WorldWideScience

Sample records for suspended flywheel energy

  1. Flywheel Energy Storage System Suspended by Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ansah, Prince; Hu, Yefa; Misbawu, Adam

    This work presents a prototype flywheel energy storage system (FESS) suspended by hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB) rotating at a speed of 20000rpm with a maximum storage power capacity of 30W with a maximum tip speed of 300m/s. The design presented is an improvement of most existing FESS, as the design incorporates a unique feature in that the upper and the lower rotor and stator core are tapered which enhances larger thrust and much lower radial force to be exerted on the system. Without any adverse effect being experienced by the model. The work also focuses on the description of developing a prototype FESS suspended by HMB using solid works as a basis of developing in the nearer future a more improved FESS suspended by HMB capable of injecting the ever increasing high energy demand situation in the 21st century and beyond.

  2. Flywheel energy storage workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kain, D.; Carmack, J. [comps.

    1995-12-31

    Since the November 1993 Flywheel Workshop, there has been a major surge of interest in Flywheel Energy Storage. Numerous flywheel programs have been funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Hybrid Vehicle Program, and by private investment. Several new prototype systems have been built and are being tested. The operational performance characteristics of flywheel energy storage are being recognized as attractive for a number of potential applications. Programs are underway to develop flywheels for cars, buses, boats, trains, satellites, and for electric utility applications such as power quality, uninterruptible power supplies, and load leveling. With the tremendous amount of flywheel activity during the last two years, this workshop should again provide an excellent opportunity for presentation of new information. This workshop is jointly sponsored by ARPA and DOE to provide a review of the status of current flywheel programs and to provide a forum for presentation of new flywheel technology. Technology areas of interest include flywheel applications, flywheel systems, design, materials, fabrication, assembly, safety & containment, ball bearings, magnetic bearings, motor/generators, power electronics, mounting systems, test procedures, and systems integration. Information from the workshop will help guide ARPA & DOE planning for future flywheel programs. This document is comprised of detailed viewgraphs.

  3. Stationary flywheel energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilhaus, A; Hau, E; Gassner, G; Huss, G; Schauberger, H

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this system study is to find out industrial applications of stationary flywheel energy accumulators. The economic value for the consumer and the effects on the power supply grid are investigated. Up to now, stationary flywheel energy accumulators have only been used in a small range. The main reason for thinking of the application in a wider range was the hope that those could be used economically for lowering the maximum output demand of the power supply grid. The possible savings in energy costs, however, proved to be too small for paying back the investment costs. Further benefits are necessary for advantageous application. As to overall economy, compensation of short time maximum power output seems to be more favorable at the power stations. An additional possibility for energy storage by flywheels is given where otherwise lost energy can be used effectively, according to the successful brake energy storage in vehicles. Under this aspect the future use of flywheels in wind-power-plants seems to be promising. Attractive savings of energy can be obtained by introducing modern flywheel technology for emergency power supply units which are employed for instance in telecommunication systems. Especially the application for emergency power supply, in power stations and in combustion with wind energy converters need further investigation.

  4. Flywheel energy storage; Schwungmassenspeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornemann, H.J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Energy storages may be chemical systems such as batteries, thermal systems such as hot-water tanks, electromagnetic systems such as capacitors and coils, or mechanical systems such as pumped storage power systems or flywheel energy storages. In flywheel energy storages the energy is stored in the centrifugal mass in the form of kinetic energy. This energy can be converted to electricity via a motor/generator unit and made available to the consumer. The introduction of magnetic bearings has greatly enhanced the potential of flywheel energy storages. As there is no contact between the moving parts of magnetic bearings, this technology provides a means of circumventing the engineering and operational problems involved in the we of conventional bearings (ball, roller, plain, and gas bearings). The advantages of modern flywheel energy storages over conventional accumulators are an at least thousandfold longer service life, low losses during long-time storage, greater power output in the case of short-time storage, and commendable environmental benignity. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Als Enegiespeicher kommen chemische Systeme, z.B. Batterien, thermische Systeme, z.B. Warmwassertanks, elektromagnetische Systeme, z.B. Kondensatoren und Spulen, sowie mechanische Systeme, z.B. Pumpspeicherwerke und Schwungmassenspeicher in Frage. In einem Schwungmassenspeicher wird Energie in Form von kinetischer Energie in der Schwungmasse gespeichert. Ueber eine Moter/Generator Einheit wird diese Energie in elektrischen Strom umgewandelt und dem Verbraucher zugefuehrt. Mit der Einfuehrung von magnetischen Lagern konnte die Leistungsfaehigkeit von Schwungmassenspeichern erheblich gesteigert werden. Da in einem Magnetlager keine Beruehrung zwischen sich bewegenden Teilen besteht, wird ein Grossteil der mit dem Einsatz konventioneller Lager (Kugel- und Rollenlager, Gleitlager und Gaslager) verbundenen ingenieurtechnischen und betriebstechnischen Probleme vermieden. Die Vorteile von modernen

  5. Flywheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Donald Arthur [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    In use since ancient times, the flywheel has smoothed the flow of energy in rotating machinery from small, hand held devices to the largest engines. Today, standalone flywheel systems are being developed to store electrical energy. These systems are deployed in applications as diverse as uninterruptible power supplies, gantry cranes, and large research facilities. This chapter presents the technical foundation of flywheel design, a comparison with other energy storage technologies, and a survey of applications where flywheel energy storage systems are currently in service.

  6. Flywheel Energy Storage for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Hedlund

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of flywheel energy storage technology was made, with a special focus on the progress in automotive applications. We found that there are at least 26 university research groups and 27 companies contributing to flywheel technology development. Flywheels are seen to excel in high-power applications, placing them closer in functionality to supercapacitors than to batteries. Examples of flywheels optimized for vehicular applications were found with a specific power of 5.5 kW/kg and a specific energy of 3.5 Wh/kg. Another flywheel system had 3.15 kW/kg and 6.4 Wh/kg, which can be compared to a state-of-the-art supercapacitor vehicular system with 1.7 kW/kg and 2.3 Wh/kg, respectively. Flywheel energy storage is reaching maturity, with 500 flywheel power buffer systems being deployed for London buses (resulting in fuel savings of over 20%, 400 flywheels in operation for grid frequency regulation and many hundreds more installed for uninterruptible power supply (UPS applications. The industry estimates the mass-production cost of a specific consumer-car flywheel system to be 2000 USD. For regular cars, this system has been shown to save 35% fuel in the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP drive cycle.

  7. Start It up: Flywheel Energy Storage Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to construct and test an off-grid photovoltaic (PV) system in which the power from a solar array could be stored in a rechargeable battery and a flywheel motor generator assembly. The mechanical flywheel energy storage system would in turn effectively power a 12-volt DC appliance. The voltage and current of…

  8. Design of a Flywheel Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavia Santos, S.; Garcia-Tabares Rodriguez, L.

    1998-01-01

    Storing mechanical kinetic energy for short time with flywheels has been known for centuries. However the applications of flywheels for longer storage times like electrochemical batteries is recent. Advanced flywheels have been possible thanks to the development from materials science with high tensile strength composite materials, and bearing technology with magnetic bearing, which suspend rotating shaft or rotor by magnetic forces. This summary report provides a study of the mechanics of flywheel, design considerations, material for advance flywheels, and magnetic bearing. Finally a brief description of a conventional flywheel prototype is given. (Author)

  9. FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCONDUCTING BEARINGS FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull

    2007-10-26

    This project’s mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS).

  10. FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCONDUCTING BEARINGS FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull

    2007-01-01

    This project's mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS)

  11. Study of flywheel energy storage for space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of flywheel systems for space stations using the Space Operations Center (SOC) as a point of reference is discussed. Comparisons with batteries and regenerative fuel cells are made. In the flywheel energy storage concept, energy is stored in the form of rotational kinetic energy using a spinning wheel. Energy is extracted from the flywheel using an attached electrical generator; energy is provided to spin the flywheel by a motor, which operates during sunlight using solar array power. The motor and the generator may or may not be the same device. Flywheel energy storage systems have a very good potential for use in space stations. This system can be superior to alkaline secondary batteries and regenerable fuel cells in most of the areas that are important in spacecraft applications. Of special impotance relative to batteries, are high energy density (lighter weight), longer cycle and operating life, and high efficiency which minimizes the amount of orbital makeup fuel required. In addition, flywheel systems have a long shelf life, give a precise state of charge indication, have modest thermal control needs, are capable of multiple discharges per orbit, have simple ground handling needs, and have the potential for very high discharge rate. Major disadvantages are noted.

  12. Flywheels for Low-Speed Kinetic Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portnov, G.; Cruz, I.; Arias, F.; Fiffe, R. P.

    2003-07-01

    A brief overview of different steel disc-type flywheels is presented. It contents the analysis of relationship between stress-state and kinetic energy of rotating body, comparison of the main characteristics of flywheels and description of their optimization procedures. It is shown that profiles of the discs calculated on a basis of plane stress-state assumption may be considered only as a starting point for its further improvement using 3-D approach. The aim of the review is to provide a designer for a insight into problem of shaping of steel flywheels. (Author) 19 refs.

  13. Flywheels for Low-Speed Kinetic Energy Storage Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnov, G.; Cruz, I.; Arias, F.; Fiffe, R. P.

    2003-01-01

    A brief overview of different steel disc-type flywheels is presented. It contents the analysis of relationship between stress-state and kinetic energy of rotating body, comparison of the main characteristics of flywheels and description of their optimization procedures. It is shown that pro files of the discs calculated on a basis of plane stress-state assumption may be considered only as a starting point for its further improvement using 3-D approach. The aim of the review is to provide a designer for a insight into problem of shaping of steel flywheels. (Author) 19 refs

  14. FLYWHEEL BASED KINETIC ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEMS (KERS) INTEGRATED IN VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    THOMAS MATHEWS; NISHANTH D

    2013-01-01

    Today, many hybrid electric vehicles have been developed in order to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels; unfortunately these vehicles require electrochemical batteries to store energy, with high costs as well as poor conversion efficiencies. By integrating flywheel hybrid systems, these drawbacks can be overcome and can potentially replace battery powered hybrid vehicles cost effectively. The paper will explain the engineering, mechanics of the flywheel system and it’s working in detail. ...

  15. Energy optimization for a wind DFIG with flywheel energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamzaoui, Ihssen, E-mail: hamzaoui-ihssen2000@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Instrumentation, Faculty of Electronics and Computer, University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene, BP 32 El-Alia 16111 Bab-Ezzouar (Algeria); Laboratory of Instrumentation, Faculty of Electronics and Computer, University of Khemis Miliana, Ain Defla (Algeria); Bouchafaa, Farid, E-mail: fbouchafa@gmail.com [Laboratory of Instrumentation, Faculty of Electronics and Computer, University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene, BP 32 El-Alia 16111 Bab-Ezzouar (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    The type of distributed generation unit that is the subject of this paper relates to renewable energy sources, especially wind power. The wind generator used is based on a double fed induction Generator (DFIG). The stator of the DFIG is connected directly to the network and the rotor is connected to the network through the power converter with three levels. The objective of this work is to study the association a Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) in wind generator. This system is used to improve the quality of electricity provided by wind generator. It is composed of a flywheel; an induction machine (IM) and a power electronic converter. A maximum power tracking technique « Maximum Power Point Tracking » (MPPT) and a strategy for controlling the pitch angle is presented. The model of the complete system is developed in Matlab/Simulink environment / to analyze the results from simulation the integration of wind chain to networks.

  16. Application of flywheel energy storage for heavy haul locomotives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiryagin, Maksym; Wolfs, Peter; Szanto, Frank; Sun, Yan Quan; Cole, Colin; Nielsen, Dwayne

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel design for heavy haul locomotive equipped with a flywheel energy storage system is proposed. • The integrated intelligent traction control system was developed. • A flywheel energy storage system has been tested through a simulation process. • The developed hybrid system was verified using an existing heavy haul railway route. • Fuel efficiency analysis confirms advantages of the hybrid design. - Abstract: At the present time, trains in heavy haul operations are typically hauled by several diesel-electric locomotives coupled in a multiple unit. This paper studies the case of a typical consist of three Co–Co diesel-electric locomotives, and considers replacing one unit with an alternative version, with the same design parameters, except that the diesel-electric plant is replaced with flywheel energy storage equipment. The intelligent traction and energy control system installed in this unit is integrated into the multiple-unit control to allow redistribution of the power between all units. In order to verify the proposed design, a three-stage investigation has been performed as described in this paper. The initial stage studies a possible configuration of the flywheel energy storage system by detailed modelling of the proposed intelligent traction and energy control system. The second stage includes the investigation and estimation of possible energy flows using a longitudinal train dynamics simulation. The final stage compares the conventional and the proposed locomotive configurations considering two parameters: fuel efficiency and emissions reduction.

  17. Optimal energy management for a flywheel-based hybrid vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van K.; Hofman, T.; Vroemen, B.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and design of an optimal Energy Management Strategy (EMS) for a flywheel-based hybrid vehicle, that does not use any electrical motor/generator, or a battery, for its hybrid functionalities. The hybrid drive train consists of only low-cost components, such as a

  18. Roles of superconducting magnetic bearings and active magnetic bearings in attitude control and energy storage flywheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jiqiang; Fang Jiancheng; Ge, Shuzhi Sam

    2012-01-01

    Compared with conventional energy storage flywheel, the rotor of attitude control and energy storage flywheel (ACESF) used in space not only has high speed, but also is required to have precise and stable direction. For the presented superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) and active magnetic bearing (AMB) suspended ACESF, the rotor model including gyroscopic couples is established originally by taking the properties of SMB and AMB into account, the forces of SMB and AMB are simplified by linearization within their own neighbors of equilibrium points. For the high-speed rigid discal rotor with large inertia, the negative effect of gyroscopic effect of rotor is prominent, the radial translation and tilting movement of rotor suspended by only SMB, SMB with equivalent PMB, or SMB together with PD controlled AMB are researched individually. These analysis results proved originally that SMB together with AMB can make the rotor be stable and make the radial amplitude of the vibration of rotor be small while the translation of rotor suspended by only SMB or SMB and PM is not stable and the amplitude of this vibration is large. For the stability of the high-speed rotor in superconducting ACESF, the AMB can suppress the nutation and precession of rotor effectively by cross-feedback control based on the separated PD type control or by other modern control methods.

  19. Design and Construction of 10 kWh Class Flywheel Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S. Y.; Han, S. C.; Han, Y. H.; Park, B. J.; Bae, Y. C.; Lee, W. R.

    2011-01-01

    A superconductor flywheel energy storage system (SFES) is an electro-mechanical battery which transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy for storage, and vice versa. A 10 kWh class flywheel energy storage system (FESS) has been developed to evaluate the feasibility of a 35 kWh class SFES with a flywheel Ip/If ratio larger than 1. The 10 kWh class FESS is composed of a main frame, a composite flywheel, active magnetic dampers (AMDs), a permanent magnet bearing, and a motor/generator. The flywheel of the FESS rotates at a very high speed to store energy, while being levitated by a permanent magnetic bearing and a pair of thrust AMDs. The 10 kWh class flywheel is mainly composed of a composite rotor assembly, where most of the energy is stored, two radial and two thrust AMD rotors, which dissipate vibration at critical speeds, a permanent magnet rotor, which supports most of the flywheel weight, a motor rotor, which spins the flywheel, and a central hollow shaft, where the parts are assembled and aligned to. The stators of each of the main components are assembled on to housings, which are assembled and aligned to the main frame. Many factors have been considered while designing each part of the flywheel, stator and frame. In this study, a 10 kWh class flywheel energy storage system has been designed and constructed for test operation.

  20. Performance Analysis of a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ghedamsi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The flywheel energy storage systems (FESSs are suitable for improving the quality of the electric power delivered by the wind generators and to help these generators to contribute to the ancillary services. In this paper, a flywheel energy storage system associated to a grid connected variable speed wind generation (VSWG scheme using a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG is investigated. Therefore, the dynamic behavior of a wind generator, including models of the wind turbine (aerodynamic, DFIG, matrix converter, converter control (algorithm of VENTURINI and power control is studied. This paper investigates also, the control method of the FESS with a classical squirrel-cage induction machine associated to a VSWG using back-to-back AC/AC converter. Simulation results of the dynamic models of the wind generator are presented, for different operating points, to show the good performance of the proposed system.

  1. High speed superconducting flywheel system for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann, H. J.; Urban, C.; Boegler, P.; Ritter, T.; Zaitsev, O.; Weber, K.; Rietschel, H.

    1994-12-01

    A prototype of a flywheel system with auto stable high temperature superconducting bearings was built and tested. The bearings offered good vertical and lateral stability. A metallic flywheel disk, ø 190 mm x 30 mm, was safely rotated at speeds up to 15000 rpm. The disk was driven by a 3 phase synchronous homopolar motor/generator. Maximum energy capacity was 3.8 Wh, maximum power was 1.5 KW. The dynamic behavior of the prototype was tested, characterized and evaluated with respect to axial and lateral stiffness, decay torques (bearing drag), vibrational modes and critical speeds. The bearings supports a maximum weight of 65 N at zero gap, axial and lateral stiffness at 1 mm gap were 440 N/cm and 130 N/cm, respectively. Spin down experiments were performed to investigate the energy efficiency of the system. The decay rate was found to depend upon background pressure in the vacuum chamber and upon the gap width in the bearing. At a background pressure of 5x10 -4 Torr, the coefficient of friction (drag-to-lift ratio) was measured to be 0.000009 at low speeds for 6 mm gap width in the bearing. Our results indicate that further refinement of this technology will allow operation of higly efficient superconducting flywheels in the kWh range.

  2. Dynamics of a Flywheel Energy Storage System Supporting a Wind Turbine Generator in a Microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair S, Gayathri; Senroy, Nilanjan

    2016-02-01

    Integration of an induction machine based flywheel energy storage system with a wind energy conversion system is implemented in this paper. The nonlinear and linearized models of the flywheel are studied, compared and a reduced order model of the same simulated to analyze the influence of the flywheel inertia and control in system response during a wind power change. A quantification of the relation between the inertia of the flywheel and the controller gain is obtained which allows the system to be considered as a reduced order model that is more controllable in nature. A microgrid setup comprising of the flywheel energy storage system, a two mass model of a DFIG based wind turbine generator and a reduced order model of a diesel generator is utilized to analyse the microgrid dynamics accurately in the event of frequency variations arising due to wind power change. The response of the microgrid with and without the flywheel is studied.

  3. AN ASSESSMENT OF FLYWHEEL HIGH POWER ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR HYBRID VEHICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, James Gerald [ORNL

    2012-02-01

    An assessment has been conducted for the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program to determine the state of the art of advanced flywheel high power energy storage systems to meet hybrid vehicle needs for high power energy storage and energy/power management. Flywheel systems can be implemented with either an electrical or a mechanical powertrain. The assessment elaborates upon flywheel rotor design issues of stress, materials and aspect ratio. Twelve organizations that produce flywheel systems submitted specifications for flywheel energy storage systems to meet minimum energy and power requirements for both light-duty and heavy-duty hybrid applications of interest to DOE. The most extensive experience operating flywheel high power energy storage systems in heavy-duty and light-duty hybrid vehicles is in Europe. Recent advances in Europe in a number of vehicle racing venues and also in road car advanced evaluations are discussed. As a frame of reference, nominal weight and specific power for non-energy storage components of Toyota hybrid electric vehicles are summarized. The most effective utilization of flywheels is in providing high power while providing just enough energy storage to accomplish the power assist mission effectively. Flywheels are shown to meet or exceed the USABC power related goals (discharge power, regenerative power, specific power, power density, weight and volume) for HEV and EV batteries and ultracapacitors. The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems remains the issue of safety and containment. Flywheel safety issues must be addressed during the design and testing phases to ensure that production flywheel systems can be operated with adequately low risk.

  4. The calculation of energy storage flywheels of fiber composites with electric energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canders, W R

    1982-01-01

    The computation and the design of energy storage flywheels with electromechanical energy converters are considered in the present study. The most important stress parameters for flywheels of unidirectional laminate are determined, and criteria for the dimensioning of the flywheel are presented, taking into account centrifugal and compressive stresses. The required high speed of the flywheel is the dominating factor, which has to be considered also in the design of the driving engine for the storage device. The computation of the design characteristics of an outside-rotor motor with permanent-magnet excitation as an integral component of the storage device is discussed. The significance of the obtained results is illustrated with the aid of design examples and an application example in the area of vehicular technology.

  5. Flywheel Energy Storage Drive System for Wind Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Constantin Georgescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wind small power plant with a Smart Storage Modular Structure (SSMS, as follows: a Short Time Storage Module (STSM based on a flywheel with Induction Motor (IM and a Medium/Long Time Storage Module (MLTSM based on a Vanadium Redox flow Battery (VRB. To control the speed and torque of the IM are used a nonlinear sensorless solution and a direct torque solution which have been compared. Now, the author proposes to replace the IM by a dc motor with permanent magnet energy injection. In this aim, are accomplished some laboratory tests.

  6. Analysis of the energy capacity of rim-spoke composite flywheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorlat, P.A.; Portnov, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    The rim-spoke flywheel consisting of a rim, connected to the hub by spokes encompassing the rim periphery, is one of the most promising types of energy accumulators. For the rational design of rim-spoke flywheels, the authors investigate the dependence of their mass energy capacity and their volume energy capacity; the limit speed on the geometric parameters of the flywheel and the properties of the composites used in making the rim and the spokes are also examined. It is shown through various programs, worked out for analyzing the energy capacity of rim-spoke flywheels, that they can substantially facilitate the designing of such flywheels according to specified requirements that their operational characteristics have to meet

  7. An overview of flywheel energy systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsky, A. M.; Energy Systems

    2002-05-01

    Passive magnetic bearings incorporating permanent magnets and ReBaCuO, together with carbon fibre, offer the possibility of increasing the stored, volumetric energy density of FES and unprecedentedly low idling loss of FES. Its stored energy need only satisfy customers needs for the time it takes to bring on conventional 'back-up'. The FES itself must come up to power quickly enough to avoid any disruption in the customer's operation (e.g., continuous industrial processes involving fragile materials, for example paper forming). Such customers do not care about the price of electricity nearly as much as they care about not ruining their product, damaging their machines or having 'clean ups' that stop or slow output. Firms that engage in electronic commerce and/or telecommunications also value uninterruptible power. Another set of potential customers (construction, electric railroads) may wish to avoid fluctuations in their electrical supply or they may wish to avoid causing harm to others who may hold them liable for poor power quality. Finally, real time prices (e.g., every 15 s) and real time commands, disseminated via internet, and distributed storage might enable reduced system generation costs. Generators and FES makers would have to cooperate to make this feasible. Now, the central techno-economic challenge is to build a high-power, low-loss motor generator that reaches full power in a very short time.

  8. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John; Sibley, Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs.

  9. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, John; Sibley Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs

  10. Energy and momentum management of the Space Station using magnetically suspended composite rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhaure, D. B.; Oglevie, R. E.; Keckler, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    The research addresses the feasibility of using magnetically suspended composite rotors to jointly perform the energy and momentum management functions of an advanced manned Space Station. Recent advancements in composite materials, magnetic suspensions, and power conversion electronics have given flywheel concepts the potential to simultaneously perform these functions for large, long duration spacecraft, while offering significant weight, volume, and cost savings over conventional approaches. The Space Station flywheel concept arising out of this study consists of a composite-material rotor, a large-angle magnetic suspension (LAMS) system, an ironless armature motor/generator, and high-efficiency power conversion electronics. The LAMS design permits the application of appropriate spacecraft control torques without the use of conventional mechanical gimbals. In addition, flywheel systems have the growth potential and modularity needed to play a key role in many future system developments.

  11. Flywheels: Mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenhorst, D. W.

    1981-06-01

    The characteristics of modern flywheel energy storage systems uniquely qualify the flywheel for use in a variety of road vehicles, off road vehicles and rail vehicles. About sixty studies and vehicle demonstration programs in a dozen countries indicate that future such flywheel powered vehicles will have improved performance, reduced energy and fuel consumption and reduced life cycle cost. Flywheel capabilities and mobile applications were reviewed.

  12. Clean energy storage technology in the making: An innovation systems perspective on flywheel energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicki, Samuel; Hansen, Erik G

    2017-09-20

    The emergence and diffusion of green and sustainable technologies is full of obstacles and has therefore become an important area of research. We are interested in further understanding the dynamics between entrepreneurial experimentation, market formation, and institutional contexts, together playing a decisive role for successful diffusion of such technologies. Accordingly, we study these processes by adopting a technological innovation system perspective focusing on actors, networks, and institutions as well as the functions provided by them. Using a qualitative case study research design, we focus on the high-speed flywheel energy storage technology. As flywheels are based on a rotating mass allowing short-term storage of energy in kinetic form, they represent an environmentally-friendly alternative to electrochemical batteries and therefore can play an important role in sustainable energy transitions. Our contribution is threefold: First , regarding the flywheel energy storage technology, our findings reveal two subsystems and related markets in which development took different courses. In the automotive sector, flywheels are developing well as a braking energy recovery technology under the influence of two motors of innovation. In the electricity sector, they are stagnating at the stage of demonstration projects because of two important system weaknesses that counteract demand for storage. Second , we contribute to the theory of technological innovation systems by better understanding the internal dynamics between different functions of an innovation system as well as between the innovation system and its (external) contextual structures. Our third contribution is methodological. According to our best knowledge, we are the first to use system dynamics to (qualitatively) analyze and visualize dynamics between the diverse functions of innovation systems with the aim of enabling a better understanding of complex and iterative system processes. The paper also

  13. A Motor/Generator for Flywheel Energy Storage System Levitated by Bulk Superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, C.S.; Yeon, J.U.; Jeoung, H.M.; Choi, J.H. [Chungbuk National University (Korea); Lee, H.J; Hong, G.W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The energy storage systems are being widely researched for the high quality of the electric power. The FES(flywheel energy storage system)is especially, on the center of the research because it does not make any pollution and its life is long. The FES converts the electrical energy into the mechanical kinetic energy of the flywheel and reconverts the mechanical energy into the electrical energy, In order to store as much energy as possible, the flywheel is supposed to be rotated with very high speed. The motor/generator of the FES should be high efficient at high speed, and generate constant torque with respect to the rotation. In this paper, a motor/generator employing a Halbach array of permanent magnets is designed and constructed to meet the requirements, and its characteristics are examined. The magnetic field is analysed by using the magnetic surface charge method. The armature winding is designed for the harmonic components to be minimized by using the FFT. The sinusoidal currents for the motor driving are generated by the hysteresis current controller. A sample superconducting flywheel energy storage system is constructed with a duralumin flywheel which has a maximum rotating speed of 40,000[rpm] and a stored energy of 240[Wh] and its validity is examined through the experiment. (author). 15 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY ACCUMULATION SYSTEMS AND DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL APPLICATION AREAS FOR MODERN SUPER FLYWHEELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sokolov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review and comparative analysis of late years native and foreign literature on various energy storage devices: state of the art designs, application experience in various technical fields. Comparative characteristics of energy storage devices are formulated: efficiency, quality and stability. Typical characteristics are shown for such devices as electrochemical batteries, super capacitors, pumped hydroelectric storage, power systems based on compressed air and superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. The advantages and prospects of high-speed super flywheels as means of energy accumulation in the form of rotational kinetic energy are shown. High output power of a super flywheels energy storage system gives the possibility to use it as a buffer source of peak power. It is shown that super flywheels have great life cycle (over 20 years and are environmental. A distinctive feature of these energy storage devices is their good scalability. It is demonstrated that super flywheels are especially effective in hybrid power systems that operate in a charge/discharge mode, and are used particularly in electric vehicles. The most important factors for space applications of the super flywheels are their modularity, high efficiency, no mechanical friction and long operating time without maintenance. Quick response to network disturbances and high power output can be used to maintain the desired power quality and overall network stability along with fulfilling energy accumulation needs.

  15. A Review of Flywheel Energy Storage System Technologies and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa E. Amiryar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems (ESS provide a means for improving the efficiency of electrical systems when there are imbalances between supply and demand. Additionally, they are a key element for improving the stability and quality of electrical networks. They add flexibility into the electrical system by mitigating the supply intermittency, recently made worse by an increased penetration of renewable generation. One energy storage technology now arousing great interest is the flywheel energy storage systems (FESS, since this technology can offer many advantages as an energy storage solution over the alternatives. Flywheels have attributes of a high cycle life, long operational life, high round-trip efficiency, high power density, low environmental impact, and can store megajoule (MJ levels of energy with no upper limit when configured in banks. This paper presents a critical review of FESS in regards to its main components and applications, an approach not captured in earlier reviews. Additionally, earlier reviews do not include the most recent literature in this fast-moving field. A description of the flywheel structure and its main components is provided, and different types of electric machines, power electronics converter topologies, and bearing systems for use in flywheel storage systems are discussed. The main applications of FESS are explained and commercially available flywheel prototypes for each application are described. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research.

  16. Efficient energy transfer and increase of energy density of magnetically charged flywheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterdorfer, T.

    2014-01-01

    Flywheel Energy Storage Systems represent an ecologically and economically sustainable technology for decentralized energy storage. Compared to other storage technologies such as e.g. chemical accumulators, they offer longer life cycles without performance degradation over time and usage and need almost no systematic maintenance. Further, they are made of environmentally friendly materials. By means of the driving torque of an electric motor, the flywheel is accelerated and thus electrical energy is transformed to kinetic energy. The stored energy can be transfered back by the load torque of a generator when needed. Modern flywheel energy storage applications use magnetic bearings to minimize selfdischarge. To avoid bearing forces due to rotor eccentricity an unbalance control strategy is used. However, this leads to an off-centered run of the electric machines rotor which in turn generates undesirable forces. A force-compensating operation of the electric machine will minimize the influence on the magnetic bearings in the planned control scheme, thus increasing their efficiency. Different concepts will be developed and compared to each other by means of simulations. Validation of the simulation models is carried out on a specially constructed test setup under defined conditions. In addition, the electrical machine will be integrated into the concept of redundancy of the flywheel. A bearingless operation increases the reliability and enables a safe shutdown of the application in case of malfunction of the magnetic bearings. High strength composite materials are used to achieve high speeds. Based on existing results from past research activities, a disc-shaped rotor is optimized first. To increase material utilization and to maximize energy density a topology optimization is performed. Evolutionary and gradient based optimization algorithms are used. Thereby the unused strength potential of the material is exploited in order to increase the economic efficiency of

  17. The New Structure Design and Analysis of Energy Storage of Flywheel of Split Rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The braking of the rail transit train consumes a great quantity of energy, and the thermal energy produced in the process of braking can affect the normal operation of the transit train. Thus recycling the braking energy becomes a research hotspot of urban rail train. This paper made an overall analysis of regenerative braking process, the rationale, and the main features and then put forward the optimizing the structure of the composite flywheel concept and design calculation method. This paper also designs a new flywheel structure which can be applied on urban rail operating system. The new flywheel structure should be checked by finite element method and the radius of the rotor should be defined under the condition of meeting the requirements of carbon fiber material strength. Meanwhile, compared with the solid flywheel under the same condition, analysis shows that the maximum rotary inertia of the new flywheel and the quality energy density increased, and the discharge depth also perks up.

  18. Safety flywheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, R.T.

    1977-01-17

    The patent application relates to an inertial energy storage device employing a safety flywheel which is made of flexible material such as a twisted rope ring. The rigidity required for such a device is achieved through centrifugal forces inherent in such a device when it is operating. A small number of the strands of the rope ring have a tensile strength that is lower than the vast majority of the strands of the rope ring whereby should any of these strands fail, they will begin to whiplash allowing such a failure to be detected and braked before a catastrophic failure occurs. This is accomplished by the inclusion of glass tubes located around the periphery of the flywheel. The tubes are in communication with a braking fluid reservoir. The flywheel and glass tubes are enclosed within a vacuum-tight housing.

  19. Kinematics analysis of vertical magnetic suspension energy storage flywheel rotor under transient rotational speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhengyi; Huang, Tong; Feng, Jiajia; Zhou, Yuanwei

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a 600Wh vertical maglev energy storage flywheel rotor system is taken as a model. The motion equation of a rigid rotor considering the gyroscopic effect and the center of mass offset is obtained by the centroid theorem, and the experimental verification is carried out. Using the state variable method, the Matlab software was used to program and simulate the radial displacement and radial electromagnetic force of the rotor system at each speed. The results show that the established system model is in accordance with the designed 600Wh vertical maglev energy storage flywheel model. The results of the simulation analysis are helpful to further understand the dynamic nature of the flywheel rotor at different transient speeds.

  20. Modified Cross Feedback Control for a Magnetically Suspended Flywheel Rotor with Significant Gyroscopic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For magnetically suspended rigid rotors (MSRs with significant gyroscopic effects, phase lag of the control channel is the main factor influencing the system nutation stability and decoupling performance. At first, this paper proves that the phase lag of the cross channel instead of the decentralized channel is often the main factor influencing the system nutation stability at high speeds. Then a modified cross feedback control strategy based on the phase compensation of cross channel is proposed to improve the stability and decoupling performances. The common issues associated with the traditional control methods have been successfully resolved by this method. Analysis, simulation, and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the proposed control method.

  1. A Control Algorithm for Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Stations Equipped with Flywheel Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a control strategy for plugin electric vehicle (PEV) fast charging station (FCS) equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS). The main role of the FESS is not to compromise the predefined charging profile of PEV battery during the provision of a hysteresis-type active...

  2. Experimental Evaluation of a High Speed Flywheel for an Energy Cache System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, J.; Murai, K.; Itoh, J.; Yamada, N.; Hirano, Y.; Fujimori, T.; Homma, T.

    2011-03-01

    A flywheel energy cache system (FECS) is a mechanical battery that can charge/discharge electricity by converting it into the kinetic energy of a rotating flywheel, and vice versa. Compared to a chemical battery, a FECS has great advantages in durability and lifetime, especially in hot or cold environments. Design simulations of the FECS were carried out to clarify the effects of the composition and dimensions of the flywheel rotor on the charge/discharge performance. The rotation speed of a flywheel is limited by the strength of the materials from which it is constructed. Three materials, carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP), Cr-Mo steel, and a Mg alloy were examined with respect to the required weight and rotation speed for a 3 MJ (0.8 kWh) charging/discharging energy, which is suitable for an FECS operating with a 3-5 kW photovoltaic device in an ordinary home connected to a smart grid. The results demonstrate that, for a stationary 3 MJ FECS, Cr-Mo steel was the most cost-effective, but also the heaviest, Mg-alloy had a good balance of rotation speed and weight, which should result in reduced mechanical loss and enhanced durability and lifetime of the system, and CFRP should be used for applications requiring compactness and a higher energy density. Finally, a high-speed prototype FW was analyzed to evaluate its fundamental characteristics both under acceleration and in the steady state.

  3. Experimental Evaluation of a High Speed Flywheel for an Energy Cache System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruna, J; Itoh, J; Murai, K; Yamada, N; Hirano, Y; Homma, T; Fujimori, T

    2011-01-01

    A flywheel energy cache system (FECS) is a mechanical battery that can charge/discharge electricity by converting it into the kinetic energy of a rotating flywheel, and vice versa. Compared to a chemical battery, a FECS has great advantages in durability and lifetime, especially in hot or cold environments. Design simulations of the FECS were carried out to clarify the effects of the composition and dimensions of the flywheel rotor on the charge/discharge performance. The rotation speed of a flywheel is limited by the strength of the materials from which it is constructed. Three materials, carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP), Cr-Mo steel, and a Mg alloy were examined with respect to the required weight and rotation speed for a 3 MJ (0.8 kWh) charging/discharging energy, which is suitable for an FECS operating with a 3-5 kW photovoltaic device in an ordinary home connected to a smart grid. The results demonstrate that, for a stationary 3 MJ FECS, Cr-Mo steel was the most cost-effective, but also the heaviest, Mg-alloy had a good balance of rotation speed and weight, which should result in reduced mechanical loss and enhanced durability and lifetime of the system, and CFRP should be used for applications requiring compactness and a higher energy density. Finally, a high-speed prototype FW was analyzed to evaluate its fundamental characteristics both under acceleration and in the steady state.

  4. Two-Level Control for Fast Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations with Multi Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SUN, BO; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies a hierarchical control for a fast charging station (FCS) composed of paralleled PWM rectifier and dedicated paralleled multiple flywheel energy storage systems (FESSs), in order to mitigate peak power shock on grid caused by sudden connection of electrical vehicle (EV) chargers...

  5. Advanced Motor Control Test Facility for NASA GRC Flywheel Energy Storage System Technology Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Kascak, Peter E.; Hofmann, Heath; Mackin, Michael; Santiago, Walter; Jansen, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the flywheel test facility developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center with particular emphasis on the motor drive components and control. A four-pole permanent magnet synchronous machine, suspended on magnetic bearings, is controlled with a field orientation algorithm. A discussion of the estimation of the rotor position and speed from a "once around signal" is given. The elimination of small dc currents by using a concurrent stationary frame current regulator is discussed and demonstrated. Initial experimental results are presented showing the successful operation and control of the unit at speeds up to 20,000 rpm.

  6. The New Structure Design and Analysis of Energy Storage of Flywheel of Split Rotor

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Xu; Wei Wang; Jin Yan; Shaoyang Han

    2015-01-01

    The braking of the rail transit train consumes a great quantity of energy, and the thermal energy produced in the process of braking can affect the normal operation of the transit train. Thus recycling the braking energy becomes a research hotspot of urban rail train. This paper made an overall analysis of regenerative braking process, the rationale, and the main features and then put forward the optimizing the structure of the composite flywheel concept and design calculation method. This pa...

  7. Experimental Evaluation of Superconductor Flywheel Energy Storage System with Hybrid Type Active Magnetic Bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. P.; Kim, H. G.; Han, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we designed Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) for large scale Superconductor Flywheel Energy Storage System (SFESS) and PD controller for AMB. And we experimentally evaluated SFESS including hybrid type AMB. The radial AMB was designed to provide force slew rate that was sufficient for the unbalance disturbances at the maximum operating speed. The thrust AMB is a hybrid type where a permanent magnet carries the weight of the flywheel and an electromagnetic actuator generates the dynamic control force. We evaluated the design performance of the manufactured AMB through comparison of FEM analysis and the results of experimental force measurement. In order to obtain gains of PD controller and design a notch filter, the system identification was performed through measuring frequency response including dynamics for the AMBs, a power amp and a sensor using a sine swept test method after levitating the flywheel. Through measuring the current input of the AMBs and the orbit of a flywheel according to rotational speed, we verified excellent control performance of the AMBs with small amount current for the large scale SFESS.

  8. Inverter Output Filter Effect on PWM Motor Drives of a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Walter

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been involved in the research and development of high speed flywheel systems for small satellite energy storage and attitude control applications. One research and development area has been the minimization of the switching noise produced by the pulsed width modulated (PWM) inverter that drives the flywheel permanent magnet motor/generator (PM M/G). This noise can interfere with the flywheel M/G hardware and the system avionics hampering the full speed performance of the flywheel system. One way to attenuate the inverter switching noise is by placing an AC filter at the three phase output terminals of the inverter with the filter neutral point connected to the DC link (DC bus) midpoint capacitors. The main benefit of using an AC filter in this fashion is the significant reduction of the inverter s high dv/dt switching and its harmonics components. Additionally, common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) voltages caused by the inverter s high dv/dt switching are also reduced. Several topologies of AC filters have been implemented and compared. One AC filter topology consists of a two-stage R-L-C low pass filter. The other topology consists of the same two-stage R-L-C low pass filter with a series connected trap filter (an inductor and capacitor connected in parallel). This paper presents the analysis, design and experimental results of these AC filter topologies and the comparison between the no filter case and conventional AC filter.

  9. Filtering and Control of High Speed Motor Current in a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Santiago, Walter

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing technology to enable the use of high speed flywheel energy storage units in future spacecraft for the last several years. An integral part of the flywheel unit is the three phase motor/generator that is used to accelerate and decelerate the flywheel. The motor/generator voltage is supplied from a pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter operating from a fixed DC voltage supply. The motor current is regulated through a closed loop current control that commands the necessary voltage from the inverter to achieve the desired current. The current regulation loop is the innermost control loop of the overall flywheel system and, as a result, must be fast and accurate over the entire operating speed range (20,000 to 60,000 rpm) of the flywheel. The voltage applied to the motor is a high frequency PWM version of the DC bus voltage that results in the commanded fundamental value plus higher order harmonics. Most of the harmonic content is at the switching frequency and above. The higher order harmonics cause a rapid change in voltage to be applied to the motor that can result in large voltage stresses across the motor windings. In addition, the high frequency content in the motor causes sensor noise in the magnetic bearings that leads to disturbances for the bearing control. To alleviate these problems, a filter is used to present a more sinusoidal voltage to the motor/generator. However, the filter adds additional dynamics and phase lag to the motor system that can interfere with the performance of the current regulator. This paper will discuss the tuning methodology and results for the motor/generator current regulator and the impact of the filter on the control. Results at speeds up to 50,000 rpm are presented.

  10. A Flywheel Energy Storage System Based on a Doubly Fed Induction Machine and Battery for Microgrid Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai-Thanh Nguyen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microgrids are eco-friendly power systems because they use renewable sources such as solar and wind power as the main power source. However, the stochastic nature of wind and solar power is a considerable challenge for the efficient operation of microgrids. Microgrid operations have to satisfy quality requirements in terms of the frequency and voltage. To overcome these problems, energy storage systems for short- and long-term storage are used with microgrids. Recently, the use of short-term energy storage systems such as flywheels has attracted significant interest as a potential solution to this problem. Conventional flywheel energy storage systems exhibit only one control mode during operation: either smoothing wind power control or frequency control. In this paper, we propose a new flywheel energy storage system based on a doubly fed induction machine and a battery for use with microgrids. The new flywheel energy storage system can be used not only to mitigate wind power fluctuations, but also to control the frequency as well as the voltage of the microgrid during islanded operation. The performance of the proposed flywheel energy storage system is investigated through various simulations using MATLAB/Simulink software. In addition, a conventional flywheel energy storage system based on a doubly fed induction machine is simulated and its performance compared with that of the proposed one.

  11. Lightweight flywheel containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James R.

    2004-06-29

    A lightweight flywheel containment composed of a combination of layers of various material which absorb the energy of a flywheel structural failure. The various layers of material act as a vacuum barrier, momentum spreader, energy absorber, and reaction plate. The flywheel containment structure has been experimentally demonstrated to contain carbon fiber fragments with a velocity of 1,000 m/s and has an aerial density of less than 6.5 g/square centimeters. The flywheel containment, may for example, be composed of an inner high toughness structural layer, and energy absorbing layer, and an outer support layer. Optionally, a layer of impedance matching material may be utilized intermediate the flywheel rotor and the inner high toughness layer.

  12. The improved damping of superconductor bearings for 35 kWh superconductor flywheel energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Y.H.; Park, B.J.; Jung, S.Y.; Han, S.C.; Lee, W.R.; Bae, Y.C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We made a 35 kWh superconductor flywheel energy storage system. ► The damping coefficient of the superconductor bearing was increased over 3000 N s/m. ► The source of damping was discussed. -- Abstract: A 35 kWh Superconductor Flywheel Energy Storage system (SFES) using hybrid bearing sets, which is composed of a high temperature superconductor (HTS) bearing and an active magnet damper (AMD), has been developed at KEPCO Research Institute (KEPRI). Damping is a source of energy loss but necessary for the stability of the flywheel system. We found that the damping of HTS bearings can be improved by thermal insulating bolts, which play a role of passive type external damper. To investigate the source of the increased damping, damping coefficients were measured with HTS bearings using insulating bolts made of three kinds of polymer materials. The damping coefficient was raised over 3000 N s/m in the case of PEEK bolts. The value was almost a quarter of the AMD. In this study, thermoelastic and Coulomb friction damping mechanisms are discussed. The main damping mechanism was the thermoelastic damping of the bolts themselves. And interfacial gap between the insulating bolt and metal chamber, which increased during the cooling process, was considered to be the cause of the anisotropic damping coefficients. Finally, the effects of the HTS bearings on the first critical speed are shown

  13. Static Properties of Superconductor Journal Bearing Substator for Superconductor Flywheel Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, B. J.; Jung, S. Y.; Lee, J. P.; Park, B. C.; Jeong, N. H.; Sung, T. H.; Han, Y. H.

    2008-01-01

    A Superconductor Flywheel Energy Storage System(SFES) mainly consists of a pair of non-contacting High Temperature Superconductor(HTS) bearings that provide very low frictional losses, a composite flywheel with high energy storage density. The HTS bearings, which offer dynamic stability without active control, are the key technology that distinguishes the SFES from other flywheel energy storage devices, and great effort is being put into developing this technology. The Superconductor Journal Bearing(SJB) mainly consists of HTS bulks and a stator, which holds the HTS bulks and also acts as a cold head. Static properties of HTS bearings provide data to solve problems which may occur easily in a running system. Since stiffness to counter vibration is the main parameter in designing an HTS bearing system, we investigate SJB magnetic force through static properties between the Permanent Magnet(PM) and HTS. We measure stiffness in static condition and the results are used to determine the optimal number of HTS bulks for a 100kWh SFES.

  14. Enhanced Control for a Direct-driven Permanent Synchronous Generator Wind-power Generation System with Flywheel Energy Storage Unit Under Unbalanced Grid Fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Jun; Zhou, Te; Hu, Weihao

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an enhanced control strategy for a direct-driven permanent synchronous generator based wind-power generation system with a flywheel energy storage unit. The behaviors of the direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator system with a flywheel energy storage unit under......, the DC-link voltage oscillations can be effectively suppressed during the unbalanced grid fault by controlling the flywheel energy storage unit. Furthermore, a proportional–integral-resonant controller is designed for the flywheel motor to eliminate the oscillations in the DC-link voltage. Finally......, the proposed coordinated control strategy for the direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator system with a flywheel energy storage unit has been validated by the simulation results of a 1-MW direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator wind power generation system with a flywheel energy...

  15. Recommended Practices for the Safe Design and Operation of Flywheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Donald Arthur [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Flywheel energy storage systems are in use globally in increasing numbers . No codes pertaining specifically to flywheel energy storage exist. A number of industrial incidents have occurred. This protocol recommends a technical basis for safe flywheel de sign and operation for consideration by flywheel developers, users of flywheel systems and standards setting organizations.

  16. Distributed Cooperative Control of Multi Flywheel Energy Storage System for Electrical Vehicle Fast Charging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in electrical vehicles will play a critical role in future smart grid and sudden connection of electrical vehicles chargers may cause huge power-peaks with high slew-rates on grid. In order to cope with this issue, this paper applies a distributed cooperative control for fast charging station...... with dedicated paralleled flywheel-based energy storage system. The distributed DC-bus signaling method is employed in the power coordination of grid and flywheel converters, and a distributed secondary controller generates DC voltage correction term to adjust the local voltage set-point through a dynamic...... consensus based voltage observer by communicating with its neighbors. The control system can realize the power balancing and DC voltage regulation with low reliance on communications. Finally, real-time hardware-in-the-loop results have been reported in order to verify the feasibility of proposed approach....

  17. Benefits from flywheel energy storage for area regulation in California - demonstration results : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)

    2009-10-01

    This report documents a high-level analysis of the benefit and cost for flywheel energy storage used to provide area regulation for the electricity supply and transmission system in California. Area regulation is an 'ancillary service' needed for a reliable and stable regional electricity grid. The analysis was based on results from a demonstration, in California, of flywheel energy storage developed by Beacon Power Corporation (the system's manufacturer). Demonstrated was flywheel storage systems ability to provide 'rapid-response' regulation. Flywheel storage output can be varied much more rapidly than the output from conventional regulation sources, making flywheels more attractive than conventional regulation resources. The performance of the flywheel storage system demonstrated was generally consistent with requirements for a possible new class of regulation resources - 'rapid-response' energy-storage-based regulation - in California. In short, it was demonstrated that Beacon Power Corporation's flywheel system follows a rapidly changing control signal (the ACE, which changes every four seconds). Based on the results and on expected plant cost and performance, the Beacon Power flywheel storage system has a good chance of being a financially viable regulation resource. Results indicate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.5 to 1.8 using what may be somewhat conservative assumptions. A benefit/cost ratio of one indicates that, based on the financial assumptions used, the investment's financial returns just meet the investors target.

  18. Operating characteristics of a 0.87 kW-hr flywheel energy storage module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Scibbe, H. W.; Parker, R. D.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion is given of the design and loss characteristics of 0.87 kW-hr (peak) flywheel energy storage module suitable for aerospace and automotive applications. The maraging steel flywheel rotor, a 46-cm- (18-in-) diameter, 58-kg (128-lb) tapered disk, delivers 0.65 kW-hr of usable energy between operating speeds of 10,000 and 20,000 rpm. The rotor is supported by 20- and 25-mm bore diameter, deep-groove ball bearings, lubricated by a self-replenishing wick type lubrication system. To reduce aerodynamic losses, the rotor housing was evacuated to vacuum levels from 40 to 200 millitorr. Dynamic rotor instabilities uncovered during testing necessitated the use of an elastometric-bearing damper to limit shaft excursions. Spindown losses from bearing, seal, and aerodynamic drag at 50 millitorr typically ranged from 64 to 193 W at 10,000 and 20,000 rpm, respectively. Discharge efficiency of the flywheel system exceeded 96 percent at torque levels greater than 21 percent of rated torque.

  19. DSTATCOM with Flywheel Energy Storage System for wind energy applications: Control design and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suvire, G.O.; Mercado, P.E. [CONICET, Instituto de Energia Electrica, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, San Juan (Argentina)

    2010-03-15

    In this work, the use of a Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator (DSTATCOM) coupled with a Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) is proposed to mitigate problems introduced by wind generation in the electric system. A dynamic model of the DSTATCOM/FESS device is introduced and a multi-level control technique is proposed. This control technique presents one control mode for active power and two control modes for reactive power, power factor correction, and voltage control. Tests of dynamic response of the device are conducted, and performance characteristics are studied taking into consideration variations of power references. Moreover, the behaviour of the device is analyzed when combined with wind generation in the electric system. The results obtained demonstrate a good performance of the model developed and of the control technique proposed as well as a high effectiveness of the device to mitigate problems introduced by wind generation. (author)

  20. Optimum design of flywheel energy storage system using superconducting magnetic bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Hun; Lee, Jeung Gun; Kim, Jong Soo [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Electricity demands changes by as much as 30% over a 12-hour period and results in significant costs for utilities as power output get adjusted to meet these changes. The purpose of High-Temperature Superconducting Flywheel Energy Storage System (HTS FES) is to store unused nighttime electricity until it is needed during the daytime. The HTS FES is designed by using flywheel shape function with uniform stress. Natural frequencies and natural modes are estimated by using Finite Element Analysis and correlated with the experimental results. By performing a vibration test, the stiffness and the damping ratio of the flux line, the flux pinning phenomenon are measured Using the modal parameters of each component and the measured stiffness, damping coefficient, the IDEAS System Dynamics Analysis is performed and frequency response function(FRF) of the joined system is obtained. The effect of tangential torque on flywheel has been studied using cantilever shaft with rotor at free end. To obtain the equation of motion, the Lagrange`s equation and the assumed-mode method are used. As a admissible function, a free vibration mode of clamped-free beam is used. The eigenvalues are computed and the stability boundaries are obtained. 19 refs., 33 figs. (author)

  1. On the experimental determination of the efficiency of piezoelectric impact-type energy harvesters using a rotational flywheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janphuang, P; Lockhart, R; Briand, D; De Rooij, N F; Henein, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a novel methodology using a rotational flywheel to determine the energy conversion efficiency of the impact based piezoelectric energy harvesters. The influence of the impact speed and additional proof mass on the efficiency is presented here. In order to convert low frequency mechanical oscillations into usable electrical energy, a piezoelectric harvester is coupled to a rotating gear wheel driven by flywheel. The efficiency is determined from the ratio of the electrical energy generated by the harvester to the mechanical energy dissipated by the flywheel. The experimental results reveal that free vibrations of the harvester after plucking contribute significantly to the efficiency. The efficiency and output energy can be greatly improved by adding a proof mass to the harvester. Under certain conditions, the piezoelectric harvesters have an impact energy conversion efficiency of 1.2%

  2. Peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement with the superconducting flywheel energy storage in electric railway system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hansang; Jung, Seungmin; Cho, Yoonsung; Yoon, Donghee; Jang, Gilsoo

    2013-11-01

    This paper proposes an application of the 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems to reduce the peak power of the electric railway system. The electric railway systems have high-power characteristics and large amount of regenerative energy during vehicles’ braking. The high-power characteristic makes operating cost high as the system should guarantee the secure capacity of electrical equipment and the low utilization rate of regenerative energy limits the significant energy efficiency improvement. In this paper, it had been proved that the peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement can be achieved by using 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems with the optimally controlled charging or discharging operations. Also, economic benefits had been assessed.

