WorldWideScience

Sample records for susceptible lewis rats

  1. Maternal Deprivation of Lewis Rat Pups Increases the Severity of Experi-mental Periodontitis in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Torbjørn; Gundersen, Yngvar; Murison, Robert; Turner, Jonathan D; Muller, Claude P; Gjermo, Per; Opstad, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Early life adverse events may influence susceptibility/resistance to chronic inflammatory diseases later in life by permanently dysregulating brain-controlled immune-regulatory systems. We have investigated the impact of infant-mother separation during early postnatal life on the severity of experimental periodontitis, as well as systemic stress and immune responses, in adulthood. Pups of periodontitis resistant Lewis rats were separated from their mothers for 3 h daily during postnatal days 2-14 (termed maternal deprivation; MD), separated for 15 min daily during the same time period (termed handling; HD), or left undisturbed. As adults, their behaviour was tested in a novel stressful situation, and ligature-induced periodontitis applied for 21 days. Two h before sacrifice all rats were exposed to a gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge to induce a robust immune and stress response. Compared to undisturbed controls, MD rats developed significantly more periodontal bone loss as adults, whereas HD rats showed a tendency to less disease. MD and HD rats exhibited depression-like behaviour in a novel open field test, while MD rats showed higher glucocorticoid receptor (Gr) expression in the hippocampus, and HD rats had altered methylation of genes involved in the expression of hippocampal Gr. LPS provoked a significantly lower increase in circulating levels of the cytokine TGF-1β in MD and HD rats, but there were no significant differences in levels of the stress hormone corticosterone. Stressful environmental exposures in very early life may alter immune responses in a manner that influences susceptibility/resistance to periodontitis.

  2. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Uveitis Models in Lewis Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepple, Kathryn L; Rotkis, Lauren; Wilson, Leslie; Sandt, Angela; Van Gelder, Russell N

    2015-12-01

    Inflammation generates changes in the protein constituents of the aqueous humor. Proteins that change in multiple models of uveitis may be good biomarkers of disease or targets for therapeutic intervention. The present study was conducted to identify differentially-expressed proteins in the inflamed aqueous humor. Two models of uveitis were induced in Lewis rats: experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) and primed mycobacterial uveitis (PMU). Differential gel electrophoresis was used to compare naïve and inflamed aqueous humor. Differentially-expressed proteins were separated by using 2-D gel electrophoresis and excised for identification with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF). Expression of select proteins was verified by Western blot analysis in both the aqueous and vitreous. The inflamed aqueous from both models demonstrated an increase in total protein concentration when compared to naïve aqueous. Calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9, was increased in the aqueous in both PMU and EAU. In the vitreous, S100A8 and S100A9 were preferentially elevated in PMU. Apolipoprotein E was elevated in the aqueous of both uveitis models but was preferentially elevated in EAU. Beta-B2-crystallin levels decreased in the aqueous and vitreous of EAU but not PMU. The proinflammatory molecules S100A8 and S100A9 were elevated in both models of uveitis but may play a more significant role in PMU than EAU. The neuroprotective protein β-B2-crystallin was found to decline in EAU. Therapies to modulate these proteins in vivo may be good targets in the treatment of ocular inflammation.

  3. Vasoprotective effects of life span-extending peripubertal GH replacement in Lewis dwarf rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungvari, Zoltan; Gautam, Tripti; Koncz, Peter; Henthorn, Jim C; Pinto, John T; Ballabh, Praveen; Yan, Han; Mitschelen, Matthew; Farley, Julie; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna

    2010-11-01

    In humans, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and low circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) significantly increase the risk for cerebrovascular disease. Genetic growth hormone (GH)/IGF-1 deficiency in Lewis dwarf rats significantly increases the incidence of late-life strokes, similar to the effects of GHD in elderly humans. Peripubertal treatment of Lewis dwarf rats with GH delays the occurrence of late-life stroke, which results in a significant extension of life span. The present study was designed to characterize the vascular effects of life span-extending peripubertal GH replacement in Lewis dwarf rats. Here, we report, based on measurements of dihydroethidium fluorescence, tissue isoprostane, GSH, and ascorbate content, that peripubertal GH/IGF-1 deficiency in Lewis dwarf rats increases vascular oxidative stress, which is prevented by GH replacement. Peripubertal GHD did not alter superoxide dismutase or catalase activities in the aorta nor the expression of Cu-Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, and catalase in the cerebral arteries of dwarf rats. In contrast, cerebrovascular expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 was significantly decreased in dwarf vessels, and this effect was reversed by GH treatment. Peripubertal GHD significantly decreases expression of the Nrf2 target genes NQO1 and GCLC in the cerebral arteries, whereas it does not affect expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and vascular expression of IGF-1, IGF-binding proteins, and inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interluekin-6, interluekin-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1). In conclusion, peripubertal GH/IGF-1 deficiency confers pro-oxidative cellular effects, which likely promote an adverse functional and structural phenotype in the vasculature, and results in accelerated vascular impairments later in life.

  4. Fibre type composition of soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles in normal female inbred Lewis rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Zachařová, Gisela; Smerdu, V.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 4 (2002), s. 399-405 ISSN 0065-1281 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/1653 Grant - others:CZ - SI Czech-Slovenian Intergovernmental S&T Co-operation(XC) - Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : inbred Lewis rats * skeletal muscles * soleus and EDL muscles Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.867, year: 2002

  5. Effects of the immunomodulator, VGX-1027, in endotoxin-induced uveitis in Lewis rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangano, K; Sardesai, N Y; Quattrocchi, C

    2008-01-01

    VGX-1027 is a novel, low molecular weight, immunomodulatory compound that has shown efficacy against a variety of immuno-inflammatory disease models in animals including autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice, collagen-induced arthritis and chemically induced inflammatory colitis. Here, we have studied ...... the effects of VGX-1027 on the development of endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in male Lewis rats, as a model of inflammatory ocular diseases in humans....

  6. Genetic susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Nitta, Yumiko [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine

    1999-06-01

    The Copenhagen (COP) rat strain has previously been shown to be genetically resistant to chemical induction of breast cancer, while Wistar/Furth (WF) and Fischer 344 (F344) animals are relatively susceptible. We have compared the carcinogenic response of these three strains of rats to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) with that to {sup 60}Co gamma rays. High incidences of mammary carcinomas were induced by MNU in the F344 and WF rats (100%), whereas the COP strain proved resistant (11.8%). In contrast, radiation-induced mammary carcinomas in COP rats developed in a similar incidence (37.0%) to those in the F344 (22.6%) and WF (26.9%) strains. The low incidence of papillary carcinomas in MNU-treated COP rats appeared to be directly related to the COP genetic resistance controlled by the Mcs genes. Ionizing radiation did, however, induce papillary carcinomas in all the three strains of rats. These carcinomas were more differentiated than MNU-induced cancers with regard to the two mammary differentiation markers, rat milk fat globule membrane (R-MFGM) and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin ({alpha}-SMA). Furthermore, ionizing radiation but not MNU induced mammary adenomas in all three strains, especially in COP rats. Such adenomas had differentiation marker profiles similar to these of carcinomas induced by {sup 60}Co gamma rays. When transplanted into syngenic hosts, growth of adenomas was 17 {beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2})-dependent and they progressed to carcinomas. Furthermore, one microcarcinoma was observed to develop from adenoma tissue in a radiation-exposed COP rat. The findings suggest that radiation and chemical carcinogens are likely to induce mammary cancers through different pathways or from different cell populations. The induction of relatively high incidences of mammary carcinomas and adenomas by radiation in COP rats may correlate with the genetically modulated and highly differentiated physiological status of their mammary glands. (author)

  7. Differential impact of stress on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis: Gene expression changes in Lewis and Fisher rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ergang, Peter; Vodička, Martin; Soták, Matúš; Klusoňová, Petra; Behuliak, Michal; Řeháková, Lenka; Zach, P.; Pácha, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, Mar 2015 (2015), s. 49-59 ISSN 0306-4530 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0969 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 * brain * neuropeptides * stress * Fisher rat * Lewis rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.704, year: 2015

  8. Serum expression of HA and LN in lewis rat models of autoimmune myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Li'na; Li Tieling; Zhang Yajing; Yang Tingshu; Ding Yu; Guo Shuli; Zhao Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of dynamic changes of serum expressions of hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (LN) in Lewis rat models of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). Methods: Fifty Lewis rat models of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) were established with injection of recombinant cardiac C protein with complete freund adjuvant into two foot-pads plus intraperitoneal injection of pertussis toxin. At 1w, 2w, 4w, 6w and 8w, 10 models were sacrificed each time;cardiac tissues were examined with HE stain for myocardial inflammatory score and examined with picrosirius red stain for myocardial fibrosis score, also, serum HA and LN expressions were determined with RIA. These examinations were performed in 10 undisturbed animals as controls. Results: The myocardial inflammatory scores of the models at 1w were about the same as those in the controls, but the scores rapidly increased from 2w on to 4w then fell gradually. The myocardial fibrosis scores of the models at 1wk were also not much different from those in controls. The fibrosis scores increased rapidly at 4w and maintained at high level up to 8w. The changes of serum expressions of HA and LN roughly paralleled those of myocardial fibrosis scores i. e. rapidly increased at 4w up to 8w. Conclusion: Serum expressions of HA and LN could faithfully reflect the degree of myocardial fibrosis in rat models of EAM. HA and LN were useful markers of myocardial fibrois and were of prognostic importance. (authors)

  9. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, liraglutide, delays onset and reduces severity of experimental autoimmune encephalitis in Lewis rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian DellaValle

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Recent findings indicate that metabolic disturbances are involved in multiple sclerosis (MS pathology and influence the susceptibility to treatment, directing attention towards anti-diabetic drugs such as metformin and pioglitazone. Liraglutide, a drug of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 family, is also anti-diabetic and weight-reducing and is moreover, directly neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory in a broad spectrum of experimental models of brain disease. In this study we investigate the potential for this FDA-approved drug, liraglutide, as a treatment for MS by utilizing the experimental model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE.Methods: EAE was induced in 30 female Lewis rats that subsequently received twice-daily liraglutide (200 µg/kg s.c. or saline. Healthy controls were included (saline, n=6, liraglutide, n=7. Clinical score and weight were assessed daily by blinded observers. Animals were killed at peak disease severity (day 11 or if exceeding humane endpoint (clinical score ≥4. Protein levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, amyloid precursor protein (APP, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP were determined.Results: Liraglutide treatment delayed disease onset (group clinical score significantly >0 by two days and markedly reduced disease severity (median clinical score 2 vs. 5; p=0.0003. Fourteen of 15 (93% of vehicle-treated rats reached the humane endpoint (clinical score ≥4 by day 11 compared to 5 of 15 (33% of liraglutide-treated rats (p=0.0004. Liraglutide substantially increased the mitochondrial antioxidant MnSOD (p<0.01 and reduced the neurodegenerative marker APP (p=0.036 in the brain. GFAP levels were not significantly changed with drug treatment (p=0.09Conclusion: We demonstrate, for the first time, that liraglutide treatment delays onset of EAE in Lewis rats and is associated with improved protective capacity against oxidative stress. These data suggest GLP-1 receptor

  10. Stress Alters the Discriminative Stimulus and Response Rate Effects of Cocaine Differentially in Lewis and Fischer Inbred Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. Kosten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress enhances the behavioral effects of cocaine, perhaps via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity. Yet, compared to Fischer 344 (F344 rats, Lewis rats have hyporesponsive HPA axis function and more readily acquire cocaine self-administration. We hypothesized that stress would differentially affect cocaine behaviors in these strains. The effects of three stressors on the discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of cocaine were investigated. Rats of both strains were trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg from saline using a two-lever, food-reinforced (FR10 procedure. Immediately prior to cumulative dose (1, 3, 10 mg/kg cocaine test sessions, rats were restrained for 15-min, had 15-min of footshock in a distinct context, or were placed in the shock-paired context. Another set of F344 and Lewis rats were tested similarly except they received vehicle injections to test if stress substituted for cocaine. Most vehicle-tested rats failed to respond after stressor exposures. Among cocaine-tested rats, restraint stress enhanced cocaine’s discriminative stimulus effects in F344 rats. Shock and shock-context increased response rates in Lewis rats. Stress-induced increases in corticosterone levels showed strain differences but did not correlate with behavior. These data suggest that the behavioral effects of cocaine can be differentially affected by stress in a strain-selective manner.

  11. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Analog, Liraglutide, Delays Onset of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalitis in Lewis Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DellaValle, Brian; Brix, Gitte S; Brock, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    (GLP-1) family, is also anti-diabetic and weight-reducing and is, moreover, directly neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory in a broad spectrum of experimental models of brain disease. In this study we investigate the potential for this FDA-approved drug, liraglutide, as a treatment for MS by utilizing...... the experimental model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). Methods: EAE was induced in 30 female Lewis rats that subsequently received twice-daily liraglutide (200 μg/kg s.c.) or saline. Healthy controls were included (saline, n = 6, liraglutide, n = 7). Clinical score and weight were assessed daily...... treatment delayed disease onset (group clinical score significantly >0) by 2 days and markedly reduced disease severity (median clinical score 2 vs. 5; p = 0.0003). Fourteen of 15 (93%) of vehicle-treated rats reached the humane endpoint (clinical score ≥4) by day 11 compared to 5 of 15 (33%) of liraglutide...

  12. Fischer 344 and Lewis Rat Strains as a Model of Genetic Vulnerability to Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Today it is well acknowledged that both nature and nurture play important roles in the genesis of psychopathologies, including drug addiction. Increasing evidence suggests that genetic factors contribute for at least 40-60% of the variation in liability to drug dependence. Human genetic studies suggest that multiple genes of small effect, rather than single genes, contribute to the genesis of behavioral psychopathologies. Therefore, the use of inbred rat strains might provide a valuable tool to identify differences, linked to genotype, important in liability to addiction and related disorders. In this regard, Lewis and Fischer 344 inbred rats have been proposed as a model of genetic vulnerability to drug addiction, given their innate differences in sensitivity to the reinforcing and rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, as well their different responsiveness to stressful stimuli. This review will provide evidence in support of this model for the study of the genetic influence on addiction vulnerability, with particular emphasis on differences in mesolimbic dopamine (DA) transmission, rewarding and emotional function. It will be highlighted that Lewis and Fischer 344 rats differ not only in several indices of DA transmission and adaptive changes following repeated drug exposure, but also in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness, influencing not only the ability of the individual to cope with stressful events, but also interfering with rewarding and motivational processes, given the influence of corticosteroids on dopamine neuron functionality. Further differences between the two strains, as impulsivity or anxiousness, might contribute to their different proneness to addiction, and likely these features might be linked to their different DA neurotransmission plasticity. Although differences in other neurotransmitter systems might deserve further investigation, results from the reviewed studies might open new vistas in understanding aberrant

  13. Fischer 344 and Lewis rat strains as a model of genetic vulnerability to drug addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eCadoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Today it is well acknowledged that both nature and nurture play important roles in the genesis of psychopathologies, including drug addiction. Increasing evidence suggests that genetic factors contribute for at least 40-60 % of the variation in liability to drug dependence. Human genetic studies suggest that multiple genes of small effect, rather than single genes, contribute to the genesis of behavioral psychopathologies. Therefore the use of inbred rat strains might provide a valuable tool to identify differences, linked to genotype, important in liability to addiction and related disorders. In this regard, Lewis and Fischer 344 inbred rats have been proposed as a model of genetic vulnerability to drug addiction, given their innate differences in sensitivity to the reinforcing and rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, as well their different responsiveness to stressful stimuli. This review will provide evidence in support of this model for the study of the genetic influence on addiction vulnerability, with particular emphasis to differences in mesolimbic dopamine (DA transmission, rewarding and emotional function. It will be highlighted that Lewis and Fischer 344 rats differ not only in several indices of DA transmission and adaptive changes following repeated drug exposure, but also in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis responsiveness, influencing not only the ability of the individual to cope with stressful events, but also interfering with rewarding and motivational processes, given the influence of corticosteroids on dopamine neurons functionality.Further differences between the two strains, as impulsivity or anxiousness, might contribute to their different proneness to addiction, and likely these features might be linked to their different DA neurotransmission plasticity. Although differences in other neurotransmitter systems might deserve further investigations, results from the reviewed studies might open new vistas in

  14. Tumor Progression Is Associated with Increasing CD11b(+) Cells and CCL2 in Lewis Rat Sarcoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mishra, Rajbardhan; Kovalská, Jana; Janda, Jozef; Vannucci, Luca; Rajmon, R.; Horák, Vratislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2015), s. 703-712 ISSN 0250-7005 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Lewis rat sarcoma * CD11b+cells * neutrophils Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.895, year: 2015

  15. Dr. Lewis Kitchener Dahl, the Dahl Rats and the ‘Inconvenient truth’ abou the Genetics of Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Bina

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Lewis K. Dahl is regarded as an iconic figure in the field of hypertension research. During the 1960s and 1970s he published several seminal articles in the field that shed light on the relationship between salt and hypertension. Further, the Dahl rat models of hypertension that he developed by a selective breeding strategy are among the most widely used models for hypertension research. To this day, genetic studies using this model are ongoing in our laboratory. While Dr. Dahl is known for his contributions to the field of hypertension, very little, if any, of his personal history is documented. This article details a short biography of Dr. Lewis Dahl, the history behind the development of the Dahl rats and presents an overview of the results obtained through the genetic analysis of the Dahl rat as an experimental model to study the inheritance of hypertension. PMID:25646295

  16. Aversive properties of negative incentive shifts in Fischer 344 and Lewis rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Adam; Johnson, Patrick; Stein, Jeff; Schlund, Michael; Williams, Dean C.

    2018-01-01

    Research on incentive contrast highlights that reward value is not absolute but rather is based upon comparisons we make to rewards we have received and expect to receive. Both human and nonhuman studies on incentive contrast show that shifting from a larger more-valued reward to a smaller less-valued reward is associated with long periods of nonresponding—a negative contrast effect. In this investigation, we used two different genetic rat strains, Fischer 344 and Lewis rats that putatively differ in their sensitivity to aversive stimulation, to assess the aversive properties of large-to-small reward shifts (negative incentive shifts). Additionally, we examined the extent to which increasing cost (fixed-ratio requirements) modulates negative contrast effects. In the presence of a cue that signaled the upcoming reward magnitude, lever pressing was reinforced with one of two different magnitudes of food (large or small). This design created two contrast shifts (small-to-large, large-to-small) and two shifts used as control conditions (small-to-small, large-to-large). Results showed a significant interaction between rat strain and cost requirements only during the negative incentive shift with the emotionally reactive Fischer 344 rats exhibiting significantly longer response latencies with increasing cost, highlighting greater negative contrast. These findings are more consistent with emotionality accounts of negative contrast and results of neurophysiological research that suggests shifting from a large to a small reward is aversive. Findings also highlight how subjective reward value and motivation is a product of gene-environment interactions. PMID:27864048

  17. Streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis and adjuvant arthritis in F344----Lewis and in Lewis----F344 bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Bruggen, M.C.; van den Broek, M.F.; van den Berg, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    Streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis and adjuvant arthritis (AA) are rat models for chronic, erosive polyarthritis. Both models can be induced in susceptible Lewis rats, whereas F344 rats are resistant. In AA as well as in SCW arthritis, antigen-specific T lymphocytes have been demonstrated to be crucial for chronic disease. In this communication the authors describe their studies to probe the cellular mechanism responsible for the difference in susceptibility of Lewis and F344, using bone marrow chimeras. By transplanting bone marrow cells from F344 into lethally irradiated Lewis recipients, Lewis rats were rendered resistant to SCW arthritis induction. F344 rats reconstituted with Lewis bone marrow, i.e., Lewis----F344 chimeras, develop an arthritis upon SCW injection. For AA comparable results were obtained. These data suggest that both resistance and susceptibility to bacterium-induced chronic arthritis are mediated by hemopoietic/immune cells and that the recipiental environment does not influence the susceptibility to chronic joint inflammation

  18. Lumbar spine intervertebral disc gene delivery: a pilot study in lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Sheela R; Rawlins, Bernard A; Boachie-Adjei, Oheneba; Crystal, Ronald G; Hidaka, Chisa; Cunningham, Matthew E

    2013-02-01

    Basic research toward understanding and treating disc pathology in the spine has utilized numerous animal models, with delivery of small molecules, purified factors, and genes of interest. To date, gene delivery to the rat lumbar spine has only been described utilizing genetically programmed cells in a matrix which has required partial disc excision, and expected limitation of treatment diffusion into the disc. This study was designed to develop and describe a surgical technique for lumbar spine exposure and disc space preparation, and use of a matrix-free method for gene delivery. Naïve or genetically programmed isogeneic bone marrow stromal cells were surgically delivered to adolescent male Lewis rat lumbar discs, and utilizing quantitative biochemical and qualitative immunohistological assessments, the implanted cells were detected 3 days post-procedure. Statistically significant differences were noted for recovery of the β-galactosidase marker gene comparing delivery of naïve or labeled cells (10(5) cells per disc) from the site of implantation, and between delivery of 10(5) or 10(6) labeled cells per disc at the site of implantation and the adjacent vertebral body. Immunohistology confirmed that the β-galactosidase marker was detected in the adjacent vertebra bone in the zone of surgical implantation. The model requires further testing in larger cohorts and with biologically active genes of interest, but the observations from the pilot experiments are very encouraging that this will be a useful comparative model for basic spine research involving gene or cell delivery, or other locally delivered therapies to the intervertebral disc or adjacent vertebral bodies in rats.

  19. Epistatic Effects Contribute to Variation in BMD in Fischer 344 × Lewis F2 Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Daniel L; Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    To further delineate the factors underlying the complex genetic architecture of BMD in the rat model, a genome screen for epistatic interactions was conducted. Several significant interactions were identified, involving both previously identified and novel QTLs. Introduction The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including BMD, has been shown to be caused largely by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We have previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 595 female F2 progeny of Fischer 344 and Lewis rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, or interaction between genetic loci, that contribute to fracture risk. Materials and Methods Microsatellite marker data from a 20-cM genome screen was analyzed along with weight-adjusted BMD (DXA and pQCT) phenotypic data using the R/qtl software package. Genotype and phenotype data were permuted to determine a genome-wide significance threshold for the epistasis or interaction LOD score corresponding to an α level of 0.01. Results and Conclusions Novel loci on chromosomes 12 and 15 showed a strong epistatic effect on total BMD at the femoral midshaft by pQCT (LOD = 5.4). A previously reported QTL on chromosome 7 was found to interact with a novel locus on chromosome 20 to affect whole lumbar BMD by pQCT (LOD = 6.2). These results provide new information regarding the mode of action of previously identified rat QTLs, as well as identifying novel loci that act in combination with known QTLs or with other novel loci to contribute to the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture. PMID:17907919

  20. Epistatic effects contribute to variation in BMD in Fischer 344 x Lewis F2 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Daniel L; Liu, Lixiang; Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Econs, Michael J; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    To further delineate the factors underlying the complex genetic architecture of BMD in the rat model, a genome screen for epistatic interactions was conducted. Several significant interactions were identified, involving both previously identified and novel QTLs. The variation in several of the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, including BMD, has been shown to be caused largely by genetic differences. However, the genetic architecture of BMD is complex in both humans and in model organisms. We have previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 595 female F(2) progeny of Fischer 344 and Lewis rats. These progeny also provide an excellent opportunity to search for epistatic effects, or interaction between genetic loci, that contribute to fracture risk. Microsatellite marker data from a 20-cM genome screen was analyzed along with weight-adjusted BMD (DXA and pQCT) phenotypic data using the R/qtl software package. Genotype and phenotype data were permuted to determine a genome-wide significance threshold for the epistasis or interaction LOD score corresponding to an alpha level of 0.01. Novel loci on chromosomes 12 and 15 showed a strong epistatic effect on total BMD at the femoral midshaft by pQCT (LOD = 5.4). A previously reported QTL on chromosome 7 was found to interact with a novel locus on chromosome 20 to affect whole lumbar BMD by pQCT (LOD = 6.2). These results provide new information regarding the mode of action of previously identified rat QTLs, as well as identifying novel loci that act in combination with known QTLs or with other novel loci to contribute to the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture.

  1. Comparison of estrogenic responses in bone and uterus depending on the parity status in Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiler, Annekathrin Martina; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Scharnweber, Dieter; Jarry, Hubertus; Vollmer, Günter; Zierau, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive transition of women through peri- to postmenopause is characterized by changes in steroid hormone levels due to the cessation of the ovarian function. Beside several complaints associated with these hormonal changes, the deterioration of the trabecular bone micro-architecture and the loss of skeletal mass can cause osteoporosis. At this life stage, women often have a reproductive history of one to several pregnancies. The ovariectomized skeletally mature rat (>10 months old) is one of the most commonly used animal models for postmenopausal osteoporosis research. Despite the fact that mammals can undergo up to several reproductive cycles (primi-/pluriparous), nulliparous animals are often used and the question whether changes in the hormonal milieu subsequently affect the skeleton and influence the outcome of intervention studies is often neglected in study designs. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the estrogen responsiveness of nulliparous and pluriparous rats. For this purpose, one year old virgin or retired breeder Lewis rats were either sham operated or ovariectomized, whereas half of the ovariectomized animals received subcutaneous 17β-estradiol pellets eight weeks after surgery. After another four weeks, the effects on the uterus were determined by expression analysis of estrogen-dependently regulated steroid receptor genes and well-established marker genes. Moreover, trabecular bone parameters in the tibia were analyzed by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Parity-dependency in estrogen responsiveness was observed with respect to the achieved serum E2 levels in response to similar E2 treatment. This led to differences both on the uterus wet weight and on the expression level of uterine target genes. In addition, a reversal of the ovariectomy-induced changes of the bone architecture after 17β-estradiol substitution was only observed among the nulliparous. In conclusion, the observations of this study support parity

  2. Cocoa Flavonoid-Enriched Diet Modulates Systemic and Intestinal Immunoglobulin Synthesis in Adult Lewis Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Pérez-Cano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that a diet containing 10% cocoa, a rich source of flavonoids, has immunomodulatory effects on rats and, among others effects, is able to attenuate the immunoglobulin (Ig synthesis in both systemic and intestinal compartments. The purpose of the present study was focused on investigating whether these effects were attributed exclusively to the flavonoid content or to other compounds present in cocoa. To this end, eight-week-old Lewis rats were fed, for two weeks, either a standard diet or three isoenergetic diets containing increasing proportions of cocoa flavonoids from different sources: one with 0.2% polyphenols from conventional defatted cocoa, and two others with 0.4% and 0.8% polyphenols, respectively, from non-fermented cocoa. Diet intake and body weight were monitored and fecal samples were obtained throughout the study to determine fecal pH, IgA, bacteria proportions, and IgA-coated bacteria. Moreover, IgG and IgM concentrations in serum samples collected during the study were quantified. At the end of the dietary intervention no clear changes of serum IgG or IgM concentrations were quantified, showing few effects of cocoa polyphenol diets at the systemic level. However, in the intestine, all cocoa polyphenol-enriched diets attenuated the age-related increase of both fecal IgA and IgA-coated bacteria, as well as the proportion of bacteria in feces. As these effects were not dependent on the dose of polyphenol present in the diets, other compounds and/or the precise polyphenol composition present in cocoa raw material used for the diets could be key factors in this effect.

  3. Direct binding of autoimmune disease related T cell epitopes to purified Lewis rat MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joosten, I; Wauben, M H; Holewijn, M C

    1994-01-01

    New strategies applied in the treatment of experimental autoimmune disease models involve blocking or modulation of MHC-peptide-TCR interactions either at the level of peptide-MHC interaction or, alternatively, at the level of T cell recognition. In order to identify useful competitor peptides one...... characteristics of the Lewis rat MHC class II RT1.B1 molecule. We have now developed a biochemical binding assay which enables competition studies in which the relative MHC binding affinity of a set of non-labelled peptides can be assessed while employing detection of biotinylated marker peptides...

  4. Rat strains differ in susceptibility to Ureaplasma parvum-induced urinary tract infection and struvite stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Leticia; Reinhard, Mary; O'donell, L J; Stevens, Janet; Brown, Mary B

    2006-12-01

    Individuals with struvite uroliths are susceptible to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), sepsis, and renal disease. Unfortunately, little is known about the host-specific factors that predispose to this disease. In order to develop a rodent model that can address this problem, we inoculated female Fischer 344 (F344), Lewis (LEW), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Wistar (WIS) rats with a host-adapted strain of Ureaplasma parvum. Animals were necropsied at 2 weeks postinoculation; 100% of F344, 42% of SD, 10% of LEW, and 10% of WIS rats remained infected. Severe bladder lesions and struvite calculi were seen in 64% of F344 rats; in other rat strains, bladder lesions were mild or absent. F344 rats with struvite uroliths had the highest urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as GRO/KC, interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), and IL-1beta. F344 rats without struvite stones at necropsy had milder bladder lesions and significantly lower urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines but a more prominent inflammatory response than did other rat strains. Based on our results, struvite stone formation is linked to a robust inflammatory response that does not resolve UTI but instead promotes damage to surrounding tissues.

