyuan; Yan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Gas-solid fluidization is a well-established technique to suspend or transport particles and has been applied in a variety of industrial processes. Nevertheless, our knowledge of fluidization hydrodynamics is still limited for the design, scale-up and operation optimization of fluidized bed reactors. It is therefore essential to characterize the two-phase flow behaviours in gas-solid fluidized beds and monitor the fluidization processes for control and optimization. A range of non-intrusive t...

  15. Geomorphic versus land use controls on suspended sediment rating curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, P.; Vaughan, A. A.; Fisher, A. C. N.

    2017-12-01

    The relation between river discharge (Q) and suspended sediment (SS) concentration reflects the degree to which sediment sources are accessed or depleted across the range of flow conditions. Increased availability of high resolution topography and land use data greatly enhance our ability to evaluate linkages between characteristics of these sediment rating curves (SRCs) and the geomorphic features that influence them. We evaluated Q-SS relations at 45 gages throughout Minnesota, USA representing a wide variety of landscape settings in terms of topography, land use, and geologic history. We characterized the SRCs according to the overall shape, steepness (exponent), vertical offset (coefficient) and SS concentration under low flow (90% exceedance) conditions. Rivers exhibited three distinct SRC shapes, simple power functions, threshold power functions and peaked power functions. We used random forest models to analyze relations between SRC parameters and attributes of the watershed as well as the near-channel environment. The model correctly classified 78% of SRC shapes and explained 60% of variance in the SRC exponent, 43% of the SRC coefficient for rising limb samples, and 45% of variance under low flow conditions. Notably, the random forest models predict that near-channel morphology predominately controls both the shape and steepness of the sediment rating curves. Land use predominately controls the vertical offset (coefficient) and SS concentration under low flow conditions. These findings suggest that land use and watershed restoration practices may have little capacity to alter the shape and steepness of these curves as these characteristics may be dictated by the geologic and geomorphic setting. Rather, human influences in the watershed may exhibit the greatest influence on suspended sediment concentrations at moderate to low flows. Criteria to evaluate improvements in water quality as a result of changes in land management might be most meaningful if they

  16. Estimation of suspended sediment concentration in rivers using acoustic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elçi, Sebnem; Aydin, Ramazan; Work, Paul A

    2009-12-01

    Acoustic Doppler current meters (ADV, ADCP, and ADP) are widely used in water systems to measure flow velocities and velocity profiles. Although these meters are designed for flow velocity measurements, they can also provide information defining the quantity of particulate matter in the water, after appropriate calibration. When an acoustic instrument is calibrated for a water system, no additional sensor is needed to measure suspended sediment concentration (SSC). This provides the simultaneous measurements of velocity and concentration required for most sediment transport studies. The performance of acoustic Doppler current meters for measuring SSC was investigated in different studies where signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and suspended sediment concentration were related using different formulations. However, these studies were each limited to a single study site where neither the effect of particle size nor the effect of temperature was investigated. In this study, different parameters that affect the performance of an ADV for the prediction of SSC are investigated. In order to investigate the reliability of an ADV for SSC measurements in different environments, flow and SSC measurements were made in different streams located in the Aegean region of Turkey having different soil types. Soil samples were collected from all measuring stations and particle size analysis was conducted by mechanical means. Multivariate analysis was utilized to investigate the effect of soil type and water temperature on the measurements. Statistical analysis indicates that SNR readings ob tained from the ADV are affected by water temperature and particle size distribution of the soil, as expected, and a prediction model is presented relating SNR readings to SSC mea surements where both water temperature and sediment characteristics type are incorporated into the model. The coefficients of the suggested model were obtained using the multivariate anal ysis. Effect of high turbidity

  17. Near bed suspended sediment flux by single turbulent events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirshahi, Seyed Mohammad; Kwoll, Eva; Winter, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The role of small scale single turbulent events in the vertical mixing of near bed suspended sediments was explored in a shallow shelf sea environment. High frequency velocity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC; calibrated from the backscatter intensity) were collected using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV). Using quadrant analysis, the despiked velocity time series was divided into turbulent events and small background fluctuations. Reynolds stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) calculated from all velocity samples, were compared to the same turbulent statistics calculated only from velocity samples classified as turbulent events (Reevents and TKEevents). The comparison showed that Reevents and TKEevents was increased 3 and 1.6 times, respectively, when small background fluctuations were removed and that the correlation with SSC for TKE could be improved through removal of the latter. The correlation between instantaneous vertical turbulent flux (w ‧) and SSC fluctuations (SSC ‧) exhibits a tidal pattern with the maximum correlation at peak ebb and flood currents, when strong turbulent events appear. Individual turbulent events were characterized by type, strength, duration and length. Cumulative vertical turbulent sediment fluxes and average SSC associated with individual turbulent events were calculated. Over the tidal cycle, ejections and sweeps were the most dominant events, transporting 50% and 36% of the cumulative vertical turbulent event sediment flux, respectively. Although the contribution of outward interactions to the vertical turbulent event sediment flux was low (11%), single outward interaction events were capable of inducing similar SSC ‧ as sweep events. The results suggest that on time scales of tens of minutes to hours, TKE may be appropriate to quantify turbulence in sediment transport studies, but that event characteristics, particular the upward turbulent flux need to be accounted for when considering sediment transport

  18. Comparison of three persulfate digestion methods for total phosphorus analysis and estimation of suspended sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayton, Elizabeth Ann; Whitacre, Shane; Holloman, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    As a result of impairments to fresh surface water quality due to phosphorus enrichment, substantial research effort has been put forth to quantify agricultural runoff phosphorus as related to on-field practices. While the analysis of runoff dissolved phosphorus is well prescribed and leaves little room for variability in methodology, there are several methods and variations of sample preparation reagents as well as analysis procedures for determining runoff total phosphorus. Due to the variation in methodology for determination of total phosphorus and an additional laboratory procedure required to measure suspended solids, the objectives of the current study are to i. compare the performance of three persulfate digestion methods (Acid Persulfate, USGS, and Alkaline Persulfate) for total phosphorus percent recovery across a wide range of suspended sediments (SS), and ii. evaluate the ability of using Al and/or Fe in digestion solution to predict SS as a surrogate to the traditional gravimetric method. Percent recovery of total phosphorus was determined using suspensions prepared from soils collected from 21 agricultural fields in Ohio. The Acid Persulfate method was most effective, with an average total phosphorus percent recovery of 96.6%. The second most effective method was the USGS with an average total phosphorus recovery of 76.1%. However, the Alkaline Persulfate method performed poorly with an average 24.5% total phosphorus recovery. As a result application of Alkaline Persulfate digestion to edge of field monitoring may drastically underestimated runoff total phosphorus. In addition to excellent recovery of total phosphorus, the Acid Persulfate method combined with analysis of Al and Fe by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry provides a robust estimate of total SS. Due to the large quantity of samples that can result from water quality monitoring, an indirect measure of total SS could be very valuable when time and budget constraints limit

  19. Effects of a polymeric organic coagulant for industrial mineral oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The removal of chemical oxidation demand (COD), soap oil and grease (SOG), total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity from the MOW were used as the response variables for the coagulation flotation process. This was done with a standard dissolved air flotation jar test. The results show that the actual COD, SOG, TSS ...

  20. Turbidity-based sediment monitoring in northern Thailand: Hysteresis, variability, and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual total suspended solid (TSS) loads in the Mae Sa Catchment in northern Thailand, determined with an automated, turbidity-based monitoring approach, were approximately 62,000, 33,000, and 14,000 Mg during the three years of observation. These loads were equivalent to basin y...

  1. 40 CFR 418.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality of pollutants or pollutant properties, controlled by this section, which may be discharged by a... exceed— Total phosphorus (as P) 105 35 Fluoride 75 25 TSS 150 50 The total suspended solid limitation set...) Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall not exceed— Total phosphorus...

  2. Variation of physico-chemical parameters along a river transect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were monitored at 10 sites along the Okavango–Boro–Thamalakane–Lake Ngami system almost fortnightly from June 2008 to June 2010. Water quality in the delta was generally good, ...

  3. Predicting the Effects of Water Quality on the Growth of Thalassia testudinum in Tampa Bay with a Dynamic Simile-Based Model Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe a seagrass growth (SGG) model that is coupled to a water quality (WQ) model that includes the effects of phytoplankton (chlorophyll), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and suspended solids (TSS) on water clarity. Phytoplankton growth was adjusted daily for PAR (...

  4. STREAMFLOW AND WATER QUALITY REGRESSION MODELING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... downstream Obigbo station show: consistent time-trends in degree of contamination; linear and non-linear relationships for water quality models against total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended sediment (TSS), chloride, pH and sulphate; and non-linear relationship for streamflow and water quality transport models.

  5. Effects of Quebracho Tannin on Recovery of Colloidal Gold from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considered effects of Quebracho Tannin (QT) on recovery of gold from the oxidized flotation concentrate wash liquor. The effect of Quebracho Tannin on Total Suspended Solids (TSS) was also established. This research established that the gold lost to tailings was not soluble in the effluent but was mainly in the ...

  6. DEMFIL - treatment of stormwater for recreational use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørud, Mai; Nielsen, Katrine; Skau Damskier, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    for flocculation for its feasibility of particle removal. Secondary, the particulate pollution in the separate road runoff should be assessed. The road runoff was found not to be highly contaminated with particle pollution, here measured as turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS). The particles were generally...

  7. 78 FR 25423 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... for the Secretary to review sales of merchandise by an exporter (or a producer if that producer also..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... review of that antidumping or countervailing duty order, finding, or suspended investigation. All...

  8. 78 FR 13858 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... for the Secretary to review sales of merchandise by an exporter (or a producer if that producer also..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... review of that antidumping or countervailing duty order, finding, or suspended investigation. All...

  9. 78 FR 39710 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... exporters.\\2\\ If the interested party intends for the Secretary to review sales of merchandise by an..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... review of that antidumping or countervailing duty order, finding, or suspended investigation. All...

  10. 78 FR 54235 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... exporters.\\2\\ If the interested party intends for the Secretary to review sales of merchandise by an..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... review of that antidumping or countervailing duty order, finding, or suspended investigation. All...

  11. 77 FR 59894 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... for the Secretary to review sales of merchandise by an exporter (or a producer if that producer also..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... review of that antidumping or countervailing duty order, finding, or suspended investigation. All...

  12. 78 FR 33061 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... exporters.\\2\\ If the interested party intends for the Secretary to review sales of merchandise by an..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... review of that antidumping or countervailing duty order, finding, or suspended investigation. All...

  13. 77 FR 44233 - Clothianidin; Emergency Petition To Suspend; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0344; FRL-9355-1] Clothianidin; Emergency.... SUMMARY: PANNA and others submitted a request for the EPA to immediately suspend Clothianidin and take... the EPA suspend registrations for the insecticide clothianidin for the four following reasons: (1) To...

  14. 77 FR 70142 - Initialed Draft Revision to the Agreement Suspending the Antidumping Investigation on Certain Hot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... the Agreement Suspending the Antidumping Investigation on Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon... revision to the Agreement Suspending the Antidumping Investigation on Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon...'') investigation on hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel products (``hot-rolled steel'') from the Russian...

  15. Suspended sediment behavior in a coastal dry-summer subtropical catchment: Effects of hydrologic preconditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation in fluvial suspended sediment–discharge behavior is generally thought to be the product of changes in processes governing the delivery of sediment and water to the channel. The objective of this study was to infer sediment supply dynamics from the response of suspended ...

  16. On the influence of suspended sediment transport on the generation of offshore sand waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterlini-Van der Meer, Fenneke; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van den Berg, J.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Uijttewaal, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Sand waves are bed-forms occurring in shallow seas. Although their characteristics are mainly affected by bed load transport, during rough weather suspended sediment transport can influence their characteristics. As a first step to model these influences, we added suspended sediment transport to a

  17. 19 CFR 351.222 - Revocation of orders; termination of suspended investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... orders; termination of suspended investigations. (a) Introduction. “Revocation” is a term of art that... that: (i) Producers accounting for substantially all of the production of the domestic like product to... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of orders; termination of suspended...

  18. Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): Impact of extreme storms and floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulses, C.; Estournel, C.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Palanques, A.

    2008-01-01

    In situ observations were combined with 3D modeling to gain understanding of and to quantify the suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea). The outputs of a hydrodynamic–sediment transport coupled model were compared to near-bottom current and suspended sediment

  19. 20 CFR 408.802 - When will we suspend your SVB payments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....802 Section 408.802 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Suspension § 408.802 When will we suspend your SVB... underway for a substitute representative payee.) (b) Effect of suspension. When we correctly suspend your...

  20. Treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater using a sequential anaerobic-aerobic moving-bed biofilm reactor system based on suspended ceramsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mang; Gu, Li-Peng; Xu, Wen-Hao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel suspended ceramsite was prepared, which has high strength, optimum density (close to water), and high porosity. The ceramsite was used to feed a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system with an anaerobic-aerobic (A/O) arrangement to treat petroleum refinery wastewater for simultaneous removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the anaerobic-aerobic MBBR system was varied from 72 to 18 h. The anaerobic-aerobic system had a strong tolerance to shock loading. Compared with the professional emission standard of China, the effluent concentrations of COD and NH3-N in the system could satisfy grade I at HRTs of 72 and 36 h, and grade II at HRT of 18 h. The average sludge yield of the anaerobic reactor was estimated to be 0.0575 g suspended solid/g CODremoved. This work demonstrated that the anaerobic-aerobic MBBR system using the suspended ceramsite as bio-carrier could be applied to achieving high wastewater treatment efficiency.

  1. Suspended HOPG nanosheets for HOPG nanoresonator engineering and new carbon nanostructure synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, F; Debray, A; Martin, P; Fujita, H; Kawakatsu, H

    2006-01-01

    Suspended highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) nanosheets (10-300 nm thick) were created by direct mechanical cleavage of a bulk HOPG crystal onto silicon micropillars and microtracks. We show that suspended HOPG nanosheets can be used to engineer HOPG nanoresonators such as membranes, bridges, and cantilevers as thin as 28 carbon atom layers. We measured by Doppler laser heterodyne interferometry that the discrete vibration modes of an HOPG nanosheet membrane and the resonance frequency of a FIB-created HOPG microcantilever lie in the MHz frequency regime. Moreover, a new carbon nanostructure, named 'nanolace', was synthesized by focused ion beam (FIB) sputtering of suspended HOPG nanosheets. Graphite nanosheets suspended on micropillars were eroded by a FIB to create self-oriented pseudo-periodical ripples. Additional sputtering and subsequent milling of these ripples led to the formation of honeycomb-like shaped nanolaces suspended and linked by ribbons

  2. Status of Suspended Particulate Matters Pollution at Traditional Markets in Makassar City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, Sri; Fahrunnisa

    2018-03-01

    Research on the status of suspended particulate matters pollution in four traditional markets located in Makassar city has been done. The purpose of this research is to know the air quality in the traditional market areas, especially caused by suspended particulate matters. The background of this research is because traders who trade in traditional markets generally peddle their goods along dusty roads and suspended particulate matters in dust can be inhaled when the vehicle passes. These suspended particulate matters pollutant can cause lung diseases. The results showed that the level of suspended particulate matters pollution fluctuates every year depending on the local wind speed, humidity, and temperature. Research results also showed the values were over the standard value according to the governor of South Sulawesi regulation.