  3. Peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement with the superconducting flywheel energy storage in electric railway system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansang, E-mail: hslee80@kiu.ac.kr [School of Railway and Electrical Engineering, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seungmin [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-712 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yoonsung [Department of Electric and Energy Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Donghee [Department of New and Renewable Energy, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Gilsoo, E-mail: gjang@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •It is important to develop power and energy management system to save operating cost. •An 100 kWh of SFES is effective to decrease peak power and energy consumption. •Operation cost saving can be achieved using superconducting flywheel energy storage. -- Abstract: This paper proposes an application of the 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems to reduce the peak power of the electric railway system. The electric railway systems have high-power characteristics and large amount of regenerative energy during vehicles’ braking. The high-power characteristic makes operating cost high as the system should guarantee the secure capacity of electrical equipment and the low utilization rate of regenerative energy limits the significant energy efficiency improvement. In this paper, it had been proved that the peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement can be achieved by using 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems with the optimally controlled charging or discharging operations. Also, economic benefits had been assessed.

  4. Peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement with the superconducting flywheel energy storage in electric railway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hansang; Jung, Seungmin; Cho, Yoonsung; Yoon, Donghee; Jang, Gilsoo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •It is important to develop power and energy management system to save operating cost. •An 100 kWh of SFES is effective to decrease peak power and energy consumption. •Operation cost saving can be achieved using superconducting flywheel energy storage. -- Abstract: This paper proposes an application of the 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems to reduce the peak power of the electric railway system. The electric railway systems have high-power characteristics and large amount of regenerative energy during vehicles’ braking. The high-power characteristic makes operating cost high as the system should guarantee the secure capacity of electrical equipment and the low utilization rate of regenerative energy limits the significant energy efficiency improvement. In this paper, it had been proved that the peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement can be achieved by using 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems with the optimally controlled charging or discharging operations. Also, economic benefits had been assessed

  5. Dynamic characteristics of a flywheel energy storage system using superconducting magnetic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J S

    2003-01-01

    The high-temperature superconducting magnetic bearing flywheel energy storage system (SMB-FESS) is proposed as an efficient energy storage system. It is important to identify the dynamic behaviour and the characteristics of the SMB-FESS. First, a new method for identifying SMB characteristics has been suggested. The suggested modelling method is verified by comparing the experimental and analytical frequency response functions. In this study, the analyses of critical speed and unbalance response are performed using the analytical model. The experimental test has been carried out to verify the result of simulation. A good agreement has been observed between the experiment and the simulation result.

  6. Test equipment for a flywheel energy storage system using a magnetic bearing composed of superconducting coils and superconducting bulks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, M; Matsue, H; Yamashita, T; Hasegawa, H; Nagashima, K; Maeda, T; Matsuoka, T; Mukoyama, S; Shimizu, H; Horiuchi, S

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage systems are necessary for renewable energy sources such as solar power in order to stabilize their output power, which fluctuates widely depending on the weather. Since ‘flywheel energy storage systems’ (FWSSs) do not use chemical reactions, they do not deteriorate due to charge or discharge. This is an advantage of FWSSs in applications for renewable energy plants. A conventional FWSS has capacity limitation because of the mechanical bearings used to support the flywheel. Therefore, we have designed a superconducting magnetic bearing composed of a superconducting coil stator and a superconducting bulk rotor in order to solve this problem, and have experimentally manufactured a large scale FWSS with a capacity of 100 kWh and an output power of 300 kW. The superconducting magnetic bearing can levitate 4 tons and enables the flywheel to rotate smoothly. A performance confirmation test will be started soon. An overview of the superconducting FWSS is presented in this paper. (paper)

  7. Calculation of composite-fibre flywheels with electric power converters for energy storage purposes. Zur Berechnung von Schwungradenergiespeichern aus Faserverbundwerkstoff mit elektrischem Energiewandler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canders, W R

    1982-07-13

    The dissertation discusses the calculation and design of flywheel energy storage systems with electromechanical power converters and composite-fibre flywheels. For this purpose, the main load criteria for centrifugal and pressure loads on flywheel rings of unidirectional laminates are determined, and criteria are given for the dimensioning of flywheel rings. The fast rotational speed of the flywheel dominates the design of the driving motor. As an example, the calculation of a permanent-magnet-excited external rotor motor is described. Special consideration is given to the close correlation between stator current density and ampere bars per cm, and rotor strength. The findings are illustrated by design examples, by an example from the field of vehicle construction, and by experimental studies on composite-fibre flywheels and a driving motor with a high rotational speed.

  8. Flywheel and power unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, R.W.

    1992-10-28

    A power unit, e.g. for an electrically driven vehicle, incorporates a flywheel for storing kinetic energy and a battery for storing electrical energy. The battery is incorporated as a substantial part of the rotating mass of the flywheel. Preferably the unit further includes an electrical machine being a motor or generator or machine operable either as a motor or a generator for transferring energy between the battery and the flywheel and/or for the input or output of rotary energy therefrom or thereto. The motor may be used for powering the flywheel and may also operate in a regenerative mode for recharging the unit on de-acceleration of the vehicle. The unit of the invention may also be utilized as an electrical stored power source, e.g. wind or water driven. (author)

  9. Research and development project for flywheel energy storage system using high-temperature superconducting magnetic bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinagawa, Jiro; Ishikawa, Fumihiko

    1996-01-01

    Recent progress in the research and development of an yttrium-based oxide high-temperature superconductor has enabled the production of a large-diameter bulk with a strong flux-pinning force. A combination of this superconductor and a permanent magnet makes it feasible to fabricate a non-contact, non-controlled superconducting magnetic bearing with a very small rotational loss. Use of the superconducting magnetic bearing for a flywheel energy storage system may pave the way to the development of a new energy storage system that has great energy storage efficiency. >From relevant data measured with a miniature model of the high-temperature superconducting magnetic bearing, a conceptual design of an 8 MWh flywheel energy storage system was developed, using the new bearing which proved to be potentially capable of achieving a high energy storage efficiency of 84%. A 100 Wh-class experimental system was install that attained a high revolution rate of 17.000 rpm. (author)

  10. Performance testing and economic analysis of a photovoltaic flywheel energy storage and conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, R. D.; Millner, A. R.; Jarvinen, P. O.

    1980-01-01

    A subscale prototype of a flywheel energy storage and conversion system for use with photovoltaic power systems of residential and intermediate load-center size has been designed, built and tested by MIT Lincoln Laboratory. System design, including details of such key components as magnetic bearings, motor generator, and power conditioning electronics, is described. Performance results of prototype testing are given and indicate that this system is the equal of or superior to battery-inverter systems for the same application. Results of cost and user-worth analysis show that residential systems are economically feasible in stand-alone and in some utility-interactive applications.

  11. Development of a High-Fidelity Model for an Electrically Driven Energy Storage Flywheel Suitable for Small Scale Residential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa E. Amiryar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems (ESS are key elements that can be used to improve electrical system efficiency by contributing to balance of supply and demand. They provide a means for enhancing the power quality and stability of electrical systems. They can enhance electrical system flexibility by mitigating supply intermittency, which has recently become problematic, due to the increased penetration of renewable generation. Flywheel energy storage systems (FESS are a technology in which there is gathering interest due to a number of advantages offered over other storage solutions. These technical qualities attributed to flywheels include high power density, low environmental impact, long operational life, high round-trip efficiency and high cycle life. Furthermore, when configured in banks, they can store MJ levels of energy without any upper limit. Flywheels configured for grid connected operation are systems comprising of a mechanical part, the flywheel rotor, bearings and casings, and the electric drive part, inclusive of motor-generator (MG and power electronics. This contribution focusses on the modelling and simulation of a high inertia FESS for energy storage applications which has the potential for use in the residential sector in more challenging situations, a subject area in which there are few publications. The type of electrical machine employed is a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM and this, along with the power electronics drive, is simulated in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. A brief description of the flywheel structure and applications are given as a means of providing context for the electrical modelling and simulation reported. The simulated results show that the system run-down losses are 5% per hour, with overall roundtrip efficiency of 88%. The flywheel speed and energy storage pattern comply with the torque variations, whilst the DC-bus voltage remains constant and stable within ±3% of the rated voltage, regardless of

  12. A superconducting thrust-bearing system for an energy storage flywheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T.A.; Cansiz, A.; Campbell, A.M. [IRC in Superconductivity, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    We have constructed a bearing system for an energy storage flywheel. This bearing system uses a combination of permanent magnets and superconductors in an arrangement commonly termed as an Evershed bearing. In an Evershed system there are in fact two bearings which act in concert. In our system we have one bearing constructed entirely out of permanent magnets acting in attraction. This system bears the weight of the flywheel (43.6 kg) but would not, on its own, be stable. Stability is provided by a superconducting bearing which is formed by the interaction between the magnetic field of a permanent magnet sited on the rotor and superconductors on the stator. This overall arrangement is stable over a range of levitation heights and has been tested at rotation speeds of up to around 12 Hz (the maximum speed is dictated by the drive system not the bearing system). There is a sharp resonance peaking at between 2 and 3 Hz and spin down tests indicate that the equivalent coefficient of friction is of the order of 10{sup -5}. The rate of change of velocity is, however, not constant so the drag is clearly not solely frictional. The position of the resonance is dictated by the stiffness of the bearing relative to the mass of the flywheel but the amplitude of the resonance is dictated by the variation in magnitude of the magnetic field of the permanent magnets. Large magnets are (at present) fabricated in sections and this leads to a highly inhomogeneous field. The field has been smoothed by using a combination of iron which acts passively and copper which provides magnetic shielding due to the generation of eddy currents and therefore acts as an 'active' component. Calculations based on the spin down tests indicate that the resultant variation in field is of the order of 3% and measurements are being carried out to confirm this. (author)

  13. A double-superconducting axial bearing system for an energy storage flywheel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Lin, Q.; Ma, G.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, S.; Wang, J.

    2008-02-01

    The bulk high temperature superconductors (HTSCs) with unique flux-pinning property have been applied to fabricate two superconducting axial bearings for an energy storage flywheel model. The two superconducting axial bearings are respectively fixed at two ends of the vertical rotational shaft, whose stator is composed of seven melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) bulks with diameter of 30 mm, height of 18 mm and rotor is made of three cylindrical axial-magnetized NdFeB permanent magnets (PM) by superposition with diameter of 63 mm, height of 27 mm. The experimental results show the total levitation and lateral force produced by the two superconducting bearings are enough to levitate and stabilize the 2.4 kg rotational shaft. When the two YBCO stators were both field cooled to the liquid nitrogen temperature at respective axial distances above or below the PM rotor, the shaft could be automatically levitated between the two stators without any contact. In the case of a driving motor, it can be stably rotated along the central axis besides the resonance frequency. This double-superconducting axial bearing system can be used to demonstrate the flux-pinning property of bulk HTSC for stable levitation and suspension and the principle of superconducting flywheel energy storage system to visitors.

  14. An overview of flywheel energy systems with HTS bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsky, A.M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)]. E-mail: AWolsky@ANL.gov

    2002-05-01

    Passive magnetic bearings incorporating permanent magnets and ReBaCuO, together with carbon fibre, offer the possibility of increasing the stored, volumetric energy density of FES and unprecedentedly low idling loss of FES. Its stored energy need only satisfy customers' needs for the time it takes to bring on conventional 'back-up'. The FES itself must come up to power quickly enough to avoid any disruption in the customer's operation (e.g., continuous industrial processes involving fragile materials, for example paper forming). Such customers do not care about the price of electricity nearly as much as they care about not ruining their product, damaging their machines or having 'clean ups' that stop or slow output. Firms that engage in electronic commerce and/or telecommunications also value uninterruptible power. Another set of potential customers (construction, electric railroads) may wish to avoid fluctuations in their electrical supply or they may wish to avoid causing harm to others who may hold them liable for poor power quality. Finally, real time prices (e.g., every 15 s) and real time commands, disseminated via internet, and distributed storage might enable reduced system generation costs. Generators and FES makers would have to cooperate to make this feasible. Now, the central techno-economic challenge is to build a high-power, low-loss motor generator that reaches full power in a very short time. (author)

  15. Effects of Material Properties on the Total Stored Energy of a Hybrid Flywheel Rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, S.K.; Yoon, Y.B. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Han, S.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-05-01

    A numerical method based on an assumption of a generalized plane strain (GPS) state is presented for calculating the stress and strength ratio distributions of the rotating composite flywheel rotor of varying material properties in the radial direction. The rotor is divided into many rings and each ring has constant material properties. All the rings are assumed to expand and have the same axial strain. A three-dimensional finite element method is then used to verify the accuracy of the present method for various height ratios and ply angles. This method gives a better solution for most of the rotors than other methods of a plane stress or plane strain state. After verification, the effects of material properties on the total stored energy (TSE) of the composite flywheel rotor are investigated. For this purpose, the material properties of the rotor, i.e., circumferential and radial Youngs moduli, ply angles and mass densities, are expressed by power functions of the radius and the rotor is analyzed. The analysis shows that TSE can be most effectively increased by changing the circumferential Youngs moduli along the radius, which amounts to over 300% of TSE of the constant material properties. The variation of ply angles along the radius can increase TSE by about 30% at most. The method of changing the mass densities along the radius could be also effective but its effects are not so noticeable in the rotor where the circumferential stiffness is properly arranged. (author). 24 refs., 7 figs.

  16. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF WIND DIESEL POWER SYSTEM WITH FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SUJITH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind-Diesel Hybrid power generation is a viable alternative for generating continuous power to isolated power system areas which have inconsistent but potential wind power. The unpredictable nature of variable power from Wind generator to the system is compensated by Diesel generator, which supplies the deficit in generated power from wind to meet the instantaneous system load. However, one of the major challenges for such a system is the higher probability of transients in the form of wind and load fluctuations. This paper analyses the application of Flywheel Energy storage system (FESS to meet the transients during wind-speed and load fluctuations around high wind operation. The power system architecture, the distributed control mechanism governing the flow of power transfer and the modelling of major system components has been discussed and the system performances have been validated using MATLAB /Simulink software. Two cases of transient stages around the high wind system operation are discussed. The simulation results highlight the effective usage of FESS in reducing the peak overshoot of active power transients, smoothes the active power curves and helps in reducing the diesel consumption during the flywheel discharge period, without affecting the continuous power supply for meeting the instantaneous load demand.

  17. Bearingless AC Homopolar Machine Design and Control for Distributed Flywheel Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, Eric Loren

    The increasing ownership of electric vehicles, in-home solar and wind generation, and wider penetration of renewable energies onto the power grid has created a need for grid-based energy storage to provide energy-neutral services. These services include frequency regulation, which requires short response-times, high power ramping capabilities, and several charge cycles over the course of one day; and diurnal load-/generation-following services to offset the inherent mismatch between renewable generation and the power grid's load profile, which requires low self-discharge so that a reasonable efficiency is obtained over a 24 hour storage interval. To realize the maximum benefits of energy storage, the technology should be modular and have minimum geographic constraints, so that it is easily scalable according to local demands. Furthermore, the technology must be economically viable to participate in the energy markets. There is currently no storage technology that is able to simultaneously meet all of these needs. This dissertation focuses on developing a new energy storage device based on flywheel technology to meet these needs. It is shown that the bearingless ac homopolar machine can be used to overcome key obstacles in flywheel technology, namely: unacceptable self-discharge and overall system cost and complexity. Bearingless machines combine the functionality of a magnetic bearing and a motor/generator into a single electromechanical device. Design of these machines is particularly challenging due to cross-coupling effects and trade-offs between motor and magnetic bearing capabilities. The bearingless ac homopolar machine adds to these design challenges due to its 3D flux paths requiring computationally expensive 3D finite element analysis. At the time this dissertation was started, bearingless ac homopolar machines were a highly immature technology. This dissertation advances the state-of-the-art of these machines through research contributions in the areas of

  18. Development of REBCO HTS Magnet of Magnetic Bearing for Large Capacity Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taro; Furukawa, Makoto; Nakao, Kengo; Nagashima, Ken; Ogata, Masafumi; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiro; Arai, Yuuki; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Horiuchi, Shinichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Shimizu, Hideki

    A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is a promising electrical storage system that moderates fluctuation of electrical power from renewable energy sources. The FESS can charge and discharge the surplus electrical power repetitively with the rotating energy. Particularly, the FESS that utilizes a high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing (HTS bearing) is lower loss than conventional FESS that has mechanical bearing, and has property of longer life operation than secondary batteries. The HTS bearing consists of a HTS bulk and double-pancake coils used 2nd generation REBCO wires. In the development, the HTS double-pancake coils were fabricated and were provided for a levitation test to verify the possibility of the HTS bearing. We successfully confirmed the magnetic field was achieved to design value, and levitation force in the configuration of one YBCO bulk and five double pan-cake coils was obtained to a satisfactory force of 39.2 kN (4 tons).

  19. Flywheel Charge/Discharge Control Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Raymond.F.; Kenny, Barbara H.

    2001-01-01

    A control algorithm developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center will allow a flywheel energy storage system to interface with the electrical bus of a space power system. The controller allows the flywheel to operate in both charge and discharge modes. Charge mode is used to store additional energy generated by the solar arrays on the spacecraft during insolation. During charge mode, the flywheel spins up to store the additional electrical energy as rotational mechanical energy. Discharge mode is used during eclipse when the flywheel provides the power to the spacecraft. During discharge mode, the flywheel spins down to release the stored rotational energy.

  20. High-performance sensorless nonlinear power control of a flywheel energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amodeo, S.J.; Chiacchiarini, H.G.; Solsona, J.A.; Busada, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) can be used to store and release energy in high power pulsed systems. Based on the use of a homopolar synchronous machine in a FESS, a high performance model-based power flow control law is developed using the feedback linearization methodology. This law is based on the voltage space vector reference frame machine model. To reduce the magnetic losses, a pulse amplitude modulation driver for the armature is more adequate. The restrictions in amplitude and phase imposed by the driver are also included. A full order Luenberger observer for the torque angle and rotor speed is developed to implement a sensorless control strategy. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance.

  1. Reactive Power Support of Electrical Vehicle Charging Station Upgraded with Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SUN, BO; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Electrical vehicles (EVs) are presenting increasingly potential to replace the conventional fossil fuel based vehicles due to environmental friendly characteristic. Accordingly, Charging Stations (CS), as an intermediate between grid and large numbers of EVs, are supposed to have more critical...... influence on future smart transportation network. This paper explores an off-board charging station upgraded with flywheel energy storage system that could provide a reactive power support to the grid utility. A supervisory control scheme based on distributed bus signaling is proposed to coordinate...... the operation of each component in the system. As a result, the charging station could supply the reactive power support to the utility grid without compromising the charging algorithm and preserve the battery’s lifetime. Finally, the real-time simulation results based on dSPACE1006 verifies the proposed...

  2. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2001-05-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found on the applications of superconducting bearings in flywheels. (au)

  3. Operation of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system under conditions of stochastic change of wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the issues of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system (WT-FESS) operation under real conditions. Stochastic changes of wind energy in time cause significant fluctuations of the system output power and as a result have a negative impact on the quality of the generated electrical energy. In the author's opinion it is possible to reduce the aforementioned effects by using an energy storage of an appropriate type and capacity. It was assumed that based on the technical parameters of a wind turbine-energy storage system and its geographical location one can determine the boundary capacity of the storage, which helps prevent power cuts to the grid at the assumed probability. Flywheel energy storage was selected due to its characteristics and technical parameters. The storage capacity was determined based on an empirical relationship using the results of the proposed statistical and energetic analysis of the measured wind velocity courses. A detailed algorithm of the WT-FESS with the power grid system was developed, eliminating short-term breaks in the turbine operation and periods when the wind turbine power was below the assumed level.

  4. Electrochemical Batteries: Flywheels for temporary energy storage; Baterias electromecanicas: volantes de inercia para el almacenamiento temporal de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Alzola, R.; Sebastian Fernandez, R.

    2008-07-01

    In the Electromechanical batteries (EMB) a flywheel stores mechanical energy that interchanges in form of electrical energy by means of an electrical machine with a bidirectional power converter. EMB are suitable whenever numerous charge and recharge cycles (hundred of thousands) are needed with medium to high power (kW to MW) during short periods (seconds). The materials of the flywheel, the type of the electrical machine, the type of the bearings and the atmosphere inside the housing determine the energy efficiency of the EMB. EMB are commercially available with more than a dozen of manufacturers. Amongst the applications of BEM are: uninterrupted power supplies, hybrid power systems, power grids feeding trains, hybrid vehicles and space satellites. (Author) 15 refs.

  5. Flywheel Challenge: HTS Magnetic Bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werfel, F N; Floegel-Delor, U; Riedel, T; Rothfeld, R; Wippich, D; Goebel, B

    2006-01-01

    A 200 mm cylindrical engineering prototype high temperature superconducting (HTS) was designed and fabricated. Measurements show that the 17 kg PM rotor can suspend safely 1000 kg in axial direction and 470 kg radially. The rationale for the bearing performance is to stabilize a 400 kg rotor of a new compact 5 kWh/280 kW flywheel energy storage system (COM - FESS). Measurements of the magnetic bearing force, stiffness and drag-torque are presented indicated the successful targeting a milestone in the HTS bearing technology. The influence of the PM configuration and the YBCO temperature on the bearing performance was experimentally studied, providing high-force or high-stiffness behaviour. The axial stiffness 5 kN/mm at 0.5 mm displacement is the highest value of a HTS bearing we know

  6. Coordinated Control for Flywheel Energy Storage Matrix Systems for Wind Farm Based on Charging/Discharging Ratio Consensus Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Qian; Song, Y. D.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed algorithm for coordination of flywheel energy storage matrix system (FESMS) cooperated with wind farm. A simple and distributed ratio consensus algorithm is proposed to solve FESMS dispatch problem. The algorithm is based on average consensus for both undirected...... and unbalanced directed graphs. Average consensus is guaranteed in unbalanced digraphs by updating the weight matrix with both its row sums and column sums being 1. Simulation examples illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method....

  7. A Control Strategy for Flywheel Energy Storage System for Frequency Stability Improvement in Islanded Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Khodadoost Arani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Micro-Grid (MG stability is a significant issue that must be maintained in all operational modes. Usually, two control strategies can be applied to MG; V/f control and PQ control strategies. MGs with V/f control strategy should have some Distributed Generators (DGs which have fast responses versus load changes. The Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS has this characteristic. The FESS, which converts the mechanical energy to electrical form, can generate electrical power or absorb the additional power in power systems or MGs. In this paper, the FESS structure modeled in detail and two control strategies (V/f and PQ control are applied for this application. In addition, in order to improve the MG frequency and voltage stability, two complementary controllers are proposed for the V/f control strategy; conventional PI and Fuzzy Controllers. A typical low voltage network, including FESS is simulated for four distinct scenarios in the MATLAB/ Simulink environment. It is shown that fuzzy controller has better performance than conventional PI controller in islanded microgrid.

  8. Report on the FY 1999 R and D on high temperature superconducting flywheel energy storage. System design/evaluation (Comparative study and information collection); 1999 nendo koon chodendo flywheel denryoku chozo kenkyu kaihatsu. System sekkei hyoka (hikaku kento, joho shushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Following the previous fiscal year, a flywheel technology survey committee by men of learning and experience was organized to make a comparative study on various flywheel energy storage systems. Concerning the list-making for checking each element of the high temperature superconducting flywheel system, characteristics and reasons for employment of the small model and medium model were outlined in terms of the system structure (structure in single unit, structure in more than one units), flywheel, bearing, electrically-driven generator, etc. Also about the system in which no superconducting magnetic bearing is used, the information is collected in Japan and abroad through internet, etc., to outline the system. Further, main results obtained in the project were made public in main international conferences or academic meetings such as EUCAS and ISOTC108. At the same time, visits were paid to research institutes such as Cambridge University in the U.K. for the purpose of supplementing the survey so far made, to investigate the recent trend of the research. (NEDO)

  9. Dynamical investigation and parameter stability region analysis of a flywheel energy storage system in charging mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei-Ya; Li Yong-Li; Chang Xiao-Yong; Wang Nan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamic behavior analysis of the electromechanical coupling characteristics of a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) with a permanent magnet (PM) brushless direct-current (DC) motor (BLDCM) is studied. The Hopf bifurcation theory and nonlinear methods are used to investigate the generation process and mechanism of the coupled dynamic behavior for the average current controlled FESS in the charging mode. First, the universal nonlinear dynamic model of the FESS based on the BLDCM is derived. Then, for a 0.01 kWh/1.6 kW FESS platform in the Key Laboratory of the Smart Grid at Tianjin University, the phase trajectory of the FESS from a stable state towards chaos is presented using numerical and stroboscopic methods, and all dynamic behaviors of the system in this process are captured. The characteristics of the low-frequency oscillation and the mechanism of the Hopf bifurcation are investigated based on the Routh stability criterion and nonlinear dynamic theory. It is shown that the Hopf bifurcation is directly due to the loss of control over the inductor current, which is caused by the system control parameters exceeding certain ranges. This coupling nonlinear process of the FESS affects the stability of the motor running and the efficiency of energy transfer. In this paper, we investigate into the effects of control parameter change on the stability and the stability regions of these parameters based on the averaged-model approach. Furthermore, the effect of the quantization error in the digital control system is considered to modify the stability regions of the control parameters. Finally, these theoretical results are verified through platform experiments. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  10. Energy values of suspended detritus in Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    Energy content of suspended detritus was determined in Andaman Sea waters during April-May 1988. The caloric content of suspended detritus ranged from 987 to 7040 cal. per gram dry wt with an average value of 5530 cal. per gram dry wt. The results...

  11. Development of superconductor application technology - Flywheel energy storage system using superconducting magnetic bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Hun; Oh, Hueng Kuk; Yun, Keyng Reyl; Lee, Jeung Kun [Ahju University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    Electricity must be used simultaneously with its generation. Existing storage methods either are dependent on special geography, are too expensive,= or are too inefficient. Electricity demand changes by as much as 30% over a 12-hour period and result in significant costs for utilities as power output get adjusted to meet these changes. The purpose of HTS FES is to store unused nighttime electricity until it is needed during the daytime. If every element of a rotating flywheel is stressed to a prescribed allowable value, the flywheel material will clearly be used in most efficient manner. The uniformlt stressed flywheel is about 25% stronger than a flat disk. The gap between superconductor and permanent magnet was 1.85 mm, and using bearing connector with the values, joining superconductor to permanent magnet Using bolt connector, joining permanent magnet to flywheel. Joined system is excited by exciting function that magnitude is 1, range is 0 up to 4000 HZ. 3 rd and 4 th natural frequency, 1857 HZ and 2340 HZ, in X direction and 2 nd natural frequency, 28.57 HZ, are avoided to prevent resonance. 15 refs., 11 tabs., 53 figs. (author)

  12. Improved flywheel materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Bell, Nelson S; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Anderson, Benjamin John; Miller, William Kenneth

    2013-09-01

    As alternative energy generating devices (i.e., solar, wind, etc) are added onto the electrical energy grid (AC grid), irregularities in the available electricity due to natural occurrences (i.e., clouds reducing solar input or wind burst increasing wind powered turbines) will be dramatically increased. Due to their almost instantaneous response, modern flywheel-based energy storage devices can act a mechanical mechanism to regulate the AC grid; however, improved spin speeds will be required to meet the necessary energy levels to balance these green energy variances. Focusing on composite flywheels, we have investigated methods for improving the spin speeds based on materials needs. The so-called composite flywheels are composed of carbon fiber (C-fiber), glass fiber, and a glue (resin) to hold them together. For this effort, we have focused on the addition of fillers to the resin in order to improve its properties. Based on the high loads required for standard meso-sized fillers, this project investigated the utility of ceramic nanofillers since they can be added at very low load levels due to their high surface area. The impact that TiO2 nanowires had on the final strength of the flywheel material was determined by a three-point-bend test. The results of the introduction of nanomaterials demonstrated an increase in strength of the flywheels C-fiber-resin moiety, with an upper limit of a 30% increase being reported. An analysis of the economic impact concerning the utilization of the nanowires was undertaken and after accounting for new-technology and additional production costs, return on improved-nanocomposite investment was approximated at 4-6% per year over the 20-year expected service life. Further, it was determined based on the 30% improvement in strength, this change may enable a 20-30% reduction in flywheel energy storage cost ($/kW-h).

  13. JET flywheel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huart, M.; Sonnerup, L.

    1986-01-01

    Two large vertical shaft flywheel generators each provides the JET device with peak power up to 400 MW and energy up to 2600 MJ per pulse to induce and confine the multi-mega-ampere plasma current. The integrated rotor flywheel consists of a 650 tonne/10 m diameter rim carrying the poles of the machine. The energy is stored kinetically during a 9 min interval of acceleration from half-speed to full-speed and then released during a 20 s long deceleration. A design life of 100 000 cycles at full energy rating was specified. The mechanical design and construction of the generators is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the assessment of the stresses and fatigue life of the rotor system, its dynamic behaviour (rim movement, critical speed and balancing) and on the performance in operation of the large thrust bearing. (author)

  14. Stiffness Evaluation of High Temperature Superconductor Bearing Stiffness for 10 kWh Superconductor Flywheel Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, B. J.; Jung, S. Y.; Lee, J. P.; Park, B. C.; Kim, C. H.; Han, S. C.; Du, S. G.; Han, Y. H.; Sung, T. H.

    2009-01-01

    A superconductor flywheel energy storage(SFES) system is mainly act an electro-mechanical battery which transfers mechanical energy into electrical form and vice versa. SFES system consists of a pair of non-contacting High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) bearings with a very low frictional loss. But it is essential to design an efficient HTS bearing considering with rotor dynamic properties through correct calculation of stiffness in order to support a huge composite flywheel rotor with high energy storage density. Static properties of HTS bearings provide data to solve problems which may occur easily in a running system. Since stiffness to counter vibration is the main parameter in designing an HTS bearing system, we investigate HTS bearing magnetic force through static properties between the Permanent Magnet(PM) and HTS. We measured axial / radial stiffness and found bearing stiffness can be easily changed by activated vibration direction between PM and HTS bulk. These results are used to determine the optimal design for a 10 kWh SFES.

  15. Superconducting bearings in flywheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T.A.; Campbell, A.M.; Ganney, I.; Lo, W. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity (IRC); Twardowski, T. [International Energy Systems, Chester High Road, Neston, South Wirral (United Kingdom); Dawson, B. [British Nuclear Fuels, Capenhurst, South Wirral (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-01

    Investigations are being carried out into the use of superconducting magnetic bearings to levitate energy storage flywheels. In a planned program of work, Cambridge University are aiming to produce a practical bearing system for Pirouette(TM). The Pirouette(TM) system is designed to provide 5 kWh of recoverable energy which is currently recoverable at a rate of 5 kW (future revisions will provide up to 50 kW). IES (a British Nuclear Fuels subsidiary) the owners of the Pirouette(TM) machine have supplied Cambridge with a flywheel. This flywheel weighs >40 kg and is being levitated using an Evershed-type arrangement in which the superconductor is being used to stabilize the interaction between two magnets. To date we have demonstrated stable levitation in static and low speed tests in a rig designed for low speeds of rotation in air. A second rig which is currently under construction at BNFL will run in vacuum at speeds of up to 50 (orig.) 5 refs.

  16. Flexible Local Load Controller for Fast ElectricVehicle Charging Station Supplemented with Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; SUN, BO; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicle charging infrastructure is hitting the stage where its impact on performance and operation of power systems becomes more and more pronounced. Aiming to utilize the existing power distribution infrastructure and delay its expansion, an approach that includes installation of dedica......Electric vehicle charging infrastructure is hitting the stage where its impact on performance and operation of power systems becomes more and more pronounced. Aiming to utilize the existing power distribution infrastructure and delay its expansion, an approach that includes installation...... of dedicated flywheel energy storage system (FESS) within the charging station and compensating some of the adverse effects of high power charging is explored in this paper. Although sharing some similarities with vehicle to grid (V2G) technology, the principal advantage of this strategy is the fact that many...

  17. Damping of Low Frequency Oscillation in Power System using Robust Control of Superconductor Flywheel Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Pil; Kim, Han Gun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the robust superconductor flywheel energy storage system(SFESS) controller using H control theory was designed to damp low frequency oscillation of power system. The main advantage of the controller is that uncertainties of power system can be included at the stage of controller design. Both disturbance attenuation and robust stability for the power system were treated simultaneously by using mixed sensitivity problem. The robust stability and the performance for uncertainties of power system were represented by frequency weighted transfer function. To verify control performance of proposed SFESS controller using control, the closed loop eigenvalue and the damping ratio in dominant oscillation mode of power system were analyzed and nonlinear simulation for one-machine infinite bus system was performed under disturbance for various operating conditions. The results showed that the proposed SFESS controller was more robust than conventional power system stabilizer (PSS).

  18. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of the INSTAR [INertial STorage And Recovery] System: A Flywheel-based, High Power Energy Storage System for Improved Hybrid Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Talancon, Daniel Raul

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of the INSTAR system: a high-power, cost-effective energy storage system designed to improve HEV regenerative braking capabilities by combining chemical batteries with an electromechanical flywheel. This combination allows the regenerative braking system in hybrid vehicles to recapture more available braking energy at a lower battery pack charging current, increasing vehicle energy efficiency while also potentially increasing battery life.A prototype flyw...

  19. The flywheel as an energy storage device in railway and tram networks; Schwungrad als Energiespeicher in Bahnnetzen. Erfahrungen aus einem Versuchsprojekt in der Stadt Zuerich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischof, M. [EWZ, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews experience made with a flywheel-based energy storage system that was tested on part of Zurich's tram network. The aim of the six weeks of tests was to determine how much energy that is generated by the recuperation of braking energy can be temporarily stored to provide power for accelerating trams on the network. The article discusses the valuable knowledge gained during the tests. The basic ideas behind the tests and the goals aimed for are discussed, both concerning energy balances as well as other factors such as noise and electromagnetic emissions. The part of the tram line used for the tests is described and the results are discussed. Other power storage systems using flywheels and capacitors are reviewed.

  20. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings...

  1. Superconductor bearings, flywheels and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werfel, F N; Floegel-Delor, U; Rothfeld, R; Riedel, T; Goebel, B; Wippich, D; Schirrmeister, P

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the present status of high temperature superconductors (HTS) and of bulk superconducting magnet devices, their use in bearings, in flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) and linear transport magnetic levitation (Maglev) systems. We report and review the concepts of multi-seeded REBCO bulk superconductor fabrication. The multi-grain bulks increase the averaged trapped magnetic flux density up to 40% compared to single-grain assembly in large-scale applications. HTS magnetic bearings with permanent magnet (PM) excitation were studied and scaled up to maximum forces of 10 kN axially and 4.5 kN radially. We examine the technology of the high-gradient magnetic bearing concept and verify it experimentally. A large HTS bearing is tested for stabilizing a 600 kg rotor of a 5 kWh/250 kW flywheel system. The flywheel rotor tests show the requirement for additional damping. Our compact flywheel system is compared with similar HTS–FESS projects. A small-scale compact YBCO bearing with in situ Stirling cryocooler is constructed and investigated for mobile applications. Next we show a successfully developed modular linear Maglev system for magnetic train operation. Each module levitates 0.25t at 10 mm distance during one-day operation without refilling LN 2 . More than 30 vacuum cryostats containing multi-seeded YBCO blocks are fabricated and are tested now in Germany, China and Brazil.

  2. Analisa Variable Moment of Inertia (VMI Flywheel pada Hydro-Shock Absorber Kendaraan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasbulah Zarkasy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flywheel selama ini dimanfaatkan untuk menyimpan energi mekanik pada mesin, membuat mesin berputar dengan lebih lembut. Prinsip kerja dari flywheel adalah dengan memanfaatkan momen inersia. Baru-baru ini dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut mengenai pemanfaatan dari flywheel, yakni pada sistem suspense, akan tetapi selama ini penelitian yang dilakukan terbatas pada flywheel dengan momen inersia yang konstan (Constant Moment of Inertia. Kali ini akan dilakukan penelitian mengenai Variable Moment of Inertia Flywhel atau dengan kata lain flywheel yang momen inersianya berubah-ubah. Flywheel ini terdiri dari dua bagian utama, yakni flywheel berongga dan slider yang dapat bergerak bebas di sepanjang guide track. Percobaan bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana karakteristik gaya redam dari VMI Flywheel. Juga akan dianalisa seperti apa respon dinamis dari slider selama flywheel berputar. Selain itu respon dinamis kendaraan saat VMI Flywheel ini dipasangkan juga dianalisa. Hasil yang didapat menunjukkan bahwa variasi massa slider berpengaruh terhadap gaya redam yang dihasilkan oleh VMI Flywheel. Semakin besar massa slider, gaya redam yang muncul juga semakin besar. Faktor frekuensi input juga berpengaruh, sebab semakin besar frekuensi input yang pada shock absorber, gaya redam yang timbul juga membesar. Perpindahan yang dialami oleh slider juga tergantung pada jenis massa slider tersebut. Semakin besar massa slider, perpindahan yang dialami juga akan semakin besar. Performa VMI Flywheel secara umum pada frekuensi rendah. Sedangkan pada frekuensi tinggi, performa VMI Flywheel cenderung tidak bagus dan menyebabkan kendaraan tidak nyaman.

  3. Study of Servo Press with a Flywheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Pei-Lum; Li, Cheng-Ho

    The servo press with a flywheel is able to provide flexible motions with energy-saving merit, but its true potential has not been thoroughly studied and verified. In this paper, such the “hybrid-driven” servo press is focused on, and the stamping capacity and the energy distribution between the flywheel and the servomotor are investigated. The capacity is derived based on the principle of energy conservation, and a method of using a capacity percentage plane for evaluation is proposed. A case study is included to illustrate and interpret that the stamping capacity is highly dependent on the programmed punch motions, thus the capacity prediction is always necessary while applying this kind of servo press. The energy distribution is validated by blanking experiments, and the results indicate that the servomotor needs only to provide 15% to the flywheel torque, 12% of the total stamping energy. This validates that the servomotor power is significantly saved in comparison with conventional servo presses.

  4. Composite flywheel development completion report, May 1--September 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huddleston, R. L.; Kelly, J. J.; Knight, C. E.

    1977-05-01

    The program to design, fabricate, and performance test a prototype, vehicular-sized, composite flywheel is described. The overall program scope encompasses development of both the flywheel and its containment; however, the FY 1976-1976T objective was directed toward development of the flywheel and testing it in existing facilities. The development effort was successful, leading to successful testing of a flywheel design which demonstrated an energy density performance of 10.1 Wh/lb during spin testing. The initial application selected for development of the composite flywheel was the heat engine/flywheel hybrid propulsion system for a vehicle. This application was selected by the ERDA Advanced Physical Methods Branch staff because of its high potential for conservation of petroleum fuel in both the near and far-term time frames. Other applications, such as utility load leveling, represent potential areas for significant energy savings but require more extensive development programs and funding resources. Successful development of a high-performance, composite, vehicular flywheel represents one step along the development path leading toward larger, higher-energy storage flywheel applications.

  5. Study of damping in 5 kWh superconductor flywheel energy storage system using a piezoelectric actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, H.K.; Song, D.; Kim, S.B. [Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Han, S.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, 103-16 Munji-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, T.H., E-mail: sungth@hanyang.ac.kr [Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    A 5 kWh superconductor flywheel energy storage system (SFES) has advantages in terms of high electrical energy density, environmental affinity and long life. However, the SFES has disadvantage that electromagnetic damper is needed because superconducting bearings do not have enough damping coefficient. The purpose of this experiment is to develop a method of damping the vibration of the SFES. A piezoelectric actuator was attached to a superconducting bearing system for feasibility test in order to make it as a damper of the SFES. For this experiment, a cylindrical permanent magnet (PM) 40 mm in diameter and 10 mm height was used as a rotor, a high-temperature superconductor bulk (HTS bulk) with dimensions 40 mm Multiplication-Sign 40 mm Multiplication-Sign 15 mm was used as a stator, and two vibration exciters (an upper and a lower vibration exciter) and a piezoelectric actuator were used. The PM was fixed on the upper vibration exciter. The HTS bulk was fixed on either the lower vibration exciter to test for damping in the feasibility test, or on the piezoelectric actuator for the actual SFES. The conditions of this experiment included various voltage outputs of a power amplifier to the lower vibration exciter, moving distances of the piezoelectric actuator which are displacements of the HTS bulk, and phase differences between the upper and lower vibration exciter or the piezoelectric actuator. The damping feasibility test was conducted with a 300 {mu}m gap between the PM and HTS bulk with a PM vibration of 30 {mu}m. For the actual SFES test, the gap between the PM and HTS bulk was 1.6 mm and the PM vibration was 25 {mu}m. The following conditions were conducted to optimize: an appropriate voltage input to the lower vibration exciter or a displacement of piezoelectric actuator and an appropriate phase difference. When the piezoelectric actuator was used, the damping effect was greatly improved up to 92.32% which a displacement of damped PM was 1.92 {mu}m.

  6. Control of Flywheel Energy Storage Systems in Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo

    energy storage system (FESS). The proposed PhD project supports a corresponding smart control strategy that could be termed “charging station to grid (CS2G)”. It explores the possibility of using a dedicated energy storage system (FESS) within the charging station to alleviate grid and market conditions...... converters is built and analyzed. |Based on modeling analysis, centralized and distributed control methods are both explored to realize the coordination control of each components in the system. Specially, this project proposes a “dc voltage vs speed” droop strategy for FESS control based on distributed bus...... function method when the system switches its operation behavior between two modes. Finally, a downscaled FCS prototype with FESS is built in the intelligent MG lab, and experiments and hardware-in-loop simulation results are conducted to verify the effectiveness and feasibility with the proposed FCS...

  7. Energy storage device based on flywheel, power converters and Simulink real-time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Kedra, Bartosz; Malkowski, Robert

    2017-01-01

    by Gdansk University of Technology in Poland. Paper is divided into four sections. First section of the paper provides introductory information on the Energy Storage Device and its capabilities. In the second section of the paper concept of the unit is presented. Requirements for the unit are described...... as well as proposed and introduced functions are listed. Implementation details are given in third section of paper. Hardware structure is presented and described. Information about used communication interface, data maintenance and storage solution, as well as used Simulink realtime features...

  8. A dynamic power management strategy of a grid connected hybrid generation system using wind, photovoltaic and Flywheel Energy Storage System in residential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukettaya, Ghada; Krichen, Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    A global supervisory strategy for a micro-grid power generation system that comprises wind and photovoltaic generation subsystems, a flywheel storage system, and domestic loads connected both to the hybrid power generators and to the grid, is developed in this paper. The objectives of the supervisor control are, firstly, to satisfy in most cases the load power demand and, secondly, to check storage and grid constraints to prevent blackout, to reduce energy costs and greenhouse gas emissions, and to extend the life of the flywheel. For these purposes, the supervisor determines online the operation mode of the different generation subsystems, switching from maximum power conversion to power regulation. Decision criteria for the supervisor based on actual variables are presented. Finally, the performance of the supervisor is extensively assessed through computer simulation using a comprehensive nonlinear model of the studied system. - Highlights: • We supervise a micro-grid power generation system with an objective to produce clipping grid consumption. • The supervisor switch online from maximum power conversion to power regulation. • We provide services both for domestic users and for the distribution network manager. • The developed algorithm is tested and validated for different scenarios

  9. Flywheel in an all-electric propulsion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, Johan

    2011-07-01

    Energy storage is a crucial condition for both transportation purposes and for the use of electricity. Flywheels can be used as actual energy storage but also as power handling device. Their high power capacity compared to other means of storing electric energy makes them very convenient for smoothing power transients. These occur frequently in vehicles but also in the electric grid. In both these areas there is a lot to gain by reducing the power transients and irregularities. The research conducted at Uppsala Univ. and described in this thesis is focused on an all-electric propulsion system based on an electric flywheel with double stator windings. The flywheel is inserted in between the main energy storage (assumed to be a battery) and the traction motor in an electric vehicle. This system has been evaluated by simulations in a Matlab model, comparing two otherwise identical drivelines, one with and one without a flywheel. The flywheel is shown to have several advantages for an all-electric propulsion system for a vehicle. The maximum power from the battery decreases more than ten times as the flywheel absorbs and supplies all the high power fluxes occurring at acceleration and braking. The battery delivers a low and almost constant power to the flywheel. The amount of batteries needed de- creases whereas the battery lifetime and efficiency increases. Another benefit the flywheel configuration brings is a higher energy efficiency and hence less need for cooling. The model has also been used to evaluate the flywheel functionality for an electric grid application. The power from renewable intermittent energy sources such as wave, wind and current power can be smoothened by the fly- wheel, making these energy sources more efficient and thereby competitive with a remaining high power quality in the electric grid

  10. HTS flywheel energy storage system with rotor shaft stabilized by feed-back control of armature currents of motor-generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Utsunomiya, A.

    2007-01-01

    We propose an HTS bulk bearing flywheel energy system (FWES) with rotor shaft stabilization system using feed-back control of the armature currents of the motor-generator. In the proposed system the rotor shift has a pivot bearing at one end of the shaft and an HTS bulk bearing (SMB) at the other end. The fluctuation of the rotor shaft with SMB is damped by feed-back control of the armature currents of the motor-generator sensing the position of the rotor shaft. The method has merits that the fluctuations are damped without active control magnet bearings and extra devices which may deteriorate the energy storage efficiency and need additional costs. The principle of the method was demonstrated by an experiment using a model permanent magnet motor

  11. HTS flywheel energy storage system with rotor shaft stabilized by feed-back control of armature currents of motor-generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Utsunomiya, A.

    2007-10-01

    We propose an HTS bulk bearing flywheel energy system (FWES) with rotor shaft stabilization system using feed-back control of the armature currents of the motor-generator. In the proposed system the rotor shift has a pivot bearing at one end of the shaft and an HTS bulk bearing (SMB) at the other end. The fluctuation of the rotor shaft with SMB is damped by feed-back control of the armature currents of the motor-generator sensing the position of the rotor shaft. The method has merits that the fluctuations are damped without active control magnet bearings and extra devices which may deteriorate the energy storage efficiency and need additional costs. The principle of the method was demonstrated by an experiment using a model permanent magnet motor.

  12. Development of flywheel systems on the basis of mechatronics. Ontwikkeling van vliegwielsysteem mechatronisch aangepakt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boer, A.

    1992-05-01

    Vehicles can save energy by storing the brake energy in a flywheel. So far flywheels in toys appear to be the only efficient applications. The Centre for Construction and Mechatronics (CCM) in Nuenen, Netherlands, however, is developing a flywheel system for city buses: EMAFER or Electro Mechanical Accumulator For Energy Reuse. Based on experiences with the first prototype, constructed in 1988, a second prototype will be constructed and mounted in a bus to be tested. 1 fig., 2 ills., 2 tabs.

  13. Sub-Area. 2.5 Demonstration of Promising Energy Storage Technologies Project Type. Flywheel Energy Storage Demonstration Revision: V1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-12-30

    In this program, Amber Kinetics designed, built, and tested a sub-­scale 5 kWh engineering prototype flywheel system. Applying lessons learned from the engineering prototype, Amber Kinetics then designed, built and tested full-­size, commercial-­scale 25 kWh flywheel systems. The systems underwent basic functional qualification testing before being installed, sequentially, at the company’s outdoor test site in Alameda, CA for full-­speed field-testing. The primary considerations in testing the prototype units were to demonstrate the functionality of the system, verify the frequencies of resonant modes, and quantify spinning losses and motor/generator efficiency.

  14. A comparison of high-speed flywheels, batteries, and ultracapacitors on the bases of cost and fuel economy as the energy storage system in a fuel cell based hybrid electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doucette, Reed T.; McCulloch, Malcolm D. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Thom Building, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-01

    Fuel cells aboard hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are often hybridized with an energy storage system (ESS). Batteries and ultracapacitors are the most common technologies used in ESSs aboard HEVs. High-speed flywheels are an emerging technology with traits that have the potential to make them competitive with more established battery and ultracapacitor technologies in certain vehicular applications. This study compares high-speed flywheels, ultracapacitors, and batteries functioning as the ESS in a fuel cell based HEV on the bases of cost and fuel economy. In this study, computer models were built to simulate the powertrain of a fuel cell based HEV where high-speed flywheels, batteries, and ultracapacitors of a range of sizes were used as the ESS. A simulated vehicle with a powertrain using each of these technologies was run over two different drive cycles in order to see how the different ESSs performed under different driving patterns. The results showed that when cost and fuel economy were both considered, high-speed flywheels were competitive with batteries and ultracapacitors. (author)

  15. 2 CFR 901.1010 - Suspending official (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Definitions § 901.1010 Suspending official (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.1010). The suspending official for the Department of Energy... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspending official (Department of Energy...

  16. Advantage of superconducting bearing in a commercial flywheel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viznichenko, R; Velichko, A V; Hong, Z; Coombs, T A [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tac1000@cam.ac.uk

    2008-02-01

    The use of a superconducting magnetic bearing in an Urenco Power Technologies (UPT) 100kW flywheel is being studied. The dynamics of a conventional flywheel energy storage system have been studied at low frequencies. We show that the main design consideration is overcoming drag friction losses and parasitic resonances. We propose an original superconducting magnetic bearing design and improved cryogenic motor cooling to increase stability and decrease energy losses in the system.

  17. A Shaftless Magnetically Levitated Multifunctional Spacecraft Flywheel Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ken; Thornton, Richard; Clark, Tracy; Beaman, Bob G.; Dennehy, Neil; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Presently many types of spacecraft use a Spacecraft Attitude Control System (ACS) with momentum wheels for steering and electrochemical batteries to provide electrical power for the eclipse period of the spacecraft orbit. Future spacecraft will use Flywheels for combined use in ACS and Energy Storage. This can be done by using multiple wheels and varying the differential speed for ACS and varying the average speed for energy storage and recovery. Technology in these areas has improved since the 1990s so it is now feasible for flywheel systems to emerge from the laboratory for spacecraft use. This paper describes a new flywheel system that can be used for both ACS and energy storage. Some of the possible advantages of a flywheel system are: lower total mass and volume, higher efficiency, less thermal impact, improved satellite integration schedule and complexity, simplified satellite orbital operations, longer life with lower risk, less pointing jitter, and greater capability for high-rate slews. In short, they have the potential to enable new types of missions and provide lower cost. Two basic types of flywheel configurations are the Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) and the Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS).