  5. Rat Strains Differ in Susceptibility to Ureaplasma parvum-Induced Urinary Tract Infection and Struvite Stone Formation▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Leticia; Reinhard, Mary; O'Donell, L. J.; Stevens, Janet; Brown, Mary B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with struvite uroliths are susceptible to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), sepsis, and renal disease. Unfortunately, little is known about the host-specific factors that predispose to this disease. In order to develop a rodent model that can address this problem, we inoculated female Fischer 344 (F344), Lewis (LEW), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Wistar (WIS) rats with a host-adapted strain of Ureaplasma parvum. Animals were necropsied at 2 weeks postinoculation; 100% of F344, 42% of SD, 10% of LEW, and 10% of WIS rats remained infected. Severe bladder lesions and struvite calculi were seen in 64% of F344 rats; in other rat strains, bladder lesions were mild or absent. F344 rats with struvite uroliths had the highest urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as GRO/KC, interleukin-1α (IL-1α), and IL-1β. F344 rats without struvite stones at necropsy had milder bladder lesions and significantly lower urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines but a more prominent inflammatory response than did other rat strains. Based on our results, struvite stone formation is linked to a robust inflammatory response that does not resolve UTI but instead promotes damage to surrounding tissues. PMID:16982825

  6. Estrogen Therapy, Independent of Timing, Improves Cardiac Structure and Function in Oophorectomized mRen2.Lewis Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Jewell A.; Wang, Hao; MacNamara, Lindsay M.; Presley, Tennille D.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Alex F.; Groban, Leanne

    2013-01-01

    Objective mRen2.Lewis Rats exhibit exacerbated increases in blood pressure, left ventricular (LV) remodeling, and diastolic impairment following the loss of estrogens. In this same model, depletion of estrogens has marked effects on the cardiac biopterin profile concomitant with suppressed nitric oxide (NO) release. With respect to the establishment of overt systolic hypertension after oophorectomy (OVX), we assessed the effects of timing chronic 17 β-estradiol (E2) therapy on myocardial function, structure, and the cardiac NO system. Methods Oophrectomy (OVX; n=24) or sham-operation (Sham; n=13) was performed in 4-week-old, female mRen2.Lewis rats. Following randomization, OVX rats received E2 immediately (OVX + early E2; n=7), E2 at 11 weeks of age (OVX + late E2 N=8), or no E2 at all (OVX N=9). Results Early E2 was associated with lower body weight, less hypertension-related cardiac remodeling, and decreased LV filling pressure compared to OVX rats without E2 supplementation. Late E2 similarly attenuated the adverse effects of ovarian hormone loss on tissue-Doppler derived LV filling pressures and perivascular fibrosis, and significantly improved myocardial relaxation, or mitral annular velocity (e′). Early and late exposure to E2 decreased dihydrobiopterin, but only late E2 yielded significant increases in cardiac nitrite concentrations. Conclusions Although there were some similarities between early and late E2 treatment on preservation of diastolic function and cardiac structure after OVX, the lusitropic potential of E2 was most consistent with late supplementation. The cardioprotective effects of late E2 were independent of blood pressure and may have occurred through regulation of cardiac biopterins and NO production. PMID:23481117

  7. Lewis and Fischer 344 rats as a model for genetic differences in spatial learning and memory: Cocaine effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fole, Alberto; Miguéns, Miguel; Morales, Lidia; González-Martín, Carmen; Ambrosio, Emilio; Del Olmo, Nuria

    2017-06-02

    Lewis (LEW) and Fischer 344 (F344) rats are considered a model of genetic vulnerability to drug addiction. We previously showed important differences in spatial learning and memory between them, but in contrast with previous experiments demonstrating cocaine-induced enhanced learning in Morris water maze (MWM) highly demanding tasks, the eight-arm radial maze (RAM) performance was not modified either in LEW or F344 rats after chronic cocaine treatment. In the present work, chronically cocaine-treated LEW and F344 adult rats have been evaluated in learning and memory performance using the Y-maze, two RAM protocols that differ in difficulty, and a reversal protocol that tests cognitive flexibility. After one of the RAM protocols, we quantified dendritic spine density in hippocampal CA1 neurons and compared it to animals treated with cocaine but not submitted to RAM. LEW cocaine treated rats showed a better performance in the Y maze than their saline counterparts, an effect that was not evident in the F344 strain. F344 rats significantly took more time to learn the RAM task and made a greater number of errors than LEW animals in both protocols tested, whereas cocaine treatment induced deleterious effects in learning and memory in the highly difficult protocol. Moreover, hippocampal spine density was cocaine-modulated in LEW animals whereas no effects were found in F344 rats. We propose that differences in addictive-like behavior between LEW and F344 rats could be related to differences in hippocampal learning and memory processes that could be on the basis of individual vulnerability to cocaine addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth hormone and IGF-1 deficiency exacerbate high-fat diet-induced endothelial impairment in obese Lewis dwarf rats: implications for vascular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey-Downs, Lora C; Sosnowska, Danuta; Toth, Peter; Mitschelen, Matthew; Gautam, Tripti; Henthorn, Jim C; Ballabh, Praveen; Koller, Akos; Farley, Julie A; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that the age-related decline in circulating growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels significantly contribute to vascular dysfunction in aging by impairing cellular oxidative stress resistance pathways. Obesity in elderly individuals is increasing at alarming rates, and there is evidence suggesting that elderly individuals are more vulnerable to the deleterious cardiovascular effects of obesity than younger individuals. However, the specific mechanisms through which aging, GH/IGF-1 deficiency, and obesity interact to promote the development of cardiovascular disease remain unclear. To test the hypothesis that low circulating GH/IGF-1 levels exacerbate the pro-oxidant and proinflammatory vascular effects of obesity, GH/IGF-1-deficient Lewis dwarf rats and heterozygous control rats were fed either a standard diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 7 months. Feeding an HFD resulted in similar relative weight gains and increases in body fat content in Lewis dwarf rats and control rats. HFD-fed Lewis dwarf rats exhibited a relative increase in blood glucose levels, lower insulin, and impaired glucose tolerance as compared with HFD-fed control rats. Analysis of serum cytokine expression signatures indicated that chronic GH/IGF-1 deficiency exacerbates HFD-induced inflammation. GH/IGF-1 deficiency also exacerbated HFD-induced endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and expression of inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α, ICAM-1) in aortas of Lewis dwarf rats. Overall, our results are consistent with the available clinical and experimental evidence suggesting that GH/IGF-1 deficiency renders the cardiovascular system more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of obesity.

  9. Methanol fractionations of Catha edulis Frosk (Celastraceae) contracted Lewis rat aorta in vitro: a comparison between crimson and green leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Samira Abdulla; Pavlovic, Dragan; Hoffmann, Ulrich

    2009-05-07

    The study investigated the effect of methanol extract and its fractionations obtained from Yemeni khat on the smooth muscle isometric tension in Lewis rat aortal ring preparations and compared the effects of the crimson and green leaves. Khat leaves were sorted into green (khat Light; KL) and crimson (khat Dark; KD) leaves, extracted with methanol, followed with solvent-solvent extraction (benzene, chloroform and ethylacetate). The contractile activity of the fractions was tested using aortal ring preparations. The control (phenylepherine contraction) methanol extracts contracted aortas at concentrations 250, 125 and 67.5 microg/ml buffer by 80.2%, 57.3%, 26.4% and 81.5%, 65.6%, 24.6% for KL and KD, respectively. Fractions of benzene (BF) and ethylacetate (EaF) contracted the aorta with 2 microgm, whereas, chloroform (ChF) with 1 microgm/1 ml buffer was less potent. The shape of contraction curve produced by EaF differed from that of ChF and BF of both (KL and KD). The EaF induced-contraction peaked after 3.3 +/- 0.94 mins, whereas those of BF and CHF peaked after 18.0 +/- 2.2, 19.7 +/- 0.94 mins, respectively. Pre-incubation with nifedipine (10(-6) M) insignificantly reduced the contraction induced by all fractionations, but prazosin (10(-6) M) reduced the contraction by 81.9%, 63.1%, 71.8% with p = 0.23, 0.09, 0.15 for BF, ChF and EaF of KL, respectively. It significantly reduced contraction of ChF, 64.1%; p = 0.02, and of EaF, 73.5%; p = 0.04 of KD, while the reduction in contraction of BF was 63.1%; p = 0.06. In conclusion, fractions of green and crimson Yemeni khat leaves contracted aortas of Lewis rats. Both leaves behave almost similarly. Contraction induced by chloroform fraction produced alpha-sympathetic activity.

  10. Diagnostic imaging of dementia with Lewy bodies by susceptibility-weighted imaging of nigrosomes versus striatal dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography: a retrospective observational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamagata, Koji; Sato, Kanako; Suzuki, Michimasa; Hori, Masaaki; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Nakatsuka, Tomoya; Inaoka, Tsutomu; Terada, Hitoshi [Toho University Sakura Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sakura, Sakura (Japan); Sakakibara, Ryuji; Tsuyusaki, Yohei [Toho University Sakura Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Sakura, Sakura (Japan); Takamura, Tomohiro [University of Yamanashi, Department of Radiology, Chuo-shi, Yamanashi (Japan)

    2017-01-15

    The characteristics of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) overlap but require different treatments; therefore, it is important to differentiate these pathologies. Assessment of dopamine uptake in the striatum using dopamine transporter (DaT) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is the gold standard for diagnosing DLB; however, this modality is expensive, time consuming and involves radiation exposure. Degeneration of the substantia nigra nigrosome-1, which occurs in DLB, but not in AD/a-MCI, can be identified by 3T susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Therefore, the aim of this retrospective observational study was to compare SWI with DaT-SPECT for differentiation of DLB from AD/a-MCI. SWI data were acquired for patients with clinically diagnosed DLB (n = 29), AD (n = 18), a-MCI (n = 13) and healthy controls (n = 26). Images were analysed for nigrosome-1 degeneration. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated for DLB, AD and a-MCI compared with striatal dopamine uptake using DaT-SPECT. SWI achieved 90% diagnostic accuracy (93% sensitivity, 87% specificity) for the detection of nigrosome-1 degeneration in DLB and not in AD/a-MCI as compared with 88.3% accuracy (93% sensitivity, 84% specificity) using DaT-SPECT. SWI nigrosome-1 evaluation was useful in differentiating DLB from AD/a-MCI, with high accuracy. This less invasive and less expensive method is a potential alternative to DaT-SPECT for the diagnosis of DLB. (orig.)

  11. A comparison of Lewis and Fischer rat strains on autoshaping (sign-tracking), discrimination reversal learning and negative auto-maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, David N; Gomez-Serrano, Maria A; Weiss, Stanley J; Riley, Anthony L

    2006-05-15

    Lewis (LEW) and Fischer (F344) rat strains differ on a number of physiological characteristics, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as well as on behavioral tasks, including those that measure impulsivity and drug reward. Since autoshaping, the phenomenon where animals approach and contact reward-paired conditioned stimuli, has been linked to HPA axis functioning, impulsivity and drug taking, the present study compared LEW and F344 rats on the rate of acquisition and performance of the autoshaping response. Rats were trained on an autoshaping procedure where insertions of one retractable lever (CS(+)) were paired response-independently with food, while insertions of another lever (CS(-)) were not paired with food. LEW rats acquired the autoshaping response more rapidly and also performed the autoshaping response at a higher rate than F344 rats. No differences between the strains were observed when rats were trained on a discrimination reversal where the CS(+) and CS(-) levers were reversed or during a negative auto-maintenance phase where CS(+) lever contacts cancelled food delivery. Potential physiological mechanisms that might mediate the present results, including strain differences in HPA axis and monoamine neurotransmitter activity, are discussed. The finding that LEW (as compared to F344 rats) more readily acquire autoshaping and perform more responses is consistent with research indicating that LEW rats behave more impulsively and more readily self-administer drugs of abuse.

  12. Measurement of gastric emptying during and between meal intake in free-feeding Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, P; Koslowsky, I; Koopmans, H S

    1999-02-01

    A new scintigraphic measurement technique is described that allows accurate assessment of gastric emptying in between as well as during a number of successive meals. Measurements were made every minute of food intake, gastric nutrient filling, and gastric emptying over a 6 h, 40 min period in conscious, free-feeding, loosely restrained rats. Before receiving access to the food, the animals had been deprived for a period of 31 h. Over the full duration of the experiment, an average rate of gastric emptying of 2.46 +/- 0.18 (SE) kcal/h was established. During most meals, however, the gastric emptying rate was increased so that an average of 26.9 +/- 2.7% of the ingested calories was emptied while the animals were feeding, with an average emptying rate of 0.15 +/- 0.014 kcal/min or 8.88 +/- 0.84 kcal/h. This transient increase in the rate of gastric emptying was followed by a subsequent slowing of gastric emptying after meal termination; in the 10-min postmeal interval, an average emptying rate of 0.96 +/- 0.12 kcal/h was found. Despite these fluctuations during and immediately after meals, a relatively constant rate of caloric emptying is maintained over longer periods. There were no differences between the emptying rate during the first meal when the gastrointestinal tract was still empty, compared with later meals when the gastrointestinal tract had been filled with food. The emptying rate during the 10-min postmeal interval, however, was significantly reduced during later meals. The results suggest that gastric emptying is controlled by different mechanisms during and after the ingestion of food and that these mechanisms remain in effect at various degrees of gastrointestinal filling.

  13. Strain-dependent effects of diazepam and the 5-HT2B/2C receptor antagonist SB 206553 in spontaneously hypertensive and Lewis rats tested in the elevated plus-maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi R.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The 5-HT2B/2C receptor antagonist SB 206553 exerts anxiolytic effects in rat models of anxiety. However, these effects have been reported for standard rat strains, thus raising the issue of SB 206553 effects in rat strains displaying different levels of anxiety. Herein, the effects of SB 206553 in a 5-min elevated plus-maze test of anxiety were compared to those of the reference anxiolytic, diazepam, in two rat strains respectively displaying high (Lewis rats and low (spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHR anxiety. Diazepam (0.37, 0.75, or 1.5 mg/kg; 30 min before testing increased in a dose-dependent manner the behavioral measures in SHR, but not in Lewis rats. On the other hand, SB 206553 (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg; 30 min before testing failed to alter the anxiety parameters in both strains, whereas it increased closed arm entries in Lewis rats, suggesting that it elicited hyperactivity in the latter strain. Accordingly, the hypolocomotor effect of the nonselective 5-HT2B/2C receptor agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine (1.5 mg/kg ip 20 min before a 15-min exposure to an activity cage was prevented by the 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg doses of SB 206553 in Lewis rats and SHR, respectively. Compared with SHR, Lewis rats may display a lower response to benzodiazepine-mediated effects and a more efficient control of locomotor activity by 5-HT2B/2C receptors.

  14. Influence of preexisting pulmonary emphysema on susceptibility of rats to inhaled diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.L.; Bice, D.E.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gillett, N.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Henderson, R.F.; Pickrell, J.A.; Wolff, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The susceptibilities of normal rats and rats with preexisting pulmonary emphysema to chronically inhaled diesel exhaust were compared. Rats were exposed 7 h/day, 5 days/wk for 24 months to diesel exhaust at 3.5 mg soot/m3, or to clean air as controls. Emphysema was induced in one-half of the rats by intratracheal instillation of elastase 6 wk before exhaust exposure. Measurements included lung burdens of diesel soot, respiratory function, bronchoalveolar lavage, clearance of radiolabeled particles, pulmonary immune responses, lung collagen, excised lung weight and volume, histopathology, and mean linear intercept of terminal air spaces. Parameters indicated by analysis of variance to exhibit significant interactions between the influences of emphysema and exhaust were examined to determine if the effects were more than additive (indicating increased susceptibility). Although 14 of 63 parameters demonstrated emphysema-exhaust interactions, none indicated increased susceptibility. Less soot accumulated in lungs of emphysematous rats than in those of nonemphysematous rats, and the reduced accumulation had a sparing effect in the emphysematous rats. The results did not support the hypothesis that emphysematous lungs are more susceptible than are normal lungs to chronic exposure to high levels of diesel exhaust. The superimposition of effects of emphysema and exhaust, however, might still warrant special concern for heavy exposures of emphysematous subjects

  15. Presynaptic plasticity as a hallmark of rat stress susceptibility and antidepressant response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Nieto-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Two main questions are important for understanding and treating affective disorders: why are certain individuals susceptible or resilient to stress, and what are the features of treatment response and resistance? To address these questions, we used a chronic mild stress (CMS rat model of depression. When exposed to stress, a fraction of rats develops anhedonic-like behavior, a core symptom of major depression, while another subgroup of rats is resilient to CMS. Furthermore, the anhedonic-like state is reversed in about half the animals in response to chronic escitalopram treatment (responders, while the remaining animals are resistant (non-responder animals. Electrophysiology in hippocampal brain slices was used to identify a synaptic hallmark characterizing these groups of animals. Presynaptic properties were investigated at GABAergic synapses onto single dentate gyrus granule cells. Stress-susceptible rats displayed a reduced probability of GABA release judged by an altered paired-pulse ratio of evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs (1.48 ± 0.25 compared with control (0.81 ± 0.05 and stress-resilient rats (0.78 ± 0.03. Spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs occurred less frequently in stress-susceptible rats compared with control and resilient rats. Finally, a subset of stress-susceptible rats responding to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment showed a normalization of the paired-pulse ratio (0.73 ± 0.06 whereas non-responder rats showed no normalization (1.2 ± 0.2. No changes in the number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons were observed. Thus, we provide evidence for a distinct GABAergic synaptopathy which associates closely with stress-susceptibility and treatment-resistance in an animal model of depression.

  16. Low maternal care exacerbates adult stress susceptibility in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kim; Johannesen, Mads Dyrvig; Bouzinova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we report the finding that the quality of maternal care, in early life, increased the susceptibility to stress exposure in adulthood, when rats were exposed to the chronic mild stress paradigm. Our results indicate that high, as opposed to low maternal care, predisposed rats...... to a differential stress-coping ability. Thus rats fostered by low maternal care dams became more prone to adopt a stress-susceptible phenotype developing an anhedonic-like condition. Moreover, low maternal care offspring had lower weight gain and lower locomotion, with no additive effect of stress. Subchronic...... exposure to chronic mild stress induced an increase in faecal corticosterone metabolites, which was only significant in rats from low maternal care dams. Examination of glucocorticoid receptor exon 17 promoter methylation in unchallenged adult, maternally characterized rats, showed an insignificant...

  17. Diabetes increases susceptibility of primary cultures of rat proximal tubular cells to chemically induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Qing; Terlecky, Stanley R.; Lash, Lawrence H.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we prepared primary cultures of proximal tubular (PT) cells from diabetic rats 30 days after an ip injection of streptozotocin and compared their susceptibility to oxidants (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, methyl vinyl ketone) and a mitochondrial toxicant (antimycin A) with that of PT cells isolated from age-matched control rats, to test the hypothesis that PT cells from diabetic rats exhibit more cellular and mitochondrial injury than those from control rats when exposed to these toxicants. PT cells from diabetic rats exhibited higher basal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher mitochondrial membrane potential, demonstrating that the PT cells maintain the diabetic phenotype in primary culture. Incubation with either the oxidants or mitochondrial toxicant resulted in greater necrotic and apoptotic cell death, greater evidence of morphological damage, greater increases in ROS, and greater decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential in PT cells from diabetic rats than in those from control rats. Pretreatment with either the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine or a catalase mimetic provided equivalent protection of PT cells from both diabetic and control rats. Despite the greater susceptibility to oxidative and mitochondrial injury, both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial glutathione concentrations were markedly higher in PT cells from diabetic rats, suggesting an upregulation of antioxidant processes in diabetic kidney. These results support the hypothesis that primary cultures of PT cells from diabetic rats are a valid model in which to study renal cellular function in the diabetic state.

  18. Wyndham Lewis

    OpenAIRE

    Maes-Jelinek, Hena

    2013-01-01

    Ours is a clownish age. If so the manYou be to understand it then you canScarcely be other than a man in an Iron MaskOr choose but choose a most invidious task. –Henceforth the voice you hear is the deep growl –The mask, if any, the notorious scowl –Of Enemy Number One. Wyndham Lewis was so prolific a writer that one sometimes tends to forget he was a painter in the first place, though his method owes much to the painter’s approach to his subject. His basic motive as a writer was to defend We...

  19. Candidate hippocampal biomarkers of susceptibility and resilience to stress in a rat model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kim; Palmfeldt, Johan; Christiansen, Sofie Friis

    2012-01-01

    -scale proteomics was used to map hippocampal protein alterations in different stress states. Membrane proteins were successfully captured by two-phase separation and peptide based proteomics. Using iTRAQ labeling coupled with mass spectrometry, more than 2000 proteins were quantified and 73 proteins were found......Susceptibility to stress plays a crucial role in the development of psychiatric disorders such as unipolar depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. In the present study the chronic mild stress rat model of depression was used to reveal stress-susceptible and stress-resilient rats. Large...... to be differentially expressed. Stress susceptibility was associated with increased expression of a sodium-channel protein (SCN9A) currently investigated as a potential antidepressant target. Differential protein profiling also indicated stress susceptibility to be associated with deficits in synaptic vesicle release...

  20. Effects of repeated light-dark phase shifts on voluntary ethanol and water intake in male and female Fischer and Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; Clark, James W; Fixaris, Michael C; Belanger, Gabriel V; Foster, James A

    2010-05-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate reciprocal interactions between excessive alcohol (ethanol) intake and dysregulation of circadian biological rhythms. Thus, chronic alcohol intake leads to widespread circadian disruption in both humans and experimental animals, while in turn, chronobiological disruption has been hypothesized to promote or sustain excessive alcohol intake. Nevertheless, the effects of circadian disruption on voluntary ethanol intake have not been investigated extensively, and prior studies have reported both increased and decreased ethanol intake in rats maintained under "shift-lag" lighting regimens mimicking those experienced by shift workers and transmeridian travelers. In the present study, male and female inbred Fischer and Lewis rats were housed in running wheel cages with continuous free-choice access to both water and 10% (vol/vol) ethanol solution and exposed to repeated 6-h phase advances of the daily light-dark (LD) cycle, whereas controls were kept under standard LD 12:12 conditions. Shift-lag lighting reduced overall ethanol and water intake, and reduced ethanol preference in Fischer rats. Although contrary to the hypothesis that circadian disruption would increase voluntary ethanol intake, these results are consistent with our previous report of reduced ethanol intake in selectively bred high-alcohol-drinking (HAD1) rats housed under a similar lighting regimen. We conclude that chronic circadian disruption is a form of chronobiological stressor that, like other stressors, can either increase or decrease ethanol intake, depending on a variety of poorly understood variables. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy body dementia Overview Lewy body dementia, also known as dementia with Lewy bodies, is the second most common type of progressive dementia after Alzheimer's disease dementia. Protein deposits, ...

  2. Lewy Body Dementia Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now events There are no upcoming events. Lewy Body Digest September 2017 Lewy Digest Caregiving as a ... and research, we support those affected by Lewy body dementias, their families and caregivers. We are dedicated ...

  3. Amphetamine self-administration and dopamine function: assessment of gene × environment interactions in Lewis and Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Andrew C; Bardo, Michael T

    2015-07-01

    Previous research suggests both genetic and environmental influences on substance abuse vulnerability. The current work sought to investigate the interaction of genes and environment on the acquisition of amphetamine self-administration as well as amphetamine-stimulated dopamine (DA) release in nucleus accumbens shell using in vivo microdialysis. Inbred Lewis (LEW) and Fischer (F344) rat strains were raised in either an enriched condition (EC), social condition (SC), or isolated condition (IC). Acquisition of amphetamine self-administration (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) was determined across an incrementing daily fixed ratio (FR) schedule. In a separate cohort of rats, extracellular DA and the metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were measured in the nucleus accumbens shell following an acute amphetamine injection (1 mg/kg). "Addiction-prone" LEW rats had greater acquisition of amphetamine self-administration on a FR1 schedule compared to "addiction-resistant" F344 rats when raised in the SC environment. These genetic differences were negated in both the EC and IC environments, with enrichment buffering against self-administration and isolation enhancing self-administration in both strains. On a FR5 schedule, the isolation-induced increase in amphetamine self-administration was greater in F344 than LEW rats. While no group differences were obtained in extracellular DA, gene × environment differences were obtained in extracellular levels of the metabolite DOPAC. In IC rats only, LEW rats showed attenuation in the amphetamine-induced decrease in DOPAC compared to F344 rats. IC LEW rats also had an attenuated DOPAC response to amphetamine compared to EC LEW rats. The current results demonstrate gene × environment interactions in amphetamine self-administration and amphetamine-induced changes in extracellular DOPAC in nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. However, the behavioral and neurochemical differences were not related directly, indicating that

  4. Susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary carcinoma in genetically resistant Copenhagen rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Nitta, Yumiko; Gould, M.N.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the cellular basis of mammary cancer induction by a chemical carcinogen with induction by ionizing radiation in three strains of rats (inbred that have different genetic susceptibilities: COP rats, F344 rats, and WF rats). Rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg MNU/kg body weight as a mammary-tumor-inducing chemical carcinogen and were irradiated with a 3.0 Gy dose of 60 Co gamma rays at a dose rate of 26.58±1.19 cGy/min. The rats were inspected weekly, and they were killed and necropsied whenever palpable tumors were detected or they became moribund. The histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the mammary tumors were investigated. A transplantation experiment using selected primary mammary tumors that developed in COP rats exposed to gamma rays was also performed to investigate the transplantability of mammary tumors induced by ionizing radiation. The sensitivity of the WF and F344 rats and the resistance of the COP rats to mammary carcinoma induction by the chemical carcinogen MNU was confirmed. In contrast to the chemical carcinogens, no difference in susceptibility to radiation induction of mammary carcinomas was detected among the three strains of rats, and immunohistochemical examination indicated that the radiation-induced carcinomas consisted of more highly differentiated cells than the MNU-induced cancers. The results of the experiment appear to support the hypothesis that differentiated mammary gland tissue is more resistant to chemical carcinogens than to cancer induction by radiation. The authors conclude that radiation-induced cancers in rats may develop via different pathways or from different cell populations than chemically induced cancers. (K.H.)

  5. Susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary carcinoma in genetically resistant Copenhagen rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Nitta, Yumiko [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine; Gould, M.N.

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the cellular basis of mammary cancer induction by a chemical carcinogen with induction by ionizing radiation in three strains of rats (inbred that have different genetic susceptibilities: COP rats, F344 rats, and WF rats). Rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg MNU/kg body weight as a mammary-tumor-inducing chemical carcinogen and were irradiated with a 3.0 Gy dose of {sup 60} Co gamma rays at a dose rate of 26.58{+-}1.19 cGy/min. The rats were inspected weekly, and they were killed and necropsied whenever palpable tumors were detected or they became moribund. The histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the mammary tumors were investigated. A transplantation experiment using selected primary mammary tumors that developed in COP rats exposed to gamma rays was also performed to investigate the transplantability of mammary tumors induced by ionizing radiation. The sensitivity of the WF and F344 rats and the resistance of the COP rats to mammary carcinoma induction by the chemical carcinogen MNU was confirmed. In contrast to the chemical carcinogens, no difference in susceptibility to radiation induction of mammary carcinomas was detected among the three strains of rats, and immunohistochemical examination indicated that the radiation-induced carcinomas consisted of more highly differentiated cells than the MNU-induced cancers. The results of the experiment appear to support the hypothesis that differentiated mammary gland tissue is more resistant to chemical carcinogens than to cancer induction by radiation. The authors conclude that radiation-induced cancers in rats may develop via different pathways or from different cell populations than chemically induced cancers. (K.H.)

  6. Rat Strain Differences in Susceptibility to Alcohol-Induced Chronic Liver Injury and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. DeNucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The finding of more severe steatohepatitis in alcohol fed Long Evans (LE compared with Sprague Dawley (SD and Fisher 344 (FS rats prompted us to determine whether host factors related to alcohol metabolism, inflammation, and insulin/IGF signaling predict proneness to alcohol-mediated liver injury. Adult FS, SD, and LE rats were fed liquid diets containing 0% or 37% (calories ethanol for 8 weeks. Among controls, LE rats had significantly higher ALT and reduced GAPDH relative to SD and FS rats. Among ethanol-fed rats, despite similar blood alcohol levels, LE rats had more pronounced steatohepatitis and fibrosis, higher levels of ALT, DNA damage, pro-inflammatory cytokines, ADH, ALDH, catalase, GFAP, desmin, and collagen expression, and reduced insulin receptor binding relative to FS rats. Ethanol-exposed SD rats had intermediate degrees of steatohepatitis, increased ALT, ADH and profibrogenesis gene expression, and suppressed insulin receptor binding and GAPDH expression, while pro-inflammatory cytokines were similarly increased as in LE rats. Ethanol feeding in FS rats only reduced IL-6, ALDH1–3, CYP2E1, and GAPDH expression in liver. In conclusion, susceptibility to chronic steatohepatitis may be driven by factors related to efficiency of ethanol metabolism and degree to which ethanol exposure causes hepatic insulin resistance and cytokine activation.

  7. Stress susceptibility as a determinant of endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity in rat mesenteric arteries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, N.P.; Ellenbroek, B.A.; Cools, A.R.; Siero, H.L.M.; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.; Smits, B.W.; Russel, F.G.M.; Smits, P.

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the consequences of stress susceptibility on vascular function, the authors assessed the respective contributions of nitric oxide (NO), prostanoids, and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor to the vascular tone in rats with a constitutionally determined high and low

  8. Enhanced expressions of mRNA for neuropeptide Y and interleukin 1 beta in hypothalamic arcuate nuclei during adjuvant arthritis-induced anorexia in Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofkova, Andrea; Haluzik, Martin; Zelezna, Blanka; Kiss, Alexander; Skurlova, Martina; Lacinova, Zdenka; Jurcovicova, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Food intake is activated by hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is mainly under the dual control of leptin and ghrelin. Rat adjuvant arthritis (AA), similarly as human rheumatoid arthritis, is associated with cachexia caused by yet unknown mechanisms. The aim of our study was to evaluate NPY expression in hypothalamic arcuate nuclei (nARC) under the conditions of AA-induced changes in leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin. Since IL-1beta is involved in the central induction of anorexia, we studied its expression in the nARC as well. AA was induced to Lewis rats using complete Freund's adjuvant. On days 12, 15 and 18 after complete Freund's adjuvant injection, the levels of leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin and IL-1beta were determined by RIA or ELISA. The mRNA expressions for NPY, leptin receptor (OB-R), ghrelin receptor (Ghsr) and IL-1beta were determined by TaqMan RT-PCR from isolated nARC. In AA rats, decreased appetite, body mass and epididymal fat stores positively correlated with reduced circulating and epididymal fat leptin and adiponectin. Ghrelin plasma levels were increased. In nARC, mRNA for OB-R, Ghsr and NPY were overexpressed in AA rats. AA rats showed overexpression of mRNA for IL-1beta in nARC while circulating, and spleen IL-1beta was unaltered. During AA, overexpression of orexigenic NPY mRNA in nARC along with enhanced plasma ghrelin and lowered leptin levels occur. Decreased food intake indicates a predominant effect of the anorexigenic pathway. Activated expression of IL-1beta in nARC suggests its role in keeping AA-induced anorexia in progress. The reduction in adiponectin may also contribute to AA-induced anorexia. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Physical Confirmation and Comparative Genomics of the Rat Mammary carcinoma susceptibility 3 Quantitative Trait Locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saasha Le

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human breast and rat mammary cancer susceptibility are complex phenotypes where complete sets of risk associated loci remain to be identified for both species. We tested multiple congenic rat strains to physically confirm and positionally map rat Mammary carcinoma susceptibility 3 (Mcs3—a mammary cancer resistance allele previously predicted at Rattus norvegicus chromosome 1 (RNO1. The mammary cancer susceptible Wistar Furth (WF strain was the recipient, and the mammary cancer resistant Copenhagen (Cop strain was the RNO1-segment donor for congenics. Inbred WF females averaged 6.3 carcinogen-induced mammary carcinomas per rat. Two WF.Cop congenic strains averaged 2.8 and 3.4 mammary carcinomas per rat, which confirmed Mcs3 as an independently acting allele. Two other WF.Cop congenic strains averaged 6.6 and 8.1 mammary carcinomas per rat, and, thus, did not contain Mcs3. Rat Mcs3 was delimited to 27.8 Mb of RNO1 from rs8149408 to rs105131702 (RNO1:143700228-171517317 of RGSC 6.0/rn6. Human genetic variants with p values for association to breast cancer risk below 10−7 had not been reported for Mcs3 orthologous loci; however, human variants located in Mcs3-orthologous regions with potential association to risk (10−7 < p < 10−3 were listed in some population-based studies. Further, rat Mcs3 contains sequence orthologous to human 11q13/14—a region frequently amplified in female breast cancer. We conclude that Mcs3 is an independently acting mammary carcinoma resistance allele. Human population-based, genome-targeted association studies interrogating Mcs3 orthologous loci may yield novel breast cancer risk associated variants and genes.