  3. Ultraclean individual suspended single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyu; Zhang, Jian; Nshimiyimana, Jean Pierre; Chi, Xiannian; Hu, Xiao; Wu, Pei; Liu, Jia; Wang, Gongtang; Sun, Lianfeng

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we report an effective technique of fabricating ultraclean individual suspended single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) transistors. The surface tension of molten silver is utilized to suspend an individual SWNT between a pair of Pd electrodes during annealing treatment. This approach avoids the usage and the residues of organic resist attached to SWNTs, resulting ultraclean SWNT devices. And the resistance per micrometer of suspended SWNTs is found to be smaller than that of non-suspended SWNTs, indicating the effect of the substrate on the electrical properties of SWNTs. The ON-state resistance (˜50 kΩ), mobility of 8600 cm2 V-1 s-1 and large on/off ratio (˜105) of semiconducting suspended SWNT devices indicate its advantages and potential applications.

  4. The impacts of land reclamation on suspended-sediment dynamics in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guan Dong; Wang, Xiao Hua; Bao, Xian Wen; Song, Dehai; Lin, Xiao Pei; Qiao, Lu Lu

    2018-06-01

    A three-dimensional, high-resolution tidal model coupled with the UNSW sediment model (UNSW-Sed) based on Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) was set up to study the suspended-sediment dynamics and its change in Jiaozhou Bay (JZB) due to land reclamation over the period 1935 to 2008. During the past decades, a large amount of tidal flats were lost due to land reclamation. Other than modulating the tides, the tidal flats are a primary source for sediment resuspensions, leading to turbidity maxima nearshore. The tidal dynamics are dominant in controlling the suspended-sediment dynamics in JZB and have experienced significant changes with the loss of tidal flats due to the land reclamation. The sediment model coupled with the tide model was used to investigate the changes in suspended-sediment dynamics due to the land reclamation from 1935 to 2008, including suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) and the horizontal suspended-sediment fluxes. This model can predict the general patterns of the spatial and temporal variation of SSC. The model was applied to investigate how the net transport of suspended sediments between JZB and its adjacent sea areas changed with land reclamation: in 1935 the net movement of suspended sediments was from JZB to the adjacent sea (erosion for JZB), primarily caused by horizontal advection associated with a horizontal gradient in the SSC; This seaward transport (erosion for JZB) had gradually declined from 1935 to 2008. If land reclamation on a large scale is continued in future, the net transport between JZB and the adjacent sea would turn landward and JZB would switch from erosion to siltation due to the impact of land reclamation on the horizontal advection of suspended sediments. We also evaluate the primary physical mechanisms including advection of suspended sediments, settling lag and tidal asymmetry, which control the suspended-sediment dynamics with the process of land reclamation.

  5. An experimental study on suspended sodium droplet combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenji

    2003-03-01

    As part of studies for phenomenological investigation of sodium droplet burning behavior, in our previous experimental studies, ignition process and succeeding combustion of suspended single sodium droplet had been investigated by using high speed movie camera, and a temperature measurement system feasible for the experiment had been developed. In the present study, by using 4 mm diam. suspended sodium droplet, combustion experiments were performed for the free-stream velocity of dry air flow of 20 to 60 cm/s, and for the initial droplet temperature of 280 to 400degC, and the effects of the free-stream velocity and initial droplet temperature on the ignition behavior and droplet temperature variation with time were examined by using high speed movie camera and sheath-type fine thermocouple. The experimental results are as follows: (1) When the initial droplet temperature is less than 290degC, before ignition the oxide film accompanied with vertical streak appeared and the droplet turned to teardrop shape. (2) The ignition delay time defined as the time to evolution of orange color light emission zone or flame zone decreases with the increase o the free-stream velocity or of initial droplet temperature. Examples of typical ignition time are 1.4 s at the free-stream velocity 20 cm/s and initial droplet temperature 300degC, and 0.65 s at 60 cm/s and 400degC. (3) the dependence of the ignition delay time on the free-stream velocity decreases as the free stream velocity increases. (4) The droplet temperatures at the moment of melting extending all over the surface and at the moment of ignition are around 460degC and 500 to 600degC (mostly around 575degC), respectively. These values are essentially independent of the free-stream velocity and initial droplet temperature. (5) The rate of temperature rise does not change through the moment of ignition. (6) The asymptotic droplet temperature at approaching to quasi-steady combustion state following ignition is independent of

  6. Gas Generation from Solids in Aqueous Suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, D.; Schatz, T.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of solid particles suspended in solution may change the radiation-induced chemistry of a system in many ways. Catalytic surface effects may manifest themselves through the acceleration or inhibition of various reactions. As importantly, the yield of primary radiolysis products may be affected as the solids absorb a significant fraction of the radiation energy. The latter is the subject of this study. We explore the possibility that absorption of radiation by the solid particles may initiate chemistry in the water. This is a question of fundamental as well as practical significance. On the fundamental side we ask whether electron-hole pairs generated in the solid phase can escape and cross into the aqueous phase and initiate chemical reactions such as gas generation and how this possibility depends on the energy levels of the material and on particle size. From a practical angle, such questions are directly relevant to any heterogeneous system exposed to radiation. High-level waste temporarily stored in underground tanks, low-level waste permanently stored in humid grout, or soil particles migrating in geological formations are but a few examples

  7. Quantification of Lycopene, β-Carotene, and Total Soluble Solids in Intact Red-Flesh Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Using On-Line Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Elena; Costa, Stefania; Rugiero, Irene; Pedrini, Paola; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2017-04-11

    A great interest has recently been focused on lycopene and β-carotene, because of their antioxidant action in the organism. Red-flesh watermelon is one of the main sources of lycopene as the most abundant carotenoid. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in post-harvesting has permitted us to rapidly quantify lycopene, β-carotene, and total soluble solids (TSS) on single intact fruits. Watermelons, harvested in 2013-2015, were submitted to near-infrared (NIR) radiation while being transported along a conveyor belt system, stationary and in movement, and at different positions on the belt. Eight hundred spectra from 100 samples were collected as calibration set in the 900-1700 nm interval. Calibration models were performed using partial least squares (PLS) regression on pre-treated spectra (derivatives and SNV) in the ranges 2.65-151.75 mg/kg (lycopene), 0.19-9.39 mg/kg (β-carotene), and 5.3%-13.7% (TSS). External validation was carried out with 35 new samples and on 35 spectra. The PLS models for intact watermelon could predict lycopene with R² = 0.877 and SECV = 15.68 mg/kg, β-carotene with R² = 0.822 and SECV = 0.81 mg/kg, and TSS with R² = 0.836 and SECV = 0.8%. External validation has confirmed predictive ability with R² = 0.805 and RMSEP = 16.19 mg/kg for lycopene, R2 = 0.737 and RMSEP = 0.96 mg/kg for β-carotene, and R² = 0.707 and RMSEP = 1.4% for TSS. The results allow for the market valorization of fruits.

  8. Continuous water-quality and suspended-sediment transport monitoring in the San Francisco Bay, California, water years 2011–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Paul A.; Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Weidich, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitors water quality and suspended-sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay area is home to millions of people, and the bay teems with both resident and migratory wildlife, plants, and fish. Fresh water mixes with salt water in the bay, which is subject both to riverine and marine (tides, waves, influx of salt water) influences. To understand this environment, the USGS, along with its partners, has been monitoring the bay’s waters continuously since 1988. Several water-quality variables are of particular importance to State and Federal resource managers and are monitored at key locations throughout the bay. Salinity, which indicates the relative mixing of fresh and ocean waters in the bay, is derived from specific conductance measurements. Water temperature, along with salinity, affects the density of water, which causes gravity driven circulation patterns and stratification in the water column. Turbidity is measured using light-scattering from suspended solids in water, and is used as a surrogate for suspended-sediment concentration (SSC). Suspended sediment often carries adsorbed contaminants; attenuates sunlight in the water column; deposits on tidal marsh and intertidal mudflats, which can help sustain these habitats as sea level rises; and deposits in ports and shipping channels, which can necessitate dredging. Dissolved oxygen, which is essential to a healthy ecosystem, is a fundamental indicator of water quality, and its concentration is affected by water temperature, salinity, ecosystem metabolism, tidal currents, and wind. Tidal currents in the bay reverse four times a day, and wind direction and intensity typically change on a daily cycle: consequently, salinity, water temperature, suspendedsediment concentration, and dissolvedoxygen concentration vary spatially and temporally throughout the bay, and continuous measurements are needed to observe these changes. The purpose of this fact sheet

  9. Pesticides in Water and Suspended Sediment of the Alamo and New Rivers, Imperial Valley/Salton Sea Basin, California, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Water and suspended-sediment samples were collected at eight sites on the Alamo and New Rivers in the Imperial Valley/Salton Sea Basin of California and analyzed for both current-use and organochlorine pesticides by the U.S. Geological Survey. Samples were collected in the fall of 2006 and spring of 2007, corresponding to the seasons of greatest pesticide use in the basin. Large-volume water samples (up to 650 liters) were collected at each site and processed using a flow-through centrifuge to isolate suspended sediments. One-liter water samples were collected from the effluent of the centrifuge for the analysis of dissolved pesticides. Additional samples were collected for analysis of dissolved organic carbon and for suspended-sediment concentrations. Water samples were analyzed for a suite of 61 current-use and organochlorine pesticides using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A total of 25 pesticides were detected in the water samples, with seven pesticides detected in more than half of the samples. Dissolved concentrations of pesticides observed in this study ranged from below their respective method detection limits to 8,940 nanograms per liter (EPTC). The most frequently detected compounds in the water samples were chlorpyrifos, DCPA, EPTC, and trifluralin, which were observed in more than 75 percent of the samples. The maximum concentrations of most pesticides were detected in samples from the Alamo River. Maximum dissolved concentrations of carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion exceeded aquatic life benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for these pesticides. Suspended sediments were analyzed for 87 current-use and organochlorine pesticides using microwave-assisted extraction, gel permeation chromatography for sulfur removal, and either carbon/alumina stacked solid-phase extraction cartridges or deactivated Florisil for removal of matrix interferences. Twenty current-use pesticides were detected in the suspended

  10. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  11. Strain and thermal conductivity in ultrathin suspended silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Daniel; Sigg, Hans; Spolenak, Ralph; Ekinci, Yasin

    2017-09-01

    We report on the uniaxial strain and thermal conductivity of well-ordered, suspended silicon nanowire arrays between 10 to 20 nm width and 22 nm half-pitch, fabricated by extreme-ultraviolet (UV) interference lithography. Laser-power-dependent Raman spectroscopy showed that nanowires connected monolithically to the bulk had a consistent strain of ˜0.1 % , whereas nanowires clamped by metal exhibited variability and high strain of up to 2.3%, having implications in strain engineering of nanowires. The thermal conductivity at room temperature was measured to be ˜1 W /m K for smooth nanowires and ˜0.1 W /m K for rougher ones, similar to results by other investigators. We found no modification of the bulk properties in terms of intrinsic scattering, and therefore, the decrease in thermal conductivity is mainly due to boundary scattering. Different types of surface roughness, such as constrictions and line-edge roughness, may play roles in the scattering of phonons of different wavelengths. Such low thermal conductivities would allow for very efficient thermal energy harvesting, approaching and passing values achieved by state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials.

  12. Design Criteria for Suspended Pipelines Based on Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Simão

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models have become the target of numerous attempts to obtain results that can be extrapolated to the study of hydraulic pressure infrastructures associated with different engineering requests. Simulation analysis based on finite element method (FEM models are used to determine the vulnerability of hydraulic systems under different types of actions (e.g., natural events and pressure variation. As part of the numerical simulation of a suspended pipeline, the adequacy of existing supports to sustain the pressure loads is verified. With a certain value of load application, the pipeline is forced to sway sideways, possibly lifting up off its deadweight supports. Thus, identifying the frequency, consequences and predictability of accidental events is of extreme importance. This study focuses on the stability of vertical supports associated with extreme transient loads and how a pipeline design can be improved using FEM simulations, in the design stage, to avoid accidents. Distribution of bending moments, axial forces, displacements and deformations along the pipeline and supports are studied for a set of important parametric variations. A good representation of the pipeline displacements is obtained using FEM.

  13. Composite fingerprinting of suspended-sediments in Sorsogon , Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.D.; Sta Maria, E.J.; Madrid, J.F.; Asa, A.D.D.; Aniago, R.J.; Bulos, A.D.; Zombrito, E.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment-related environmental problems pose a threat not only in land management sustainability but also in management of aquatic ecosystem. Sediments often serve as sinks of nutrients and contaminants that regularly recharge overlying waters and could trigger harmful algal blooms (HAB) together with unfavorable environment conditions. One HAB affected area in the southernmost tip of Luzon, Philippines is Sorsogon Bay. In Sorsogon Bay, the harvest and consumption ban was declared for several years due to the level of toxins in shellfish which exceeded the regulatory limit. Identification of sediment sources is useful tool in planning effective sediment management strategies. A method to determine possible sources of sediment-associated nutrients is sediment fingerprinting. It characterizes land-based sediment sources to derive estimates of the portions of suspended sediment originating from discrete upstream source areas. There are wide ranges of diagnostic properties which can be possible fingerprints such as mineralogic, mineral-magnetic, geochemical, organic, isotopic, physical and radiometric parameters. This study investigates on potential source of sediments from Sampaloc River using different chemical, radiometric and isotopic parameters, Range test and Kruskal-Wallis H-test were employed and indicated that the calcium, titanium, δ”1”3C signal, and to tal carbon content are possible fingerprint parameters that will identify the sources of sediments. Results of a mathematical mixing model showed that channel banks (81.0%) are the largest sediment load contributors in Sampaloc River, followed by cultivated areas (15.5%) and woodlands (3.5%). (author)

  14. Elemental Spatiotemporal Variations of Total Suspended Particles in Jeddah City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad W. Kadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elements associated with total suspended particulate matter (TSP in Jeddah city were determined. Using high-volume samplers, TSP samples were simultaneously collected over a one-year period from seven sampling sites. Samples were analyzed for Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Sr. Results revealed great dependence of element contents on spatial and temporal variations. Two sites characterized by busy roads, workshops, heavy population, and heavy trucking have high levels of all measured elements. Concentrations of most elements at the two sites exhibit strong spatial gradients and concentrations of elements at these sites are higher than other locations. The highest concentrations of elements were observed during June–August because of dust storms, significant increase in energy consumption, and active surface winds. Enrichment factors of elements at the high-level sites have values in the range >10~60 while for Cu and Zn the enrichment factors are much higher (~0–>700 indicating that greater percentage of TSP composition for these three elements in air comes from anthropogenic activities.

  15. Tackling the growing number of suspended and orphan wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornford, A.