  18. Research and development of a high-temperature superconducting flywheel energy storage system. Research and development of the New Sunshine Program; Furaihoiru denryoku chozo shisutemu kenkyu kaihatsu. Nyu sanshain keikaku ni motozuku kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Y. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-25

    The project conducted by NEDO for developing a high-temperature superconducting flywheel energy storage system is introduced; the two test results of fundamental studies are described. One is the measurement of levitation force and rotation loss of superconducting magnetic bearings composed of oxide superconducting bulks and permanent magnet composite. Two types of superconducting magnetic bearings. axial and radial types, were fabricated and tested. The other test was the fabrication and testing of two functional models. A small-sized superconducting flywheel model of the 0.5 kWh class was fabricated and tested. A medium-sized rotating functional model of the 10 kWh class was fabricated as well. (author)

  19. Study of superconducting magnetic bearing applicable to the flywheel energy storage system that consist of HTS-bulks and superconducting-coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Ken; Tanaka, Yoshichika; Nakauchi, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    The Railway Technical Research Institute conducted a study to develop a superconducting magnetic bearing applicable to the flywheel energy-storage system for railways. In the first step of the study, the thrust rolling bearing was selected for application, and adopted liquid-nitrogen-cooled HTS-bulk as a rotor, and adopted superconducting coil as a stator for the superconducting magnetic bearing. Load capacity of superconducting magnetic bearing was verified up to 10 kN in the static load test. After that, rotation test of that approximately 5 kN thrust load added was performed with maximum rotation of 3000rpm. In the results of bearing rotation test, it was confirmed that position in levitation is able to maintain with stability during the rotation. Heat transfer properties by radiation in vacuum and conductivity by tenuous gas were basically studied by experiment by the reason of confirmation of rotor cooling method. The experimental result demonstrates that the optimal gas pressure is able to obtain without generating windage drag. In the second stage of the development, thrust load capacity of the bearing will be improved aiming at the achievement of the energy capacity of a practical scale. In the static load test of the new superconducting magnetic bearing, stable 20kN-levitation force was obtained.

  20. Design optimisation of a flywheel hybrid vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, D.B.

    1999-11-04

    This thesis describes the design optimisation of a flywheel hybrid vehicle with respect to fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. The driveline of this passenger car uses two power sources: a small spark ignition internal combustion engine with three-way catalyst, and a highspeed flywheel system for kinetic energy storage. A custom-made continuously variable transmission (CVT) with so-called i{sup 2} control transports energy between these power sources and the vehicle wheels. The driveline includes auxiliary systems for hydraulic, vacuum and electric purposes. In this fully mechanical driveline, parasitic energy losses determine the vehicle's fuel saving potential to a large extent. Practicable energy loss models have been derived to quantify friction losses in bearings, gearwheels, the CVT, clutches and dynamic seals. In addition, the aerodynamic drag in the flywheel system and power consumption of auxiliaries are charted. With the energy loss models available, a calculation procedure is introduced to optimise the flywheel as a subsystem in which the rotor geometry, the safety containment, and the vacuum system are designed for minimum energy use within the context of automotive applications. A first prototype of the flywheel system was tested experimentally and subsequently redesigned to improve rotordynamics and safety aspects. Coast-down experiments with the improved version show that the energy losses have been lowered significantly. The use of a kinetic energy storage device enables the uncoupling of vehicle wheel power and engine power. Therefore, the engine can be smaller and it can be chosen to operate in its region of best efficiency in start-stop mode. On a test-rig, the measured engine fuel consumption was reduced with more than 30 percent when the engine is intermittently restarted with the aid of the flywheel system. Although the start-stop mode proves to be advantageous for fuel consumption, exhaust gas emissions increase temporarily

  1. Modelling and optimization of a permanent-magnet machine in a flywheel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the derivation of an analytical model for the design and optimization of a permanent-magnet machine for use in an energy storage flywheel. A prototype of this flywheel is to be used as the peak-power unit in a hybrid electric city bus. The thesis starts by showing the

  2. Energy loss mechanism for suspended micro- and nanoresonators due to the Casimir force

    OpenAIRE

    Gusso, André

    2011-01-01

    A so far not considered energy loss mechanism in suspended micro- and nanoresonators due to noncontact acoustical energy loss is investigated theoretically. The mechanism consists on the conversion of the mechanical energy from the vibratory motion of the resonator into acoustic waves on large nearby structures, such as the substrate, due to the coupling between the resonator and those structures resulting from the Casimir force acting over the separation gaps. Analytical expressions for the ...

  3. Third Generation Flywheels for electric storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, Michael, R.; Fiske, O. James

    2008-02-29

    Electricity is critical to our economy, but growth in demand has saturated the power grid causing instability and blackouts. The economic penalty due to lost productivity in the US exceeds $100 billion per year. Opposition to new transmission lines and power plants, environmental restrictions, and an expected $100 billion grid upgrade cost have slowed system improvements. Flywheel electricity storage could provide a more economical, environmentally benign alternative and slash economic losses if units could be scaled up in a cost effective manner to much larger power and capacity than the present maximum of a few hundred kW and a few kWh per flywheel. The goal of this project is to design, construct, and demonstrate a small-scale third generation electricity storage flywheel using a revolutionary architecture scalable to megawatt-hours per unit. First generation flywheels are built from bulk materials such as steel and provide inertia to smooth the motion of mechanical devices such as engines. They can be scaled up to tens of tons or more, but have relatively low energy storage density. Second generation flywheels use similar designs but are fabricated with composite materials such as carbon fiber and epoxy. They are capable of much higher energy storage density but cannot economically be built larger than a few kWh of storage capacity due to structural and stability limitations. LaunchPoint is developing a third generation flywheel — the "Power Ring" — with energy densities as high or higher than second generation flywheels and a totally new architecture scalable to enormous sizes. Electricity storage capacities exceeding 5 megawatt-hours per unit appear both technically feasible and economically attractive. Our design uses a new class of magnetic bearing – a radial gap “shear-force levitator” – that we discovered and patented, and a thin-walled composite hoop rotated at high speed to store kinetic energy. One immediate application is power grid

  4. A composite-flywheel burst-containment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapowith, A. D.; Handy, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    A key component impacting total flywheel energy storage system weight is the containment structure. This report addresses the factors that shape this structure and define its design criteria. In addition, containment weight estimates are made for the several composite flywheel designs of interest so that judgements can be made as to the relative weights of their containment structure. The requirements set down for this program were that all containment weight estimates be based on a 1 kWh burst. It should be noted that typical flywheel requirements for regenerative braking of small automobiles call for deliverable energies of 0.25 kWh. This leads to expected maximum burst energies of 0.5 kWh. The flywheels studied are those considered most likely to be carried further for operational design. These are: The pseudo isotropic disk flywheel, sometimes called the alpha ply; the SMC molded disk; either disk with a carbon ring; the subcircular rim with cruciform hub; and Avco's bi-directional circular weave disk.

  5. High energy electron beam inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase suspended in different aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, A.; Popescu, A.; Butan, C.; Oproiu, C.; Hategan, D.; Morariu, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The direct and indirect effects of 5 MeV electron beam irradiation in the range (0-400 Gy) at 20 degC, 0 degC, -3 degC and -196 degC, as well as the influence of the aqueous suspending medium (ultrapure water and heavy water) on the total enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) have been studied. Our results showed an exponential decrease on the enzymatic activity of irradiated LDH, at all irradiation temperatures, independently of the direct or indirect action of radiation. The temperature gradient used to lower the temperature of the samples to -196 degC drastically influences the results. Freeze-thawing in two steps down to -196 degC protects LDH to radiation, in the dose range used. The data obtained here inform on the high energy electrons effects on the enzymatic activity loss during irradiation and during thawing, when the subsequent growth of the water crystals influences the three dimensional structure of the enzyme. A 99.98% concentration of D 2 O in the suspending medium of the enzyme decreases the global enzymatic activity, but reduces the rate of radiation inactivation of the enzyme. The rate of radiation inactivation of the enzyme suspended in ultrapure water is reduced when compared to the enzyme suspended in bidistilled water, but compared to the D 2 O suspended enzyme is lightly increased. (author)

  6. A Static Burst Test for Composite Flywheel Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Stefan; Schulz, Alexander; Sima, Harald; Koch, Thomas; Kaltenbacher, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    High efficient and safe flywheels are an interesting technology for decentralized energy storage. To ensure all safety aspects, a static test method for a controlled initiation of a burst event for composite flywheel rotors is presented with nearly the same stress distribution as in the dynamic case, rotating with maximum speed. In addition to failure prediction using different maximum stress criteria and a safety factor, a set of tensile and compressive tests is carried out to identify the parameters of the used carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) material. The static finite element (FE) simulation results of the flywheel static burst test (FSBT) compare well to the quasistatic FE-simulation results of the flywheel rotor using inertia loads. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the presented method is a very good controllable and observable possibility to test a high speed flywheel energy storage system (FESS) rotor in a static way. Thereby, a much more expensive and dangerous dynamic spin up test with possible uncertainties can be substituted.

  7. 2 CFR 601.1010 - Suspending Official (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SUSPENSION Definitions § 601.1010 Suspending Official (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspending Official (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.1010). 601.1010 Section 601.1010 Grants and Agreements...

  8. Design and thermodynamic analysis of a hybrid energy storage system based on A-CAES (adiabatic compressed air energy storage) and FESS (flywheel energy storage system) for wind power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Pan; Dai, Yiping; Wang, Jiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Electricity generated from renewable wind sources is highly erratic due to the intermittent nature of wind. This uncertainty of wind power can lead to challenges regarding power system operation and dispatch. Energy storage system in conjunction with wind energy system can offset these effects, making the wind power controllable. Moreover, the power spectrum of wind power exhibits that the fluctuations of wind power include various components with different frequencies and amplitudes. Thus, the hybrid energy storage system is more suitable for smoothing out the wind power fluctuations effectively rather than the independent energy storage system. A hybrid energy storage system consisting of adiabatic compressed air energy storage (A-CAES) system and flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is proposed for wind energy application. The design of the proposed system is laid out firstly. The A-CAES system operates in variable cavern pressure, constant turbine inlet pressure mode, whereas the FESS is controlled by constant power strategy. Then, the off-design analysis of the proposed system is carried out. Meanwhile, a parametric analysis is also performed to investigate the effects of several parameters on the system performance, including the ambient conditions, inlet temperature of compressor, storage cavern temperature, maximum and minimum pressures of storage cavern. - Highlights: • A wind-hybrid energy storage system composed of A-CAES and FESS is proposed. • The design of the proposed hybrid energy storage system is laid out. • The off-design analysis of the proposed system is carried out. • A parametric analysis is conducted to examine the system performance

  9. 1977 flywheel technology symposium proceedings. [Fifty-two papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, G.C.; Stone, R.G. (eds.)

    1978-03-01

    Fifty-two papers, four paper abstracts, and four brief summaries of panel discussions are presented on flywheel energy storage technology. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 41 papers for inclusion in DOE Energy Research Abstracts (ERA). Eleven papers were processed previously for inclusion in the data base. (PMA)

  10. Flywheels Would Compensate for Rotor Imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrastar, J. A. S.

    1982-01-01

    Spinning flywheels within rotor can null imbalance forces in rotor. Flywheels axes are perpendicular to each other and to rotor axis. Feedback signals from accelerometers or strain gages in platform control flywheel speeds and rotation directions. Concept should be useful for compensating rotating bodies on Earth. For example, may be applied to large industrial centrifuge, particularly if balance changes during operation.

  11. Concept of a modified flywheel for megajoule storage and pulse conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, T.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of a flywheel with a variable moment of inertia for electromagnetic launch (EML). A flywheel is among the best energy density storage devices. The modified flywheel will further improve upon the energy density and efficiency. Coupled to a pulse-duty generator, it could produce a near-square pulse or other desirable pulse shapes. The mount of energy, its rate, and its switching all could be controlled prior to electric energy conversion. The modified flywheel is structured with masses movable along radial paths. Potential energy is stored with respect to mass position and kinetic energy with respect to spin. This mass positioning provides a means to control the rate of energy discharge. Control with spring-loaded weight--the design presented here--would have near constant spin output

  12. The influence of flywheel micro vibration on space camera and vibration suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Tan, Luyang; Kong, Lin; Wang, Dong; Yang, Hongbo

    2018-02-01

    Studied the impact of flywheel micro vibration on a high resolution optical satellite that space-borne integrated. By testing the flywheel micro vibration with six-component test bench, the flywheel disturbance data is acquired. The finite element model of the satellite was established and the unit force/torque were applied at the flywheel mounting position to obtain the micro vibration data of the camera. Integrated analysis of the data of the two parts showed that the influence of flywheel micro vibration on the camera is mainly concentrated around 60-80 Hz and 170-230 Hz, the largest angular displacement of the secondary mirror along the optical axis direction is 0.04″ and the maximum angular displacement vertical to optical axis is 0.032″. After the design and installation of vibration isolator, the maximum angular displacement of the secondary mirror is 0.011″, the decay rate of root mean square value of the angular displacement is more than 50% and the maximum is 96.78%. The whole satellite was suspended to simulate the boundary condition on orbit; the imaging experiment results show that the image motion caused by the flywheel micro vibrationis less than 0.1 pixel after installing the vibration isolator.

  13. Performance characteristics of solar-photovoltaic flywheel-storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvinen, P. O.; Brench, B. L.; Rasmussen, N. E.

    A solar photovoltaic energy flywheel storage and conversion system for residential applications was tested. Performance and efficiency measurements were conducted on the system, which utilizes low loss magnetic bearings, maximum power point tracking of the photovoltaic array, integrated permanent magnet motor generator, and output power conditioning sections of either the stand alone cycloconverter or utility interactive inverter type. The overall in/out electrical storage efficiency of the flywheel system was measured along with the power transfer efficiencies of the individual components and the system spin down tare losses. The system compares favorably with systems which use batteries and inverters.

  14. Low-energy electron point projection microscopy of suspended graphene, the ultimate 'microscope slide'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutus, J Y; Livadaru, L; Urban, R; Salomons, M H; Cloutier, M; Wolkow, R A; Robinson, J T

    2011-01-01

    Point projection microscopy (PPM) is used to image suspended graphene by using low-energy electrons (100-205 eV). Because of the low energies used, the graphene is neither damaged nor contaminated by the electron beam for doses of the order of 10 7 electrons per nm 2 . The transparency of graphene is measured to be 74%, equivalent to electron transmission through a sheet twice as thick as the covalent radius of sp 2 -bonded carbon. Also observed is rippling in the structure of the suspended graphene, with a wavelength of approximately 26 nm. The interference of the electron beam due to diffraction off the edge of a graphene knife edge is observed and is used to calculate a virtual source size of 4.7±0.6 A for the electron emitter. It is demonstrated that graphene can serve as both the anode and the substrate in PPM, thereby avoiding distortions due to strong field gradients around nanoscale objects. Graphene can be used to image objects suspended on the sheet using PPM and, in the future, electron holography.

  15. Provision of Flexible Load Control by Multi-Flywheel-Energy-Storage System in Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Andrade, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    in order to support basic electrical operation. This paper proposes a local implementation of a hysteresis-based aggregation algorithm for coordinated control of multiple stations that can provide functions such as peak shaving, spinning reserves, frequency control, regulation and load following. Local......Electrical vehicle (EV) chargers are going to occupy a considerable portion of total energy consumption in the future smart grid. Fast charging stations (FCS), as the most demanding representatives of charging infrastructure, will be requested to provide some ancillary services to the power system...... stability. Finally, corresponding hardware in the loop results based on dSPACE1006 platform have been reported in order to verify the validity of proposed approach....

  16. 5 MJ flywheel based on bulk HTS magnetic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltavets, V.; Kovalev, K.; Ilyasov, R.; Glazunov, A.; Maevsky, V.; Verzbitsky, L.; Akhmadyshev, V.; Shikov, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays the flywheel energy storage systems (FES) are developed intensively as uninterruptible power supply (UPS) devices for on-land and transport (especially airborne) applications worldwide. This work is devoted to the FES with magnetic suspension on the base of bulk HTS YBCO elements and permanent magnets. The developed FES is intended to be used as UPS in Russian atomic industry in case of an emergency. For the successful design of the FES the following questions should be solved: design of the motor/generator, design of the rotor (flywheel), design of the bearing system, design of the control system and system of power load matching, design of the cooling system. The developed small-scale FES with the stored energy 0.5 MJ was used to solve these basic questions. The elaborated FES consists of the synchronous electric machine with permanent magnets, the solid flywheel with axial magnetic suspension on the base of YBCO bulks and permanent magnets, the system of control and power load matching, and the system of liquid nitrogen cooling. The results of theoretical modeling of different schematics of magnetic suspension and experimental investigations of the constructed FES are presented. The design of the future full-scale FES with the stored energy ~5 MJ and output power up to 100 kW is described. The test results of the flywheel rotor and HTS magnetic suspension of 5 MJ FES are presented. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry"

  17. Magnetic bearing flywheels for electric storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poubeau, P C

    1981-01-01

    A magnetic bearing flywheel was designed. In order to have a simple, reliable system, magnetic suspension with a single servoloop for one degree of freedom of the rotor was used, four other degrees of freedom being controlled passively and the sixth one, corresponding to the rotation axis. The motor that transfers electric energy to the rotor is of the ironless brushless dc type with electronic commutation. It is operated alternatively for accelerating the wheel and then as a generator for delivering the stored energy. The use of high stress composite materials in the rotor greatly increases the operational limits of this equipment. Key characteristics of kinetic energy storage are mentioned along with a wide range of applications. Besides energy storage for satellites, these include power smoothing for solar and wind energy systems as well as backup power supplies, e.g., for electric vehicles.

  18. Built and operation of three powerful AC pulse flywheel generator sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shujin; Li Huajun; Li Zhijian; Huang Zhaorong; Wang Xiaoping; Xu Lirong; Liu Xuemei; Bu Mingnan; Hu Haotian; Mao Weicheng

    2006-10-01

    Based on modification of the old pulse generator sets the new flywheel generator system has been developed. Now it is successfully used in supplying power to the HL-2A tokamak and meets the needs of HL-2A physical experiments. By far it is the most powerful pulse flywheel generator system on in-stalled gross capacity, energy storage and release in China today. In addition, the characteristic of the flywheel generator system is that each generator stator has two Y windings with 30 degree phase shift to avoid damaging the rotor due to rectifying load. (authors)

  19. On the Optimally Controlled Hydrostatic Mechanical Drive in Case of Flywheel Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Korsunskii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An improving dynamic quality of vehicles and enhanced fuel efficiency are gained thanks to the combined power system (CPS, comprising a main energy source - internal combustion engine (ICE with an attained level of the power source - and an auxiliary energy source, i.e. an energy storage device (a flywheel.To solve this problem was developed a mathematical model of CPS comprising internal combustion engine and flywheel energy storage (FES with stepless drive.The stepless drive of the flywheel is made to be hydrostatic mechanical to raise the system efficiency. To reduce the drive weight and simplify the control system in the hydraulic part of the flywheel drive is used only one hydraulic unit being controlled.The paper presents a kinematic diagram of the track-type vehicle equipped with the CPS that has a hydrostatic mechanical drive of the flywheel and a mechanical transmission.A mathematical model of the system comprising an ICE, hydrostatic mechanical drive, and FES with stepless drive has been developed. This mathematical model was used to study the influence of ICE and flywheel drive parameters on the dynamic characteristics of the system.The paper estimates the impact of flywheel energy consumption, pressure in the hydraulic system, and control parameter of hydrostatic mechanical drive on the charging time of FES.The obtained piecewise linear law to control the regulation parameter of the hydraulic unit allows us to minimize the charging time of the flywheel at the short-term stops and in the parking area of a tracked vehicle equipped with a CPS.The causes affecting the performance of ‘ICE – drive – flywheel’ system in the course of the flywheel acceleration are a restricted maximum power of the engine, as well as a limited generating capacity, and a maximum flywheel drive hydro-system pressure.The obtained results allow us to determine rational parameters of the flywheel and the laws of drive control to provide their further

  20. Velocity feedback control with a flywheel proof mass actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kras, Aleksander; Gardonio, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents four new proof mass actuators to be used in velocity feedback control systems for the control of vibrations of machines and flexible structures. A classical proof mass actuator is formed by a coil-magnet linear motor, with either the magnet or the armature-coil proof mass suspended on soft springs. This arrangement produces a net force effect at frequencies above the fundamental resonance frequency of the springs-proof mass system. Thus, it can be used to implement point velocity feedback loops, although the dynamic response and static deflection of the springs-proof mass system poses some stability and control performance limitations. The four proof mass actuators presented in this study include a flywheel element, which is used to augment the inertia effect of the suspended proof mass. The paper shows that the flywheel element modifies both the dynamic response and static deflection of the springs-proof mass system in such a way as the stability and control performance of velocity feedback loops using these actuators are significantly improved.

  1. Flywheel system using wire-wound rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Edward Young; Bender, Donald Arthur; Means, Andrew E.; Snyder, Philip K.

    2016-06-07

    A flywheel is described having a rotor constructed of wire wound onto a central form. The wire is prestressed, thus mitigating stresses that occur during operation. In another aspect, the flywheel incorporates a low-loss motor using electrically non-conducting permanent magnets.

  2. An Evershed type superconducting flywheel bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansiz, A.; Campbell, A.M.; Coombs, T.A

    2003-07-15

    The objective of this work is to develop a bearing using high temperature superconductors (HTSs) for use in an energy storage flywheel. The experimental apparatus includes a cylindrical rotor levitated with the Evershed design in which the majority of the levitation force is provided by a permanent magnet arrangement and the stabilization of the system is achieved by HTS elements. The design characteristics and dynamics of the bearing associated with the rotor part are presented. The instrumentation measures the out of balance force and magnetomechanical stiffness associated with the rotor. A study of the rotational losses was performed using free spin down experiments associated with magnetic field variation measurements. The results are consistent with the loss being caused by hysteresis in the superconductor due to magnet inhomogeneity.

  3. Suspended ceilings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, C.

    1991-05-01

    The retrofitting of existing conventional ceiling systems to suspended ceiling type systems represents an interesting energy savings solution since this method, in addition to providing additional protection against space heat loss and thermal bridges, also creates the possibility of housing, in the void, additional mechanical and electrical lines which may be necessary due to other savings interventions. This paper reviews the various suspended ceiling systems (e.g., those making use of mineral fibre, gypsum panels, wood, vermiculite, etc.) currently marketed in Europe, and reports, for each, some key technical, economic and architectural advantages which include thermal efficiency, noise abatement, as well as, resistance to fire and humidity. Information is also given on the relative installation and maintenance requirements.

  4. Power system for tokamak fusion experiments. Motor generator with flywheel effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyachi, Kengo

    1997-01-01

    JT-60 requires an enormous electric power pulse about 1,300 MVA periodically for its plasma initiation, containment and heating. JT-60 could not receive all electric power from a commercial line for plasma experiment except about 160 MVA because the 275 kV commercial line has some limitations. Therefore JT-60 needs huge electric power sources. The power supply system of JT-60 has 3 motor generators (MG). The total capacity of MG is 1,115 MVA that consists of a toroidal MG (TMG), poloidal MG (PMG) and Heating power supply MG (HMG), and each MG has a huge flywheel effect. For example, TMG has a 4.02 GJ energy yield that consists of 6 disk flywheel. The total weight of flywheel of TMG is 650 ton. This report describes the structure, operating system, and maintenance history of 3 types of MG. (author)

  5. Pump Coastdown with the Submerged Flywheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyun-Gi; Seo, KyoungWoo; Kim, Seong Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many research reactors are generally designed as open pool types in consideration of the heat removal of the nuclear fuels, reactor operation and accessibility. Reactor structure assembly is generally placed at the pool bottom as shown in Fig. 1. Primary cooling system pump circulates the coolant from the reactor structure to the heat exchanger in order to continuously remove the heat generated from the reactor core in the research reactor as shown in Fig. 1. The secondary cooling system releases the transferred heat to the atmosphere by the cooling tower. Coastdown flow rate of the primary cooling system pump with the submerged flywheel are calculated analytically in case of the accident situation. Coastdown flow rate is maintained until almost 80 sec when the pump stops normally. But, coastdown flow rate is rapidly decreased when the flywheel is submerged because of the friction load on the flywheel surface.

  6. Modeling, Testing, and Characteristic Analysis of a Planetary Flywheel Inerter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ge

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the planetary flywheel inerter, which is a new type of ball screw inerter. A planetary flywheel consists of several planetary gears mounted on a flywheel bracket. When the flywheel bracket is driven by a screw and rotating, each planetary gear meshing with an outer ring gear generates a compound motion composed of revolution and rotation. Theoretical analysis shows that the output force of the planetary flywheel inerter is proportional to the relative acceleration of one terminal of the inerter to the other. Optimizing the gear ratio of the planetary gears to the ring gear allows the planetary flywheel to be lighter than its traditional counterpart, without any loss on the inertance. According to the structure of the planetary flywheel inerter, nonlinear factors of the inerter are analyzed, and a nonlinear dynamical model of the inerter is established. Then the parameters in the model are identified and the accuracy of the model is validated by experiment. Theoretical analysis and experimental data show that the dynamical characteristics of a planetary flywheel inerter and those of a traditional flywheel inerter are basically the same. It is concluded that a planetary flywheel can completely replace a traditional flywheel, making the inerter lighter.

  7. Fault detection of flywheel system based on clustering and principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Rixin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the nonlinear, multifunctional properties of double-flywheel with closed-loop control, a two-step method including clustering and principal component analysis is proposed to detect the two faults in the multifunctional flywheels. At the first step of the proposed algorithm, clustering is taken as feature recognition to check the instructions of “integrated power and attitude control” system, such as attitude control, energy storage or energy discharge. These commands will ask the flywheel system to work in different operation modes. Therefore, the relationship of parameters in different operations can define the cluster structure of training data. Ordering points to identify the clustering structure (OPTICS can automatically identify these clusters by the reachability-plot. K-means algorithm can divide the training data into the corresponding operations according to the reachability-plot. Finally, the last step of proposed model is used to define the relationship of parameters in each operation through the principal component analysis (PCA method. Compared with the PCA model, the proposed approach is capable of identifying the new clusters and learning the new behavior of incoming data. The simulation results show that it can effectively detect the faults in the multifunctional flywheels system.

  8. High energy electron beam inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase suspended in different aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, A.; Oproiu, C.; Popescu, A.; Hategan, D.; Morariu, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    The direct and indirect effects of 5 MeV electron beam irradiation at various low temperatures, as well as the influence of the presence or absence of deuterium ions in the suspending medium of the enzyme, on the global enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase have been studied. Frozen lactate dehydrogenase suspensions at 0 degC, -3 degC and -196 degC temperatures have been irradiated with the 5 MeV electron beam of a linear accelerator in the dose range 0-400 Gy. Liquid lactate dehydrogenase suspensions in D 2 O (99.98 %) and ultrapure water (17 ppm) at 0 degC have been irradiated in the dose range 0 -15 Gy. An exponential decrease was found in the enzymatic activity of irradiated lactate dehydrogenase, at all irradiation temperatures. The drastic decrease in the activity for the enzyme irradiated at 0 degC (total inhibition for a final dose of 100 Gy) indicate that at this temperature the indirect effects of radiation (due to the water radicals induced by radiation in the samples) are predominant. At -3 degC irradiation temperature the indirect effects of radiation are smaller but still present (a total decrease in the enzymatic activity for a dose of 250 Gy), while at -196 degC they are orders of magnitude reduced and the decrease in the enzymatic activity is due almost to the direct interaction of electrons with the macromolecules (70 % for a dose of 400 Gy)

  9. Scanning Ultrasonic Spectroscopy System Developed for the Inspection of Composite Flywheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard E.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2002-01-01

    Composite flywheels are being considered as replacements for chemical batteries aboard the International Space Station. A flywheel stores energy in a spinning mass that can turn a generator to meet power demands. Because of the high rotational speeds of the spinning mass, extensive testing of the flywheel system must be performed prior to flight certification. With this goal in mind, a new scanning system has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for the nondestructive inspection of composite flywheels and flywheel subcomponents. The system uses ultrasonic waves to excite a material and examines the response to detect and locate flaws and material variations. The ultrasonic spectroscopy system uses a transducer to send swept-frequency ultrasonic waves into a test material and then receives the returning signal with a second transducer. The received signal is then analyzed in the frequency domain using a fast Fourier transform. A second fast Fourier transform is performed to examine the spacing of the peaks in the frequency domain. The spacing of the peaks is related to the standing wave resonances that are present in the material because of the constructive and destructive interferences of the waves in the full material thickness as well as in individual layers within the material. Material variations and flaws are then identified by changes in the amplitudes and positions of the peaks in both the frequency and resonance spacing domains. This work, conducted under a grant through the Cleveland State University, extends the capabilities of an existing point-by-point ultrasonic spectroscopy system, thus allowing full-field automated inspection. Results of an ultrasonic spectroscopy scan of a plastic cylinder with intentionally seeded flaws. The result of an ultrasonic spectroscopy scan of a plastic cylinder used as a proof-of-concept specimen is shown. The cylinder contains a number of flat bottomed holes of various sizes and shapes. The scanning system

  10. Lambert-Beer law in ocean waters: optical properties of water and of dissolved/suspended material, optical energy budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavn, R H

    1988-01-15

    The role of the Lambert-Beer law in ocean optics is critically examined. The Lambert-Beer law and the three-parameter model of the submarine light field are used to construct an optical energy budget for any hydrosol. It is further applied to the analytical exponential decay coefficient of the light field and used to estimate the optical properties and effects of the dissolved/suspended component in upper ocean layers. The concepts of the empirical exponential decay coefficient (diffuse attenuation coefficient) of the light field and a constant exponential decay coefficient for molecular water are analyzed quantitatively. A constant exponential decay coefficient for water is rejected. The analytical exponential decay coefficient is used to analyze optical gradients in ocean waters.

  11. Safety in unlimited power supply. Method and means of parallel operation of flywheel aggregates. [parallel operation of flywheel machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, E [Struever (A.) K.G., Hamburg (Germany, F.R.)

    1975-11-01

    A special type of Diesel emergency generator sets, i.e., with flywheel machines is described. Construction and operation of a flywheel machine are described and reasons are given for a possible or necessary parallel operation. The basic requirements for parallel operation are explained and the intrinsic operation is described. Special designs are also presented.

  12. Four giga joule flywheel motor-generator for JT-60 toroidal field coil power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, T.; Kanke, M.; Shimada, R.; Yoshida, Y.; Yamashita, K.; Nakayama, T.

    1986-01-01

    A fusion test reactor often needs motor-generators as a power source in order to reduce disturbances to utility lines. The toroidal field coil power supply system of JT-60 also adopted a motor-generator for this purpose. The motor-generator started operation in April, 1985 at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute together with the whole system. The motor-generator has several special features both electrically and mechanically. One electrical feature is that it is used as a pulse source of large current and power for periodic short-time duty. A mechanical feature is that a large flywheel is directly coupled to the motor-generator shaft and operated intermittently and at high speed. Therefore detailed investigations were carried out concerning constitution, characteristics as well as the coordination with the system performance. This paper describes the outlines of the flywheel motor-generator and discusses several topics

  13. Design of magnetic flywheel control for performance improvement of fuel cells used in vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chung-Neng; Chen, Yui-Sung

    2017-01-01

    Because hydrogen can be extracted naturally and stored for a long time, different types of fuel cells have been developed to generate clean power, particularly for use in vehicles. However, the power demand of a running vehicle leads to unstable and irregular loading of fuel cells. This not only reduces fuel cell lifespan and efficiency but also affects driving safety when the slow output response cannot satisfy an abrupt increase in power demand. Magnetic flywheels with characteristics such as high energy density, high-speed charging ability, and low loss have been extensively used in Formula One cars. This study developed a hybrid powertrain in which a magnetic flywheel system (MFS) is integrated with the fuel cells to solve the aforementioned problems. Moreover, an auto-tuning proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller based on the controls of a multiple adaptive neuro-fuzzy interference system and particle swarm optimization was designed for MFS control. Furthermore, MATLAB/Simulink simulations considering an FTP-75 urban driving cycle were conducted, and a variability improvement of approximately 27.3% in fuel cell output was achieved. - Highlights: • A hybrid powertrain integrating the magnetic flywheel and fuel cells is proposed. • An auto-tuning PID controller is designed for MFS control. • The MIMO-ANFIS and PSO based optimal control is realized. • A 27.3% improvement in the output variability of fuel cell is achieved under control.

  14. Levitation properties of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by high Tc superconducting levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Hidekazu; Tawara, Taichi; Shimada, Ryuichi.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new combination of high T c superconducting levitation and ring-shaped flywheel energy storage systems. Superconducting levitation is appropriate for rotating a ring-shaped flywheel which has neither shaft nor hub, because it is a non-contact and automatically stable levitation without any control systems. The levitation properties such as static and dynamic lateral stiffnesses, lateral damping, and lateral vibration during rotation have been investigated using a small-scaled experimental machine consisting of 16 bulk superconductors 46 mm in diameter and a ring-shaped flywheel about 300 mm in diameter. The spring constant increased as the levitation gap height decreased, and the dynamic spring constant was slightly higher than the static constant. The damping coefficient increased as the gap height decreased and the vibration amplitude increased. The experimental critical speed was in good agreement with the calculated one using a one-degree of freedom model. Finally, the possibility of large-scaled practical systems is discussed from the viewpoint of superconducting levitation. (author)

  15. Durability of filament-wound composite flywheel rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Jun

    2012-02-01

    This paper predicts the durability of two types of flywheels, one assumes to fail in the radial direction and the other assumes to fail in the circumferential direction. The flywheel failing in the radial direction is a conventional filament-wound composite flywheel and the one failing in the circumferential direction is a tailor-made type. The durability of the former is predicted by Micromechanics of Failure (MMF) (Ha et al. in J. Compos. Mater. 42:1873-1875, 2008), employing time-dependent matrix strength, and that of the latter is predicted by Simultaneous Fiber Failure (SFF) (Koyanagi et al. in J. Compos. Mater. 43:1901-1914, 2009), employing identical time-dependent matrix strength. The predicted durability of the latter is much greater than that of the former, depending on the interface strength. This study suggests that a relatively weak interface is necessary for high-durability composite flywheel fabrication.

  16. Structural integrity analysis of reactor coolant pump flywheel(I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin

    1986-01-01

    A reactor coolant pump flywheel is an important machine element to provide the necessary rotational inertia in the event of loss of power to the pumps. This paper attempts to assess the influence of keyways on flywheel stresses and fracture behaviour in detail. The finite element method was used to determine stresses near keyways, including residual stresses, and to establish stress intensity factors for keyway cracks for use in fracture mechanics assessments. (Author)

  17. Interlayer toughening of fiber composite flywheel rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Scott E.; Deteresa, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    An interlayer toughening mechanism to mitigate the growth of damage in fiber composite flywheel rotors for long application. The interlayer toughening mechanism may comprise one or more tough layers composed of high-elongation fibers, high-strength fibers arranged in a woven pattern at a range from 0.degree. to 90.degree. to the rotor axis and bound by a ductile matrix material which adheres to and is compatible with the materials used for the bulk of the rotor. The number and spacing of the tough interlayers is a function of the design requirements and expected lifetime of the rotor. The mechanism has particular application in uninterruptable power supplies, electrical power grid reservoirs, and compulsators for electric guns, as well as electromechanical batteries for vehicles.

  18. Instantaneous flywheel torque of IC engine grey-box identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milašinović, A.; Knežević, D.; Milovanović, Z.; Škundrić, J.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper a mathematical model developed for the identification of excitation torque acting on the IC engine flywheel is presented. The excitation torque gained through internal combustion of the fuel in the IC engine is transmitted from the flywheel to the transmission. The torque is not constant but variable and is a function of the crank angle. The verification of the mathematical model was done on a 4-cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine for which the in-cylinder pressure was measured in one cylinder and the instantaneous angular speed of the crankshaft at its free end. The research was conducted on a hydraulic engine brake. Inertial forces of all rotational parts, from flywheel to the turbine wheel of the engine brake, are acting on the flywheel due to the nonuniform motion of the flywheel. It is known from the theory of turbomachinery that the torque on the hydraulic brake is a quadratic function of angular speed. Due to that and the variable angular speed of the turbine wheel of the engine brake, the torque during one engine cycle is also variable. The motivation for this research was the idea (intention) to determine the instantaneous torque acting on the flywheel as a function of the crank angle with a mathematical model without any measuring and based on this to determine the quality of work of specific cylinders of the multi-cylinder engine. The crankshaft was considered elastic and also its torsional vibrations were taken into account.

  19. Low eddy loss axial hybrid magnetic bearing with gimballing control ability for momentum flywheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Jiqiang; Sun, Jinji; Fang, Jiancheng; Shuzhi Sam, Ge

    2013-01-01

    For a magnetically suspended momentum flywheel (MSMF), the spinning rotor can be tilted by a pair of the presented axial hybrid magnetic bearing (AHMB) with eight poles and rotates around the radial axes to generate a large torque to maneuver the spacecraft. To improve the control performance and gimballing control ability of the AHMB, characteristics such as magnetic suspension force, angular stiffness and tilting momentum are researched. These segmented stator poles cause the magnetic density in the thrust rotor plate to be uneven unavoidably and the rotational loss is large at high speed, but we optimized the stator poles configuration and caused the thrust rotor plate formed by bulk DT4C and laminated material to make the magnetic density in the thrust rotor plate change less and be smoother. Laminated material such as 1J50 film with a thickness of 0.1 mm can make the variation of the magnetic density in DT4C become very small and the eddy loss of it be negligible, but the stress produced in the “O” shape stacks by reeling has a bad effect on its power loss. Nanocrystalline can reduce eddy losses and is not affected by the reeling process. Based on the AHBM consisting of the stator with eight improved poles and the presented thrust rotor plate with DT4 and nanocrystalline, the rotational loss of 5-DOF magnetically suspended momentum flywheel with angular momentum of 15 N m s at 5000 rpm has reduced from 23.4 W to 3.2 W, which proved that this AHMB has low eddy loss for the gimballing control ability. - Highlights: ► Control methods of rotor driven by AHMBs and their characteristics are researched. ► Optimized stator and rotor of AHMB reduce its eddy losses greatly. ► Presented the factors affecting the eddy losses of AHMBs. ► The good performances of AHMB with low eddy loss are proved by experiments.

  20. Ultrasonic Resonance Spectroscopy of Composite Rims for Flywheel Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Laura M.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2002-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage devices comprising multilayered composite rotor systems are being studied extensively for utilization in the International Space Station. These composite material systems were investigated with a recently developed ultrasonic resonance spectroscopy technique. The ultrasonic system employs a continuous swept-sine waveform and performs a fast Fourier transform (FFT) on the frequency response spectrum. In addition, the system is capable of equalizing the amount of energy at each frequency. Equalization of the frequency spectrum, along with interpretation of the second FFT, aids in the evaluation of the fundamental frequency. The frequency responses from multilayered material samples, with and without known defects, were analyzed to assess the capabilities and limitations of this nondestructive evaluation technique for material characterization and defect detection. Amplitude and frequency changes were studied from ultrasonic responses of thick composite rings and a multiring composite rim. A composite ring varying in thickness was evaluated to investigate the full thickness resonance. The frequency response characteristics from naturally occurring voids in a composite ring were investigated. Ultrasonic responses were compared from regions with and without machined voids in a composite ring and a multiring composite rim. Finally, ultrasonic responses from the multiring composite rim were compared before and after proof spin testing to 63,000 rpm.

  1. The Effect of Flywheel Unbalance on Gear Noise in the Hydraulic Power Plant Turbo-Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomeh Elias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Effect of Flywheel Unbalance on Gear Noise in the Hydraulic Power Plant Turbo-Generator. Hydraulic power plants are systems that produce electrical energy with high investment costs. In order to fulfil their goals, investments should create conditions for a safe production of energy in a long lasting and reliable way, and with the required power and quality. These goals are possible to reach by an optional control process linked to a systematic monitoring of the operating machinery state, using the method of vibration diagnostics. Lately, there has been an increase of noise level in the hydraulic power plants.

  2. Sensorless Control of Permanent Magnet Machine for NASA Flywheel Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Kascak, Peter E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the position sensorless algorithms presently used in the motor control for the NASA "in-house" development work of the flywheel energy storage system. At zero and low speeds a signal injection technique, the self-sensing method, is used to determine rotor position. At higher speeds, an open loop estimate of the back EMF of the machine is made to determine the rotor position. At start up, the rotor is set to a known position by commanding dc into one of the phase windings. Experimental results up to 52,000 rpm are presented.

  3. Distribution and transportation of suspended sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubel, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A number of studies of the distribution and character of suspended matter in the waters of the Atlantic shelf have documented the variations in the concentration of total suspended matter in both time and space. Very little is known, however, about the ultimate sources of inorganic suspended matter, and even less is known about the routes and rates of suspended sediment transport in shelf waters. Suspended particulate matter constitutes a potential vehicle for the transfer of energy-associated contaminants, radionuclides and oil, back to the coast and therefore to man. The concentrations of total suspended matter in shelf waters are typically so low, however, that the mechanism is ineffective. Studies of suspended particulate matter have a high scientific priority, but in this investigator's opinion the state of knowledge is adequate for preparation of the environmental impact statements that would be required for siting of offshore nuclear power plants and for oil drilling on the Atlantic Continental Shelf

  4. Dynamical analysis of a flywheel-superconducting bearing with a moving magnet support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivrioglu, Selim; Nonami, Kenzo

    2003-01-01

    A lateral stiffness improvement approach based on a moving magnet support is developed to reduce the vibration of a flywheel rotor-high temperature superconductor (HTS) bearing. A flywheel rotor levitated with an HTS bearing is modelled and then analysed with a moving stator magnet placed above the rotor. A dynamic support principle is introduced based on moving the stator magnet in anti-phase with the rotor displacement for small variations. A complete dynamical equation of the flywheel rotor is derived including gyroscopic and imbalance effects. The simulation results showed that the dynamic support of the flywheel rotor with additional stator magnet movements decreases the vibration of the flywheel rotor considerably

  5. Electricity generating system. [Wind/diesel/flywheel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, R.L.

    1992-02-05

    An electricity generating system is described which includes a water tank with electric heating elements connected to the water cooling system of a diesel engine which is heated by excess output of the system. Power in excess of that required by a load which is generated by a wind turbine driven generator runs up a flywheel and further excess is absorbed in the tank. A fan associated with a radiator connected to the tank may be operated to dissipate further excess power. When the load requirements exceed the output of the generators linked to the wind turbine and the flywheel the engine operates a synchronous alternator. (author).

  6. Flywheel-battery hydrid: a new concept for vehicle propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A new concept was examined for powering the automobile: a flywheel-battery hybrid that can be developed for near-term use from currently available lead-acid batteries and state-of-the-art flywheel designs. To illustrate the concept, a calculation is given of the range and performance of the hybrid power system in a typical commute vehicle, and the results are compared to the measured range and performance of an all-battery vehicle. This comparison shows improved performance and a twofold urban-range increase for the hybrid over the all-battery power system

  7. THE REDUCTION OF VIBRATIONS IN A CAR – THE PRINCIPLE OF PNEUMATIC DUAL MASS FLYWHEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert GREGA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The dual-mass flywheel replaces the classic flywheel in such way that it is divided into two masses (the primary mass and the secondary mass, which are jointed together by means of a flexible interconnection. This kind of the flywheel solution enables to change resonance areas of the engine with regard to the engine dynamic behaviour what leads to a reduction of vibrations consequently. However, there is also a disadvantage of the dualmass flywheels. The disadvantage is its short-time durability. There was projected a new type of the dual-mass flywheel in the framework of our workplace in order to eliminate disadvantages of the present dual-mass flywheels, i.e. we projected the pneumatic dual-mass flywheel, taking into consideration our experiences obtained during investigation of vibrations.

  8. Simulation of the fuel consumption benefits of various transmission arrangements and control strategies within a flywheel based mechanical hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Body, William; Brockbank, Chris [Torotrak (Development) Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Flywheel based mechanical hybrid technology is being developed for both motorsport and mainstream automotive applications. One particular road car application project, part funded by the UK Government Technology Strategy Board, is being led by Jaguar Land Rover, managed by Prodrive and using advanced technology from Flybrid Systems, Ford, Ricardo. Torotrak and Xtrac. During the two year programme, the group will develop the new technology and build a demonstrator vehicle equipped with the system. The mechanical system recovers kinetic energy from the vehicle during braking to a high speed rotating flywheel via a variable drive system. When compared to an electric motor / battery arrangement, the mechanical hybrid system offers benefits in cost, weight, package, efficiency and ultimately vehicle fuel consumption. As part of the development and optimisation process in order to specify the road car system, all aspects of the mechanical hybrid system are under investigation by the group. Alongside the required quantity of energy storage and the rates of energy recovery and reapplication, a number of different physical architectures for the system are being analysed. The Torotrak full-toroidal traction drive has been assigned as the variable drive element of the mechanical hybrid system. Multiple configuration options are available including direct drive, epicyclic shunted, range extended CVT and epicyclic shunted IVT arrangements. In addition, the flywheel and variable drive system can be connected to the powertrain in a variety of different locations, from the engine through the powertrain to the wheels. This paper describes the simulation of the mechanical hybrid system with particular focus on the impact on the fuel consumption benefit, over multiple drive cycles, of the variable drive configuration, the location of the variable drive and flywheel system and the control strategy options. (orig.)

  9. Ultrasonic Resonance Spectroscopy of Composite Rings for Flywheel Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Laura M.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2001-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage devices comprising multilayered composite rotor systems are being studied extensively for utilization in the International Space Station. These composite material systems were investigated with a recently developed ultrasonic resonance spectroscopy technique. The system employs a swept frequency approach and performs a fast Fourier transform on the frequency spectrum of the response signal. In addition. the system allows for equalization of the frequency spectrum, providing all frequencies with equal amounts of energy to excite higher order resonant harmonics. Interpretation of the second fast Fourier transform, along with equalization of the frequency spectrum, offers greater assurance in acquiring and analyzing the fundamental frequency, or spectrum resonance spacing. The range of frequencies swept in a pitch-catch mode was varied up to 8 MHz, depending on the material and geometry of the component. Single and multilayered material samples, with and without known defects, were evaluated to determine how the constituents of a composite material system affect the resonant frequency. Amplitude and frequency changes in the spectrum and spectrum resonance spacing domains were examined from ultrasonic responses of a flat composite coupon, thin composite rings, and thick composite rings. Also, the ultrasonic spectroscopy responses from areas with an intentional delamination and a foreign material insert, similar to defects that may occur during manufacturing malfunctions, were compared with those from defect-free areas in thin composite rings. A thick composite ring with varying thickness was tested to investigate the full-thickness resonant frequency and any possible bulk interfacial bond issues. Finally, the effect on the frequency response of naturally occurring single and clustered voids in a composite ring was established.

  10. Quadriceps muscle use in the flywheel and barbell squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbrand, Lena; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Vargas, Roberto; Tesch, Per A

    2011-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been proposed as an aid to counteract quadriceps muscle atrophy in astronauts during extended missions in orbit. While space authorities have advocated the squat exercise should be prescribed, no exercise system suitable for in-flight use has been validated with regard to quadriceps muscle use. We compared muscle involvement in the terrestrial "gold standard" squat using free weights and a nongravity dependent flywheel resistance exercise device designed for use in space. The subjects were 10 strength-trained men who performed 5 sets of 10 repetitions using the barbell squat (BS; 10 repetition maximum) or flywheel squat (FS; each repetition maximal), respectively. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surface electromyography (EMG) techniques assessed quadriceps muscle use. Exercise-induced contrast shift of MR images was measured by means of transverse relaxation time (T2). EMG root mean square (RMS) was measured during concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) actions and normalized to EMG RMS determined during maximal voluntary contraction. The quadriceps muscle group showed greater exercise-induced T2 increase following FS compared with BS. Among individual muscles, the rectus femoris displayed greater T2 increase with FS (+24 +/- 14%) than BS (+8 +/- 4%). Normalized quadriceps EMG showed no difference across exercise modes. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that quadriceps muscle use in the squat is comparable, if not greater, with flywheel compared with free weight resistance exercise. Data appear to provide support for use of flywheel squat resistance exercise as a countermeasures adjunct during spaceflight.

  11. Magnetic suspension of a rotating system. Application to inertial flywheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarquand, Guy

    1984-01-01

    The various possible magnetic suspension configurations compatible with rotating mechanical systems are defined from studies of the characteristics of different types of magnetic bearings. The results obtained are used in the design and realization of a magnetic suspension for an inertial flywheel. (author) [fr

  12. Plate heat exchanger - inertia flywheel performance in loss of flow transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-El-Maaty, Talal; Abd-El-Hady, Amr

    2009-01-01

    One of the most versatile types of heat exchangers used is the plate heat exchanger. It has principal advantages over other heat exchangers in that plates can be added and/or removed easily in order to change the area available for heat transfer and therefore its overall performance. The cooling systems of Egypt's second research reactor (ETRR 2) use this type of heat exchanger for cooling purposes in its primary core cooling and pool cooling systems. In addition to the change in the number of heat exchanger cooling channels, the effect of changing the amount of mass flow rate on the heat exchanger performance is an important issues in this study. The inertia flywheel mounted on the primary core cooling system pump with the plate heat exchanger plays an important role in the case of loss of flow transients. The PARET code is used to simulate the effect of loss of flow transients on the reactor core. Hence, the core outlet temperature with the pump-flywheel flow coast down is fed into the plate heat exchanger model developed to estimate the total energy transferred to the cooling tower, the primary side heat exchanger temperature variation, the transmitted heat exchanger power, and the heat exchanger effectiveness. In addition, the pressure drop in both, the primary side and secondary side of the plate heat exchanger is calculated in all simulated transients because their values have limits beyond which the heat exchanger is useless. (orig.)

  13. Energy conservation through utilization of mechanical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhaure, D. B.; Bliamptis, T. E.; Downer, J. R.; Heinemann, P. C.

    Potential benefits regarding fuel savings, necessary technology, and evaluation criteria for the development of flywheel-hybrid vehicles are examined. A case study is quoted in which adoption of flywheel-hybrid vehicles in a taxi fleet would result in an increase of 10 mpg average to 32 mpg. Two proposed systems are described, one involving direct engine power to the flywheel and the second regenerating the flywheel from braking energy through a continuously variable transmission. Fuel consumption characteristics are considered the ultimate determinant in the choice of configuration, while material properties and housing shape determine the flywheel speed range. Vehicle losses are characterized and it is expected that a flywheel at 12,000 rpm will experience less than one hp average parasitic power loss. Flywheel storage is suitable for smaller engines because larger engines dominate the power train mass. Areas considered important for further investigation include reliability of an engine run near maximum torque, noise and vibration associated with flywheel operation, start up delays, compatibility of driver controls, integration of normal with regenerative braking systems, and, most importantly, the continuously variable transmission.