  10. Effect of IgG subclasses on in vivo bioavailability and metabolic fate of immune-complexed insulin in Lewis rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arquilla, E.R.; Stenger, D.; McDougall, B.; Ulich, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    The bioavailability, distribution, and metabolic fate of 125 I-labeled insulin complexed to antibodies in guinea pig antiserum, purified guinea pig IgG1, IgG2, a mixture of IgG1 and IgG2, and homologous Lou/m rat antiserum were studied in inbred Lewis rats. 125 I-insulin complexed to purified guinea pig IgG2 antibodies was rapidly cleared from the blood and sequestered in increasing amounts with time in the liver. Large amounts of the 125 I-insulin complexed to guinea pig IgG1 antibodies remained in the blood for at least 30 min. The bioavailability of 125 I-insulin bound to IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies was inhibited for at least 30 min because significantly less was available for rapid binding to insulin receptors on hepatocytes and renal tubular cells and its subsequent rapid degradation. The bioavailability of 125 I-insulin was further decreased when bound to antibodies in native guinea pig antiserum or a mixture of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies compared with the 125 I-insulin complexed to either purified IgG1 or IgG2 antibodies alone. The 125 I-insulin bound to antibodies in native guinea pig antiserum or a mixture of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies was distributed in vivo in a manner reflecting the relative concentrations of the IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies present. The bioavailability, distribution, and metabolic fate of 125 I-insulin in immune complexes prepared with homologous Lou/m rat insulin antiserum was qualitatively similar to that observed with immune complexes prepared with guinea pig insulin antiserum. It appears that the Lewis rat can be used as an in vivo model to study the bioavailability,distribution,and metabolic fate of insulin bound to xenogenic or homologous insulin antibodies

  11. Neuronal substrates underlying stress resilience and susceptibility in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Febbraro, Fabia; Svenningsen, Katrine; Thao Phuong Tran

    2017-01-01

    attention has been devoted to understand resiliency to stress. The aim of the present study was to identify changes in neuronal activity, associated with stress-resilient and stress-susceptible chronic mild stress endophenotypes, by examining c-Fos expression in 13 different brain areas. Changes in c...... responses was done by semi-automated profile counting procedures and design-based stereology. RESULTS: Exposure to chronic mild stress significantly altered c-Fos expression in a total of 6 out of 13 investigated areas. Chronic mild stress was found to suppress the c-Fos response within the magnocellular...

  12. A novel mutation causing nephronophthisis in the Lewis polycystic kidney rat localises to a conserved RCC1 domain in Nek8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCooke John K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nephronophthisis (NPHP as a cause of cystic kidney disease is the most common genetic cause of progressive renal failure in children and young adults. NPHP is characterized by abnormal and/or loss of function of proteins associated with primary cilia. Previously, we characterized an autosomal recessive phenotype of cystic kidney disease in the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK rat. Results In this study, quantitative trait locus analysis was used to define a ~1.6Mbp region on rat chromosome 10q25 harbouring the lpk mutation. Targeted genome capture and next-generation sequencing of this region identified a non-synonymous mutation R650C in the NIMA (never in mitosis gene a- related kinase 8 ( Nek8 gene. This is a novel Nek8 mutation that occurs within the regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1-like region of the protein. Specifically, the R650C substitution is located within a G[QRC]LG repeat motif of the predicted seven bladed beta-propeller structure of the RCC1 domain. The rat Nek8 gene is located in a region syntenic to portions of human chromosome 17 and mouse 11. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed abnormally long cilia on LPK kidney epithelial cells, and fluorescence immunohistochemistry for Nek8 protein revealed altered cilia localisation. Conclusions When assessed relative to other Nek8 NPHP mutations, our results indicate the whole propeller structure of the RCC1 domain is important, as the different mutations cause comparable phenotypes. This study establishes the LPK rat as a novel model system for NPHP and further consolidates the link between cystic kidney disease and cilia proteins.

  13. Adenosine receptor modulation of seizure susceptibility in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szot, P.

    1987-01-01

    Adenosine is considered to be a neuromodulator or cotransmitter in the periphery and CNS. This neuromodulatory action of adenosine may be observed as an anticonvulsant effect. Dose-response curves for R-phenylisopropyladenosine (PIA), cycohexyladenosine (CHA), 2-chloroadenosine (2-ClAdo), N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) and S-PIA were generated against PTZ seizure thresholds in the rat. The rank order of potency for adenosine agonists to elevate PTZ seizure threshold was R-PIA > 2-ClAdo > NECA > CHA > S-PIA. R-PIA was approximately 80-fold more potent than S-PIA. This 80-fold difference in potency between the diasteriomers of PIA was consistent with an A 1 adenoise receptor-mediated response. The anticonvulsant action of 2-ClAdo was reversed by pretreatment with theoplylline. Chronic administration of theophylline significantly increased the specific binding of 3 H-cyclohexyladenosine in membranes of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of the rat. Chronic exposure to theophylline produced a significant increase in the densities of both the high- and low-affinity forms of A 1 adenosine receptors in the cerebral cortex

  14. The effects of different schedules of total-body irradiation in heterotopic vascularized bone transplantation. An experimental study in the Lewis rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez del Pino, J.; Benito, M.; Randolph, M.A.; Weiland, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of irradiation on heterotopically placed vascularized knee isografts, a single dose of 10 Gy of total-body irradiation was given to Lewis donor rats. Irradiation was delivered either 2 or 6 days prior to harvesting or subsequent transplantation, and evaluated at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after grafting. Irradiation caused endothelial depopulation of the graft artery, although vascular pedicle patency was maintained throughout the study. Bone graft viability and mineralization were normal. Dramatic changes in the bone marrow were seen that included an increase of its fat content (P less than 0.001), and a concomitant decrease in bone marrow-derived immunocompetent cells. These changes were more prominent in recipients of grafts from day -6 irradiated donor rats. Total-body irradiation did not prejudice the use of vascularized bone grafts, and exhibited an associated immunosuppresant effect over the vascular endothelium and bone marrow. This may be a further rational conditioning procedure to avoid recipient manipulation in vascularized bone allotransplantation

  15. Investigating hyperoxic effects in the rat brain using quantitative susceptibility mapping based on MRI phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Chi; Kuo, Li-Wei; Huang, Yun-An; Chen, Jyh-Horng

    2017-02-01

    To test whether susceptibility imaging can detect microvenous oxygen saturation changes, induced by hyperoxia, in the rat brain. A three-dimensional gradient-echo with a flow compensation sequence was used to acquire T2*-weighted images of rat brains during hyperoxia and normoxia. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and QSM-based microvenous oxygenation venography were computed from gradient-echo (GRE) phase images and compared between the two conditions. Pulse oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) in the cortex was examined and compared with venous oxygen saturation (SvO 2 ) estimated by QSM. Oxygen saturation change calculated by a conventional Δ R2* map was also compared with the ΔSvO 2 estimated by QSM. Susceptibilities of five venous and tissue regions were quantified separately by QSM. Venous susceptibility was reduced by nearly 10%, with an SvO 2 shift of 10% during hyperoxia. A hyperoxic effect, confirmed by SpO 2 measurement, resulted in an SvO 2 increase in the cortex. The ΔSvO 2 between hyperoxia and normoxia was consistent with what was estimated by the Δ R2* map in five regions. These findings suggest that a quantitative susceptibility map is a promising technique for SvO 2 measurement. This method may be useful for quantitatively investigating oxygenation-dependent functional MRI studies. Magn Reson Med 77:592-602, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Whole tissue AC susceptibility after superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agent administration in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, Francisco Jose; Gutierrez, Lucia; Rosa Abadia, Ana; Soledad Romero, Maria; Lopez, Antonio; Jesus Munoz, Maria

    2007-01-01

    A magnetic AC susceptibility characterisation of rat tissues after intravenous administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide (Endorem ( R)), at the same dose as established for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement in humans, has been carried out. The measurements reveal the presence of the contrast agent as well as that of physiological ferritin in liver and spleen while no traces have been magnetically detected in heart and kidney. This preliminary work opens suggestive possibilities for future biodistribution studies of any type of magnetic carriers

  17. Wistar-Kyoto Female Rats Are More Susceptible to Develop Sugar Binging: A Comparison with Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Papacostas-Quintanilla

    2017-05-01

    anxiety-like behavior in the PMT. In conclusion, WKY female rats can be considered as a more susceptible rat strain to develop SBLB.

  18. Lewy Body Dementia Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... notices changes in at least one area of cognition, such as memory or language. Daytime Sleepiness is ... the field of Lewy body dementias. Memantine Improves Attention and Episodic Memory in Mild to Moderate Lewy ...

  19. Lewy Body Dementia Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provide an experienced diagnostic team skilled in Lewy body dementia. A thorough dementia diagnostic evaluation includes physical ... a good way to benefit others with Lewy body dementia. Medications Medications are one of the most ...

  20. Inflammasome sensor NLRP1 controls rat macrophage susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M Cirelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded species. Rats vary in their susceptibility to this parasite. The Toxo1 locus conferring Toxoplasma resistance in rats was previously mapped to a region of chromosome 10 containing Nlrp1. This gene encodes an inflammasome sensor controlling macrophage sensitivity to anthrax lethal toxin (LT induced rapid cell death (pyroptosis. We show here that rat strain differences in Toxoplasma infected macrophage sensitivity to pyroptosis, IL-1β/IL-18 processing, and inhibition of parasite proliferation are perfectly correlated with NLRP1 sequence, while inversely correlated with sensitivity to anthrax LT-induced cell death. Using recombinant inbred rats, SNP analyses and whole transcriptome gene expression studies, we narrowed the candidate genes for control of Toxoplasma-mediated rat macrophage pyroptosis to four genes, one of which was Nlrp1. Knockdown of Nlrp1 in pyroptosis-sensitive macrophages resulted in higher parasite replication and protection from cell death. Reciprocally, overexpression of the NLRP1 variant from Toxoplasma-sensitive macrophages in pyroptosis-resistant cells led to sensitization of these resistant macrophages. Our findings reveal Toxoplasma as a novel activator of the NLRP1 inflammasome in rat macrophages.

  1. Lewy body dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Korbo, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia share the same pathophysiology. Together they are called Lewy body dementias and are the second most common type of dementia. Lewy body dementias receive little attention, and patients are often misdiagnosed, leading to less than ideal...

  2. Significant prolongation of hamster liver transplant survival in Lewis rats by total-lymphoid irradiation, cyclosporine, and splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Halperin, E.C.; Harland, R.C.; Wyble, C.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation, cyclosporine and splenectomy alone and in combination have been studied in liver transplants from the LVG hamster to the LEW rat. Neither CsA alone, splenectomy alone, nor TLI alone prolonged graft survival. CsA/splenectomy and TLI/CsA produced significant prolongation of graft survival. TLI/CsA/splenectomy prolonged graft survival by over sixfold compared with controls. While CsA alone was ineffective in reducing lymphocytotoxic antidonor antibody, splenectomy alone or CsA/splenectomy did significantly suppress production of antibody. Only very low levels of antibody could be detected in animals treated with TLI/CsA/splenectomy. TLI/CsA/splenectomy has an immunosuppressive effect sufficient to significantly prolong liver graft survival in the LVG hamster to LEW rat combination and may represent a promising treatment protocol in experimental cross-species transplantation

  3. Active vs. sedentary lifestyle from weaning to adulthood and susceptibility to ozone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, C J; Phillips, P M; Ledbetter, A; Snow, S J; Schladweiler, M C; Johnstone, A F M; Kodavanti, U P

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of a sedentary (SED) life style combined with calorically rich diets has spurred the rise in childhood obesity, which, in turn, translates to adverse health effects in adulthood. Obesity and lack of active (ACT) lifestyle may increase susceptibility to air pollutants. We housed 22-day-old female Long-Evans rats in a cage without (SED) or with a running wheel (ACT). After 10 wk the rats ran 310 ± 16.3 km. Responses of SED and ACT rats to whole-body O 3 (0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 ppm; 5 h/day for 2 days) was assessed. Glucose tolerance testing (GTT) was performed following the first day of O 3 ACT rats had less body fat and an improved glucose GTT. Ventilatory function (plethysmography) of SED and ACT groups was similarly impaired by O 3 Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected after the second O 3 exposure. SED and ACT rats were hyperglycemic following 1.0 ppm O 3 GTT was impaired by O 3 in both groups; however, ACT rats exhibited improved recovery to 0.25 and 1.0 ppm O 3 BALF cell neutrophils and total cells were similarly increased in ACT and SED groups exposed to 1.0 ppm O 3 O 3 -induced increase in eosinophils was exacerbated in SED rats. Chronic exercise from postweaning to adulthood improved some of the metabolic and pulmonary responses to O 3 (GTT and eosinophils) but several other parameters were unaffected. The reduction in O 3 -induced rise in BALF eosinophils in ACT rats suggests a possible link between a SED lifestyle and incidence of asthma-related symptoms from O 3 . Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Endothelin-1-induced focal cerebral ischemia in the growth hormone/IGF-1 deficient Lewis Dwarf rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Mitschelen, Matthew; Toth, Peter; Ashpole, Nicole M; Farley, Julie A; Hodges, Erik L; Warrington, Junie P; Han, Song; Fung, Kar-Ming; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan; Sonntag, William E

    2014-11-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. Growth hormone (GH) and its anabolic mediator, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, decrease with advancing age and this decline has been shown to promote vascular dysfunction. In addition, lower GH/IGF-1 levels are associated with higher stroke mortality in humans. These results suggest that decreased GH/IGF-1 level is an important factor in increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases. This study was designed to assess whether GH/IGF-1-deficiency influences the outcome of cerebral ischemia. We found that endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion resulted in a modest but nonsignificant decrease in cerebral infarct size in GH/IGF-1 deficient dw/dw rats compared with control heterozygous littermates and dw/dw rats with early-life GH treatment. Expression of endothelin receptors and endothelin-1-induced constriction of the middle cerebral arteries were similar in the three experimental groups. Interestingly, dw/dw rats exhibited reduced brain edema and less astrocytic infiltration compared with their heterozygous littermates and this effect was reversed by GH-treatment. Because reactive astrocytes are critical for the regulation of poststroke inflammatory processes, maintenance of the blood-brain barrier and neural repair, further studies are warranted to determine the long-term functional consequences of decreased astrocytic activation in GH/IGF-1 deficient animals after cerebral ischemia. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2014.

  5. Magnesium sulfate treatment reverses seizure susceptibility and decreases neuroinflammation in a rat model of severe preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbie Chapman Johnson

    Full Text Available Eclampsia, defined as unexplained seizure in a woman with preeclampsia, is a life-threatening complication of pregnancy with unclear etiology. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 is the leading eclamptic seizure prophylactic, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized severe preeclampsia is a state of increased seizure susceptibility due to blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption and neuroinflammation that lowers seizure threshold. Further, MgSO4 decreases seizure susceptibility by protecting the BBB and preventing neuroinflammation. To model severe preeclampsia, placental ischemia (reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure; RUPP was combined with a high cholesterol diet (HC to cause maternal endothelial dysfunction. RUPP+HC rats developed symptoms associated with severe preeclampsia, including hypertension, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and fetal and placental growth restriction. Seizure threshold was determined by quantifying the amount of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; mg/kg required to elicit seizure in RUPP + HC ± MgSO4 and compared to normal pregnant controls (n = 6/group; gestational day 20. RUPP+HC rats were more sensitive to PTZ with seizure threshold being ∼ 65% lower vs. control (12.4 ± 1.7 vs. 36.7 ± 3.9 mg/kg PTZ; p<0.05 that was reversed by MgSO4 (45.7 ± 8.7 mg/kg PTZ; p<0.05 vs. RUPP+HC. BBB permeability to sodium fluorescein, measured in-vivo (n = 5-7/group, was increased in RUPP+HC vs. control rats, with more tracer passing into the brain (15.9 ± 1.0 vs. 12.2 ± 0.3 counts/gram ×1000; p<0.05 and was unaffected by MgSO4 (15.6 ± 1.0 counts/gram ×1000; p<0.05 vs. controls. In addition, RUPP+HC rats were in a state of neuroinflammation, indicated by 35 ± 2% of microglia being active compared to 9 ± 2% in normal pregnancy (p<0.01; n = 3-8/group. MgSO4 treatment reversed neuroinflammation, reducing microglial activation to 6 ± 2% (p<0.01 vs. RUPP+HC. Overall, RUPP+HC rats were in a state of augmented

  6. Bernard Lewis: An Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, R. Stephen

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the career and publications of Bernard Lewis, a noted scholar in the field of Middle-Eastern studies and Islamic history. Traces the history of Western-based Islamic historiography. Examines Lewis' interpretation of Islamic history, outlining his political and social views. (RW)

  7. Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lucy C; Hogg, James M; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata

    2017-08-21

    Until very recently, the term Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) was nearly synonymous with halometallate ILs, with a strong focus on chloroaluminate(III) systems. The first part of this review covers the historical context in which these were developed, speciation of a range of halometallate ionic liquids, attempts to quantify their Lewis acidity, and selected recent applications: in industrial alkylation processes, in supported systems (SILPs/SCILLs) and in inorganic synthesis. In the last decade, interesting alternatives to halometallate ILs have emerged, which can be divided into two sub-sections: (1) liquid coordination complexes (LCCs), still based on halometallate species, but less expensive and more diverse than halometallate ionic liquids, and (2) ILs with main-group Lewis acidic cations. The two following sections cover these new liquid Lewis acids, also highlighting speciation studies, Lewis acidity measurements, and applications.

  8. Apc-Mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) Rats Are Susceptible to 4-NQO-Induced Tongue Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Takuji, E-mail: tmntt08@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Pathology (DDP) & Research Center of Diagnostic Pathology (RC-DiP), Gifu Municipal Hospital, 7-1 Kashima-Cho, Gifu 500-8513 (Japan); Department of Tumor Pathology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Shimizu, Masahito; Kochi, Takahiro; Shirakami, Yohei [Department of Internal Medicine/Gastroenterology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Mori, Takayuki [Department of Pharmacy, Ogaki Municipal Hospital, 4-86 Minaminokawa-cho, Ogaki 503-8502 (Japan); Watanabe, Naoki [Department of Diagnostic Pathology (DDP) & Research Center of Diagnostic Pathology (RC-DiP), Gifu Municipal Hospital, 7-1 Kashima-Cho, Gifu 500-8513 (Japan); Naiki, Takafumi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Gifu Municipal Hospital, 7-1 Kashima-cho, Gifu 500-8513 (Japan); Moriwaki, Hisataka [Department of Internal Medicine/Gastroenterology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Yoshimi, Kazuto; Serikawa, Tadao; Kuramoto, Takashi [The Institute of Laboratory Animals, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2014-07-21

    Despite widening interest in the possible association between infection/inflammation and cancer development, knowledge of this issue in relation to oral cancer remains inadequate. This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of Apc-mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) rats, which are vulnerable to developing inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis, to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced tongue carcinogenesis in order to clarify the role of inflammation in oral cancer. KAD (20 males and 22 females) and F344/NS1c (22 males and 23 females) rats received drinking water with or without 4-NQO (20 ppm) for eight weeks. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of the tongue were performed at week 20. Additionally, the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue mucosa was determined at week 8. Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) developed in the KAD and F344/NS1c rats that received 4-NQO. Regardless of gender, the incidence and multiplicity of tongue SCC were greater in the KAD rats than in the F344/NS1c rats. In addition, the multiplicity of tongue SCC in the female KAD rats was significantly greater than that observed in the male KAD (p < 0.01) and female F344/NS1c rats (p < 0.05). The levels of inflammation and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue in the 4-NQO-treated female KAD rats were the highest among the rats given 4-NQO. These results show that KAD rats, particularly females, are susceptible to 4-NQO-induced tongue carcinogenesis, suggesting the utility of models employing KAD rats for investigating the pathobiology of oral (tongue) carcinogenesis associated with inflammation.

  9. Apc-Mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) Rats Are Susceptible to 4-NQO-Induced Tongue Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takuji; Shimizu, Masahito; Kochi, Takahiro; Shirakami, Yohei; Mori, Takayuki; Watanabe, Naoki; Naiki, Takafumi; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Serikawa, Tadao; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Despite widening interest in the possible association between infection/inflammation and cancer development, knowledge of this issue in relation to oral cancer remains inadequate. This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of Apc-mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) rats, which are vulnerable to developing inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis, to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced tongue carcinogenesis in order to clarify the role of inflammation in oral cancer. KAD (20 males and 22 females) and F344/NS1c (22 males and 23 females) rats received drinking water with or without 4-NQO (20 ppm) for eight weeks. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of the tongue were performed at week 20. Additionally, the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue mucosa was determined at week 8. Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) developed in the KAD and F344/NS1c rats that received 4-NQO. Regardless of gender, the incidence and multiplicity of tongue SCC were greater in the KAD rats than in the F344/NS1c rats. In addition, the multiplicity of tongue SCC in the female KAD rats was significantly greater than that observed in the male KAD (p < 0.01) and female F344/NS1c rats (p < 0.05). The levels of inflammation and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue in the 4-NQO-treated female KAD rats were the highest among the rats given 4-NQO. These results show that KAD rats, particularly females, are susceptible to 4-NQO-induced tongue carcinogenesis, suggesting the utility of models employing KAD rats for investigating the pathobiology of oral (tongue) carcinogenesis associated with inflammation

  10. Aged Lewis rats exposed to low and moderate doses of rotenone are a good model for studying the process of protein aggregation and its effects upon central nervous system cell physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cell physiology is impaired before protein aggregation and this may be more relevant than inclusions themselves for neurodegeneration. The present study aimed to characterize an animal model to enable the analysis of the cell biology before and after protein aggregation. Ten-month-old Lewis rats were exposed either to 1 or 2 mg/kg/day of rotenone, delivered subcutaneously through mini-pumps, for one month. Hyperphosphorylated TAU, alpha-synuclein, amyloid-beta peptide and protein carbonylation (indicative of oxidative stress were evaluated in the hippocampus, substantia nigra and locus coeruleus through immunohistochemistry or western blot. It was found that 2 mg/kg/day rotenone increased amyloid-beta peptide, hyperphosphorylation of TAU and alpha-synuclein. Rotenone at 1mg/kg/day did not alter protein levels. Protein carbonylation remained unchanged. This study demonstrated that aged Lewis rats exposed to a low dose of rotenone is a useful model to study cellular processes before protein aggregation, while the higher dose makes a good model to study the effects of protein inclusions.

  11. Lewy body dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Korbo, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia share the same pathophysiology. Together they are called Lewy body dementias and are the second most common type of dementia. Lewy body dementias receive little attention, and patients are often misdiagnosed, leading to less than ideal...... management. In this article, diagnostic criteria combined with imaging and other biomarkers as well as current treatment recommendations are summarized, and some of the challenges for the future are outlined. Refinement of diagnosis and clarification of the pathogenesis are required in search for disease...

  12. Susceptibility of spiny rats (Proechimys semispinosus to Leishmania (Viannia panamensis and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BL Travi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of Proechimys semispinosus as reservoir of Leishmania (Viannia panamensis on the Colombian Pacific coast was experimentally evaluated. The susceptibility to L. chagasi also was assessed to determine the utility of this rodent as a model for studying reservoir characteristics in the laboratory. Wild-caught animals were screened for natural trypanosomatid infections, and negative individuals were inoculated intradermally (ID in the snout or feet with 10(7 promastigotes of L. panamensis. L. chagasi was inoculated intracardially (10(7 promastigotes or ID in the ear (10(8 promastigotes. PCR-hybridization showed that 15% of 33 spiny rats were naturally infected with L. Viannia sp. Animals experimentally infected with L. panamensis developed non-ulcerated lesions that disappeared by the 7th week post-infection (p.i. and became more resistant upon reinfection. Infectivity to sand flies was low (1/20-1/48 infected/fed flies and transient, and both culture and PCR-hybridization showed that L. panamensis was cleared by the 13th week p.i. Animals inoculated with L. chagasi became subclinically infected and were non-infective to sand flies. Transient infectivity to vectors of spiny rats infected with L. panamensis, combined with population characteristics, e.g., abundance, exploitation of degraded habitats and high reproductive rates, could make them epidemiologically suitable reservoirs.

  13. Altered susceptibility of an obese rat model to 13-week subchronic toxicity induced by 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Takeshi; Cho, Young-Man; Akagi, Jun-Ichi; Mizuta, Yasuko; Matsushita, Kohei; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Imaida, Katsumi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2017-01-01

    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a heat-induced food contaminant that has been shown to be a nongenotoxic renal carcinogen. Although the toxicity of 3-MCPD has been widely investigated for decades, there is a further concern that 3-MCPD might exert more potent toxicity in high-risk population with underlying diseases such as hyperlipidemia associated with obesity. In the present study, we performed a 13-week subchronic toxicity study for 3-MCPD using an obesity rat model to investigate the differences in susceptibility between obese and normal individuals. Male F344 and obese Zucker (lean and fatty) rats were administered 0, 9, 28.5, 90, 285, or 900 ppm 3-MCPD in drinking water for 13 weeks. 3-MCPD treatment decreased body weight gain, increased relative kidney weights, induced anemia, and induced epithelial cell necrosis in epididymal ducts in all 3 strains. The degrees of epididymal damage were higher in F344 and lean rats than in fatty rats, while renal toxicity was most potent in F344 rats and comparable in lean and fatty rats. In contrast, the hematology data indicated that anemia was worse in fatty rats than in F344 and lean rats, and a significant decrease in hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow was observed only in fatty rats. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was estimated to be 28.5 ppm in all 3 strains for 3-MCPD. These results suggested that obese Zucker rats may be more susceptible to 3-MCPD-dependent toxicity in the hematopoietic tissues than their lean counterparts.

  14. Increased Hypothalamic Inflammation Associated with the Susceptibility to Obesity in Rats Exposed to High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has been implicated in the hypothalamic leptin and insulin resistance resulting defective food intake during high fat diet period. To investigate hypothalamic inflammation in dietary induced obesity (DIO and obesity resistant (DIO-R rats, we established rat models of DIO and DIO-R by feeding high fat diet for 10 weeks. Then we switched half of DIO and DIO-R rats to chow food and the other half to high fat diet for the following 8 weeks to explore hypothalamic inflammation response to the low fat diet intervention. Body weight, caloric intake, HOMA-IR, as well as the mRNA expression of hypothalamic TLR4, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in DIO/HF rats were significantly increased compared to DIO-R/HF and CF rats, whereas IL-10 mRNA expression was lower in both DIO/HF and DIO-R/HF rats compared with CF rats. Switching to chow food from high fat diet reduced the body weight and improved insulin sensitivity but not affecting the expressions of studied inflammatory genes in DIO rats. Take together, upregulated hypothalamic inflammation may contribute to the overeating and development of obesity susceptibility induced by high fat diet. Switching to chow food had limited role in correcting hypothalamic inflammation in DIO rats during the intervention period.

  15. Lewy Body Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... range of symptoms, including Changes in alertness and attention Hallucinations Problems with movement and posture Muscle stiffness Confusion Loss of memory Lewy body disease can be hard to diagnose, ...

  16. Charles River Sprague Dawley rats lack early age-dependent susceptibility to DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, R B; Yan, M; Schneider, J; Succop, P; Heffelfinger, S C; Clegg, D J

    2007-10-04

    Developmental stages of mammary glands influence their susceptibility to initiating events related to carcinogenesis. The "window of susceptibility" to mammary carcinogenesis is classically defined as the time in early puberty when the mammary gland morphology is most sensitive to initiation events. Administration of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), in a single oral dose yields maximal mammary tumor formation when administered in this "window". We examined the DMBA treated mammary glands, precursor lesions, and morphology of the uninvolved mammary epithelium for the first 100 days of life for Charles River Sprague Dawley CD(R) IGS. Our goal was to determine the DMBA dose at which 50% of the rats (IC50) developed carcinoma in situ (CIS) within three months of dosing. Here we demonstrate, rather than the classical U-shaped dose curve in which there is maximum sensitivity for DMBA at 50 days, there is an increasing degree of sensitivity with age in the CD(R) IGS rat. Additionally, we report that vehicle-treated animals developed mammary CIS without any known initiator, and 100 day virgin animals demonstrated lactational changes, independent of DMBA exposure or dose. Lastly, we demonstrate this strain of virgin female rats has elevated pituitary prolactin immunoreactivity independent of the level of mammary differentiation. We conclude this strain of Charles River Sprague Dawley rats has prolactin-induced pituitary stimulation, and therefore, the window of susceptibility for mammary tumorigenesis is absent.

  17. Analysis of adrenocortical secretory responses during acute an prolonged immune stimulation in inflammation-susceptible and -resistant rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, I M; Lorentzen, J C; Ericsson-Dahlstrand, A

    2000-11-01

    Endogenous corticosterone secreted during immune challenge restricts the inflammatory process and genetic variations in this neuroendocrine-immune dialogue have been suggested to influence an individuals sensitivity to develop chronic inflammatory disorders. We have tested inflammation-susceptible Dark Agouti (DA) rats and resistant, MHC-identical, PVG.1AV1 rats for their abilities to secrete corticosterone in response to acute challenge with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or a prolonged activation of the nonspecific immune system with arthritogenic yeast beta-glucan. Intravenous injection of LPS triggered equipotent secretion of corticosterone in both rat strains. Interestingly, peak concentrations of corticosterone did not differ significantly between the strains. Intradermal injection of beta-glucan caused severe, monophasic, polyarthritis in DA rats while PVG.1AV1 responded with significantly milder joint inflammation. Importantly, serial sampling of plasma from glucan-injected DA and PVG.1AV1 rats did not reveal elevated concentrations of plasma corticosterone at any time from days 1-30 postinjection compared to preinjection values, in spite of the ongoing inflammatory process. Interestingly, adrenalectomized, beta-glucan-challenged DA rats responded with an aggravated arthritic process, indicating an anti-inflammatory role for the basal levels of corticosterone that were detected in intact DA rats challenged with beta-glucan. Moreover, substitution with subcutaneous corticosterone-secreting pellets, yielding moderate stress-levels, significantly attenuated the arthritic response. In contrast, adrenalectomized and glucan-challenged PVG.1AV1 rats did not respond with an elevated arthritic response, suggesting that these rats contain the arthritic process via corticosterone-independent mechanisms. In conclusion, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in both rat strains exhibited strong activation after challenge with LPS. This contrasted to the basal

  18. Rejoinder to Lewis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a response to our article “Political Ideology and Racial Preferences in Online Dating,” Kevin Lewis (2015 has raised concerns about various aspects of our analysis of user behavior on a national online dating site. The core of Lewis’ critique is that we do not report specifics of the sample, the website, and the analysis. Lewis also details numerous smaller points with respect to details of the analysis. The goal of this response is not to reply to every point that Lewis makes. As with any research project, our design decisions require tradeoffs, and readers should evaluate the evidence on their own. Rather, we use this space to make broader points about the general value for sociology of research using online data and how such research should be practiced.