    1996-01-01

    The number of suspended and potentially orphaned wells in the three oil producing Western provinces has grown substantially in recent years. There are currently some 38,000 wells in Alberta, 2,000 in B.C., and some 5,000 in Saskatchewan that have been inactive for at least one year. Governments are now looking at proposals to deal with the issue which, if implemented, will have far reaching implications for the oil and gas and reclamation industry in Western Canada. Proposals to date have not dealt with the potential liability for sulphur-recovery gas plants and oil and gas transmission pipelines and associated facilities. It is estimated that to pay for the expanded orphaned well program in Alberta, the current Orphan Well Program would have to be increased from $2 million to $5 million in the first four years. The recommendation is to levy an annual fee on all inactive wells and facilities. This would put the burden of paying for orphan wells on those who have facilities most in risk of becoming orphans. Informed opinion is that while the cost of addressing the problem is admittedly high, however, preventing it from getting worse is much less than the alternative

  16. A viscosity and density meter with a magnetically suspended rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, Mikulas; Strharsky, Igor; Hrmo, Igor

    2003-01-01

    A device for measuring the viscosity and density of liquids is presented. It is a Couette-type viscometer that uses a submerged rotor to measure the viscosity without errors originating in the contact of the rotor with the sample/air boundary. The inner cylinder is a glass rotor suspended in the liquid, and the outer cylinder is also made of glass. The rotor is stabilized on the axis of the outer cylinder by an electromagnetic force controlled by feedback from the rotor's vertical position. In the lower part of the rotor is an aluminum cylinder located in a magnetic field generated by rotating permanent magnets. The interaction of this rotating magnetic field with eddy currents generated in the aluminum cylinder causes rotation of the rotor. This rotation is optically detected, and viscosity is calculated from the measured angular velocity of rotor. The density of the liquid is calculated from the applied vertical equilibrating force. A computer controls the whole measurement. The device works at constant temperature or while scanning temperature. The sample volume is 1.6 ml, and the accuracy of measurement of both viscosity and density is ∼0.1%. The range of measured densities is (0.7-1.4) g/ml, and viscosity can be measured in the range (3x10 -4 -0.3) Pa s. The shear rate of the viscosity measurement varies in the range (20-300) s-1. The accuracy of the temperature measurement is 0.02 K

  17. Design of Experimental Suspended Footbridge with Deck Made of UHPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blank Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the static and dynamic design of experimental footbridge for pedestrians and cyclists in the municipality Lužec nad Vltavou in Czech Republic, Europe. This work aims to familiarize the reader with calculations carried out and the results obtained, describing the static and dynamic properties of proposed footbridge. The construction of footbridge is designed as a suspended structure with prestressed bridge deck consisting of prefabricated UHPC panels and reversed “V” shaped steel pylon with height of approximately 40 meters. The deck is anchored using 24 steel hangers in one row in a steel pylon - 17 ropes in the main span and 7 cables on the other side. Range of the main span is 99.18 meters and the secondary span is 31.9 m. Deck width is 4.5 meters with 3.0 meters passing space. The bridge is designed for the possibility of passage of vehicles weighting up to 3.5 tons. Deck panels are made of UHPC with reinforcement. At the edge of the bridge on the side of the shorter span the bridge deck is firmly connected with abutment and on the other deck it is stored using a pair of sliding bearings. The utilization of the excellent properties of UHPC allows to design a very thin and lightweight construction of the deck, which could not be achieved with the use of normal concrete.

  18. The LISST-SL streamlined isokinetic suspended-sediment profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Agrawal, Yogesh C.; Pottsmith, H. Charles

    2004-01-01

    The new manually deployed Laser In Situ Scattering Transmissometer-StreamLined profiler (LISST-SL) represents a major technological advance for suspended-sediment measurements in rivers. The LISST-SL is being designed to provide real-time data on sediment concentrations and particle-size distributions. A pressure sensor and current meter provide real-time depth and ambient velocity data, respectively. The velocity data are also used to control pumpage across an internal laser so that the intake velocity is constantly adjusted to match the ambient stream velocity. Such isokinetic withdrawal is necessary for obtaining representative sedimentary measurements in streamflow, and ensures compliance with established practices. The velocity and sediment-concentration data are used to compute fluxes for up to 32 particle-size classes at points, verticals, or in the entire stream cross section. All data are stored internally, as well as transmitted via a 2-wire conductor to the operator using a specially developed communication protocol. The LISST-SL's performance will be measured and compared to published sedimentological accuracy criteria, and a performance summary will be placed on-line.

  19. Development of suspended conchocelis of Porphyra haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Rong; Fei, Xiu-Geng

    1998-12-01

    This Mar. 1993 to Aug. 1994 study on suspended conchocelis of Porphyra haitanensis showed that there were three patterns for development of vegetative filaments: filaments to filaments by “budding”; filaments to sporangial branchlets by “budding”, or cell swelling. There were also three patterms for sporangial branchlet development: vegetatively propagating, changing into conchospores, or dying. Each developmental stage had one or more different developmental directions between vegetative filaments and sporangial branchlets. Developments from conchosporangial branchlets to conchospores were sequential and irreversible. Although sporangial branchlets formed at 29°C could give rise to filaments, they could not propagate as healthily under the same conditions as those formed at 25°C did. Probably the crucial period of plant cell differentiation is in the late stage of sporangial branchlets. In line with the developmental directions of different stages, the authors regulated the development of conchocelis to get ideal different developmental stages materials to obtain very developmentally homogeneous stages, including filaments and sporangial branchlets.

  20. Self-rewetting fluids with suspended carbon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, R; Di Paola, R; Gattia, D Mirabile; Marazzi, R; Antisari, M Vittori

    2011-10-01

    Thermal management is very important in modern electronic systems. Recent researches have been dedicated to the study of the heat transfer performances of binary or multi-component heat transfer fluids with peculiar surface tension properties and in particular to "self-rewetting fluids," i.e., liquids with a surface tension increasing with temperature and concentration. Thermophysical properties like surface tension, wettability and thermal conductivity, at different temperatures, have been measured not only for binary mixtures, but also for a number of ternary aqueous solutions with relatively low freezing point and for nanoparticles suspensions (so called nanofluids). Some of them interestingly exhibit the same anomalous positive surface tension gradient with temperature as binary self-rewetting solutions. Since in the course of liquid/vapour phase change, self-rewetting fluids behaviour induces a rather strong liquid inflow (caused by both temperature and concentration gradients) from the cold region (where liquid condensates) to the hot evaporator region, several interesting applications may be envisaged, e.g., the development of advanced wickless heat pipes for utilization in reduced gravity environments. The present work is dedicated to the study of the thermophysical properties of nanofluids based on water/alcohol solutions with suspended carbon nanostructures, in particular single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNH), synthesised by an homemade apparatus with an AC arc discharge in open air. The potential interest of the proposed studies stems from the large number of possible industrial applications, including space technologies and terrestrial applications, such as cooling of electronic components.

  1. Experiments with suspended cells on the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. R.; Chapes, S. K.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S.; Lewis, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    Spaceflight experiments since 1981 have demonstrated that certain cell functions are altered by micro-g. Biophysical models suggest that cell membranes and organelles should not be affected directly by gravity, however, the chemical microenvironment surrounding the cell and molecular transport could be altered by reduced gravity. Most experiments have used suspended live cells in small chambers without stirring or medium exchange. Flight results include increased attachment of anchorage-dependent human cells to collagen coated microcarriers, reduced secretion of growth hormone from pituitary cells, decreased mitogenic response of lymphocytes, increased Interferon-alpha by lymphocytes, increased Interleukin-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor secretion by macrophages. Related experiments on cells immediately postflight and on procaryotic cells have shown significant changes in secretory capacity, cell proliferation, differentiation and development. Postulated mechanism include altered cell-cell interactions, altered calcium ion transport, effects on cell cytoskeleton, transport of transmitters and interactions with receptors. The discussion includes use of new molecular methods, considerations for cell environmental control and a preview of several experiments planned for the Shuttle and Spacelab flights to study the basic effects of microgravity on cellular physiology and potential interactions of spaceflight with radiation damage and cellular repair mechanisms.

  2. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediments and Shallow Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong-Rong; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Gao, Bo-Cai; Davis, Curtiss O.

    2002-01-01

    Ocean color sensors were designed mainly for remote sensing of chlorophyll concentrations over the clear open oceanic areas (case 1 water) using channels between 0.4 and 0.86 micrometers. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) launched on the NASA Terra and Aqua Spacecrafts is equipped with narrow channels located within a wider wavelength range between 0.4 and 2.5 micrometers for a variety of remote sensing applications. The wide spectral range can provide improved capabilities for remote sensing of the more complex and turbid coastal waters (case 2 water) and for improved atmospheric corrections for Ocean scenes. In this article, we describe an empirical algorithm that uses this wide spectral range to identifying areas with suspended sediments in turbid waters and shallow waters with bottom reflections. The algorithm takes advantage of the strong water absorption at wavelengths longer than 1 micrometer that does not allow illumination of sediments in the water or a shallow ocean floor. MODIS data acquired over the east coast of China, west coast of Africa, Arabian Sea, Mississippi Delta, and west coast of Florida are used in this study.

  3. Gate-defined Quantum Confinement in Suspended Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Monica

    2013-03-01

    Quantum confined devices in carbon-based materials offer unique possibilities for applications ranging from quantum computation to sensing. In particular, nanostructured carbon is a promising candidate for spin-based quantum computation due to the ability to suppress hyperfine coupling to nuclear spins, a dominant source of spin decoherence. Yet graphene lacks an intrinsic bandgap, which poses a serious challenge for the creation of such devices. We present a novel approach to quantum confinement utilizing tunnel barriers defined by local electric fields that break sublattice symmetry in suspended bilayer graphene. This technique electrostatically confines charges via band structure control, thereby eliminating the edge and substrate disorder that hinders on-chip etched nanostructures to date. We report clean single electron tunneling through gate-defined quantum dots in two regimes: at zero magnetic field using the energy gap induced by a perpendicular electric field and at finite magnetic fields using Landau level confinement. The observed Coulomb blockade periodicity agrees with electrostatic simulations based on local top-gate geometry, a direct demonstration of local control over the band structure of graphene. This technology integrates quantum confinement with pristine device quality and access to vibrational modes, enabling wide applications from electromechanical sensors to quantum bits. More broadly, the ability to externally tailor the graphene bandgap over nanometer scales opens a new unexplored avenue for creating quantum devices.

  4. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  5. Aerial Photo Utilization in Estimating Suspended Sediment in the Wuryantoro Watershed, Wonogiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Budi Santoso

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment load flowing out from a watershed is normally predicated by analysis os suspended sediment of water sample, and the volume of suspended sediment be calculated based on sediment concentration and river discharge. Such field measurements need a lot of field data and they are time consuming. Another method for prediction of suspended sediment by using remote sensing imagery data and recorded rainfall data. The objective of this research is to 1 examine the capability of remote sensing technique to obtain the parameters of the physical data of land in the prediction of suspended sediment; 2 examine the accuracy of the model for prediction suspended sediment. This research is carried out in Wuryantoro watershed, Wonogiri. The main data to obtain the parameters of the physical data of land is infrared aerial photograph on scale 1 : 10.000. the method that used in this research is interpretation of remote sensing imagery data, combined with rainfall data. The result show that the accuracy of landuse is 88.5%, the accuracy of slope is 87.67%. the accuracy of the prediction of suspended sediment by model A3 87.07%, model C1 86.63%, model C2 90.57%, model A8 84.13%, model A9 80.1%, and model C4 78.6%.

  6. How are macroinvertebrates of slow flowing lotic systems directly affected by suspended and deposited sediments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J., E-mail: ben.kefford@rmit.edu.a [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Zalizniak, Liliana [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Dunlop, Jason E. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Smart Water Research Facility, Griffith University, Queensland (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Choy, Satish C. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of suspended and deposited sediments on the macroinvertebrates are well documented in upland streams but not in slower flowing lowland rivers. Using species found in lowland lotic environments, we experimentally evaluate mechanisms for sediments to affect macroinvertebrates, and in one experiment whether salinity alters the effect of suspended sediments. Suspended kaolin clay reduced feeding of Ischnura heterosticta (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) at high turbidity (1000-1500 NTU) but had no effects on feeding of Hemianax papuensis (Odonata: Aeshnidae) and Micronecta australiensis (Hemiptera: Corixidae). In freshwater (0.1 mS/cm), survival of Ischnura aurora was poor in clear water, but improved with suspended kaolin. Growth and feeding of I. aurora were unaffected by suspended sediments and salinity. Burial (1-5 mm) of eggs with kaolin or sand reduced hatching in Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae), Gyraulus tasmanica (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and Chironomus cloacalis (Diptera: Chironomidae). Settling sediments may pose greater risk to lowland lotic invertebrates than suspended sediments. - Sediment deposition may be more directly detrimental to macroinvertebrates of lowland rivers than suspended sediments.

  7. The effects of Hurricane Hugo on suspended-sediment loads, Lago Loiza Basin, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the two main tributaries that enter Lago Loiza, Rio Grande de Loiza and Rio Gurabo, 99 600 tonnes of suspended sediment was transported by 58.2??106 m3 of runoff in a 48 h period. The storm-average suspended-sediment concentration in the Rio Grande de Loiza for Hurricane Hugo was 2290 mgl-1, the second lowest for the 12 storms that have been monitored at this site. In Rio Gurabo the storm-average suspended-sediment concentration was 1420 mg l -1, the sixth lowest recorded out of 15 monitored storms. In Quebrada Salvatierra, a small tributary to Rio Grande de Loiza, suspended-sediment concentrations were as low as 33 mg l-1 during peak runoff of 20m3s-1. Normally the suspended-sediment concentrations at this discharge are 300 mg l-1. Hurricane force winds seem to be the most important factor contributing to the lower than expected suspended-sediment loads. High winds caused vegetation and debris to be dislodged and displaced. Debris accumulated on hillslopes and in small channels, blocked bridges and formed debris dams. These dams caused local backwater effects that reduced stream velocities and decreased suspended-sediment loads. -from Author

  8. Impact of suspended sediments on the survival of seagrass: Halodule pinifolia (Miki den Hartog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satumanatpan, S.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to study the level of suspended sediments on the survival of Halodule pinifolia (Miki den Hartog. Three experiments were conducted. Broad concentration of suspended sediments covering the level found in nature were employed in the first experiment. The impact concentration of suspended sediments on the survival of H. pinifolia was extended in more detail in the second and third experiments. H. pinifolia was planted by washing off the mud and holding it with a grating. An air pump was used to stir the sediment in suspension during the experiments and necessary water parameters were strictly control. The suspended sediment was spread by siphon and conducted in a period of 30 days for the first and second experiments, and 45 days for the third experiment. The result indicated that suspended sediments with a concentration of 1-64 mg/l had no impact on the survival of H. pinifolia within 30 days. Initially, suspended sediments of 66 mg/l lowered H. pinifolia's survival to 95% at day 30. Concentration of suspended sediments higher than 66 mg/l affected the survival of H. pinifolia. The decreasing survival was noticed during days 20 -25 of the experiment and all died during days 40-45. However, the life span of H. pinifolia, would be very important and might also affect the survival of H. pinifolia after 30 days.

  9. High concentration suspended sediment measurments using acontinuous fiber optic in-stream transmissometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Chris G.; Laycak, Danny T.; Hoppes, William; Tran,Nguyen T.; Shi, Frank G.

    2004-05-26

    Suspended sediment loads mobilized during high flow periods in rivers and streams are largely uncharacterized. In smaller and intermittent streams, a large storm may transport a majority of the annual sediment budget. Therefore monitoring techniques that can measure high suspended sediment concentrations at semi-continuous time intervals are needed. A Fiber optic In-stream Transmissometer (FIT) is presented for continuous measurement of high concentration suspended sediment in storm runoff. FIT performance and precision were demonstrated to be reasonably good for suspended sediment concentrations up to 10g/L. The FIT was compared to two commercially available turbidity devices and provided better precision and accuracy at both high and low concentrations. Both turbidity devices were unable to collect measurements at concentrations greater than 4 g/L. The FIT and turbidity measurements were sensitive to sediment particle size. Particle size dependence of transmittance and turbidity measurement poses the greatest problem for calibration to suspended sediment concentration. While the FIT was demonstrated to provide acceptable measurements of high suspended sediment concentrations, approaches to real-time suspended sediment detection need to address the particle size dependence in concentration measurements.