  14. Thirty year operational experience of the JET flywheel generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendell, Daniel, E-mail: dan.rendell@ccfe.ac.uk; Shaw, Stephen R.; Pool, Peter J.; Oberlin-Harris, Colin

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The pony-motor rotor circuit's liquid resistor requires frequent maintenance. • A crowned profile on the thrust pads is desirable. • Both plug braking transformers have been replaced after flashovers occurred. • Two-plane balancing of one of the flywheel generators has improved vibration levels but also provided information to lead further investigations. • A half-life inspection on the flywheel generators has shown no major issues after 30 year of operating. - Abstract: The JET flywheel generator converters have operated since 1983 and for over 85,000 pulses. Problems with this plant are discussed, including corrosion, unbalanced flow and arcing within the liquid resistors; starting difficulties on both machines; and failure of the plug-braking transformers at energisiation. In 2012/13 two sets of thrust bearing pads have required refurbishment, a process which highlighted the importance of their profile. Extensive half-life inspections have shown that there are no serious problems with either generator.

  15. Comparison of joint kinetics during free weight and flywheel resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Loren Z F; Salem, George J

    2006-08-01

    The most common modality for resistance exercise is free weight resistance. Alternative methods of providing external resistance have been investigated, in particular for use in microgravity environments such as space flight. One alternative modality is flywheel inertial resistance, which generates resistance as a function of the mass, distribution of mass, and angular acceleration of the flywheel. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize net joint kinetics of multijoint exercises performed with a flywheel inertial resistance device in comparison to free weights. Eleven trained men and women performed the front squat, lunge, and push press on separate days with free weight or flywheel resistance, while instrumented for biomechanical analysis. Front squats performed with flywheel resistance required greater contribution of the hip and ankle, and less contribution of the knee, compared to free weight. Push presses performed with flywheel resistance had similar impulse requirements at the knee compared to free weight, but greater impulse requirement at the hip and ankle. As used in this investigation, flywheel inertial resistance increases the demand on the hip extensors and ankle plantarflexors and decreases the mechanical demand on the knee extensors for lower extremity exercises such as the front squat and lunge. Exercises involving dynamic lower and upper extremity actions, such as the push press, may benefit from flywheel inertial resistance, due to the increased mechanical demand on the knee extensors.

  16. Contribution to design and to integrate a flywheel-based storage system in a test bench for electric vehicles with hybrid source; Contribution a la conception et a l'integration d'un accumulateur cinetique d'energie dans une plate-forme de test pour vehicules electriques a source hybride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briat, O.

    2002-11-01

    This work deals with the design and the integration of a flywheel-based storage system in a test bench for EV with hybrid source. The flywheel used to supply/recover the peak power during acceleration/braking is associated to a battery which supplies the average power. The main goal is to prove the interest of such a sources hybridization for heavy duty EV. First, a simulation tool has been used for EV studies. Models have been validated thanks to on-board vehicle measurements. Then, a EV test bench has been designed on a reduced power scale. The representativeness of this experimental tool has allowed us to validate simulation models. A flywheel module has been integrated and associated to a battery in order to validate the hybridization principle. Experimental results have shown the performances of the battery power limitation and have proved the interest of a systematic regenerative braking on the battery. In these conditions, an increase of the vehicle payload can be expected. (author)

  17. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  18. Research on Adaptive Dual-Mode Switch Control Strategy for Vehicle Maglev Flywheel Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the jamming signal is real-time changeable and control algorithm cannot timely tracking control flywheel rotor, this paper takes vehicle maglev flywheel battery as the research object. One kind of dual-model control strategy is developed based on the analysis of the vibration response impact of the flywheel battery control system. In view of the complex foundation vibration problems of electric vehicles, the nonlinear dynamic simulation model of vehicle maglev flywheel battery is solved. Through analyzing the nonlinear vibration response characteristics, one kind of dual-mode adaptive hybrid control strategy based on H∞ control and unbalance displacement feed-forward compensation control is presented and a real-time switch controller is designed. The reliable hybrid control is implemented, and the stability in the process of real-time switch is solved. The results of this project can provide important basic theory support for the research of vehicle maglev flywheel battery control system.

  19. A New Measure for Transported Suspended Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Non-uniform suspended sediment plays an important role in many geographical and biological processes. Despite extensive study, understanding to it seems to stagnate when times to consider non-uniformity and non-equilibrium scenarios comes. Due to unsatisfactory reproducibility, large-scaled flume seems to be incompetent to conduct more fundamental research in this area. To push the realm a step further, experiment to find how suspended sediment exchanges is conducted in a new validated equipment, in which turbulence is motivated by oscillating grids. Analysis shows that 1) suspended sediment exchange is constrained by ωS invariance, 2) ωS of the suspended sediment that certain flow regime could support is unique regardless of the sediment gradation and 3) the more turbulent the flow, the higher ωS of the suspension the flow could achieve. A new measure for suspended sediment ωS, the work required to sustain sediment in suspension transport mode if multiplied by gravitational acceleration, is thus proposed to better describe the dynamics of transported suspended sediment. Except for the further understanding towards suspended sediment transportation mechanics, with this energy measure, a strategy to distribute total transport capacity to different fractions could be derived and rational calculation of non-uniform sediment transport capacity under non-equilibrium conditions be possible.

  20. Report on results 1998. Research and development on high-temperature superconducting flywheel power storage (investigation on system introduction); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Koon chodendo flywheel denryoku chozo kenkyu kaihatsu (system donyu chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    In introducing high-temperature superconducting flywheel power storage equipment to an electrical power system, adaptability is examined and evaluated concerning secondary effect that can be expected while a load leveling function is maintained. The 1998 plan is such that the functions and usages other than the load leveling are put in order for such equipment, and that the effect/adaptability in the case of the introduction into the power system is evaluated by means of simulation and literature studies. The high-temperature superconducting flywheel power storage equipment may be used for such purposes as energy adjustment for a short time, system voltage adjustment and emergency power source, other than the load leveling, on the basis of the characteristics that enable high speed control of active/reactive power and storage/release of energy. Enumerated, as the effects obtainable in introducing these uses into the power system, are enhancement in system stability, improvement in voltage stability, improvement in instantaneous voltage drop, maintenance of system frequency, compensation of fluctuating load, countermeasures against power outrage, and output leveling of intermittent power sources, and these effects were examined. (NEDO)

  1. Effect of the Shrink Fit and Mechanical Tolerance on Reactor Coolant Pump Flywheel Integrity Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Donghak [Korea KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Reactor coolant pump (RCP) flywheel should satisfy the RCP flywheel integrity criteria of the US NRC standard review plan (SRP) 5.4.1.1 and regulatory guide (RG) 1.14. Shrink-fit and rotational stresses should be calculated to evaluate the integrity. In this paper the effects of the shrink fit and mechanical tolerance on the RCP flywheel integrity evaluation are studied. The shrink fit should be determined by the joint release speed and the stresses in the flywheel will be increased by the shrink fit. The stress at the interface between the hub and the outer wheel shows the highest value. The effect of the mechanical tolerance should be considered for the stress evaluation. And the effect of the mechanical tolerance should be not considered to determine the joint release speed.

  2. Effect of the Shrink Fit and Mechanical Tolerance on Reactor Coolant Pump Flywheel Integrity Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Donghak

    2015-01-01

    Reactor coolant pump (RCP) flywheel should satisfy the RCP flywheel integrity criteria of the US NRC standard review plan (SRP) 5.4.1.1 and regulatory guide (RG) 1.14. Shrink-fit and rotational stresses should be calculated to evaluate the integrity. In this paper the effects of the shrink fit and mechanical tolerance on the RCP flywheel integrity evaluation are studied. The shrink fit should be determined by the joint release speed and the stresses in the flywheel will be increased by the shrink fit. The stress at the interface between the hub and the outer wheel shows the highest value. The effect of the mechanical tolerance should be considered for the stress evaluation. And the effect of the mechanical tolerance should be not considered to determine the joint release speed

  3. Kinetic energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M.; Folini, P.

    1983-09-03

    A flywheel system for the purpose of energy storage in decentral solar- or wind energy plants is introduced. The system comprises a rotor made out of plastic fibre, a motor/generator serving as electro-mechanical energy converter and a frequency-voltage transformer serving as electric adapter. The storable energy quantity amounts to several kWh.

  4. Transport of suspended matter through rock formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlig, B.G.

    1980-01-01

    It may be hypothesized that significant quantities of some waste nuclides could be adsorbed on the surfaces of particles suspended in the flowing groundwater and thereby migrate farther or faster than they would in dissolved form. This thesis deals with one aspect of this proposed migration mechanism, the transport of suspended matter through rock formations. A theoretical examination of the forces effecting suspended particles in flowing groundwater indicates that only two interaction energies are likely to be significant compared to the particles' thermal energies. The responsible interactions are van der Waals attraction between the particles and the rock, and electrolytic double-layer repulsion between the atmospheres of ions near the surfaces of the particles and the rock. This theoretical understanding was tested in column flow adsorption experiments using fine kaolin particles as the suspended matter and crushed basalt as the rock medium. The effects of several parameters on kaolin mobility were explored, including the influences of the following: solution ion concentration, solution cation valence, degree of solution oxygen saturation, solution flow velocity, and degree of rock surface ageing. The experimental results indicate that the migration of suspended matter over kilometer distances in the lithosphere is very unlikely unless the average pore size of the conducting mediumis fairly large (> 1mm), or the flow occurs in large fractures

  5. Shear Piezoelectricity in Poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene): Full Piezotensor Coefficients by Molecular Modeling, Biaxial Transverse Response, and Use in Suspended Energy-Harvesting Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persano, Luana; Catellani, Alessandra; Dagdeviren, Canan; Ma, Yinji; Guo, Xiaogang; Huang, Yonggang; Calzolari, Arrigo; Pisignano, Dario

    2016-09-01

    The intrinsic flexible character of polymeric materials causes remarkable strain deformations along directions perpendicular to the applied stress. The biaxial response in the shear piezoelectricity of polyvinylidenefluoride copolymers is analyzed and their full piezoelectric tensors are provided. The microscopic shear is exploited in single suspended nanowires bent by localized loading to couple flexural deformation and transverse piezoelectric response. © 2016 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Optimization of hybrid power system composed of SMES and flywheel MG for large pulsed load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niiyama, K.; Yagai, T.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.

    2008-01-01

    A superconducting magnetic storage system (SMES) has some advantages such as rapid large power response and high storage efficiency which are superior to other energy storage systems. A flywheel motor generator (FWMG) has large scaled capacity and high reliability, and hence is broadly utilized for a large pulsed load, while it has comparatively low storage efficiency due to high mechanical loss compared with SMES. A fusion power plant such as International Thermo-Nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) requires a large and long pulsed load which causes a frequency deviation in a utility power system. In order to keep the frequency within an allowable deviation, we propose a hybrid power system for the pulsed load, which equips the SMES and the FWMG with the utility power system. We evaluate installation cost and frequency control performance of three power systems combined with energy storage devices; (i) SMES with the utility power, (ii) FWMG with the utility power, (iii) both SMES and FWMG with the utility power. The first power system has excellent frequency power control performance but its installation cost is high. The second system has inferior frequency control performance but its installation cost is the lowest. The third system has good frequency control performance and its installation cost is attained lower than the first power system by adjusting the ratio between SMES and FWMG

  7. Suspended graphene variable capacitor

    OpenAIRE

    AbdelGhany, M.; Mahvash, F.; Mukhopadhyay, M.; Favron, A.; Martel, R.; Siaj, M.; Szkopek, T.

    2016-01-01

    The tuning of electrical circuit resonance with a variable capacitor, or varactor, finds wide application with the most important being wireless telecommunication. We demonstrate an electromechanical graphene varactor, a variable capacitor wherein the capacitance is tuned by voltage controlled deflection of a dense array of suspended graphene membranes. The low flexural rigidity of graphene monolayers is exploited to achieve low actuation voltage in an ultra-thin structure. Large arrays compr...

  8. Characterization and morphology of solids suspended in rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la

    2000-01-01

    This work presents the results obtained from the analysis of rain water in Mexico. The study treats over the characterization and morphology of the solids suspended in form of particles in the atmosphere. The solids suspended were obtained of the pluvial precipitations after these have been centrifuged. Subsequently of the separation, the particulate matter was analysed by Sem and X-ray dispersive energy

  9. Kinetic energy storage of off-peak electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L.A.; Oldaker, I.E.; Stermscheg, J.

    1975-09-01

    The concept of using large flywheels to store off-peak electricity has been considered. The development of high strength composite materials has made possible improvements in the energy storage capacity of such devices. The problems involved in designing large flywheels and their economic advantages over alternative means of energy storage are discussed. The economic arguments are based on the present or near future capabilities and costs of structural composite materials. The flywheel costs turn out to be considerably higher than for many alternative schemes including advanced batteries, gas turbine generators and pumped storage schemes. (author)

  10. Circular motion of particles suspended in a Gaussian beam with circular polarization validates the spin part of the internal energy flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya.; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    switching to the right (left) circular polarization, the particles performed spinning motion in agreement with the angular momentum imparted by the field, but they were involved in an orbital rotation around the beam axis as well, which in previous works [Y. Zhao et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007......Non-spherical dielectric microparticles were suspended in a water-filled cell and exposed to a coherent Gaussian light beam with controlled state of polarization. When the beam polarization is linear, the particles were trapped at certain off-axial position within the beam cross section. After...... of inhomogeneously polarized paraxial beams [A. Bekshaev et al, J. Opt. 13, 053001 (2011)]....

  11. Does Flywheel Paradigm Training Improve Muscle Volume and Force? A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez Sanchez, Francisco J; Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Núñez Sanchez, FJ and Sáez de Villarreal, E. Does flywheel paradigm training improve muscle volume and force? A meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3177-3186, 2017-Several studies have confirmed the efficacy of flywheel paradigm training for improving or benefiting muscle volume and force. A meta-analysis of 13 studies with a total of 18 effect sizes was performed to analyse the role of various factors on the effectiveness of flywheel paradigm training. The following inclusion criteria were employed for the analysis: (a) randomized studies; (b) high validity and reliability instruments; (c) published in a high quality peer-reviewed journal; (d) healthy participants; (e) studies where the eccentric programme were described; and (f) studies where increases in muscle volume and force were measured before and after training. Increases in muscle volume and force were noted through the use of flywheel systems during short periods of training. The increase in muscle mass appears was not influenced by the existence of eccentric overload during the exercise. The increase in force was significantly higher with the existence of eccentric overload during the exercise. The responses identified in this analysis are essential and should be considered by strength and conditioning professionals regarding the most appropriate dose response trends for flywheel paradigm systems to optimize the increase in muscle volume and force.

  12. Rotational loss of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by high Tc superconducting levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Hidekazu; Tawara, Taichi; Shimada, Ryuichi.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental results for the rotational loss of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by high T c superconducting levitation. Superconducting levitation is appropriate for rotating a ring-shaped flywheel which has neither shaft nor hub because it is a non-contact and automatically stable levitation without any control systems. The rotational loss has been investigated using a small-scaled experimental machine consisting of 16 bulk superconductors 46 mm in diameter and a ring-shaped flywheel about 300 mm in diameter. The rotational loss decreased as the levitation gap height increased. In low-speed rotational regions, the rotational loss was in proportion to the rotation speed and depended more on the levitation gap. In high-speed rotational regions, the rotational loss was in proportion to the third power of the rotation speed and depended less on the levitation gap. The cubic rotational loss in He was reduced to one-fifth of that in air. The magnetic field pinned in bulk superconductors induces a loss in the materials composing the ring-shaped flywheel. The rotational loss of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by superconducting levitation can be reduced by improving the uniformity of the magnetic fields along the ring, enlargement of the bulk superconductor(s), and densely arranging the bulk superconductors. (author)

  13. Inspection of the Sizewll 'B' reactor coolant pump flywheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, A.L.; Cheshire, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Sizewell ''B'' safety case has categorised some primary circuit items as components for which failure is considered to be incredible. These Incredibility of Failure (IOF) components are particularly critical in their safety function, and specially stringent and all embracing provisions are made in their design, manufacture, inspection and operation. These provisions are such as to limit the probability of failure to levels which are so low that it does not have to be taken into account and no steps are necessary to control the consequences. The reactor coolant pump flywheel is considered to be an IOF component. Consequently there is a need for rigorous inspection during both manufacture and in service (ISI). The ISI requirement results in the need for an automated inspection. There is therefore a prerequisite to perform a Pre-Service Inspection (PSI) for baseline fingerprinting purposes. Furthermore there is a requirement that the inspection procedure, the inspection equipment and the operators are validated at the Inspection Validation Centre (IVC) of the AEA Technology laboratories at Risley. Development work is described. (author)

  14. Coasting characteristic of the flywheel system under anisotropy effect of bulk high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J. F.; Li, Y.

    2014-10-01

    High-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) array with aligned growth section boundary (GSB) pattern (AGSBP) exhibits larger levitation force and suppression of levitation force decay above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG) compared with misaligned GSB pattern (MGSBP) has been studied in maglev train application (Zheng et al., 2013). This result maybe helpful and support a new way for the HTS bearing design for flywheel systems. So, in this paper, we further examine this growth anisotropy effect on the maglev performance of flywheel system. Levitation force and coasting time were investigated from the point-view of HTS flywheel applications. The GS/GSB alignment of AGSBP bulk HTSCs produces larger levitation force than that of MGSBP, but the coasting time is shorter than that of MGSBP, that is to say, the electric magnetic drag force with AGSBP is larger than that of MGSBP. This result may also exist in the maglev guideline when the maglev train stops freely.

  15. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  16. Technical and economic practicability of novel flywheel mass storage systems in electricity supply networks; Technisch-wirtschaftliche Realisierbarkeit von neuartigen Schwungmassenspeicher-Systemen (SMSS) in elektrischen Netzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornemann, H J; Baeumer, U; Kaiser, A; Gruener, A; Gutt, H J; Hampel, R; Heyder, B; Kleimaier, M; Radtke, U; Sachse, H; Schlechter, V; Schrepfer, W; Worlitz, F

    1998-12-31

    Efficient storage of electrical energy is an increasing need. New developments in high-power electronics, high-strength materials and magnetic bearings have made efficient reliable flywheel mass storage systems in the range of 1-5 MfW/50-150 kWh conceivable. According to a first assessment, these systems may provide energy to the supply grid in a range of seconds and thus ensure frequency maintenance and compensation of short interruptions. The authors present first results of a preliminary study preparatory to a feasibility study on the technical and economic practicability of flywheel mass storage systems. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Thema effiziente Speicherung von elektrischer Energie gewinnt immer mehr an Bedeutung. Durch neuere Entwicklungen in der Leistungselektronik und bei der Herstellung hochfester Werkstoffe sowie durch Fortschritte bei der Entwicklung von beruehrungsfreien Lagern im Bereich der aktiven Magnetlager (AML) und insbesondere supraleitenden Magnetlager (SML) sind effiziente und sichere Schwungmassenspeicher-Systeme (SMSS) bis in die Bereiche 1-5 MW/50-150 kWh denkbar. Nach einer ersten Einschaetzung eignen sich solche Anlagen, um im Sekundenbereich Energie in das Netz abzugeben und somit zur Frequenzstuetzung und zur Kompensation von Kurzunterbrechungen beizutragen. Praesentiert werden erste Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung zur Vorbereitung einer Machbarkeitsstudie ueber die technisch-wirtschaftliche Realisierbarkeit von Schwungmassenspeicher-Systemen. (orig.)

  17. Flywheel for a 167 MVA surge power motor-generator set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, H.

    1975-01-01

    Flywheels to be subjected to major speed fluctuations are designed on the basis of both the usual strength analysis and fracture mechanics considerations, and the testing and operating instructions have to allow for this. Appropriate test units are used to determine the fracture toughness of the material. Residual stresses are measured and extensive ultrasonic and magnetic particle tests performed to enable the permissible number of stress cycles to be predicted. The article deals with these problems by reference to the flywheel of a 167 MVA surge power motor-generator set for the Max Planck Insitute for Plasma Physics in Garching. (orig.) [de

  18. Magnetically suspended railway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, C

    1977-07-28

    The invention concerns the emergency support of a magnetically suspended railway. On failure of the magnetic suspension/tracking system, the vehicles touch down on the rail configuration by means of emergency gliding elements like sliding shoes, skids, or the like. In doing this, the touch-down shock of the emergency gliding elements has to be limited to a force maximum as small as possible. According to the invention a spring-attenuator combination is used for this purpose, the spring characteristic being linear while the attenuator has a square-law characteristic for the compressing and a linear characteristic for the yielding motion. The force maximum thus achieved is exactly half the size of the physically smallest possible force maximum for an emergency gliding element springed without damping.

  19. Coasting characteristic of the flywheel system under anisotropy effect of bulk high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.F.; Li, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Coasting time was investigated from the point-view of HTS flywheel applications. • The coasting time of aligned growth section boundary pattern (AGSBP) is shorter than that of MGSBP. • The electric magnetic drag force with AGSBP is larger than that of MGSBP. • This result may also exist in the maglev guideline when the maglev train stops freely. - Abstract: High-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) array with aligned growth section boundary (GSB) pattern (AGSBP) exhibits larger levitation force and suppression of levitation force decay above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG) compared with misaligned GSB pattern (MGSBP) has been studied in maglev train application (Zheng et al., 2013). This result maybe helpful and support a new way for the HTS bearing design for flywheel systems. So, in this paper, we further examine this growth anisotropy effect on the maglev performance of flywheel system. Levitation force and coasting time were investigated from the point-view of HTS flywheel applications. The GS/GSB alignment of AGSBP bulk HTSCs produces larger levitation force than that of MGSBP, but the coasting time is shorter than that of MGSBP, that is to say, the electric magnetic drag force with AGSBP is larger than that of MGSBP. This result may also exist in the maglev guideline when the maglev train stops freely

  20. Battery Recharging Issue for a Two-Power-Level Flywheel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel battery recharging system for an all-electric driveline comprising a flywheel with a permanent magnet double wound synchronous machine (motor/generator is presented. The double winding enables two voltage levels and two different power levels. This topology supersedes other all-electric drivelines. The battery operates in a low-power regime supplying the average power whereas the flywheel delivers and absorbs power peaks, which are up to a higher order of magnitude. The topology presents new challenges for the power conversion system, which is the focus of this investigation. The main challenge is the control of the power flow to the battery when the vehicle is parked despite the decay of the flywheel machine voltage; which is dependent on its charge state, that is, rotational speed. The design and simulation of an unidirectional DC/DC buck/boost converter for a variable rotational speed flywheel is presented. Conventional power electronic converters are used in a new application, which can maintain a constant current or voltage on the battery side. Successful PI current control has been implemented and simulated, together with the complete closed loop system.

  1. Coasting characteristic of the flywheel system under anisotropy effect of bulk high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.F., E-mail: wujf@ciomp.ac.cn; Li, Y.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Coasting time was investigated from the point-view of HTS flywheel applications. • The coasting time of aligned growth section boundary pattern (AGSBP) is shorter than that of MGSBP. • The electric magnetic drag force with AGSBP is larger than that of MGSBP. • This result may also exist in the maglev guideline when the maglev train stops freely. - Abstract: High-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) array with aligned growth section boundary (GSB) pattern (AGSBP) exhibits larger levitation force and suppression of levitation force decay above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG) compared with misaligned GSB pattern (MGSBP) has been studied in maglev train application (Zheng et al., 2013). This result maybe helpful and support a new way for the HTS bearing design for flywheel systems. So, in this paper, we further examine this growth anisotropy effect on the maglev performance of flywheel system. Levitation force and coasting time were investigated from the point-view of HTS flywheel applications. The GS/GSB alignment of AGSBP bulk HTSCs produces larger levitation force than that of MGSBP, but the coasting time is shorter than that of MGSBP, that is to say, the electric magnetic drag force with AGSBP is larger than that of MGSBP. This result may also exist in the maglev guideline when the maglev train stops freely.

  2. Deformation and Life Analysis of Composite Flywheel Disk and Multi-disk Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S. M.; Saleeb, A. F.; AlZoubi, N. R.

    2001-01-01

    In this study an attempt is made to put into perspective the problem of a rotating disk, be it a single disk or a number of concentric disks forming a unit. An analytical model capable of performing an elastic stress analysis for single/multiple, annular/solid, anisotropic/isotropic disk systems, subjected to both pressure surface tractions, body forces (in the form of temperature-changes and rotation fields) and interfacial misfits is derived and discussed. Results of an extensive parametric study are presented to clearly define the key design variables and their associated influence. In general the important parameters were identified as misfit, mean radius, thickness, material property and/or load gradation, and speed; all of which must be simultaneously optimized to achieve the "best" and most reliable design. Also, the important issue of defining proper performance/merit indices (based on the specific stored energy), in the presence of multiaxiality and material anisotropy is addressed. These merit indices are then utilized to discuss the difference between flywheels made from PMC and TMC materials with either an annular or solid geometry. Finally two major aspects of failure analysis, that is the static and cyclic limit (burst) speeds are addressed. In the case of static limit loads, upper, lower, and out-of-plane bounds for disks with constant thickness are presented for both the case of internal pressure loading (as one would see in a hydroburst test) and pure rotation (as in the case of a free spinning disk). The results (interaction diagrams) are displayed graphically in designer friendly format. For the case of fatigue, a representative fatigue/life master curve is illustrated in which the normalized limit speed versus number of applied cycles is given for a cladded TMC disk application.

  3. Wind-energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  4. Experimental Performance Evaluation of a High Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and Drive for a Flywheel Application at Different Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagorny, Aleksandr S.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Kankam, M. David

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental performance characterization study of a high speed, permanent magnet motor/generator (M/G) and drive applied to a flywheel module. Unlike the conventional electric machine the flywheel M/G is not a separated unit; its stator and rotor are integrated into a flywheel assembly. The M/G rotor is mounted on a flywheel rotor, which is magnetically levitated and sealed within a vacuum chamber during the operation. Thus, it is not possible to test the M/G using direct load measurements with a dynamometer and torque transducer. Accordingly, a new in-situ testing method had to be developed. The paper describes a new flywheel M/G and drive performance evaluation technique, which allows the estimation of the losses, efficiency and power quality of the flywheel high speed permanent magnet M/G, while working in vacuum, over wide frequency and torque ranges. This method does not require any hardware modification nor any special addition to the test rig. This new measurement technique is useful for high-speed applications, when applying an external load is technically difficult.

  5. Elemental compositions of suspended particles released in glass manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamuro, T; Mizohata, A; Kubota, T [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)

    1980-03-01

    Suspended particles released in glass manufacture were subjected to multielement analysis by means of instrumental neutron activation method and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Suspended particles emitted from glass manufacture generally consist of both particles emitted from glass fusion and those produced through fuel combustion (mainly oil combustion). Elemental compositions of suspended particles emitted from glass fusion were found to be strongly dependent on the kind and recipe of raw materials and additives. Of the various metallic elements involved in suspended particles emitted from glass fusion, the elements, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Pb and so on are regarded to produce the most serious air pollution. The amount of emission of these elements to the environment is, howerer, quite varied from manufacturer to manufacturer. The replacement of electric furnace by oil combustion in opal glass manufacture remarkably reduced the emission of metallic elements to the environment.

  6. GyroVR: Simulating Inertia in Virtual Reality using Head Worn Flywheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gugenheimer, Jan; Wolf, Dennis; Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar

    2016-01-01

    We present GyroVR, head worn flywheels designed to render inertia in Virtual Reality (VR. Motions such as flying, diving or floating in outer space generate kinesthetic forces onto our body which impede movement and are currently not represented in VR. We simulate those kinesthetic forces...... by attaching flywheels to the users head, leveraging the gyroscopic effect of resistance when changing the spinning axis of rotation. GyroVR is an ungrounded, wireless and self contained device allowing the user to freely move inside the virtual environment. The generic shape allows to attach it to different...... positions on the users body. We evaluated the impact of GyroVR onto different mounting positions on the head (back and front) in terms of immersion, enjoyment and simulator sickness. Our results show, that attaching GyroVR onto the users head (front of the Head Mounted Display (HMD)) resulted in the highest...

  7. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  8. Suspending Zeolite Particles In Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is in the process of removing waste (sludge and salt cake) from million gallon waste tanks. The current practice for removing waste from the tanks is adding water, agitating the tanks with long shaft vertical centrifugal pumps, and pumping the sludge/salt solution from the tank to downstream treatment processes. This practice has left sludge heels (tilde 30,000 gallons) in the bottom of the tanks. SRS is evaluating shrouded axial impeller mixers for removing the sludge heels in the waste tanks. The authors conducted a test program to determine mixer requirements for suspending sludge heels using the shrouded axial impeller mixers. The tests were performed with zeolite in scaled tanks which have diameters of 1.5, 6.0, and 18.75 feet. The mixer speeds required to suspend zeolite particles were measured at each scale. The data were analyzed with various scaling methods to compare their ability to describe the suspension of insoluble solids with the mixers and to apply the data to a full-scale waste tank. The impact of changes in particle properties and operating parameters was also evaluated. The conclusions of the work are: Scaling of the suspension of fast settling zeolite particles was best described by the constant power per unit volume method. Increasing the zeolite particle concentration increased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Decreasing the zeolite particle size from 0.7 mm 0.3 mm decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Increasing the number of mixers in the tank decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. A velocity of 1.6 ft/sec two inches above the tank bottom is needed to suspend zeolite particles

  9. Skating crossovers on a motorized flywheel: a preliminary experimental design to test effect on speed and on crossovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aynsley M; Krause, David A; Stuart, Michael J; Montelpare, William J; Sorenson, Matthew C; Link, Andrew A; Gaz, Daniel V; Twardowski, Casey P; Larson, Dirk R; Stuart, Michael B

    2013-12-01

    Ice hockey requires frequent skater crossovers to execute turns. Our investigation aimed to determine the effectiveness of training crossovers on a motorized, polyethylene high-resistance flywheel. We hypothesized that high school hockey players training on the flywheel would perform as well as their peers training on ice. Participants were 23 male high-school hockey players (age 15-19 years). The study used an experimental prospective design to compare players who trained for 9 sessions on the 22-foot flywheel with players who trained for 9 sessions on a similarly sized on-ice circle. Both groups were compared with control subjects who were randomly selected from the same participant pool as those training on ice. All players were tested before and after their 3-week training regimens, and control subjects were asked to not practice crossovers between testing. Group 1 trained in a hockey training facility housing the flywheel, and group 2 trained in the ice hockey arena where testing occurred. Primary outcome measures tested in both directions were: (a) speed (time in seconds) required to skate crossovers for 3 laps of a marked face-off circle, (b) cadence of skating crossovers on the similarly sized circles, and (c) a repeat interval speed test, which measures anaerobic power. No significant changes were found between groups in on-ice testing before and after training. Among the group 1 players, 7 of 8 believed they benefited from flywheel training. Group 2 players, who trained on ice, did not improve performance significantly over group 1 players. Despite the fact that no significant on-ice changes in performance were observed in objective measures, players who trained on the flywheel subjectively reported that the flywheel is an effective cost-effective alternative to training on ice. This is a relevant finding when placed in context with limited availability of on-ice training.

  10. Research and development of a superconducting flywheel power storage system in fiscal 1998. Research and development of rotation control technology; 1998 nendo koon chodendo flywheel denryoku chozo kenkyu kaihatsu. Kaiten seigyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Element technology research was performed on 'rotation control' aimed at practical application of a 10-MW class high-temperature superconducting flywheel power storage system. As part of the research, researches were carried out on small-size and middle-size models, low-loss control type magnetic bearing, and large-size models. For the small-size model, as a result of performing performance tests on the protective bearing by using a testing machine, it was revealed that the model is free of problems in the test for up to 5000 rpm. For the middle-size model, fabrication and installation were completed on a middle-size rotation control testing equipment having CFRP-made flywheel with a diameter of 1 m. In the control type bearing, as a result of adopting a homo-polar type magnetic pole, the rotation loss was reduced to about 1/5 of that of a hetero-polar type. The amount is about 75 W (12000 rpm) when the bias current is 1.5 A. Concept design was implemented on a 2-MWh flywheel bearing system supported with a high-temperature superconducting magnetic bearing as a full-size flywheel. The CFRP-made flywheel has a diameter of 4 m, and a circumferential velocity of 1200 m. (NEDO)

  11. Rotational loss of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by high T{sub c} superconducting levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, Hidekazu [Nippon Steel Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Advanced Materials and Technology Research Labs.; Tawara, Taichi; Shimada, Ryuichi

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the experimental results for the rotational loss of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by high T{sub c} superconducting levitation. Superconducting levitation is appropriate for rotating a ring-shaped flywheel which has neither shaft nor hub because it is a non-contact and automatically stable levitation without any control systems. The rotational loss has been investigated using a small-scaled experimental machine consisting of 16 bulk superconductors 46 mm in diameter and a ring-shaped flywheel about 300 mm in diameter. The rotational loss decreased as the levitation gap height increased. In low-speed rotational regions, the rotational loss was in proportion to the rotation speed and depended more on the levitation gap. In high-speed rotational regions, the rotational loss was in proportion to the third power of the rotation speed and depended less on the levitation gap. The cubic rotational loss in He was reduced to one-fifth of that in air. The magnetic field pinned in bulk superconductors induces a loss in the materials composing the ring-shaped flywheel. The rotational loss of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by superconducting levitation can be reduced by improving the uniformity of the magnetic fields along the ring, enlargement of the bulk superconductor(s), and densely arranging the bulk superconductors. (author)

  12. А mathematical model study of suspended monorail

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor GUTAREVYCH

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical model of suspended monorail track with allowance for elastic strain which occurs during movement of the monorail carriage was developed. Standard forms for single span and double span of suspended monorail sections were established.

  13. А mathematical model study of suspended monorail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor GUTAREVYCH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of suspended monorail track with allowance for elastic strain which occurs during movement of the monorail carriage was developed. Standard forms for single span and double span of suspended monorail sections were established.

  14. Progress in electrical energy storage system:A critical review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haisheng Chen; Thang Ngoc Cong; Wei Yang; Chunqing Tan; Yongliang Li; Yulong Ding

    2009-01-01

    Electrical energy storage technologies for stationary applications are reviewed.Particular attention is paid to pumped hydroelectric storage,compressed air energy storage,battery,flow battery,fuel cell,solar fuel,superconducting magnetic energy storage, flywheel, capacitor/supercapacitor,and thermal energy torage.Comparison is made among these technologies in terms of technical characteris-tics,applications and deployment status.

  15. Magnetic suspension and flywheels: Spaceborne and terrestrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poubeau, P C

    1981-01-01

    Satellite attitude control, using inertia wheels, is discussed. Elimination of friction effects through application of magnetic bearings is considered. The inertia wheel/magnetic bearing configuration can also be used to store kinetic energy. Higher rotational velocities create a need for stronger rotor construction materials, improved mechanical properties can be achieved with composite materials. Kinetic energy storage for earthside applications (solar energy storage electric vehicles) is mentioned.

  16. Suspended Solids Profiler Shop Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Suspended Solids Profiler (SSP) Instrument is planned to be installed in the AZ-101 tank to measure suspended solids concentrations during mixer pump testing. The SSP sensor uses a reflectance measurement principle to determine the suspended solids concentrations. The purpose of this test is to provide a documented means of verifying that the functional components of the SSP operate properly

  17. The Text of a Protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Thailand and the United States of America Terminating the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Government of the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards and Terminating the Protocol Suspending that Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The text of a protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Thailand and the United States of America terminating the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Government of the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards and terminating the Protocol suspending that Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Protocol entered into force on 27 June 1974, pursuant to Section 6 thereof.

  18. Transient heat transfer analysis of superconducting magnetic levitating flywheel rotor operating in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochida, A.; Kudo, K.; Higasa, H.

    1999-07-01

    In the present study, transient temperature rise is analyzed in a flywheel type power storage system operated in vacuum environment. The flywheel rotor is levitated by high-temperature-superconducting magnetic bearing to reduce the bearing loss. Though the superconductor is cooled by liquid nitrogen, the temperature of the whole system rises due to Joule heating in the coils of the bearings and the motor during the operation. If the temperature should reach the critical temperature of the permanent magnet used for the magnetic bearings after long time operation, the magnetic bearings lose their effect. The heat generated in the levitated rotor diffuses within it by heat conduction and finally emitted to its surrounding solid materials by thermal radiation from the rotor surfaces across vacuum layer. Numerical simulation is carried out calculating the transient radiative-conductive heat transfer and time-dependent profiles of temperature within the rotor are obtained. The results are compared with the experimentally obtained temperatures by measured a test model of 1kWh power storage and the measured profiles of the temperature rise of the rotor fit very well with the calculated ones. Using this simulation tool, the effects of the surface emissivity of the materials of the rotor and the stator, the temperature of the surrounding casings and the thermal conductivity of the materials on the temperature profiles in the system are estimated.

  19. Suspended dust in Norwegian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    According to calculations, at least 80 000 people in Oslo and 8 000 in Trondheim were annoyed by too much suspended dust in 2000. The dust concentration is greatest in the spring, presumably because dust is swirling up from melting snow and ice on the streets. Car traffic is the main source of the dust, except for some of the most highly exposed regions where wood-firing from old stoves contributes up to 70 percent of the dust. National targets for air quality include suspended dust, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and benzene. Calculations show that nitrogen dioxide emissions exceeding the limit affected 4 000 people in Oslo and 1 000 people in Trondheim. The sulphur dioxide emissions in the major cities did non exceed the national quality limit; they did exceed the limit in some of the smaller industrial centres. In Trondheim, measurements show that the national limit for benzene was exceeded. Most of the emission of nitrogen dioxide comes from the road traffic. Local air pollution at times causes considerable health- and well-being problems in the larger cities and industrial centres, where a great part of the population may be at risk of early death, infection of the respiratory passage, heart- and lung diseases and cancer

  20. Viscous bursting of suspended films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrégeas, G.; Martin, P.; Brochard-Wyart, F.

    1995-11-01

    Soap films break up by an inertial process. We present here the first observations on freely suspended films of long-chain polymers, where viscous effects are dominant and no surfactant is present. A hole is nucleated at time 0 and grows up to a radius R(t) at time t. A surprising feature is that the liquid from the hole is not collected into a rim (as it is in soap films): The liquid spreads out without any significant change of the film thickness. The radius R(t) grows exponentially with time, R~exp(t/τ) [while in soap films R(t) is linear]. The rise time τ~ηe/2γ where η is viscosity, e is thickness (in the micron range), and γ is surface tension. A simple model is developed to explain this growth law.

  1. Effects of Traditional Versus Horizontal Inertial Flywheel Power Training on Common Sport-Related Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Hoyo Moisés

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effects of power training using traditional vertical resistance exercises versus direction specific horizontal inertial flywheel training on performance in common sport-related tasks. Twenty-three healthy and physically active males (age: 22.29 ± 2.45 years volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were allocated into either the traditional training (TT group where the half squat exercise on a smith machine was applied or the horizontal flywheel training (HFT group performing the front step exercise with an inertial flywheel. Training volume and intensity were matched between groups by repetitions (5-8 sets with 8 repetitions and relative intensity (the load that maximized power (Pmax over the period of six weeks. Speed (10 m and 20 m, countermovement jump height (CMJH, 20 m change of direction ability (COD and strength during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC were assessed before and after the training program. The differences between groups and by time were assessed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by paired t-tests. A significant group by time interaction (p=0.004 was found in the TT group demonstrating a significantly higher CMJH. Within-group analysis revealed statistically significant improvements in a 10 m sprint (TT: −0.17 0.27 s vs. HFT: −0.11 0.10 s, CMJH (TT: 4.92 2.58 cm vs. HFT: 1.55 2.44 cm and MVIC (TT: 62.87 79.71 N vs. HFT: 106.56 121.63 N in both groups (p < 0.05. However, significant differences only occurred in the 20 m sprint time in the TT group (−0.04 0.12 s; p = 0.04. In conclusion, the results suggest that TT at the maximal peak power load is more effective than HFT for counter movement jump height while both TT and HFT elicited significant improvements in 10 m sprint performance while only TT significantly improved 20 m sprint performance.

  2. Research and development in fiscal 2000 on element technologies for superconducting for electric power storage by using flywheels; 2000 nendo flywheel denryoku chozoyo chodendo jikuuke gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    With an objective to put flywheel electric power storage system into practical use, developmental research has been made on superconducting bearings that can support a rotating body having large load and rotating at high speed. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In the study of enhancing the loading force for developing the element technologies for the superconducting bearings, specifications were established and fabrication was performed on the Y-based superconducting bulk for bearings, whereas the healthiness thereof was verified by measuring the trapped magnetic field distribution. This bulk was applied with vacuum impregnation treatment of an epoxy-based resin, to have fabricated a superconducting bearing model with a diameter of 180 mm class. Regarding the RE-based superconducting bulk, studies were carried out on a synthesizing method including optimization of the fabricating conditions, a columnar Sm-based bulk body with a diameter of 60 mm was fabricated, and its healthiness was verified. In the research of a rotation loss reducing technology, discussions were given on optimizing the magnetic circuitry to reduce the magnetic variation, by using the three-dimensional magnetic field simulation. In the evaluation test utilizing the existing test machine, the loading force of a 180-mm class-bearing model has shown 2105N at maximum. (NEDO)

  3. Intermodal resonance of vibrating suspended cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    The weakly nonlinear free vibrations of a single suspended cable, or a coupled system of suspended cables, may be classified as gravity modes (no tension variations to leading order) and elasto-gravity modes (tension and vertical displacement equally important). It was found earlier [12] that the

  4. Storage exploratory project. Energy program. Final report; Projet exploratoire Stockage. Programme Energie. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, Y. [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique de Grenoble, UMR 5529 INPG/UJF - CNRS, ENSIEG, 38 - Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Ozil, P. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces (LEPMI), ENSEEG, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Cheron, Y. [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique et d' Electronique Industrielle, CNRS, 31 - Toulouse (France); Multon, B. [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Information et des Systemes et Applications des Technologies de l' Information et de l' Energie (SATIE), 94 - Cachan (France); Carillo, S. [Centre Interuniversitaire de recherche et d' Ingenierie sur les Materiaux (CIRIMAT), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this exploratory project was the analysis of the most efficient possibilities of electric power storage. It was limited to the electrochemical storage, the lead batteries which behavior is not completely characterized, the flywheel energy storage and the development of simulation. This report presents the results of the works. (A.L.B.)

  5. An analysis of bedload and suspended load interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recking, alain; Navratil, Oldrich

    2013-04-01

    Several approaches were used to develop suspension equations. It includes semi-theoretical equations based on the convection diffusion equation (Einstein 1950; Van Rijn 1984; Camenen and Larson 2008; Julien 2010), semi-empirical tools based on energy concept (Velikanov 1954; Bagnold 1966), empirical adjustments (Prosser and Rusttomji 2000). One essential characteristic of all these equations is that most of them were developed by considering continuity between bedload and suspended load, and that the partitioning between these two modes of transport evolves progressively with increasing shear stress, which is the case for fine bed materials. The use of these equations is thus likely to be welcome in estuaries or lowland sandy rivers, but may be questionable in gravel-bed rivers and headwater streams where the bed is usually structured vertically and fine sediments potentially contributing to suspension are stored under a poorly mobile surface armour comprising coarse sediments. Thus one question this work aimed to answer is does the presence of an armour at the bed surface influence suspended load? This was investigated through a large field data set comprising instantaneous measurements of both bedload and suspension. We also considered the river characteristics, distinguishing between lowland rivers, gravel bed rivers and headwater streams. The results showed that a correlation exist between bedload and suspension for lowland and gravel bed rivers. This suggests that in gravel bed rivers a large part of the suspended load is fed by subsurface material, and depends on the remobilization of the surface material. No correlation was observed for head water streams where the sediment production is more likely related to hillslope processes. These results were used with a bedload transport equation for proposing a method for suspended load estimate. The method is rough, but especially for gravel bed rivers, it predicts suspended load reasonably well when compared to

  6. Electromechanical Storage Systems for Application to Isolated Wind Energy Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, F.; Cruz Cruz, I.

    1999-01-01

    Substantial technology advances have occurred during the last decade that have had and appreciated impact on performance and feasibility of the Electromechanical Storage Systems. Improvements in magnetic bearings, composite materials, power conversion systems, microelectronic control systems and computer simulation models have increased flywheel reliability, and energy storage capacity, while decreasing overall system size, weight and cost. These improvements have brought flywheels to the forefront in the quest for alternate systems. The result of the study carried out under the scope of the SEDUCTOR, about the state of art of the Electromechanical Storage Systems is presented in this report. (Author) 15 refs

  7. Characterization and morphology of solids suspended in rain water; Caracterizacion y morfologia de solidos suspendidos en agua de lluvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work presents the results obtained from the analysis of rain water in Mexico. The study treats over the characterization and morphology of the solids suspended in form of particles in the atmosphere. The solids suspended were obtained of the pluvial precipitations after these have been centrifuged. Subsequently of the separation, the particulate matter was analysed by Sem and X-ray dispersive energy.

  8. Bearing design for flywheel energy storage using high-TC superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Mulcahy, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    A high temperature superconductor material bearing system (38) This system (38) includes a rotor (50) having a ring permanent magnet (60), a plurality of permanent magnets (16, 20 and 70) for interacting to generate levitation forces for the system (38). This group of magnets are a push/pull bearing (75). A high temperature superconductor structure (30) interacts with the ting permanent magnet (60) to provide stabilizing forces for the system (38).

  9. Modeling and Control of Flexible HEV Charging Station upgraded with Flywheel Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Shafiee, Qobad; Wu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a fast DC charging station (FCS) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) that is connected at a remote location. Power rating of this new technology can go up to a hundred kW and it represents a main challenge for its broad acceptance in distribution systems...

  10. Superconducting Magnetic Bearings for Space-Based Flywheel Energy Storage Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Balcones Technologies, LLC proposes to adapt technologies developed by and resident in The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics (CEM) in the...

  11. Control of Flywheel Energy Storage Systems in Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Growing environmental awareness and strong political impetus have resulted in plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) becoming ever more attractive means of transportation. They are expected to have a significant impact to the overall loading of future distribution networks. Thus, current distribution grids need to be updated in order to accommodate PEV fleets, which are recognized in smart grid (SG) objective. The prevailing concern in that sense is the combined impact of a large number of randomly ...

  12. Hopf bifurcations, Lyapunov exponents and control of chaos for a class of centrifugal flywheel governor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiangang; Li Xianfeng; Chu Yandong; Yu Jianning; Chang Yingxiang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, complex dynamical behavior of a class of centrifugal flywheel governor system is studied. These systems have a rich variety of nonlinear behavior, which are investigated here by numerically integrating the Lagrangian equations of motion. A tiny change in parameters can lead to an enormous difference in the long-term behavior of the system. Bubbles of periodic orbits may also occur within the bifurcation sequence. Hyperchaotic behavior is also observed in cases where two of the Lyapunov exponents are positive, one is zero, and one is negative. The routes to chaos are analyzed using Poincare maps, which are found to be more complicated than those of nonlinear rotational machines. Periodic and chaotic motions can be clearly distinguished by all of the analytical tools applied here, namely Poincare sections, bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents, and Lyapunov dimensions. This paper proposes a parametric open-plus-closed-loop approach to controlling chaos, which is capable of switching from chaotic motion to any desired periodic orbit. The theoretical work and numerical simulations of this paper can be extended to other systems. Finally, the results of this paper are of practical utility to designers of rotational machines.

  13. High Tc superconducting energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werfel, Frank [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Electric energy is basic to heat and light our homes, to power our businesses and to transport people and goods. Powerful storage techniques like SMES, Flywheel, Super Capacitor, and Redox - Flow batteries are needed to increase the overall efficiency, stability and quality of electrical grids. High-Tc superconductors (HTS) possess superior physical and technical properties and can contribute in reducing the dissipation and losses in electric machines as motors and generators, in electric grids and transportation. The renewable energy sources as solar, wind energy and biomass will require energy storage systems even more as a key technology. We survey the physics and the technology status of superconducting flywheel energy storage (FESS) and magnetic energy storage systems (SMES) for their potential of large-scale commercialization. We report about a 10 kWh / 250 kW flywheel with magnetic stabilization of the rotor. The progress of HTS conductor science and technological engineering are basic for larger SMES developments. The performance of superconducting storage systems is reviewed and compared. We conclude that a broad range of intensive research and development in energy storage is urgently needed to produce technological options that can allow both climate stabilization and economic development.

  14. Electric Machine Topologies in Energy Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, Juan De; Oliveira, Janaina Goncalves de

    2010-01-01

    Energy storage development is essential if intermittent renewable energy generation is to increase. Pumped hydro, CAES and flywheels are environmentally friendly and economical storage alternatives that required electric motor/generators. The popularization of power electronics is relatively new and therefore the technology is still under development. There is not a clear winner when comparing technologies and therefore the optimal alternative depends on the specific requirements of the appli...

  15. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  16. Concentration of elements in suspended matter discharges to Lerma River, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila-Perez, P.; Tejeda, S.; Carapia, L.; Barcelo-Quintal, I.; Martinez, T.

    2011-01-01

    The S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb concentration and the elemental composition of particles in suspended matter from principal discharges to Lerma River, have been evaluated. The elemental concentration in suspended matter has been obtained by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. The elemental composition of particles has been obtained by means of Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS). The results show that K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe are mainly from natural origin in the Upper Course of the Lerma River (UCLR), where the principal contributions probably come from dragging of soils and sediments in the rainy season and Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb are mainly from anthropogenic origin where the principal contributions come from urban and industrial untreated discharge. The application of Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry plus Scanning Electron Microscopy is useful in the characterization of suspended matter in natural, anthropogenic and mixed water discharges. (author)

  17. Resonant tunnelling features in a suspended silicon nanowire single-hole transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llobet, Jordi; Pérez-Murano, Francesc, E-mail: francesc.perez@csic.es, E-mail: z.durrani@imperial.ac.uk [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Krali, Emiljana; Wang, Chen; Jones, Mervyn E.; Durrani, Zahid A. K., E-mail: francesc.perez@csic.es, E-mail: z.durrani@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Arbiol, Jordi [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) and Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); CELLS-ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility, 08290 Cerdanyola, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-11-30

    Suspended silicon nanowires have significant potential for a broad spectrum of device applications. A suspended p-type Si nanowire incorporating Si nanocrystal quantum dots has been used to form a single-hole transistor. Transistor fabrication uses a novel and rapid process, based on focused gallium ion beam exposure and anisotropic wet etching, generating <10 nm nanocrystals inside suspended Si nanowires. Electrical characteristics at 10 K show Coulomb diamonds with charging energy ∼27 meV, associated with a single dominant nanocrystal. Resonant tunnelling features with energy spacing ∼10 meV are observed, parallel to both diamond edges. These may be associated either with excited states or hole–acoustic phonon interactions, in the nanocrystal. In the latter case, the energy spacing corresponds well with reported Raman spectroscopy results and phonon spectra calculations.