  19. Low vagally-mediated heart rate variability and increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias in rats bred for high anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevali, Luca; Trombini, Mimosa; Graiani, Gallia; Madeddu, Denise; Quaini, Federico; Landgraf, Rainer; Neumann, Inga D; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2014-04-10

    In humans, there is a documented association between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Putative underlying mechanisms may include an impairment of the autonomic nervous system control of cardiac function. The primary objective of the present study was to characterize cardiac autonomic modulation and susceptibility to arrhythmias in genetic lines of rats that differ largely in their anxiety level. To reach this goal, electrocardiographic recordings were performed in high-anxiety behavior (HAB, n=10) and low-anxiety behavior (LAB, n=10) rats at rest, during stressful stimuli and under autonomic pharmacological manipulations, and analyzed by means of time- and frequency-domain indexes of heart rate variability. During resting conditions, HAB rats displayed a reduced heart rate variability, mostly in terms of lower parasympathetic (vagal) modulation compared to LAB rats. In HAB rats, this relatively low cardiac vagal control was associated with smaller heart rate responsiveness to acute stressors compared to LAB counterparts. In addition, beta-adrenergic pharmacological stimulation induced a larger incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in HABs compared to LABs. At sacrifice, a moderate increase in heart-body weight ratio was observed in HAB rats. We conclude that high levels of anxiety-related behavior in rats are associated with signs of i) impaired autonomic modulation of heart rate (low vagally-mediated heart rate variability), ii) poor adaptive heart rate responsiveness to stressful stimuli, iii) increased arrhythmia susceptibility, and iv) cardiac hypertrophy. These results highlight the utility of the HAB/LAB model for investigating the mechanistic basis of the comorbidity between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ferrocene-based Lewis acids and Lewis pairs: Synthesis and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The design and synthesis of molecules containing non-interacting Lewis base and Lewis acid groups. [Frustrated Lewis pairs (FLP's)] have received intense attention due to their potential applications in the area of molecular catalysis.1–3. For example,. Stephen's and co-workers have demonstrated that the unquenched ...

  1. Symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the fight against LBD! Donate Symptoms Lewy body dementia (LBD) has variable presentations that include cognitive difficulties ... wake cycle alterations. Cognitive impairment in Lewy body dementia (LBD) is often misdiagnosed as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). ...

  2. Individual behavioral characteristics of wild-type rats predict susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavelaars, A; Heijnen, CJ; Tennekes, R; Bruggink, JE; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    Neuroendocrine-immune interactions are thought to be important in determining susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Animal studies have revealed that differences in susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are related to:reactivity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  3. Lewis, Prof. Gilbert Newton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1935 Honorary. Lewis, Prof. Gilbert Newton. Date of birth: 25 October 1875. Date of death: 24 March 1946. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year meeting of the Academy will be held ...

  4. Frustrated Lewis Pairs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 11. Frustrated Lewis Pairs : Enabling via inability. Sanjoy Mukherjee ... Author Affiliations. Sanjoy Mukherjee Pakkirisamy Thilagar1. Department of Inorgainic and Physical Chemistry Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  5. Individual Differences in Cue-Induced Motivation and Striatal Systems in Rats Susceptible to Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mike J F; Burghardt, Paul R; Patterson, Christa M; Nobile, Cameron W; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J; Berridge, Kent C; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2015-08-01

    Pavlovian cues associated with junk-foods (caloric, highly sweet, and/or fatty foods), like the smell of brownies, can elicit craving to eat and increase the amount of food consumed. People who are more susceptible to these motivational effects of food cues may have a higher risk for becoming obese. Further, overconsumption of junk-foods leading to the development of obesity may itself heighten attraction to food cues. Here, we used a model of individual susceptibility to junk-foods diet-induced obesity to determine whether there are pre-existing and/or diet-induced increases in attraction to and motivation for sucrose-paired cues (ie, incentive salience or 'wanting'). We also assessed diet- vs obesity-associated alterations in mesolimbic function and receptor expression. We found that rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity displayed heightened conditioned approach prior to the development of obesity. In addition, after junk-food diet exposure, those rats that developed obesity also showed increased willingness to gain access to a sucrose cue. Heightened 'wanting' was not due to individual differences in the hedonic impact ('liking') of sucrose. Neurobiologically, Mu opioid receptor mRNA expression was lower in striatal 'hot-spots' that generate eating or hedonic impact only in those rats that became obese. In contrast, prolonged exposure to junk-food resulted in cross-sensitization to amphetamine-induced locomotion and downregulation of striatal D2R mRNA regardless of the development of obesity. Together these data shed light on individual differences in behavioral and neurobiological consequences of exposure to junk-food diets and the potential contribution of incentive sensitization in susceptible individuals to greater food cue-triggered motivation.

  6. Individual Differences in Cue-Induced Motivation and Striatal Systems in Rats Susceptible to Diet-Induced Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mike JF; Burghardt, Paul R; Patterson, Christa M; Nobile, Cameron W; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J; Berridge, Kent C; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2015-01-01

    Pavlovian cues associated with junk-foods (caloric, highly sweet, and/or fatty foods), like the smell of brownies, can elicit craving to eat and increase the amount of food consumed. People who are more susceptible to these motivational effects of food cues may have a higher risk for becoming obese. Further, overconsumption of junk-foods leading to the development of obesity may itself heighten attraction to food cues. Here, we used a model of individual susceptibility to junk-foods diet-induced obesity to determine whether there are pre-existing and/or diet-induced increases in attraction to and motivation for sucrose-paired cues (ie, incentive salience or ‘wanting’). We also assessed diet- vs obesity-associated alterations in mesolimbic function and receptor expression. We found that rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity displayed heightened conditioned approach prior to the development of obesity. In addition, after junk-food diet exposure, those rats that developed obesity also showed increased willingness to gain access to a sucrose cue. Heightened ‘wanting’ was not due to individual differences in the hedonic impact (‘liking’) of sucrose. Neurobiologically, Mu opioid receptor mRNA expression was lower in striatal ‘hot-spots’ that generate eating or hedonic impact only in those rats that became obese. In contrast, prolonged exposure to junk-food resulted in cross-sensitization to amphetamine-induced locomotion and downregulation of striatal D2R mRNA regardless of the development of obesity. Together these data shed light on individual differences in behavioral and neurobiological consequences of exposure to junk-food diets and the potential contribution of incentive sensitization in susceptible individuals to greater food cue-triggered motivation. PMID:25761571

  7. A novel Dock8 gene mutation confers diabetogenic susceptibility in the LEW.1AR1/Ztm-iddm rat, an animal model of human type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arndt, Tanja; Wedekind, Dirk; Jörns, Anne; Tsiavaliaris, Georgios; Cuppen, Edwin; Hedrich, Hans-Jürgen; Lenzen, Sigurd

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The LEW.1AR1-iddm rat, an animal model of human type 1 diabetes, arose through a spontaneous mutation within the inbred strain LEW.1AR1. A susceptibility locus (Iddm8) on rat chromosome 1 (RNO1) has been identified previously, which is accompanied by autoimmune diabetes and the

  8. Whole-genome sequences of DA and F344 rats with different susceptibilities to arthritis, autoimmunity, inflammation and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaosen; Brenner, Max; Zhang, Xuemei; Laragione, Teresina; Tai, Shuaishuai; Li, Yanhong; Bu, Junjie; Yin, Ye; Shah, Anish A; Kwan, Kevin; Li, Yingrui; Jun, Wang; Gulko, Pércio S

    2013-08-01

    DA (D-blood group of Palm and Agouti, also known as Dark Agouti) and F344 (Fischer) are two inbred rat strains with differences in several phenotypes, including susceptibility to autoimmune disease models and inflammatory responses. While these strains have been extensively studied, little information is available about the DA and F344 genomes, as only the Brown Norway (BN) and spontaneously hypertensive rat strains have been sequenced to date. Here we report the sequencing of the DA and F344 genomes using next-generation Illumina paired-end read technology and the first de novo assembly of a rat genome. DA and F344 were sequenced with an average depth of 32-fold, covered 98.9% of the BN reference genome, and included 97.97% of known rat ESTs. New sequences could be assigned to 59 million positions with previously unknown data in the BN reference genome. Differences between DA, F344, and BN included 19 million positions in novel scaffolds, 4.09 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (including 1.37 million new SNPs), 458,224 short insertions and deletions, and 58,174 structural variants. Genetic differences between DA, F344, and BN, including high-impact SNPs and short insertions and deletions affecting >2500 genes, are likely to account for most of the phenotypic variation between these strains. The new DA and F344 genome sequencing data should facilitate gene discovery efforts in rat models of human disease.

  9. Whole-Genome Sequences of DA and F344 Rats with Different Susceptibilities to Arthritis, Autoimmunity, Inflammation and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaosen; Brenner, Max; Zhang, Xuemei; Laragione, Teresina; Tai, Shuaishuai; Li, Yanhong; Bu, Junjie; Yin, Ye; Shah, Anish A.; Kwan, Kevin; Li, Yingrui; Jun, Wang; Gulko, Pércio S.

    2013-01-01

    DA (D-blood group of Palm and Agouti, also known as Dark Agouti) and F344 (Fischer) are two inbred rat strains with differences in several phenotypes, including susceptibility to autoimmune disease models and inflammatory responses. While these strains have been extensively studied, little information is available about the DA and F344 genomes, as only the Brown Norway (BN) and spontaneously hypertensive rat strains have been sequenced to date. Here we report the sequencing of the DA and F344 genomes using next-generation Illumina paired-end read technology and the first de novo assembly of a rat genome. DA and F344 were sequenced with an average depth of 32-fold, covered 98.9% of the BN reference genome, and included 97.97% of known rat ESTs. New sequences could be assigned to 59 million positions with previously unknown data in the BN reference genome. Differences between DA, F344, and BN included 19 million positions in novel scaffolds, 4.09 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (including 1.37 million new SNPs), 458,224 short insertions and deletions, and 58,174 structural variants. Genetic differences between DA, F344, and BN, including high-impact SNPs and short insertions and deletions affecting >2500 genes, are likely to account for most of the phenotypic variation between these strains. The new DA and F344 genome sequencing data should facilitate gene discovery efforts in rat models of human disease. PMID:23695301

  10. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases osteoarthritis susceptibility in female rat offspring by programming a low-functioning IGF-1 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qubo; Tan, Yang; Zhang, Xianrong; Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Yu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that osteoarthritis (OA) and prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) are both associated with low birth weight but possible causal interrelationships have not been investigated. To investigate the effects of PEE on the susceptibility to OA in adult rats that experienced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and to explore potential intrauterine mechanisms, we established the rat model of IUGR by PEE and dexamethasone, and the female fetus and 24-week-old adult offspring subjected to strenuous running for 6 weeks were sacrificed. Knee joints were collected from fetuses and adult offspring for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and qPCR assays. Histological analyses and the Mankin score revealed increased cartilage destruction and accelerated OA progression in adult offspring from the PEE group compared to the control group. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway components. Furthermore, fetuses in the PEE group experienced IUGR but exhibited a higher postnatal growth rate. The expression of many IGF-1 signaling components was downregulated, which coincided with reduced amounts of type II collagen in the epiphyseal cartilage of fetuses in the PEE group. These results suggest that PEE enhances the susceptibility to OA in female adult rat offspring by down-regulating IGF-1 signaling and retarding articular cartilage development.

  11. Mapping of Mcs30, a new mammary carcinoma susceptibility quantitative trait locus (QTL30 on rat chromosome 12: identification of fry as a candidate Mcs gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Ren

    Full Text Available Rat strains differ dramatically in their susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis. On the assumption that susceptibility genes are conserved across mammalian species and hence inform human carcinogenesis, numerous investigators have used genetic linkage studies in rats to identify genes responsible for differential susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Using a genetic backcross between the resistant Copenhagen (Cop and susceptible Fischer 344 (F344 strains, we mapped a novel mammary carcinoma susceptibility (Mcs30 locus to the centromeric region on chromosome 12 (LOD score of ∼8.6 at the D12Rat59 marker. The Mcs30 locus comprises approximately 12 Mbp on the long arm of rat RNO12 whose synteny is conserved on human chromosome 13q12 to 13q13. After analyzing numerous genes comprising this locus, we identified Fry, the rat ortholog of the furry gene of Drosophila melanogaster, as a candidate Mcs gene. We cloned and determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the 13 kbp Fry mRNA. Sequence analysis indicated that the Fry gene was highly conserved across evolution, with 90% similarity of the predicted amino acid sequence among eutherian mammals. Comparison of the Fry sequence in the Cop and F344 strains identified two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, one of which creates a putative, de novo phosphorylation site. Further analysis showed that the expression of the Fry gene is reduced in a majority of rat mammary tumors. Our results also suggested that FRY activity was reduced in human breast carcinoma cell lines as a result of reduced levels or mutation. This study is the first to identify the Fry gene as a candidate Mcs gene. Our data suggest that the SNPs within the Fry gene contribute to the genetic susceptibility of the F344 rat strain to mammary carcinogenesis. These results provide the foundation for analyzing the role of the human FRY gene in cancer susceptibility and progression.

  12. AGING AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TOLUENE IN RATS: A PHARMACOKINETIC, BIOMARKER, AND PHYSIOLOGICAL APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging adults are a growing segment of the U.S. population and are likely to exhibit increased susceptibility to many environmental toxicants. However, there is little information on the susceptibility of the aged to toxicants. The toxicity of toluene has been well characterized i...

  13. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  14. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  15. Multiple susceptibility loci for radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis in F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Herrera

    Full Text Available Although two major breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been identified accounting for 20% of breast cancer genetic risk, identification of other susceptibility genes accounting for 80% risk remains a challenge due to the complex, multi-factorial nature of breast cancer. Complexity derives from multiple genetic determinants, permutations of gene-environment interactions, along with presumptive low-penetrance of breast cancer predisposing genes, and genetic heterogeneity of human populations. As with other complex diseases, dissection of genetic determinants in animal models provides key insight since genetic heterogeneity and environmental factors can be experimentally controlled, thus facilitating the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL. We therefore, performed the first genome-wide scan for loci contributing to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis in female F2-(Dahl S x R-intercross rats. Tumorigenesis was measured as tumor burden index (TBI after induction of rat mammary tumors at forty days of age via ¹²⁷Cs-radiation. We observed a spectrum of tumor latency, size-progression, and pathology from poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma to fibroadenoma, indicating major effects of gene-environment interactions. We identified two mammary tumorigenesis susceptibility quantitative trait loci (Mts-QTLs with significant linkage: Mts-1 on chromosome-9 (LOD-2.98 and Mts-2 on chromosome-1 (LOD-2.61, as well as two Mts-QTLs with suggestive linkage: Mts-3 on chromosome-5 (LOD-1.93 and Mts-4 on chromosome-18 (LOD-1.54. Interestingly, Chr9-Mts-1, Chr5-Mts-3 and Chr18-Mts-4 QTLs are unique to irradiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis, while Chr1-Mts-2 QTL overlaps with a mammary cancer susceptibility QTL (Mcs 3 reported for 7,12-dimethylbenz-[α]antracene (DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis in F2[COP x Wistar-Furth]-intercross rats. Altogether, our results suggest at least three distinct susceptibility QTLs for

  16. Differential numbers of foci of lymphocytes within the brains of Lewis rats exposed to weak complex nocturnal magnetic fields during development of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persinger, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    To discern if specific structures of the rat brain contained more foci of lymphocytes following induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and exposures to weak, amplitude-modulated magnetic fields for 6 min once per hour during the scotophase, the residuals between the observed and predicted values for the numbers of foci for 320 structures were obtained. Compared to the brains of sham-field exposed rats, the brains of rats exposed to 7-Hz 50 nT (0.5 mG) amplitude-modulated fields showed more foci within hippocampal structures and the dorsal central grey of the midbrain while those exposed to 7-Hz 500 nT (5 mG) fields showed greater densities within the hypothalamus and optic chiasm. The brains of rats exposed to either the 50 nT or 500 nT amplitude-modulated 40-Hz fields displayed greater densities of foci within the midbrain structures related to rapid eye movement. Most of the enhancements of infiltrations within the magnetic field-exposed rats occurred in structures within periventricular or periaqueductal regions and were both frequency- and intensity-dependent. The specificity and complexity of the configurations of the residuals of the numbers of infiltrated foci following exposures to the different fields suggest that the brain itself may be a "sensory organ" for the detection of these stimuli.

  17. Differential susceptibility of rats and guinea pigs to the ototoxic effects of ethyl benzene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Muijser, H.; Kulig, B.M.; Ravensberg, L.C.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was designed to compare the ototoxic effects of volatile ethyl benzene in guinea pigs and rats. Rats showed deteriorated auditory thresholds in the mid-frequency range, based on electrocochleography, after 550-ppm ethyl benzene (8 h/day, 5 days). Outer hair cell (OHC) loss was

  18. Hyperinducibility of Ia antigen on astrocytes correlates with strain-specific susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, P.T.; ter Meulen, V.; Fontana, A.

    1987-01-01

    In search of a phenotypic marker determining genetically controlled susceptibility to delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in the brain-in particular, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)- the authors have compared the γ-interferon (IFN-γ) induction of Ia molecules on astrocytes and macrophages from rat and mouse strains that are susceptible or resistant to this disease. They focused on Ia expression because DTH reactions to self or foreign antigens are largely mediated by lymphocytes restricted by class II (Ia) antigens of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The data demonstrate that Lewis (fully susceptible) and Brown Norway (BN) (fully resistant) rats are very different in that Lewis astrocytes express much higher levels of Ia than BN astrocytes. Similar data were obtained from an analysis of EAE-susceptible and -resistant mouse strains (SJL and BALB/c, respectively), which suggest that this phenomenon may be universal and not limited to only one mammalian species. At least one gene responsible for Ia hyperinduction is located outside the rat RT-1 or the mouse MHC locus. Animals congenic at the RT-1 or MHC locus of the resistant strain but with background genes of the susceptible strain exhibit intermediate levels of Ia compared to fully resistant and susceptible rodents, which fits well with the reduced EAE susceptibility of these congenic animals. Furthermore, hyperinduction of Ia is astrocyte specific, since peritoneal macrophages of susceptible and resistant strains exhibit identical profiles of Ia induction. Thus, astrocyte Ia hyperinducibility may be a major strain- and tissue-specific factor that contributes to Ia-restricted DTH reactions in the brain

  19. Increased susceptibility of post-weaning rats on high-fat diet to metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sheng Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the effects of the types of high-calorie diets (high-fat and high-fat-high-sucrose diets and two different developmental stages (post-weaning and young adult on the induction of metabolic syndrome. Male, post-weaning and adult (3- and 8-week old, respectively Sprague Dawley rats were given control, high-fat (60% kcal, and high-fat-high-sucrose (60% kcal fat + 30% sucrose water diets for eight weeks (n = 6 to 7 per group. Physical, biochemical, and transcriptional changes as well as liver histology were noted. Post-weaning rats had higher weight gain, abdominal fat mass, fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, faster hypertension onset, but lower circulating advanced glycation end products compared to adult rats. This is accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR α and γ in the liver and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE in the visceral adipose tissue. Post-weaning rats on high-fat diet manifested all phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and increased hepatic steatosis, which are linked to increased hepatic and adipocyte PPARγ expression. Adult rats on high-fat-high-sucrose diet merely became obese and hypertensive within the same treatment duration. Thus, it is more effective and less time-consuming to induce metabolic syndrome in male post-weaning rats with high-fat diet compared to young adult rats. As male rats were selectively included into the study, the results may not be generalisable to all post-weaning rats and further investigation on female rats is required.

  20. SUSCEPTIBILITY TO OZONE-INDUCED INJURY AND ANTIOXIDANT COMPENSATION IN RAT MODELS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased oxidative stress and compromised antioxidant status are common pathologic factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). It is hypothesized that individuals with chronic CVD are more susceptible to environmental exposures due to underlying oxidative stress. To determine the ...

  1. Increased susceptibility to cardiovascular effects of dihydrocapcaicin in resuscitated rats. Cardiovascular effects of dihydrocapsaicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Keld; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Jayatissa, Magdalena Niepsuj

    2010-01-01

    Survivors of a cardiac arrest often have persistent cardiovascular derangements following cardiopulmonary resuscitation including decreased cardiac output, arrhythmias and morphological myocardial damage. These cardiovascular derangements may lead to an increased susceptibility towards the extern...

  2. A Novel Hypoxia Challenge Test Demonstrates Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Susceptibility to Acrolein Gas in Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    High levels of air pollution increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations including those with hypertension. Stress tests are useful for manifesting latent effects of exposure, particularly at low concentrations, often when no...

  3. Enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and intrinsic excitability of NAc medium spiny neurons in adult but not adolescent rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F.; Maust, Joel D.; Corthell, John T.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Basal and diet-induced differences in mesolimbic function, particularly within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), may contribute to human obesity; these differences may be more pronounced in susceptible populations. Objectives We determined whether there are differences in cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity in rats that are susceptible vs. resistant to diet-induced obesity, and basal differences in the striatal neuron function in adult and adolescent obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Methods Susceptible and resistant outbred rats were identified based on “junk-food” diet-induced obesity. Then, the induction and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization, which is mediated by enhanced striatal function and is associated with increased motivation for rewards and reward-paired cues, were evaluated. Basal differences in mesolimbic function were examined in selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats (P70-80 and P30-40) using both cocaine induced locomotion and whole-cell patch clamping approaches in NAc core medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Results In rats that became obese after eating “junk-food”, the expression of locomotor sensitization was enhanced compared to non-obese rats, with similarly strong responses to 7.5 and 15 mg/kg cocaine. Without diet manipulation, obesity-prone rats were hyper-responsive to the acute locomotor-activating effects of cocaine, and the intrinsic excitability of NAc core MSNs was enhanced by ~60% at positive and negative potentials. These differences were present in adult, but not adolescent rats. Post-synaptic glutamatergic transmission was similar between groups. Conclusions Mesolimbic systems, particularly NAc MSNs, are hyper-responsive in obesity-prone individuals; and interactions between predisposition and experience influence neurobehavioral plasticity in ways that may promote weight gain and hamper weight loss in susceptible rats. PMID:26612617

  4. Role of spontaneous physical activity in prediction of susceptibility to activity based anorexia in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Grace, Martha; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M

    2014-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic eating disorder affecting females and males, defined by body weight loss, higher physical activity levels and restricted food intake. Currently, the commonalities and differences between genders in etiology of AN are not well understood. Animal models of AN, such as activity-based anorexia (ABA), can be helpful in identifying factors determining individual susceptibility to AN. In ABA, rodents are given an access to a running wheel while food restricted, resulting in paradoxical increased physical activity levels and weight loss. Recent studies suggest that different behavioral traits, including voluntary exercise, can predict individual weight loss in ABA. A higher inherent drive for movement may promote development and severity of AN, but this hypothesis remains untested. In rodents and humans, drive for movement is defined as spontaneous physical activity (SPA), which is time spent in low-intensity, non-volitional movements. In this paper, we show that a profile of body weight history and behavioral traits, including SPA, can predict individual weight loss caused by ABA in male and female rats with high accuracy. Analysis of the influence of SPA on ABA susceptibility in males and females rats suggests that either high or low levels of SPA increase the probability of high weight loss in ABA, but with larger effects in males compared to females. These results suggest that the same behavioral profile can identify individuals at-risk of AN for both male and female populations and that SPA has predictive value for susceptibility to AN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The calcitonin receptor gene is a candidate for regulation of susceptibility to herpes simplex type 1 neuronal infection leading to encephalitis in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Abdelmagid

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE is a fatal infection of the central nervous system (CNS predominantly caused by Herpes simplex virus type 1. Factors regulating the susceptibility to HSE are still largely unknown. To identify host gene(s regulating HSE susceptibility we performed a genome-wide linkage scan in an intercross between the susceptible DA and the resistant PVG rat. We found one major quantitative trait locus (QTL, Hse1, on rat chromosome 4 (confidence interval 24.3-31 Mb; LOD score 29.5 governing disease susceptibility. Fine mapping of Hse1 using recombinants, haplotype mapping and sequencing, as well as expression analysis of all genes in the interval identified the calcitonin receptor gene (Calcr as the main candidate, which also is supported by functional studies. Thus, using unbiased genetic approach variability in Calcr was identified as potentially critical for infection and viral spread to the CNS and subsequent HSE development.

  6. Lewy Body Digest eNewsletter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Join the fight against LBD! Donate Lewy Digest Click here to subscribe today to receive regular ... research in Lewy body dementia. April 2018 Lewy Digest Month of Compassion Caregiver Spotlight Research Centers of ...

  7. Predominance of AT1 Blockade Over Mas–Mediated Angiotensin-(1–7) Mechanisms in the Regulation of Blood Pressure and Renin–Angiotensin System in mRen2.Lewis Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND We investigated whether the antihypertensive actions of the angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor (AT1-R) blocker, olmesartan medoxomil, may in part be mediated by increased Ang-(1–7) in the absence of significant changes in plasma Ang II. METHODS mRen2.Lewis congenic hypertensive rats were administered either a vehicle (n = 14) or olmesartan (0.5mg/kg/day; n = 14) by osmotic minipumps. Two weeks later, rats from both groups were further randomized to receive either the mas receptor antagonist A-779 (0.5mg/kg/day; n = 7 per group) or its vehicle (n = 7 per group) for the next 4 weeks. Blood pressure was monitored by telemetry, and circulating and tissue components of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) were measured at the completion of the experiments. RESULTS Antihypertensive effects of olmesartan were associated with an increase in plasma renin concentration, plasma Ang I, Ang II, and Ang-(1–7), whereas serum aldosterone levels and kidney Ang II content were reduced. Preserved Ang-(1–7) content in kidneys was associated with increases of ACE2 protein but not activity and no changes on serum and kidney ACE activity. There was no change in cardiac peptide levels after olmesartan treatment. The antihypertensive effects of olmesartan were not altered by concomitant administration of the Ang-(1–7) receptor antagonist except for a mild further increase in plasma renin concentration. CONCLUSIONS Our study highlights the independent regulation of RAS among plasma, heart, and kidney tissue in response to AT1-R blockade. Ang-(1–7) through the mas receptor does not mediate long-term effects of olmesartan besides counterbalancing renin release in response to AT1-R blockade. PMID:23459599

  8. Diabetes Enhances Dental Caries and Apical Periodontitis in Caries-Susceptible WBN/KobSlc Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and a...

  9. Immune characterization of the Lewis rats inoculated with K2 sarcoma cell line and newly derived R5-28 malignant cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávková, Alena; Málek, Ondřej; Pokorná, Eva; Strnádel, Ján; Hradecký, Jan; Horák, Vratislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 51, - (2005), s. 159-165 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/04/0102 Grant - others:Ústav živočišné fyziologie a genetiky AV ČR(CZ) IAPG/05/16 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : rat sarcoma * malignancy * myeloid cells Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.719, year: 2005

  10. Diabetes enhances dental caries and apical periodontitis in caries-susceptible WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-02-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and alveolar bone resorption were much higher in male WBN/KobSlc rats with chronic diabetes than in nondiabetic female rats of the same strain. Histopathologic examination showed that dental caries progressed from acute to subacute inflammation due to bacterial infections and necrosis in the pulp when the caries penetrated the dentin. In the most advanced stage of dental caries, inflammatory changes caused root abscess and subsequent apical periodontitis, with the formation of granulation tissue around the dental root. Inflammatory changes resulted in resorption of alveolar bone and correlated well with the severity of molar caries. Our results suggest that diabetic conditions enhance dental caries in WBN/KobSlc rats and that periodontal lesions may result from the apical periodontitis that is secondary to dental caries.

  11. Does obesity increase susceptibility to ozone? Respiratory, behavioral, and metabolic assessments in Brown Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    There may be a link between obesity and susceptibility to the respiratory, cardiovascular, and other health effects of air pollutants. Furthermore, it has been proposed that some air pollutants are obesogenic and may contribute to obesity. In view of the epidemic growth of obesit...