  10. Field Emission of Wet Transferred Suspended Graphene Fabricated on Interdigitated Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji; Wang, Qilong; Tao, Zhi; Qi, Zhiyang; Zhai, Yusheng; Wu, Shengqi; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Wei

    2016-02-10

    Suspended graphene (SG) membranes could enable strain-engineering of ballistic Dirac fermion transport and eliminate the extrinsic bulk disorder by annealing. When freely suspended without contact to any substrates, graphene could be considered as the ultimate two-dimensional (2D) morphology, leading to special field characteristics with the 2D geometrical effect and effectively utilized as an outstanding structure to explore the fundamental electronic or optoelectronic mechanism. In this paper, we report field emission characterization on an individual suspended few-layer graphene. A controllable wet transfer method is used to obtain the continuous and suspended graphene membrane on interdigitated gold electrodes. This suspended structure displays an overall field emission from the entirely surface, except for the variation in the emitting positions, acquiring a better enhancement than the exfoliated graphene on the conventional flat substrate. We also observe the transition process from space charge flow at low bias to the Fowler-Nordheim theory at high current emission regime. It could enable theoretical and experimental investigation of the typical electron emission properties of the 2D regime. Numerical simulations are also carried out to study the electrical properties of the suspended structure. Further improvement on the fabrication would realize low disorder, high quality, and large-scale suspended graphene devices.

  11. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael K.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2012-02-17

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid. The tests were conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants, and the test data were used to develop models predicting two measures of mixing performance for full-scale WTP vessels. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids are suspended off the floor, though not fully mixed). From the cloud height, the concentration of solids at the pump inlet can be estimated. The predicted critical suspension velocity for lifting all solids is not precisely the same as the mixing requirement for 'disturbing' a sufficient volume of solids, but the values will be similar and closely related. These predictive models were successfully benchmarked against larger scale tests and compared well with results from computational fluid dynamics simulations. The application of the models to assess mixing in WTP vessels is illustrated in examples for 13 distinct designs and selected operational conditions. The values selected for these examples are not final; thus, the estimates of performance should not be interpreted as final conclusions of design adequacy or inadequacy. However, this work does reveal that several vessels may require adjustments to design, operating features, or waste feed properties to ensure confidence in operation. The models described in this report will prove to be valuable engineering tools to evaluate options as designs are finalized for the WTP. Revision 1 refines data sets used for model development and summarizes models developed since the completion of Revision 0.

  12. Ozonation of return activated sludge for disintegration and solubilisation with synthesized titanium oxide as catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarif, S. F. Z. Mohd; Alias, S. S.; Ridwan, F. Muhammad; Salim, K. S. Ku; Abidin, C. Z. A.; Ali, U. F. Md.

    2018-03-01

    Ozonation of activated sludge in the present of titanium dioxide (TiO2) as catalyst to enhance the production of hydroxyl radical was evaluated in comparison to the sole ozonation process. In this process, the catalytic ozontion showed improvement in increasing ozone consumption and improving activated sludge disintegration and solubilisation. The reduction of total suspended solid (TSS), volatile suspended solid (VSS) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) solubilisation was better in the catalytic ozonation system. Initial pH 7 of activated sludge was found best to disintegrate and solubilise the sludge flocs. However upon additional of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in pH adjustment enhanced the solubilisation of organic matter from the flocs and cells, making the initial pH 9 is the best condition for activated sludge solubilisation. Yet the initial pH 7 of activated sludge supernatant was the best condition to achieve SCOD solubilisation due to sludge floc disintegration, when it had stronger correlation between TSS reduction and SCOD solubilisation (R2=0.961). Lower amount of catalyst of 100 mgTiO2/gTSS was found to disintegrate and solubilise the activated sludge better with 30.4% TSS reduction and 25.2% SCOD solubilisation efficiency, compared to 200 mgTiO2/gTSS with 21.9% and 17.1% TSS reduction and SCOD solubilisation, respectively.

  13. 2 CFR 901.1010 - Suspending official (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Definitions § 901.1010 Suspending official (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.1010). The suspending official for the Department of Energy... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspending official (Department of Energy...

  14. 76 FR 16770 - Petition To Suspend and Cancel All Registrations for the Soil Fumigant Iodomethane (Methyl Iodide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0541; FRL-8841-7] Petition To Suspend and Cancel... Earthjustice requesting that all uses of iodomethane (methyl iodide) be suspended and cancelled. The Agency is... uses of iodomethane (methyl iodide) be suspended and cancelled. The Agency is posting this petition for...

  15. 78 FR 22501 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total Suspended Particulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total Suspended Particulate AGENCY... designations for total suspended particulate within the State of Nevada because the designations are no longer necessary. These designations relate to the attainment or unclassifiable areas for total suspended...

  16. 40 CFR 1042.330 - Selling engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with a suspended certificate of conformity. 1042.330 Section 1042.330 Protection of Environment... engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity. You may sell engines that you produce after we suspend the engine family's certificate of conformity under § 1042.315 only if one of the...

  17. Laboratory study on the adsorption of Mn(2+) on suspended and deposited amorphous Al(OH)(3) in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wendong; Zhang, Xiaoni; Wang, Hongping; Wang, Xiaochang; Zhou, Lichuan; Liu, Rui; Liang, Yuting

    2012-09-01

    Manganese (II) is commonly present in drinking water. This paper mainly focuses on the adsorption of manganese on suspended and deposited amorphous Al(OH)(3) solids. The effects of water flow rate and water quality parameters, including solution pH and the concentrations of Mn(2+), humic acid, and co-existing cations on adsorption were investigated. It was found that chemical adsorption mainly took place in drinking water with pHs above 7.5; suspended Al(OH)(3) showed strong adsorption capacity for Mn(2+). When the total Mn(2+) input was 3 mg/L, 1.0 g solid could accumulate approximately 24.0 mg of Mn(2+) at 15 °C. In drinking water with pHs below 7.5, because of H(+) inhibition, active reaction sites on amorphous Al(OH)(3) surface were much less. The adsorption of Mn(2+) on Al(OH)(3) changed gradually from chemical coordination to physical adsorption. In drinking water with high concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(3+), and HA, the removal of Mn(2+) was enhanced due to the effects of co-precipitation and adsorption. In solution with 1.0 mg/L HA, the residual concentration of Mn(2+) was below 0.005 mg/L, much lower than the limit value required by the Chinese Standard for Drinking Water Quality. Unlike suspended Al(OH)(3), deposited Al(OH)(3) had a much lower adsorption capacity of 0.85 mg/g, and the variation in flow rate and major water quality parameters had little effect on it. Improved managements of water age, pipe flushing and mechanical cleaning were suggested to control residual Mn(2+). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrasonic absorption in solid specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwabessy, P.J. W.; Stewart, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a project to measure the absorption of high frequency (50 - 500 kHz) sonar signals in warm sea-water, a laboratory apparatus has been constructed and tested against room temperature distilled water and various solutions of MgSO 4 (chemical relaxation of MgSO 4 is the major contribution to absorption below 200 kHz). The technique involves monitoring the decay of an acoustic signal for different sizes of vessels of water suspended in an evacuated chamber. So far, all containing vessels used have been spherical in shape. Extrapolation of the results to infinite volume yields the absorption due to the water alone. In order to accommodate variations in temperature and pressure, and to make the system more robust (e.g. for ship deck usage), it is desirable to employ stainless steel vessels. However, it was found that the quality of the data was greatly improved when pyrex glass spheres were used. The stainless steel spheres were manufactured by welding together mechanically spun hemispheres. The linear frequency dependence characteristic of acoustic absorption in solids was observed (in contrast to the quadratic frequency dependence of acoustic absorption in water), and the acoustic absorption was found to depend strongly on the thermal history of the steel

  19. ???????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???

    OpenAIRE

    ????????????, ?. ?.; ????????, ?. ?.; ?????, ?. ?.

    2012-01-01

    ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks)/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???. ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks). ??? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ...

  20. Protection against suspended sand: the function of the branchial membrane in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vooys, C. G. N.

    2006-09-01

    Blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis) living in estuaries have to cope with varying concentrations of suspended sand. Sand flowing through the inhalant siphons comes into the infrabranchial chamber. The inhalant siphon can be partially closed by the branchial membrane. As a result the inward flow decreases, and suspended sand sinks and can be eliminated. Experiments with mussels from three ecologically different locations showed about the same response of the branchial membrane on contact with suspended sand. The presence and function of the branchial membrane appears to be an adaptation of mussels to their estuarine environment.

  1. H2S induces a suspended animation-like state in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Eric; Morrison, Mike; Roth, Mark B

    2005-04-22

    Mammals normally maintain their core body temperature (CBT) despite changes in environmental temperature. Exceptions to this norm include suspended animation-like states such as hibernation, torpor, and estivation. These states are all characterized by marked decreases in metabolic rate, followed by a loss of homeothermic control in which the animal's CBT approaches that of the environment. We report that hydrogen sulfide can induce a suspended animation-like state in a nonhibernating species, the house mouse (Mus musculus). This state is readily reversible and does not appear to harm the animal. This suggests the possibility of inducing suspended animation-like states for medical applications.

  2. Forty Cases of Insomnia Treated by Suspended Moxibustion at Baihui (GV 20)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Yan-li; CHI Xu; LIU Jian-xin

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To observe the therapeutic effect of suspended moxibustion at Baihui (GV 20) for insomnia.Methods: 75 cases were divided randomly into two groups, with 40 cases in the treatment group treated by suspended moxibustion over Baihui (GV 20) and 35 cases in the control group treated by oral administration of Estazolam. Results: The difference in therapeutic effect between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.1). Conclusion: It was concluded that suspended moxibustion at Baihui (GV 20) is as effective as Estazolam for insomnia.

  3. Assessing temporal variations in connectivity through suspended sediment hysteresis analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Phil; Melland, Alice; Mellander, Per-Erik; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.

    2016-04-01

    Connectivity provides a valuable concept for understanding catchment-scale sediment dynamics. In intensive agricultural catchments, land management through tillage, high livestock densities and extensive land drainage practices significantly change hydromorphological behaviour and alter sediment supply and downstream delivery. Analysis of suspended sediment-discharge hysteresis has offered insights into sediment dynamics but typically on a limited selection of events. Greater availability of continuous high-resolution discharge and turbidity data and qualitative hysteresis metrics enables assessment of sediment dynamics during more events and over time. This paper assesses the utility of this approach to explore seasonal variations in connectivity. Data were collected from three small (c. 10 km2) intensive agricultural catchments in Ireland with contrasting morphologies, soil types, land use patterns and management practices, and are broadly defined as low-permeability supporting grassland, moderate-permeability supporting arable and high-permeability supporting arable. Suspended sediment concentration (using calibrated turbidity measurements) and discharge data were collected at 10-min resolution from each catchment outlet and precipitation data were collected from a weather station within each catchment. Event databases (67-90 events per catchment) collated information on sediment export metrics, hysteresis category (e.g., clockwise, anti-clockwise, no hysteresis), numeric hysteresis index, and potential hydro-meteorological controls on sediment transport including precipitation amount, duration, intensity, stream flow and antecedent soil moisture and rainfall. Statistical analysis of potential controls on sediment export was undertaken using Pearson's correlation coefficient on separate hysteresis categories in each catchment. Sediment hysteresis fluctuations through time were subsequently assessed using the hysteresis index. Results showed the numeric

  4. Monitoring suspended sediments and turbidity in Sahelian basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Elodie; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Pinet, Sylvain; Nogmana, Soumaguel

    2017-04-01

    Suspended matter can carry viruses and bacteria that are pathogenic to humans and can foster their development. Therefore, turbidity can be considered a vector of microbiological contaminants, which cause diarrheal diseases, and it can be used as a proxy for fecal bacteria. Few studies have focused on water turbidity in rural Africa, where many cases of intestinal parasitic infections are due to the consumption of unsafe water from ponds, reservoirs, lakes and rivers. Diarrheal diseases are indeed the second cause of infant mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, in this region, environment survey is minimal or inexistent. Monitoring water turbidity therefore represents a challenge for health improvement. Turbidity refers to the optical properties of water and it is well suited to monitoring by remote sensing. Because it varies in space and time and because the small water bodies (Africa challenges the use of remote sensing and questions the methods developed for less turbid waters. In addition, high aerosol loadings (mineral dust and biomass burning) may be detrimental to turbidity retrieval in this region because of inaccurate atmospheric corrections. We propose a method to monitor water quality of Sahelian ponds, lakes and rivers using in-situ and remote sensing data, which is tested at different sites for which in-situ water turbidity and suspended sediments concentration (SSSC) measurements are acquired. Water sample are routinely collected at two sites within the AMMA-CATCH observatory part of the Réseau de Bassin Versants (RBV) French network: the Agoufou pond in northern Mali (starting September 2014), and the Niger River at Niamey in Niger (starting June 2015). These data are used to evaluate different indexes to derive water turbidity from the reflectance in the visible and infrared bands of high resolution optical sensors (LANDSAT, SENTINEL2). The temporal evolution of the turbidity of ponds, lakes and rivers is well captured at the seasonal and

  5. Suspended marine particulate proteins in coastal and oligotrophic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridoux, Maxime C.; Neibauer, Jaqui; Ingalls, Anitra E.; Nunn, Brook L.; Keil, Richard G.

    2015-03-01

    Metaproteomic analyses were performed on suspended sediments collected in one coastal environment (Washington margin, Pacific Ocean, n = 5) and two oligotrophic environments (Atlantic Ocean near BATS, n = 5, and Pacific Ocean near HOTS, n = 5). Using a database of 2.3 million marine proteins developed using the NCBI database, 443 unique peptides were detected from which 363 unique proteins were identified. Samples from the euphotic zone contained on average 2-3x more identifiable proteins than deeper waters (150-1500 m) and these proteins were predominately from photosynthetic organisms. Diatom peptides dominate the spectra of the Washington margin while peptides from cyanobacteria, such as Synechococcus sp. dominated the spectra of both oligotrophic sites. Despite differences in the exact proteins identified at each location, there is good agreement for protein function and cellular location. Proteins in surface waters code for a variety of cellular functions including photosynthesis (24% of detected proteins), energy production (10%), membrane production (9%) and genetic coding and reading (9%), and are split 60-40 between membrane proteins and intracellular cytoplasmic proteins. Sargasso Sea surface waters contain a suite of peptides consistent with proteins involved in circadian rhythms that promote both C and N fixation at night. At depth in the Sargasso Sea, both muscle-derived myosin protein and the muscle-hydrolyzing proteases deseasin MCP-01 and metalloprotease Mcp02 from γ-proteobacteria were observed. Deeper waters contain peptides predominately sourced from γ-proteobacteria (37% of detected proteins) and α-proteobacteria (26%), although peptides from membrane and photosynthetic proteins attributable to phytoplankton were still observed (13%). Relative to surface values, detection frequencies for bacterial membrane proteins and extracellular enzymes rose from 9 to 16 and 2 to 4% respectively below the thermocline and the overall balance between

  6. Storage filters upland suspended sediment signals delivered from watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzuto, James E.; Keeler, Jeremy; Skalak, Katherine; Karwan, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Climate change, tectonics, and humans create long- and short-term temporal variations in the supply of suspended sediment to rivers. These signals, generated in upland erosional areas, are filtered by alluvial storage before reaching the basin outlet. We quantified this filter using a random walk model driven by sediment budget data, a power-law distributed probability density function (PDF) to determine how long sediment remains stored, and a constant downstream drift velocity during transport of 157 km/yr. For 25 km of transport, few particles are stored, and the median travel time is 0.2 yr. For 1000 km of transport, nearly all particles are stored, and the median travel time is 2.5 m.y. Both travel-time distributions are power laws. The 1000 km travel-time distribution was then used to filter sinusoidal input signals with periods of 10 yr and 104 yr. The 10 yr signal is delayed by 12.5 times its input period, damped by a factor of 380, and is output as a power law. The 104 yr signal is delayed by 0.15 times its input period, damped by a factor of 3, and the output signal retains its sinusoidal input form (but with a power-law “tail”). Delivery time scales for these two signals are controlled by storage; in-channel transport time is insignificant, and low-frequency signals are transmitted with greater fidelity than high-frequency signals. These signal modifications are essential to consider when evaluating watershed restoration schemes designed to control sediment loading, and where source-area geomorphic processes are inferred from the geologic record.