  18. Resonant tunnelling features in a suspended silicon nanowire single-hole transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llobet, Jordi; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; Krali, Emiljana; Wang, Chen; Jones, Mervyn E.; Durrani, Zahid A. K.; Arbiol, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Suspended silicon nanowires have significant potential for a broad spectrum of device applications. A suspended p-type Si nanowire incorporating Si nanocrystal quantum dots has been used to form a single-hole transistor. Transistor fabrication uses a novel and rapid process, based on focused gallium ion beam exposure and anisotropic wet etching, generating <10 nm nanocrystals inside suspended Si nanowires. Electrical characteristics at 10 K show Coulomb diamonds with charging energy ∼27 meV, associated with a single dominant nanocrystal. Resonant tunnelling features with energy spacing ∼10 meV are observed, parallel to both diamond edges. These may be associated either with excited states or hole–acoustic phonon interactions, in the nanocrystal. In the latter case, the energy spacing corresponds well with reported Raman spectroscopy results and phonon spectra calculations

  19. Increased fuel economy in transportation systems by use of energy management. Third year's program. Final report, May 1, 1976--July 1, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beachley, N.H.; Frank, A.A.

    1976-07-01

    A report is given of the results accomplished during the third year of a three-year research program, the overall goal of which has been to conceive and evaluate practical ways to increase automobile fuel economy by energy management within the engine-transmission-vehicle system. The third year was devoted primarily to the detailed design, construction, and preliminary evaluation of a Flywheel Energy Management Powerplant (FEMP) installed in a Pinto. The vehicle has been built to experimentally verify performance simulations and to allow the practical aspects of a real flywheel vehicle to be studied. The FEMP consists basically of an internal combustion engine, a high-speed energy-storage flywheel, and a hydrostatic power-split continuously-variable transmission (CVT) system. The flywheel drives the car, and the engine comes on to ''recharge'' it (with efficient wide-open throttle operation) only when the flywheel speed drops below a predetermined value. The concept also permits effective and efficient regenerative braking. Computer simulations have indicated an improvement in city fuel mileage of about 50%, with improvements of 100% appearing feasible with further research. Preliminary testing of the car shows favorable performance.

  20. DTU International Energy Report 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to make this possible. This energy report addresses energy storage from a broad perspective: It analyses smaller stores that can be used locally in for example heat storage in the individual home or vehicle, such as electric cars or hydrogen cars. The report also addresses decentralized storage...... as flywheels and batteries linked to decentralized energy systems. In addition it addresses large central storages as pumped hydro storage and compressed air energy storage and analyse this in connection with international transmission and trading over long distances. The report addresses electrical storage...

  1. Nuclear reactor with a suspended vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemercier, Guy.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a nuclear reactor with a suspended vessel and applies in particular when this is a fast reactor, the core or active part of the reactor being inside the vessel and immersed under a suitable volume of flowing liquid metal to cool it by extracting the calories released by the nuclear fission in the fuel assemblies forming this core [fr

  2. Bed-levelling experiments with suspended load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; De Graaff, J.

    1991-01-01

    Bed-levelling experiments are conducted in a straight laboratory channel. The experiments involve a significant fraction of suspended sediment transport. The purpose of the experiments is to provide data for modelling of the direction of sediment transport on a transverse sloping alluvial river bed,

  3. The Shape of Breasts Suspended in Liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kleijn, S.C.; Rensen, W.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Philips has designed an optical mammography machine. In this machine the breast is suspended into a cup in which the measurements take place. A special fluid is inserted into the cup to prevent the light from going around the breast instead of going through it but this fluid also weakens the signal.

  4. (suspended solids and metals) removal efficiencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Presented in this paper are the results of correlational analyses and logistic regression between metal substances (Cd, Cu,. Pb, Zn), as well as suspended solids removal, and physical pond parameters of 19 stormwater retention pond case studies obtained from the International Stormwater BMP database.

  5. Letter of professional groups. Energies and fuel cells; La lettre des Groupe Professionnels, energies et piles a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, M. [Supelec, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Serre Combe, P. [CEA Grenoble, 38 (France); Sartorelli, G. [Maxwell Technologie, San Diego, CA (United States); Lafont, G. [PILLER France S.A., 92 - Nanterre (France); Green, A. [SAFT, 93170 Bagnolet (France); Perrin, M. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Fregere, J.P.

    2004-07-01

    These proceedings of the 'Arts et Metiers' professional groups treats of energy storage solutions for delocalized power generation units. Four types of energy storage systems are presented with their operation principle, advantages and drawbacks: fuel cells and hydrogen, super-capacitors, flywheels, conventional batteries (lithium-ion, lead, redox, nickel-cadmium, zinc-air), and comparison between the different energy storage solutions including compressed air. (J.S.)

  6. Muscle, functional and cognitive adaptations after flywheel resistance training in stroke patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sol; Turon, Marc; Prieto, Cristina; Tesch, Per A; García-Carreira, Maria del Carmen

    2016-04-06

    Resistance exercise (RE) improves neuromuscular function and physical performance after stroke. Yet, the effects of RE emphasizing eccentric (ECC; lengthening) actions on muscle hypertrophy and cognitive function in stroke patients are currently unknown. Thus, this study explored the effects of ECC-overload RE training on skeletal muscle size and function, and cognitive performance in individuals with stroke. Thirty-two individuals with chronic stroke (≥6 months post-stroke) were randomly assigned into a training group (TG; n = 16) performing ECC-overload flywheel RE of the more-affected lower limb (12 weeks, 2 times/week; 4 sets of 7 maximal closed-chain knee extensions; trained (48.2 %), and the less-affected, untrained limb (28.1 %) increased after training. TG showed enhanced balance (8.9 %), gait performance (10.6 %), dual-task performance, executive functions (working memory, verbal fluency tasks), attention, and speed of information processing. CG showed no changes. ECC-overload flywheel resistance exercise comprising 4 min of contractile activity per week offers a powerful aid to regain muscle mass and function, and functional performance in individuals with stroke. While the current intervention improved cognitive functions, the cause-effect relationship, if any, with the concomitant neuromuscular adaptations remains to be explored. Clinical Trials NCT02120846.

  7. Performance enhanced design of chaos controller for the mechanical centrifugal flywheel governor system via adaptive dynamic surface control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Luo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses chaos suppression of the mechanical centrifugal flywheel governor system with output constraint and fully unknown parameters via adaptive dynamic surface control. To have a certain understanding of chaotic nature of the mechanical centrifugal flywheel governor system and subsequently design its controller, the useful tools like the phase diagrams and corresponding time histories are employed. By using tangent barrier Lyapunov function, a dynamic surface control scheme with neural network and tracking differentiator is developed to transform chaos oscillation into regular motion and the output constraint rule is not broken in whole process. Plugging second-order tracking differentiator into chaos controller tackles the “explosion of complexity” of backstepping and improves the accuracy in contrast with the first-order filter. Meanwhile, Chebyshev neural network with adaptive law whose input only depends on a subset of Chebyshev polynomials is derived to learn the behavior of unknown dynamics. The boundedness of all signals of the closed-loop system is verified in stability analysis. Finally, the results of numerical simulations illustrate effectiveness and exhibit the superior performance of the proposed scheme by comparing with the existing ADSC method.

  8. Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter from Mediterranean Sea to Ocean - Design Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleri, Marco

    Optimization of the number of gyroscopes and flywheel rotational speed of a Wave Energy Converter able to produce 725 kW as the nominal power, in the chosen installation site, respecting some imposed constraints and some dimensions from the previous design, by minimizing the cost of the device and the bearing power losses, through the minimization of the LCOE of the device.

  9. The suspended sentence in French Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law has provided different criminal sanctions as measures of social control. These coercive measures are imposed on the criminal offender by the competent court and aimed at limitting the offender's rights and freedoms or depriving the offender of certain rights and freedoms. These sanctions are applied to the natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and injure or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values, criminal legislations in all countries predict a number of criminal sanctions. These are: 1 imprisonment, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juveniles, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Apart and instead of punishment, warning measures have a significant role in the jurisprudence. Since they emerged in the early 20th century in the system of criminal sanctions, there has been an increase in their application to criminal offenders, especially when it comes to first-time offenders who committed a negligent or accidental criminal act. Warnings are applied in case of crimes that do not have serious consequences, and whose perpetrators are not hardened and incorrigible criminals. All contemporary criminal legislations (including the French legilation provide a warning measure of suspended sentence. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person does not commit another criminal offense and fulfills other obligations. This sanction applies if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a forma! -which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b material -which is the court assessment that the application of this sanction is justified and necessary in a particular case. In many modern criminal legislations, there are two different types of suspended (conditional sentence: 1 ordinary (classical suspended

  10. Heat Transfer Correlations for Free Convection from Suspended Microheaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David GOSSELIN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Portability and autonomy for biomedical diagnostic devices are two rising requirements. It is recognized that low-energy heating of such portable devices is of utmost importance for molecular recognition. This work focuses on screen-printed microheaters based on on Joule effect, which constitute an interesting solution for low-energy heating. An experimental study of the natural convection phenomena occurring with such microheaters is conducted. When they are suspended in the air, and because of the thinness of the supporting film, it is shown that the contributions of both the upward and downward faces have to be taken into account. A total Nusselt number and a total convective heat transfer coefficient have been used to describe the natural convection around these microheaters. In addition a relation between the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number is derived, leading to an accurate prediction of the heating temperature (MRE< 2 %.

  11. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.21 Suspended particulates/turbidity. (a) Suspended particulates in the aquatic ecosystem consist of fine-grained mineral particles..., and man's activities including dredging and filling. Particulates may remain suspended in the water...

  12. A masonry heater, a large thermal flywheel and constant temperatures : the winter of 1996/1997 of the Alberta Sustainable Home/Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowski, J.; Fofonoff, B.

    1997-07-01

    A masonry heater using scrapwood and firewood as the only source of back-up heat in this 1820 sq ft single-family live-in demonstration home/office, was described. The heater also contributed significantly to the thermal flywheel of the house. Together with other forms of thermal mass within the building (concrete slab, wood studs, drywall, tiles, furniture, plants, etc), the masonry heater was sufficient to see the occupants through the severe and long winter of 1996/97 with comfortable indoor temperatures. The masonry heater is located near the center of the house with a sunny view towards the south. On sunny winter days it operates as a passive solar heat sink, with the sun charging up the brick face by about five degrees C. In the evening, a 40 pound load of scrap and firewood will take about 1.25 hours to penetrate through the refractory interior core and brick exterior. This provides a cosy fireplace for the occupants, while storing heat in its mass for slow release during the next 1.5 to 3 days. It heats water for storage in the hot water tank. During the period of September 1996 to May 1997 one cord of wood was burned, which is about 12 per cent of the energy pumped into the average single family home in Calgary during the same period. Experience to-date suggests that the masonry heater performs very well as a back-up heater, maintaining an ambient temperature of about 20 degrees C throughout the winter. Some flat plate solar collectors might be necessary to provide for radiant floor heating of the mass since floor temperatures were lower than most occupants found comfortable.

  13. Swing damped movement of suspended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.F.; Petterson, B.J.; Werner, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Transportation of large objects such as nuclear waste shipping casks using overhead cranes can induce pendular motion of the object. Residual oscillation from transportation typically must be damped or allowed to decay before the next process can take place. By properly programming the acceleration of the transporting device (e.g., crane) an oscillation damped transport and swing free stop are obtainable. This report reviews the theory associated with formulating such oscillation damped trajectories for a simply suspended object (e.g., simple pendulum). In addition, the use of force servo damping to eliminate initial oscillation of simply suspended objects is discussed. This is often needed to provide a well defined initial state for the system prior to executing an oscillation damped move. Also included are descriptions of experiments using a CIMCORP XR6100 gantry robot and results from these experiments. Finally, sources of error resulting in small residual oscillations are identified and possible solutions presented

  14. Molybdenum-rhenium superconducting suspended nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Mohsin; Christopher Hudson, David; Russo, Saverio [Centre for Graphene Science, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-09

    Suspended superconducting nanostructures of MoRe 50%/50% by weight are fabricated employing commonly used fabrication steps in micro- and nano-meter scale devices followed by wet-etching with Hydro-fluoric acid of a SiO{sub 2} sacrificial layer. Suspended superconducting channels as narrow as 50 nm and length 3 μm have a critical temperature of ≈6.5 K, which can increase by 0.5 K upon annealing at 400 °C. A detailed study of the dependence of the superconducting critical current and critical temperature upon annealing and in devices with different channel widths reveals that desorption of contaminants is responsible for the improved superconducting properties. These findings pave the way for the development of superconducting electromechanical devices using standard fabrication techniques.

  15. Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  16. Estuarine Suspended Sediment Dynamics: Observations Derived from over a Decade of Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Reisinger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment dynamics of Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, a shallow-water wind-driven estuary, were investigated by combining field and satellite measurements of total suspended solids (TSS. An algorithm was developed to transform 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Aqua satellite reflectance data into estimated TSS values. The algorithm was developed using a reflectance ratio regression of MODIS Band 1 (red and Band 3 (green with TSS measurements (n = 54 collected by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality for Corpus Christi Bay and other Texas estuaries. The algorithm was validated by independently collected TSS measurements during the period of 2011–2014 with an uncertainty estimate of 13%. The algorithm was applied to the period of 2002–2014 to create a synoptic time series of TSS for Corpus Christi Bay. Potential drivers of long-term variability in suspended sediment were investigated. Median and IQR composites of suspended sediments were generated for seasonal wind regimes. From this analysis it was determined that long-term, spatial patterns of suspended sediment in the estuary are related to wind-wave resuspension during the predominant northerly and prevalent southeasterly seasonal wind regimes. The impact of dredging is also apparent in long-term patterns of Corpus Christi Bay as concentrations of suspended sediments over dredge spoil disposal sites are higher and more variable than surrounding areas, which is most likely due to their less consolidated sediments and shallower depths requiring less wave energy for sediment resuspension. This study highlights the advantage of how long-synoptic time series of TSS can be used to elucidate the major drivers of suspended sediments in estuaries.

  17. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse

    2008-01-01

    This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. A newly designed remediation cell, where the solids were kept in suspension by airflow, was tested. The results show that electric current could remove copper from suspended tailings...... efficiency from 1% to 80% compared to experiments with no stirring but with the same operational conditions. This showed the crucial importance of having the solids in suspension and not settled during the remediation....

  18. Damping and scattering of electromagnetic waves by small ferrite spheres suspended in an insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Gerald W.

    1992-01-01

    The intentional degradation of electromagnetic waves by their penetration into a media comprised of somewhat sparsely distributed energy absorbing ferrite spheres suspended in an electrical insulator is investigated. Results are presented in terms of generalized parameters involving wave length and sphere size, sphere resistivity, permeability, and spacing; their influence on dissipation of wave power by eddy currents, magnetic hysteresis, and scattering is shown.

  19. Sedimentation of suspended solids in ultrasound field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikulina Vera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical effects of aquatic environment that occur in an ultrasonic field change the sedimentation rate of coagulated suspension. This might only happen in case of cavitation of ultrasonic filed that causes a change of potentials of the medium. Research of the influence of ultrasonic vibrations on coagulation of suspended solids within water purification allows expanding their scope of implementation. The objective of the research is to estimate the effect of ultrasound on the sedimentation of the suspended solids, to determine of the efficiency of the process in relation to the dose of the coagulant, and to calculate the numerical values of the constants in the theoretical equation. The experiment condition was held in the water with the clay substances before the introduction of the coagulant. The method of magnetostriction ultrasonic generator was applied to receive ultrasonic vibration. Estimate of concentration of clay particles in water was performed using photometry. As a result of the research, the obtained data allow determining the increase in efficiency of suspended particles sedimentation related to the dose of coagulant, depending on time of ultrasonic treatment. The experiments confirmed the connection between the effect of sedimentation in the coagulation process, the coagulant dose and the time of scoring. Studies have shown that the increase in the duration of ultrasonic treatment causes a decrease of administered doses of coagulant.

  20. Water and suspended sediment dynamics in the Sungai Selangor estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak; Kamarudin Samuding; Nazrul Hizam Yusoff

    2000-01-01

    Observations of salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and tidal current velocity were made in the lower and along the longitudinal axis sungai Selangor estuary over near-spring cycles. The variations of these parameters at the measurement stations and along the channel are presented to illustrate the water and sediment dynamics in the estuary. The results shows that the Sungai Selangor estuary changes from a partially-mixed type during neaps to a well-mixed one during springs. promoted by stronger tidal energy during the higher tidal ranges. The strong neap density stratification is also promoted by the high river discharges during the measurement period maximum concentration of suspended sediment 2000 mg,'/) occurs during maximum current velocities both during flood and ebb. The maximum salinity was achieved during high water slack but the salt water was totally flushed out of estuary during low water springs. The longitudinal axis measurement indicates that a partially-developed zone of turbidity maximum with a sediment concentration over 1000 mg/l was observed at the limit of salt water intrusion in salinity range less than 1 ppt. Tidal pumping as oppose to the estuarine circulation is the more dominant factor in the maximum formation as the salt water is totally excluded at low water. (author)

  1. IUTAM symposium on hydrodynamic diffusion of suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.H. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrodynamic diffusion refers to the fluctuating motion of nonBrownian particles (or droplets or bubbles) which occurs in a dispersion due to multiparticle interactions. For example, in a concentrated sheared suspension, particles do not move along streamlines but instead exhibit fluctuating motions as they tumble around each other. This leads to a net migration of particles down gradients in particle concentration and in shear rate, due to the higher frequency of encounters of a test particle with other particles on the side of the test particle which has higher concentration or shear rate. As another example, suspended particles subject to sedimentation, centrifugation, or fluidization, do not generally move relative to the fluid with a constant velocity, but instead experience diffusion-like fluctuations in velocity due to interactions with neighboring particles and the resulting variation in the microstructure or configuration of the suspended particles. In flowing granular materials, the particles interact through direct collisions or contacts (rather than through the surrounding fluid); these collisions also cause the particles to undergo fluctuating motions characteristic of diffusion processes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. The suspended sentence in German criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law in all countries has provided different criminal sanctions as social control measures. These are court-imposed coercive measures that take away or limit certain rights and freedoms of criminal offenders. Sanctions are applied to natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and cause damage or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values jeopardized by the commission of crime, state legislations prescribe several kinds of criminal sanctions: 1 penalties, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juvenile offenders, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Penalties are the basic, the oldest and the most important type of criminal sanctions. They are prescribed for the largest number of criminal offences. Imposed instead of or alongside with penalties, warning measures have particularly important role in jurisprudence. Since they were introduced in the system of criminal sanctions in the early 20th century, there has been a notable increase in the application of these measures, particularly in cases involving negligent and accidental offences, and minor offences that do not cause serious consequences, whose perpetrators are not persons with criminal characteristics. Warning measures (suspended sentence are envisaged in all contemporary criminal legislations, including the German legislation. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of the sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person fulfills the imposed obligations and does not commit another criminal offense. Two conditions must be fulfilled for the application of these sanctions: a the formal requirement, which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b the substantive requirement, which implies the court assessment that the application of these sanctions is justified and necessary in a particular case. Many

  3. Energy storage: feasibility study to collect, store and release energy from solar origin, using a kinetic battery stockage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatry, B

    1976-02-01

    The feasibility of using solar energy to feed an autonomous station providing electric current continuously was studied. As an energy storage device a 'superflywheel' (rotor with composite fibers - magnetic bearings) would be used. Results show that such an experiment can be reasonably envisaged only in highly sunny countries and that it becomes non profitable at our latitudes, despite the very good performance of the flywheel storage device.

  4. DYNAMIC SUFFICIENCY OF THE MAGNETICALLY SUSPENDED TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Polyakov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The basic criterion of the magnetically suspended train's consumer estimation is a quality of its mechanical motion. This motion is realized in unpredictable conditions and, for purposefulness preservation, should adapt to them. Such adaptation is possible only within the limits of system’s dynamic sufficiency. Sufficiency is understood as presence at system of resources, which allow one to realize its demanded motions without violating actual restrictions. Therefore presence of such resources is a necessary condition of preservation of required purposefulness of train's dynamics, and verification of the mentioned sufficiency is the major component of this dynamic research. Methodology. Methods of the set theory are used in work. Desirable and actual approachability spaces of the train are found. The train is considered dynamically sufficient in zones of the specified spaces overlapping. Findings. Within the limits of the accepted treatment of train's dynamic sufficiency, verification of its presence, as well as a stock (or deficiency of preservations can be executed by the search and the subsequent estimation of such overlapping zones. Operatively (directly during motion it can be realized on the train's ODC with use, for example, of computer mathematics system Mathematica. It possesses extensive opportunities of highly efficient and, at the same time, demanding an expense concerning small resources information manipulation. The efficiency of using of created technique is illustrated on an example of vehicle's acceleration research. Calculation is executed with use of the constructed computer model of interaction of an independent traction electromagnetic subsystem of an artifact with its mechanical subsystem. Originality. The technique of verification of the high-speed magnetically suspended train's dynamic sufficiency is developed. The technique is highly efficient, it provides sufficient presentation and demands an expense of the

  5. Elemental composition of suspended particles released in refuse incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Mizohata, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Suspended particles released in refuse incineration were subjected to multielement analysis by means of instrumental neutron activation method and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The analytical results were compared with the elemental concentrations observed in the urban atmosphere, and the contribution of the refuse incineration to the urban atmosphere was roughly estimated. Greenberg et al. pointed out on the basis of their analyses that the refuse incineration can account for major portions of the Zn, Cd and Sb observed on urban aerosols. According to our results, the contribution of the refuse incineration for Zn, Cd and Sb is not negligible, but not so serious as in U.S.A. big cities. In Japan big cities there must be other more important sources of these elements. (author)

  6. Geodetic monitoring of suspended particles in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnik, Rok; Maksimova, Daria; Kovačič, Boštjan

    2017-10-01

    There is a trend in modern approach to the management of space of collecting the spatial data, in order to obtain useful information. In this paper a research of suspended particles in the river Drava and Mura will be introduced. The goal is to connect different fields of water management in countries where the rivers Drava and Mura flows in purpose of water management sustainability. The methods such as GNSS for mapping cross sections of the river, the use of ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) measurement system and water sampling to monitor sediment in the water will be presented.

  7. Acoustic measuring techniques for suspended sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, P.; Felix, D.; Storti, G.; Lattuada, M.; Fleckenstein, P.; Deschwanden, F.

    2016-11-01

    Acoustic signals can be used in various ways for suspended sediment monitoring. One possibility which lends itself particularly well in the context of hydropower plants (HPPs), is to use installations for acoustic discharge measurement (ADM). Such installations already exist at waterways of many HPPs. Similar to certain turbidimeters, the attenuation of the forward scattered signal travelling through the water-sediment mixture is correlated with suspended sediment concentration (SSC). This correlation can be based on reference SSCs, e.g. from gravimetric analyses of bottle samples. Without the need of additional sensors and practically maintenance-free, this method is used successfully in the HPP Fieschertal to warn the HPP operator of high SSC to prevent excessive turbine abrasion. Acoustic methods and systems that allow for estimating both SSC and particle size distribution (PSD) are under development. The simultaneous determination of SSC and PSD is not possible using a single frequency. Therefore, multi-frequency approaches are investigated for generally scattered signals. When backscattered signals are used, a stronger frequency dependency can be exploited. However, the reliable simultaneous determination of particle size (and distribution) and concentration is still a major challenge due to a low signal-to-noise ratio and an ill- posed problem of estimating concentration and size from recorded signals. The optimal setup configuration (angles, frequencies) for such a system is not unique and further investigations are recommended.

  8. Report of fiscal 1997 R and D result on high temperature superconducting flywheel power storage. System design and evaluation (comparative study and information gathering); 1997 nendo koon chodendo flywheel denryoku chozo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. System sekkei hyoka (hikaku kento, joho shushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Information gathering and comparative study were conducted for the purpose of putting to practical use a 10 MWh class high temperature superconducting flywheel power storage system. This paper explains the fiscal 1977 results. On various methods conceivable as a flywheel system, characteristics were extracted in such points as structure, shape, axial support system, generator motor, and protective system, and compared with the method being developed in the present project. Test items methods, etc., were studied for a small model system (0.5 kWh, {phi} 400 mm, 30,000 rpm) for the purpose of clarifying problems and ways in approaching a large system (10 MWh class) through various tests of the small one. The main test items were a free-run test, steady state rotation test and a heat-run test, and the main points to evaluate were oscillation characteristics and the control performance of AMB, flux creep and loss, for example. Investigation was conducted of a dummy flywheel experimental equipment and a highly efficient power converter with the object of contributing to the development of a flywheel equipment for daily load leveling. The research members visited seven major research organizations in Europe and gathered information. (NEDO)

  9. Energy recovery storage systems in electrical vehicles with batteries; Tecnicas de armazenamiento de energia em veiculos electricos a baterias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, M.; Maia, J.; Foito, D.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper are presented three energy recovery storage systems that can be used in electrical vehicles with batteries. The first storage system uses ultra capacitors that is electrical energy storage, the second system is based on superconductivity magnetic storage, and the third system uses on kinetic energy stored in flywheels. It is also presented the power electronics needed to perform the energy systems. (Author)

  10. Near bed suspended sediment flux by single turbulent events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirshahi, Seyed Mohammad; Kwoll, Eva; Winter, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The role of small scale single turbulent events in the vertical mixing of near bed suspended sediments was explored in a shallow shelf sea environment. High frequency velocity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC; calibrated from the backscatter intensity) were collected using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV). Using quadrant analysis, the despiked velocity time series was divided into turbulent events and small background fluctuations. Reynolds stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) calculated from all velocity samples, were compared to the same turbulent statistics calculated only from velocity samples classified as turbulent events (Reevents and TKEevents). The comparison showed that Reevents and TKEevents was increased 3 and 1.6 times, respectively, when small background fluctuations were removed and that the correlation with SSC for TKE could be improved through removal of the latter. The correlation between instantaneous vertical turbulent flux (w ‧) and SSC fluctuations (SSC ‧) exhibits a tidal pattern with the maximum correlation at peak ebb and flood currents, when strong turbulent events appear. Individual turbulent events were characterized by type, strength, duration and length. Cumulative vertical turbulent sediment fluxes and average SSC associated with individual turbulent events were calculated. Over the tidal cycle, ejections and sweeps were the most dominant events, transporting 50% and 36% of the cumulative vertical turbulent event sediment flux, respectively. Although the contribution of outward interactions to the vertical turbulent event sediment flux was low (11%), single outward interaction events were capable of inducing similar SSC ‧ as sweep events. The results suggest that on time scales of tens of minutes to hours, TKE may be appropriate to quantify turbulence in sediment transport studies, but that event characteristics, particular the upward turbulent flux need to be accounted for when considering sediment transport

  11. Organics and Suspended Solids Removal from Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Y. Hmood

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR method is used for treating samples of waste water taken from hospitals in Mosul. Many run periods are used (6-24 hours for             6 months. It is found that the organics and suspended solids removal increase with increasing the period of run, it is in the range ( 96-82 % and ( 100-95 % respectively, while the pH values are nearly neutral (7.05 to 7.5.     BOD5 and SS concentrations of the effluent are within the limits of Iraqi standards,  40:30 mg/l respectively. Hence, SBR method could be used for treating hospitals, small factories and some  residential sectors waste waters.  

  12. Batch fabrication of nanotubes suspended between microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Stöckli, T.; Knapp, H. F.

    2007-01-01

    be done with a simple lift-off process with standard photolithographic resist. An applied electric field is sustained between the microelectrodes during CVD to guide the nanotube growth. Comparison with simulations shows that the location and the orientation of the grown carbon nanotubes (CNT) correspond...... to the regions of maximum electric field, enabling accurate positioning of a nanotube by controlling the shape of the microelectrodes. The CNT bridges are deflected tens of nm when a DC voltage is applied between the nanotube and a gate microelectrode indicating that the clamping through the catalyst particles...... is not only mechanically stable but also electrical conducting. This method could be used to fabricate nanoelectromechanical systems based on suspended double clamped CNTs depending only on photolithography and standard Cleanroom processes....

  13. A study of atomic interaction between suspended nanoparticles and sodium atoms in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Jun-ichi; Ara, Kuniaki

    2010-01-01

    A feasibility study of suppression of the chemical reactivity of sodium itself using an atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium atoms has been carried out. We expected that the atomic interaction strengthens when the nanoparticle metal is the transition element which has a major difference in electronegativity from sodium. We also calculated the atomic interaction between nanoparticle and sodium atoms. It became clear that the atomic bond between the nanoparticle atom and the sodium atom is larger than that between sodium atoms, and the charge transfer takes place to the nanoparticle atom from the sodium atom. Using sodium with suspended nanoparticles, the fundamental physical properties related to the atomic interaction were investigated to verify the atomic bond. The surface tension of sodium with suspended nanoparticles increased, and the evaporation rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles also decreased compared with that of sodium. Therefore the presence of the atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium was verified from these experiments. Because the fundamental physical property changes by the atomic interaction, we expected changes in the chemical reactivity characteristics. The chemical reaction properties of sodium with suspended nanoparticles with water were investigated experimentally. The released reaction heat and the reaction rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles were reduced than those of sodium. The influence of the charge state of nanoparticle on the chemical process with water was theoretically investigated to speculate on the cause of reaction suppression. The potential energy in both primary and side reactions changed by the charge transfer, and the free energy of activation of the reaction with water increased. Accordingly, the reaction barrier also increased. This suggests there is a possibility of the reduction in the reaction of sodium by the suspension of nanoparticles. Consequently the possibility of the

  14. Energy content of suspended detritus from Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Indian_J_Mar_Sci_20_80.pdf.txt stream_source_info Indian_J_Mar_Sci_20_80.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  15. Dynamic model of movement of mine suspended monorail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor GUTAREVYCH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article we have developed the dynamic model of interaction of rolling stock during the movement, on the suspended monorail, taking into account the side-sway. We have received the motion equations, carried out their analysis and determined the own oscillation frequencies of rolling stock of suspended monorail.

  16. Transfer of suspended particles from liquid effluents of nuclear generating stations through the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devereaux, F.J.

    1989-07-01

    Due to the complexity of the environmental transfer of suspended particles in aquatic systems, the available literature usually deals with specific pathways and mechanisms of the transfer process. This paper attempts to give a brief overview of the entire transfer process. Potential routes of transfer in both the marine and freshwater environments are examined, and tentative conclusions presented. This work was performed while the author was employed by Atomic Energy Control Board under the McMaster University cooperative program

  17. 1998 Annual Study Report. Research and development of power storage by high-temperature superconducting flywheels (research and development of permanent magnet); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Koon chodendo flywheel denryoku chozo kenkyu kaihatsu (eikyu jishaku no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The permanent magnets have been investigated and developed, for eventual commercialization of a 10 MWh power storage system by high-temperature superconducting flywheel. The permanent magnet rotors have been already developed in the previous years using a praseodymium-based magnet (Pr magnet) and neodymium-based sintered magnet (Nd sintered magnet), and the target rotational speed of 30,000 rpm has been attained. For development of the magnetic circuit to produce a stronger and smoother magnetic field, magnetic flux density of the Nd sintered magnet is measured. It shows a lower magnetic flux irregularity than the Pd magnet, but there is still room for further improvement. For development of large-size permanent magnet fabrication techniques, it is confirmed that the large-size Nd sintered magnet can be easily magnetized by partial magnetizing, as is the case with the Pr magnet. In this year, the irregular magnetic flux is three-dimensionally simulated, based on the results obtained in the previous years, to find that the simulated results are in good agreement with the observed ones. The measures to solve the problems are also investigated. It is also confirmed that the large-size ring magnet can be easily magnetized by partial magnetization. (NEDO)

  18. Utilization of rotor kinetic energy storage for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-05-03

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine, the power system comprises an electric machine (12) further comprising a first excitation source (47), a permanent magnet rotor (28) and a magnetic coupling rotor (26) spaced from the permanent magnet rotor and at least one second excitation source (43), the magnetic coupling rotor (26) also including a flywheel having an inertial mass to store kinetic energy during an initial acceleration to an operating speed; and wherein the first excitation source is electrically connected to the second excitation source for power cycling such that the flywheel rotor (26) exerts torque on the permanent magnet rotor (28) to assist braking and acceleration of the permanent magnet rotor (28) and consequently, the vehicle. An axial gap machine and a radial gap machine are disclosed and methods of the invention are also disclosed.

  19. Functional and Muscle-Size Effects of Flywheel Resistance Training with Eccentric-Overload in Professional Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto-Izquierdo, Sergio; García-López, David; de Paz, José A

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the effects of 6 week (15 sessions) flywheel resistance training with eccentric-overload (FRTEO) on different functional and anatomical variables in professional handball players. Twenty-nine athletes were recruited and randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group (EXP, n = 15) carried out 15 sessions of FRTEO in the leg-press exercise, with 4 sets of 7 repetitions at a maximum-concentric effort. The control group (CON, n = 14) performed the same number of training sessions including 4 sets of 7 maximum repetitions (7RM) using a weight-stack leg-press machine. The results which were measured included maximal dynamic strength (1RM), muscle power at different submaximal loads (PO), vertical jump height (CMJ and SJ), 20 m sprint time (20 m), T-test time (T-test), and Vastus-Lateralis muscle (VL) thickness. The results of the EXP group showed a substantially better improvement (p handball requires repeated short, explosive effort such as accelerations and decelerations during sprints with changes of direction, these results suggest that FRTEO affects functional and anatomical changes in a way which improves performance in well-trained professional handball players.

  20. Methods of and system for swing damping movement of suspended objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.F.; Petterson, B.J.; Strip, D.R.

    1991-03-05

    A payload suspended from a gantry is swing damped in accordance with a control algorithm based on the periodic motion of the suspended mass or by servoing on the forces induced by the suspended mass. 13 figures.

  1. Kinetic energy recovery systems in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwiński, C.

    2016-09-01

    The article draws attention to the increasing environmental pollution caused by the development of vehicle transport and motorization. Different types of design solutions used in vehicles for the reduction of fuel consumption, and thereby emission of toxic gasses into the atmosphere, were specified. Historical design solutions concerning energy recovery devices in mechanical vehicles which used flywheels to accumulate kinetic energy were shown. Developmental tendencies in the area of vehicle manufacturing in the form of hybrid electric and electric devices were discussed. Furthermore, designs of energy recovery devices with electrical energy storage from the vehicle braking and shock absorbing systems were presented. A mechanical energy storing device using a flywheel operating under vacuum was presented, as were advantages and disadvantages of both systems, the limitations they impose on individual constructions and safety issues. The paper also discusses a design concept of an energy recovery device in mechanical vehicles which uses torsion springs as the main components of energy accumulation during braking. The desirability of a cooperation of both the mechanical- and electrical energy recovery devices was indicated.

  2. Mass and Energy Audit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    air sampler for collecting total suspended particulate (TSP) samples and a Gent PM air sampler for particle size. 10 fractioned .... the billets inside were cooled with water flowing at the rate of ... generator, and is the energy generated from the.

  3. Introduction to suspended-sediment sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, K. Michael; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of the amount and timing of sediment transport in streams is important to those directly or indirectly responsible for developing and managing water and land resources. Such data are often used to judge the health of watershed and the success or failure of activities designed to mitigate adverse impacts of sediment on streams and stream habitats. This training class presents an introduction to methods currently used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to sample suspended-sediment concentrations in streams. The presentation is narrated, but you control the pace of the presentation. If the computer you are using can view 'MPEG' videos you will be able to take advantage of videos interspersed in the presentation. A test, found at the end of the presentation, can be taken to assess how well you understood the training material. The class, which is registered as class SW4416 with the National Training Center of the USGS, should take two or three hours to complete. In order to use the presentation provided via this Web page, you will need to download a large disc images (linked below) and 'burn' it to a blank CD-ROM using a CD-ROM recorder on your computer. The presentation will only run on a Windows-based personal computer (PC). The presentation was developed using Macromedia Director MX 20041 and is contained in the file 'SIR05-5077.exe' which should autolaunch. If it does not, the presentation can be started by double-clicking on the file name. A sound card and speakers are necessary to take advantage of narrations that accompany the presentation. Text of narrations is provided, if you are unable to listen to narrations. Instructions for installing and running the presentation are included in the file 'Tutorial.htm', which is on the CD. 1 Registered Trademark: Macromedia Incorporated

  4. Suspended sediment drift and dispersion at Hibernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedford, T.; Drozdowski, A.; Hannah, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    Surface water waves and near-bottom currents around the Hibernia oil production platform on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland were examined to determine how the different seasons affect changes in wave magnitude and directions of water currents. Wave observations revealed a strong correlation with seasons, with the larger waves occurring in fall and early winter. There was no obvious seasonality in the size or direction of currents. The benthic boundary layer transport (BBLT) model was used to predict the drift and dispersion pathways of suspended drilling muds discharged from the Hibernia platform. The 2-year study from March 1998 to May 2000 involved 5-day BBLT model simulations covering the complete period of current meter deployment. The study focused on the sensitivity of the drift and dispersion to variability in the physical environment and uncertainty in the bottom stress calculation and particle settling velocity. The BBLT model incorporates a stress dependent particle settling velocity that includes the main features of the flocculations of drill mud fines under marine conditions. The study provides a better understanding of how drill mud concentration levels can change with variations in waves, currents, and bottom stress. It was determined that drift is generally oriented along the northwest/southeast axis, with a typical magnitude of 0.8 cm/sec for the fast settling velocity and 3.1 cm/sec for the slow settling velocity. It was concluded that near-surface or mid-depth discharges of drilling mud in the summer may not reach the sea floor. 17 refs., 13 tabs., 36 figs

  5. Strain and thermal conductivity in ultrathin suspended silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Daniel; Sigg, Hans; Spolenak, Ralph; Ekinci, Yasin

    2017-09-01

    We report on the uniaxial strain and thermal conductivity of well-ordered, suspended silicon nanowire arrays between 10 to 20 nm width and 22 nm half-pitch, fabricated by extreme-ultraviolet (UV) interference lithography. Laser-power-dependent Raman spectroscopy showed that nanowires connected monolithically to the bulk had a consistent strain of ˜0.1 % , whereas nanowires clamped by metal exhibited variability and high strain of up to 2.3%, having implications in strain engineering of nanowires. The thermal conductivity at room temperature was measured to be ˜1 W /m K for smooth nanowires and ˜0.1 W /m K for rougher ones, similar to results by other investigators. We found no modification of the bulk properties in terms of intrinsic scattering, and therefore, the decrease in thermal conductivity is mainly due to boundary scattering. Different types of surface roughness, such as constrictions and line-edge roughness, may play roles in the scattering of phonons of different wavelengths. Such low thermal conductivities would allow for very efficient thermal energy harvesting, approaching and passing values achieved by state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials.

  6. Elemental Spatiotemporal Variations of Total Suspended Particles in Jeddah City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad W. Kadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elements associated with total suspended particulate matter (TSP in Jeddah city were determined. Using high-volume samplers, TSP samples were simultaneously collected over a one-year period from seven sampling sites. Samples were analyzed for Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Sr. Results revealed great dependence of element contents on spatial and temporal variations. Two sites characterized by busy roads, workshops, heavy population, and heavy trucking have high levels of all measured elements. Concentrations of most elements at the two sites exhibit strong spatial gradients and concentrations of elements at these sites are higher than other locations. The highest concentrations of elements were observed during June–August because of dust storms, significant increase in energy consumption, and active surface winds. Enrichment factors of elements at the high-level sites have values in the range >10~60 while for Cu and Zn the enrichment factors are much higher (~0–>700 indicating that greater percentage of TSP composition for these three elements in air comes from anthropogenic activities.

  7. Gate-defined Quantum Confinement in Suspended Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Monica

    2013-03-01

    Quantum confined devices in carbon-based materials offer unique possibilities for applications ranging from quantum computation to sensing. In particular, nanostructured carbon is a promising candidate for spin-based quantum computation due to the ability to suppress hyperfine coupling to nuclear spins, a dominant source of spin decoherence. Yet graphene lacks an intrinsic bandgap, which poses a serious challenge for the creation of such devices. We present a novel approach to quantum confinement utilizing tunnel barriers defined by local electric fields that break sublattice symmetry in suspended bilayer graphene. This technique electrostatically confines charges via band structure control, thereby eliminating the edge and substrate disorder that hinders on-chip etched nanostructures to date. We report clean single electron tunneling through gate-defined quantum dots in two regimes: at zero magnetic field using the energy gap induced by a perpendicular electric field and at finite magnetic fields using Landau level confinement. The observed Coulomb blockade periodicity agrees with electrostatic simulations based on local top-gate geometry, a direct demonstration of local control over the band structure of graphene. This technology integrates quantum confinement with pristine device quality and access to vibrational modes, enabling wide applications from electromechanical sensors to quantum bits. More broadly, the ability to externally tailor the graphene bandgap over nanometer scales opens a new unexplored avenue for creating quantum devices.

  8. An atomistic investigation of the effect of strain on frictional properties of suspended graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingshun Bai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We performed molecular dynamics (MD simulations of a diamond probe scanned on a suspended graphene to reveal the effect of strain on the frictional properties of suspended graphene. The graphene was subjected to some certain strain along the scanning direction. We compared the friction coefficient obtained from different normal loads and strain. The results show that the friction coefficient can be decreased about one order of magnitude with the increase of the strain. And that can be a result of the decreased asymmetry of the contact region which is caused by strain. The synthetic effect of potential energy and the fluctuation of contact region were found to be the main reason accounting for the fluctuation of the friction force. The strain can reduce the fluctuation of the contact region and improve the stability of friction.

  9. Servo-Drive Amplifier for Micro-Satellite Superconductor-Levitated Flywheels, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new servo-drive technology is available to support energy storage and navigation for micro-satellites. Exploiting the ?pinning? effect of high-temperature...

  10. Air pollution in Aleppo city, gases,suspended particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Sabra, Sh.; Al-Kharfan, K.

    1994-06-01

    Total suspended particulates measured by using High Volume Air Sampler. The Co and O 3 were measured during weekday and weekend. The concentration of all pollutants at city center are higher than other measured areas. (author). 10 figs., 10 tabs

  11. Improved Methods for Correlating Turbidity and Suspended Solids for Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This technical note describes techniques normally used to measure turbidity and suspended solids in waters, how the two parameters relate to each other and to various environmental impacts, and why...

  12. Particles matter: Transformation of suspended particles in constructed wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis shows that constructed wetlands transform suspended particles in (treated) municipal wastewater through selective precipitation in ponds, biological filtering by plankton communities and physical and biological retention in reed beds. These processes effectively remove faecal indicator

  13. The Ages in a Self-Suspended Nanoparticle Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Praveen; Qi, Haibo; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Telomers ionically tethered to nanometer-sized particles yield self-suspended, nanoparticle-Iaden liquids with unusual dynamical features. By subjecting these suspensions to controlled, modest shear strains, we find that their flow behaviors

  14. Self-suspended permanent magnetic FePt ferrofluids

    KAUST Repository

    Dallas, Panagiotis; Kelarakis, Antonios; Sahore, Ritu; DiSalvo, Francis J.; Livi, Sebastien; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2013-01-01

    on the surface of L10 FePt nanoparticles. In contrast, all types of ferrofluids previously reported employ either volatile solvents as the suspending media or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (that lacks permanent magnetization) as the inorganic

  15. Novel Resuscitation from Lethal Hemorrhage - Suspended Animation for Delayed Resuscitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Safar, Peter

    2002-01-01

    .... We have conceived and documented "suspended animation for delayed resuscitation" with the use of hypothermic saline flush into the aorta within the first 5 minute of no blood flow, using novel...

  16. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Abizia zygia gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Some excipients are currently available for the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. ... Method: The suspending properties of Albizia zygia gum (family ... Characterization tests were carried out on purified Albizia zygia gum.

  17. Report on results 1998. Research and development on high-temperature superconducting flywheel power storage (system design/evaluation (comparative assessment/information collection)); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Koon chodendo flywheel denryoku chozo kenkyu kaihatsu (system sekkei, hyoka (hikaku kento, joho shushu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    For the purpose of evaluating the basic characteristics of high-temperature superconducting magnetic bearings (SBM), a system model is designed, experimentally manufactured and tested, which is embodied in the design/evaluation of a large-scale system, with an investigation carried out for the introduction of the system into an electrical power system. In this framework, an examination and research were conducted for the system design technology on which each component technology in the system structure can be applied consistently in the system. In the comparative assessment of various flywheel power storage systems, the specifications and achievements were compared in the component elements of the flywheel systems developed in Europe, America and Japan through the literature studies and the field survey, with examination performed towards the future development. As a result, it was found that, in America, bearings were all SMB's without control. Boeing's objective for the development is 10kWh or so in view of convenience for transportation and is prone to arrange it in numbers. Further, investigations were made in literature and documents on the domestic and international trend of development of high-temperature superconducting flywheel systems, elucidating the details of the development. (NEDO)

  18. Report on results 1998. Research and development on high-temperature superconducting flywheel power storage (system design/evaluation (comparative assessment/information collection)); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Koon chodendo flywheel denryoku chozo kenkyu kaihatsu (system sekkei, hyoka (hikaku kento, joho shushu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    For the purpose of evaluating the basic characteristics of high-temperature superconducting magnetic bearings (SBM), a system model is designed, experimentally manufactured and tested, which is embodied in the design/evaluation of a large-scale system, with an investigation carried out for the introduction of the system into an electrical power system. In this framework, an examination and research were conducted for the system design technology on which each component technology in the system structure can be applied consistently in the system. In the comparative assessment of various flywheel power storage systems, the specifications and achievements were compared in the component elements of the flywheel systems developed in Europe, America and Japan through the literature studies and the field survey, with examination performed towards the future development. As a result, it was found that, in America, bearings were all SMB's without control. Boeing's objective for the development is 10kWh or so in view of convenience for transportation and is prone to arrange it in numbers. Further, investigations were made in literature and documents on the domestic and international trend of development of high-temperature superconducting flywheel systems, elucidating the details of the development. (NEDO)

  19. Suspended sediment apportionment in a South-Korean mountain catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, Axel; Meusburger, Katrin; Park, Ji-Hyung; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Due to the rapid agricultural expansion and intensification during the last decades in South-Korea, large areas of hill slope forests were transformed to paddies and vegetable fields. The intensive agriculture and the easily erodible soils in our catchment are a major reason for the increased erosion causing suspended sediments to infiltrate into the close drinking water reservoir. The drinking water reservoir Lake Soyang provides water supply for over ten million people in Seoul. Landscape managers need to know the exact origin of these sediments before they can create landscape amelioration schemes. We applied a compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) approach (Alewell et al., 2015) to apportion the sources of the suspended sediments between forest and agricultural soil contribution to the suspended sediments in a different catchment and applied the same approach to identify and quantify the different sources of the suspended sediments in the river(s) contributing to Lake Soyang. We sampled eight soil sites within the catchment considering the different landuse types forest, rice paddies, maize and vegetables. Suspended sediments were sampled at three outlets of the different sub-catchments. Soils and suspended sediments are analysed for bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, compound-specific carbon isotopes of plant-wax derived long-chain fatty acids and long-chain n-alkanes. Fatty acid and alkane isotopes are then used in mixing calculations and the mixing model software IsoSource to find out the contribution of the different source soils to the suspended sediments. We present first data of the source soils and the suspended sediments. C. Alewell, A. Birkholz, K. Meusburger, Y. Schindler-Wildhaber, L. Mabit, 2015. Sediment source attribution from multiple land use systems with CSIA. Biogeosciences Discuss. 12: 14245-14269.

  20. 23 Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    The samples were analysed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence. (EDXRF) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) for up to 10 elements. It was found that 66% of the ..... coefficients between the various crustal elements Ca, Ti, Mn, ...

  1. Combined Discrete Space Voltage Vector with Direct Torque Control for Bearingless Brushless DC Motor and Closed-Loop Suspended Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiran Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of bearingless brushless DC motor, a closed-loop suspended force controller combining the discrete space voltage vector modulation is applied and the direct torque control is presented in this paper. Firstly, we increase the number of the control vector to reduce the torque ripple. Then, the suspending equation is constructed which is spired by the direct torque control algorithm. As a result, the closed-loop suspended force controller is built. The simulated and experimental results evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The more advantage is that the proposed algorithm can achieve the fast torque response, reduce the torque ripple, and follow ideal stator flux track. Furthermore, the motor which implants the closed-loop suspended force controller cannot onlyobtain the dynamic response rapidly and displacement control accurately, but also has the characteristics of bearingless brushless DC motor (such as simple structure, high energy efficiency, small volume and low failure rate.

  2. On Suspended matter grain size in Baltic sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnova, Ekaterina; Sivkov, Vadim; Zubarevich, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Suspended matter grain size data were gathered during the 25th research vessel "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" cruise (1991, September-October). Initial quantitative data were obtained with a use of the Coulter counter and subsequently modified into volume concentrations (mm3/l) for size intervals. More than 80 samples from 15 stations were analyzed (depth range 0-355 m). The main goal of research was to illustrate the spatial variability of suspended matter concentration and dispersion in Baltic Sea. The mutual feature of suspended matter grain size distribution is the logical rise of particle number along with descending of particle's size. Vertical variability of grain size distribution was defined by Baltic Sea hydrological structure, including upper mixed layer - from the surface to the thermocline - with 35 m thick, cold intermediate layer - from the thermocline to the halocline- and bottom layer, which lied under the halocline. Upper layer showed a rise in total suspended matter concentration (up to 0.6 mm3/l), while cold intermediate level consisted of far more clear water (up to 0.1 mm3/l). Such a difference is caused by the thermocline boarding role. Meanwhile, deep bottom water experienced surges in suspended matter concentration owing to the nepheloid layer presence and "liquid bottom" effect. Coastal waters appeared to have the highest amount of particles (up to 5.0 mm3/l). Suspended matter grain size distribution in the upper mixed layer revealed a peak of concentration at 7 μ, which can be due to autumn plankton bloom. Another feature in suspended matter grain size distribution appeared at the deep layer below halocline, where both O2 and H2S were observed and red/ox barrier is. The simultaneous presence of Fe and Mn (in solutions below red/ox barrier) and O2 leads to precipitation of oxyhydrates Fe and Mn and grain size distribution graph peaking at 4.5 μ.

  3. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Stutenbecker, Laura; Bakker, Maarten; Silva, Tiago A.; Schlunegger, Fritz; Lane, Stuart N.; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2018-01-01

    Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( > 1000 km2) over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation-deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc.), transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation). Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity), and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply) in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment concentration through

  4. Suspended marine particulate proteins in coastal and oligotrophic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridoux, Maxime C.; Neibauer, Jaqui; Ingalls, Anitra E.; Nunn, Brook L.; Keil, Richard G.

    2015-03-01

    Metaproteomic analyses were performed on suspended sediments collected in one coastal environment (Washington margin, Pacific Ocean, n = 5) and two oligotrophic environments (Atlantic Ocean near BATS, n = 5, and Pacific Ocean near HOTS, n = 5). Using a database of 2.3 million marine proteins developed using the NCBI database, 443 unique peptides were detected from which 363 unique proteins were identified. Samples from the euphotic zone contained on average 2-3x more identifiable proteins than deeper waters (150-1500 m) and these proteins were predominately from photosynthetic organisms. Diatom peptides dominate the spectra of the Washington margin while peptides from cyanobacteria, such as Synechococcus sp. dominated the spectra of both oligotrophic sites. Despite differences in the exact proteins identified at each location, there is good agreement for protein function and cellular location. Proteins in surface waters code for a variety of cellular functions including photosynthesis (24% of detected proteins), energy production (10%), membrane production (9%) and genetic coding and reading (9%), and are split 60-40 between membrane proteins and intracellular cytoplasmic proteins. Sargasso Sea surface waters contain a suite of peptides consistent with proteins involved in circadian rhythms that promote both C and N fixation at night. At depth in the Sargasso Sea, both muscle-derived myosin protein and the muscle-hydrolyzing proteases deseasin MCP-01 and metalloprotease Mcp02 from γ-proteobacteria were observed. Deeper waters contain peptides predominately sourced from γ-proteobacteria (37% of detected proteins) and α-proteobacteria (26%), although peptides from membrane and photosynthetic proteins attributable to phytoplankton were still observed (13%). Relative to surface values, detection frequencies for bacterial membrane proteins and extracellular enzymes rose from 9 to 16 and 2 to 4% respectively below the thermocline and the overall balance between

  5. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  6. Suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresists fabricated with UV photolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Caviglia, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present an easy, fast, reliable and low cost microfabrication technique for fabricating suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresistswith UV photolithography. Two different fabrication processes with epoxy based resins (SU-8 and mr-DWL) using UV exposures at wavelengths...... of 313 nm and 405 nm were optimized and compared in terms of structural stability, control of suspended layer thickness and resolution limits. A novel fabrication process combining the two photoresists SU-8 and mr-DWL with two UV exposures at 365 nm and 405 nm respectively provided a wider processing...... window for definition of well-defined suspended microstructures with lateral dimensions down to 5 μmwhen compared to 313 nm or 365 nm UV photolithography processes....