  12. Differential Gene Expression Profile in the Rat Caudal Vestibular Nucleus is Associated with Individual Differences in Motion Sickness Susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Qin Wang

    Full Text Available To identify differentially expressed genes associated with motion sickness (MS susceptibility in the rat caudal vestibular nucleus.We identified MS susceptible (MSS and insusceptible (inMSS rats by quantifying rotation-induced MS symptoms: defecation and spontaneous locomotion activity. Microarray analysis was used to screen differentially expressed genes in the caudal vestibular nucleus (CVN after rotation. Plasma stress hormones were identified by radioimmunoassay. Candidate genes were selected by bioinformatics analysis and the microarray results were verified by real-time quantitative-PCR (RT-qPCR methods. By using Elvax implantation, receptor antagonists or recombinant adenovirus targeting the candidate genes were applied to the CVN to evaluate their contribution to MS susceptibility variability. Validity of gene expression manipulation was verified by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis.A total of 304 transcripts were differentially expressed in the MSS group compared with the inMSS group. RT-qPCR analysis verified the expression pattern of candidate genes, including nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAchR α3 subunit, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 (5-HT4R, tachykinin neurokinin-1 (NK1R, γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR α6 subunit, olfactory receptor 81 (Olr81 and homology 2 domain-containing transforming protein 1 (Shc1. In MSS animals, the nAchR antagonist mecamylamine significantly alleviated rotation-induced MS symptoms and the plasma β-endorphin response. The NK1R antagonist CP99994 and Olr81 knock-down were effective for the defecation response, while the 5-HT4R antagonist RS39604 and Shc1 over-expression showed no therapeutic effect. In inMSS animals, rotation-induced changes in spontaneous locomotion activity and the plasma β-endorphin level occurred in the presence of the GABAAR antagonist gabazine.Our findings suggested that the variability of the CVN gene expression profile after motion stimulation might be a putative

  13. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology & Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-NancyUniversité, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts. - Highlights: • Caffeine induced HPA axis dysfunction in offspring rats fed by high-fat diet (HFD). • Caffeine induced an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. • HFD aggravated susceptibility to metabolic syndrome induced by caffeine. • Female was more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine

  14. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Luo, Hanwen; Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu; Ma, Lu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts. - Highlights: • Caffeine induced HPA axis dysfunction in offspring rats fed by high-fat diet (HFD). • Caffeine induced an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. • HFD aggravated susceptibility to metabolic syndrome induced by caffeine. • Female was more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine

  15. Association of cellular and molecular responses in the rat mammary gland to 17β-estradiol with susceptibility to mammary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Lina; Zhao, Yang; Warren, Christopher L; Sullivan, Ruth; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Shull, James D

    2013-01-01

    We are using ACI and BN rats, which differ markedly in their susceptibility to 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced mammary cancer, to identify genetic variants and environmental factors that determine mammary cancer susceptibility. The objective of this study was to characterize the cellular and molecular responses to E2 in the mammary glands of ACI and BN rats to identify qualitative and quantitative phenotypes that associate with and/or may confer differences in susceptibility to mammary cancer. Female ACI and BN rats were treated with E2 for 1, 3 or 12 weeks. Mammary gland morphology and histology were examined by whole mount and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Cell proliferation and epithelial density were evaluated by quantitative immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis was evaluated by quantitative western blotting and flow cytometry. Mammary gland differentiation was examined by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression was evaluated by microarray, qRT-PCR and quantitative western blotting assays. Extracellular matrix (ECM) associated collagen was evaluated by Picrosirius Red staining and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy. The luminal epithelium of ACI rats exhibited a rapid and sustained proliferative response to E2. By contrast, the proliferative response exhibited by the mammary epithelium of BN rats was restrained and transitory. Moreover, the epithelium of BN rats appeared to undergo differentiation in response to E2, as evidenced by production of milk proteins as well as luminal ectasia and associated changes in the ECM. Marked differences in expression of genes that encode proteins with well-defined roles in mammary gland development (Pgr, Wnt4, Tnfsf11, Prlr, Stat5a, Areg, Gata3), differentiation and milk production (Lcn2, Spp1), regulation of extracellular environment (Mmp7, Mmp9), and cell-cell or cell-ECM interactions (Cd44, Cd24, Cd52) were observed. We propose that these cellular and molecular phenotypes are heritable and may underlie, at least in

  16. Effects of maternal high-fat diet and sedentary lifestyle on susceptibility of adult offspring to ozone exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, C J; Phillips, P M; Johnstone, A F M; Schmid, J; Schladweiler, M C; Ledbetter, A; Snow, S J; Kodavanti, U P

    2017-05-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that obesity exacerbates the health effects of air pollutants such as ozone (O 3 ). Maternal inactivity and calorically rich diets lead to offspring that show signs of obesity. Exacerbated O 3 susceptibility of offspring could thus be manifested by maternal obesity. Thirty-day-old female Long-Evans rats were fed a control (CD) or high-fat (HF) (60% calories) diet for 6 wks and then bred. GD1 rats were then housed with a running wheel (RW) or without a wheel (SED) until parturition, creating four groups of offspring: CD-SED, CD-RW, HF-SED and HF-RW. HF diet was terminated at PND 35 and all offspring were placed on CD. Body weight and %fat of dams were greatest in order; HF-SED > HF-RW > CD-SED > CD-RW. Adult offspring were exposed to O 3 for two consecutive days (0.8 ppm, 4 h/day). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT), ventilatory parameters (plethysmography), and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) cell counts and protein biomarkers were performed to assess response to O 3 . Exercise and diet altered body weight and %fat of young offspring. GTT, ventilation and BALF cell counts were exacerbated by O 3 with responses markedly exacerbated in males. HF diet and O 3 led to significant exacerbation of several BALF parameters: total cell count, neutrophils and lymphocytes were increased in male HF-SED versus CD-SED. Males were hyperglycemic after O 3 exposure and exhibited exacerbated GTT responses. Ventilatory dysfunction was also exacerbated in males. Maternal exercise had minimal effects on O 3 response. The results of this exploratory study suggest a link between maternal obesity and susceptibility to O 3 in their adult offspring in a sex-specific manner.

  17. Pareidolias: complex visual illusions in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Makoto; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Yokoi, Kayoko; Hirayama, Kazumi; Imamura, Toru; Shimomura, Tatsuo; Mori, Etsuro

    2012-08-01

    Patients rarely experience visual hallucinations while being observed by clinicians. Therefore, instruments to detect visual hallucinations directly from patients are needed. Pareidolias, which are complex visual illusions involving ambiguous forms that are perceived as meaningful objects, are analogous to visual hallucinations and have the potential to be a surrogate indicator of visual hallucinations. In this study, we explored the clinical utility of a newly developed instrument for evoking pareidolic illusions, the Pareidolia test, in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies-one of the most common causes of visual hallucinations in the elderly. Thirty-four patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, 34 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 26 healthy controls were given the Pareidolia test. Patients with dementia with Lewy bodies produced a much greater number of pareidolic illusions compared with those with Alzheimer's disease or controls. A receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the number of pareidolias differentiated dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 88%. Full-length figures and faces of people and animals accounted for >80% of the contents of pareidolias. Pareidolias were observed in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies who had visual hallucinations as well as those who did not have visual hallucinations, suggesting that pareidolias do not reflect visual hallucinations themselves but may reflect susceptibility to visual hallucinations. A sub-analysis of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies who were or were not treated with donepzil demonstrated that the numbers of pareidolias were correlated with visuoperceptual abilities in the former and with indices of hallucinations and delusional misidentifications in the latter. Arousal and attentional deficits mediated by abnormal cholinergic mechanisms and visuoperceptual dysfunctions are likely to contribute to the development

  18. Housing under the pyramid reduces susceptibility of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons to prenatal stress in the developing rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Krishna Dilip; George, Mitchel Constance; Ramasamy, Perumal; Mustapha, Zainal Arifin

    2013-12-01

    Mother-offspring interaction begins before birth. The foetus is particularly vulnerable to environmental insults and stress. The body responds by releasing excess of the stress hormone cortisol, which acts on glucocorticoid receptors. Hippocampus in the brain is rich in glucocorticoid receptors and therefore susceptible to stress. The stress effects are reduced when the animals are placed under a model wooden pyramid. The present study was to first explore the effects of prenatal restraint-stress on the plasma corticosterone levels and the dendritic arborisation of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of the offspring. Further, to test whether the pyramid environment would alter these effects, as housing under a pyramid is known to reduce the stress effects, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were restrained for 9 h per day from gestation day 7 until parturition in a wire-mesh restrainer. Plasma corticosterone levels were found to be significantly increased. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the apical and the basal total dendritic branching points and intersections of the CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. The results thus suggest that, housing in the pyramid dramatically reduces prenatal stress effects in rats.

  19. Prepubertal exposure to cow's milk reduces susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Khan, Galam; Davis, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Cow's milk contains high levels of estrogens, progesterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), all of which are associated with breast cancer. We investigated whether prepubertal milk exposure affects mammary gland development and carcinogenesis in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were given either...... whole milk or tap water to drink from postnatal day (PND) 14 to PND 35, and thereafter normal tap water. Mammary tumorigenesis was induced by administering 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene on PND 50. Milk exposure increased circulating E2 levels on PND 25 by 10-fold (p ... opening, which marks puberty onset, by 2.5 days (p milk before puberty exhibited reduced carcinogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis; that is, their tumor latency was longer (p

  20. Effect of dietary antioxidant supplementation (Cuminum cyminum) on bacterial susceptibility of diabetes-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubarz, Gehan; Embaby, Mohamed A; Doleib, Nada M; Taha, Mona M

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic patients are at risk of acquiring infections. Chronic low-grade inflammation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complication. Diabetes causes generation of reactive oxygen species that increases oxidative stress, which may play a role in the development of complications as immune-deficiency and bacterial infection. The study aimed to investigate the role of a natural antioxidant, cumin, in the improvement of immune functions in diabetes. Diabetes was achieved by interperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Bacterial infection was induced by application of Staphylococcus aureus suspension to a wound in the back of rats. The antioxidant was administered for 6 weeks. Results revealed a decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (p cumin may serve as anti-diabetic treatment and may help in attenuating diabetic complications by improving immune functions. Therefore, a medical dietary antioxidant supplementation is important to improve the immune functions in diabetes.

  1. On the axisymmetric Lewis metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gariel, J.; Marcilhacy, G.

    2001-03-01

    We obtain the general solution of the axisymmetric stationary vacuum spacetime of Lewis. After precising the fundamental hypothesis of Lewis, we demonstrate that the solution is related to an arbitrary harmonic function. Formally, these solutions are the same as for the corresponding cylindrically symmetric case, and can be classified in a similar way. Furthermore, the interpretation, in the cylindrically symmetric system, of the field equations as decribing the motion of a classical particle in a central force field is still valid. (author)

  2. Comparison of damage induced by mercury chloride and ionizing radiation in the susceptible rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyang; Yoon, Yong Dal; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2003-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), one of the most diffused and hazardous organ-specific environmental contaminants, exists in a wide variety of physical and chemical states. Although the reports indicate that mercury induces a deleterious damage, little has been reported from the investigations of mercury effects in living things. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of mercury chloride and ionizing radiation. Prepubertal male F-344 rats were administered mercury chloride in drinking water throughout the experimental period. Two weeks after whole body irradiation, organs were collected for measuring the induced injury. Serum levels of GOT, GPT, ALP, and LDH were checked in the experimental groups and the hematological analysis was accomplished in plasma. In conclusion, the target organ of mercury chloride seems to be urinary organs and the pattern of damage induced by mercury differs from that of the irradiated group

  3. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron AM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aimee M Caron, Richard Stephenson Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs (and concussion occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the “dark neuron” (DN as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours total sleep deprivation (TSD and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons, and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%. Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%, and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%. Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. Keywords: sleep deprivation, concussion, traumatic brain injury, dark neuron, neurodegeneration, rat cortex

  4. Different effect of l-NAME treatment on susceptibility to decompression sickness in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Aleksandra; Buzzacott, Peter; Lambrechts, Kate; Wang, Qiong; Belhomme, Marc; Theron, Michael; Popov, Georgi; Distefano, Giovanni; Guerrero, Francois

    2014-11-01

    Vascular bubble formation results from supersaturation during inadequate decompression contributes to endothelial injuries, which form the basis for the development of decompression sickness (DCS). Risk factors for DCS include increased age, weight-fat mass, decreased maximal oxygen uptake, chronic diseases, dehydration, and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Production of NO is often affected by diving and its expression-activity varies between the genders. Little is known about the influence of sex on the risk of DCS. To study this relationship we used an animal model of Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to induce decreased NO production. Male and female rats with diverse ages and weights were divided into 2 groups: treated with l-NAME (in tap water; 0.05 mg·mL(-1) for 7 days) and a control group. To control the distribution of nitrogen among tissues, 2 different compression-decompression protocols were used. Results showed that l-NAME was significantly associated with increased DCS in female rats (p = 0.039) only. Weight was significant for both sexes (p = 0.01). The protocol with the highest estimated tissue pressures in the slower compartments was 2.6 times more likely to produce DCS than the protocol with the highest estimated tissue pressures in faster compartments. The outcome of this study had significantly different susceptibility to DCS after l-NAME treatment between the sexes, while l-NAME per se had no effect on the likelihood of DCS. The analysis also showed that for the appearance of DCS, the most significant factors were type of protocol and weight.

  5. Lewis and Clark as Naturalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Museum of Natural History.

    Intended for use in elementary and high school education, this Web site includes a teacher's guide and three lesson plans. The site contains images of museum specimens, scientific drawings, and field photos of the plant and animal species observed by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, along with journal excerpts, historical notes, and references…

  6. Restoring susceptibility induced MRI signal loss in rat brain at 9.4 T: A step towards whole brain functional connectivity imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupeng Li

    Full Text Available The aural cavity magnetic susceptibility artifact leads to significant echo planar imaging (EPI signal dropout in rat deep brain that limits acquisition of functional connectivity fcMRI data. In this study, we provide a method that recovers much of the EPI signal in deep brain. Needle puncture introduction of a liquid-phase fluorocarbon into the middle ear allows acquisition of rat fcMRI data without signal dropout. We demonstrate that with seeds chosen from previously unavailable areas, including the amygdala and the insular cortex, we are able to acquire large scale networks, including the limbic system. This tool allows EPI-based neuroscience and pharmaceutical research in rat brain using fcMRI that was previously not feasible.

  7. FKBP5 and specific microRNAs via glucocorticoid receptor in the basolateral amygdala involved in the susceptibility to depressive disorder in early adolescent stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Wang, Rui; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Dexiang; Jiang, Hong; Pan, Fang

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to stressful events induces depressive-like symptoms and increases susceptibility to depression. However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Studies reported that FK506 binding protein51 (FKBP5), the co-chaperone protein of glucocorticoid receptors (GR), plays a crucial role. Further, miR-124a and miR-18a are involved in the regulation of FKBP5/GR function. However, few studies have referred to effects of early life stress on depressive-like behaviours, GR and FKBP5, as well as miR-124a and miR-18a in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) from adolescence to adulthood. This study aimed to examine the dynamic alternations of depressive-like behaviours, GR and FKBP5, as well as miR-124a and miR-18a expressions in the BLA of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats and dexamethasone administration rats during the adolescent period. Meanwhile, the GR antagonist, RU486, was used as a means of intervention. We found that CUMS and dexamethasone administration in the adolescent period induced permanent depressive-like behaviours and memory impairment, decreased GR expression, and increased FKBP5 and miR-124a expression in the BLA of both adolescent and adult rats. However, increased miR-18a expression in the BLA was found only in adolescent rats. Depressive-like behaviours were positively correlated with the level of miR-124a, whereas GR levels were negatively correlated with those in both adolescent and adult rats. Our results suggested FKBP5/GR and miR-124a in the BLA were associated with susceptibility to depressive disorder in the presence of stressful experiences in early life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of the immunomodulator, VGX-1027, in endotoxin-induced uveitis in Lewis ratsTumor necrosis factor-alpha binding capacity and anti-infliximab antibodies measured by fluid-phase radioimmunoassays as predictors of clinical efficacy of infliximab in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangano, K.; Sardesai, N.Y.; Quattrocchi, C.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: VGX-1027 is a novel, low molecular weight, immunomodulatory compound that has shown efficacy against a variety of immuno-inflammatory disease models in animals including autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice, collagen-induced arthritis and chemically induced inflammatory colitis...... with VGX-1027 counteracts the uveitis-inducing effect of LPS in rats and suggests that this drug may have potential in the treatment of immuno-inflammatory conditions of the eye in humans Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11....... Here, we have studied the effects of VGX-1027 on the development of endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in male Lewis rats, as a model of inflammatory ocular diseases in humans. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: EIU was induced by a single footpad injection of 200 microg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Groups of rats were......, immunological and histological signs of EIU. KEY RESULTS: The rats treated with VGX-1027 within 6 h after LPS challenge exhibited milder clinical, histological and laboratory signs of EIU than those treated with vehicle. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: This study provides the first evidence that systemic treatment...

  9. Diabetes increases the susceptibility to acute kidney injury after myocardial infarction through augmented activation of renal Toll-like receptors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Kouhei; Kuno, Atsushi; Murase, Hiromichi; Muratsubaki, Shingo; Miki, Takayuki; Tanno, Masaya; Yano, Toshiyuki; Ishikawa, Satoko; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Miura, Tetsuji

    2017-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) after acute myocardial infarction (MI) worsens the prognosis of MI patients. Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor of AKI after MI, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we examined the roles of renal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the impact of DM on AKI after MI. MI was induced by coronary artery ligation in Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats, a rat DM model, and Long-Evans-Tokushima-Otsuka (LETO) rats, nondiabetic controls. Sham-operated rats served as no-MI controls. Renal mRNA levels of TLR2 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) were significantly higher in sham-operated OLETF rats than in sham-operated LETO rats, although levels of TLR1, TLR3, and TLR4 were similar. At 12 h after MI, protein levels of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in the kidney were elevated by 5.3- and 4.0-fold, respectively, and their mRNA levels were increased in OLETF but not LETO rats. The increased KIM-1 and NGAL expression levels after MI in the OLETF kidney were associated with upregulated expression of TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, IL-6, TNF-α, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, and transforming growth factor-β 1 and also with activation of p38 MAPK, JNK, and NF-κB. Cu-CPT22, a TLR1/TLR2 antagonist, administered before MI significantly suppressed MI-induced upregulation of KIM-1, TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 levels and activation of NF-κB, whereas NGAL levels and IL-6 and TNF-α expression levels were unchanged. The results suggest that DM increases the susceptibility to AKI after acute MI by augmented activation of renal TLRs and that TLR1/TLR2-mediated signaling mediates KIM-1 upregulation after MI. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first report to demonstrate the involvement of Toll-like recpetors (TLRs) in diabetes-induced susceptibility to acute kidney injury after acute myocardial infarction. We propose that the TLR1/TLR2

  10. Differential expression of cytochrome P450 genes between bromadiolone-resistant and anticoagulant-susceptible Norway rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude Kjær; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    Background: Anticoagulant resistance in Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus (Berk.), has been suggested to be conferred by mutations in the VKORC1 gene, encoding the target protein of anticoagulant rodenticides. Other factors, e.g. pharmacokinetics, may also contribute to resistance, however. To examine......, Cyp3a2 and Cyp3a3 genes. On exposure to bromadiolone, females had higher Cyp2e1 expression than males, which possibly explains why female rats are generally more tolerant to anticoagulants than male rats. Conclusion: results suggest that bromadiolone resistance in a Danish strain of Norway rats...

  11. Unruly Woman: An Interview with Helen Lewis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Lori; Collins, Erica S.; Deal, Amanda; Hancock, Ron; McGraw, Kristyn; Lewis, Helen

    2000-01-01

    Overviews the career of Helen Lewis as sociologist, social activist, teacher, writer, researcher, and mentor. Helen Lewis discusses growing up in segregated Georgia, her unorthodox approach to education, her fight for social and economic equality, her instrumental role in the development of Appalachian Studies programs, and how social activism…

  12. Frustrated Lewis pairs: Design and reactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for FLP systems and their unique reactivity are discussed here. Keywords. Lewis .... we will concentrate on the design principles of such. FLPs and the ... Designs of frustrated Lewis pairs ..... 64 and neutral titanium (III) complex [Cp2TiOC6.

  13. Quantification of Lewis acid induced Brønsted acidity of protogenic Lewis bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathem, A Paige; Heiden, Zachariah M

    2017-05-09

    Proton transfer promoted by the coordination of protogenic Lewis bases to a Lewis acid is a critical step in catalytic transformations. Although the acidification of water upon coordination to a Lewis acid has been known for decades, no attempts have been made to correlate the Brønsted acidity of the coordinated water molecule with Lewis acid strength. To probe this effect, the pK a 's (estimated error of 1.3 pK a units) in acetonitrile of ten protogenic Lewis bases coordinated to seven Lewis acids containing Lewis acidities varying 70 kcal mol -1 , were computed. To quantify Lewis acid strength, the ability to transfer a hydride (hydride donor ability) from the respective main group hydride was used. Coordination of a Lewis acid to water increased the acidity of the bound water molecule between 20 and 50 pK a units. A linear correlation exhibiting a 2.6 pK a unit change of the Lewis acid-water adduct per ten kcal mol -1 change in hydride donor ability of the respective main group hydride was obtained. For the ten protogenic Lewis bases studied, the coordinated protogenic Lewis bases were acidified between 10 and 50 pK a units. On average, a ten kcal mol -1 change in hydride donor ability of the respective main group hydride resulted in about a 2.8 pK a unit change in the Brønsted acidity of the Lewis acid-Lewis base adducts. Since attempts to computationally investigate the pK a of main group dihydrogen complexes were unsuccessful, experimental determination of the first reported pK a of a main group dihydrogen complex is described. The pK a of H 2 -B(C 6 F 5 ) 3 was determined to be 5.8 ± 0.2 in acetonitrile.

  14. Activation of sorbitol pathway in metabolic syndrome and increased susceptibility to cataract in Wistar-Obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Paduru Yadagiri; Giridharan, Nappan Veettil; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem worldwide, and of late, epidemiological studies indicate a preponderance of cataracts under obesity conditions. Although cataract is a multifactorial disorder and various biochemical mechanisms have been proposed, the influence of obesity on cataractogenesis has yet to be investigated. In such a scenario, a suitable animal model that develops cataract following the onset of obesity will be a welcome tool for biomedical research. Therefore, we investigated the molecular and biochemical basis for predisposition to cataract in the obese mutant rat models established in our institute because 15%-20% of these rats develop cataracts spontaneously as they reach 12-15 months of age. We analyzed the major biochemical pathways in the normal lenses of different age groups of our obese mutant rat strains, Wistar/Obese (WNIN/Ob) and WNIN/GR-Ob, the former with euglycemia and the latter with an additional impaired glucose tolerance trait. In addition, sorbitol levels were estimated in the cataractous lenses of the obese rats. Except for the polyol pathway, all the principal pathways of the lens remained unaltered. Therefore, sorbitol levels were found to be high in the normal eye lenses of obese rats (WNIN/Ob and WNIN/GR-Ob) compared to their lean controls from three months of age onwards. Between WNIN/Ob and WNIN/GR-Ob, the levels of sorbitol were higher in the latter, suggesting a synergistic effect of impaired glucose tolerance along with obesity in the activation of the sorbitol pathway. Either way, an elevated sorbitol pathway seemed to be the predisposing factor responsible for cataract formation in these mutant rats. Activation of the sorbitol pathway indeed enhances the risk of cataract development in conditions such as metabolic syndrome. These rat models thus may be valuable tools for investigating obesity-associated cataract and for developing intervention strategies, based on these findings.

  15. Effects of maternal high-fat diet and sedentary lifestyle on susceptibility of adult offspring to ozone exposure in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that obesity exacerbates the health effects of air pollutants such as ozone (O3). Maternal inactivity and calorically rich diets lead to offspring that show signs of obesity. Exacerbated O3 susceptibility of offspring could thus be m...

  16. AGING AND LIFE-STAGE SUSCEPTIBILITY: TOLUENE EFFECTS ON BRAIN OXIDATIVE STRESS PARAMETERS IN BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to test whether oxidative stress (OS) is a potential toxicity pathway following toluene exposure and to determine if these effects are age-dependent. We ...

  17. Comparative study of activities in reactive oxygen species production/defense system in mitochondria of rat brain and liver, and their susceptibility to methylmercury toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, N.; Hirayama, K. [Kumamoto University, School of Health Science, Kumamoto (Japan); Yasutake, A. [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    The involvement of oxidative stress has been suggested as a mechanism for neurotoxicity caused by methylmercury (MeHg), but the mechanism for MeHg selective toxicity in the central nervous system is still unclear. In this research, to clarify the mechanism of selective neurotoxicity caused by MeHg, the oxygen consumption levels, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rates and several antioxidant levels in mitochondria were compared among the cerebrum, cerebellum and liver of male Wistar rats. In addition, the alterations of these indexes were examined in MeHg-intoxicated rats (oral administration of 10 mg/kg day, for 5 days). Although the cerebrum and cerebellum in intact rats showed higher mitochondrial oxygen consumption levels and ROS production rates than the liver, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were much lower in the cerebrum and cerebellum than in the liver. Especially, the cerebellum showed the highest oxygen consumption and ROS production rate and the lowest mitochondrial glutathione (GSH) levels among the tissues examined. In the MeHg-treated rats, decrease in the oxygen consumption and increase in the ROS generation were found only in the cerebellum mitochondria, despite a lower Hg accumulation in the mitochondrial fraction compared to the liver. Since MeHg treatment produced an enhancement of ROS generation in cerebellum mitochondria supplemented with succinate substrates, MeHg-induced oxidative stress might affect the complex II-III mediated pathway in the electron transfer chain in the cerebellum mitochondria. Our study suggested that inborn factors, high production system activity and low defense system activity of ROS in the brain, would relate to the high susceptibility of the central nervous system to MeHg toxicity. (orig.)

  18. Differential expression of cytochrome P450 genes between bromadiolone-resistant and anticoagulant-susceptible Norway rats:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    Anticoagulant resistance in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) has been suggested to be due to mutations in the VKORC1 gene, encoding the target protein of anticoagulant rodenticides such as warfarin and bromadiolone. Other factors, e.g. pharmacokinetics, may however also contribute to resistance. We...... that bromadiolone resistance in Norway rats involves enhanced anticoagulant clearance and metabolism catalyzed by specific cytochrome P450 enzymes, such as Cyp2e1, Cyp3a2 and Cyp3a3. This pharmacokinetically based resistance varies to some extend between the genders....

  19. Nitrile ylides: diastereoselective cycloadditions using chiral oxazolidinones without Lewis acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Soeta, Takahiro; Jasperse, Craig P

    2009-12-03

    Lewis acid complexation is generally required for chiral-auxiliary-controlled stereoselectivity, and chiral Lewis acid catalysis is frequently optimal for introducing asymmetry. In this work, we show that nitrile ylide cycloadditions to electron-poor acceptors attached to chiral auxiliaries proceed in high yield and stereoselectivity in the absence of Lewis acids. In contrast, chiral Lewis acids are inferior in these cycloadditions.

  20. SSTI- Lewis Spacecraft Nickel-Hydrogen Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, R. F.

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: NASA-Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative (SSTI) objectives, SSTI-Lewis overview, battery requirement, two cells Common Pressure Vessel (CPV) design summary, CPV electric performance, battery design summary, battery functional description, battery performance.

  1. Edward B Lewis (1918–2004)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Ed Lewis spent his life working on the genetics of Dro- sophila with ... bithorax mutations, in which organs that control balance ... His pioneering work on homeotic genes induced ... a close and cooperative family within the larger scientific.

  2. Effect of endurance training on seizure susceptibility, behavioral changes and neuronal damage after kainate-induced status epilepticus in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchekalarova, J; Shishmanova, M; Atanasova, D; Stefanova, M; Alova, L; Lazarov, N; Georgieva, K

    2015-11-02

    The therapeutic efficacy of regular physical exercises in an animal model of epilepsy and depression comorbidity has been confirmed previously. In the present study, we examined the effects of endurance training on susceptibility to kainate (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE), behavioral changes and neuronal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male SHRs were randomly divided into two groups. One group was exercised on a treadmill with submaximal loading for four weeks and the other group was sedentary. Immediately after the training period, SE was evoked in half of the sedentary and trained rats by KA, while the other half of the two groups received saline. Basal systolic (SP), diastolic (DP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) of all rats were measured at the beginning and at the end of the training period. Anxiety, memory and depression-like behaviour were evaluated a month after SE. The release of 5-HT in the hippocampus was measured using a liquid scintillation method and neuronal damage was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. SP and MAP of exercised SHRs decreased in comparison with the initial values. The increased resistance of SHRs to KA-induced SE was accompanied by an elongated latent seizure-free period, improved object recognition memory and antidepressant effect after the training program. While the anticonvulsant and positive behavioral effects of endurance training were accompanied by an increase of 5-HT release in the hippocampus, it did not exert neuroprotective activity. Our results indicate that prior exercise is an effective means to attenuate KA-induced seizures and comorbid behavioral changes in a model of hypertension and epilepsy suggesting a potential influence of hippocampal 5-HT on a comorbid depression. However, this beneficial impact does not prevent the development of epilepsy and concomitant brain damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Slovene critics on Sinclair Lewis's novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Avsenak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the reception of Sinclair Lewis's novels by Slovene critics. Initially, the article focuses on the life and workof Sinclair Lewis, giving special emphasis to social influences that made the author a representative figure in the literary and social world. Thus his works are nowadays to be understood primarily as fiction, but on the other hand also as sociological documents of a social and political situation of the period between the two world wars. Generally, the effect they produce is one of a critical discussion of the nation of the United States. When speaking of the social relevance that Lewis's novels have, it is obvious that his works are the portrayals of Americans and their deficiencies. At the time of their publication Lewis's novels received unfavourable criticism on accountof his overly open pro-European attitude and Slovene critics of the period before World War II emphasise this in much detail. It was precisely this anti-American propaganda in the novels themselves and sincerity on the part of the novelist that won the European critics as well as the readers whenit came to appreciating his works. However, Lewis's view of the Americans, as presented throughout his works, only enhanced his literary credibility as a modern writer. That is why the articles by Slovene critics that appeared after the Second World War, and even more significantly after Lewis's death, almost minutely reflect a more favourable attitude to Sinclair Lewis, which was also the case with foreign literary criticism of the post-war period. Critics still discuss the qualities and flaws of Lewis's novels, but being more lenient they no longer profess that the novels lack in artistic value. They remain, however, primarily relevant as social documents of the pre- and post-war era, which fully presented the American middle-class mentality in America and elsewhere. For this reason, the Nobel Prize for Literature awarded to

  4. Intrauterine low-functional programming of IGF1 by prenatal nicotine exposure mediates the susceptibility to osteoarthritis in female adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Kai; Zhang, Xianrong; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liaobin

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether female adult offspring born with intrauterine growth retardation induced by prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) are susceptible to osteoarthritis (OA) and to explore the underlying programming mechanisms. Pregnant rats were treated with nicotine or saline at 2.0 mg/kg/d from gestational d 11 to 20. The female adult offspring with or without PNE were forced with a strenuous treadmill running for 6 wk to induce OA. Nicotine's effects on fetal articular chondrocytes were studied by exposing chondrocytes to nicotine for 10 d, and dihydro-β-erythroidine, a selective α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) inhibitor, was used to identify the change of nicotine's effect. For adult offspring, increased cartilage destruction and accelerated OA progression were observed in the PNE group with running; the expression of α1 chain of type II collagen (Col2A1), aggrecan, SRY-type high mobility group box 9 (Sox9), and IGF1 signaling molecules in the cartilage of PNE offspring were decreased. For fetuses, elevated serum corticosteroid and nicotine levels and suppressed IGF1 levels were observed; expression of Col2A1, aggrecan, Sox9, and IGF1 were reduced. The result of chondrocytes revealed that nicotine impeded the expression of Col2A1, aggrecan, and IGF1; blocking α4β2-nAChR rescued nicotine's suppression. In conclusion, PNE increases the susceptibility of adult offspring to OA; the potential mechanism involves IGF1 low-functional programming in articular cartilage caused directly by the action of nicotine on α4β2-nAChR. © FASEB.