  7. Solid cellulose nanofiber based foams - Towards facile design of sustained drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svagan, Anna J; Benjamins, Jan-Willem; Al-Ansari, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    acceptable surfactant (lauric acid sodium salt). The drug was suspended in the wet-stable foams followed by a drying step to obtain dry foams. Flexible cellular solid materials of different thicknesses, shapes and drug loadings (up to 50wt%) could successfully be prepared. The drug was released from...... the solid foams in a diffusion-controlled, sustained manner due to the presence of intact air bubbles which imparted a tortuous diffusion path. The diffusion coefficient was assessed using Franz cells and shown to be more than one order of magnitude lower for the cellular solids compared to the bubble...

  8. Comparison of the efficiencies of attached- versus suspended-growth SBR systems in the treatment of recycled paper mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mohd Hafizuddin; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Abu Hasan, Hassimi; Abd Rahim, Reehan Adnee

    2015-11-01

    The complexity of residual toxic organics from biologically treated effluents of pulp and paper mills is a serious concern. To date, it has been difficult to choose the best treatment technique because each of the available options has advantages and drawbacks. In this study, two different treatment techniques using laboratory-scale aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were tested with the same real recycled paper mill effluent to evaluate their treatment efficiencies. Two attached-growth SBRs using granular activated carbon (GAC) with and without additional biomass and a suspended-growth SBR were used in the treatment of real recycled paper mill effluent at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) level in the range of 800-1300 mg/L, a fixed hydraulic retention time of 24 h and a COD:N:P ratio of approximately 100:5:1. The efficiency of this biological treatment process was studied over a 300-day period. The six most important wastewater quality parameters, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, ammonia (expressed as NH3-N), phosphorus (expressed as PO4(3)-P), colour, and suspended solids (SS), were measured to compare the different treatment techniques. It was determined that these processes were able to almost completely and simultaneously eliminate COD (99%) and turbidity (99%); the removals of NH3-N (90-100%), PO4(3)-P (66-78%), colour (63-91%), and SS (97-99%) were also sufficient. The overall performance results confirmed that an attached-growth SBR system using additional biomass on GAC is a promising configuration for wastewater treatment in terms of performance efficiency and process stability under fluctuations of organic load. Hence, this hybrid system is recommended for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Climate-scale modelling of suspended sediment load in an Alpine catchment debris flow (Rio Cordon-northeastern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diodato, Nazzareno; Mao, Luca; Borrelli, Pasquale; Panagos, Panos; Fiorillo, Francesco; Bellocchi, Gianni

    2018-05-01

    Pulsing storms and prolonged rainfall can drive hydrological damaging events in mountain regions with soil erosion and debris flow in river catchments. The paper presents a parsimonious model for estimating climate forcing on sediment loads in an Alpine catchment (Rio Cordon, northeastern Italian Alps). Hydroclimatic forcing was interpreted by the novel CliSMSSL (Climate-Scale Modelling of Suspended Sediment Load) model to estimate annual sediment loads. We used annual data on suspended-solid loads monitored at an experimental station from 1987 to 2001 and on monthly precipitation data. The quality of sediment load data was critically examined, and one outlying year was identified and removed from further analyses. This outlier revealed that our model underestimates exceptionally high sediment loads in years characterized by a severe flood event. For all other years, the CliSMSSL performed well, with a determination coefficient (R2) equal to 0.67 and a mean absolute error (MAE) of 129 Mg y-1. The calibrated model for the period 1986-2010 was used to reconstruct sediment loads in the river catchment for historical times when detailed precipitation records are not available. For the period 1810-2010, the model results indicate that the past centuries have been characterized by large interannual to interdecadal fluctuations in the conditions affecting sediment loads. This paper argues that climate-induced erosion processes in Alpine areas and their impact on environment should be given more attention in discussions about climate-driven strategies. Future work should focus on delineating the extents of these findings (e.g., at other catchments of the European Alpine belt) as well as investigating the dynamics for the formation of sediment loads.

  10. Solid lubricants and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Braithwaite, E R

    1964-01-01

    Solid Lubricants and Surfaces deals with the theory and use of solid lubricants, particularly in colloidal form. Portions of this book are devoted to graphite and molybdenum disulfides, which are widely used solid lubricants in colloidal form. An extensive literature on the laboratory examination of hundreds of solids as potential lubricants is also provided in this text. Other topics discussed include the metals and solid lubricants; techniques for examining surfaces; other solid lubricants; metal shaping; and industrial uses of solid-lubricant dispersions. This publication is beneficial to e

  11. Solids loading evaluation for HB-line scrap recovery filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    The HB-Line Scrap Recovery facility uses wire screen filters to remove solids from plutonium-containing solutions transferred from the slab tank dissolvers. At times, the accumulation of solids is large enough to cause blinding (i.e., pluggage) of the filters. If the solids contain undissolved plutonium, significant accumulation of fissile material could impact operations. To address this potential issue, experiments were performed to define the minimum solids required to completely blind a filter. The solids loading experiments were performed by arranging 25- and 10-microm HB-Line filters in series to simulate the equipment in the scrap recovery process. Separate tests were performed using coarse and fine glass frit and cerium oxide powder suspended in 35 wt% sodium nitrate solution using a small turbine mixer. The solution and solids were transferred from a reservoir through the filter housings by vacuum. In each case, the 25-microm filter blinded first and was full of wet cake. After drying and accounting for the sodium nitrate in the filter cake, the following results were obtained. The results of the solids loading tests demonstrated that at least 800 g of solids accumulated in the filter housing before flow stopped. The actual amount of collected material was dependent upon the physical properties of the solids such as density and particle size. The mass of solids collected by the blinded 25-microm filter increased when successively finer solids were used in the experiments. Based on these results, one should anticipate that filters in the HB-Line Scrap Recovery Facility have the potential to collect similar quantities of material before transfer of solution from the dissolvers is severely impacted

  12. Fluid-solid boundary conditions for multiparticle collision dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmer, Jonathan K; Luijten, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of colloidal particles suspended in solvent requires an accurate representation of the interactions between the colloids and the solvent molecules. Using the multiparticle collision dynamics method, we examine several proposals for stick boundary conditions, studying their properties in both plane Poiseuille flow (where fluid interacts with the boundary of a stationary macroscopic solid) and particle-based colloid simulations (where the boundaries are thermally affected and in motion). In addition, our simulations compare various collision rules designed to remove spurious slip near solid surfaces, and the effects of these rules on the thermal motion of colloidal particles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that stochastic reflection of the fluid at solid boundaries fails to faithfully represent stick boundary conditions, and conclude that bounce-back conditions should be applied at both mobile and stationary surfaces. Finally, we generalize these ideas to create partial slip boundary conditions at both stationary and mobile surfaces.

  13. 40 CFR 1051.335 - How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.335 How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate? (a...

  14. Suspended HfO2 photonic crystal slab on III-nitride/Si platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongjin; Feng, Jiao; Cao, Ziping; Zhu, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    We present here the fabrication of suspended hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) photonic crystal slab on a III-nitride/Si platform. The calculations are performed to model the suspended HfO 2 photonic crystal slab. Aluminum nitride (AlN) film is employed as the sacrificial layer to form air gap. Photonic crystal patterns are defined by electron beam lithography and transferred into HfO 2 film, and suspended HfO 2 photonic crystal slab is achieved on a III-nitride/Si platform through wet-etching of AlN layer in the alkaline solution. The method is promising for the fabrication of suspended HfO 2 nanostructures incorporating into a III-nitride/Si platform, or acting as the template for epitaxial growth of III-nitride materials. (orig.)

  15. Ballistic magnetotransport in a suspended two-dimensional electron gas with periodic antidot lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhdanov, E. Yu., E-mail: zhdanov@isp.nsc.ru; Pogosov, A. G.; Budantsev, M. V.; Pokhabov, D. A.; Bakarov, A. K. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The magnetoresistance of suspended semiconductor nanostructures with a two-dimensional electron gas structured by periodic square antidot lattices is studied. It is shown that the ballistic regime of electron transport is retained after detaching the sample from the substrate. Direct comparative analysis of commensurability oscillations of magnetoresistance and their temperature dependences in samples before and after suspension is performed. It is found that the temperature dependences are almost identical for non-suspended and suspended samples, whereas significant differences are observed in the nonlinear regime, caused by direct current passage. Commensurability oscillations in the suspended samples are more stable with respect to exposure to direct current, which can be presumably explained by electron–electron interaction enhancement after detaching nanostructures from the high-permittivity substrate.

  16. Chlorophyll 'a' particulate organic carbon and suspended load from the mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheeba, P.; Devi, K.S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Chlorophyll 'a' Particulate Organic Carbon and suspended load were estimated for one year from two distinct mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters, viz. Puthuvypeen and Nettoor. Environmental parameters like tau degrees C, S ppt and pH were also...

  17. Suspended sediment fluxes in a tropical estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Srinivas, K.

    Annual transport processes of suspended sediments in Beypore estuary - a tropical estuary along the south west coast of India - were investigated based on time series measurements within the system. It's observed that the sediment transport...

  18. Magnetically suspended experimental vehicle-strength of structure and dynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagahiro, T; Terada, K; Kasai, Y; Motonaga, M

    1973-06-01

    To cope with rapid increase in demand for railroad transportation, studies in magnetically suspended high speed trains are being pushed forward at the Japanese National Railways. Recently a special experimental vehiclc was completed which will be used by JNR in experiments concerning magnetic propulsion and suspension of magnetically suspended high speed trains. This test vehicle is provided with reaction plates of linear induction motor under the floor at about the center of the vehicle, with superconducting magnets for suspension on both sides. The vehicle body is made mainly of high tensile strengthened aluminium (duralumin) for weight reduction, but its strength was checked by the vibration analysis and load tests carried out in the suspended condition. Remote-operated from the control tower, this unmanned test vehicle will provide a key to the completion of a super-high speed magnetically suspended train.

  19. Residual fluxes of water, salt and suspended sediment in the Beypore Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; Revichandran, C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Josanto, V.

    The monthly trends of the residual fluxes of salt and water and the transportation of suspended sediments in the Beypore estuarine system, Kerala, India were examined. At the river mouth the water flux was directed seaward during the postmonsoon...

  20. The features of ballistic electron transport in a suspended quantum point contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevyrin, A. A.; Budantsev, M. V.; Bakarov, A. K.; Toropov, A. I.; Pogosov, A. G.; Ishutkin, S. V.; Shesterikov, E. V.

    2014-01-01

    A suspended quantum point contact and the effects of the suspension are investigated by performing identical electrical measurements on the same experimental sample before and after the suspension. In both cases, the sample demonstrates conductance quantization. However, the suspended quantum point contact shows certain features not observed before the suspension, namely, plateaus at the conductance values being non-integer multiples of the conductance quantum, including the “0.7-anomaly.” These features can be attributed to the strengthening of electron-electron interaction because of the electric field confinement within the suspended membrane. Thus, the suspended quantum point contact represents a one-dimensional system with strong electron-electron interaction

  1. Capturing Flow-weighted Water and Suspended Particulates from Agricultural Canals During Drainage Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, Jehangir H; Sexton, Anne; Lang, Timothy A; Daroub, Samira H

    2017-11-07

    The purpose of this study is to describe the methods used to capture flow-weighted water and suspended particulates from farm canals during drainage discharge events. Farm canals can be enriched by nutrients such as phosphorus (P) that are susceptible to transport. Phosphorus in the form of suspended particulates can significantly contribute to the overall P loads in drainage water. A settling tank experiment was conducted to capture suspended particulates during discrete drainage events. Farm canal discharge water was collected in a series of two 200 L settling tanks over the entire duration of the drainage event, so as to represent a composite subsample of the water being discharged. Imhoff settling cones are ultimately used to settle out the suspended particulates. This is achieved by siphoning water from the settling tanks via the cones. The particulates are then collected for physico-chemical analyses.

  2. Seasonal variations of total suspended matter (TSM) in the Gulf of Khambhat, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Misra, A.; ManiMurali, R.; Sukumaran, S.; Vethamony, P.

    Total Suspended Matter (TSM)is an important parameter for determining the water quality in coastal regions as it is responsible for the reduction in the light available to the aquatic vegetation which subsequently alters the health and quality...

  3. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite.

  4. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Pany, Dipti Ranjan; Mohanty, Biswaranjan

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae) as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v) were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite. PMID:22247868

  5. 40 CFR 1068.440 - How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Auditing § 1068.440 How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate? (a) Send us a written report... failure, propose a remedy, and commit to a date for carrying it out. In your proposed remedy include any...

  6. Experimental realization of suspended atomic chains composed of different atomic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettini, Jefferson; Ugarte, Daniel; Sato, Fernando; Galvao, Douglas Soares; Coura, Pablo Zimmerman; Dantas, Socrates de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    We report high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and molecular dynamics results of the first experimental test of suspended atomic chains composed of different atomic species formed from spontaneous stretching of metallic nanowires. (author)

  7. Suspended sediment transport and shoaling in the Munambam fishery harbour, Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Revichandran, C.; Abraham, P.; Josanto, V.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Results of the monthly synoptic field observations of vertical profiles of suspended sediment concentration, current velocity and salinity carried out in the Azhicode Estuary are presented with a view to understand the shoaling and siltation...

  8. Novel Resuscitation from Lethal Hemorrhage-Suspended Animation for Delayed Resuscitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Safar, Peter

    2003-01-01

    ...). We have conceived and documented the concept of "suspended animation (SA) for delayed resuscitation" using a hypothermic saline flush into the aorta within the first 5 min of CA, using novel clinically relevant outcome models in dogs...

  9. Novel Resuscitation From Lethal Hemorrhage Suspended Animation for Delayed Resuscitation, Year 7

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kochanek, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    ...). We have conceived and documented the concept of "suspended animation (SA) for delayed resuscitation" using a hypothermic saline flush into the aorta after rapid (over 5 min) exsanguination (Ex...

  10. Solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Golomeova, Saska; Zhezhova, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Waste is unwanted or useless materials from households, industry, agriculture, hospitals. Waste materials in solid state are classified as solid waste. Increasing of the amount of solid waste and the pressure what it has on the environment, impose the need to introduce sustainable solid waste management. Advanced sustainable solid waste management involves several activities at a higher level of final disposal of the waste management hierarchy. Minimal use of material and energy resources ...

  11. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Bailey, Sharon A.; Bower, John C.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Eakin, David E.; Elmore, Monte R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Hurley, David E.; Johnson, Michael D.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Lawler, Bruce D.; Loveland, Jesse S.; Mullen, O Dennis; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Peters, Timothy J.; Robinson, Peter J.; Russcher, Michael S.; Sande, Susan; Santoso, Christian; Shoemaker, Steven V.; Silva, Steve M.; Smith, Devin E.; Su, Yin-Fong; Toth, James J.; Wiberg, John D.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zuljevic, Nino

    2009-05-11

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants. The test data were used to independently develop mixing models that can be used to predict full-scale WTP vessel performance and to rate current WTP mixing system designs against two specific performance requirements. One requirement is to ensure that all solids have been disturbed during the mixing action, which is important to release gas from the solids. The second requirement is to maintain a suspended solids concentration below 20 weight percent at the pump inlet. The models predict the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action, and the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids have been lifted from the floor. From the cloud height estimate we can calculate the concentration of solids at the pump inlet. The velocity needed to lift the solids is slightly more demanding than "disturbing" the solids, and is used as a surrogate for this metric. We applied the models to assess WTP mixing vessel performance with respect to the two perform¬ance requirements. Each mixing vessel was evaluated against these two criteria for two defined waste conditions. One of the wastes was defined by design limits and one was derived from Hanford waste characterization reports. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy the performance criteria used for any of the conditions evaluated. The remaining three vessel types provide varying assessments when the different particle characteristics are evaluated. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy

  12. Continuous-flow centrifugation to collect suspended sediment for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Dinicola, Richard S.; Black, Robert W.; Cox, Stephen E.; Sheibley, Richard W.; Foreman, James R.; Senter, Craig A.; Peterson, Norman T.