  7. Analysis of the Danube river suspended load regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukac, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the analysis of the Danube river suspended load regime at the Slovak section of Danube. It is concluded and recommended: Suspended load transport at the Slovak section of Danube decreases in the downstream directions - annual averages: Utilize relation of the Water Research Institute in Medvedov, the relation of the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute is probably slightly underestimated; Distribution of suspended load concentration in the cross-section is influenced mainly with local hydraulic and morphological conditions; Measured flow velocity in the range 0.6 - 2.65 m/sec -1 , influenced with water level slope; Silt particles the most numerous, less numerous sandy and clayey particles; Bratislava 3.54 mil. tonnes, Medvedov 2.22 mil. tonnes, and Komarno 1.96 mil. tonnes; Recommendation to measure actual volume of the Cunovo reservoir, in order to validate sediment transport balance; Recommendation to continue in a complex monitoring programme of sediment transport

  8. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldini, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  9. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  10. The science of energy

    CERN Document Server

    Newton, Roger G

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to describe the scientific concepts of energy. Accessible to readers with no scientific education beyond high-school chemistry, it starts with the basic notion of energy and the fundamental laws that govern it, such as conservation, and explains the various forms of energy, such as electrical, chemical, and nuclear. It then proceeds to describe ways in which energy is stored for very long times in the various fossil fuels (petroleum, gas, coal) as well as for short times (flywheels, pumped storage, batteries, fuel cells, liquid hydrogen). The book also discusses the modes of transport of energy, especially those of electrical energy via lasers and transmission lines, as well as why the latter uses alternating current at high voltages. The altered view of energy introduced by quantum mechanics is also discussed, as well as how almost all the Earth's energy originates from the Sun. Finally, the history of the forms of energy in the course of development of the universe is described, and how this ...

  11. Colorimetry Technique for Scalable Characterization of Suspended Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartamil-Bueno, Santiago J; Steeneken, Peter G; Centeno, Alba; Zurutuza, Amaia; van der Zant, Herre S J; Houri, Samer

    2016-11-09

    Previous statistical studies on the mechanical properties of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) suspended graphene membranes have been performed by means of measuring individual devices or with techniques that affect the material. Here, we present a colorimetry technique as a parallel, noninvasive, and affordable way of characterizing suspended graphene devices. We exploit Newton's rings interference patterns to study the deformation of a double-layer graphene drum 13.2 μm in diameter when a pressure step is applied. By studying the time evolution of the deformation, we find that filling the drum cavity with air is 2-5 times slower than when it is purged.

  12. Optical fiber end-facet polymer suspended-mirror devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mian; Wu, Jushuai; Zhang, A. Ping; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Wai, P. K. A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a novel optical fiber device based on a polymer suspended mirror on the end facet of an optical fiber. With an own-developed optical 3D micro-printing technology, SU-8 suspended-mirror devices (SMDs) were successfully fabricated on the top of a standard single-mode optical fiber. Optical reflection spectra of the fabricated SU- 8 SMDs were measured and compared with theoretical analysis. The proposed technology paves a way towards 3D microengineering of the small end-facet of optical fibers to develop novel fiber-optic sensors.

  13. Electromagnetic energy harvester for harvesting acoustic energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Farid U Khan

    Acoustics; energy harvesting; electromagnetic; Helmholtz resonator; sound pressure level; suspended coil. ... WSNs, which are supposed to operate for longer period of time. However ... several ambient energies such as wind, thermal, vibration, and solar are ..... textile plants in Northern India with specific reference to noise.

  14. A review on distributed energy resources and MicroGrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiayi, Huang; Chuanwen, Jiang; Rong, Xu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Huashan Road 1954, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The distributed energy resources (DER) comprise several technologies, such as diesel engines, micro turbines, fuel cells, photovoltaic, small wind turbines, etc. The coordinated operation and control of DER together with controllable loads and storage devices, such as flywheels, energy capacitors and batteries are central to the concept of MicroGrid (MG). MG can operate interconnected to the main distribution grid, or in an islanded mode. This paper reviews the researches and studies on MG technology. The operation of MG and the MG in the market environment are also described in the paper. (author)

  15. Experimental study on kinetics oil oil-suspended particulate matter aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.; Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON; Khelifa, A.; Wang, Z.; Brown, C.; Fieldhouse, B.; Yang, C.; Zheng, X.; Wong, S.; So, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    Past studies of oil spills have shown that oil suspended particulate matter aggregates (OSAs) play a role in enhancing the natural cleansing of oiled shorelines. OSAs result from aggregation between suspended oil droplets and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in aquatic environments. During this process, oil dispersion into the water column is significantly increased since the surface of the oil droplet is surrounded by sediment particles. In addition, the accelerated biodegradation of the oil can be attributed to the greater oil-water contact area. This study focused on the kinetic aspects of OSA formation, with particular reference to the time scale of this process and its significance to oil dispersion following oil spills in water. A laboratory study was conducted to measure the time scale of OSA formation and its variations with mixing conditions. A reciprocating shaker and various oil/sediment mixtures were used to prepare the OSAs. Standard reference material 1941b was used as the natural sediment mixed with Arabian medium crude and artificial seawater under various mixing energies. The sediment-to-oil ratio remained constant for all experiments. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis was used to measure the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) trapped in negatively buoyant OSAs. Results showed that the TPH in OSAs increased exponentially with shaking time and reached an equilibrium value within 3 hours. The equilibrium decreased from 3 hours to 1.3 hours when the shaking rate increased from 2.0 to 2.3 Hz. It was concluded that high mixing energy enhances OSA formation and shortens the time for OSA formation. 42 refs., 6 tabs., 5 figs

  16. Experimental study on kinetics oil oil-suspended particulate matter aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J. [Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdoa (China). Environmental Science and Engineering Inst.; Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Emergencies, Operational Analytical Laboratories and Research Support Division; Khelifa, A.; Wang, Z.; Brown, C.; Fieldhouse, B.; Yang, C. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Emergencies, Operational Analytical Laboratories and Research Support Division; Zheng, X. [Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdoa (China). Environmental Science and Engineering Inst.; Wong, S. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; So, L.C. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Past studies of oil spills have shown that oil suspended particulate matter aggregates (OSAs) play a role in enhancing the natural cleansing of oiled shorelines. OSAs result from aggregation between suspended oil droplets and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in aquatic environments. During this process, oil dispersion into the water column is significantly increased since the surface of the oil droplet is surrounded by sediment particles. In addition, the accelerated biodegradation of the oil can be attributed to the greater oil-water contact area. This study focused on the kinetic aspects of OSA formation, with particular reference to the time scale of this process and its significance to oil dispersion following oil spills in water. A laboratory study was conducted to measure the time scale of OSA formation and its variations with mixing conditions. A reciprocating shaker and various oil/sediment mixtures were used to prepare the OSAs. Standard reference material 1941b was used as the natural sediment mixed with Arabian medium crude and artificial seawater under various mixing energies. The sediment-to-oil ratio remained constant for all experiments. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis was used to measure the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) trapped in negatively buoyant OSAs. Results showed that the TPH in OSAs increased exponentially with shaking time and reached an equilibrium value within 3 hours. The equilibrium decreased from 3 hours to 1.3 hours when the shaking rate increased from 2.0 to 2.3 Hz. It was concluded that high mixing energy enhances OSA formation and shortens the time for OSA formation. 42 refs., 6 tabs., 5 figs.

  17. Assessments of lake profiling on temperature, Total Suspended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interpolation were performed on temperature, total suspended solid (TSS) and turbidity (TUR) based on in-situ and ex-situ analyses according to the correlation matrix and linear regression at 14 different depths for the Chomor River and Mahadir Island. The result showed outlet significantly decreased over depth caused the ...

  18. Discrete Dynamics of Nanoparticle Channelling in Suspended Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Tim; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Andersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We have observed a previously undescribed stepwise oxidation of mono- and few layer suspended graphene by silver nanoparticles in situ at subnanometer scale in an environmental transmission electron microscope. Over the range of 600–850 K, we observe crystallographically oriented channelling...

  19. Self-Suspended Suspensions of Covalently Grafted Hairy Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2015-03-17

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Dispersions of small particles in liquids have been studied continuously for almost two centuries for their ability to simultaneously advance understanding of physical properties of fluids and their widespread use in applications. In both settings, the suspending (liquid) and suspended (solid) phases are normally distinct and uncoupled on long length and time scales. In this study, we report on the synthesis and physical properties of a novel family of covalently grafted nanoparticles that exist as self-suspended suspensions with high particle loadings. In such suspensions, we find that the grafted polymer chains exhibit unusual multiscale structural transitions and enhanced conformational stability on subnanometer and nanometer length scales. On mesoscopic length scales, the suspensions display exceptional homogeneity and colloidal stability. We attribute this feature to steric repulsions between grafted chains and the space-filling constraint on the tethered chains in the single-component self-suspended materials, which inhibits phase segregation. On macroscopic length scales, the suspensions exist as neat fluids that exhibit soft glassy rheology and, counterintuitively, enhanced elasticity with increasing temperature. This feature is discussed in terms of increased interpenetration of the grafted chains and jamming of the nanoparticles. (Chemical Presented).

  20. Turbidity-controlled sampling for suspended sediment load estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - Automated data collection is essential to effectively measure suspended sediment loads in storm events, particularly in small basins. Continuous turbidity measurements can be used, along with discharge, in an automated system that makes real-time sampling decisions to facilitate sediment load estimation. The Turbidity Threshold Sampling method distributes...

  1. Nature of suspended particulate matter and concentrations of heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of metals in bottom sediment in the Tanzanian waters of Lake Victoria and the nature of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were analysed. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment from different locations and to establish their sources. Metal concentrations were higher in ...

  2. Comparison of Suspended Solid Separation in Advanced Storm Overflow Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Sørensen, Morten Steen

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory investigation of the separation of suspended solids in a circular weir overflow and a vortex separator. The basic idea is to evaluate the efficiency of a vortical flow in the overflow chamber, and to compare these results with other overflow structures....

  3. Investigation of suspended sediment transport using ultrasonic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1994-01-01

    The results of the initial experimental studies involving the scattering of ultrasonic signals from canonical and non-canonical shaped suspended particles with known elastical qualities are reported. These results have formed the basis for the development of a numerical model for ultrasound...... propagation through low-concentration suspensions of sand particles...

  4. Reduction in density of suspended - sediment - laden natural waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Desa, E.; Smith, D.; Peshwe, V.B.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, J.A.E.

    to 0.4% - 4.5%) that of the density of the same water without suspended sediment. Teh values of peff in a given site differed from one tidal cycle to another (approx equal to 1.9%). These values varied slightly (less than 0.8%) from mid-tide to slack...

  5. A suspended sediment yield predictive equation for river basins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fit was found to be better than those relating mean annual specific suspended sediment yield to basin area or runoff only. Since many stream gauging stations in the country have no records on fluvial sediment, the empirical equation can be used to obtain preliminary estimates of expected sediment load of streams for ...

  6. Geochemistry of suspended and settling solids in two freshwater lakes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    This study describes the 1987–1992 time variationof the bulk chemical composition, levels of heavymetals, arsenic, nitrogen and phosporous insuspended and settling solids in Lake Volkerak andLake Zoom (The Netherlands). Suspended and setlingsolids were collected with continuous flowcentrifuges and

  7. Opportunities Suspended: The Disparate Impact of Disciplinary Exclusion from School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Gillespie, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Well over three million children, K-12, are estimated to have lost instructional "seat time" in 2009-2010 because they were suspended from school, often with no guarantee of adult supervision outside the school. That's about the number of children it would take to fill every seat in every major league baseball park and every NFL stadium…

  8. Microscopic characterisation of suspended graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bignardi, L.; Dorp, W.F. van; Gottardi, S.; Ivashenko, O.; Dudin, P.; Barinov, A.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Stöhr, M.; Rudolf, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-technique characterisation of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and thereafter transferred to and suspended on a grid for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The properties of the electronic band structure are investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron

  9. A direct simulation method for flows with suspended paramagnetic particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, T.G.; Hulsen, M.A.; Toonder, den J.M.J.; Anderson, P.D.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2008-01-01

    A direct numerical simulation method based on the Maxwell stress tensor and a fictitious domain method has been developed to solve flows with suspended paramagnetic particles. The numerical scheme enables us to take into account both hydrodynamic and magnetic interactions between particles in a

  10. Suspended Education Department Official Had Approved Waiver for Former Employer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basken, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Matteo Fontana, the student-aid official in the U.S. Department of Education who was suspended last month in an ethics case, issued a controversial high-stakes legal ruling in 2004 that benefited his former employer, Sallie Mae, on the day before the nation's top student lender completed its transition from a government-founded lender into a…

  11. Evaluation of the Suspending Properties of the Coprecipitate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending ability of the different ratios was evaluated in magnesium trisilicate suspension, and compared with a suspension prepared with Compound Tragacanth Powder BP (CTP) as well as a commercially available magnesium trisilicate suspension (MTS). The parameters tested were sedimentation rate, flow rate, ...

  12. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Cola acuminata gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calamine suspensions were formulated with CAG between the concentration range of 1 – 4 % w/v and compared with suspensions formulated with two standard suspending agents (tragacanth and acacia gums). Sedimentation volume, flow rate, rheology and redispersibility were used as evaluating parameters.

  13. Turbidity threshold sampling for suspended sediment load estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Lewis; Rand Eads

    2001-01-01

    Abstract - The paper discusses an automated procedure for measuring turbidity and sampling suspended sediment. The basic equipment consists of a programmable data logger, an in situ turbidimeter, a pumping sampler, and a stage-measuring device. The data logger program employs turbidity to govern sample collection during each transport event. Mounting configurations and...

  14. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Suspended matter and heavy metal content of the Elbe Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollbrecht, K.

    1980-01-01

    (1) In the River Elbe estuary there is a turbidity zone which is closely bound to the region of brackish waters. Its suspended matter content changes strongly with the tidal rhythm. Suspended matter and river bed sediments influence each other by exchanging their particles. Owing to that mechanism, the heavy metal ions bound or taken up by the suspended matter (sorption) enter the sediments. To obtain an estimation of the estuary's ability to cope with ( self purify ) a strong burden of industrial wastes, it is neccessary to take into consideration the absorbing capacity of both the mean suspension load and the sediments. (2) The concentration of nearly all heavy metal ions investigated in the suspension load decreases remarkably at the very beginning of the turbid zone already, in the Hamburg region. It indicates that the binding process are going on very rapidly and that the metal ion absorbing capacity of the Elbe estuary still requires only the first few miles of this self purification system. The results gained indicate that the suspended matter in Hamburg waters could bind or take up more heavy metal ions than are discharged into this area. (3) The concentration of most ions bound to the suspension material correlates very well with the grain size distribution of the (anorganic) particles. The concentration values decrease along the estuary and lead to a continuous transition to the values of the open sea. Cu, Ni and Cd appear to be captured preferably by organic suspended matter. This behaviour, however, is solely restricted to the turbid zone. In the open sea, after oxidation of the binding organic material, Cu and Ni correspond to the anorganic grain size distribution. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  17. Design of an adaptive finite-time controller for synchronization of two identical/different non-autonomous chaotic flywheel governor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghababa Mohammad Pourmahmood

    2012-01-01

    The centrifugal flywheel governor (CFG) is a mechanical device that automatically controls the speed of an engine and avoids the damage caused by sudden change of load torque. It has been shown that this system exhibits very rich and complex dynamics such as chaos. This paper investigates the problem of robust finite-time synchronization of non-autonomous chaotic CFGs. The effects of unknown parameters, model uncertainties and external disturbances are fully taken into account. First, it is assumed that the parameters of both master and slave CFGs have the same value and a suitable adaptive finite-time controller is designed. Second, two CFGs are synchronized with the parameters of different values via a robust adaptive finite-time control approach. Finally, some numerical simulations are used to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed finite-time controllers. (general)

  18. Contact angle hysteresis and motion behaviors of a water nano-droplet on suspended graphene under temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, Masumeh; Fatemi, S. Mahmood; Esmaeilian, Farshad; Fadaei Naeini, Vahid; Baniassadi, Majid

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, the effect of temperature gradient on the behavior of a water nano-droplet resting on a suspended graphene was studied based on a non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. The acquired results indicate that the applied temperature gradient to the suspended graphene drives the water nano-droplet to the colder region. The droplet accelerates its motion toward the cold reservoir as the temperature gradient is increased. In addition to the translational motion of the nano-droplet, the vortical motion of the water molecules was also observed. Contact angle analysis was also utilized to describe the directional motion of the nano-droplet. The translational motion of the droplet leads to the estimation of contact angle hysteresis through advancing and receding contact angles while the rotational motion resulted in the advancing and receding fronts being switched with one another through the simulation. The average displacement vector of the water molecules shows that parts of the droplet seem to stagnate while other parts rotate around them. The reason behind this particular behavior was studied based on interaction energy contours between a water molecule and the suspended graphene. The obtained data indicate that the rotational motion is in agreement with the migration of the water molecules to low interaction energy regions in order to avoid high interaction energy areas.

  19. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( >  1000 km2 over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation–deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc., transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation. Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity, and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment

  20. Energy storage: potential analysis is still on the way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane; Dejeu, Mathieu; Deschaseaux, Christelle; De Santis, Audrey; Cygler, Clement; Petitot, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    A set of articles gives an overview of the status and current evolutions of the energy storage sector. The different technologies (flywheel, lithium-ion batteries, NaS or Zebra batteries, compressed air energy storage or CAES, 2. generation CAES, pump storage power plants or PSP) have different applications areas, and also different technological maturity levels. PSPs have probably the best potential nowadays, but investors must be supported. In an interview, a member of the CNRS evokes the main researches, the obstacles in the development of solar thermodynamic plants, technology transfers, and the potential of hydrogen for massive energy storage. An article outlines the need to develop the battery market. Several technological examples and experiments are then presented: Nice Grid (storage at the source level), FlyProd (energy storage by flywheel). An article then addresses the issue of heat storage, notably in a situation of energy co-generation. Researches and prototype development are then presented, the objective of which is to obtain an adiabatic CAES. The last articles address the development of hydrogen to store energy (technologies) and a first technological demonstrator

  1. USING TURBIDITY DATA TO PREDICT SUSPENDED SEDIMENT CONCENTRATIONS: POSSIBILITIES, LIMITATIONS, AND PITFALLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This talk will look at the relationships between turbidity and suspended sediment concentrations in a variety of geographic areas, geomorphic river types, and river sizes; and attempt to give guidance on using existing turbidity data to predict suspended sediment concentrations.

  2. Seasonal changes in suspended sediment load in the Gauthami-Godavari Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, N.P.C.; Rao, B.P.; Rao, K.M.; Rao, V.S.

    Studies carried out on suspended matter characteristics of the the Gautami Godavari Estuary revealed that the concentration of suspended matter (CSM) during southwest monsoon influenced mainly by the increased run off at both Neelarevu and Vrudha...

  3. Impact of sound attenuation by suspended sediment on ADCP backscatter calibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Vermeulen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Although designed for velocity measurements, acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are widely being used to monitor suspended particulate matter in rivers and in marine environments. To quantify mass concentrations of suspended matter, ADCP backscatter is generally calibrated with in situ

  4. Design, analysis and control of cable-suspended parallel robots and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zi, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an essential overview of the authors’ work in the field of cable-suspended parallel robots, focusing on innovative design, mechanics, control, development and applications. It presents and analyzes several typical mechanical architectures of cable-suspended parallel robots in practical applications, including the feed cable-suspended structure for super antennae, hybrid-driven-based cable-suspended parallel robots, and cooperative cable parallel manipulators for multiple mobile cranes. It also addresses the fundamental mechanics of cable-suspended parallel robots on the basis of their typical applications, including the kinematics, dynamics and trajectory tracking control of the feed cable-suspended structure for super antennae. In addition it proposes a novel hybrid-driven-based cable-suspended parallel robot that uses integrated mechanism design methods to improve the performance of traditional cable-suspended parallel robots. A comparative study on error and performance indices of hybr...

  5. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  6. Electricity storage - A challenge for energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, Jean-Baptiste; Nekrasov, Andre; Pastor, Emmanuel; Benefice, Emmanuel; Brincourt, Thierry; Cagnac, Albannie; Brisse, Annabelle; Jeandel, Elodie; Lefebvre, Thierry; Penneau, Jean-Francois; Radvanyi, Etienne; Delille, Gautier; Hinchliffe, Timothee; Lancel, Gilles; Loevenbruck, Philippe; Soler, Robert; Stevens, Philippe; Torcheux, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    After a presentation of the energetic context and of its issues, this collective publication proposes presentations of various electricity storage technologies with a distinction between direct storage, thermal storage and hydrogen storage. As far as direct storage is concerned, the following options are described: pumped energy transfer stations or PETS, compressed air energy storage or CAES, flywheels, various types of electrochemical batteries (lead, alkaline, sodium, lithium), metal air batteries, redox flow batteries, and super-capacitors. Thermal storage comprises power-to-heat and heat-to-power technologies. Hydrogen can be stored under different forms (compressed gas, liquid), in saline underground cavities, or by using water electrolysis and fuel cells. The authors propose an overview of the different services provided by energy storage to the electricity system, and discuss the main perspectives and challenges for tomorrow's storage (electric mobility, integration of renewable energies, electrification of isolated areas, scenarios of development)

  7. Approximate Series Solutions for Nonlinear Free Vibration of Suspended Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaobing Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents approximate series solutions for nonlinear free vibration of suspended cables via the Lindstedt-Poincare method and homotopy analysis method, respectively. Firstly, taking into account the geometric nonlinearity of the suspended cable as well as the quasi-static assumption, a mathematical model is presented. Secondly, two analytical methods are introduced to obtain the approximate series solutions in the case of nonlinear free vibration. Moreover, small and large sag-to-span ratios and initial conditions are chosen to study the nonlinear dynamic responses by these two analytical methods. The numerical results indicate that frequency amplitude relationships obtained with different analytical approaches exhibit some quantitative and qualitative differences in the cases of motions, mode shapes, and particular sag-to-span ratios. Finally, a detailed comparison of the differences in the displacement fields and cable axial total tensions is made.

  8. Superior thermal conductivity in suspended bilayer hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengru; Guo, Jie; Dong, Lan; Aiyiti, Adili; Xu, Xiangfan; Li, Baowen

    2016-01-01

    We reported the basal-plane thermal conductivity in exfoliated bilayer hexagonal boron nitride h-BN that was measured using suspended prepatterned microstructures. The h-BN sample suitable for thermal measurements was fabricated by dry-transfer method, whose sample quality, due to less polymer residues on surfaces, is believed to be superior to that of PMMA-mediated samples. The measured room temperature thermal conductivity is around 484 Wm−1K−1(+141 Wm−1K−1/ −24 Wm−1K−1) which exceeds that in bulk h-BN, providing experimental observation of the thickness-dependent thermal conductivity in suspended few-layer h-BN. PMID:27142571

  9. Piezoresistance of top-down suspended Si nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koumela, A; Mercier, D; Dupre, C; Jourdan, G; Marcoux, C; Ollier, E; Duraffourg, L; Purcell, S T

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the gauge factor of suspended, top-down silicon nanowires are presented. The nanowires are fabricated with a CMOS compatible process and with doping concentrations ranging from 2 x 10 20 down to 5 x 10 17 cm -3 . The extracted gauge factors are compared with results on identical non-suspended nanowires and with state-of-the-art results. An increase of the gauge factor after suspension is demonstrated. For the low doped nanowires a value of 235 is measured. Particular attention was paid throughout the experiments to distinguishing real resistance change due to strain modulation from resistance fluctuations due to charge trapping. Furthermore, a numerical model correlating surface charge density with the gauge factor is presented. Comparison of the simulations with experimental measurements shows the validity of this approach. These results contribute to a deeper understanding of the piezoresistive effect in Si nanowires.

  10. Relationship between dioxin concentration and particle size for suspended sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, K.; Sakurai, T.; Choi, J.W.; Suzuki, N.; Morita, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of the present study was to find out how the amounts of adsorbed dioxins, i.e., polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), mono-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and non-ortho-PCBs, vary with the particle size of suspended sediment. As dioxins are hydrophobic, they tend to adsorb onto particles suspended in water, and the determination of which dioxin congeners readily dissolve in water or adsorb onto particles is central to the characterization of dioxin behavior in water/sediment systems. Presumably suspension of sediments and the size of the particles govern the transfer of dioxins to aquatic organisms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the relationship between the amount of dioxins and the particle-size distribution of resuspended, rather than settled, sediment.

  11. Elemental Spatiotemporal Variations of Total Suspended Particles in Jeddah City

    OpenAIRE

    Kadi, Mohammad W.

    2014-01-01

    Elements associated with total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in Jeddah city were determined. Using high-volume samplers, TSP samples were simultaneously collected over a one-year period from seven sampling sites. Samples were analyzed for Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Sr. Results revealed great dependence of element contents on spatial and temporal variations. Two sites characterized by busy roads, workshops, heavy population, and heavy trucking have high lev...

  12. Segment Fixed Priority Scheduling for Self Suspending Real Time Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-11

    a compute- intensive system such as a self - driving car that we have recently developed [28]. Such systems run computation-demanding algorithms...Applications. In RTSS, 2012. [12] J. Kim et al. Parallel Scheduling for Cyber-Physical Systems: Analysis and Case Study on a Self - Driving Car . In ICCPS...leveraging GPU can be modeled using a multi-segment self -suspending real-time task model. For example, a planning algorithm for autonomous driving can

  13. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediment Dynamics in the Mississippi Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, D. N.; Skarke, A. D.; Silwal, S.; Dash, P.

    2016-02-01

    The Mississippi Sound is a semi-enclosed estuary between the coast of Mississippi and a chain of offshore barrier islands with relatively shallow water depths and high marine biodiversity that is wildly utilized for commercial fishing and public recreation. The discharge of sediment-laden rivers into the Mississippi Sound and the adjacent Northern Gulf of Mexico creates turbid plumes that can extend hundreds of square kilometers along the coast and persist for multiple days. The concentration of suspended sediment in these coastal waters is an important parameter in the calculation of regional sediment budgets as well as analysis of water-quality factors such as primary productivity, nutrient dynamics, and the transport of pollutants as well as pathogens. The spectral resolution, sampling frequency, and regional scale spatial domain associated with satellite based sensors makes remote sensing an ideal tool to monitor suspended sediment dynamics in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Accordingly, the presented research evaluates the validity of published models that relate remote sensing reflectance with suspended sediment concentrations (SSC), for similar environmental settings, with 51 in situ observations of SSC from the Mississippi Sound. Additionally, regression analysis is used to correlate additional in situ observations of SSC in Mississippi Sound with coincident observations of visible and near-infrared band reflectance collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Aqua satellite, in order to develop a site-specific empirical predictive model for SSC. Finally, specific parameters of the sampled suspended sediment such as grain size and mineralogy are analyzed in order to quantify their respective contributions to total remotely sensed reflectance.

  14. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct...... and attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast...

  15. Suspended particulate studies over the Madeira Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Various aspects relating to suspended matter over the Madeira Abyssal Plain are discussed. Special attention is paid to the nepheloid layer including resuspension and transport processes; time variabilities in particle concentrations and fluxes; particle morphology, microbiology and chemical composition; phase association of metals. Also, tentative predictions of the behaviour of some radionuclides are made based on theory and data on rare earth elements. Instrumentation developed for the project is detailed - the deep water particle sampler. (author)

  16. Suspended sediment in a high-Arctic river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard-Pedersen, Pernille; Sigsgaard, Charlotte; Kroon, Aart

    2017-01-01

    -2012) of daily measurements from the high-Artic Zackenberg River in Northeast Greenland to estimate annual suspended sediment fluxes based on four commonly used methods: M1) is the discharge weighted mean and uses direct measurements, while M2-M4) are one uncorrected and two bias corrected rating curves......-1 and 61,000±16,000ty-1. Extreme events with high discharges had a mean duration of 1day. The average suspended sediment flux during extreme events was 17,000±5000ty-1, which constitutes a year-to-year variation of 20-37% of the total annual flux. The most accurate sampling strategy was bi...... extrapolating a continuous concentration trace from measured values. All methods are tested on complete and reduced datasets. The average annual runoff in the period 2005-2012 was 190±25mio·m3 y-1. The different estimation methods gave a range of average annual suspended sediment fluxes between 43,000±10,000ty...

  17. The Influence of Turbulent Coherent Structure on Suspended Sediment Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S. H.; Tsai, C.

    2017-12-01

    The anomalous diffusion of turbulent sedimentation has received more and more attention in recent years. With the advent of new instruments and technologies, researchers have found that sediment behavior may deviate from Fickian assumptions when particles are heavier. In particle-laden flow, bursting phenomena affects instantaneous local concentrations, and seems to carry suspended particles for a longer distance. Instead of the pure diffusion process in an analogy to Brownian motion, Levy flight which allows particles to move in response to bursting phenomena is suspected to be more suitable for describing particle movement in turbulence. And the fractional differential equation is a potential candidate to improve the concentration profile. However, stochastic modeling (the Differential Chapmen-Kolmogorov Equation) also provides an alternative mathematical framework to describe system transits between different states through diffusion/the jump processes. Within this framework, the stochastic particle tracking model linked with advection diffusion equation is a powerful tool to simulate particle locations in the flow field. By including the jump process to this model, a more comprehensive description for suspended sediment transport can be provided with a better physical insight. This study also shows the adaptability and expandability of the stochastic particle tracking model for suspended sediment transport modeling.

  18. Simplified Entropic Model for the Evaluation of Suspended Load Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Mirauda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment concentration is a key aspect in the forecasting of river evolution dynamics, as well as in water quality assessment, evaluation of reservoir impacts, and management of water resources. The estimation of suspended load often relies on empirical models, of which efficiency is limited by their analytic structure or by the need for calibration parameters. The present work deals with a simplified fully-analytical formulation of the so-called entropic model in order to reproduce the vertical distribution of sediment concentration. The simplification consists in the leading order expansion of the generalized spatial coordinate of the entropic velocity profile that, strictly speaking, applies to the near-bed region, but that provides acceptable results also near the free surface. The proposed closed-form solution, which highlights the interplay among channel morphology, stream power, secondary flows, and suspended transport features, allows reducing the needed number of field measurements and, therefore, the time of field activities. Its accuracy and robustness were successfully tested based on the comparison with laboratory data reported in literature.

  19. MEMS-Based Fuel Reformer with Suspended Membrane Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuei-Sung; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    We report a MEMS-based fuel reformer for supplying hydrogen to micro-fuel cells for portable applications. A combustor and a reforming chamber are fabricated at either side of a suspended membrane structure. This design is used to improve the overall thermal efficiency, which is a critical issue to realize a micro-fuel reformer. The suspended membrane structure design provided good thermal isolation. The micro-heaters consumed 0.97W to maintain the reaction zone of the MEMS-based fuel reformer at 200°C, but further power saving is necessary by improving design and fabrication. The conversion rate of methanol to hydrogen was about 19% at 180°C by using evaporated copper as a reforming catalyst. The catalytic combustion of hydrogen started without any assistance of micro-heaters. By feeding the fuel mixture of an equivalence ratio of 0.35, the temperature of the suspended membrane structure was maintained stable at 100°C with a combustion efficiency of 30%. In future works, we will test a micro-fuel reformer by using a micro-combustor to supply heat.

  20. Optimal control of suspended sediment distribution model of Talaga lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratianingsih, R.; Resnawati, Azim, Mardlijah, Widodo, B.

    2017-08-01

    Talaga Lake is one of several lakes in Central Sulawesi that potentially to be managed in multi purposes scheme because of its characteristic. The scheme is addressed not only due to the lake maintenance because of its sediment but also due to the Algae farming for its biodiesel fuel. This paper governs a suspended sediment distribution model of Talaga lake. The model is derived from the two dimensional hydrodynamic shallow water equations of the mass and momentum conservation law of sediment transport. An order reduction of the model gives six equations of hyperbolic systems of the depth, two dimension directional velocities and sediment concentration while the bed elevation as the second order of turbulent diffusion and dispersion are neglected. The system is discreted and linearized such that could be solved numerically by box-Keller method for some initial and boundary condition. The solutions shows that the downstream velocity is play a role in transversal direction of stream function flow. The downstream accumulated sediment indicate that the suspended sediment and its changing should be controlled by optimizing the downstream velocity and transversal suspended sediment changing due to the ideal algae growth need.

  1. Studying Suspended Sediment Mechanism with Two-Phase PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinpour, H.; Atkinson, J. F.; Bennett, S. J.; Guala, M.

    2017-12-01

    Suspended sediment transport affects soil erosion, agriculture and water resources quality. Turbulent diffusion is the most primary force to maintain sediments in suspension. Although extensive previous literature have been studying the interactions between turbulent motion and suspended sediment, mechanism of sediments in suspension is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigate suspension of sediments as two distinct phases: one phase of sediments and another phase of fluid with turbulent motions. We designed and deployed a state-of-the-art two-phase PIV measurement technique to discriminate these two phases and acquire velocities of each phase separately and simultaneously. The technique that we have developed is employing a computer-vision based method, which enables us to discriminate sediment particles from fluid tracer particles based on two thresholds, dissimilar particle sizes and different particle intensities. Results indicate that fluid turbulence decreases in the presence of suspended sediments. Obtaining only sediment phase consecutive images enable us to compute fluctuation sediment concentration. This result enlightens understanding of complex interaction between the fluctuation velocities and the fluctuation of associated mass and compares turbulent viscosity with turbulent eddy diffusivity experimentally.

  2. Simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume I. Technical report. [SIMWEST code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A.W.; Edsinger, R.W.; Chan, Y.K.

    1977-08-01

    The effort developed a comprehensive computer program for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic). An acronym for the program is SIMWEST (Simulation Model for Wind Energy Storage). The level of detail of SIMWEST is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. Volume I gives a brief overview of the SIMWEST program and describes the two NASA defined simulation studies.

  3. Assessment and preliminary design of an energy buffer for regenerative braking in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, R.; Mathur, A. K.

    1979-01-01

    Energy buffer systems, capable of storing the vehicle energy during braking and reusing this stored energy during acceleration, were examined. Some of these buffer systems when incorporated in an electric vehicle would result in an improvement in the performance and range under stop and go driving conditions. Buffer systems considered included flywheels, hydropneumatic, pneumatic, spring, and regenerative braking. Buffer ranking and rating criteria were established. Buffer systems were rated based on predicted range improvements, consumer acceptance, driveability, safety, reliability and durability, and initial and life cycle costs. A hydropneumatic buffer system was selected.

  4. Energy storage. A challenge for energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, Jean-Baptiste; Nekrasov, Andre; Pastor, Emmanuel; Benefice, Emmanuel; Brincourt, Thierry; Brisse, Annabelle; Cagnac, Albannie; Delille, Gauthier; Hinchliffe, Timothee; Lancel, Gilles; Jeandel, Elodie; Lefebvre, Thierry; Loevenbruck, Philippe; Penneau, Jean-Francois; Soler, Robert; Stevens, Philippe; Radvanyi, Etienne; Torcheux, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    Written by several EDF R and D engineers, this book aims at presenting an overview of knowledge and know-how of EDF R and D in the field of energy storage, and at presenting the different technologies and their application to electric power systems. After a description of the context related to a necessary energy transition, the authors present the numerous storage technologies. They distinguish direct storage of power (pumped storage water stations, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, the various electrochemical batteries, metal-air batteries, redox flow batteries, superconductors), thermal storage (power to heat, heat to power) and hydrogen storage (storage under different forms), and propose an overview of the situation of standardisation of storage technologies. In the next part, they give an overview of the main services provided by storage to the electric power system: production optimisation, frequency adjustment, grid constraint resolution, local smoothing of PV and wind production, supply continuity. The last part discusses perspectives regarding the role of tomorrow's storage in the field of electrical mobility, for emerging markets, and with respect to different scenarios

  5. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    On the occasion of the World Environment Day the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment held a conference on growth problems in energy consumption. The themes which were treated were energy conservation, hydroelectric power, the role of nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, fossil fuel resources, ecological limits, pollution and international aspects. Nuclear energy forms the main theme of one lecture and an aspect of several others. (JIW)

  6. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  7. [Changes of dentin, dental pulp and periodontium tissue in tail-suspended rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lin-tian; Wen, Ling-ying; Luo, Ya-ning; Hu, Pei-zhen; Jiang, Wei-zhong; Wu, Xing-yu

    2003-08-01

    To investigate the metabolic changes of calcium and phosphorus in dentin, dental pulp and periodontium in tail-suspended rats, and the functions of TGF-beta 1, c-fos, collagen-I and collagen IV in dentin, dental pulp and periodontium. Relative percentage contents of Ca, P in dentin, dental pulp and periodontium were measured with scanning electron microscope and energy spectrum analytical system in 3 groups of rats. The expression of TGF-beta 1, c-fos, collagen-I and collagen IV were also observed. In the suspension group, the relative percentage content of Ca declined significantly, while P increased slightly. There were no significant differences of Ca, P in alveolar bone. The expressions of TGF-beta 1, c-fos and collagen-I declined, but the expression of collagen-IV in pulp vessel increased. There were no significant changes of expressions of TGF-beta 1, c-fos, collagen-I and collagen-IV in the vicinity of PDL. After adopting artificial countermeasures, the above expressions restored partly. Weightlessness might cause abnormal mineralization in dentin, and 1.5 G artificial countermeasures could eliminate the above changes of mineral metabolism. The poor mineralization of dentin might be associated with the reduced secretion of TGF-beta 1, c-fos and collagen-I in tail-suspended rats.

  8. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  9. DTU international energy report 2013. Energy storage options for future sustainable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvidtfeldt Larsen, H.; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2013-11-01

    One of the great challenges in the transition to a non-fossil energy system with a high share of fluctuating renewable energy sources such as solar and wind is to align consumption and production in an economically satisfactory manner. Energy storage could provide the necessary balancing power to make this possible. This energy report addresses energy storage from a broad perspective: It analyses smaller stores that can be used locally in for example heat storage in the individual home or vehicle, such as electric cars or hydrogen cars. The report also addresses decentralized storage as flywheels and batteries linked to decentralized energy systems. In addition it addresses large central storages as pumped hydro storage and compressed air energy storage and analyse this in connection with international transmission and trading over long distances. The report addresses electrical storage, thermal storage and other forms of energy storage, for example conversion of biomass to liquid fuel and conversion of solar energy directly into hydrogen, as well as storage in transmission, grid storage etc. Finally, the report covers research, innovation and the future prospects and addresses the societal challenges and benefits of the use of energy storage. (Author)

  10. Status of electrical energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the status of electrical storage systems in the light of the growing use of renewable energy sources and distributed generation (DG) in meeting emission targets and in the interest of the UK electricity supply industry. Examples of storage technologies, their applications and current status are examined along with technical issues and possible activities by UK industries. Details are given of development opportunities in the fields of flow cells, advanced batteries - lithium batteries, high temperature batteries, flywheels, and capacitors. Power conversion systems and system integration, the all-electric ship project, and compressed air energy storage are discussed. Opportunities for development and deployment, small scale systems, demonstration programmes, and research and development issues are considered. An outline of the US Department of Energy Storage programme is given in the Annex to the report.

  11. An experimental study on suspended sodium droplet combustion (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenji

    2005-03-01

    As part of studies for phenomenological investigation of sodium droplet burning behavior, in our previous experimental studies for suspended single sodium droplet, behavior of ignition process and succeeding combustion, ignition delay time, and droplet temperature history had been investigated. In this study, combustion experiments of suspended sodium droplet were performed in upward dry air flow by expanding the range of free-stream velocity U of air flow into 400 cm/s with initial droplet temperature Ti=300, 350, and 400degC and initial droplet diameter 4 mm at first. Then, the combustion experiments were also performed by changing the initial droplet diameter from 2.3 to 4.4 mm with Ti=350 and 400degC and U=100 cm/s. From the experimental results, the effects of free-stream velocity, initial droplet temperature, and initial droplet diameter on the ignition/burning behavior and ignition delay time were examined. The obtained results are as follows: (1) Ignition phenomena of suspended droplet were observed for all examined experimental conditions up to 400 cm/s. The orange emission observed at the moment of ignition occurs simultaneously over whole droplet surface except the top region of it. (2) The feature of the dependence of ignition delay time on the free-stream velocity is independent of the initial droplet temperature. With the increase of the free-stream velocity, up to 300 cm/s the ignition delay time decreases with decreasing dependency, and then the dependency increases more. (3) The ignition delay time increases with the increase of initial droplet diameter. The dependency increases as the initial droplet diameter increases. The ignition delay time extrapolated toward zero diameters from the obtained results becomes to be essentially zero. (author)

  12. Particles of bottom and suspended sediments: height of rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodzinskaya Anna Gennadievna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, characteristic values of dynamic sizes of bottom and suspended sediments, including their probabilistic assessment, are considered. The article presents the processing results in respect of the experimental data for bottom and suspended sediments, obtained in the laboratory environment using samples and filming methods. The experiments have proven that the dynamic hydraulic size determines the height of rise for the particles of the saltation load, rather than suspended ones. In the laboratory environment, the maximal height of rise is mainly driven by the relative flow depth. According to the assessment made by the co-authors, depths of flows employed in the experiments designated for the identification of heights of rises, were comparable to saltation heights of particles. Besides, the saltation height of particles, having relative density well below 2.65, nearly always exceeded half of the depth of the laboratory flow. Hydrodynamic conditions favourable for the separation and motion of artificial particles in coarse surface tanks are far different from the motion of sand particles on the bottom of lowland rivers. Values of hydraulic resistance ratios typical for laboratory experiments by far exceed their values typical for lowland rivers, and it means that the conditions of the experiments performed in the laboratory were similar to those typical for mountain rivers. The research findings have proven that the particle separation and motion pattern, if artificial particles are made of the materials demonstrating variable density and elasticity values and if loose particles travel over fixed ones, is different from the pattern typical for natural particles having variable coarseness.

  13. Super-bridges suspended over carbon nanotube cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinteri, Alberto; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2008-11-01

    In this paper the new concept of 'super-bridges', i.e. kilometre-long bridges suspended over carbon nanotube cables, is introduced. The analysis shows that the use of realistic (thus defective) carbon nanotube bundles as suspension cables can enlarge the current limit main span by a factor of ~3. Too large compliance and dynamic self-excited resonances could be avoided by additional strands, rendering the super-bridge anchored as a spider's cobweb. As an example, we have computed the limit main spans of the current existing 19 suspended-deck bridges longer than 1 km assuming them to have substituted their cables with carbon nanotube bundles (thus maintaining the same geometry, with the exception of the length) finding spans of up to ~6.3 km. We thus suggest that the design of the Messina bridge in Italy, which would require a main span of ~3.3 km, could benefit from the use of carbon nanotube bundles. We believe that their use represents a feasible and economically convenient solution. The plausibility of these affirmations is confirmed by a statistical analysis of the existing 100 longest suspended bridges, which follow a Zipf's law with an exponent of 1.1615: we have found a Moore-like (i.e. exponential) law, in which the doubling of the capacity (here the main span) per year is substituted by the factor 1.0138. Such a law predicts that the realization of the Messina bridge using conventional materials will only occur around the middle of the present century, whereas it could be expected in the near future if carbon nanotube bundles were used. A simple cost analysis concludes the paper.

  14. Super-bridges suspended over carbon nanotube cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpinteri, Alberto; Pugno, Nicola M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the new concept of 'super-bridges', i.e. kilometre-long bridges suspended over carbon nanotube cables, is introduced. The analysis shows that the use of realistic (thus defective) carbon nanotube bundles as suspension cables can enlarge the current limit main span by a factor of ∼3. Too large compliance and dynamic self-excited resonances could be avoided by additional strands, rendering the super-bridge anchored as a spider's cobweb. As an example, we have computed the limit main spans of the current existing 19 suspended-deck bridges longer than 1 km assuming them to have substituted their cables with carbon nanotube bundles (thus maintaining the same geometry, with the exception of the length) finding spans of up to ∼6.3 km. We thus suggest that the design of the Messina bridge in Italy, which would require a main span of ∼3.3 km, could benefit from the use of carbon nanotube bundles. We believe that their use represents a feasible and economically convenient solution. The plausibility of these affirmations is confirmed by a statistical analysis of the existing 100 longest suspended bridges, which follow a Zipf's law with an exponent of 1.1615: we have found a Moore-like (i.e. exponential) law, in which the doubling of the capacity (here the main span) per year is substituted by the factor 1.0138. Such a law predicts that the realization of the Messina bridge using conventional materials will only occur around the middle of the present century, whereas it could be expected in the near future if carbon nanotube bundles were used. A simple cost analysis concludes the paper.

  15. Chemical composition shape form and size of suspended solids in the atmosphere carried by rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la

    2001-01-01

    The interest of this work is to know about shape form, size and chemical composition of the suspended solids in the atmosphere of Toluca city and which are carried by the rains. The harvest of the samples was carried out during january to november 1999. The separation of the particulate matter from the rain water was realized through centrifugation. The solids were analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy to know the shape form and size and the chemical composition was determined by X-ray dispersive energy in general form and of some particles individually analysed. The p H was measured to the solutions and the quantification of some dissolved ions by the Icp technique was realized. The results of the solids showed C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, P, K, Ca, Ti and Fe. Moreover they present sizes which varying from a ten of nanometers until some tens of microns. (Author)

  16. RF MEMS suspended band-stop resonator and filter for frequency and bandwidth continuous fine tuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Yun-Ho; Kim, Yong-Kweon; Llamas-Garro, Ignacio; Kim, Jung-Mu

    2012-01-01

    We firstly propose the concept of a frequency and bandwidth fine-tuning method using an RF MEMS-based suspended tunable band-stop resonator. We experimentally show the feasibility of the continuously tuned resonator, including a second-order filter, which consists of cascaded resonators to achieve center frequency and bandwidth fine tuning. The structure consists of a freestanding half-wavelength (λ/2) resonator connected to a large displacement comb actuator. The lateral movement of the λ/2 resonator over the main transmission line produces different electromagnetic decoupling values from the main transmission line. The decoupled energy leads to continuous center frequency and bandwidth tuning using the band-stop resonator circuit for fine-tuning applications. The freestanding λ/2 resonator plays the role of a variable capacitor as well as a decoupling resonator in the proposed structure. The fabricated tunable filter shows suitability for Ku-band wireless communication system applications with continuous reconfiguration

  17. Analysis towards VMEM File of a Suspended Virtual Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zheng; Jin, Bo; Sun, Yongqing

    With the popularity of virtual machines, forensic investigators are challenged with more complicated situations, among which discovering the evidences in virtualized environment is of significant importance. This paper mainly analyzes the file suffixed with .vmem in VMware Workstation, which stores all pseudo-physical memory into an image. The internal file structure of .vmem file is studied and disclosed. Key information about processes and threads of a suspended virtual machine is revealed. Further investigation into the Windows XP SP3 heap contents is conducted and a proof-of-concept tool is provided. Different methods to obtain forensic memory images are introduced, with both advantages and limits analyzed. We conclude with an outlook.

  18. Easy process to obtain suspended graphene flakes on TEM grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Hugo; Fernandes, Joel; Moura, Cacilda; Schellenberg, Peter; Belsley, Michael; Alves, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Much of the ongoing research on graphene requires free-hanging (suspended) graphene to eliminate any influence from underlying substrates. Several methods have been developed for its preparation but they are either very complex or not completely reliable. Here, we describe a simple method for the transfer of graphene single layers from glass or silicon substrates onto TEM grids. The method uses a carrier film for the transfer process. By optimizing the process yields greater than 60% were achieved. The integrity of the transferred films was confirmed using Raman spectroscopy; successful suspension of both mono- and double-layer graphene sheets was obtained. (paper)

  19. The Ages in a Self-Suspended Nanoparticle Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Praveen

    2010-01-13

    Telomers ionically tethered to nanometer-sized particles yield self-suspended, nanoparticle-Iaden liquids with unusual dynamical features. By subjecting these suspensions to controlled, modest shear strains, we find that their flow behaviors observed using experiments performed on time scales of tens of seconds can be projected to obtain maps of their dynamical response on geological time scales. That such extraordinarily slow dynamic processes can be uncovered from real-time measurements by simply stretching a system provides a simple but powerful tool for interrogating extremely slow motions in other jammed physical states. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  20. LAGRANGIAN MODELING OF A SUSPENDED-SEDIMENT PULSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.

    1987-01-01

    The one-dimensional Lagrangian Transport Model (LTM) has been applied in a quasi two-dimensional manner to simulate the transport of a slug injection of microbeads in steady experimental flows. A stationary bed segment was positioned below each parcel location to simulate temporary storage of beads on the bottom of the flume. Only one degree of freedom was available for all three bead simulations. The results show the versatility of the LTM and the ability of the LTM to accurately simulate transport of fine suspended sediment.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Flow and Suspended Sediment Transport in the Distributary Channel Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow and suspended sediment transport in distributary channel networks play an important role in the evolution of deltas and estuaries, as well as the coastal environment. In this study, a 1D flow and suspended sediment transport model is presented to simulate the hydrodynamics and suspended sediment transport in the distributary channel networks. The governing equations for river flow are the Saint-Venant equations and for suspended sediment transport are the nonequilibrium transport equations. The procedure of solving the governing equations is firstly to get the matrix form of the water level and suspended sediment concentration at all connected junctions by utilizing the transformation of the governing equations of the single channel. Secondly, the water level and suspended sediment concentration at all junctions can be obtained by solving these irregular spare matrix equations. Finally, the water level, discharge, and suspended sediment concentration at each river section can be calculated. The presented 1D flow and suspended sediment transport model has been applied to the Pearl River networks and can reproduce water levels, discharges, and suspended sediment concentration with good accuracy, indicating this that model can be used to simulate the hydrodynamics and suspended sediment concentration in the distributary channel networks.