  5. Efficacy of Ceftaroline against Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Exhibiting the Cefazolin High-Inoculum Effect in a Rat Model of Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Truc T.; Nannini, Esteban C.; Tam, Vincent H.; Arias, Cesar A.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Certain Staphylococcus aureus strains exhibit an inoculum effect (InE) with cefazolin (CFZ) that has been associated with therapeutic failures in high-inoculum infections. We assessed the in vitro activities of ceftaroline (CPT), CFZ, and nafcillin (NAF) against 17 type A β-lactamase (βla)-producing, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains, including the previously reported TX0117, which exhibits the CFZ InE, and its βla-cured derivative, TX0117c. Additionally, we determined the pharmacokinetics of CPT in rats after single intramuscular doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg of body weight and evaluated the activities of CPT (40 mg/kg every 8 h [q8h]), CFZ, and NAF against TX0117 and TX0117c in a rat model of infective endocarditis. No InE was observed for CPT or NAF, whereas a marked InE was detected for CFZ (MIC, 8 to ≥128 μg/ml). CPT and NAF treatment against TX0117 resulted in mean bacterial counts of 2.3 and 2.1 log10 CFU/g in vegetations, respectively, compared to a mean of 5.9 log10 CFU/g in the CFZ-treated group (CPT and NAF versus CFZ, P = 0.001; CPT versus NAF, P = 0.9830). Both CFZ and CPT were efficacious against the βla-cured derivative, TX0117c, compared to time zero (t0) (P = <0.0001 and 0.0015, respectively). Our data reiterate the in vivo consequences of the CFZ InE and show that CPT is not affected by this phenomenon. CPT might be considered for high-inoculum infections caused by MSSA exhibiting the CFZ InE. PMID:28483961

  6. Efficacy of Ceftaroline against Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Exhibiting the Cefazolin High-Inoculum Effect in a Rat Model of Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavindra V; Tran, Truc T; Nannini, Esteban C; Tam, Vincent H; Arias, Cesar A; Murray, Barbara E

    2017-07-01

    Certain Staphylococcus aureus strains exhibit an inoculum effect (InE) with cefazolin (CFZ) that has been associated with therapeutic failures in high-inoculum infections. We assessed the i n vitro activities of ceftaroline (CPT), CFZ, and nafcillin (NAF) against 17 type A β-lactamase (βla)-producing, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains, including the previously reported TX0117, which exhibits the CFZ InE, and its βla-cured derivative, TX0117c. Additionally, we determined the pharmacokinetics of CPT in rats after single intramuscular doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg of body weight and evaluated the activities of CPT (40 mg/kg every 8 h [q8h]), CFZ, and NAF against TX0117 and TX0117c in a rat model of infective endocarditis. No InE was observed for CPT or NAF, whereas a marked InE was detected for CFZ (MIC, 8 to ≥128 μg/ml). CPT and NAF treatment against TX0117 resulted in mean bacterial counts of 2.3 and 2.1 log 10 CFU/g in vegetations, respectively, compared to a mean of 5.9 log 10 CFU/g in the CFZ-treated group (CPT and NAF versus CFZ, P = 0.001; CPT versus NAF, P = 0.9830). Both CFZ and CPT were efficacious against the βla-cured derivative, TX0117c, compared to time zero ( t 0 ) ( P = InE and show that CPT is not affected by this phenomenon. CPT might be considered for high-inoculum infections caused by MSSA exhibiting the CFZ InE. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region, but not the dentate gyrus, are susceptible to oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Gun Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes on antioxidant-like protein-1 immunoreactivity, protein carbonyl levels, and malondialdehyde formation, a marker for lipid peroxidation, in the hippocampus. For this study, streptozotocin (75 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected into adult rats to induce type 1 diabetes. The three experimental parameters were determined at 2, 3, 4 weeks after streptozotocin treatment. Fasting blood glucose levels significantly increased by 20.7-21.9 mM after streptozotocin treatment. The number of antioxidant-like protein-1 immunoreactive neurons significantly decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region, but not the dentate gyrus, 3 weeks after streptozotocin treatment compared to the control group. Malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels, which are modified by oxidative stress, significantly increased with a peak at 3 weeks after malondialdehyde treatment, and then decreased 4 weeks after malondialdehyde treatment. These results suggest that neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region, but not the dentate gyrus, are susceptible to oxidative stress 3 weeks after malondialdehyde treatment.

  8. Differential susceptibilities of Holtzman and Sprague-Dawley rats to fetal death and placental dysfunction induced by 2,3,7,8-teterachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) despite the identical primary structure of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Takashige; Ishimura, Ryuta; Nohara, Keiko; Takeda, Ken; Tohyama, Chiharu; Ohsako, Seiichiroh

    2006-01-01

    A single oral dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioin (TCDD) administered to pregnant Holtzman (HLZ) rats on gestational days 15 (GD15) caused placental dysfunction, resulting in fetal death (Ishimura, R., Ohsako, S., Miyabara, Y., Sakaue, M., Kawakami, T., Aoki, Y., Yonemoto, J., Tohyama, C., 2002a. Increased glycogen content and glucose transporter 3 mRNA level in the placenta of Holtzman rats after exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 178, 161-171; Ishimura, R., Ohsako, S., Kawakami, T., Sakaue, M., Aoki, Y., Tohyama, C., 2002b. Altered protein profile and possible hypoxia in the placenta of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-exposed rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185, 197-206). In order to investigate the mechanism underlying the TCDD-induced fetal death, we compared two outbred strains of rats, namely, the HLZ and the Sprague-Dawley International Genetic Standard rats (SD-IGS), a strain with characteristics resembling those of the HLZ rats. Pregnant HLZ and SD-IGS rats were administered TCDD as a single dose by gavage on GD15, as described within the parentheses (HLZ, 0, 1.6 μg TCDD/kg; SD-IGS, 0, 2, 5, 10 μg TCDD/kg). Whereas a high incidence (14%) of fetal death was observed on GD20 in the HLZ rats, no fetal deaths occurred in the SD-IGS rats, even at the highest dose of TCDD. A histological marker of cellular abnormality at the placental junctional zone, i.e., delay in the disappearance of the glycogen cells and cysts filled with an eosinophilic material (GC-EM), which normally disappear by GD20, was observed in the HLZ rats after exposure to the lowest dose of TCDD (1.6 μg TCDD/kg), but not in the SD-IGS rats even after exposure to the highest dose of TCDD. Furthermore, maternal blood sinusoids in the labyrinth zone were constricted following exposure to TCDD in the HLZ, but not SD-IGS rats. These observations indicate that HLZ rats are more susceptible to the adverse effects of TCDD on fetal growth and

  9. Susceptibility or resilience? Prenatal stress predisposes male rats to social subordination, but facilitates adaptation to subordinate status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen A; de Kloet, Annette D; Smeltzer, Michael D; Krause, Eric G; Flak, Jonathan N; Melhorn, Susan J; Foster, Michelle T; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-09-01

    Mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) affect a significant proportion of the population. Although progress has been made in the development of therapeutics, a large number of individuals do not attain full remission of symptoms and adverse side effects affect treatment compliance for some. In order to develop new therapies, there is a push for new models that better reflect the multiple risk factors that likely contribute to the development of depressive illness. We hypothesized that early life stress would exacerbate the depressive-like phenotype that we have previously observed in socially subordinate (SUB) adult male rats in the visible burrow system (VBS), a semi-natural, ethologically relevant environment in which males in a colony form a dominance hierarchy. Dams were exposed to chronic variable stress (CVS) during the last week of gestation, resulting in a robust and non-habituating glucocorticoid response that did not alter maternal food intake, body weight or litter size and weight. As adults, one prenatal CVS (PCVS) and one non-stressed (NS) male were housed in the VBS with adult females. Although there were no overt differences between PCVS and NS male offspring prior to VBS housing, a greater percentage of PCVS males became SUB. However, the depressive-like phenotype of SUB males was not exacerbated in PCVS males; rather, they appeared to better cope with SUB status than NS SUB males. They had lower basal plasma corticosterone than NS SUB males at the end of VBS housing. In situ hybridization for CRH in the PVN and CeA did not reveal any prenatal treatment or status effects, while NPY expression was higher within the MeA of dominant and subordinate males exposed to the VBS in comparison with controls, but with no effect of prenatal treatment. These data suggest that prenatal chronic variable stress may confer resilience to offspring when exposed to social stress in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Complexation of Nitrous Oxide by Frustrated Lewis Pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Edwin; Neu, Rebecca C.; Stephan, Douglas W.

    2009-01-01

    Frustrated Lewis pairs comprised of a basic yet sterically encumbered phosphine with boron Lewis acids bind nitrous oxide to give intact PNNOB linkages. The synthesis, structure, and bonding of these species are described.

  11. Fish oil versus arachis oil food supplementation in relation to pregnancy duration in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout pregnancy, Lewis rats were fed standard rat chow supplemented with 15% (w/w) of either MaxEPA fish oil (FO) or arachis oil (AO); a third group was fed standard rat chow only (St) (n = 15, 15, and 16 rats, respectively). Compared to AO-rats, FO-rats had substantially higher levels of n-3...

  12. One hundred years of Lewis Chemical Bond!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-20

    Sep 20, 2016 ... was a conceptual quantum jump, coming more than a decade ahead of ... did use a 'cubic model of atoms' with eight electrons in their corners, he realized that ... started referring to these advances as Lewis-Langmuir theory.

  13. Playing around in Lewis Carroll's "Alice" Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susina, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Mathematician Charles Dodgson's love of play and his need for rules came together in his use of popular games as part of the structure of the two famous children's books, "Alice in Wonderland" and "Through the Looking-Glass," he wrote under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll. The author of this article looks at the interplay between…

  14. The Critical Reception of Lewis Nordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2010-01-01

    The essay covers the critical reception of Mississippi-writer Lewis Nordan from his debut in 1983 to the boost in scholarly attention in the new millennium. The essay covers newspaper reviews but pays particular attention to the many academic essays that have placed Nordan as a writer...

  15. Lewis acid controlled regioselectivity in styrene hydrocyanation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bini, L.; Pidko, E.A.; Müller, C.; Santen, van R.A.; Vogt, D.

    2009-01-01

    According to present knowledge, the Ni-catalyzed hydrocyanation of styrene leads predominantly to the branched product 2-phenylpropionitrile (98%). We observed a dramatic inversion of the regioselectivity upon addition of a Lewis acid. Up to 83 % of the linear product 3-phenylpropionitrile was

  16. Frustrated Lewis pairs-assisted tritium labeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, Aleš; Široká, Sabina; Elbert, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2016), s. 219 ISSN 2336-7202. [Sjezd českých a slovenských chemických společností /68./. 04.09.2016-07.09.2016, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : frustrated Lewis pairs * one-pot synthesis * tritium -labeling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  17. Teaching Beginning Chemistry Students Simple Lewis Dot Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiff, Peter; Czerwinski, Wendy A.

    2015-01-01

    Students beginning their initial study of chemistry often have a difficult time mastering simple Lewis dot structures. Textbooks show students how to manipulate Lewis structures by moving valence electron dots around the chemical structure so each atom has an octet or duet. However, an easier method of teaching Lewis structures for simple…

  18. Freqüências relativas dos fenótipos eritrocitários ABO e Lewis na doença de Jorge Lobo Frequencies of ABO and Lewis blood groups in Jorge Lobo's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane A. Silva

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Jorge Lobo é uma micose de evolução crônica, causada pelo Lacazia loboi. Os mecanismos envolvidos na suscetibilidade/resistência do hospedeiro frente ao agente não estão ainda elucidados, dentre eles encontra-se a constituição genética. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a distribuição dos grupos sangüíneos ABO e Lewis de pacientes com doença de Jorge Lobo em relação à população geral. Foram analisados 13 pacientes provenientes do estado do Acre, 60 indivíduos da região de Bauru (SP não acometidos pela doença em estudo (grupo controle Lewis e 2.673 doadores do Banco de Sangue da cidade de Rio Branco (AC como grupo controle ABO. As presenças dos antígenos eritrocitários foram determinadas pela reação de aglutinação em tubo através dos soros anti-AB, anti-A e anti-B para o fenótipo ABO e dos soros anti-Lewis a e Lewis b para fenotipagem Lewis. As freqüências fenotípicas Lewis e ABO nos pacientes e nos controles são, respectivamente: Le (a- b+ = 54,0% X 72,0%, Le (a+ b- = 15,0% X 6,0%, Le (a- b- = 31,0% X 22,0% ; A =15,4% X 33,6%, B = 30,8% X 10,8%, O = 53,8% X 52,9%, AB = 0 X 2,7%. Embora não tenhamos encontrado resultados estatisticamente significantes, nossos achados sugerem existir suscetibilidade à doença de Jorge Lobo em indivíduos com fenótipo B e com menor freqüência fenotípica Lewis b, conferindo assim um grau de importância epidemiológica como grupo de risco naquele meio ambiente.Jorge Lobo's disease is a mycosis with chronic evolution caused by the fungus Lacazia loboi. The mechanisms involved in host resistance and susceptibility to the agent, including aspects relating to the genetic background, are still not clear. The objective of the present study, therefore, is to evaluate the ABO and Lewis blood group distributions in Jorge Lobo's disease patients compared to the general population. Thirteen patients from Acre state, 60 healthy individuals (Lewis control group

  19. Short post-weaning social isolation induces long-term changes in the dopaminergic system and increases susceptibility to psychostimulants in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Carine; Arcego, Danusa Mar; de Sá Couto-Pereira, Natividade; Dos Santos Vieira, Aline; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Krolow, Rachel; Garcia, Emily; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Calcagnotto, Maria Elisa; Dalmaz, Carla

    2017-10-01

    Childhood and adolescence are sensitive periods of development, marked by high brain maturation and plasticity. Exposure to early life stress, such as social isolation, is able to prompt changes in sensitive brain circuitries, essentially in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and increase the risk for addictive behaviors later in life. Post-weaning social isolation can stimulate the consumption of rewarding substances, like drugs of abuse and palatable foods. However, most studies analyze long periods of social isolation and very little is known about the effects of a brief social isolation in a sensitive period of development and its association with palatable food on the reward system sensitization. Furthermore, females are more susceptible to the reinforcing effect of drugs than males. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a short post-weaning social isolation combined with a free access to a chronic high sugar diet (HSD) on the dopaminergic system, oxidative status and behavioral response to an amphetamine-like drug in adulthood. We used female Wistar rats that were socially isolated from post-natal days (PD) 21 to 35 and received free access to a HSD until PD 60. On PD 65, animals were submitted to a challenge with diethylpropion (DEP), an amphetamine-like drug and different responses were analyzed: locomotor activity, immmunocontent of dopamine related proteins, and the oxidative status in the striatum, before and after the DEP challenge. We showed that a short post-weaning social isolation (SI) increased the locomotor response to DEP, when compared with previous saline administration. Social isolation also increased dopamine transporter, tyrosine hydroxylase, and decreased dopamine D2 receptor immunocontent. Additionally, SI increased the overall oxidative status parameters after the challenge with DEP. Interestingly, the exposure to a HSD prevented the SI effects on locomotor response, but did not interfere in the dopaminergic

  20. A Biography of Distinguished Scientist Gilbert Newton Lewis (by Edward S. Lewis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Reviewed By Harold H.

    1999-11-01

    The Edward Mellen Press: Lewiston, NY, 1998. 114 pp + index. ISBN 0-7734-8284-9. $69.95. There may not be a surname better known to students of chemistry than Lewis, from the Lewis electron-dot diagrams and the Lewis theory of acids and bases. More advanced students may know of the groundbreaking textbook Thermodynamics, by Lewis and Randall. Yet few Americans know much about this remarkable U.S.-born scholar, whose contributions equal those of the greatest scientists. He is a chemist-educator of whom we should be as proud and as well informed as we are of Linus Pauling, who was part of the westward movement of science in this country that G. N. Lewis began, or of the recently deceased Glenn Seaborg, who was one of the many students of Lewis who achieved renown. Gilbert N. Lewis was born in Weymouth, Massachusetts, in 1875, but his family moved to near Lincoln, Nebraska, in 1884. He spent two years at the University of Nebraska, but then moved to Harvard when his father became an executive at Merchants Trust Company in Boston. Young Lewis (then only 17) was also said to have been disappointed with the quality of education in Nebraska, and this may have been part of the impetus for the family's move east. After earning his baccalaureate at Harvard, he taught for a year at Phillips Andover Academy before returning to Harvard to study for his doctorate, which he completed 100 years ago, in 1899, under T. W. Richards. Lewis's doctoral work was on the thermodynamics of zinc and cadmium amalgams. At that time, physical chemistry was only beginning to achieve recognition as a branch of science, and its boundaries were ill defined. Edward Lewis quotes his father as often saying, "Physical chemistry is anything interesting." Like many chemists of his time, Lewis went to Europe to complete his preparation for a career; he was in the laboratories of Ostwald in Leipzig and Nernst in Göttingen in 1900-1901. On his return to the United States, he was an instructor at Harvard

  1. C. S. Lewis: The Romantic Rationalist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliu Daniela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper “C. S. Lewis: The Romantic Rationalist” presents the way C. S. Lewis gives an account in his first fictional (allegorical book, The Pilgrim’s Regress, of how he discovered Christianity on the converging paths of romanticism and rationalism. The outstanding scholar and author whose intellectual and spiritual development has turned him into one of the most influential Christian writers of the twentieth century became an atheist in his teens and after a long journey through different philosophical convictions he converted to Christianity in his early thirties, a change that affected his entire work. His love of literature was essential in discovering both the rational and the imaginative appeal of Christianity, which led him into a vision of the reality of the world and of life that satisfied the longing of his heart and the hunger of his imagination.

  2. Capgras' syndrome in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantz, Andrew G; Verghese, Joe

    2002-01-01

    We report the occurrence of Capgras' syndrome, or the delusion of doubles, in a patient with dementia with Lewy bodies. The patient believed that several similar-looking impostors had replaced his wife of over 50 years. Uncharacteristically, he adopted a friendly attitude with these impostors. This unusual convivial reaction to the impostors may result from differential involvement of the dual visual pathways processing facial recognition and emotional responses to faces. The delusion resolved spontaneously, coincident with worsening of the dementia. In a retrospective chart review of 18 autopsy-confirmed cases of dementia with Lewy bodies, delusions were reported in 5 subjects (27.8%), of whom 1 had misidentification delusions much like Capgras' syndrome.

  3. Rendezvous, un juego de Lewis Carroll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Sánchez Muñoz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Todos en mayor o menor medida asociamos el nombre de Lewis Carrolla la literatura, sobre todo a la de temática infantil, con títulos a sus espaldas como Alicia en el País de las Maravillas, Alicia a través del espejo, o La Caza del Snark. Pero además de literato, Lewis Carrol fue un hombre con bastantes inquietudes en torno a la matemática, la lógica y el pensamiento filosófico. Pero no todo el mundo es conocedor de su faceta como creativo en el campo de los juegos. Rendezvous es una de sus más sorprendentes invenciones,un juego de inteligencia para todos los públicos, cuyas directrices hacen de él un entretenimiento bastante original.

  4. Ermakov–Lewis invariants and Reid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancas, Stefan C., E-mail: stefan.mancas@erau.edu [Department of Mathematics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900 (United States); Rosu, Haret C., E-mail: hcr@ipicyt.edu.mx [IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, 78216 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2014-06-13

    Reid's mth-order generalized Ermakov systems of nonlinear coupling constant α are equivalent to an integrable Emden–Fowler equation. The standard Ermakov–Lewis invariant is discussed from this perspective, and a closed formula for the invariant is obtained for the higher-order Reid systems (m≥3). We also discuss the parametric solutions of these systems of equations through the integration of the Emden–Fowler equation and present an example of a dynamical system for which the invariant is equivalent to the total energy. - Highlights: • Reid systems of order m are connected to Emden–Fowler equations. • General expressions for the Ermakov–Lewis invariants both for m=2 and m≥3 are obtained. • Parametric solutions of the Emden–Fowler equations related to Reid systems are obtained.

  5. Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Roger R.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

  6. Lewis' Educational and Research Collaborative Internship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, Ann; Gott, Susan (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The Lewis Educational and Research Collaborative Internship Program (LERCIP) is a collaborative undertaking by the Office of Educational Programs at NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (formerly NASA Lewis Research Center) and the Ohio Aerospace Institute. This program provides 10-week internships in addition to summer and winter extensions if funding is available and/or is requested by mentor (no less than 1 week no more than 4 weeks) for undergraduate/graduate students and secondary school teachers. Students who meet the travel reimbursement criteria receive up to $500 for travel expenses. Approximately 178 interns are selected to participate in this program each year and begin arriving the fourth week in May. The internships provide students with introductory professional experiences to complement their academic programs. The interns are given assignments on research and development projects under the personal guidance of NASA professional staff members. Each intern is assigned a NASA mentor who facilitates a research assignment. In addition to the research assignment, the summer program includes a strong educational component that enhances the professional stature of the participants. The educational activities include a research symposium and a variety of workshops, and lectures. An important aspect of the program is that it includes students with diverse social, cultural and economic backgrounds. The purpose of this report is to document the program accomplishments for 2004.

  7. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea ... hours depending on the method used. There are commercial tests available that offer rapid susceptibility testing and ...

  8. Prolongation of rat heart allografts by donor-specific blood transfusion treated with ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oluwole, S.F.; Iga, C.; Lau, H.; Hardy, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of donor-specific blood transfusion was compared to that of UVB-irradiated donor-specific blood transfusion on heart allograft survival in inbred rats with major histocompatibility differences. In one series ACI rats received heterotopic heart grafts from Lewis rats and 1 mL transfusion of donor-type blood at 1, 2, and 3 weeks prior to the transplantation. Fifty percent of the grafts were permanently accepted (survival greater than 200 days). Following UVB-irradiated donor-specific blood transfusion, 55% of the grafts survived indefinitely. In a mixed lymphocyte reaction ACI lymphocytes are weak responders to Lewis lymphocytes. In another series, Lewis rats received ACI hearts. Donor-specific transfusions at 1, 2, and 3 weeks prior to transplantation did not significantly alter the survival of heart allografts. Lewis lymphocytes react strongly to ACI stimulator cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. However, when the donor blood was UVB-irradiated prior to transfusion, the ACI allograft survival was significantly prolonged in this ACI-to-Lewis strain combination. When Lewis rats received W/F hearts following either donor-specific or UVB-irradiated donor-specific transfusions, the hearts' survival was similarly and significantly prolonged, but did not become permanent. Mixed lymphocyte reaction reveals that the stimulation index of Lewis lymphocytes against W/F lymphocytes is greater than that of ACI versus Lewis, but is less than that between Lewis responder cells against ACI stimulators

  9. Ablative Material Testing at Lewis Rocket Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The increasing demand for a low-cost, reliable way to launch commercial payloads to low- Earth orbit has led to the need for inexpensive, expendable propulsion systems for new launch vehicles. This, in turn, has renewed interest in less complex, uncooled rocket engines that have combustion chambers and exhaust nozzles fabricated from ablative materials. A number of aerospace propulsion system manufacturers have utilized NASA Lewis Research Center's test facilities with a high degree of success to evaluate candidate materials for application to new propulsion devices.

  10. Susceptibility of adult and senescent brown norway rats to repeated ozone exposure: An assessment of behavior, serum biochemistry and cardiopulmonary function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropospheric ozone (03) is a pervasive air pollutant that produces pulmonary and cardiovascular dysfunction and there is growing evidence suggesting neurological dysfunction as well. Young and old individuals are generally recognized as being susceptible to ozone toxicity; howeve...

  11. Toxicology and metabolism of nickel compounds. Progress report, December 1, 1975--November 30, 1976. [Tests made with rats and hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1976-08-15

    The toxicology and metabolism of nickel compounds (NiCl/sub 2/, Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/, NiS, Ni powder, and Ni(CO)/sub 4/) were investigated in rats and hamsters. Triethylenetetramine (TETA) and d-penicillamine are more effective than other chelating agents (Na-diethyldithiocarbamate, CaNa/sub 2/-versenate, diglycylhistidine-N-methylamide and ..cap alpha..-lipoic acid) as antidotes for acute Ni(II)-toxicity in rats. The antidotal efficacy of triethylenetetramine (TETA) in acute Ni(II)-toxicity is mediated by rapid reduction of the plasma concentration of Ni(II), consistent with renal clearance of the TETA-Ni complex at a rate more than twenty times greater than the renal clearance of non-chelated Ni(II). Fischer rats are more susceptible than other rat strains (Wistar-Lewis, Long-Evans and NIH-Black) to induction of erythrocytosis after an intrarenal injection of Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/, and elucidation of the serial pathologic changes that occur in rats after an intrarenal injection of Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/. When amorphous nickel monosulfide (NiS) and nickel subsulfide (Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/) were administered by im injection to randomly selected Fischer rats in equivalent amounts under identical conditions, NiS did not induce any tumors whereas Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/ induced sarcomas in almost all of the rats.

  12. Interview with Smithsonian NASM Spacesuit Curator Dr. Cathleen Lewis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cathleen; Wright, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Cathleen Lewis was interviewed by Rebecca Wright during the presentation of an "Interview with Smithsonian NASM Spacesuit Curator Dr. Cathleen Lewis" on May 14, 2012. Topics included the care, size, and history of the spacesuit collection at the Smithsonian and the recent move to the state-of-the-art permanent storage facility at the Udvar-Hazy facility in Virginia.

  13. LEWIS BINFORD AND HIS MORAL MAJORITY (Lewis Binford y su mayoría moral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Beck Kehoe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay looks at the late Lewis Binford’s career from the standpoint of sociology of science. His thinking and manner reflect his socialization in Virginia Baptist subculture. As convinced of his authority on science as Jerry Falwell was of his authority on Biblical morality, Lewis Binford and his third wife Sally Rosen Binford excited a group of 1960s students to follow Lewis in an outmoded version of science (hypothetico-deductive and in trusting statistics. The “frames of reference” he laboriously constructed are naïve on environmental interpretation and, because he expressed contempt for “political” aspects of archaeology, fail to take into account effects of colonialism. His work is often scientistic, in the “modern” mode that historian Dorothy Ross describes as characteristic of twentieth-century American social sciences. ESPAÑOL: En este ensayo se analiza la etapa final de la carrera de Lewis Binford desde el punto de vista de la sociología de la ciencia. Su pensamiento refleja su socialización en el seno de la subcultura de la Virginia baptista. Tan convencido de su autoridad en la ciencia como Jerry Falwell lo fuera sobre la moralidad bíblica, Lewis Binford y su tercera esposa Sally Rosen Binford animaron a un grupo estudiantes de los sesenta a seguir a Lewis a través de una versión anticuada de la ciencia (hipotético-deductiva y a confiar en la estadística. Los “marcos de referencia” que laboriosamente construyó son ingenuos en la interpretación del medio ambiente y, como expresó el desprecio por los aspectos “políticos” de la arqueología, no tienen en cuenta los efectos del colonialismo. Su trabajo es a menudo cientificista, en el sentido “moderno” que la historiadora Dorothy Ross describe como una característica de las ciencias sociales norteamericanas del siglo XX.

  14. Nuclear pursuits: The scientific biography of Wilfrid Bennett Lewis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, R.

    1994-01-01

    The scientific life of Wilfrid Bennett Lewis. The biography covers Lewis's role in the development of radar, his tenure as the Chief Superintendent of the Telecommunications Research Establishment at Malvern through his heading of the then fledgling Canadian nuclear research facility in Chalk River, Ontario. Lewis's drive, intelligence, and remarkable organizational skills placed him at the forefront of Canada's nuclear program. His influence lead to a collaboration between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro that ultimately resulted in the development of the CANDU reactor. His influence was also profound in the near by town of Deep River with one prime legacy being the W.B. Lewis Library. Lewis's bibliography is included in the biography

  15. [Clinical Neuropsychology of Dementia with Lewy Bodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) shows lesser memory impairment and more severe visuospatial disability than Alzheimer disease (AD). Although deficits in both consolidation and retrieval underlie the memory impairment, retrieval deficit is predominant in DLB. Visuospatial dysfunctions in DLB are related to the impairments in both ventral and dorsal streams of higher visual information processing, and lower visual processing in V1/V2 may also be impaired. Attention and executive functions are more widely disturbed in DLB than in AD. Imitation of finger gestures is impaired more frequently in DLB than in other mild dementia, and provides additional information for diagnosis of mild dementia, especially for DLB. Pareidolia, which lies between hallucination and visual misperception, is found frequently in DLB, but its mechanism is still under investigation.

  16. Superconducting microwave electronics at Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Joseph D.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Leonard, Regis F.

    Over the last three years, NASA Lewis Research Center has investigated the application of newly discovered high temperature superconductors to microwave electronics. Using thin films of YBa2Cu3O7-delta and Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3Ox deposited on a variety of substrates, including strontium titanate, lanthanum gallate, lanthanum aluminate and magnesium oxide, a number of microwave circuits have been fabricated and evaluated. These include a cavity resonator at 60 GHz, microstrip resonators at 35 GHz, a superconducting antenna array at 35 GHz, a dielectric resonator at 9 GHz, and a microstrip filter at 5 GHz. Performance of some of these circuits as well as suggestions for other applications are reported.

  17. Superconducting Microwave Electronics at Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Joseph D.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Leonard, Regis F.

    1991-01-01

    Over the last three years, NASA Lewis Research Center has investigated the application of newly discovered high temperature superconductors to microwave electronics. Using thin films of YBa2Cu3O7-delta and Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3Ox deposited on a variety of substrates, including strontium titanate, lanthanum gallate, lanthanum aluminate and magnesium oxide, a number of microwave circuits have been fabricated and evaluated. These include a cavity resonator at 60 GHz, microstrip resonators at 35 GHz, a superconducting antenna array at 35 GHz, a dielectric resonator at 9 GHz, and a microstrip filter at 5 GHz. Performance of some of these circuits as well as suggestions for other applications are reported.

  18. Lewis-Sumner syndrome and Tangier disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théaudin, Marie; Couvert, Philippe; Fournier, Emmanuel; Bouige, Daniel; Bruckert, Eric; Perrotte, Paul; Vaschalde, Yvan; Maisonobe, Thierry; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Carrié, Alain; Le Forestier, Nadine

    2008-07-01

    To report unusual electrophysiologic data in a patient with Tangier disease in an effort to better understand the pathophysiologic features of the peripheral nerve lesions in this disease. Case report. A 15-year-old girl had subacute onset of asymmetric neuropathy with persistent conduction block, resembling Lewis-Sumner syndrome. Electrophysiologic data in Tangier disease. After initially unsuccessful treatment with intravenously administered immunoglobulins, the finding of an abnormal lipid profile led to the diagnosis of Tangier disease due to the R587W mutation in the adenotriphosphate-binding cassette transporter-1 gene (ABCA1) (OMIM 9q22-q31). Conduction block, which is the electrophysiologic hallmark of focal demyelination, can be present in Tangier disease. It could be induced by focal nerve ischemia or by preferential lipid deposition in the paranodal regions of myelinated Schwann cells. The presence of a conduction block in Tangier disease may lead to a misdiagnosis of dysimmune neuropathy.