    2016-12-22

    Recent advances in suspended-sediment monitoring tools and surrogate technologies have greatly improved the ability to quantify suspended-sediment concentrations and to estimate daily, seasonal, and annual suspended-sediment fluxes from rivers to coastal waters. However, little is known about the chemical composition of suspended sediment, and how it may vary spatially between water bodies and temporally within a single system owing to climate, seasonality, land use, and other natural and anthropogenic drivers. Many water-quality contaminants, such as organic and inorganic chemicals, nutrients, and pathogens, preferentially partition in sediment rather than water. Suspended sediment-bound chemical concentrations may be undetected during analysis of unfiltered water samples, owing to small water sample volumes and analytical limitations. Quantification of suspended sediment‑bound chemical concentrations is needed to improve estimates of total chemical concentrations, chemical fluxes, and exposure levels of aquatic organisms and humans in receiving environments. Despite these needs, few studies or monitoring programs measure the chemical composition of suspended sediment, largely owing to the difficulty in consistently obtaining samples of sufficient quality and quantity for laboratory analysis.A field protocol is described here utilizing continuous‑flow centrifugation for the collection of suspended sediment for chemical analysis. The centrifuge used for development of this method is small, lightweight, and portable for the field applications described in this protocol. Project scoping considerations, deployment of equipment and system layout options, and results from various field and laboratory quality control experiments are described. The testing confirmed the applicability of the protocol for the determination of many inorganic and organic chemicals sorbed on suspended sediment, including metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and

  13. The observation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in suspended semiconductor ring interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhabov, D. A.; Pogosov, A. G.; Shevyrin, A. A.; Zhdanov, E. Yu; Bakarov, A. K.; Shklyaev, A. A.; Ishutkin, S. V.; Stepanenko, M. V.; Shesterikov, E. V.

    2018-02-01

    A suspended semiconductor quantum ring interferometer based on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure with a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is created and experimentally studied. The electron interference in suspended 2DEG is observed. The interference manifests itself as the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the interferometer magnetoresistance, clearly observed before as well as after suspension. The amplitude of the oscillations remains almost unchanged after suspension.

  14. Transfer-last suspended graphene fabrication on gold, graphite and silicon nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, J.; Boodhoo, L.; Huang, C.C.; Hewak, D.W.; Saito, S.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Mizuta, H.

    2015-01-01

    While most graphene devices fabricated so far have been by transferring graphene onto flat substrates first, an interesting approach would be to transfer graphene onto patterned substrates to suspend graphene for future graphene nanoelectromechanical device applications. This novel "transfer-last" fabrication is beneficial for reducing possible damage of the suspended graphene caused by subsequent undercutting processes and typical substrate interactions. On the other hand, reduction of conta...

  15. Trends in suspended-sediment loads and concentrations in the Mississippi River Basin, 1950–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Sprague, Lori A.; Blevins, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    Trends in loads and concentrations of suspended sediment and suspended sand generally were downward for stations within the Mississippi River Basin during the 60-, 34-, and 12-year periods analyzed. Sediment transport in the lower Mississippi River has historically been, and continues to be, most closely correlative to sediment contributions from the Missouri River, which generally carried the largest annual suspended-sediment load of the major Mississippi River subbasins. The closure of Fort Randall Dam in the upper Missouri River in 1952 was the single largest event in the recorded historical decline of suspended-sediment loads in the Mississippi River Basin. Impoundments on tributaries and sediment reductions as a result of implementation of agricultural conservation practices throughout the basin likely account for much of the remaining Mississippi River sediment transport decline. Scour of the main-stem channel downstream from the upper Missouri River impoundments is likely the largest source of suspended sand in the lower Missouri River. The Ohio River was second to the Missouri River in terms of sediment contributions, followed by the upper Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers. Declines in sediment loads and concentrations continued through the most recent analysis period (1998–2009) at available Mississippi River Basin stations. Analyses of flow-adjusted concentrations of suspended sediment indicate the recent downward temporal changes generally can be explained by corresponding decreases in streamflows.

  16. Suspended particle dynamics and fluxes in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslard, Florian; Bourrin, François; Many, Gaël; Kerhervé, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    An experiment was carried out during summer 2015 in the inner part of the Kongsfjorden to study the inputs of meltwater and behaviour of associated suspended particles. We used a wide range of oceanographic instruments to assess the hydrological and hydrodynamic characteristics of coastal waters. The transfer of suspended particles occurs from a large surface plume fed by two main sources: the most important one is the upwelling of fresh and turbid water coming from a tide-water glacier: the Kronebreen, and the second one from a continental glacier: the Kongsvegen. We estimated that these two sources discharged about 2.48 ± 0.37 × 106 t of suspended sediments during the two months of melting. The major part of these sediments is deposited within the first kilometre due to flocculation phenomena. Flocculation is initiated below the surface turbid plume and is mainly caused by the salinity gradient and high suspended particle concentration. Finally, our estimates of suspended particle fluxes by a typical Arctic coastal glacier showed the need to consider suspended sediment fluxes from high-latitude areas into global budgets in the context of climate change.

  17. Source Apportionment of Suspended Sediment Sources using 137Cs and 210Pbxs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, J.; Karthikeyan, K.; Thompson, A.

    2017-12-01

    A study was conducted in the Pleasant Valley Watershed (50 km 2) in South Central Wisconsin to better understand sediment transport processes using sediment fingerprinting technique. Previous studies conducted in this watershed showed that resuspension of fine sediment deposited on the stream bed is an important source of suspended sediment. To better understand the role of fine sediment deposited on the stream bed, fallout radionuclides,137Cs and 210Pbxs were used to determine relative contribution to suspended sediment from in-stream (stream bank and stream bed) and upland sediment sources. Suspended sediment samples were collected during the crop growing season. Potential sources of suspended sediment considered in this study included cropland, pasture and in-stream (stream bed and stream bank). Suspended sediment sources were determined at a subwatershed level. Results of this study showed that in-stream sediment sources are important sources of suspended sediment. Future research should be conducted to better understand the role of legacy sediment in watershed-level sediment transport processes.

  18. High temporal resolution in situ measurement of the effective particle size characteristics of fluvial suspended sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N D; Walling, D E; Leeks, G J L

    2007-03-01

    This paper reports the use of a LISST-100 device to monitor the effective particle size characteristics of suspended sediment in situ, and at a quasi-continuous temporal resolution. The study site was located on the River Exe at Thorverton, Devon, UK. This device has not previously been utilized in studies of fluvial suspended sediment at the storm event scale, and existing studies of suspended sediment dynamics have not involved such a high temporal resolution for extended periods. An evaluation of the field performance of the instrument is presented, with respect to innovative data collection and analysis techniques. It was found that trends in the effective particle size distribution (EPSD) and degree of flocculation of suspended sediment at the study site were highly complex, and showed significant short-term variability that has not previously been documented in the fluvial environment. The collection of detailed records of EPSD facilitated interpretation of the dynamic evolution of the size characteristics of suspended sediment, in relation to its likely source and delivery and flocculation mechanisms. The influence of measurement frequency is considered in terms of its implications for future studies of the particle size of fluvial suspended sediment employing in situ data acquisition.

  19. A novel fabrication method for suspended high-aspect-ratio microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao-Joe; Kuo, Wen-Cheng

    2005-11-01

    Suspended high-aspect-ratio structures (suspended HARS) are widely used for MEMS devices such as micro-gyroscopes, micro-accelerometers, optical switches and so on. Various fabrication methods, such as SOI, SCREAM, AIM, SBM and BELST processes, were proposed to fabricate HARS. However, these methods focus on the fabrication of suspended microstructures with relatively small widths of trench opening (e.g. less than 10 µm). In this paper, we propose a novel process for fabricating very high-aspect-ratio suspended structures with large widths of trench opening using photoresist as an etching mask. By enhancing the microtrenching effect, we can easily release the suspended structure without thoroughly removing the floor polymer inside the trenches for the cases with a relatively small trench aspect ratio. All the process steps can be integrated into a single-run single-mask ICP-RIE process, which effectively reduces the process complexity and fabrication cost. We also discuss the phenomenon of corner erosion, which results in the undesired etching of silicon structures during the structure-releasing step. By using the proposed process, 100 µm thick suspended structures with the trench aspect ratio of about 20 are demonstrated. Also, the proposed process can be used to fabricate devices for applications which require large in-plane displacement. This paper was orally presented in the Transducers'05, Seoul, Korea (paper ID: 3B1.3).

  20. Total Suspended Load and Sediment Yield of Kayan River, Bulungan District, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprapto Dibyosaputro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out the the drainage system of Kayan river, Bulungan District, East Kalimantan. The purpose of the research were to study the physical conditions of the Kayan catchment area, calculate the suspended sediment load, and to define the total sediment yield of Kayan River. Observation method were used in this research both of direct field observation as well as laboratory observation. Data acquired in this study were include of climatic data, geology, geomorphology, soil and land cover data. Besides also rain-fall data, temperature, river discharge and suspended sediment load. The total sediment yield were calculated by mean of mathematical and statistical analysis especially of linier regression analysis. The result of the research show that total the sediment yield of Kayan River with drainage area of 6,329.452 km² is about 236,921.25 m³/km²/year. The interesting result of the statistical analysis was that the existing negative correlation between river discharge and suspended sediment load. It is the effect of the location of discharge and suspended measurement. This condition caused by sea tide effect on river discharge at the apex delta. During high tide water river trend rising up on discharge but not on suspended sediment load. Instead, also existing setting down processes takes places of the suspended sediment load into the river bottom upper stream and the apex.

  1. A Generalized Mathematical Model for the Fracture Problem of the Suspended Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to answer dangling fracture problems of highway, the suspended pavement equivalent for non - suspended pavement, through the special boundary conditions has been suspended highway stress field of expression, in accordance with the 3D fracture model of crack formation, and establish a vacant, a general mathematics model for fracture problems of highway and analysis in highway suspended segment weight and vehicle load limit of highway capacity of Pu For overturning road inPu is less than the force of carrying more than compared to the work and fruit Bridge Hydropower Station Road engineering examples to verify suspended highway should force field expressions for the correctness and applicability. The results show that: when the hanging ratio R 0. 243177 limits of Pu design axle load 100kN. When the vertical crack in the vacant in the direction of length greater than 0. 1, the ultimate bearing capacity is less than the design axle load 100kN; when the hanging ratio R is less than 0. 5, the road to local fracture, the ultimate bearing capacity of suspended stress field expressions in solution; when the hanging ratio is greater than or equal to 0. 5, the road does not reach the limit bearing capacity of the whole body; torque shear surface of the effect is far less than the bending moments on shear planes.

  2. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  3. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  4. Impact of robotics and a suspended lead suit on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madder, Ryan D., E-mail: ryan.madder@spectrumhealth.org; VanOosterhout, Stacie; Mulder, Abbey; Elmore, Matthew; Campbell, Jessica; Borgman, Andrew; Parker, Jessica; Wohns, David

    2017-04-15

    Background: Reports of left-sided brain malignancies among interventional cardiologists have heightened concerns regarding physician radiation exposure. This study evaluated the impact of a suspended lead suit and robotic system on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: Real-time radiation exposure data were prospectively collected from dosimeters worn by operating physicians at the head- and chest-level during consecutive PCI cases. Exposures were compared in three study groups: 1) manual PCI performed with traditional lead apparel; 2) manual PCI performed using suspended lead; and 3) robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead. Results: Among 336 cases (86.6% manual, 13.4% robotic) performed over 30 weeks, use of suspended lead during manual PCI was associated with significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians than traditional lead apparel (chest: 0.0 [0.1] μSv vs 0.4 [4.0] μSv, p < 0.001; head: 0.5 [1.9] μSv vs 14.9 [51.5] μSv, p < 0.001). Chest-level radiation exposure during robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead was 0.0 [0.0] μSv, which was significantly less chest exposure than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (p < 0.001) or suspended lead (p = 0.046). In robotic PCI the median head-level exposure was 0.1 [0.2] μSv, which was 99.3% less than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (p < 0.001) and 80.0% less than manual PCI performed with suspended lead (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Utilization of suspended lead and robotics were observed to result in significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians during PCI. - Highlights: • Use of suspended lead during manual PCI reduced cranial radiation among operators by 97%. • Robotic PCI reduced cranial radiation among operators by 99%. • Suspended lead and robotics together achieved the lowest levels of radiation exposure.

  5. Impact of robotics and a suspended lead suit on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madder, Ryan D.; VanOosterhout, Stacie; Mulder, Abbey; Elmore, Matthew; Campbell, Jessica; Borgman, Andrew; Parker, Jessica; Wohns, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Reports of left-sided brain malignancies among interventional cardiologists have heightened concerns regarding physician radiation exposure. This study evaluated the impact of a suspended lead suit and robotic system on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: Real-time radiation exposure data were prospectively collected from dosimeters worn by operating physicians at the head- and chest-level during consecutive PCI cases. Exposures were compared in three study groups: 1) manual PCI performed with traditional lead apparel; 2) manual PCI performed using suspended lead; and 3) robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead. Results: Among 336 cases (86.6% manual, 13.4% robotic) performed over 30 weeks, use of suspended lead during manual PCI was associated with significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians than traditional lead apparel (chest: 0.0 [0.1] μSv vs 0.4 [4.0] μSv, p < 0.001; head: 0.5 [1.9] μSv vs 14.9 [51.5] μSv, p < 0.001). Chest-level radiation exposure during robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead was 0.0 [0.0] μSv, which was significantly less chest exposure than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (p < 0.001) or suspended lead (p = 0.046). In robotic PCI the median head-level exposure was 0.1 [0.2] μSv, which was 99.3% less than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (p < 0.001) and 80.0% less than manual PCI performed with suspended lead (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Utilization of suspended lead and robotics were observed to result in significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians during PCI. - Highlights: • Use of suspended lead during manual PCI reduced cranial radiation among operators by 97%. • Robotic PCI reduced cranial radiation among operators by 99%. • Suspended lead and robotics together achieved the lowest levels of radiation exposure.

  6. Long-term continuous acoustical suspended-sediment measurements in rivers - Theory, application, bias, and error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.