  2. Magnesium-rich minerals in sediment and suspended particulates of South Florida water bodies: implications for turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, W G; Fisher, M M; Cao, X; Osborne, T; Ellis, L

    2007-01-01

    Fine sediments in shallow water bodies such as Lake Okeechobee are prone to resuspension. Predominantly inorganic "mud" sediment that covers approximately 670 km2 of the lake has been recognized as a persistent source of turbidity. The objective of this study was to determine if mineral components of sediments in Lake Okeechobee and water conveyances of the northern Everglades also occur as suspended sediment and hence constitute a potential abiotic contributor to turbidity. Sediment samples were collected from nine stations within the lake and eight locations north of Water Conservation Area 2A in the Everglades. Water samples were also collected at selected locations. The silt and clay mineralogy of sediment and suspended particles was determined using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray elemental microanalysis, and high-resolution transmission-electron microscopy. Clay fractions of the lake sediment contained the Mg silicate minerals sepiolite and palygorskite, along with smectite, dolomite, calcite, and kaolinite. Sediment silt fractions were dominated by carbonates and/or quartz, with smaller amounts of Ca phosphates and sepiolite. Mineralogy of the mud sediment was similar to that reported for geologic phosphate deposits. This suggests that the mud sediment might have accumulated by stream transport of minerals from these deposits. Suspended solids and mud-sediment mineralogy were similar, except that smectite was more abundant in suspended solids. Everglade samples also contained Mg-rich minerals. The small size, low density, and fibrous or platy nature of the prevalent mud sediment minerals make them an abiotic, hydrodynamically sensitive source of persistent turbidity in a shallow lake. Mitigation efforts focused exclusively on P-induced biogeochemical processes do not address the origin or effects of these minerals. Ecological management issues such as turbidity control, P retention, geologic P input

  3. Measurements of Two-Phase Suspended Sediment Transport in Breaking Waves Using Volumetric Three-Component Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, F. C. K.; LeClaire, P.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of sediment pickup and distribution in breaking waves is important for modeling sediment transport in the surf zone. Previous studies were mostly concerned with bulk sediment transport under specific wave conditions. The distribution of suspended sediments in breaking waves had not been measured together with coherent flow structures. In this study, two-phase flow measurements were obtained under a train of plunging regular waves on a plane slope using the volumetric three-component velocimetry (V3V) technique. The measurements captured the motions of sediment particles simultaneously with the three-component, three-dimensional (3C3D) velocity fields of turbulent coherent structures (large eddies) induced by breaking waves. Sediment particles (solid glass spheres diameter 0.125 to 0.15 mm, specific gravity 2.5) were separated from fluid tracers (mean diameter 13 µm, specific gravity 1.3) based on a combination of particle spot size and brightness in the two-phase images. The interactions between the large eddies and glass spheres were investigated for plunger vortices generated at incipient breaking and for splash-up vortices generated at the second plunge point. The measured data show that large eddies impinging on the bottom was the primary mechanism which lift sediment particles into suspension and momentarily increased near-bed suspended sediment concentration. Although eddy impingement events were sporadic in space and time, the distributions of suspended sediments in the large eddies were not uniform. High suspended sediment concentration and vertical sediment flux were found in the wall-jet region where the impinging flow was deflected outward and upward. Sediment particles were also trapped and carried around by counter-rotating vortices (Figure 1). Suspended sediment concentration was significantly lower in the impingement region where the fluid velocity was downward, even though turbulent kinetic energy in the down flow was

  4. Self-suspended permanent magnetic FePt ferrofluids

    KAUST Repository

    Dallas, Panagiotis

    2013-10-01

    We present the synthesis and characterization of a new class of self-suspended ferrofluids that exhibit remanent magnetization at room temperature. Our system relies on the chemisorption of a thiol-terminated ionic liquid with very low melting point on the surface of L10 FePt nanoparticles. In contrast, all types of ferrofluids previously reported employ either volatile solvents as the suspending media or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (that lacks permanent magnetization) as the inorganic component. The ferrofluids do not show any sign of flocculation or phase separation, despite the strong interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles due to the strong chemisorption of the ionic liquid as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Composites with high FePt loading (40 and 70. wt%) exhibit a pseudo solid-like rheological behavior and high remanent magnetization values (10.1 and 12.8. emu/g respectively). At lower FePt loading (12. wt%) a liquid like behavior is observed and the remanent and saturation magnetization values are 3.5 and 6.2. emu/g, respectively. The magnetic and flow properties of the materials can be easily fine tuned by controlling the type and amount of FePt nanoparticles used. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  5. Suspended animation-like state protects mice from lethal hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Eric; Roth, Mark B

    2007-04-01

    Joseph Priestley observed the high burn rate of candles in pure oxygen and wondered if people would "live out too fast" if we were in the same environment. We hypothesize that sulfide, a natural reducer of oxygen that is made in many cell types, acts as a buffer to prevent unrestricted oxygen consumption. To test this, we administered sulfide in the form of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to mice (Mus musculus). As we have previously shown, H2S decreases the metabolic rate of mice by approximately 90% and induces a suspended animation-like state. Mice cannot survive for longer than 20 min when exposed to 5% oxygen. However, if mice are first put into a suspended animation-like state by a 20-min pretreatment with H2S and then are exposed to low oxygen, they can survive for more than 6.5 h in 5% oxygen with no apparent detrimental effects. In addition, if mice are exposed to a 20-min pretreatment with H2S followed by 1 h at 5% oxygen, they can then survive for several hours at oxygen tensions as low as 3%. We hypothesize that prior exposure to H2S reduces oxygen demand, therefore making it possible for the mice to survive with low oxygen supply. These results suggest that H2S may be useful to prevent damage associated with hypoxia.

  6. Elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rui, E-mail: rui.zhang@ed.ac.uk; Cheung, Rebecca [Scottish Microelectronics Centre, Alexander Crum Brown Road, The University of Edinburgh, King' s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); Koutsos, Vasileios [Institute for Materials and Processes, School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, King' s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FB (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-25

    We report the experimental determination of the elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe{sub 2}, a promising two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting material combined with high optical quality. The suspended WSe{sub 2} membranes have been fabricated by mechanical exfoliation of bulk WSe{sub 2} and transfer of the exfoliated multilayer WSe{sub 2} flakes onto SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates pre-patterned with hole arrays. Then, indentation experiments have been performed on these membranes with an atomic force microscope. The results show that the 2D elastic modulus of the multilayer WSe{sub 2} membranes increases linearly while the prestress decreases linearly as the number of layers increases. The interlayer interaction in WSe{sub 2} has been observed to be strong enough to prevent the interlayer sliding during the indentation experiments. The Young's modulus of multilayer WSe{sub 2} (167.3 ± 6.7 GPa) is statistically independent of the thickness of the membranes, whose value is about two thirds of other most investigated 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, namely, MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2}. Moreover, the multilayer WSe{sub 2} can endure ∼12.4 GPa stress and ∼7.3% strain without fracture or mechanical degradation. The 2D WSe{sub 2} can be an attractive semiconducting material for application in flexible optoelectronic devices and nano-electromechanical systems.

  7. KINETICS OF SUSPENDED EMULSION POLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-zhong Bao; Cheng-xi Wang; Zhi-ming Huang; Zhi-xue Weng

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of suspended emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), in which water acted as the dispersed phase and the mixture of MMA and cyclohexane as the continuous phase, was investigated. It showed that the initial polymerization rate (Rp0) and steady-state polymerization rate (Rp) were proportional to the mass ratio between water and oil phase, and increased as the polymerization temperature, the potassium persulphate concentration ([I]) and the Tween20 emulsifier concentration ([S]) increased. The relationships between the polymerization rate and [I] and [S] were obtained as follows: Rp0 ∝ [I]0.73[S]0.32 and Rp ∝ [I]0.71[S]0.23. The above exponents were close to those obtained from normal MMA emulsion polymerization. It also showed that the average molecular weight of the resulting poly(methyl methacrylate) decreased as the polymerization temperature, [I] and [S] increased. Thus, MMA suspended emulsion polymerization could be considered as a combination of many miniature emulsion polymerizations proceeding in water drops and obeyed the classical kinetics of MMA emulsion polymerization.

  8. Regional estimation of extreme suspended sediment concentrations using watershed characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramblay, Yves; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; St-Hilaire, André; Poulin, Jimmy

    2010-01-01

    SummaryThe number of stations monitoring daily suspended sediment concentration (SSC) has been decreasing since the 1980s in North America while suspended sediment is considered as a key variable for water quality. The objective of this study is to test the feasibility of regionalising extreme SSC, i.e. estimating SSC extremes values for ungauged basins. Annual maximum SSC for 72 rivers in Canada and USA were modelled with probability distributions in order to estimate quantiles corresponding to different return periods. Regionalisation techniques, originally developed for flood prediction in ungauged basins, were tested using the climatic, topographic, land cover and soils attributes of the watersheds. Two approaches were compared, using either physiographic characteristics or seasonality of extreme SSC to delineate the regions. Multiple regression models to estimate SSC quantiles as a function of watershed characteristics were built in each region, and compared to a global model including all sites. Regional estimates of SSC quantiles were compared with the local values. Results show that regional estimation of extreme SSC is more efficient than a global regression model including all sites. Groups/regions of stations have been identified, using either the watershed characteristics or the seasonality of occurrence for extreme SSC values providing a method to better describe the extreme events of SSC. The most important variables for predicting extreme SSC are the percentage of clay in the soils, precipitation intensity and forest cover.

  9. A Passively-Suspended Tesla Pump Left Ventricular Assist Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izraelev, Valentin; Weiss, William J.; Fritz, Bryan; Newswanger, Raymond K.; Paterson, Eric G.; Snyder, Alan; Medvitz, Richard B.; Cysyk, Joshua; Pae, Walter E.; Hicks, Dennis; Lukic, Branka; Rosenberg, Gerson

    2009-01-01

    The design and initial test results of a new passively suspended Tesla type LAVD blood pump are described. CFD analysis was used in the design of the pump. Overall size of the prototype device is 50 mm in diameter and 75 mm in length. The pump rotor has a density lower than that of blood and when spinning inside the stator in blood it creates a buoyant centering force that suspends the rotor in the radial direction. The axial magnetic force between the rotor and stator restrain the rotor in the axial direction. The pump is capable of pumping up to 10 liters/min at a 70 mmHg head rise at 8000 RPM. The pump has demonstrated a normalized index of hemolysis level below .02 mg/dL for flows between 2 and 9.7 L/min. An inlet pressure sensor has also been incorporated into the inlet cannula wall and will be used for control purposes. One initial in vivo study showed an encouraging result. Further CFD modeling refinements are planned as well as endurance testing of the device. PMID:19770799

  10. Some considerations about the symmetry and evolution of chaotic Rayleigh-Bénard convection: The flywheel mechanism and the ``wind'' of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappa, Marcello

    2011-09-01

    Rayleigh-Bénard convection in finite-size enclosures exhibits really intricate features when turbulent states are reached and thermal plumes play a crucial role in a number of them. This complex mechanism may be regarded as a "machine" containing many different working parts: boundary layers, mixing zones, jets, and a relatively free and isothermal central region. These parts are generally regarded as the constitutive "ingredients" whose interplay leads to the emergence of a macroscopic pattern with well-defined properties. Like the Lorenz model (but with the due differences) such a complex structure has a prevailing two-dimensional nature and can be oriented clockwise or anticlockwise (both configurations are equally likely to occur and the flow can exhibit occasional and irregular "reversals" from one to the other without a change in magnitude). It is usually referred to in the literature as "wind of turbulence" or "flywheel". The present article provides insights into the possible origin of such dynamics and related patterning behavior (supported by "ad hoc" novel numerical simulations carried out for Pr=15 and O(10)⩽Ra⩽O(10)) together with a short exposition of existing theories, also illustrating open points and future directions of research.

  11. Argonne National Laboratory energy storage and transfer experimental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustom, R.L.; Wehrle, R.B.; Smith, R.P.; Fuja, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    Magnetic fusion reactor, equilibrium field, and ohmic heating (OH) coils require the coil energy to be cycled in relatively short periods of time. For large fusion reactor systems, the energy can be in the thousands of MJ range. These large amounts of energy cannot be removed from or returned to the power grid without having an adverse effect on the grid. Several schemes have been proposed which can minimize the amount of energy required from the power grid over a fusion-reactor cycle. They include the flying capacitor, the inductor-convertor bridge, the homopolar generator, and the motor-generator flywheel (MGF). The MGF is best understood and has been in use for this purpose for many years. It requires the least amount of development. The other schemes have not been applied to the energy buffering problem and require considerable development. Of the three remaining schemes, the homopolar generator and the inductor-convertor bridge seem to be the most desirable

  12. Operational Test Report for the 241-AZ-101 Suspended Solids Profiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STENKAMP, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    This document comprises the Operational Test Report for the 241-AZ-101 Suspended Solids Profiler. This document presents the results of Operational Testing of the 241-AZ-101 Suspended Solids Profiler (SSP). Testing of the SSP was performed in accordance with OTP-260-005, ''SUSPENDED SOLIDS PROFILER OPERATIONAL TEST PROCEDURE''. The objective of the testing was to verify that all equipment and components functioned as designed, following construction completion and turnover to operations

  13. Influence of Wheel Eccentricity on Vertical Vibration of Suspended Monorail Vehicle: Experiment and Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaikai Lv; Kaiyun Wang; Zhihui Chen; Chengbiao Cai; Lirong Guo

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of wheel eccentricity on vertical vibration of suspended monorail vehicle based on experiment and simulation. Two sets of tests are conducted in the first Chinese suspended monorail, and the tested acceleration is analyzed and exhibited. A multibody dynamic model of the suspended monorail vehicle is established to simulate the vertical vibration of car body excited by wheel eccentricity. The results show that there are three factors which may cause an abn...

  14. The Prediction Methods for Potential Suspended Solids Clogging Types during Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqiang Du

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementation and development of managed aquifer recharge (MAR have been limited by the clogging attributed to physical, chemical, and biological reactions. In application field of MAR, physical clogging is usually the dominant type. Although numerous studies on the physical clogging mechanism during MAR are available, studies on the more detailed suspended clogging types and its prediction methods still remain few. In this study, a series of column experiments were inducted to show the process of suspended solids clogging process. The suspended solids clogging was divided into three types of surface clogging, inner clogging and mixed clogging based on the different clogging characteristics. Surface clogging indicates that the suspended solids are intercepted by the medium surface when suspended solids grain diameter is larger than pore diameter of infiltration medium. Inner clogging indicates that the suspended solids particles could transport through the infiltration medium. Mixed clogging refers to the comprehensive performance of surface clogging and inner clogging. Each suspended solids clogging type has the different clogging position, different changing laws of hydraulic conductivity and different deposition profile of suspended solids. Based on the experiment data, the ratio of effective medium pore diameter (Dp and median grain size of suspended solids (d50 was proposed as the judgment index for suspended solids clogging types. Surface clogging occurred while Dp/d50 was less than 5.5, inner clogging occurred while Dp/d50 was greater than 180, and mixed clogging occurred while Dp/d50 was between 5.5 and 180. In order to improve the judgment accuracy and applicability, Bayesian method, which considered more ratios of medium pore diameter (Dp and different level of grain diameter of suspended solids (di, were developed to predict the potential suspended solids types.

  15. Suspended particle and drug ingredient concentrations in hospital dispensaries and implications for pharmacists' working environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Hioki, Atsushi; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Hiroki; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the present status of working environments for pharmacists, including the concentrations of suspended particles and suspended drug ingredients in dispensaries. We conducted a survey on the work processes and working environment in 15 hospital dispensaries, and measured the concentrations of suspended particles and suspended drug ingredients using digital dust counter and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively. Of 25 types of powdered drugs that were frequently handled in the 15 dispensaries surveyed, 11 could be quantitatively determined. The amounts of suspended particles were relatively high, but below the reference value, in three dispensaries without dust collectors. The sedative-hypnotic drug zopiclone was detected in the suspended particles at one dispensary that was not equipped with dust collectors, and the antipyretic and analgesic drug acetaminophen was detected in two dispensaries equipped with dust collectors. There was no correlation between the daily number of prescriptions containing powdered drugs and the concentration of suspended particles in dispensaries. On the basis of the suspended particle concentrations measured, we concluded that dust collectors were effective in these dispensaries. However, suspended drug ingredients were detected also in dispensaries with dust collectors. These results suggest that the drug dust control systems of individual dispensaries should be properly installed and managed.

  16. Remote sensing of suspended sediment water research: principles, methods, and progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Zhang, Jing

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the principle, data, methods and steps in suspended sediment research by using remote sensing, summed up some representative models and methods, and analyzes the deficiencies of existing methods. Combined with the recent progress of remote sensing theory and application in water suspended sediment research, we introduced in some data processing methods such as atmospheric correction method, adjacent effect correction, and some intelligence algorithms such as neural networks, genetic algorithms, support vector machines into the suspended sediment inversion research, combined with other geographic information, based on Bayesian theory, we improved the suspended sediment inversion precision, and aim to give references to the related researchers.

  17. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume II. Photovoltaic systems with energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This volume of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a photovoltaic energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The form of the presentation allows the reader to use more accurate storage system cost data as they become available. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with photovoltaic energy conversion systems. Candidate storage concepts studied include (1) above ground and underground pumped hydro, (2) underground compressed air, (3) electric batteries, (4) flywheels, and (5) hydrogen production and storage. (WHK)

  18. An experimental study on suspended sodium droplet combustion (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenji

    2004-03-01

    As part of studies for phenomenological investigation of sodium droplet burning behavior, in our previous experimental studies for suspended single sodium droplet, behavior of ignition process and succeeding combustion, ignition delay time, and droplet temperature history had been investigated. In the present study, by using 4 mm diam. suspended sodium droplet, combustion experiments were performed for extended free-stream velocity range of dry air up to 200 cm/s, and for the initial droplet temperature T i =300degC and 400degC, and the effects of the free-stream velocity and initial droplet temperature on the ignition/burning behavior and ignition delay time were examined by using high speed video camera. The obtained experimental results are as follows: (1) Ignition phenomena of suspended spherical shape droplet were observed for all examined experimental conductions except the case of free-stream velocity U=200 cm/s at 300degC, where detachment of droplet from the support due to strained oxide film occurred. (2) The ignition delay time defined as the time to evolution of orange-light emitting zone or flame zone decreases with the increase of the free-stream velocity or of initial droplet temperature. Examples of typical ignition delay time are 0.68 s at U=20 cm/s, 0.52 s at U=100 cm/s, and 0.37 s at 200 cm/s for T i =400degC. (3) The orange-light emission at the moment of ignition occurs simultaneously over whole surface except the top region of the droplet. The intensity of the emission at the moment of ignition takes its maximum at the bottom region or upstream region of the droplet, and the emission intensity during the stable burning period increases with the increase of U. (4) When T i is 300degC, formation of temporal multiple short projections are observed before ignition for all examined free-stream velocities. The projections often do not disappear before ignition when the velocity is relatively high. (5) The layer or cloud composed of aerosol is formed

  19. National Assessment of Energy Storage for Grid Balancing and Arbitrage: Phase 1, WECC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Balducci, Patrick J.; Colella, Whitney G.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Nguyen, Tony B.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Zhang, Yu

    2012-06-01

    To examine the role that energy storage could play in mitigating the impacts of the stochastic variability of wind generation on regional grid operation, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) examined a hypothetical 2020 grid scenario in which additional wind generation capacity is built to meet renewable portfolio standard targets in the Western Interconnection. PNNL developed a stochastic model for estimating the balancing requirements using historical wind statistics and forecasting error, a detailed engineering model to analyze the dispatch of energy storage and fast-ramping generation devices for estimating size requirements of energy storage and generation systems for meeting new balancing requirements, and financial models for estimating the life-cycle cost of storage and generation systems in addressing the future balancing requirements for sub-regions in the Western Interconnection. Evaluated technologies include combustion turbines, sodium sulfur (Na-S) batteries, lithium ion batteries, pumped-hydro energy storage, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, redox flow batteries, and demand response. Distinct power and energy capacity requirements were estimated for each technology option, and battery size was optimized to minimize costs. Modeling results indicate that in a future power grid with high-penetration of renewables, the most cost competitive technologies for meeting balancing requirements include Na-S batteries and flywheels.

  20. Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David

    2017-07-01

    As renewable energy use expands there will be a need to develop ways to balance its variability. Storage is one of the options. Presently the main emphasis is for systems storing electrical power in advanced batteries (many of them derivatives of parallel developments in the electric vehicle field), as well as via liquid air storage, compressed air storage, super-capacitors and flywheels, and, the leader so far, pumped hydro reservoirs. In addition, new systems are emerging for hydrogen generation and storage, feeding fuel cell power production. Heat (and cold) is also a storage medium and some systems exploit thermal effects as part of wider energy management activity. Some of the more exotic ones even try to use gravity on a large scale. This short book looks at all the options, their potentials and their limits. There are no clear winners, with some being suited to short-term balancing and others to longer-term storage. The eventual mix adopted will be shaped by the pattern of development of other balancing measures, including smart-grid demand management and super-grid imports and exports.

  1. Interactions of radionuclides with sediments and suspended particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter reviews fundamental principles of the rates and extents of radionuclide uptake by sedimentary and suspended particles, defines sediment-water partition coefficients, and shows how they can explain first order features of radionuclide partitioning in aquatic environments. It then explains how sediment accumulation and mixing rates can be calculated from profiles of radionuclide activity measured in sediment cores. Such rates can be combined with profiles of other chemicals to establish the extent of temporal changes in chemical composition of the overlying water body. Since sediment processing and counting in the laboratory take much longer than the time required to collect the sample, suggestions are made to ensure that the sediment samples are not ruined or comprised during collection and handling in the field, and so are worth all the subsequent time and effort to analyze. (author)

  2. Suspended 3D pyrolytic carbon microelectrodes for electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Caviglia, Claudia; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    2017-01-01

    with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using potassium ferri-ferrocyanide redox probe in a custom made batch system with magnetic clamping. Different 3D pyrolytic carbon microelectrodes were compared and the optimal design displayed twice the peak current and half the charge transfer......Carbon microelectrodes have a wide range of applications because of their unique material properties and biocompatibility. This work presents the fabrication and characterization of suspended pyrolytic carbon microstructures serving as three-dimensional (3D) carbon microelectrodes...... for electrochemical applications. A 3D polymer template in epoxy based photoresist (SU-8) was fabricated with multiple steps of UV photolithography and pyrolysed at 900 °C to obtain 3D carbon microelectrodes. The pyrolytic carbon microstructures were characterized by SEM, Raman spectroscopy and XPS to determine...

  3. Fluorine and sulfur simultaneously co-doped suspended graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzzi, C.; Sezen, H.; Amati, M.; Gregoratti, L.; Reckinger, N.; Colomer, J.-F.; Snyders, R.; Bittencourt, C.; Scardamaglia, M.

    2017-11-01

    Suspended graphene flakes are exposed simultaneously to fluorine and sulfur ions produced by the μ-wave plasma discharge of the SF6 precursor gas. The microscopic and spectroscopic analyses, performed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and photoelectron spectromicroscopy, show the homogeneity in functionalization yield over the graphene flakes with F and S atoms covalently bonded to the carbon lattice. This promising surface shows potential for several applications ranging from biomolecule immobilization to lithium battery and hydrogen storage devices. The present co-doping process is an optimal strategy to engineer the graphene surface with a concurrent hydrophobic character, thanks to the fluorine atoms, and a high affinity with metal nanoparticles due to the presence of sulfur atoms.

  4. Drift of suspended ferromagnetic particles due to the Magnus effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, S. I.; Pedchenko, B. O.

    2017-01-01

    A minimal system of equations is introduced and applied to study the drift motion of ferromagnetic particles suspended in a viscous fluid and subjected to a time-periodic driving force and a nonuniformly rotating magnetic field. It is demonstrated that the synchronized translational and rotational oscillations of these particles are accompanied by their drift in a preferred direction, which occurs under the action of the Magnus force. We calculate both analytically and numerically the drift velocity of particles characterized by single-domain cores and nonmagnetic shells and show that there are two types of drift, unidirectional and bidirectional, which can be realized in suspensions composed of particles with different core-shell ratios. The possibility of using the phenomenon of bidirectional drift for the separation of core-shell particles in suspensions is also discussed.

  5. Suspended particulate matter in dwellings - the impact of tobacco smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revsbech, P.; Korsgaard, J.; Lundqvist, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The indoor concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was measured in 44 retrofitted and tight dwellings, which had electric cooking and were central heated and where the basic ventilation rate in median amounted 0.23 air changes per hour as measured with a tracer dilution method. The indoor concentration of SPM was in medium 230 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ with a strong correlation to the tobacco consumption (r/sub s/ = 0.716), but with no correlation to the frequency of airing or the basic ventilation rate. Tobacco smoking seems to be the main indoor source of SPM in contemporary dwellings. The importance of these findings is underlined by epidemiologic studies on passive smoking and health. Air quality standards for the ambient air are based on certain risk groups such as infants, children, persons with chronic obstructive lung disorders, and indoor air standards should be based on the same concepts of health protection.

  6. Geomorphic versus land use controls on suspended sediment rating curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, P.; Vaughan, A. A.; Fisher, A. C. N.

    2017-12-01

    The relation between river discharge (Q) and suspended sediment (SS) concentration reflects the degree to which sediment sources are accessed or depleted across the range of flow conditions. Increased availability of high resolution topography and land use data greatly enhance our ability to evaluate linkages between characteristics of these sediment rating curves (SRCs) and the geomorphic features that influence them. We evaluated Q-SS relations at 45 gages throughout Minnesota, USA representing a wide variety of landscape settings in terms of topography, land use, and geologic history. We characterized the SRCs according to the overall shape, steepness (exponent), vertical offset (coefficient) and SS concentration under low flow (90% exceedance) conditions. Rivers exhibited three distinct SRC shapes, simple power functions, threshold power functions and peaked power functions. We used random forest models to analyze relations between SRC parameters and attributes of the watershed as well as the near-channel environment. The model correctly classified 78% of SRC shapes and explained 60% of variance in the SRC exponent, 43% of the SRC coefficient for rising limb samples, and 45% of variance under low flow conditions. Notably, the random forest models predict that near-channel morphology predominately controls both the shape and steepness of the sediment rating curves. Land use predominately controls the vertical offset (coefficient) and SS concentration under low flow conditions. These findings suggest that land use and watershed restoration practices may have little capacity to alter the shape and steepness of these curves as these characteristics may be dictated by the geologic and geomorphic setting. Rather, human influences in the watershed may exhibit the greatest influence on suspended sediment concentrations at moderate to low flows. Criteria to evaluate improvements in water quality as a result of changes in land management might be most meaningful if they

  7. Estimation of suspended sediment concentration in rivers using acoustic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elçi, Sebnem; Aydin, Ramazan; Work, Paul A

    2009-12-01

    Acoustic Doppler current meters (ADV, ADCP, and ADP) are widely used in water systems to measure flow velocities and velocity profiles. Although these meters are designed for flow velocity measurements, they can also provide information defining the quantity of particulate matter in the water, after appropriate calibration. When an acoustic instrument is calibrated for a water system, no additional sensor is needed to measure suspended sediment concentration (SSC). This provides the simultaneous measurements of velocity and concentration required for most sediment transport studies. The performance of acoustic Doppler current meters for measuring SSC was investigated in different studies where signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and suspended sediment concentration were related using different formulations. However, these studies were each limited to a single study site where neither the effect of particle size nor the effect of temperature was investigated. In this study, different parameters that affect the performance of an ADV for the prediction of SSC are investigated. In order to investigate the reliability of an ADV for SSC measurements in different environments, flow and SSC measurements were made in different streams located in the Aegean region of Turkey having different soil types. Soil samples were collected from all measuring stations and particle size analysis was conducted by mechanical means. Multivariate analysis was utilized to investigate the effect of soil type and water temperature on the measurements. Statistical analysis indicates that SNR readings ob tained from the ADV are affected by water temperature and particle size distribution of the soil, as expected, and a prediction model is presented relating SNR readings to SSC mea surements where both water temperature and sediment characteristics type are incorporated into the model. The coefficients of the suggested model were obtained using the multivariate anal ysis. Effect of high turbidity

  8. Quantifying suspended solids in small rivers using satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro, Celso M; McIntyre, Neil; Lechner, Alex M; Callow, Ian

    2018-09-01

    The management of suspended solids and associated contaminants in rivers requires knowledge of sediment sources. In-situ sampling can only describe the integrated impact of the upstream sources. Empirical models that use surface reflectance from satellite images to estimate total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations can be used to supplement measurements and provide spatially continuous maps. However, there are few examples, especially in narrow, shallow and hydrologically dynamic rivers found in mountainous areas. A case study of the Didipio catchment in Philippines was used to address these issues. Four 5-m resolution RapidEye images, from between the years 2014 and 2016, and near-simultaneous ground measurements of TSS concentrations were used to develop a power law model that approximates the relationship between TSS and reflectance for each of four spectral bands. A second dataset using two 2-m resolution Pleiades-1A and a third using a 6-m resolution SPOT-6 image along with ground-based measurements, were consistent with the model when using the red band data. Using that model, encompassing data from all three datasets, gave an R 2 value of 65% and a root mean square error of 519mgL -1 . A linear relationship between reflectance and TSS exists from 1mgL -1 to approximately 500mgL -1 . In contrast, for TSS measurements between 500mgL -1 and 3580mgL -1 reflectance increases at a generally lower and more variable rate. The results were not sensitive to changing the pixel location within the vicinity of the ground sampling location. The model was used to generate a continuous map of TSS concentration within the catchment. Further ground-based measurements including TSS concentrations that are higher than 3580mgL -1 would allow the model to be developed and applied more confidently over the full relevant range of TSS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Composites in energy generation and storage systems - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, R. W.

    Applications of glass-fiber reinforced composites (GER) in renewable and high-efficiency energy systems which are being developed to replace interim, long-term unacceptable energy sources such as foreign oil are reviewed. GFR are noted to have design flexibility, high strength, and low cost, as well as featuring a choice of fiber orientation and type of reinforcement. Blades, hub covers, nacelles, and towers for large and small WECS are being fabricated and tested and are displaying satisfactory strength, resistance to corrosion and catastrophic failure, impact tolerance, and light weight. Promising results have also been shown in the use of GFR as flywheel material for kinetic energy storage in conjunction with solar and wind electric systems, in electric cars, and as load levellers. Other applications are for heliostats, geothermal power plant pipes, dam-atoll tidal wave energy systems, and intake pipes for OTECs.

  10. The stationary storage of energy. Available technologies and CEA researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After a discussion of the main challenges related to the stationary storage of energy, this publication proposes an overview of the different available technologies: plant for transfer of energy by pumping, compressed air, energy flywheels, hydrogen, lithium-ion battery, redox-flow battery, thermal storage by sensitive heat, thermal-chemical storage coupled to a thermal solar system, thermal storage by phase change, superconductive inductance storage, super-capacitors. It discusses the criteria of choice of storage technology, either for electric energy storage or for heat storage. It proposes an overview of researches performed within the CEA on storage systems: electrochemical, thermal, and hydrogen-based storages. The final chapter addresses current fundamental researches on storage in the field of lithium-ion batteries, hydrogen as a fuel, and thermoelectricity

  11. 78 FR 25423 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... for the Secretary to review sales of merchandise by an exporter (or a producer if that producer also..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... review of that antidumping or countervailing duty order, finding, or suspended investigation. All...

  12. 78 FR 13858 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... for the Secretary to review sales of merchandise by an exporter (or a producer if that producer also..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... review of that antidumping or countervailing duty order, finding, or suspended investigation. All...

  13. 78 FR 39710 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... exporters.\\2\\ If the interested party intends for the Secretary to review sales of merchandise by an..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... review of that antidumping or countervailing duty order, finding, or suspended investigation. All...

  14. 78 FR 54235 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... exporters.\\2\\ If the interested party intends for the Secretary to review sales of merchandise by an..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... review of that antidumping or countervailing duty order, finding, or suspended investigation. All...

  15. 77 FR 59894 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... for the Secretary to review sales of merchandise by an exporter (or a producer if that producer also..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... review of that antidumping or countervailing duty order, finding, or suspended investigation. All...

  16. 78 FR 33061 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... exporters.\\2\\ If the interested party intends for the Secretary to review sales of merchandise by an..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... review of that antidumping or countervailing duty order, finding, or suspended investigation. All...

  17. 77 FR 44233 - Clothianidin; Emergency Petition To Suspend; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0344; FRL-9355-1] Clothianidin; Emergency.... SUMMARY: PANNA and others submitted a request for the EPA to immediately suspend Clothianidin and take... the EPA suspend registrations for the insecticide clothianidin for the four following reasons: (1) To...

  18. 77 FR 70142 - Initialed Draft Revision to the Agreement Suspending the Antidumping Investigation on Certain Hot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... the Agreement Suspending the Antidumping Investigation on Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon... revision to the Agreement Suspending the Antidumping Investigation on Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon...'') investigation on hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel products (``hot-rolled steel'') from the Russian...

  19. Suspended sediment behavior in a coastal dry-summer subtropical catchment: Effects of hydrologic preconditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation in fluvial suspended sediment–discharge behavior is generally thought to be the product of changes in processes governing the delivery of sediment and water to the channel. The objective of this study was to infer sediment supply dynamics from the response of suspended ...

  20. On the influence of suspended sediment transport on the generation of offshore sand waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterlini-Van der Meer, Fenneke; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van den Berg, J.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Uijttewaal, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Sand waves are bed-forms occurring in shallow seas. Although their characteristics are mainly affected by bed load transport, during rough weather suspended sediment transport can influence their characteristics. As a first step to model these influences, we added suspended sediment transport to a

  1. 19 CFR 351.222 - Revocation of orders; termination of suspended investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... orders; termination of suspended investigations. (a) Introduction. “Revocation” is a term of art that... that: (i) Producers accounting for substantially all of the production of the domestic like product to... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of orders; termination of suspended...

  2. Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): Impact of extreme storms and floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulses, C.; Estournel, C.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Palanques, A.

    2008-01-01

    In situ observations were combined with 3D modeling to gain understanding of and to quantify the suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea). The outputs of a hydrodynamic–sediment transport coupled model were compared to near-bottom current and suspended sediment

  3. 20 CFR 408.802 - When will we suspend your SVB payments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....802 Section 408.802 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Suspension § 408.802 When will we suspend your SVB... underway for a substitute representative payee.) (b) Effect of suspension. When we correctly suspend your...

  4. Removal of oil, grease, and suspended solids from produced water with ceramic crossflow microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, A.S.C.; Flynn, J.T.; Cook, R.G.; Casaday, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper results of studies of two onshore and two offshore pilot plants that use ceramic crossflow microfiltration (CCFM) to separate oil, grease, and suspended solids from produced water are discussed. The method is capable of producing permeate quality with < =5 mg/L (detection limit) of dispersed oil and grease and <1 mg/L of suspended solids

  5. Suspended HOPG nanosheets for HOPG nanoresonator engineering and new carbon nanostructure synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, F; Debray, A; Martin, P; Fujita, H; Kawakatsu, H

    2006-01-01

    Suspended highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) nanosheets (10-300 nm thick) were created by direct mechanical cleavage of a bulk HOPG crystal onto silicon micropillars and microtracks. We show that suspended HOPG nanosheets can be used to engineer HOPG nanoresonators such as membranes, bridges, and cantilevers as thin as 28 carbon atom layers. We measured by Doppler laser heterodyne interferometry that the discrete vibration modes of an HOPG nanosheet membrane and the resonance frequency of a FIB-created HOPG microcantilever lie in the MHz frequency regime. Moreover, a new carbon nanostructure, named 'nanolace', was synthesized by focused ion beam (FIB) sputtering of suspended HOPG nanosheets. Graphite nanosheets suspended on micropillars were eroded by a FIB to create self-oriented pseudo-periodical ripples. Additional sputtering and subsequent milling of these ripples led to the formation of honeycomb-like shaped nanolaces suspended and linked by ribbons

  6. Status of Suspended Particulate Matters Pollution at Traditional Markets in Makassar City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, Sri; Fahrunnisa

    2018-03-01

    Research on the status of suspended particulate matters pollution in four traditional markets located in Makassar city has been done. The purpose of this research is to know the air quality in the traditional market areas, especially caused by suspended particulate matters. The background of this research is because traders who trade in traditional markets generally peddle their goods along dusty roads and suspended particulate matters in dust can be inhaled when the vehicle passes. These suspended particulate matters pollutant can cause lung diseases. The results showed that the level of suspended particulate matters pollution fluctuates every year depending on the local wind speed, humidity, and temperature. Research results also showed the values were over the standard value according to the governor of South Sulawesi regulation.

  7. Ultraclean individual suspended single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyu; Zhang, Jian; Nshimiyimana, Jean Pierre; Chi, Xiannian; Hu, Xiao; Wu, Pei; Liu, Jia; Wang, Gongtang; Sun, Lianfeng

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we report an effective technique of fabricating ultraclean individual suspended single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) transistors. The surface tension of molten silver is utilized to suspend an individual SWNT between a pair of Pd electrodes during annealing treatment. This approach avoids the usage and the residues of organic resist attached to SWNTs, resulting ultraclean SWNT devices. And the resistance per micrometer of suspended SWNTs is found to be smaller than that of non-suspended SWNTs, indicating the effect of the substrate on the electrical properties of SWNTs. The ON-state resistance (˜50 kΩ), mobility of 8600 cm2 V-1 s-1 and large on/off ratio (˜105) of semiconducting suspended SWNT devices indicate its advantages and potential applications.

  8. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odru, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book proposes a broad overview of the technologies developed in the domains of on-board electricity storage (batteries, super-capacitors, flywheels), stationary storage (hydraulic dams, compressed air, batteries and hydrogen), and heat storage (sensible, latent and sorption) together with their relative efficiency, their expected developments and what advantages they can offer. Eminent specialists of this domain have participated to the redaction of this book, all being members of the Tuck's Foundation 'IDees' think tank. (J.S.)

  9. The impacts of land reclamation on suspended-sediment dynamics in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guan Dong; Wang, Xiao Hua; Bao, Xian Wen; Song, Dehai; Lin, Xiao Pei; Qiao, Lu Lu

    2018-06-01

    A three-dimensional, high-resolution tidal model coupled with the UNSW sediment model (UNSW-Sed) based on Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) was set up to study the suspended-sediment dynamics and its change in Jiaozhou Bay (JZB) due to land reclamation over the period 1935 to 2008. During the past decades, a large amount of tidal flats were lost due to land reclamation. Other than modulating the tides, the tidal flats are a primary source for sediment resuspensions, leading to turbidity maxima nearshore. The tidal dynamics are dominant in controlling the suspended-sediment dynamics in JZB and have experienced significant changes with the loss of tidal flats due to the land reclamation. The sediment model coupled with the tide model was used to investigate the changes in suspended-sediment dynamics due to the land reclamation from 1935 to 2008, including suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) and the horizontal suspended-sediment fluxes. This model can predict the general patterns of the spatial and temporal variation of SSC. The model was applied to investigate how the net transport of suspended sediments between JZB and its adjacent sea areas changed with land reclamation: in 1935 the net movement of suspended sediments was from JZB to the adjacent sea (erosion for JZB), primarily caused by horizontal advection associated with a horizontal gradient in the SSC; This seaward transport (erosion for JZB) had gradually declined from 1935 to 2008. If land reclamation on a large scale is continued in future, the net transport between JZB and the adjacent sea would turn landward and JZB would switch from erosion to siltation due to the impact of land reclamation on the horizontal advection of suspended sediments. We also evaluate the primary physical mechanisms including advection of suspended sediments, settling lag and tidal asymmetry, which control the suspended-sediment dynamics with the process of land reclamation.

  10. Self-regulating energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhaure, D.B.; Downer, J.R.; Bliamptis, T.E.; Oberbeck, G.A.; Hendrie, S.D.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes a self-regulating energy storage system which consists of: an a.c. motor/generator including a rotor; a flywheel attached to the motor/generator; means for monitoring the position of the motor/generator rotor; means for resolving current to and from the motor/generator; a pulse width modulated bidirectional inverter interconnecting the motor/generator with a power supply bus having a voltage to be regulated; a summing circuit for determining differences between a reference voltage and the voltage on the power supply bus to be regulated; and a pulse width modulation switch control responsive to the summing circuit, to the means for monitoring, and to the means for resolving.

  11. Factors influencing suspended solids concentrations in activated sludge settling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y; Pipes, W O

    1999-05-31

    A significant fraction of the total mass of sludge in an activated sludge process may be in the settling tanks if the sludge has a high sludge volume index (SVI) or when a hydraulic overload occurs during a rainstorm. Under those conditions, an accurate estimate of the amount of sludge in the settling tanks is needed in order to calculate the mean cell residence time or to determine the capacity of the settling tanks to store sludge. Determination of the amount of sludge in the settling tanks requires estimation of the average concentration of suspended solids in the layer of sludge (XSB) in the bottom of the settling tanks. A widely used reference recommends averaging the concentrations of suspended solids in the mixed liquor (X) and in the underflow (Xu) from the settling tanks (XSB=0. 5{X+Xu}). This method does not take into consideration other pertinent information available to an operator. This is a report of a field study which had the objective of developing a more accurate method for estimation of the XSB in the bottom of the settling tanks. By correlation analysis, it was found that only 44% of the variation in the measured XSB is related to sum of X and Xu. XSB is also influenced by the SVI, the zone settling velocity at X and the overflow and underflow rates of the settling tanks. The method of averaging X and Xu tends to overestimate the XSB. A new empirical estimation technique for XSB was developed. The estimation technique uses dimensionless ratios; i.e., the ratio of XSB to Xu, the ratio of the overflow rate to the sum of the underflow rate and the initial settling velocity of the mixed liquor and sludge compaction expressed as a ratio (dimensionless SVI). The empirical model is compared with the method of averaging X and Xu for the entire range of sludge depths in the settling tanks and for SVI values between 100 and 300 ml/g. Since the empirical model uses dimensionless ratios, the regression parameters are also dimensionless and the model can be

  12. An experimental study on suspended sodium droplet combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenji

    2003-03-01

    As part of studies for phenomenological investigation of sodium droplet burning behavior, in our previous experimental studies, ignition process and succeeding combustion of suspended single sodium droplet had been investigated by using high speed movie camera, and a temperature measurement system feasible for the experiment had been developed. In the present study, by using 4 mm diam. suspended sodium droplet, combustion experiments were performed for the free-stream velocity of dry air flow of 20 to 60 cm/s, and for the initial droplet temperature of 280 to 400degC, and the effects of the free-stream velocity and initial droplet temperature on the ignition behavior and droplet temperature variation with time were examined by using high speed movie camera and sheath-type fine thermocouple. The experimental results are as follows: (1) When the initial droplet temperature is less than 290degC, before ignition the oxide film accompanied with vertical streak appeared and the droplet turned to teardrop shape. (2) The ignition delay time defined as the time to evolution of orange color light emission zone or flame zone decreases with the increase o the free-stream velocity or of initial droplet temperature. Examples of typical ignition time are 1.4 s at the free-stream velocity 20 cm/s and initial droplet temperature 300degC, and 0.65 s at 60 cm/s and 400degC. (3) the dependence of the ignition delay time on the free-stream velocity decreases as the free stream velocity increases. (4) The droplet temperatures at the moment of melting extending all over the surface and at the moment of ignition are around 460degC and 500 to 600degC (mostly around 575degC), respectively. These values are essentially independent of the free-stream velocity and initial droplet temperature. (5) The rate of temperature rise does not change through the moment of ignition. (6) The asymptotic droplet temperature at approaching to quasi-steady combustion state following ignition is independent of

  13. Ten questions to Jean Dhers on the storage of electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The authors proposes a comprehensive set of technical and economical data and information on electricity storage: the reasons to store energy (autonomous, stationary and network applications), the different types and advantages of energy storages with reversible power, the means to massively store electricity to exploit in on the network (description, uses and comparison of pumping energy transfer station, energy storage under the form of compressed air), the inertial storage (storage of kinetic energy accumulated in a flywheel, and its applications), the importance of storage with electrochemical batteries (reversible storage, evolution of batteries in ground transports, main economic sectors for batteries), fuel cells, the role of energy storage by power capacitors, the perspectives of super capacitors in a near future (comparison of their performance with those of batteries, possible applications), the use of electromagnetic storage of electricity (description, advantages, drawbacks and applications of superconducting magnet energy storage or SMES), and how the research on electric power storage is organised

  14. Comparative analysis of two hybrid energy storage systems used in a two front wheel driven electric vehicle during extreme start-up and regenerative braking operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itani, Khaled; De Bernardinis, Alexandre; Khatir, Zoubir; Jammal, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of HESS Ultracapacitor and Flywheel for maximizing EV energy recovery. • Energy recovery performed for extreme two front-wheel driven EV brake conditions. • Regenerative EV braking control strategies and constraints for HESS. • Comparative cost effectiveness for two HESS solutions Ultracapacitors and Flywheel. - Abstract: This paper presents the comparative study of two hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) of a two front wheel driven electric vehicle. The primary energy source of the HESS is a Li-Ion battery, whereas the secondary energy source is either an ultracapacitor (UC) or a flywheel energy system (FES). The main role of the secondary source is to deliver/recover energy during high peak power demand, but also to increase battery lifetime, considered among the most expensive items in the electric vehicle. As a first step, a techno-economic comparative study, supported by strong literature research, is performed between the UC and the FES. The design and sizing of each element will be presented. The comparison criteria and specifications are also described. The adopted approach in this paper is based on an academic non-oriented point of view. In a second step, each of the HESS will be integrated in a more global Simulink model which includes the vehicle model, the traction control system (TCS), the regenerative braking system and the vehicle actuators. Simulation tests are performed for an extreme braking and vehicle starting-up operations. Tests are realized on two different surface road types and conditions (high and low friction roads) and for different initial system states. In order to show the most appropriate storage system regarding compactness, weight and battery constraints minimization, deep comparative analysis is provided.

  15. Numerical analysis of magnetic field in superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamaru, Y.; Amemiya, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is more useful than the other systems of electric energy storage because of larger stored energy and higher efficiency. The other systems are the battery, the flywheel, the pumped-storage power station. Some models of solenoid type SMES are designed in U.S.A. and Japan. But a high magnetic field happens by the large scale SMES in the living environment, and makes the erroneous operations of the computer display, the pacemaker of the heart and the electronic equipments. We study some fit designs of magnetic shielding of the solenoidal type SMES for reduction of the magnetic field in living environment. When some superconducting shielding coils are over the main storage coil, magnetic field reduces remarkably than the case of non shielding coil. The calculated results of the magnetic field are obtained y the finite element method

  16. Design Criteria for Suspended Pipelines Based on Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Simão

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models have become the target of numerous attempts to obtain results that can be extrapolated to the study of hydraulic pressure infrastructures associated with different engineering requests. Simulation analysis based on finite element method (FEM models are used to determine the vulnerability of hydraulic systems under different types of actions (e.g., natural events and pressure variation. As part of the numerical simulation of a suspended pipeline, the adequacy of existing supports to sustain the pressure loads is verified. With a certain value of load application, the pipeline is forced to sway sideways, possibly lifting up off its deadweight supports. Thus, identifying the frequency, consequences and predictability of accidental events is of extreme importance. This study focuses on the stability of vertical supports associated with extreme transient loads and how a pipeline design can be improved using FEM simulations, in the design stage, to avoid accidents. Distribution of bending moments, axial forces, displacements and deformations along the pipeline and supports are studied for a set of important parametric variations. A good representation of the pipeline displacements is obtained using FEM.

  17. Composite fingerprinting of suspended-sediments in Sorsogon , Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.D.; Sta Maria, E.J.; Madrid, J.F.; Asa, A.D.D.; Aniago, R.J.; Bulos, A.D.; Zombrito, E.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment-related environmental problems pose a threat not only in land management sustainability but also in management of aquatic ecosystem. Sediments often serve as sinks of nutrients and contaminants that regularly recharge overlying waters and could trigger harmful algal blooms (HAB) together with unfavorable environment conditions. One HAB affected area in the southernmost tip of Luzon, Philippines is Sorsogon Bay. In Sorsogon Bay, the harvest and consumption ban was declared for several years due to the level of toxins in shellfish which exceeded the regulatory limit. Identification of sediment sources is useful tool in planning effective sediment management strategies. A method to determine possible sources of sediment-associated nutrients is sediment fingerprinting. It characterizes land-based sediment sources to derive estimates of the portions of suspended sediment originating from discrete upstream source areas. There are wide ranges of diagnostic properties which can be possible fingerprints such as mineralogic, mineral-magnetic, geochemical, organic, isotopic, physical and radiometric parameters. This study investigates on potential source of sediments from Sampaloc River using different chemical, radiometric and isotopic parameters, Range test and Kruskal-Wallis H-test were employed and indicated that the calcium, titanium, δ”1”3C signal, and to tal carbon content are possible fingerprint parameters that will identify the sources of sediments. Results of a mathematical mixing model showed that channel banks (81.0%) are the largest sediment load contributors in Sampaloc River, followed by cultivated areas (15.5%) and woodlands (3.5%). (author)

  18. Tackling the growing number of suspended and orphan wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornford, A.

    1996-01-01

    The number of suspended and potentially orphaned wells in the three oil producing Western provinces has grown substantially in recent years. There are currently some 38,000 wells in Alberta, 2,000 in B.C., and some 5,000 in Saskatchewan that have been inactive for at least one year. Governments are now looking at proposals to deal with the issue which, if implemented, will have far reaching implications for the oil and gas and reclamation industry in Western Canada. Proposals to date have not dealt with the potential liability for sulphur-recovery gas plants and oil and gas transmission pipelines and associated facilities. It is estimated that to pay for the expanded orphaned well program in Alberta, the current Orphan Well Program would have to be increased from $2 million to $5 million in the first four years. The recommendation is to levy an annual fee on all inactive wells and facilities. This would put the burden of paying for orphan wells on those who have facilities most in risk of becoming orphans. Informed opinion is that while the cost of addressing the problem is admittedly high, however, preventing it from getting worse is much less than the alternative

  19. Distribution of Total Suspended Solids Concentration in a River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hanif Asyhar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of either industrial or nonindustrial wastewater into a river has a potential to cause riverpollution. Because each load of wastewater discharged into a river contains physical, chemical, and biological parametersthat determine water quality, so that it can affect the dissolved oxygen concentration in a river. Therefore the conductedresearch was aimed to determine the pattern of pollutant dispersion in Surabaya River within the section that is closed tothe Karang Pilang Monitoring Station - Surabaya. Parameter used in this research was Total Suspended Solids (TSS. Themethod used was the finite volume method with Quadratic Upwind Interpolation Convective Kinematics (QUICK schemeby means of developing models of dispersion water pollutants in a river. The governing equation was controlled by the lawsof mass conservation, momentum conservation, and pollution transport equation. Further, these equations were solvedusing numerical calculation and followed by numerical simulation. From the numerical simulation results, it can beconcluded that the magnitude of pollutant dispersion is determined by the initial discharged TSS concentrations into theriver, however the longitudinal direction is more dominantly influenced than in lateral directions.