  19. AGING AND LIFE-STAGE SUSCEPTIBILITY: TOLUENE EFFECTS ON PROTEIN CARBONYL CONTENT IN FRONTAL CORTEX AND CEREBELLUM OF BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is poorly understood, largely due to a lack of data on exposures in older adults and adequate animal models. We examined the acute effects of the volatile organic compound, toluene, in a study investigating m...

  20. The effects of stress on alcohol consumption: mild acute and sub-chronic stressors differentially affect apomorphine susceptible and unsusceptible rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kam, E.L. van der; Coolen, J.C.; Ellenbroek, B.A.; Cools, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mild acute and mild sub-chronic challenges on alcohol intake and preference in the genetically selected ratlines of apomorphine susceptible (APO-SUS) and apomorphine unsusceptible (APO-UNSUS) animals. Animals from both lines were subjected to

  1. C. S. Lewis, Reluctant Convert and (not so Ordinary Anglican

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mănăstireanu Dănuţ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After some passing considerations on the reception of Lewis in Romania, the present paper discusses the role played by Anglicanism in the late personal commitment of C.S. Lewis to the Christian faith, after years of atheism, scepticism, and agnosticism. It argues that in fact Anglicanism contributed very little to Lewis’s (reconversion to Christianity. Furthermore, the paper agrees with the generally accepted idea that the particular calling that Lewis felt he had, that of being a Christian apologist, made him wary of being associated with the defence of any specific Christian tradition. In virtue of this special calling, Lewis also reacted quite strongly against certain aspects of Anglicanism, like, for instance, the ordination of women to priesthood, which he perceived as an obstacle to ecumenism and, implicitly, to an effective defence of the Christian faith in the public arena. In spite of all this, there is little doubt that Lewis has fully and unreservedly adopted Anglicanism as his preferred version of Christianity. From this particular stance, the life and ministry of C.S. Lewis made a huge public impact in the twentieth century and beyond. In light of the undeniable influence he had on the intellectual and religious scene in the last hundred years, one may ask not so much how Anglican was Lewis, but, rather, ‘why isn’t Anglicanism more like Lewis’.

  2. Poor sensitization of 50-kHz vocalization response to amphetamine predicts rat susceptibility to self-administration of the drug

    OpenAIRE

    Taracha, Ewa; Kaniuga, Ewelina; Wyszogrodzka, Edyta; P?a?nik, Adam; Stefa?ski, Roman; Chrapusta, Stanis?aw J.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Our previous studies showed promise for using sensitization of the frequency-modulated 50-kHz vocalization response to amphetamine (AMPH) as an index of rat vulnerability to AMPH addiction. Objective This study aimed to test the utility of sensitizing frequency-modulated (FM) 50-kHz vocalization in the AMPH self-administration paradigm as well as the ability of N-acetylcysteine to prevent self-administration relapse. Methods Rats were subjected to the so-called two-injection protoco...

  3. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  4. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low aerobic capacity rats fed an acute high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that low capacity running (LCR) rats fed acute high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with...

  5. NASA Lewis Research Center's materials and structures division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weymueller, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    Research activities at the NASA Lewis Research Center on materials and structures are discussed. Programs are noted on powder metallurgy superalloys, eutectic alloys, dispersion strengthened alloys and composite materials. Discussions are included on materials applications, coatings, fracture mechanics, and fatigue

  6. Is It Lewy Body Dementia or Something Else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Options Join the fight against LBD! Donate Is It LBD or Something Else? Early and accurate diagnosis ... dementia with Lewy bodies’ (DLB). Symptoms that differentiate it from Alzheimer’s include unpredictable levels of cognitive ability, ...

  7. Distance Learning With NASA Lewis Research Center's Learning Technologies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center's Learning Technologies Project (LTP) has responded to requests from local school district technology coordinators to provide content for videoconferencing workshops. Over the past year we have offered three teacher professional development workshops that showcase NASA Lewis-developed educational products and NASA educational Internet sites. In order to determine the direction of our involvement with distance learning, the LTP staff conducted a survey of 500 U.S. schools. We received responses from 72 schools that either currently use distance learning or will be using distance learning in 98-99 school year. The results of the survey are summarized in the article. In addition, the article provides information on distance learners, distance learning technologies, and the NASA Lewis LTP videoconferencing workshops. The LTP staff will continue to offer teacher development workshops through videoconferencing during the 98-99 school year. We hope to add workshops on new educational products as they are developed at NASA Lewis.

  8. I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine Myocardial Scintigraphy in Lewy Body-Related Disorders: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Joo Chung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lewy body-related disorders are characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, which have abnormal aggregations of α-synuclein in the nigral and extranigral areas, including in the heart. 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG scintigraphy is a well-known tool to evaluate cardiac sympathetic denervation in the Lewy body-related disorders. MIBG scintigraphy showed low uptake of MIBG in the Lewy body-related disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, pure autonomic failure and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review summarizes previous results on the diagnostic applications of MIBG scintigraphy in Lewy body-related disorders.

  9. Lewis Research Center space station electric power system test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Martin, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center facilities were developed to support testing of the Space Station Electric Power System. The capabilities and plans for these facilities are described. The three facilities which are required in the Phase C/D testing, the Power Systems Facility, the Space Power Facility, and the EPS Simulation Lab, are described in detail. The responsibilities of NASA Lewis and outside groups in conducting tests are also discussed.

  10. Chiral lewis Acid catalysis in nitrile oxide cycloadditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Itoh, Kennosuke; Jasperse, Craig P

    2004-05-05

    We describe examples of highly regio- and enantioselective nitrile oxide cycloadditions to unsaturated alkenes using substoichiometric amounts of a chiral Lewis acid. Pyrazolidinones proved to be effective achiral templates in the cycloadditions providing C-adducts typically in >30:1 selectivity and 80-99% ee. To avoid potential problems involving coordination of the Lewis acid by amine bases, we have devised a novel method for the generation of unstable nitrile oxides from hydroximinoyl chlorides using Amberlyst 21 as the base.

  11. Tribute to Erwin Felix Lewy-Bertaut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Erwin Lewy (alias Felix Bertaut) was born in 1913 in Germany, he emigrated to France where he undertook graduate studies in chemistry. Then, he joined the powder central laboratory where he learnt how to use international tables for structure determination. His thesis work was the X-ray study of the statistical distribution of the size of iron grains. The method Bertaut developed is still a reference in powder granulometry. Bertaut was also interested in the nascent neutron diffraction method and he flew to the United-States to improve his knowledge on this topic. Felix Bertaut created the neutron diffraction laboratory in the atomic research center in Grenoble and later he headed the CNRS' crystallography laboratory till 1982. Felix Bertaut and his laboratories became internationally renowned in crystallography, neutron diffraction and magnetism. He favored the scientific cooperation between France and Germany that led to the creation of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). The ILL became European and was a key partner for building the European Synchrotron Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble. Bertaut was elected as a full member of the French Academy of Sciences in 1979, he died in 2003. (A.C.)

  12. Lewis Research Center R and D Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) defines and develops advanced technology for high priority national needs. The work of the Center is directed toward new propulsion, power, and communications technologies for application to aeronautics and space, so that U.S. leadership in these areas is ensured. The end product is knowledge, usually in a report, that is made fully available to potential users--the aircraft engine industry, the energy industry, the automotive industry, the space industry, and other NASA centers. In addition to offices and laboratories for almost every kind of physical research in such fields as fluid mechanics, physics, materials, fuels, combustion, thermodynamics, lubrication, heat transfer, and electronics, LeRC has a variety of engineering test cells for experiments with components such as compressors, pumps, conductors, turbines, nozzles, and controls. A number of large facilities can simulate the operating environment for a complete system: altitude chambers for aircraft engines; large supersonic wind tunnels for advanced airframes and propulsion systems; space simulation chambers for electric rockets or spacecraft; and a 420-foot-deep zero-gravity facility for microgravity experiments. Some problems are amenable to detection and solution only in the complete system and at essentially full scale. By combining basic research in pertinent disciplines and generic technologies with applied research on components and complete systems, LeRC has become one of the most productive centers in its field in the world. This brochure describes a number of the facilities that provide LeRC with its exceptional capabilities.

  13. The Rat Homolog of the Schizophrenia Susceptibility Gene ZNF804A Is Highly Expressed during Brain Development, Particularly in Growth Cones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinna, Katja Hvid; Rich, Karen; Fex Svenningsen, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    it decreases towards adult levels. This time point is developmentally the equivalent to the second trimester of fetal development in humans. An exception to this expression pattern is the hippocampus where the expression of Zfp804A appears to increase again in the adult brain. Using laser capture...... developmental mechanisms are suggested in the pathophysiology for schizophrenia, expression of Zfp804A, the rat homolog of ZNF804A, was investigated in the developing rat brain. We found that expression of Zfp804A in most brain regions is developmentally regulated and peaks around birth, where after...... expression was therefore investigated with immunochemistry in such cultures. Interestingly, before day 4, the protein is mostly found in the perinuclear region of the cell but at day 4, ZFP804A was instead found throughout the cell and particularly in the growth cones. In conclusion we demonstrate that Zfp...

  14. Lewy body dementia--clinical, pathological and neurochemical interconnections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R; McKeith, I; Perry, E

    1997-01-01

    Senile dementia of Lewy body type or Lewy body dementia (SDLT or LBD) is defined as a Lewy body associated disease presenting in the elderly primarily with dementia with variable extrapyramidal disorder. Characteristic clinical symptoms include fluctuating cognitive impairment, psychotic features such as hallucinations and a particular sensitivity to neuroleptic medication. Although apolipoprotein e4 allele is increased 2-3 fold in SDLT (as in Alzheimer's disease) and beta-amyloidosis occurs in most cases, the most robust neurobiological correlate of the dementia so far identified appears to be extensive cholinergic deficits in the neocortex. This is consistent with previously reported correlations between cortical cholinergic activity and dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease. There is also a significant interaction between the density of limbic cortical Lewy bodies and dementia in both SDLT and PD, although the cortical neuronal population affected remains to be identified. Cortical Lewy body density is positively correlated with the age of disease onset in PD and SDLT. This may account for the increased incidence of psychiatric syndromes, as opposed to extrapyramidal disorder in Lewy body disease with advancing age as may age-related loss of cholinergic activity in cortical areas such as the hippocampus.

  15. Rebound increase in seizure susceptibility but not isolation-induced calls after single administration of clonazepam and Ro 19-8022 in infant rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulecká, Anna; Mareš, Pavel; Kubová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2011), s. 12-19 ISSN 1525-5050 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0846 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure * ultrasonic vocalization * motor performance * Clonazepam * Ro 19-8022 * immature rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2011

  16. Early Life Exposure to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Primes Increased Susceptibility to Hypoxia-Induced Weakness in Rat Sternohyoid Muscle During Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona B Mcdonald

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia is a feature of apnea of prematurity, chronic lung disease and sleep apnea. Despite the clinical relevance, the long-term effects of hypoxic exposure in early life on respiratory control are not well defined. We recently reported that exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH during postnatal development (pCIH causes upper airway muscle weakness in both sexes, which persists for several weeks. We sought to examine if there are persistent sex-dependent effects of pCIH on respiratory muscle function into adulthood and/or increased susceptibility to re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in animals previously exposed to CIH during postnatal development. We hypothesized that pCIH would cause long-lasting muscle impairment and increased susceptibility to subsequent hypoxia. Within 24 hours of delivery, pups and their respective dams were exposed to CIH: 90s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir; once every 5 min, 8 hrs per day for 3 weeks. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Three groups were studied: sham; pCIH; and pCIH combined with adult CIH (p+aCIH, where a subset of the pCIH-exposed pups were re-exposed to the same CIH paradigm beginning at 13 weeks. Following gas exposures, sternohyoid and diaphragm muscle isometric contractile and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. There was no apparent lasting effect of pCIH on respiratory muscle function in adults. However, in both males and females, re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in pCIH-exposed animals caused sternohyoid (but not diaphragm weakness. Exposure to this paradigm of CIH in adulthood alone had no effect on muscle function. Persistent susceptibility in pCIH-exposed airway dilator muscle to subsequent hypoxic insult may have implications for the control of airway patency in adult humans exposed to intermittent hypoxic stress during early life.

  17. Early life exposure to chronic intermittent Hypoxia Primes Increased Susceptibility to Hypoxia-Induced Weakness in Rat Sternohyoid Muscle during adulthood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonald, Fiona B

    2016-03-01

    Intermittent hypoxia is a feature of apnea of prematurity (AOP), chronic lung disease, and sleep apnea. Despite the clinical relevance, the long-term effects of hypoxic exposure in early life on respiratory control are not well defined. We recently reported that exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during postnatal development (pCIH) causes upper airway muscle weakness in both sexes, which persists for several weeks. We sought to examine if there are persistent sex-dependent effects of pCIH on respiratory muscle function into adulthood and\\/or increased susceptibility to re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in animals previously exposed to CIH during postnatal development. We hypothesized that pCIH would cause long-lasting muscle impairment and increased susceptibility to subsequent hypoxia. Within 24 h of delivery, pups and their respective dams were exposed to CIH: 90 s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir; once every 5 min, 8 h per day for 3 weeks. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Three groups were studied: sham; pCIH; and pCIH combined with adult CIH (p+aCIH), where a subset of the pCIH-exposed pups were re-exposed to the same CIH paradigm beginning at 13 weeks. Following gas exposures, sternohyoid and diaphragm muscle isometric contractile and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. There was no apparent lasting effect of pCIH on respiratory muscle function in adults. However, in both males and females, re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in pCIH-exposed animals caused sternohyoid (but not diaphragm) weakness. Exposure to this paradigm of CIH in adulthood alone had no effect on muscle function. Persistent susceptibility in pCIH-exposed airway dilator muscle to subsequent hypoxic insult may have implications for the control of airway patency in adult humans exposed to intermittent hypoxic stress during early life.

  18. Capgras syndrome in Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaipisuttikul, Papan; Lobach, Iryna; Zweig, Yael; Gurnani, Ashita; Galvin, James E

    2013-05-01

    Capgras syndrome is characterized by the recurrent, transient belief that a person has been replaced by an identical imposter. We reviewed clinical characteristics of Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) patients with Capgras syndrome compared to those without Capgras. We identified 55 consecutive DLB patients (11 cases with Capgras syndrome (DLB-C) and 44 cases without evidence of Capgras (DLB). Semi-structured interviews with the patient and an informant, neurological exams, and neuropsychological testing were performed. Caregivers were assessed for caregiver burden and depression. Primary comparisons were made between DLB-C and DLB. Exploratory analyses using stepwise logistic regression and bootstrap analyses were performed to determine clinical features associated with Capgras. DLB-C patients experienced more visual hallucinations and self-reported anxiety, had higher scores on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and were less likely to be treated with cholinesterase inhibitors at time of initial evaluation. Extrapyramidal symptoms and depression were not associated with Capgras. Caregivers of DLB-C patients had higher caregiver burden. DLB-C was associated with self-reported anxiety (OR = 10.9; 95% CI = 2.6-47.6). In a bootstrap analysis, clinical findings that were predictors of Capgras included visual hallucinations (log(OR) = 18.3; 95% CI = 17.9-19.3) and anxiety (log(OR) = 2.9; 95% CI = 0.31-20.2). Our study suggests that Capgras syndrome is common in DLB and usually occurs in the presence of anxiety and visual hallucinations, suggesting related etiopathogenesis. Early appreciation of Capgras syndrome may afford the opportunity to alleviate caregiver burden and improve patient and caregiver outcomes.

  19. The Rat Homolog of the Schizophrenia Susceptibility Gene ZNF804A Is Highly Expressed during Brain Development, Particularly in Growth Cones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Hvid Hinna

    Full Text Available A single nucleotide polymorphism in the ZNF804A gene, rs1344706, is associated with schizophrenia. The polymorphism has been suggested to alter fetal expression of ZNF804A. It has also been reported to be associated with altered cortical functioning and neural connectivity in the brain. Since developmental mechanisms are suggested in the pathophysiology for schizophrenia, expression of Zfp804A, the rat homolog of ZNF804A, was investigated in the developing rat brain. We found that expression of Zfp804A in most brain regions is developmentally regulated and peaks around birth, where after it decreases towards adult levels. This time point is developmentally the equivalent to the second trimester of fetal development in humans. An exception to this expression pattern is the hippocampus where the expression of Zfp804A appears to increase again in the adult brain. Using laser capture and quantitative PCR we found that Zfp804A mRNA expression in the adult rat hippocampus is highest in the CA1 sub region, where the overall firing rates of neurons is higher than in the CA3 region. In cultured cortical neurons Zfp804A mRNA expression peaked at day 4 and then decreased. The ZFP804A protein expression was therefore investigated with immunochemistry in such cultures. Interestingly, before day 4, the protein is mostly found in the perinuclear region of the cell but at day 4, ZFP804A was instead found throughout the cell and particularly in the growth cones. In conclusion we demonstrate that Zfp804A increases in the rat brain at the time of birth, coinciding with neuronal differentiation. We also show that ZFP804A is localized to growth cones of growing neurites. These data implicate ZFP804A in growth cone function and neurite elongation. The polymorphism rs1344706 lowers expression of ZNF804A during prenatal brain development. This may affect ZNF804A's role in cone function and neurite elongation leading to synaptic deficits and altered neural connectivity.

  20. Intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus in Lewy body diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Daniel; Halliday, Glenda M

    2009-02-16

    Although the intralaminar thalamus is a target of alpha-synuclein pathology in Parkinson's disease, the degree of neuronal loss in Lewy body diseases has not been assessed. We have used unbiased stereological techniques to quantify neuronal loss in intralaminar thalamic nuclei concentrating alpha-synuclein pathology (the anterodorsal, cucullar, parataenial, paraventricular, central medial, central lateral and centre-median/parafascicular complex) in different clinical forms of Lewy body disease (Parkinson's disease with and without dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies, N=21) compared with controls (N=5). Associations were performed in the Lewy body cases between intralaminar cell loss and the main diagnostic clinical (parkinsonism, dementia, fluctuation in consciousness, and visual hallucinations) and pathological (Braak stage of Parkinson's disease) features of these diseases, as well as between cell loss and the scaled severity of the alpha-synuclein deposition within the intralaminar thalamus. As expected, significant alpha-synuclein accumulation occurred in the intralaminar thalamus in the cases with Lewy body disease. Pathology concentrated anteriorly and in the central lateral and paraventricular nuclei was related to the Braak stage of Parkinson's disease, ageing, and the presence of dementia. Across all types of Lewy body cases there was substantial atrophy and neuronal loss in the central lateral, cucullar and parataenial nuclei, and neuronal loss without atrophy in the centre-median/parafascicular complex. Cases with visual hallucinations showed a greater degree of atrophy of the cucullar nucleus, possibly due to amygdala denervation. The significant degeneration demonstrated in the intralaminar thalamus is likely to contribute to the movement and cognitive dysfunction observed in Lewy body disorders.

  1. MicroRNA Profiling in the Medial and Lateral Habenula of Rats Exposed to the Learned Helplessness Paradigm: Candidate Biomarkers for Susceptibility and Resilience to Inescapable Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenningsen, Katrine; Venø, Morten T; Henningsen, Kim; Mallien, Anne S; Jensen, Line; Christensen, Trine; Kjems, Jørgen; Vollmayr, Barbara; Wiborg, Ove

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a highly heterogeneous disorder presumably caused by a combination of several factors ultimately causing the pathological condition. The genetic liability model of depression is likely to be of polygenic heterogeneity. miRNAs can regulate multiple genes simultaneously and therefore are candidates that align with this model. The habenula has been linked to depression in both clinical and animal studies, shifting interest towards this region as a neural substrate in depression. The goal of the present study was to search for alterations in miRNA expression levels in the medial and lateral habenula of rats exposed to the learned helplessness (LH) rat model of depression. Ten miRNAs showed significant alterations associating with their response to the LH paradigm. Of these, six and four miRNAs were significantly regulated in the MHb and LHb, respectively. In the MHb we identified miR-490, miR-291a-3p, MiR-467a, miR-216a, miR-18b, and miR-302a. In the LHb miR-543, miR-367, miR-467c, and miR-760-5p were significantly regulated. A target gene analysis showed that several of the target genes are involved in MAPK signaling, neutrophin signaling, and ErbB signaling, indicating that neurotransmission is affected in the habenula as a consequence of exposure to the LH paradigm.

  2. Western High-Fat Diet Consumption during Adolescence Increases Susceptibility to Traumatic Stress while Selectively Disrupting Hippocampal and Ventricular Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyan-Masih, Priya; Vega-Torres, Julio David; Haddad, Elizabeth; Rainsbury, Sabrina; Baghchechi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Psychological trauma and obesity co-occur frequently and have been identified as major risk factors for psychiatric disorders. Surprisingly, preclinical studies examining how obesity disrupts the ability of the brain to cope with psychological trauma are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine whether an obesogenic Western-like high-fat diet (WD) predisposes rats to post-traumatic stress responsivity. Adolescent Lewis rats (postnatal day 28) were fed ad libitum for 8 weeks with either the experimental WD diet (41.4% kcal from fat) or the control diet (16.5% kcal from fat). We modeled psychological trauma by exposing young adult rats to a cat odor threat. The elevated plus maze and the open field test revealed increased psychological trauma-induced anxiety-like behaviors in the rats that consumed the WD when compared with control animals 1 week after undergoing traumatic stress (p < 0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging showed significant hippocampal atrophy (20% reduction) and lateral ventricular enlargement (50% increase) in the animals fed the WD when compared with controls. These volumetric abnormalities were associated with behavioral indices of anxiety, increased leptin and FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) levels, and reduced hippocampal blood vessel density. We found asymmetric structural vulnerabilities to the WD, particularly the ventral and left hippocampus and lateral ventricle. This study highlights how WD consumption during adolescence impacts key substrates implicated in post-traumatic stress disorder. Understanding how consumption of a WD affects the developmental trajectories of the stress neurocircuitry is critical, as stress susceptibility imposes a marked vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27844058

  3. Increase in seizure susceptibility in sepsis like condition explained by spiking cytokines and altered adhesion molecules level with impaired blood brain barrier integrity in experimental model of rats treated with lipopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewal, Rakesh K; Modi, Manish; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Chakrabarti, Amitava; Medhi, Bikash

    2017-09-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Sepsis is a condition which initiates a cascade of a surge of inflammatory mediators. Interplay between seizures and inflammation other than of brain origin is yet to be explored. The present study was designed to evaluate the seizure susceptibility in experimental models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced sepsis. Experimental sepsis was induced using lipopolysaccharides in Wistar rats. Valproic acid, dexametasone were given to two different groups of animals along with LPS. Two groups of animals were subjected to administration of vehicle and LPS respectively with no other treatment. 24h later, animals were subjected to seizures by using either maximal electro shock or pentylenetetrazole. Seizures related parameters, oxidative stress and TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1, MMP-9 level in serum and brain samples were evaluated. Histopathological and blood brain barrier permeability studies were conducted. Seizures were decreased in valproic acid treated animals. Reduced oxidative stress was seen in dexamethasone plus valproic acid treated groups as compared to LPS alone treated group. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP-9 levels were found increased in LPS treated animals whereas a reverse observation was noted for ICAM-2 level in brain and serum. Histopathological findings confirmed the successful establishment of sepsis like state in animals. Blood brain barrier permeability was found increased in LPS treated groups of animals. Seizure susceptibility may escalate during the sepsis like inflammatory conditions and curbing the inflammatory state might reverse the phenomenon. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Lewy and his inclusion bodies: Discovery and rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fritz Jacob Heinrich Lewy described the pathology of Paralysis agitans [Parkinson disease] and was the first to identify eosinophilic inclusion bodies in neurons of certain brain nuclei, later known as Lewy bodies, the pathological signature of the Lewy body diseases. In 1912, he published his seminal study, followed soon after by an update paper, and 10 years later, in 1923, by his voluminous book, where he exhaustively described the subject. The publication provided extensive information on the pathology of Paralysis agitans, and the entirely novel finding of eosinophilic inclusion bodies, which would become widely recognized and debated in the future. His discovery was acknowledged by important researchers who even named the structure after him. However, after his last publication on the issue, inexplicably, he never mentioned his histopathological discovery again. Despite several hypotheses, the reasons that led him to neglect (reject the structure which he so preeminently described have remained elusive.

  5. Sudden Death: An Uncommon Occurrence in Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Joery P; Wilbers, Joyce; Aerts, Marjolein B; Leijten, Quinten H; van Dijk, Jan G; Esselink, Rianne A; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2016-01-01

    We present a 75-year-old woman with dementia and parkinsonism who developed severe orthostatic hypotension and eventually died. Autopsy revealed extensive Lewy body formation in the midbrain, limbic system, intermediate spinal cord, and medulla oblongata. Furthermore, a vast amount of Lewy bodies was seen in the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia which likely explained the severe autonomic failure. We speculate that this autonomic failure caused sudden death through dysregulation of respiration or heart rhythm, reminiscent of sudden death in multiple system atrophy (MSA). Clinicians should be aware of this complication in patients presenting with parkinsonism and autonomic dysfunction, and that sudden death may occur in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) as it does in MSA.

  6. Fugle og andre observationer på Lewis og Harris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provencal, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    En beskrivelse af observationer af især fugle men også nogle få pattedyr på øen Lewis and Harris i de Ydre Hebrider. Observationerne fandt sted fra den 19. til den 23- april 2017.......En beskrivelse af observationer af især fugle men også nogle få pattedyr på øen Lewis and Harris i de Ydre Hebrider. Observationerne fandt sted fra den 19. til den 23- april 2017....

  7. Identification of a nutrient-sensing transcriptional network in monocytes by using inbred rat models on a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Martínez-Micaelo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached pandemic levels worldwide. The current models of diet-induced obesity in rodents use predominantly high-fat based diets that do not take into account the consumption of variety of highly palatable, energy-dense foods that are prevalent in Western society. We and others have shown that the cafeteria (CAF diet is a robust and reproducible model of human metabolic syndrome with tissue inflammation in the rat. We have previously shown that inbred rat strains such as Wistar Kyoto (WKY and Lewis (LEW show different susceptibilities to CAF diets with distinct metabolic and morphometric profiles. Here, we show a difference in plasma MCP-1 levels and investigate the effect of the CAF diet on peripheral blood monocyte transcriptome, as powerful stress-sensing immune cells, in WKY and LEW rats. We found that 75.5% of the differentially expressed transcripts under the CAF diet were upregulated in WKY rats and were functionally related to the activation of the immune response. Using a gene co-expression network constructed from the genes differentially expressed between CAF diet-fed LEW and WKY rats, we identified acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (Acss2 as a hub gene for a nutrient-sensing cluster of transcripts in monocytes. The Acss2 genomic region is significantly enriched for previously established metabolism quantitative trait loci in the rat. Notably, monocyte expression levels of Acss2 significantly correlated with plasma glucose, triglyceride, leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels as well as morphometric measurements such as body weight and the total fat following feeding with the CAF diet in the rat. These results show the importance of the genetic background in nutritional genomics and identify inbred rat strains as potential models for CAF-diet-induced obesity.

  8. Lewis acid enhanced switching of the 1,1-dicyanodihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene photo/thermoswitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Christian Richard; Tortzen, Christian Gregers; Broman, Søren Lindbæk

    2011-01-01

    Mild Lewis acids enhance the rate of the thermal conversion of vinylheptafulvene (VHF) to dihydroazulene (DHA). In the absence of light, stronger Lewis acids promote the otherwise photoinduced DHA to VHF conversion.......Mild Lewis acids enhance the rate of the thermal conversion of vinylheptafulvene (VHF) to dihydroazulene (DHA). In the absence of light, stronger Lewis acids promote the otherwise photoinduced DHA to VHF conversion....

  9. preparation of bicyclic lactones using lewis acids catalyzed ene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The synthesis of the cis-fused bicyclic lactones relies extensively on the Lewis acid ... having an allylic hydrogen (an"ene") and a compound containing an electron .... observed that the lithium enolate obtained from 3-methyl-2(5H)- furanone ...

  10. Frustrated Lewis pairs-assisted reduction of carbonyl compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, Aleš; Pedersen, M. H. F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 6 (2015), s. 917-921 ISSN 0040-4020 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : frustrated Lewis pairs * hydrogen activation * benzyl alcohol * tritium labeling * labeled compounds Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.645, year: 2015

  11. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Brian Lewis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Fulgham, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Brian Lewis, International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) chief executive officer, is an education advocate and leader specializing in management and governance, policy, corporate communications, branding, and marketing. He provides leadership to ISTE's Washington, DC, and Eugene, Oregon, offices and directs organizational…

  12. Daniel Day-Lewis - veri peab voolama / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Iiri-juudi näitleja Daniel Day-Lewis, kes võitis oma rolliga P.T. Andersoni filmis "Veri hakkab voolama" parima meespeaosatäitja Oscari. Tema põhjalikust tööst rollidega läbi tema filmiloomingu

  13. Who Needs Lewis Structures to Get VSEPR Geometries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmark, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching the VSEPR (valence shell electron-pair repulsion) model can be a tedious process. Traditionally, Lewis structures are drawn and the number of "electron clouds" (groups) around the central atom are counted and related to the standard VSEPR table of possible geometries. A simpler method to deduce the VSEPR structure without first drawing…

  14. Bibliography of Lewis Research Center Technical Publications announced in 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This compilation of abstracts describes and indexes the technical reporting that resulted from the scientific engineering work performed and managed by the Lewis Research Center in 1991. All the publications were announced in the 1991 issues of STAR (Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports) and/or IAA (International Aerospace Abstracts). Included are research reports, journal articles, conference presentations, patents and patent applications, and theses.

  15. Frustrated Lewis pairs-assisted reduction of carbonyl compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marek, Ales; Pedersen, Martin Holst Friborg

    2015-01-01

    An alternative and robust method for the reduction of carbonyl groups by frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) is reported in this paper. With its very mild reaction conditions, good to excellent yields, absolute regioselectivity and the non-metallic character of the reagent, it provides an excellent too...

  16. Reduced CSF CART in dementia with Lewy bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Kristofer; Wiehager, Sara; Nilsson, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). The underlying neurobiological mechanism of DLB is not fully understood and no generally accepted biomarkers are yet available for the diagnosis of DLB. In a recent MRI study...

  17. Modified NASA-Lewis chemical equilibrium code for MHD applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, R. A.; Geyer, H. K.; Grammel, S. J.; Doss, E. D.