    2016-05-04

    It is commonly recognized that suspended-sediment concentrations in rivers can change rapidly in time and independently of water discharge during important sediment‑transporting events (for example, during floods); thus, suspended-sediment measurements at closely spaced time intervals are necessary to characterize suspended‑sediment loads. Because the manual collection of sufficient numbers of suspended-sediment samples required to characterize this variability is often time and cost prohibitive, several “surrogate” techniques have been developed for in situ measurements of properties related to suspended-sediment characteristics (for example, turbidity, laser-diffraction, acoustics). Herein, we present a new physically based method for the simultaneous measurement of suspended-silt-and-clay concentration, suspended-sand concentration, and suspended‑sand median grain size in rivers, using multi‑frequency arrays of single-frequency side‑looking acoustic-Doppler profilers. The method is strongly grounded in the extensive scientific literature on the incoherent scattering of sound by random suspensions of small particles. In particular, the method takes advantage of theory that relates acoustic frequency, acoustic attenuation, acoustic backscatter, suspended-sediment concentration, and suspended-sediment grain-size distribution. We develop the theory and methods, and demonstrate the application of the method at six study sites on the Colorado River and Rio Grande, where large numbers of suspended-sediment samples have been collected concurrently with acoustic attenuation and backscatter measurements over many years. The method produces acoustical measurements of suspended-silt-and-clay and suspended-sand concentration (in units of mg/L), and acoustical measurements of suspended-sand median grain size (in units of mm) that are generally in good to excellent agreement with concurrent physical measurements of these quantities in the river cross sections at

  7. Prevention of solids formation: Results of the FY 1999 studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.D.; Beahm, E.C.; Chase, C.W.; Collins, J.L.; Dillow, T.A.; Weber, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    Tank farm operations at Hanford and Savannah River have been adversely affected by unintentional solids formations. At Hanford, a new cross-site transfer line had to be built because nearly all the original transfer lines were no longer operational due to plugs. At Savannah River, operations at its evaporator system were suspended while a plug in the gravity drain line was physically removed at considerable expense. The plugs as Hanford and Savannah River, which have been characterized, were primarily due to sodium phosphate and sodium aluminosilicate, respectively

  8. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail: bill.maher@canberra.edu.au; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  9. Influences of channelization on discharge of suspended sediment and wetland vegetation in Kushiro Marsh, northern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Futoshi; Sudo, Tadashi; Kameyama, Satoshi; Jitsu, Mieko

    1997-03-01

    The effects of wetlands on hydrology, water quality, and wildlife habitat are internationally recognized. Protecting the remaining wetlands is one of the most important environmental issues in many countries. However wetlands in Japan have been gradually shrinking due to agricultural development and urbanization, which generally lowers the groundwater level and introduces suspended sediment and sediment-associated nutrients into wetlands. We examined the influences of channelization on discharge of suspended sediment and wetland vegetation in Hokkaido, northern Japan. The impact of river channelization was confirmed not only by the sediment budgets but also by river aggradation or degradation after the channelization and by the resultant vegetational changes. The budgets of suspended sediment demonstrated that wash load was the predominant component accounting for 95% of the total suspended load delivered into the wetland. This suspended sediment was primarily transported into the wetland by flooding associated with heavy rainfall. Twenty-three percent of the wash load and 63% of the suspended bed material load were deposited in the channelized reach, which produced aggradation of about 2 m at the end of the reach. A shorting of the length of the channel, due to channelization of a meandering river, steepened the slope and enhanced the stream power to transport sediment. This steepening shifted the depositional zones of fine sediment 5 km downstream and aggraded the riverbed. Development of the watershed may increase not only the water discharge but also the amount of suspended sediments. The aggradation reduced the carrying capacity of the channel and caused sediment ladened water to flood over the wetlands. The fine sediment accumulated on the wetlands gradually altered the edaphic conditions and wetland vegetation. A low percentage (10 to 15%) of organic contents of wetlands' soil is more evidence indicating that the present condition is far different from

  10. Technical note: False low turbidity readings from optical probes during high suspended-sediment concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voichick, Nicholas; Topping, David J.; Griffiths, Ronald E.

    2018-03-01

    Turbidity, a measure of water clarity, is monitored for a variety of purposes including (1) to help determine whether water is safe to drink, (2) to establish background conditions of lakes and rivers and detect pollution caused by construction projects and stormwater discharge, (3) to study sediment transport in rivers and erosion in catchments, (4) to manage siltation of water reservoirs, and (5) to establish connections with aquatic biological properties, such as primary production and predator-prey interactions. Turbidity is typically measured with an optical probe that detects light scattered from particles in the water. Probes have defined upper limits of the range of turbidity that they can measure. The general assumption is that when turbidity exceeds this upper limit, the values of turbidity will be constant, i.e., the probe is pegged; however, this assumption is not necessarily valid. In rivers with limited variation in the physical properties of the suspended sediment, at lower suspended-sediment concentrations, an increase in suspended-sediment concentration will cause a linear increase in turbidity. When the suspended-sediment concentration in these rivers is high, turbidity levels can exceed the upper measurement limit of an optical probe and record a constant pegged value. However, at extremely high suspended-sediment concentrations, optical turbidity probes do not necessarily stay pegged at a constant value. Data from the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, and a laboratory experiment both demonstrate that when turbidity exceeds instrument-pegged conditions, increasing suspended-sediment concentration (and thus increasing turbidity) may cause optical probes to record decreasing false turbidity values that appear to be within the valid measurement range of the probe. Therefore, under high-turbidity conditions, other surrogate measurements of turbidity (e.g., acoustic-attenuation measurements or suspended-sediment samples) are necessary to

  11. Solid phase radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wide, L.

    1977-01-01

    Solid phase coupled antibodies were introduced to facilitate the separation of bound and free labelled ligand in the competitive inhibition radioimmunoassay. Originally, the solid matrix used was in the form of small particles and since then a number of different matrices have been used such as very fine powder particles, gels, paper and plastic discs, magnetic particles and the inside surface of plastic tubes. The coupling of antibodies may be that of a covalent chemical binding, a strong physical adsorbtion, or an immunological binding to a solid phase coupled antigen. New principles of radioimmunoassay such as the solid phase sandwich techniques and the immunoradiometric assay were developped from the use of solid phase coupled antigens and antibodies. The solid phase sandwich techniques are reagent excess methods with a very wide applicability. Several of the different variants of solid phase techniques are suitable for automation. Advantages and disadvantages of solid phase radioimmunoassays when compared with those using soluble reagents are discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  13. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  14. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  15. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  16. Impact of robotics and a suspended lead suit on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madder, Ryan D; VanOosterhout, Stacie; Mulder, Abbey; Elmore, Matthew; Campbell, Jessica; Borgman, Andrew; Parker, Jessica; Wohns, David

    Reports of left-sided brain malignancies among interventional cardiologists have heightened concerns regarding physician radiation exposure. This study evaluated the impact of a suspended lead suit and robotic system on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Real-time radiation exposure data were prospectively collected from dosimeters worn by operating physicians at the head- and chest-level during consecutive PCI cases. Exposures were compared in three study groups: 1) manual PCI performed with traditional lead apparel; 2) manual PCI performed using suspended lead; and 3) robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead. Among 336 cases (86.6% manual, 13.4% robotic) performed over 30weeks, use of suspended lead during manual PCI was associated with significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians than traditional lead apparel (chest: 0.0 [0.1] μSv vs 0.4 [4.0] μSv, probotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead was 0.0 [0.0] μSv, which was significantly less chest exposure than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (probotic PCI the median head-level exposure was 0.1 [0.2] μSv, which was 99.3% less than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (probotics were observed to result in significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians during PCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Geospatial approach towards enumerative analysis of suspended sediment concentration for Ganges-Brahmaputra Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Palak; Kunte, Pravin D.

    2016-10-01

    This study presents an easy, modular, user-friendly, and flexible software package for processing of Landsat 7 ETM and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS data for estimating suspended particulate matter concentrations in the coastal waters. This package includes 1) algorithm developed using freely downloadable SCILAB package, 2) ERDAS Models for iterative processing of Landsat images and 3) ArcMAP tool for plotting and map making. Utilizing SCILAB package, a module is written for geometric corrections, radiometric corrections and obtaining normalized water-leaving reflectance by incorporating Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS and Landsat 7 ETM+ data. Using ERDAS models, a sequence of modules are developed for iterative processing of Landsat images and estimating suspended particulate matter concentrations. Processed images are used for preparing suspended sediment concentration maps. The applicability of this software package is demonstrated by estimating and plotting seasonal suspended sediment concentration maps off the Bengal delta. The software is flexible enough to accommodate other remotely sensed data like Ocean Color monitor (OCM) data, Indian Remote Sensing data (IRS), MODIS data etc. by replacing a few parameters in the algorithm, for estimating suspended sediment concentration in coastal waters.

  18. High energy electron beam inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase suspended in different aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, A.; Popescu, A.; Butan, C.; Oproiu, C.; Hategan, D.; Morariu, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The direct and indirect effects of 5 MeV electron beam irradiation in the range (0-400 Gy) at 20 degC, 0 degC, -3 degC and -196 degC, as well as the influence of the aqueous suspending medium (ultrapure water and heavy water) on the total enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) have been studied. Our results showed an exponential decrease on the enzymatic activity of irradiated LDH, at all irradiation temperatures, independently of the direct or indirect action of radiation. The temperature gradient used to lower the temperature of the samples to -196 degC drastically influences the results. Freeze-thawing in two steps down to -196 degC protects LDH to radiation, in the dose range used. The data obtained here inform on the high energy electrons effects on the enzymatic activity loss during irradiation and during thawing, when the subsequent growth of the water crystals influences the three dimensional structure of the enzyme. A 99.98% concentration of D 2 O in the suspending medium of the enzyme decreases the global enzymatic activity, but reduces the rate of radiation inactivation of the enzyme. The rate of radiation inactivation of the enzyme suspended in ultrapure water is reduced when compared to the enzyme suspended in bidistilled water, but compared to the D 2 O suspended enzyme is lightly increased. (author)

  19. Muscular contribution to low-back loading and stiffness during standard and suspended push-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Tyson A C; Howarth, Samuel J; Callaghan, Jack P

    2008-06-01

    Push-up exercises are normally performed to challenge muscles that span upper extremity joints. However, it is also recognized that push-ups provide an effective abdominal muscle challenge, especially when the hands are in contact with a labile support surface. The purpose of this study was to compare trunk muscle activation levels and resultant intervertebral joint (IVJ) loading when standard and suspended push-ups were performed, and to quantify and compare the contribution of trunk muscles to IVJ rotational stiffness in both exercises. Eleven recreationally trained male volunteers performed sets of standard and suspended push-ups. Upper body kinematic, kinetic, and EMG data were collected and input into a 3D biomechanical model of the lumbar torso to quantify lumbar IVJ loading and the contributions of trunk muscles to IVJ rotational stiffness. When performing suspended push-ups, muscles of the abdominal wall and the latissimus dorsi were activated to levels that were significantly greater than those elicited when performing standard push-ups (ppush-ups. Also directly resulting from the increased activation levels of the abdominal muscles and the latissimus dorsi during suspended push-ups was increased muscular contribution to lumbar IVJ rotational stiffness (ppush-ups appear to provide a superior abdominal muscle challenge. However, for individuals unable to tolerate high lumbar IVJ compressive loads, potential benefits gained by incorporating suspended push-ups into their resistance training regimen may be outweighed by the risk of overloading low-back tissues.

  20. A Case Study of Dynamic Response Analysis and Safety Assessment for a Suspended Monorail System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yulong; Li, Yongle; Ding, Jiajie

    2016-11-10

    A suspended monorail transit system is a category of urban rail transit, which is effective in alleviating traffic pressure and injury prevention. Meanwhile, with the advantages of low cost and short construction time, suspended monorail transit systems show vast potential for future development. However, the suspended monorail has not been systematically studied in China, and there is a lack of relevant knowledge and analytical methods. To ensure the health and reliability of a suspended monorail transit system, the driving safety of vehicles and structure dynamic behaviors when vehicles are running on the bridge should be analyzed and evaluated. Based on the method of vehicle-bridge coupling vibration theory, the finite element method (FEM) software ANSYS and multi-body dynamics software SIMPACK are adopted respectively to establish the finite element model for bridge and the multi-body vehicle. A co-simulation method is employed to investigate the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration for the transit system. The traffic operation factors, including train formation, track irregularity and tire stiffness, are incorporated into the models separately to analyze the bridge and vehicle responses. The results show that the coupling of dynamic effects of the suspended monorail system between vehicle and bridge are significant in the case studied, and it is strongly suggested to take necessary measures for vibration suppression. The simulation of track irregularity is a critical factor for its vibration safety, and the track irregularity of A-level road roughness negatively influences the system vibration safety.

  1. A Case Study of Dynamic Response Analysis and Safety Assessment for a Suspended Monorail System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Bao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A suspended monorail transit system is a category of urban rail transit, which is effective in alleviating traffic pressure and injury prevention. Meanwhile, with the advantages of low cost and short construction time, suspended monorail transit systems show vast potential for future development. However, the suspended monorail has not been systematically studied in China, and there is a lack of relevant knowledge and analytical methods. To ensure the health and reliability of a suspended monorail transit system, the driving safety of vehicles and structure dynamic behaviors when vehicles are running on the bridge should be analyzed and evaluated. Based on the method of vehicle-bridge coupling vibration theory, the finite element method (FEM software ANSYS and multi-body dynamics software SIMPACK are adopted respectively to establish the finite element model for bridge and the multi-body vehicle. A co-simulation method is employed to investigate the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration for the transit system. The traffic operation factors, including train formation, track irregularity and tire stiffness, are incorporated into the models separately to analyze the bridge and vehicle responses. The results show that the coupling of dynamic effects of the suspended monorail system between vehicle and bridge are significant in the case studied, and it is strongly suggested to take necessary measures for vibration suppression. The simulation of track irregularity is a critical factor for its vibration safety, and the track irregularity of A-level road roughness negatively influences the system vibration safety.

  2. Fatigue Performance Assessment of Composite Arch Bridge Suspenders Based on Actual Vehicle Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the through arch bridges, the suspenders are the key components connecting the arch rib and the bridge deck in the middle, and their safety is an increasing focus in the field of bridge engineering. In this study, various vehicle traffic flow parameters are investigated based on the actual vehicle data acquired from the long-term structural health monitoring system of a composite arch bridge. The representative vehicle types and the probability density functions of several parameters are determined, including the gross vehicle weight, axle weight, time headway, and speed. A finite element model of the bridge structure is constructed to determine the influence line of the cable force for various suspenders. A simulated vehicle flow, generated using the Monte Carlo method, is applied on the influence lines of the target suspender to determine the stress process, and then the stress amplitude spectrum is obtained based on the statistical analysis of the stress process using the rainflow counting method. The fatigue performance levels of various suspenders are analyzed according to the Palmgren-Miner linear cumulative damage theory, which helps to manage the safety of the suspenders.

  3. Numerical Simulations of the Impact and Spreading of a Particulate Drop on a Solid Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jun Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two-dimensional numerical simulations of the impact and spreading of a droplet containing a number of small particles on a flat solid surface, just after hitting the solid surface, to understand particle effects on spreading dynamics of a particle-laden droplet for the application to the industrial inkjet printing process. The Navier-Stokes equation is solved by a finite-element-based computational scheme that employs the level-set method for the accurate interface description between the drop fluid and air and a fictitious domain method for suspended particles to account for full hydrodynamic interaction. Focusing on the particle effect on droplet spreading and recoil behaviors, we report that suspended particles suppress the droplet oscillation and deformation, by investigating the drop deformations for various Reynolds numbers. This suppressed oscillatory behavior of the particulate droplet has been interpreted with the enhanced energy dissipation due to the presence of particles.

  4. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system

  5. Fungal treatment: a prospective process for eco-friendly bioremediation of wastewater sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, A. H.; Fakhru'l-Razi, A.