  20. A viscosity and density meter with a magnetically suspended rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, Mikulas; Strharsky, Igor; Hrmo, Igor

    2003-01-01

    A device for measuring the viscosity and density of liquids is presented. It is a Couette-type viscometer that uses a submerged rotor to measure the viscosity without errors originating in the contact of the rotor with the sample/air boundary. The inner cylinder is a glass rotor suspended in the liquid, and the outer cylinder is also made of glass. The rotor is stabilized on the axis of the outer cylinder by an electromagnetic force controlled by feedback from the rotor's vertical position. In the lower part of the rotor is an aluminum cylinder located in a magnetic field generated by rotating permanent magnets. The interaction of this rotating magnetic field with eddy currents generated in the aluminum cylinder causes rotation of the rotor. This rotation is optically detected, and viscosity is calculated from the measured angular velocity of rotor. The density of the liquid is calculated from the applied vertical equilibrating force. A computer controls the whole measurement. The device works at constant temperature or while scanning temperature. The sample volume is 1.6 ml, and the accuracy of measurement of both viscosity and density is ∼0.1%. The range of measured densities is (0.7-1.4) g/ml, and viscosity can be measured in the range (3x10 -4 -0.3) Pa s. The shear rate of the viscosity measurement varies in the range (20-300) s-1. The accuracy of the temperature measurement is 0.02 K

  1. Design of Experimental Suspended Footbridge with Deck Made of UHPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blank Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the static and dynamic design of experimental footbridge for pedestrians and cyclists in the municipality Lužec nad Vltavou in Czech Republic, Europe. This work aims to familiarize the reader with calculations carried out and the results obtained, describing the static and dynamic properties of proposed footbridge. The construction of footbridge is designed as a suspended structure with prestressed bridge deck consisting of prefabricated UHPC panels and reversed “V” shaped steel pylon with height of approximately 40 meters. The deck is anchored using 24 steel hangers in one row in a steel pylon - 17 ropes in the main span and 7 cables on the other side. Range of the main span is 99.18 meters and the secondary span is 31.9 m. Deck width is 4.5 meters with 3.0 meters passing space. The bridge is designed for the possibility of passage of vehicles weighting up to 3.5 tons. Deck panels are made of UHPC with reinforcement. At the edge of the bridge on the side of the shorter span the bridge deck is firmly connected with abutment and on the other deck it is stored using a pair of sliding bearings. The utilization of the excellent properties of UHPC allows to design a very thin and lightweight construction of the deck, which could not be achieved with the use of normal concrete.

  2. The LISST-SL streamlined isokinetic suspended-sediment profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Agrawal, Yogesh C.; Pottsmith, H. Charles

    2004-01-01

    The new manually deployed Laser In Situ Scattering Transmissometer-StreamLined profiler (LISST-SL) represents a major technological advance for suspended-sediment measurements in rivers. The LISST-SL is being designed to provide real-time data on sediment concentrations and particle-size distributions. A pressure sensor and current meter provide real-time depth and ambient velocity data, respectively. The velocity data are also used to control pumpage across an internal laser so that the intake velocity is constantly adjusted to match the ambient stream velocity. Such isokinetic withdrawal is necessary for obtaining representative sedimentary measurements in streamflow, and ensures compliance with established practices. The velocity and sediment-concentration data are used to compute fluxes for up to 32 particle-size classes at points, verticals, or in the entire stream cross section. All data are stored internally, as well as transmitted via a 2-wire conductor to the operator using a specially developed communication protocol. The LISST-SL's performance will be measured and compared to published sedimentological accuracy criteria, and a performance summary will be placed on-line.

  3. Analysis of suspended solids transport processes in primary settling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patziger, Miklós; Kiss, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    The paper shows the results of a long-term research comprising FLUENT-based numerical modeling, in situ measurements and laboratory tests to analyze suspended solids (SS) transport processes in primary settling tanks (PSTs). The investigated PST was one of the rectangular horizontal flow PSTs at a large municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of a capacity of 500,000 population equivalent. Many middle-sized and large WWTPs are equipped with such PSTs. The numerical PST model was calibrated and validated based on the results of comprehensive in situ flow and SS concentration measurements from low (5 m/h) up to quite high surface overflow rates of 9.5 and 13.0 m/h and on settling and other laboratory tests. The calibrated and validated PST model was also successfully used for evaluation of some slight modifications of the inlet geometry (removing lamellas, installing a flocculation 'box', shifting the inlet into a 'bottom-near' or into a 'high' position), which largely affect PST behavior and performance. The investigations provided detailed insight into the flow and SS transport processes within the investigated PST, which strongly contributes to hydrodynamically driven design and upgrading of PSTs.

  4. Development of suspended conchocelis of Porphyra haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Rong; Fei, Xiu-Geng

    1998-12-01

    This Mar. 1993 to Aug. 1994 study on suspended conchocelis of Porphyra haitanensis showed that there were three patterns for development of vegetative filaments: filaments to filaments by “budding”; filaments to sporangial branchlets by “budding”, or cell swelling. There were also three patterms for sporangial branchlet development: vegetatively propagating, changing into conchospores, or dying. Each developmental stage had one or more different developmental directions between vegetative filaments and sporangial branchlets. Developments from conchosporangial branchlets to conchospores were sequential and irreversible. Although sporangial branchlets formed at 29°C could give rise to filaments, they could not propagate as healthily under the same conditions as those formed at 25°C did. Probably the crucial period of plant cell differentiation is in the late stage of sporangial branchlets. In line with the developmental directions of different stages, the authors regulated the development of conchocelis to get ideal different developmental stages materials to obtain very developmentally homogeneous stages, including filaments and sporangial branchlets.

  5. Self-rewetting fluids with suspended carbon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, R; Di Paola, R; Gattia, D Mirabile; Marazzi, R; Antisari, M Vittori

    2011-10-01

    Thermal management is very important in modern electronic systems. Recent researches have been dedicated to the study of the heat transfer performances of binary or multi-component heat transfer fluids with peculiar surface tension properties and in particular to "self-rewetting fluids," i.e., liquids with a surface tension increasing with temperature and concentration. Thermophysical properties like surface tension, wettability and thermal conductivity, at different temperatures, have been measured not only for binary mixtures, but also for a number of ternary aqueous solutions with relatively low freezing point and for nanoparticles suspensions (so called nanofluids). Some of them interestingly exhibit the same anomalous positive surface tension gradient with temperature as binary self-rewetting solutions. Since in the course of liquid/vapour phase change, self-rewetting fluids behaviour induces a rather strong liquid inflow (caused by both temperature and concentration gradients) from the cold region (where liquid condensates) to the hot evaporator region, several interesting applications may be envisaged, e.g., the development of advanced wickless heat pipes for utilization in reduced gravity environments. The present work is dedicated to the study of the thermophysical properties of nanofluids based on water/alcohol solutions with suspended carbon nanostructures, in particular single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNH), synthesised by an homemade apparatus with an AC arc discharge in open air. The potential interest of the proposed studies stems from the large number of possible industrial applications, including space technologies and terrestrial applications, such as cooling of electronic components.

  6. Experiments with suspended cells on the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. R.; Chapes, S. K.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S.; Lewis, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    Spaceflight experiments since 1981 have demonstrated that certain cell functions are altered by micro-g. Biophysical models suggest that cell membranes and organelles should not be affected directly by gravity, however, the chemical microenvironment surrounding the cell and molecular transport could be altered by reduced gravity. Most experiments have used suspended live cells in small chambers without stirring or medium exchange. Flight results include increased attachment of anchorage-dependent human cells to collagen coated microcarriers, reduced secretion of growth hormone from pituitary cells, decreased mitogenic response of lymphocytes, increased Interferon-alpha by lymphocytes, increased Interleukin-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor secretion by macrophages. Related experiments on cells immediately postflight and on procaryotic cells have shown significant changes in secretory capacity, cell proliferation, differentiation and development. Postulated mechanism include altered cell-cell interactions, altered calcium ion transport, effects on cell cytoskeleton, transport of transmitters and interactions with receptors. The discussion includes use of new molecular methods, considerations for cell environmental control and a preview of several experiments planned for the Shuttle and Spacelab flights to study the basic effects of microgravity on cellular physiology and potential interactions of spaceflight with radiation damage and cellular repair mechanisms.

  7. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediments and Shallow Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong-Rong; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Gao, Bo-Cai; Davis, Curtiss O.

    2002-01-01

    Ocean color sensors were designed mainly for remote sensing of chlorophyll concentrations over the clear open oceanic areas (case 1 water) using channels between 0.4 and 0.86 micrometers. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) launched on the NASA Terra and Aqua Spacecrafts is equipped with narrow channels located within a wider wavelength range between 0.4 and 2.5 micrometers for a variety of remote sensing applications. The wide spectral range can provide improved capabilities for remote sensing of the more complex and turbid coastal waters (case 2 water) and for improved atmospheric corrections for Ocean scenes. In this article, we describe an empirical algorithm that uses this wide spectral range to identifying areas with suspended sediments in turbid waters and shallow waters with bottom reflections. The algorithm takes advantage of the strong water absorption at wavelengths longer than 1 micrometer that does not allow illumination of sediments in the water or a shallow ocean floor. MODIS data acquired over the east coast of China, west coast of Africa, Arabian Sea, Mississippi Delta, and west coast of Florida are used in this study.

  8. Suspended polytetrafluoroethylene nanostructure electret film in dual variable cavities for self-powered micro-shock sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianxiong; Chen, Cong; Guo, Xiaoyu

    2018-04-01

    We report a suspended polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) nanostructure electret film in dual variable cavities for a self-powered micro-shock sensing application. The prototype contained series variable air cavities, a suspended nanostructure PTFE electret film and independent electrode films. The charges on the suspended nanostructure PTFE electret film provided the electrostatic field around the electret film in the series variable air cavities. When the reported device was driven by a micro-shock pressure, the inducted electrostatic charges on both the top and bottom electrodes would vary as the micro-shock pressing or releasing. Experimental results showed that the maximum of a short-circuit current density (J sc ) and an open-circuit voltage (V oc ) reached 3 ± 0.1 nA cm‑2 and 3.6 ± 0.1 V, respectively. It was found that the parameter J sc was more advantageous in identifying stronger shocks (parameter acceleration a bigger than 0.1 m s‑2), whereas the parameter V oc was more sensitive for weaker shocks, such as acceleration a smaller than 0.1 m s‑2. Moreover, finger continuous micro-shock pressure taps application was used to demonstrate the mechanical energy conversion performance with 4.5 ± 0.2 V open-circuit voltages. The research on the nanostructure electret PTFE film in series dual variable air cavities not only gave us a fresh idea about the principle and design of the shocking sensor, but also provided an easy fabrication and a low cost shocking sensor for the Internet of Things (IoT) systems.

  9. A fly-wheel drive with controlled-torque clutch for a reactors cooling circuit pumps; Entrainement des pompes du circuit de refrigeration d'un reacteur par volant a embrayage sous couple controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riettini, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-10-15

    After a theoretical study on the slowing down of a centrifugal pump, the motion equations have been checked by means of experimental tests. In order to have important slowing down times (which is the case of the cooling pumps of a research reactor) it is necessary to add a fly-wheel. To prevent troubles when starting, a block pump-fly-wheel with clutch under controlled torque was developed. It is so possible to start the fly-wheel progressively without increasing too much power of the driving motor. (author) [French] Apres une etude theorique sur le mouvement de ralentissement d'une pompe centrifuge, les equations du mouvement ont ete verifiees par des essais pratiques. Pour obtenir des temps de ralentissement importants (cas des pompes de refrigeration d'un reacteur de recherche) il est necessaire d'y adjoindre un volant d'inertie. Pour eviter les inconvenients au demarrage, on a etudie un ensemble pompe-volant avec embrayage sous couple controle. Cette solution permet de lancer progressivement le volant sans augmentation appreciable de la puissance du moteur d'entrainement. (auteur)

  10. Electric energy storage - Overview of technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boye, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage is a challenging and costly process, as electricity can only be stored by conversion into other forms of energy (e.g. potential, thermal, chemical or magnetic energy). The grids must be precisely balanced in real time and it must be made sure that the cost of electricity is the lowest possible. Storage of electricity has many advantages, in centralized mass storages used for the management of the transmission network, or in decentralized storages of smaller dimensions. This article presents an overview of the storage technologies: mechanical storage in hydroelectric and pumped storage power stations, compressed air energy storage (CAES), flywheels accumulating kinetic energy, electrochemical batteries with various technologies, traditional lead acid batteries, lithium ion, sodium sulfur (NaS) and others, including vehicle to grid, sensible heat thermal storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), super-capacitors, conversion into hydrogen... The different technologies are compared in terms of cost and level of maturity. The development of intermittent renewable energies will result in a growing need for mechanisms to regulate energy flow and innovative energy storage solutions seem well positioned to develop. (author)

  11. On the Use of Energy Storage Technologies for Regulation Services in Electric Power Systems with Significant Penetration of Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Bo; Makarov, Yuri; Desteese, John

    2008-01-01

    Energy produced by intermittent renewable resources is sharply increasing in the United States. At high penetration levels, volatility of wind power production could cause additional problems for the power system balancing functions such as regulation. This paper reports some partial results...... and frequently changing regulation signal. Several energy storage options have been analyzed based on thirteen selection criteria. The evaluation process resulted in the selection of flywheels, pumped hydro electric power (or conventional hydro electric power) plant and sodium sulfur or nickel cadmium batteries...... of a project work, recently conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project proposes to mitigate additional intermittency with the help of Wide Area Energy Management System (WAEMS) that would provide a two-way simultaneous regulation service...

  12. Aerial Photo Utilization in Estimating Suspended Sediment in the Wuryantoro Watershed, Wonogiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Budi Santoso

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment load flowing out from a watershed is normally predicated by analysis os suspended sediment of water sample, and the volume of suspended sediment be calculated based on sediment concentration and river discharge. Such field measurements need a lot of field data and they are time consuming. Another method for prediction of suspended sediment by using remote sensing imagery data and recorded rainfall data. The objective of this research is to 1 examine the capability of remote sensing technique to obtain the parameters of the physical data of land in the prediction of suspended sediment; 2 examine the accuracy of the model for prediction suspended sediment. This research is carried out in Wuryantoro watershed, Wonogiri. The main data to obtain the parameters of the physical data of land is infrared aerial photograph on scale 1 : 10.000. the method that used in this research is interpretation of remote sensing imagery data, combined with rainfall data. The result show that the accuracy of landuse is 88.5%, the accuracy of slope is 87.67%. the accuracy of the prediction of suspended sediment by model A3 87.07%, model C1 86.63%, model C2 90.57%, model A8 84.13%, model A9 80.1%, and model C4 78.6%.

  13. How are macroinvertebrates of slow flowing lotic systems directly affected by suspended and deposited sediments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J., E-mail: ben.kefford@rmit.edu.a [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Zalizniak, Liliana [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Dunlop, Jason E. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Smart Water Research Facility, Griffith University, Queensland (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Choy, Satish C. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of suspended and deposited sediments on the macroinvertebrates are well documented in upland streams but not in slower flowing lowland rivers. Using species found in lowland lotic environments, we experimentally evaluate mechanisms for sediments to affect macroinvertebrates, and in one experiment whether salinity alters the effect of suspended sediments. Suspended kaolin clay reduced feeding of Ischnura heterosticta (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) at high turbidity (1000-1500 NTU) but had no effects on feeding of Hemianax papuensis (Odonata: Aeshnidae) and Micronecta australiensis (Hemiptera: Corixidae). In freshwater (0.1 mS/cm), survival of Ischnura aurora was poor in clear water, but improved with suspended kaolin. Growth and feeding of I. aurora were unaffected by suspended sediments and salinity. Burial (1-5 mm) of eggs with kaolin or sand reduced hatching in Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae), Gyraulus tasmanica (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and Chironomus cloacalis (Diptera: Chironomidae). Settling sediments may pose greater risk to lowland lotic invertebrates than suspended sediments. - Sediment deposition may be more directly detrimental to macroinvertebrates of lowland rivers than suspended sediments.

  14. The effects of Hurricane Hugo on suspended-sediment loads, Lago Loiza Basin, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the two main tributaries that enter Lago Loiza, Rio Grande de Loiza and Rio Gurabo, 99 600 tonnes of suspended sediment was transported by 58.2??106 m3 of runoff in a 48 h period. The storm-average suspended-sediment concentration in the Rio Grande de Loiza for Hurricane Hugo was 2290 mgl-1, the second lowest for the 12 storms that have been monitored at this site. In Rio Gurabo the storm-average suspended-sediment concentration was 1420 mg l -1, the sixth lowest recorded out of 15 monitored storms. In Quebrada Salvatierra, a small tributary to Rio Grande de Loiza, suspended-sediment concentrations were as low as 33 mg l-1 during peak runoff of 20m3s-1. Normally the suspended-sediment concentrations at this discharge are 300 mg l-1. Hurricane force winds seem to be the most important factor contributing to the lower than expected suspended-sediment loads. High winds caused vegetation and debris to be dislodged and displaced. Debris accumulated on hillslopes and in small channels, blocked bridges and formed debris dams. These dams caused local backwater effects that reduced stream velocities and decreased suspended-sediment loads. -from Author

  15. Impact of suspended sediments on the survival of seagrass: Halodule pinifolia (Miki den Hartog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satumanatpan, S.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to study the level of suspended sediments on the survival of Halodule pinifolia (Miki den Hartog. Three experiments were conducted. Broad concentration of suspended sediments covering the level found in nature were employed in the first experiment. The impact concentration of suspended sediments on the survival of H. pinifolia was extended in more detail in the second and third experiments. H. pinifolia was planted by washing off the mud and holding it with a grating. An air pump was used to stir the sediment in suspension during the experiments and necessary water parameters were strictly control. The suspended sediment was spread by siphon and conducted in a period of 30 days for the first and second experiments, and 45 days for the third experiment. The result indicated that suspended sediments with a concentration of 1-64 mg/l had no impact on the survival of H. pinifolia within 30 days. Initially, suspended sediments of 66 mg/l lowered H. pinifolia's survival to 95% at day 30. Concentration of suspended sediments higher than 66 mg/l affected the survival of H. pinifolia. The decreasing survival was noticed during days 20 -25 of the experiment and all died during days 40-45. However, the life span of H. pinifolia, would be very important and might also affect the survival of H. pinifolia after 30 days.

  16. High concentration suspended sediment measurments using acontinuous fiber optic in-stream transmissometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Chris G.; Laycak, Danny T.; Hoppes, William; Tran,Nguyen T.; Shi, Frank G.

    2004-05-26

    Suspended sediment loads mobilized during high flow periods in rivers and streams are largely uncharacterized. In smaller and intermittent streams, a large storm may transport a majority of the annual sediment budget. Therefore monitoring techniques that can measure high suspended sediment concentrations at semi-continuous time intervals are needed. A Fiber optic In-stream Transmissometer (FIT) is presented for continuous measurement of high concentration suspended sediment in storm runoff. FIT performance and precision were demonstrated to be reasonably good for suspended sediment concentrations up to 10g/L. The FIT was compared to two commercially available turbidity devices and provided better precision and accuracy at both high and low concentrations. Both turbidity devices were unable to collect measurements at concentrations greater than 4 g/L. The FIT and turbidity measurements were sensitive to sediment particle size. Particle size dependence of transmittance and turbidity measurement poses the greatest problem for calibration to suspended sediment concentration. While the FIT was demonstrated to provide acceptable measurements of high suspended sediment concentrations, approaches to real-time suspended sediment detection need to address the particle size dependence in concentration measurements.

  17. Field Emission of Wet Transferred Suspended Graphene Fabricated on Interdigitated Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji; Wang, Qilong; Tao, Zhi; Qi, Zhiyang; Zhai, Yusheng; Wu, Shengqi; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Wei

    2016-02-10

    Suspended graphene (SG) membranes could enable strain-engineering of ballistic Dirac fermion transport and eliminate the extrinsic bulk disorder by annealing. When freely suspended without contact to any substrates, graphene could be considered as the ultimate two-dimensional (2D) morphology, leading to special field characteristics with the 2D geometrical effect and effectively utilized as an outstanding structure to explore the fundamental electronic or optoelectronic mechanism. In this paper, we report field emission characterization on an individual suspended few-layer graphene. A controllable wet transfer method is used to obtain the continuous and suspended graphene membrane on interdigitated gold electrodes. This suspended structure displays an overall field emission from the entirely surface, except for the variation in the emitting positions, acquiring a better enhancement than the exfoliated graphene on the conventional flat substrate. We also observe the transition process from space charge flow at low bias to the Fowler-Nordheim theory at high current emission regime. It could enable theoretical and experimental investigation of the typical electron emission properties of the 2D regime. Numerical simulations are also carried out to study the electrical properties of the suspended structure. Further improvement on the fabrication would realize low disorder, high quality, and large-scale suspended graphene devices.

  18. World's largest DC flywheel generator for the toroidal field power supply of JAERI's JFT-2M Tokamak nuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Takashi; Nakanishi, Yuji; Horita, Tsuyoshi; Kawase, Chiharu; Oyabu, Isao; Kishimoto, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    Mitsubishi Electric has delivered the world's largest DC generator for the toroidal field coil power supply of the JFT-2M Tokamak at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The unit rotates at 225 or 460 rpm, providing a maximum rated output of 2,700 V, 19,000 A and 51.3 MW. The toroidal field is a DC field, so use of a DC generator permits a simpler design consuming less floor space than an AC drive system. The generator was manufactured following extensive studies on commutation, mechanical strength and insulation. (author)

  19. Feasibility of using acoustic velocity meters for estimating highly organic suspended-solids concentrations in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Levee 4 canal site below control structure G-88 in the Everglades agricultural area in northwestern Broward County, Florida, to study the relation of acoustic attenuation to suspended-solids concentrations. Acoustic velocity meter and temperature data were obtained with concurrent water samples analyzed for suspended-solids concentrations. Two separate acoustic velocity meter frequencies were used, 200 and 500 kilohertz, to determine the sensitivity of acoustic attenuation to frequency for the measured suspended-solids concentration range. Suspended-solids concentrations for water samples collected at the Levee 4 canal site from July 1993 to September 1994 ranged from 22 to 1,058 milligrams per liter, and organic content ranged from about 30 to 93 percent. Regression analyses showed that attenuation data from the acoustic velocity meter (automatic gain control) and temperature data alone do not provide enough information to adequately describe the concentrations of suspended solids. However, if velocity is also included as one of the independent variables in the regression model, a satisfactory correlation can be obtained. Thus, it is feasible to use acoustic velocity meter instrumentation to estimate suspended-solids concentrations in streams, even when suspended solids are primarily composed of organic material. Using the most comprehensive data set available for the study (500 kiloherz data), the best fit regression model produces a standard error of 69.7 milligrams per liter, with actual errors ranging from 2 to 128 milligrams per liter. Both acoustic velocity meter transmission frequencies of 200 and 500 hilohertz produced similar results, suggesting that transducers of either frequency could be used to collect attenuation data at the study site. Results indicate that calibration will be required for each acoustic velocity meter system to the unique suspended-solids regime existing at each site. More robust solutions may

  20. 76 FR 16770 - Petition To Suspend and Cancel All Registrations for the Soil Fumigant Iodomethane (Methyl Iodide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0541; FRL-8841-7] Petition To Suspend and Cancel... Earthjustice requesting that all uses of iodomethane (methyl iodide) be suspended and cancelled. The Agency is... uses of iodomethane (methyl iodide) be suspended and cancelled. The Agency is posting this petition for...

  1. 78 FR 22501 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total Suspended Particulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total Suspended Particulate AGENCY... designations for total suspended particulate within the State of Nevada because the designations are no longer necessary. These designations relate to the attainment or unclassifiable areas for total suspended...

  2. 40 CFR 1042.330 - Selling engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with a suspended certificate of conformity. 1042.330 Section 1042.330 Protection of Environment... engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity. You may sell engines that you produce after we suspend the engine family's certificate of conformity under § 1042.315 only if one of the...

  3. Report of fiscal 1997 R and D result on high temperature superconducting flywheel power storage. R and D of manufacture of superconducting magnetic bearing; 1997 nendo koon chodendo flywheel denryoku chozo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chodendo denjiki jikuuke no seisaku no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Element technologies were developed for the manufacture of superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) with the purpose of putting to practical use a 10 MWh class high-temperature superconducting flywheel power storage system. This paper explains the fiscal 1997 results. A {phi} 180 radial type SMB was designed and fabricated that satisfied the rotational strength at 17,200 rpm for a medium-sized model for measuring characteristics. Compared with the bearing made in the preceding year, improvements in the bearing dynamics were contrived such as flux creep, load capacity and rotational loss, with the maximum flux density improved by 30%; however, only a few percent improvement was attained in field uniformity. An SMB characteristics measuring and testing machine was built, with the characteristics measured. It was confirmed that the rotational loss of a control type magnetic bearing and the intrinsic performance of the testing machine were unchanged regardless of the operation/non-operation of the radial type SMB. The characteristics of the {phi} 180 axial bearing were measured by a stationary type bearing constant testing machine made in 1995, which provided a load capacity characteristics curve with the initially set gap as a parameter as well as a minor loop curve and a load capacity. Also obtained were the maximum average bearing pressure and the maximum load capacity. (NEDO)

  4. Report of fiscal 1997 R and D result on high temperature superconducting flywheel power storage. R and D of characteristic analysis of superconducting magnetic bearing; 1997 nendo koon chodendo flywheel denryoku chozo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. chodendo jiki jikuuke no tokusei kaiseki no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This paper explains fiscal 1997 results of the development of technologies for characteristic analysis of superconducting magnetic bearings (SMB), the development aimed at putting a 10 MWh high temperature superconducting flywheel power storage system to practical use. Following fiscal 1996, calculation programs were prepared for a load capacity and bearing constant (spring constant, damping constant) on an axial type SMB, with validity of the program examined through comparison with experimental values. A finite element method was applied to a complex magnetic field by a magnet arrangement devised for the purpose of improving load capacity, dividing a superconductor into divided sections so that the effect of a complex magnetic field distribution could be reflected, determining the magnetization generating in each divided section by using a two-dimensional Bean model, and developing a method for calculating load capacity of each divided section by a magnetic moment method. A program was completed for calculating the load capacity and bearing constant of the entire bearing in the axial type SMB. The calculated value of the load capacity and the bearing constant showed a superior agreement with the experimental value. (NEDO)

  5. 1998 Annual Study Report. Research and development of power storage by high-temperature superconducting flywheels. Research and development of high-temperature superconducting materials; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Koon chodendo flywheel denryoku chozo kenkyu kaihatsu (koon chodendozai no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This R and D program is aimed at optimization of superconductors for improved levitation force of the superconducting magnetic bearings which support a 10 MWh power storage system by high-temperature superconducting flywheel (FW), to clarify possibility of sizing up the FW body and R and D themes for the commercialization. The processes are screened to simultaneously solve the conflicting targets of sizing up the sample of the Y-based bulk superconducting material and improved crystal orientation of the whole bearing, leading to selection of multi-seeding. The sample made on a trial basis improves levitation force by approximately 30%. It is considered that the OCMG-processed rare-earth-based superconducting material can generate very strong electromagnetic force, when combined with a permanent magnet. The Ag-doped Sm-based bulk material shows a reduced creep-caused loss of loading force, and a lower loss of Jc resulting from increased temperature than the Y-based one, decreasing AC loss and controlling temperature rise. The running characteristics and mechanical strength of the FW, and causes for temporal changes are investigated, in order to evaluate the superconducting material characteristics. (NEDO)

  6. Protection against suspended sand: the function of the branchial membrane in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vooys, C. G. N.

    2006-09-01

    Blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis) living in estuaries have to cope with varying concentrations of suspended sand. Sand flowing through the inhalant siphons comes into the infrabranchial chamber. The inhalant siphon can be partially closed by the branchial membrane. As a result the inward flow decreases, and suspended sand sinks and can be eliminated. Experiments with mussels from three ecologically different locations showed about the same response of the branchial membrane on contact with suspended sand. The presence and function of the branchial membrane appears to be an adaptation of mussels to their estuarine environment.

  7. H2S induces a suspended animation-like state in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Eric; Morrison, Mike; Roth, Mark B

    2005-04-22

    Mammals normally maintain their core body temperature (CBT) despite changes in environmental temperature. Exceptions to this norm include suspended animation-like states such as hibernation, torpor, and estivation. These states are all characterized by marked decreases in metabolic rate, followed by a loss of homeothermic control in which the animal's CBT approaches that of the environment. We report that hydrogen sulfide can induce a suspended animation-like state in a nonhibernating species, the house mouse (Mus musculus). This state is readily reversible and does not appear to harm the animal. This suggests the possibility of inducing suspended animation-like states for medical applications.

  8. Forty Cases of Insomnia Treated by Suspended Moxibustion at Baihui (GV 20)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Yan-li; CHI Xu; LIU Jian-xin

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To observe the therapeutic effect of suspended moxibustion at Baihui (GV 20) for insomnia.Methods: 75 cases were divided randomly into two groups, with 40 cases in the treatment group treated by suspended moxibustion over Baihui (GV 20) and 35 cases in the control group treated by oral administration of Estazolam. Results: The difference in therapeutic effect between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.1). Conclusion: It was concluded that suspended moxibustion at Baihui (GV 20) is as effective as Estazolam for insomnia.

  9. Assessing temporal variations in connectivity through suspended sediment hysteresis analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Phil; Melland, Alice; Mellander, Per-Erik; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.

    2016-04-01

    Connectivity provides a valuable concept for understanding catchment-scale sediment dynamics. In intensive agricultural catchments, land management through tillage, high livestock densities and extensive land drainage practices significantly change hydromorphological behaviour and alter sediment supply and downstream delivery. Analysis of suspended sediment-discharge hysteresis has offered insights into sediment dynamics but typically on a limited selection of events. Greater availability of continuous high-resolution discharge and turbidity data and qualitative hysteresis metrics enables assessment of sediment dynamics during more events and over time. This paper assesses the utility of this approach to explore seasonal variations in connectivity. Data were collected from three small (c. 10 km2) intensive agricultural catchments in Ireland with contrasting morphologies, soil types, land use patterns and management practices, and are broadly defined as low-permeability supporting grassland, moderate-permeability supporting arable and high-permeability supporting arable. Suspended sediment concentration (using calibrated turbidity measurements) and discharge data were collected at 10-min resolution from each catchment outlet and precipitation data were collected from a weather station within each catchment. Event databases (67-90 events per catchment) collated information on sediment export metrics, hysteresis category (e.g., clockwise, anti-clockwise, no hysteresis), numeric hysteresis index, and potential hydro-meteorological controls on sediment transport including precipitation amount, duration, intensity, stream flow and antecedent soil moisture and rainfall. Statistical analysis of potential controls on sediment export was undertaken using Pearson's correlation coefficient on separate hysteresis categories in each catchment. Sediment hysteresis fluctuations through time were subsequently assessed using the hysteresis index. Results showed the numeric

  10. Monitoring suspended sediments and turbidity in Sahelian basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Elodie; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Pinet, Sylvain; Nogmana, Soumaguel

    2017-04-01

    Suspended matter can carry viruses and bacteria that are pathogenic to humans and can foster their development. Therefore, turbidity can be considered a vector of microbiological contaminants, which cause diarrheal diseases, and it can be used as a proxy for fecal bacteria. Few studies have focused on water turbidity in rural Africa, where many cases of intestinal parasitic infections are due to the consumption of unsafe water from ponds, reservoirs, lakes and rivers. Diarrheal diseases are indeed the second cause of infant mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, in this region, environment survey is minimal or inexistent. Monitoring water turbidity therefore represents a challenge for health improvement. Turbidity refers to the optical properties of water and it is well suited to monitoring by remote sensing. Because it varies in space and time and because the small water bodies (Africa challenges the use of remote sensing and questions the methods developed for less turbid waters. In addition, high aerosol loadings (mineral dust and biomass burning) may be detrimental to turbidity retrieval in this region because of inaccurate atmospheric corrections. We propose a method to monitor water quality of Sahelian ponds, lakes and rivers using in-situ and remote sensing data, which is tested at different sites for which in-situ water turbidity and suspended sediments concentration (SSSC) measurements are acquired. Water sample are routinely collected at two sites within the AMMA-CATCH observatory part of the Réseau de Bassin Versants (RBV) French network: the Agoufou pond in northern Mali (starting September 2014), and the Niger River at Niamey in Niger (starting June 2015). These data are used to evaluate different indexes to derive water turbidity from the reflectance in the visible and infrared bands of high resolution optical sensors (LANDSAT, SENTINEL2). The temporal evolution of the turbidity of ponds, lakes and rivers is well captured at the seasonal and

  11. Energy storage for load leveling; Fuka heijunka ni kakasenai denryoku chozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, S. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-20

    This paper introduces features and state of development of electric power storage technologies. Pumped storage power generation is a technology to store electric power by utilizing energy of position. However, because the plant locations are limited to mountainous areas far away from power demand areas, development of power storage technologies is being progressed from a new viewpoint of installing plants in the vicinity of demand areas. Superconduction power storage continues flowing current into a superconductor coil to store the power as electromagnetic energy, which is drawn out as electric power on request. Research and development is in progress in Japan on superconductor coils, permanent current switches, and control and protection systems. A flywheel system stores energy by rotating a disk at high speeds. Element technologies are being developed on long-period storage technologies such as superconductor magnetic bearings and high-speed rotating flywheels. For new load leveling batteries, development efforts are being given on sodium-sulfur batteries, zinc-bromine batteries, redox flow batteries, and lithium batteries. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Storage filters upland suspended sediment signals delivered from watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzuto, James E.; Keeler, Jeremy; Skalak, Katherine; Karwan, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Climate change, tectonics, and humans create long- and short-term temporal variations in the supply of suspended sediment to rivers. These signals, generated in upland erosional areas, are filtered by alluvial storage before reaching the basin outlet. We quantified this filter using a random walk model driven by sediment budget data, a power-law distributed probability density function (PDF) to determine how long sediment remains stored, and a constant downstream drift velocity during transport of 157 km/yr. For 25 km of transport, few particles are stored, and the median travel time is 0.2 yr. For 1000 km of transport, nearly all particles are stored, and the median travel time is 2.5 m.y. Both travel-time distributions are power laws. The 1000 km travel-time distribution was then used to filter sinusoidal input signals with periods of 10 yr and 104 yr. The 10 yr signal is delayed by 12.5 times its input period, damped by a factor of 380, and is output as a power law. The 104 yr signal is delayed by 0.15 times its input period, damped by a factor of 3, and the output signal retains its sinusoidal input form (but with a power-law “tail”). Delivery time scales for these two signals are controlled by storage; in-channel transport time is insignificant, and low-frequency signals are transmitted with greater fidelity than high-frequency signals. These signal modifications are essential to consider when evaluating watershed restoration schemes designed to control sediment loading, and where source-area geomorphic processes are inferred from the geologic record.

  13. Mixing Performance of a Suspended Stirrer for Homogenizing Biodegradable Food Waste from Eatery Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide Babarinsa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation of a suspended stirrer within a homogenizing system is performed towards determining the mixing performance of a homogenizer. A two-dimensional finite volume formulation is developed for the cylindrical system that is used for the storage and stirring of biodegradable food waste from eatery centers. The numerical solver incorporates an analysis of the property distribution for viscous food waste in a storage tank, while coupling the impact of mixing on the slurry fluid. Partial differential equations, which describe the conservation of mass, momentum and energy, are applied. The simulation covers the mixing and heating cycles of the slurry. Using carrot-orange soup as the operating fluid (and its thermofluid properties and assuming constant density and temperature-dependent viscosity, the velocity and temperature field distribution under the influence of the mixing source term are analyzed. A parametric assessment of the velocity and temperature fields is performed, and the results are expected to play a significant role in designing a homogenizer for biodegradable food waste.

  14. Accumulation of {sup 241}Am by suspended matter, diatoms and aquatic weeds of the Yenisei River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.A., E-mail: t_zotina@ibp.r [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Bolsunovsky, A.Ya.; Bondareva, L.G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-15

    In this work we experimentally estimated the capacities of the key components of the Yenisei River (Russia): particulate suspended matter (seston), diatom microalgae, and submerged macrophytes for accumulating {sup 241}Am from water. In our experiments large particles of seston (>8 mum), comparable in size with diatoms, took up most of americium from water. The accumulation of americium by isolated diatom algae (Asterionella formosa and Diatoma vulgare) was lower than by total seston. The concentration factors (CFs) of {sup 241}Am for seston of the Yenisei River in our experiments were (2.8-6.9).10{sup 5}; for diatoms - (1.5-4.2).10{sup 4}. The CFs for aquatic plant Elodea canadensis were within the same order of magnitude as those for diatoms. Activity concentration and CFs of {sup 241}Am were nearly the same in experiments under dark and light conditions. This is indicative of an energy independent mechanism of americium uptake from the water by diatoms and submerged macrophytes.

  15. Parameterization of Time-Averaged Suspended Sediment Concentration in the Nearshore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Doug Yoon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the effect of wave breaking turbulence on sediment transport in the nearshore, the vertical distribution of time-averaged suspended sediment concentration (SSC in the surf zone was parameterized in terms of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE at different cross-shore locations, including the bar crest, bar trough, and inner surf zone. Using data from a large-scale laboratory experiment, a simple relationship was developed between the time-averaged SSC and the time-averaged TKE. The vertical variation of the time-averaged SSC was fitted to an equation analogous to the turbulent dissipation rate term. At the bar crest, the proposed equation was slightly modified to incorporate the effect of near-bed sediment processes and yielded reasonable agreement. This parameterization yielded the best agreement at the bar trough, with a coefficient of determination R2 ≥ 0.72 above the bottom boundary layer. The time-averaged SSC in the inner surf zone showed good agreement near the bed but poor agreement near the water surface, suggesting that there is a different sedimentation mechanism that controls the SSC in the inner surf zone.

  16. THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE, UNIDIRECTIONAL CHARTER OF THE DISSOLVED SALTS AND SUSPENDED LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Florea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is underlined that the hydrologic cycle in nature, reversible and regenerating of fresh water, carries out also an unidirectional and irreversible circulation – by means of a fragment of the hydrologic cycle – of the dissolved salts and stream’s suspended load, entailed by the water drained from continents to ocean. The trend is to transfer soluble salts from land to ocean in the same time with the running water on land in the portion of the hydrologic cycle which refers to the water transfer from continents to ocean in order to equilibrate the annual water balance of the hydrologic cycle. But, one can realize here and there some local salt accumulations in salt soils or in salt lakes within areas without drainage in arid climate; these salts accumulations are cases of local hydrologic cycles „grafted” along the way of water on land (to ocean. The energy necessary to the hydrologic cycle in nature is delivered by the Sun, and the entropy remains at a low level as a consequence of the elimination in this cycle of water vapors with high entropy, and of the receiving of liquid or solid water with low entropy, so that the annual level of entropy is maintained at a low level.

  17. Reduced-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Isolated Ge Crystals and Suspended Layers on Micrometric Si Pillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibitzki, Oliver; Capellini, Giovanni; Yamamoto, Yuji; Zaumseil, Peter; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Schroeder, Thomas; Ballabio, Andrea; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Salvalaglio, Marco; Miglio, Leo; Montalenti, Francesco

    2016-10-05

    In this work, we demonstrate the growth of Ge crystals and suspended continuous layers on Si(001) substrates deeply patterned in high aspect-ratio pillars. The material deposition was carried out in a commercial reduced-pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor, thus extending the "vertical-heteroepitaxy" technique developed by using the peculiar low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor, to widely available epitaxial tools. The growth process was thoroughly analyzed, from the formation of small initial seeds to the final coalescence into a continuous suspended layer, by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The preoxidation of the Si pillar sidewalls and the addition of hydrochloric gas in the reactants proved to be key to achieve highly selective Ge growth on the pillars top only, which, in turn, is needed to promote the formation of a continuous Ge layer. Thanks to continuum growth models, we were able to single out the different roles played by thermodynamics and kinetics in the deposition dynamics. We believe that our findings will open the way to the low-cost realization of tens of micrometers thick heteroepitaxial layer (e.g., Ge, SiC, and GaAs) on Si having high crystal quality.

  18. Southern company energy storage study :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  19. 40 CFR 1051.335 - How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.335 How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate? (a...

  20. Suspended HfO2 photonic crystal slab on III-nitride/Si platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongjin; Feng, Jiao; Cao, Ziping; Zhu, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    We present here the fabrication of suspended hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) photonic crystal slab on a III-nitride/Si platform. The calculations are performed to model the suspended HfO 2 photonic crystal slab. Aluminum nitride (AlN) film is employed as the sacrificial layer to form air gap. Photonic crystal patterns are defined by electron beam lithography and transferred into HfO 2 film, and suspended HfO 2 photonic crystal slab is achieved on a III-nitride/Si platform through wet-etching of AlN layer in the alkaline solution. The method is promising for the fabrication of suspended HfO 2 nanostructures incorporating into a III-nitride/Si platform, or acting as the template for epitaxial growth of III-nitride materials. (orig.)

  1. Ballistic magnetotransport in a suspended two-dimensional electron gas with periodic antidot lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhdanov, E. Yu., E-mail: zhdanov@isp.nsc.ru; Pogosov, A. G.; Budantsev, M. V.; Pokhabov, D. A.; Bakarov, A. K. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The magnetoresistance of suspended semiconductor nanostructures with a two-dimensional electron gas structured by periodic square antidot lattices is studied. It is shown that the ballistic regime of electron transport is retained after detaching the sample from the substrate. Direct comparative analysis of commensurability oscillations of magnetoresistance and their temperature dependences in samples before and after suspension is performed. It is found that the temperature dependences are almost identical for non-suspended and suspended samples, whereas significant differences are observed in the nonlinear regime, caused by direct current passage. Commensurability oscillations in the suspended samples are more stable with respect to exposure to direct current, which can be presumably explained by electron–electron interaction enhancement after detaching nanostructures from the high-permittivity substrate.

  2. Chlorophyll 'a' particulate organic carbon and suspended load from the mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheeba, P.; Devi, K.S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Chlorophyll 'a' Particulate Organic Carbon and suspended load were estimated for one year from two distinct mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters, viz. Puthuvypeen and Nettoor. Environmental parameters like tau degrees C, S ppt and pH were also...

  3. Suspended sediment fluxes in a tropical estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Srinivas, K.

    Annual transport processes of suspended sediments in Beypore estuary - a tropical estuary along the south west coast of India - were investigated based on time series measurements within the system. It's observed that the sediment transport...

  4. Magnetically suspended experimental vehicle-strength of structure and dynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagahiro, T; Terada, K; Kasai, Y; Motonaga, M

    1973-06-01

    To cope with rapid increase in demand for railroad transportation, studies in magnetically suspended high speed trains are being pushed forward at the Japanese National Railways. Recently a special experimental vehiclc was completed which will be used by JNR in experiments concerning magnetic propulsion and suspension of magnetically suspended high speed trains. This test vehicle is provided with reaction plates of linear induction motor under the floor at about the center of the vehicle, with superconducting magnets for suspension on both sides. The vehicle body is made mainly of high tensile strengthened aluminium (duralumin) for weight reduction, but its strength was checked by the vibration analysis and load tests carried out in the suspended condition. Remote-operated from the control tower, this unmanned test vehicle will provide a key to the completion of a super-high speed magnetically suspended train.

  5. An inexpensive optical sensor system for monitoring total suspended solids in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami Gumaan Daraigan; Mohd Zubir Matjafri; Khiruddin Abdullah; Azlan Abdul Aziz; Abdul Aziz Tajuddin; Mohd Firdaus Othman

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to design and develop an optical transsmissometer sensor for measuring total suspended solids TSS concentrations in water samples. The proposed optical sensor has the advantages of being relatively inexpensive, and easy to make and operate. An optical algorithm has been developed and used for the measurement of total suspended solids concentrations. The developed optical sensor components include light emitting diodes LEDs that are used for measuring transmitted light. The concentrations of total suspended solids TSS are determined from transmitted light through the water samples. The transmitted light is measured in terms of the output voltage of the photodetector of the sensor system. The readings are measured using a digital multimeter. The results indicate that the level of the photocurrent is linearly proportional to the total suspended solids concentration. The proposed algorithm produces a high correlation coefficient and low root mean square error. (Author)

  6. Residual fluxes of water, salt and suspended sediment in the Beypore Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; Revichandran, C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Josanto, V.

    The monthly trends of the residual fluxes of salt and water and the transportation of suspended sediments in the Beypore estuarine system, Kerala, India were examined. At the river mouth the water flux was directed seaward during the postmonsoon...

  7. The features of ballistic electron transport in a suspended quantum point contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevyrin, A. A.; Budantsev, M. V.; Bakarov, A. K.; Toropov, A. I.; Pogosov, A. G.; Ishutkin, S. V.; Shesterikov, E. V.

    2014-01-01

    A suspended quantum point contact and the effects of the suspension are investigated by performing identical electrical measurements on the same experimental sample before and after the suspension. In both cases, the sample demonstrates conductance quantization. However, the suspended quantum point contact shows certain features not observed before the suspension, namely, plateaus at the conductance values being non-integer multiples of the conductance quantum, including the “0.7-anomaly.” These features can be attributed to the strengthening of electron-electron interaction because of the electric field confinement within the suspended membrane. Thus, the suspended quantum point contact represents a one-dimensional system with strong electron-electron interaction

  8. Capturing Flow-weighted Water and Suspended Particulates from Agricultural Canals During Drainage Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, Jehangir H; Sexton, Anne; Lang, Timothy A; Daroub, Samira H

    2017-11-07

    The purpose of this study is to describe the methods used to capture flow-weighted water and suspended particulates from farm canals during drainage discharge events. Farm canals can be enriched by nutrients such as phosphorus (P) that are susceptible to transport. Phosphorus in the form of suspended particulates can significantly contribute to the overall P loads in drainage water. A settling tank experiment was conducted to capture suspended particulates during discrete drainage events. Farm canal discharge water was collected in a series of two 200 L settling tanks over the entire duration of the drainage event, so as to represent a composite subsample of the water being discharged. Imhoff settling cones are ultimately used to settle out the suspended particulates. This is achieved by siphoning water from the settling tanks via the cones. The particulates are then collected for physico-chemical analyses.

  9. Seasonal variations of total suspended matter (TSM) in the Gulf of Khambhat, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Misra, A.; ManiMurali, R.; Sukumaran, S.; Vethamony, P.

    Total Suspended Matter (TSM)is an important parameter for determining the water quality in coastal regions as it is responsible for the reduction in the light available to the aquatic vegetation which subsequently alters the health and quality...

  10. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite.

  11. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Pany, Dipti Ranjan; Mohanty, Biswaranjan

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae) as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v) were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite. PMID:22247868

  12. 40 CFR 1068.440 - How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Auditing § 1068.440 How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate? (a) Send us a written report... failure, propose a remedy, and commit to a date for carrying it out. In your proposed remedy include any...

  13. Experimental realization of suspended atomic chains composed of different atomic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettini, Jefferson; Ugarte, Daniel; Sato, Fernando; Galvao, Douglas Soares; Coura, Pablo Zimmerman; Dantas, Socrates de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    We report high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and molecular dynamics results of the first experimental test of suspended atomic chains composed of different atomic species formed from spontaneous stretching of metallic nanowires. (author)

  14. Suspended sediment transport and shoaling in the Munambam fishery harbour, Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Revichandran, C.; Abraham, P.; Josanto, V.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Results of the monthly synoptic field observations of vertical profiles of suspended sediment concentration, current velocity and salinity carried out in the Azhicode Estuary are presented with a view to understand the shoaling and siltation...

  15. Novel Resuscitation from Lethal Hemorrhage-Suspended Animation for Delayed Resuscitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Safar, Peter

    2003-01-01

    ...). We have conceived and documented the concept of "suspended animation (SA) for delayed resuscitation" using a hypothermic saline flush into the aorta within the first 5 min of CA, using novel clinically relevant outcome models in dogs...

  16. Novel Resuscitation From Lethal Hemorrhage Suspended Animation for Delayed Resuscitation, Year 7

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kochanek, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    ...). We have conceived and documented the concept of "suspended animation (SA) for delayed resuscitation" using a hypothermic saline flush into the aorta after rapid (over 5 min) exsanguination (Ex...

  17. A method and algorithm for correlating scattered light and suspended particles in polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami Gumaan Daraigan; Mohd Zubir Matjafri; Khiruddin Abdullah; Azlan Abdul Aziz; Abdul Aziz Tajuddin; Mohd Firdaus Othman

    2005-01-01

    An optical model has been developed for measuring total suspended solids TSS concentrations in water. This approach is based on the characteristics of scattered light from the suspended particles in water samples. An optical sensor system (an active spectrometer) has been developed to correlate pollutant (total suspended solids TSS) concentration and the scattered radiation. Scattered light was measured in terms of the output voltage of the phototransistor of the sensor system. The developed algorithm was used to calculate and estimate the concentrations of the polluted water samples. The proposed algorithm was calibrated using the observed readings. The results display a strong correlation between the radiation values and the total suspended solids concentrations. The proposed system yields a high degree of accuracy with the correlation coefficient (R) of 0.99 and the root mean square error (RMS) of 63.57 mg/l. (Author)

  18. Continuous-flow centrifugation to collect suspended sediment for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Dinicola, Richard S.; Black, Robert W.; Cox, Stephen E.; Sheibley, Richard W.; Foreman, James R.; Senter, Craig A.; Peterson, Norman T.

    2016-12-22

    Recent advances in suspended-sediment monitoring tools and surrogate technologies have greatly improved the ability to quantify suspended-sediment concentrations and to estimate daily, seasonal, and annual suspended-sediment fluxes from rivers to coastal waters. However, little is known about the chemical composition of suspended sediment, and how it may vary spatially between water bodies and temporally within a single system owing to climate, seasonality, land use, and other natural and anthropogenic drivers. Many water-quality contaminants, such as organic and inorganic chemicals, nutrients, and pathogens, preferentially partition in sediment rather than water. Suspended sediment-bound chemical concentrations may be undetected during analysis of unfiltered water samples, owing to small water sample volumes and analytical limitations. Quantification of suspended sediment‑bound chemical concentrations is needed to improve estimates of total chemical concentrations, chemical fluxes, and exposure levels of aquatic organisms and humans in receiving environments. Despite these needs, few studies or monitoring programs measure the chemical composition of suspended sediment, largely owing to the difficulty in consistently obtaining samples of sufficient quality and quantity for laboratory analysis.A field protocol is described here utilizing continuous‑flow centrifugation for the collection of suspended sediment for chemical analysis. The centrifuge used for development of this method is small, lightweight, and portable for the field applications described in this protocol. Project scoping considerations, deployment of equipment and system layout options, and results from various field and laboratory quality control experiments are described. The testing confirmed the applicability of the protocol for the determination of many inorganic and organic chemicals sorbed on suspended sediment, including metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and

  19. The observation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in suspended semiconductor ring interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhabov, D. A.; Pogosov, A. G.; Shevyrin, A. A.; Zhdanov, E. Yu; Bakarov, A. K.; Shklyaev, A. A.; Ishutkin, S. V.; Stepanenko, M. V.; Shesterikov, E. V.

    2018-02-01

    A suspended semiconductor quantum ring interferometer based on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure with a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is created and experimentally studied. The electron interference in suspended 2DEG is observed. The interference manifests itself as the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the interferometer magnetoresistance, clearly observed before as well as after suspension. The amplitude of the oscillations remains almost unchanged after suspension.

  20. Transfer-last suspended graphene fabrication on gold, graphite and silicon nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, J.; Boodhoo, L.; Huang, C.C.; Hewak, D.W.; Saito, S.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Mizuta, H.

    2015-01-01

    While most graphene devices fabricated so far have been by transferring graphene onto flat substrates first, an interesting approach would be to transfer graphene onto patterned substrates to suspend graphene for future graphene nanoelectromechanical device applications. This novel "transfer-last" fabrication is beneficial for reducing possible damage of the suspended graphene caused by subsequent undercutting processes and typical substrate interactions. On the other hand, reduction of conta...