    2009-01-01

    None of the conventional techniques is safe and environmental friendly for wastewaters/sludge disposal. A sustainable, safe and environmental friendly biological technique is a great apprehension to the relevant scientists. Since the fungal treatment was exercised to evaluate its potentially for sustainable bioseparation and bioremediation of wastewater. Bioseparation and bioremediation of wastewater sludge by fungal inoculation implied the decreasing of bio solids, total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of wastewater. (Author)

  6. Rabbit Manure under Composting and Vermicomposting process: A quemometric Quality Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campitelli, P.; Rubenacker, A.; Sereno, R.; Ceppi, S.

    2009-01-01

    None of the conventional techniques is safe and environmental friendly for wastewater/sludge disposal. A sustainable safe and environmental friendly biological technique is a great apprehension to the relevant scientists. Since the fungal treatment was exercised to evaluate its potentiality for sustainable bioseparation and bioremediation of wastewater. Bioseparation and bioremediation of wastewater sludge by fungal inoculation implied the decreasing of bio solids, total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of wastewater. (Author)

  7. History of Solid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Solid rockets are of interest to the space program because they are commonly used as boosters that provide the additional thrust needed for the space launch vehicle to escape the gravitational pull of the Earth. Larger, more advanced solid rockets allow for space launch vehicles with larger payload capacities, enabling mankind to reach new depths of space. This presentation will discuss, in detail, the history of solid rockets. The history begins with the invention and origin of the solid rocket, and then goes into the early uses and design of the solid rocket. The evolution of solid rockets is depicted by a description of how solid rockets changed and improved and how they were used throughout the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Modern uses of the solid rocket include the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) on the Space Shuttle and the solid rockets used on current space launch vehicles. The functions and design of the SRB and the advancements in solid rocket technology since the use of the SRB are discussed as well. Common failure modes and design difficulties are discussed as well.

  8. Solid Base Catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The importance of solid base catalysts has come to be recognized for their environmentally benign qualities, and much significant progress has been made over the past two decades in catalytic materials and solid base-catalyzed reactions. The book is focused on the solid base. Because of the advantages over liquid bases, the use of solid base catalysts in organic synthesis is expanding. Solid bases are easier to dispose than liquid bases, separation and recovery of products, catalysts and solvents are less difficult, and they are non-corrosive. Furthermore, base-catalyzed reactions can be performed without using solvents and even in the gas phase, opening up more possibilities for discovering novel reaction systems. Using numerous examples, the present volume describes the remarkable role solid base catalysis can play, given the ever increasing worldwide importance of "green" chemistry. The reader will obtain an overall view of solid base catalysis and gain insight into the versatility of the reactions to whic...

  9. Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by Using Electrocoagulation as an Alternative Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzana Che Sayuti; Abdul Aziz Mohd Azoddein

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a crucial stage to prevent from environmental pollution. An alternative method should be implemented to replace the conventional wastewater treatment method. Concentration required by the Department of Environment (DOE) is 200 mg/L for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 100 mg/L for total suspended solid (TSS). Electrocoagulation was used to reduce the amount of COD and TSS in POME. The performance of COD and TSS removal using electrocoagulation was scrutinized. Electrocoagulation reactor was used and the optimum operating parameters were determined. The voltage parameter was manipulated in order to identify the effect on the removal efficiency of COD and TSS. The highest removal efficiency obtained were 95.71 % for COD and 99.25 % for TSS in which COD reduced from 4900 mg/L to 210 mg/L meanwhile TSS from 4000 mg/L to 30 mg/L. The final COD almost meets the requirement of DOE of 200 mg/L while TSS fulfil the requirement of 100 mg/L for standard B. The highest efficiency obtained at optimum pH 7.44, electrocoagulation time 25 min and voltage of 100 V by using aluminium electrodes. This method was found to be efficient and capable to reduce time of treatment compared to standard conventional method. (author)

  10. Understanding the ice nucleation characteristics of feldspars suspended in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Marcolli, Claudia; Kaufmann, Lukas; Krieger, Ulrich; Peter, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Freezing of liquid droplets and subsequent ice crystal growth affects optical properties of clouds and precipitation. Field measurements show that ice formation in cumulus and stratiform clouds begins at temperatures much warmer than those associated with homogeneous ice nucleation in pure water, which is ascribed to heterogeneous ice nucleation occurring on the foreign surfaces of ice nuclei (IN). Various insoluble particles such as mineral dust, soot, metallic particles, volcanic ash, or primary biological particles have been suggested as IN. Among these the suitability of mineral dusts is best established. The ice nucleation ability of mineral dust particles may be modified when secondary organic or inorganic substances are accumulating on the dust during atmospheric transport. If the coating is completely wetting the mineral dust particles, heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs in immersion mode also below 100 % RH. A previous study by Zobrist et al. (2008) Arizona test dust, silver iodide, nonadecanol and silicon dioxide suspensions in various solutes showed reduced ice nucleation efficiency (in immersion mode) of the particles. Though it is still quite unclear how surface modifications and coatings influence the ice nucleation activity of the components present in natural dust particles at a microphysical scale. To improve our understanding how solute and mineral dust particle surface interaction, we run freezing experiments using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with microcline, sanidine, plagioclase, kaolinite and quartz particles suspended in pure water and solutions containing ammonia, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid. Methodology Suspensions of mineral dust samples (2 - 5 wt%) are prepared in water with varying solute concentrations (0 - 15 wt%). 20 vol% of this suspension plus 80 vol% of a mixture of 95 wt% mineral oil (Aldrich

  11. The use of modeling and suspended sediment concentration measurements for quantifying net suspended sediment transport through a large tidally dominated inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Li H.; Wright, Scott A.; Elias, Edwin; Hanes, Daniel M.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Largier, John; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Sediment exchange at large energetic inlets is often difficult to quantify due complex flows, massive amounts of water and sediment exchange, and environmental conditions limiting long-term data collection. In an effort to better quantify such exchange this study investigated the use of suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) measured at an offsite location as a surrogate for sediment exchange at the tidally dominated Golden Gate inlet in San Francisco, CA. A numerical model was calibrated and validated against water and suspended sediment flux measured during a spring–neap tide cycle across the Golden Gate. The model was then run for five months and net exchange was calculated on a tidal time-scale and compared to SSC measurements at the Alcatraz monitoring site located in Central San Francisco Bay ~ 5 km from the Golden Gate. Numerically modeled tide averaged flux across the Golden Gate compared well (r2 = 0.86, p-value

  12. Response of reef corals on a fringing reef flat to elevated suspended-sediment concentrations: Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Field, Michael E.; Lager, Claire V.; Lager, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A long-term (10 month exposure) experiment on effects of suspended sediment on the mortality, growth, and recruitment of the reef corals Montipora capitata and Porites compressa was conducted on the shallow reef flat off south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi. Corals were grown on wire platforms with attached coral recruitment tiles along a suspended solid concentration (SSC) gradient that ranged from 37 mg l−1 (inshore) to 3 mg l−1(offshore). Natural coral reef development on the reef flat is limited to areas with SSCs less than 10 mg l−1 as previously suggested in the scientific literature. However, the experimental corals held at much higher levels of turbidity showed surprisingly good survivorship and growth. High SSCs encountered on the reef flat reduced coral recruitment by one to three orders of magnitude compared to other sites throughout Hawaiʻi. There was a significant correlation between the biomass of macroalgae attached to the wire growth platforms at the end of the experiment and percentage of the corals showing mortality. We conclude that lack of suitable hard substrate, macroalgal competition, and blockage of recruitment on available substratum are major factors accounting for the low natural coral coverage in areas of high turbidity. The direct impact of high turbidity on growth and mortality is of lesser importance.

  13. Optimization and development of analytical methods for the determination of new brominated flame retardants and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments and suspended particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, P. [VU University Amsterdam, Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Retieseweg 111, 2440, Geel (Belgium); Brandsma, S.A.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Boer, J. de [VU University Amsterdam, Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    With more stringent legislation on brominated flame retardants, it is expected that increasing amounts of substitutes would replace polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). Therefore, the development and optimization of analytical methodologies that allow their identification and quantification are of paramount relevance. This work describes the optimization of an analytical procedure to determine pentabromochlorocyclohexane, tetrabromo-o-chlorotoluene, 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene, tetrabromophthalic anhydride, 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromotoluene, tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate, decabromodiphenylethane and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane together with PBDEs in sediments and in suspended particulate matter. This method comprises a pressurized liquid extraction followed by three cleanup steps (gel permeation chromatography and solid phase extraction on Oasis trademark HLB and on silica cartridges). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using electron capture negative chemical ionization, is used for the final analysis. The proposed method provides recoveries >85%. The method was applied to sediment and suspended particulate matter samples from different locations in the Western Scheldt estuary (the Netherlands). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the occurrence of the additive flame retardants 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene, 3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-o-chlorotoluene and 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromochlorocyclohexane is reported in the literature. The concentrations of these new flame retardants ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 {mu}g/kg dry weight. (orig.)

  14. Validation of a low field Rheo-NMR instrument and application to shear-induced migration of suspended non-colloidal particles in Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbourne, A. A.; Blythe, T. W.; Barua, R.; Lovett, S.; Mitchell, J.; Sederman, A. J.; Gladden, L. F.

    2018-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance rheology (Rheo-NMR) is a valuable tool for studying the transport of suspended non-colloidal particles, important in many commercial processes. The Rheo-NMR imaging technique directly and quantitatively measures fluid displacement as a function of radial position. However, the high field magnets typically used in these experiments are unsuitable for the industrial environment and significantly hinder the measurement of shear stress. We introduce a low field Rheo-NMR instrument (1 H resonance frequency of 10.7MHz), which is portable and suitable as a process monitoring tool. This system is applied to the measurement of steady-state velocity profiles of a Newtonian carrier fluid suspending neutrally-buoyant non-colloidal particles at a range of concentrations. The large particle size (diameter > 200 μm) in the system studied requires a wide-gap Couette geometry and the local rheology was expected to be controlled by shear-induced particle migration. The low-field results are validated against high field Rheo-NMR measurements of consistent samples at matched shear rates. Additionally, it is demonstrated that existing models for particle migration fail to adequately describe the solid volume fractions measured in these systems, highlighting the need for improvement. The low field implementation of Rheo-NMR is complementary to shear stress rheology, such that the two techniques could be combined in a single instrument.

  15. Effects of alcohols on gas holdup and volumetric liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient in gel-particle-suspended bubble column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvacion, J.; Murayama, M.; Otaguchi, K.; Koide, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-20

    The effects of alcohols, column dimensions, gas velocity, physical properties of liquids, and gel particles on the gas holdup e{sub G} and the volumetric liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient k{sub L}a in a gel-particle-suspended bubble column under liquid-solid batch operation were studied experimentally. It was shown that addition of at alcohols to water generally increases e{sub G}. However, k{sub L}a values in aqueous solutions of alcohols became larger or smaller than those in water, according to the kind and concentration of the alcohol added to water. It was also shown that the presence of suspended gel-particles in the bubble column reduces values of e{sub G} and k{sub L}a. Based on these observations, empirical equations for e{sub G} in the transition regime in an ethanol solution, for e{sub G} in the heterogeneous now regime applicable to various alcohol solutions and for k{sub L}a in both now regimes were proposed. 18 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Finite Element Analysis of the Rotor System of a Magnetically Suspended Compound Molecule Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pingfan; Zhao Lei; Shi Zhengang; Yang Guojun

    2014-01-01

    A novel magnetically suspended compound molecule pump has been designed, which has been supported by the active magnetic bearings (AMBs) system with 5 degrees of freedom. According to the characteristics of the high speed and AMBs, the rotor system of the magnetically suspended compound molecule pump has been analyzed by the finite element method. Modal analysis has been performed for the rotor, thus modal frequencies and corresponding modal shapes have been obtained. For the high rotating speed the blades usually have tended to be destroyed as the results of the centrifugal deformation and vibration. So several static parameters have been analyzed, such as stress distributions and deformations. Simulation results provide a theoretical foundation for the design of the magnetically suspended compound molecule pump’s controllers. The reliability and safety of the structure have been verified completely. Furthermore, this paper is of great significance for the pumps’ future developments. (author)

  17. Flow modelling to estimate suspended sediment travel times for two Canadian Deltas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Fassnacht

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The approximate travel times for suspended sediment transport through two multi-channel networks are estimated using flow modelling. The focus is on the movement of high sediment concentrations that travel rapidly downstream. Since suspended sediment transport through river confluences and bifurcation movement is poorly understood, it is assumed that the sediment moves at approximately the average channel velocity during periods of high sediment load movement. Calibration of the flow model is discussed, with an emphasis on the incorporation of cross-section data, that are not referenced to a datum, using a continuous water surface profile. Various flow regimes are examined for the Mackenzie and the Slave River Deltas in the Northwest Territories, Canada, and a significant variation in travel times is illustrated. One set of continuous daily sediment measurements throughout the Mackenzie Delta is used to demonstrate that the travel time estimates are reasonable. Keywords: suspended sediment; multi-channel river systems; flow modelling; sediment transport

  18. Experimental investigations of heat transfer in thermo active building systems in combination with suspended ceilings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Maria Alonso; Hviid, Christian Anker; Weitzmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    buildings to cover acoustic requirements hinders the use of TABS. To measure the reduction of the heat capacity, several experiments are performed in a room equipped with TABS in the upper deck and mixing ventilation. The heat transfer is measured for different suspended ceiling covering percentages...... that the ventilation rate has a high influence on the convective heat capacity. When the ventilation rate is increased from 1.7 h-1 to 2.9 h-1, the heat transfer coefficient increases up to 16% for the same occupancy and suspended ceiling layout.......Thermo Active Building Systems (TABS), described as radiant heating or cooling systems with pipes embedded in the building structure, represent a sustainable alternative to replace conventional systems by using source temperatures close to room temperatures. The use of suspended ceiling in office...

  19. Concentration of elements in suspended matter discharges to Lerma River, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila-Perez, P.; Tejeda, S.; Carapia, L.; Barcelo-Quintal, I.; Martinez, T.

    2011-01-01

    The S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb concentration and the elemental composition of particles in suspended matter from principal discharges to Lerma River, have been evaluated. The elemental concentration in suspended matter has been obtained by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. The elemental composition of particles has been obtained by means of Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS). The results show that K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe are mainly from natural origin in the Upper Course of the Lerma River (UCLR), where the principal contributions probably come from dragging of soils and sediments in the rainy season and Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb are mainly from anthropogenic origin where the principal contributions come from urban and industrial untreated discharge. The application of Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry plus Scanning Electron Microscopy is useful in the characterization of suspended matter in natural, anthropogenic and mixed water discharges. (author)

  20. Resonant tunnelling features in a suspended silicon nanowire single-hole transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llobet, Jordi; Pérez-Murano, Francesc, E-mail: francesc.perez@csic.es, E-mail: z.durrani@imperial.ac.uk [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Krali, Emiljana; Wang, Chen; Jones, Mervyn E.; Durrani, Zahid A. K., E-mail: francesc.perez@csic.es, E-mail: z.durrani@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Arbiol, Jordi [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) and Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); CELLS-ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility, 08290 Cerdanyola, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-11-30

    Suspended silicon nanowires have significant potential for a broad spectrum of device applications. A suspended p-type Si nanowire incorporating Si nanocrystal quantum dots has been used to form a single-hole transistor. Transistor fabrication uses a novel and rapid process, based on focused gallium ion beam exposure and anisotropic wet etching, generating <10 nm nanocrystals inside suspended Si nanowires. Electrical characteristics at 10 K show Coulomb diamonds with charging energy ∼27 meV, associated with a single dominant nanocrystal. Resonant tunnelling features with energy spacing ∼10 meV are observed, parallel to both diamond edges. These may be associated either with excited states or hole–acoustic phonon interactions, in the nanocrystal. In the latter case, the energy spacing corresponds well with reported Raman spectroscopy results and phonon spectra calculations.