    1979-01-01

    A substantially modified version of the NASA-Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Code was recently developed. The modifications were designed to extend the power and convenience of the Code as a tool for performing combustor analysis for MHD systems studies. The effect of the programming details is described from a user point of view.

  18. Fullerene–Carbene Lewis Acid–Base Adducts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huaping; Risko, Chad; Seo, Jung Hwa; Campbell, Casey; Wu, Guang; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Bazan, Guillermo C.

    2011-01-01

    The reaction between a bulky N-heterocylic carbene (NHC) and C60 leads to the formation of a thermally stable zwitterionic Lewis acid-base adduct that is connected via a C-C single bond. Low-energy absorption bands with weak oscillator strengths

  19. File list: DNS.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 DNase-seq Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  20. File list: DNS.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 DNase-seq Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  1. File list: Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 Unclassified Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 TFs and others Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  3. File list: His.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 Histone Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung SRX10...91778,SRX1091782,SRX1091783,SRX1091781,SRX1091784,SRX1091779,SRX1091785,SRX1091780 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  4. File list: Pol.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  5. File list: Pol.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  6. File list: Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  7. File list: DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 DNase-seq Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  8. Tribute to Erwin Felix Lewy-Bertaut; Hommage a Erwin Felix Lewy-Bertaut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Erwin Lewy (alias Felix Bertaut) was born in 1913 in Germany, he emigrated to France where he undertook graduate studies in chemistry. Then, he joined the powder central laboratory where he learnt how to use international tables for structure determination. His thesis work was the X-ray study of the statistical distribution of the size of iron grains. The method Bertaut developed is still a reference in powder granulometry. Bertaut was also interested in the nascent neutron diffraction method and he flew to the United-States to improve his knowledge on this topic. Felix Bertaut created the neutron diffraction laboratory in the atomic research center in Grenoble and later he headed the CNRS' crystallography laboratory till 1982. Felix Bertaut and his laboratories became internationally renowned in crystallography, neutron diffraction and magnetism. He favored the scientific cooperation between France and Germany that led to the creation of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). The ILL became European and was a key partner for building the European Synchrotron Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble. Bertaut was elected as a full member of the French Academy of Sciences in 1979, he died in 2003. (A.C.)

  9. Transfer of primed CD4+OX40- T lymphocytes induces increased immunity to experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, P; Christensen, H B; Hougen, H P

    1997-01-01

    The protective effect of primed CD4 T cells against a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium was studied in Lewis rats. Primed CD4 T cells were obtained by inoculating Lewis rats with a non-lethal dose of S. typhimurium. Four weeks after the infection, spleen non-adherent mononuclear cells were is......-specific memory T cells that have returned to a resting state....

  10. Lewis basicity of relevant monoanions in a non-protogenic organic solvent using a zinc(ii) Schiff-base complex as a reference Lewis acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, Ivan Pietro; Di Bella, Santo

    2017-09-12

    Anions are ubiquitous species playing a primary role in chemistry, whose reactivity is essentially dominated by their Lewis basicity. However, no Lewis basicity data, in terms of Gibbs energy, are reported in the literature. We report here the first Lewis basicity of relevant monoanions through the determination of binding constants for the formation of stable 1 : 1 adducts, using a Zn II Schiff-base complex, 1, as a reference Lewis acid. Binding constants for equilibrium reactions were achieved through a nonlinear regression analysis of the binding isotherms from spectrophotometric titration data. The Lewis acidic complex 1 is a proper reference species because it forms stable adducts with both neutral and charged Lewis bases, thus allowing ranking their Lewis basicity. Binding constants indicate generally a strong Lewis basicity for all involved anions, rivalling or exceeding that of the stronger neutral bases, such as primary amines or pyridine. The cyanide anion results to be the strongest Lewis base, while the nitrate is the weaker base within the present anion series. Moreover, even the weaker base anions behave as stronger bases than the most common non-protogenic coordinating solvents.

  11. Incorporating spectroscopic on-line monitoring as a method of detection for a Lewis cell setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Forrest D.; Casella, Amanda J.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2017-01-01

    A Lewis cell was designed and constructed for investigating solvent extraction systems by spectrophotometrically monitoring both the organic and aqueous phases in real time. This new Lewis cell was tested and shown to perform well compared to other previously reported Lewis cell designs. The advantage of the new design is that the spectroscopic measurement allows determination of not only metal ion concentrations, but also information regarding chemical speciation—information not available with previous Lewis cell designs. For convenience, the new Lewis cell design was dubbed COSMOFLEX (COntinuous Spectroscopic MOnitoring of Forrest’s Liquid-liquid EXtraction cell).

  12. Mechanism of donor to host tolerance in rat bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutschka, P.; Schwerdtfeger, R.; Slavin, R.; Santos, G.

    1977-01-01

    Lewis rats were conditioned with cyclophosphamide and grafted with AgB incompatible bone marrow. They were examined 250 days after transplantation and demonstrated to be healthy complete chimeras. Marrow cells from these chimeras were infused into lethally irradiated ACI, Lewis and BN recipients. Graft-versus-host disease occurred only in the BN rats. Other chimeric rats were given no treatment, busulfan, CY, or total body irradiation prior to the infusion of normal ACI BM. GvHD occurred only in animals given CY or TBI. Normal Lewis rats were conditioned with TBI and given ACI BM. In addition, they received whole blood, irradiated blood, or serum from chimeric rats. GvHD developed in all animals except those given unirradiated chimeric blood. These studies suggest that suppressor cell populations, sensitive to immunosuppression, are likely the fundamental mechanism of recovery from GvHD

  13. Effect of unequal fuel and oxidizer Lewis numbers on flame dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Tariq [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128-1491 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    The interaction of non-unity Lewis number (due to preferential diffusion and/or unequal rates of heat and mass transfer) with the coupled effect of radiation, chemistry and unsteadiness alters several characteristics of a flame. The present study numerically investigates this interaction with a particular emphasis on the effect of unequal and non-unity fuel and oxidizer Lewis numbers in a transient diffusion flame. The unsteadiness is simulated by considering the flame subjected to modulations in reactant concentration. Flames with different Lewis numbers (ranging from 0.5 to 2) and subjected to different modulating frequencies are considered. The results show that the coupled effect of Lewis number and unsteadiness strongly influences the flame dynamics. The impact is stronger at high modulating frequencies and strain rates, particularly for large values of Lewis numbers. Compared to the oxidizer side Lewis number, the fuel side Lewis number has greater influence on flame dynamics. (author)

  14. The Organization of Narrative Discourse in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gross, Rachel G.; Cook, Philip; Morgan, Brianna; Boller, Ashley; Dreyfuss, Michael; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Narrative discourse is an essential component of day-to-day communication, but little is known about narrative in Lewy Body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We performed a detailed analysis of a semi-structured speech sample in 32 non-aphasic patients with LBSD, and we related their narrative impairments to gray matter (GM) atrophy using voxel-based morphometry. We found that patients with PDD and DLB have significant difficulty organizing their narrative speech. This was correlated with deficits on measures of executive functioning and speech fluency. Regression analyses associated this deficit with reduced cortical volume in inferior frontal and anterior cingulate regions. These findings are consistent with a model of narrative discourse that includes executive as well as language components and with an impairment of the organizational component of narrative discourse in patients with PDD and DLB. PMID:21689852

  15. Operational criteria for senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeith, I G; Perry, R H; Fairbairn, A F; Jabeen, S; Perry, E K

    1992-11-01

    Recent reports have suggested that brain stem and cortical Lewy body formation may identify a neurodegenerative disorder in elderly demented individuals which accounts for up to 20% of cases of senile dementia coming to autopsy. Retrospective analysis of case notes of 21 autopsy patients with neuropathologically proven senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT) and 37 cases with neuropathologically proven Alzheimer's disease (AD) identified a characteristic clinical syndrome in SDLT. Fluctuating cognitive impairment; psychotic features including visual and auditory hallucinations, and paranoid delusions; depressive symptoms; falling and unexplained losses of consciousness were all seen significantly more often than in AD. Over half of the SDLT patients in this series who were given neuroleptics in standard dose showed acute and often irreversible adverse reactions indicative of a neuroleptic sensitivity syndrome. The survival time of drug treated patients was reduced by 50%. Operational criteria to aid in the clinical distinction between SDLT and AD patients are proposed and hypotheses regarding possible aetiology and treatment discussed.

  16. Imidazolinium and amidinium salts as Lewis acid organocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Sereda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of imidazolinium and amidinium salts as soft Lewis acid organocatalysts is described. These salts were suitable catalysts for the activation of unsaturated thioesters in a Diels–Alder reaction and in the ring opening of thiiranes and epoxides. The products were isolated in good yields. The mild catalysts did not cause desulfurization of the products containing a thiol or thiocarbonyl group.

  17. Improved Lignin Polyurethane Properties with Lewis Acid Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Hoyong; Washburn, Newell R.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical modification strategies to improve the mechanical properties of lignin-based polyurethanes are presented. We hypothesized that treatment of lignin with Lewis acids would increase the concentration of hydroxyl groups available to react with diisocyanate monomers. Under the conditions used, hydrogen bromide-catalyzed modification resulted in a 28% increase in hydroxyl group content. Associated increases in hydrophilicity of solvent-cast thin films were also recorded as evidenced by ...

  18. Bibliography of Lewis Research Center technical publications announced in 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This compilation of abstracts describes and indexes the technical reporting that resulted from the scientific and engineering work performed and managed by the Lewis Research Center in 1990. All the publications were announced in the 1990 issues of STAR (Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports) and/or IAA (International Aerospace Abstracts). Included are research reports, journal articles, conference presentations, patents and patent applications, and theses.

  19. Bibliography of Lewis Research Center technical publications announced in 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of abstracts describes and indexes the technical reporting that resulted from the scientific and engineering work performed and managed by the Lewis Research Center in 1992. All the publications were announced in the 1992 issues of STAR (Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports) and/or IAA (International Aerospace Abstracts). Included are research reports, journal articles, conference presentations, patents and patent applications, and theses.

  20. Bibliography of Lewis Research Center technical publications announced in 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This compilation of abstracts describes and indexes the technical reporting that resulted from the scientific and engineering work performed and managed by the Lewis Research Center in 1993. All the publications were announced in the 1993 issues of STAR (Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports) and/or IAA (International Aerospace Abstracts). Included are research reports, journal articles, conference presentations, patents and patent applications, and theses.

  1. Bibliography of Lewis Research Center technical publications announced in 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This compilation of abstracts describes and indexes the technical reporting that resulted from the scientific and engineering work performed and managed by the Lewis Research Center in 1989. All the publications were announced in the 1989 issues of STAR (Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports) and/or IAA (International Aerospace Abstracts). Included are research reports, journal articles, conference presentations, patents and patent applications, and theses.

  2. Lewis' Educational and Research Collaborative Intership Program Grant Closeout Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Lewis' Educational and Research Collaborative Internship Program (LERCIP) is a collaborative undertaking by the Office of Educational Programs at NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (formerly NASA Lewis Research Center) and the Ohio Aerospace Institute. This program provides 10-week internships and 10 or 12-week fellowships for undergraduate/graduate students and secondary school teachers. Approximately 130 interns are selected to participate in this program each year and begin arriving the second week in May. The internships provide students with introductory professional experiences to complement their academic programs. The interns are given assignments on research and development projects under the personal guidance of NASA professional staff members. Each intern is assigned a NASA mentor who facilitates a research assignment. In addition to the research assignment, the summer program includes a strong educational component that enhances the professional stature of the participants. The educational activities include a research symposium and a variety of workshops, lectures and short courses. An important aspect of the program is that it includes students with diverse social, cultural and economic backgrounds.

  3. Developing an approach for teaching and learning about Lewis structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Ilana; Hamza, Karim M.; Rundgren, Carl-Johan; Eriksson, Lars

    2017-08-01

    This study explores first-year university students' reasoning as they learn to draw Lewis structures. We also present a theoretical account of the formal procedure commonly taught for drawing these structures. Students' discussions during problem-solving activities were video recorded and detailed analyses of the discussions were made through the use of practical epistemology analysis (PEA). Our results show that the formal procedure was central for drawing Lewis structures, but its use varied depending on situational aspects. Commonly, the use of individual steps of the formal procedure was contingent on experiences of chemical structures, and other information such as the characteristics of the problem given. The analysis revealed a number of patterns in how students constructed, checked and modified the structure in relation to the formal procedure and the situational aspects. We suggest that explicitly teaching the formal procedure as a process of constructing, checking and modifying might be helpful for students learning to draw Lewis structures. By doing so, the students may learn to check the accuracy of the generated structure not only in relation to the octet rule and formal charge, but also to other experiences that are not explicitly included in the formal procedure.

  4. Development of Fluorous Lewis Acid-Catalyzed Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joji Nishikido

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Organic synthetic methodology in the 21st century aims to conform to the principles of green sustainable chemistry (GSC and we may expect that in the future, the realization of GSC will be an important objective for chemical industries. An important aim of synthetic organic chemistry is to implement waste-free and environmentally-benign industrial processes using Lewis acids as versatile as aluminum choride. A key technological objective of our work in this area has been to achieve a “catalyst recycling system that utilizes the high activity and structural features of fluorous Lewis acid catalysts”. Thus, we have developed a series of novel fluorous Lewis acid catalysts, namely the ytterbium(III, scandium(III, tin(IV or hafnium(IV bis(perfluoroalkanesulfonylamides or tris(perfluoro- alkanesulfonylmethides. Our catalysts are recyclable and effective for acylations of alcohols and aromatics, Baeyer-Villiger reactions, direct esterifications and transesterifications in a fluorous biphasic system (FBS, in supercritical carbon dioxide and on fluorous silica gel supports.

  5. Fullerene–Carbene Lewis Acid–Base Adducts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huaping

    2011-08-17

    The reaction between a bulky N-heterocylic carbene (NHC) and C60 leads to the formation of a thermally stable zwitterionic Lewis acid-base adduct that is connected via a C-C single bond. Low-energy absorption bands with weak oscillator strengths similar to those of n-doped fullerenes were observed for the product, consistent with a net transfer of electron density to the C60 core. Corroborating information was obtained using UV photoelectron spectroscopy, which revealed that the adduct has an ionization potential ∼1.5 eV lower than that of C60. Density functional theory calculations showed that the C-C bond is polarized, with a total charge of +0.84e located on the NHC framework and -0.84e delocalized on the C 60 cage. The combination of reactivity, characterization, and theoretical studies demonstrates that fullerenes can behave as Lewis acids that react with C-based Lewis bases and that the overall process describes n-doping via C-C bond formation. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Lewis acid catalyzed transformations of Z-ligustilide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Maria Yolanda [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Delgado, Guillermo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    Some Lewis acid mediated reactions of Z-ligustilide (1), a bioactive constituent of the medicinal species Ligusticum porteri, were investigated. These reactions provided varying mixtures of Z-butylidenephthalide (7), E-butylidenephthalide (8), n-butyphthalide (13), and novel linear dimeric phthalides (9-12) as the main products. The formation of the dimers occurred in low yields and with regio and situ-selectivity. Initial competitive O- and C- complexation of the Lewis acid with Z-ligustilide promoted the formation of the dimers occurred in low yields and with regio and situ- selectivity. Initial competitive O- and C- complexation of the Lewis acid with Z-ligustilide promoted the formation of carbocations at C(8), C(6) and C(7), which were stabilized by the addition of the C(6')-C(7') olefin of a second unit of the starting material, to provide cations at C(6') and C(7'). Subsequent isomerizations and elimination of the catalyst afforded the dimeric products 9-12. The yields and structure of the products are quite dependent on variations of the reaction conditions and the catalyst employed. [Spanish] Se investigaron algunas reacciones de Z-ligustilidas (1), un constituyente bioactivo de la planta medicinal Ligusticum porteri, catalizadas por acidos de Lewis. Estas reacciones produjeron mezclas variables de Z-butilidenftalida (7), E-butilidenftalida (8), n-butilftalida (13), y ftalidos dimetricos lineales novedosos (9-12) como productos principales. La formacion de los dimeros procedio en rendimientos bajos y con regio- y situ-selectividad. La O- y C- complejacion competitiva inicial del acido de Lewis con Z-lingustilida promueve la formacion de cationes en C(8), C(6) y C(7), los cuales son estabilizados por la adicion de la olefina C(6')-C(7') de una segunda unidad de la materia prima para generar los cationes en C(6')-C(7'). Isomerizaciones subsecuentes y la eliminacion del catalizador conducen a los productos dimericos 9

  7. Glucocerebrosidase mutations and neuropsychiatric phenotypes in Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementias: Review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creese, Byron; Bell, Emily; Johar, Iskandar; Francis, Paul; Ballard, Clive; Aarsland, Dag

    2018-03-01

    Heterozygous mutations in glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) are a major genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Recently, there has been a considerable focus on the relationship between GBA mutations and emergence of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms in these diseases. Here, we review the literature in this area, with a particular focus, including meta-analysis, on the key neuropsychiatric symptoms of cognitive impairment, psychosis, and depression in Parkinson's disease. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that GBA mutations are associated with a 2.4-fold increased risk of cognitive impairment. In addition, our novel meta-analyses of psychosis and depression showed a 1.8- and 2.2-fold increased risk respectively associated with GBA mutations, although due to possible bias and heterogeneity the depression findings should be interpreted with caution. While the precise mechanisms which increase susceptibility to neurodegeneration in GBA carriers are not known, evidence of greater cortical Lewy body pathology, reduced patterns of cortical activation, and hippocampal pathology in animal models are all consistent with a direct effect of GBA mutations on these symptoms. Extension of this work in DLB and individuals without neurodegeneration will be important in further characterizing how GBA mutations increase risk for PD and DLB and influence disease course. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Immunity to experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. Transfer of immunity with primed CD45RC+ and CD45RC- CD4 T-cell subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, P; Christensen, H B; Hougen, H P

    1996-01-01

    The protective effect of primed CD4 T cells against a lethal dose of Salmonella typhimurium was studied in Lewis rats. Primed CD4 T cells were obtained by inoculating Lewis rats with a non-lethal dose of S. typhimurium. Four weeks after the infection, spleen CD4 T cells were separated by antibody......-induced increase in CD45RC+ cells is most likely due to generation of antigen-specific memory T cells....

  9. Surgical Anatomy and Microvascular Surgical Technique Relevant to Experimental Renal Transplant in Rat Employing Aortic and Inferior Venacaval Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri Man; Haylor, John

    2017-11-15

    Rat models of renal transplant are used to investigate immunologic processes and responses to therapeutic agents before their translation into routine clinical practice. In this study, we have described details of rat surgical anatomy and our experiences with the microvascular surgical technique relevant to renal transplant by employing donor inferior vena cava and aortic conduits. For this study, 175 rats (151 Lewis and 24 Fisher) were used to establish the Fisher-Lewis rat model of chronic allograft injury at our institution. Anatomic and technical details were recorded during the period of training and establishment of the model. A final group of 12 transplanted rats were studied for an average duration of 51 weeks for the Lewis-to-Lewis isografts (5 rats) and 42 weeks for the Fisher-to-Lewis allografts (7 rats). Functional measurements and histology confirmed the diagnosis of chronic allograft injury. Mastering the anatomic details and microvascular surgical techniques can lead to the successful establishment of an experimental renal transplant model.

  10. Gilbert Newton Lewis: his influence on physical-organic chemists at Berkeley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvin, M.

    1982-03-01

    A review is presented of the historical contributions of Gilbert N. Lewis to science and a discussion of the influence of Lewis on the research of the members of the physical-organic staff at Berkeley, including Melvin Calvin, during the twenties, thirties and forties. Some specific examples are discussed. Also, the effect of Lewis, his science and administrative concepts in the creation of excellence in a department of chemistry are reviewed

  11. Gilbert Newton Lewis: his influence on physical-organic chemists at Berkeley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, M.

    1982-03-01

    A review is presented of the historical contributions of Gilbert N. Lewis to science and a discussion of the influence of Lewis on the research of the members of the physical-organic staff at Berkeley, including Melvin Calvin, during the twenties, thirties and forties. Some specific examples are discussed. Also, the effect of Lewis, his science and administrative concepts in the creation of excellence in a department of chemistry are reviewed.

  12. Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity, glucose homeostasis and plasma amino acid concentrations in the most TCDD-susceptible and the most TCDD-resistant rat strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viluksela, M.; Pohjanvirta, R.; Tuomisto, J.T.; Tuomisto, J. (National Public Health Inst., Laboratory of Toxicology, Kuopio (Finland)); Unkila, M. (Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Univ. of Kuopio (Finland)); Stahl, B.U.; Rozman, K.K. (Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States) Section of Environmental Toxicology, GSF-Institut fuer Toxikologie, Neuherberg (Germany))

    1999-08-01

    Reduced gluconeogenesis due to decreased activity of key gluconeogenic enzymes in liver, together with feed refusal, has been suggested to play an important role in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced lethality in rats. This study was carried out to further analyse the toxicological significance of reduced gluconeogenesis by comparing dose-responses and time-courses of effects of TCDD on the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in liver, liver glycogen concentration as well as plasma concentrations of glucose and amino acids in both genders of TCDD-sensitive Long-Evans (L-E) rats and TCDD-resistant Han/Wistar (H/W) rats. A dose-dependent decrease in PEPCK activity was observed in H/W rats, but in L-E rats the activity was not decreased. However, TCDD impaired the strong increase in liver PEPCK activity observed in pair-fed controls of the L-E strain. Liver glycogen concentrations were severely decreased in L-E rats and moderately in H/W rats. This effect seems to be secondary to reduced feed intake, since a similar decrease was seen in pair-fed controls. Decreases in plasma glucose concentrations were also more profound in L-E rats than in H/W rats, but pair-fed controls were generally less affected. Circulating concentrations of amino acids were markedly increased in TCDD-treated L-E rats, which is likely to reflect increased mobilization of amino acids and their decreased metabolism in liver. Reduction of liver PEPCK activity cannot account for the sensitivity difference of these two strains of rats in terms of mortality. Nevertheless, the response of both strains of TCDD-treated rats regarding gluconeogenesis is different from that seen in pair-fed controls and suggesting that impairment of this pathway contributes to the development of the wasting syndrome. (orig.) With 7 figs., 2 tabs., 47 refs.

  13. NASA Lewis and Ohio Company Hit Hole in One

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Ben Hogan Company's Golf Ball Division, which is based in Elyria, Ohio, had developed concepts and prototypes for new golf balls but was unable to determine exact performance characteristics. Specifically, the company's R&D department wanted to measure the spin rates of experimental golf balls. After the Golf Ball Division requested assistance, researchers and technicians from the NASA Lewis Research Center went to Elyria and conducted several days worth of tests. Ben Hogan is using the test results to improve the spin characteristics of a new ball it plans to introduce to the market.

  14. Feminine Hypostases in Epic Fantasy: Tolkien, Lewis, Rowling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Măcineanu Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies the types of female figures present in the works of three well-known fantasy writers, J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis and J.K. Rowling, discussing the ways in which these characters are presented, their relationship with other characters, and their role in the economy of the novel, which is more important than may appear from a first reading. It also tries to explain the reasons that prompted the above-mentioned authors to choose these female hypostases.

  15. Telecommuting (Work-At-Home) at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinidhi, Saragur M.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a study in evaluating the viability of providing a work-at-home (telecommuting) program for Lewis Research Center's corporate employees using Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). Case studies have been presented for a range of applications from casual data access to interactive access. The network performance of telemedia applications were studied against future requirements for such level of remote connectivity. Many of the popular ISDN devices were characterized for network and service functionality. A set of recommendations to develop a telecommuting policy have been proposed.

  16. NASA Lewis advanced IPV nickel-hydrogen technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Britton, Doris L.

    1993-01-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts. Some of the advancements are as follows: to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide electrolyte to improve cycle life and performance, to modify the state of the art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes and further improve cycle life, and to develop a lightweight nickel electrode to reduce battery mass, hence reduce launch and/or increase satellite payload. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen battery cells was reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 80 percent DOD compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. Results of the boiler plate cell tests have been validated at NWSC, Crane, Indiana. Forty-eight ampere-hour flight cells containing 26 and 31 percent KOH have undergone real time LEO cycle life testing at an 80 percent DOD, 10 C. The three cells containing 26 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 19,500. The three cells containing 31 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 6,400. Validation testing of NASA Lewis 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells is also being conducted at NWSC, Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis contract. This consists of characterization, storage, and cycle life testing. There was no capacity degradation after 52 days of storage with the cells in the discharged state, on open circuit, 0 C, and a hydrogen pressure of 14.5 psia. The catalyzed wall wick cells have been cycled for over 22,694 cycles with no cell failures in the continuing test. All three of the non-catalyzed wall wick cells failed (cycles 9,588; 13,900; and 20,575). Cycle life test results of the Fibrex nickel electrode has demonstrated the feasibility of an improved nickel electrode giving a higher specific energy nickel-hydrogen cell. A nickel-hydrogen boiler plate cell using an 80

  17. Gut Microbiota in a Rat Oral Sensitization Model: Effect of a Cocoa-Enriched Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps-Bossacoma, Mariona; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence is emerging suggesting a relation between dietary compounds, microbiota, and the susceptibility to allergic diseases, particularly food allergy. Cocoa, a source of antioxidant polyphenols, has shown effects on gut microbiota and the ability to promote tolerance in an oral sensitization model. Taking these facts into consideration, the aim of the present study was to establish the influence of an oral sensitization model, both alone and together with a cocoa-enriched diet, on gut microbiota. Lewis rats were orally sensitized and fed with either a standard or 10% cocoa diet. Faecal microbiota was analysed through metagenomics study. Intestinal IgA concentration was also determined. Oral sensitization produced few changes in intestinal microbiota, but in those rats fed a cocoa diet significant modifications appeared. Decreased bacteria from the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla and a higher percentage of bacteria belonging to the Tenericutes and Cyanobacteria phyla were observed. In conclusion, a cocoa diet is able to modify the microbiota bacterial pattern in orally sensitized animals. As cocoa inhibits the synthesis of specific antibodies and also intestinal IgA, those changes in microbiota pattern, particularly those of the Proteobacteria phylum, might be partially responsible for the tolerogenic effect of cocoa.

  18. Gut Microbiota in a Rat Oral Sensitization Model: Effect of a Cocoa-Enriched Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariona Camps-Bossacoma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence is emerging suggesting a relation between dietary compounds, microbiota, and the susceptibility to allergic diseases, particularly food allergy. Cocoa, a source of antioxidant polyphenols, has shown effects on gut microbiota and the ability to promote tolerance in an oral sensitization model. Taking these facts into consideration, the aim of the present study was to establish the influence of an oral sensitization model, both alone and together with a cocoa-enriched diet, on gut microbiota. Lewis rats were orally sensitized and fed with either a standard or 10% cocoa diet. Faecal microbiota was analysed through metagenomics study. Intestinal IgA concentration was also determined. Oral sensitization produced few changes in intestinal microbiota, but in those rats fed a cocoa diet significant modifications appeared. Decreased bacteria from the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla and a higher percentage of bacteria belonging to the Tenericutes and Cyanobacteria phyla were observed. In conclusion, a cocoa diet is able to modify the microbiota bacterial pattern in orally sensitized animals. As cocoa inhibits the synthesis of specific antibodies and also intestinal IgA, those changes in microbiota pattern, particularly those of the Proteobacteria phylum, might be partially responsible for the tolerogenic effect of cocoa.

  19. Lewis base activation of Lewis acids: catalytic, enantioselective addition of glycolate-derived silyl ketene acetals to aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Scott E; Chung, Won-Jin

    2008-06-20

    A catalytic system involving silicon tetrachloride and a chiral, Lewis basic bisphosphoramide catalyst is effective for the addition of glycolate-derived silyl ketene acetals to aldehydes. It was found that the sense of diastereoselectivity could be modulated by changing the size of the substituents on the silyl ketene acetals. In general, the trimethylsilyl ketene acetals derived from methyl glycolates with a large protecting group on the alpha-oxygen provide enantiomerically enriched alpha,beta-dihydroxy esters with high syn-diastereoselectivity, whereas the tert-butyldimethylsilyl ketene acetals derived from bulky esters of alpha-methoxyacetic acid provide enantiomerically enriched alpha,beta-dihydroxy esters with high anti-diastereoselecitvity.

  20. Molecular Imaging and Updated Diagnostic Criteria in Lewy Body Dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnen, Nicolaas I; Müller, Martijn L T M; Frey, Kirk A

    2017-08-14

    The aims of the study were to review recent advances in molecular imaging in the Lewy body dementias (LBD) and determine if these may support the clinical but contested temporal profile distinction between Parkinson disease (PD) with dementia (PDD) versus dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). There do not appear to be major regional cerebral metabolic or neurotransmitter distinctions between PDD and DLB. However, recent studies highlight the relative discriminating roles of Alzheimer proteinopathies. PDD patients have lower cortical β-amyloid deposition than DLB. Preliminary tau PET studies suggest a gradient of increasing tau binding from cognitively normal PD (absent to lowest) to cognitively impaired PD (low) to DLB (intermediate) to Alzheimer disease (AD; highest). However, tau binding in DLB, including the medial temporal lobe, is substantially lower than in AD. Alzheimer-type proteinopathies appear to be more common in DLB compared to PDD with relative but no absolute differences. Given the spectrum of overlapping pathologies, future α-synuclein ligands are expected to have the best potential to distinguish the LBD from pure AD.

  1. Lewis Acid Assisted Nitrate Reduction with Biomimetic Molybdenum Oxotransferase Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Lee Taylor; Kim, Eunsuk

    2018-03-05

    The reduction of nitrate (NO 3 - ) to nitrite (NO 2 - ) is of significant biological and environmental importance. While Mo IV (O) and Mo VI (O) 2 complexes that mimic the active site structure of nitrate reducing enzymes are prevalent, few of these model complexes can reduce nitrate to nitrite through oxygen atom transfer (OAT) chemistry. We present a novel strategy to induce nitrate reduction chemistry of a previously known catalyst Mo IV (O)(SN) 2 (2), where SN = bis(4- tert-butylphenyl)-2-pyridylmethanethiolate, that is otherwise incapable of achieving OAT with nitrate. Addition of nitrate with the Lewis acid Sc(OTf) 3 (OTf = trifluoromethanesulfonate) to 2 results in an immediate and clean conversion of 2 to Mo VI (O) 2 (SN) 2 (1). The Lewis acid additive further reacts with the OAT product, nitrite, to form N 2 O and O 2 . This work highlights the ability of Sc 3+ additives to expand the reactivity scope of an existing Mo IV (O) complex together with which Sc 3+ can convert nitrate to stable gaseous molecules.

  2. Impairments of speech fluency in Lewy body spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gross, Rachel G; Cook, Philip; Gunawardena, Delani; Morgan, Brianna; Boller, Ashley; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray

    2012-03-01

    Few studies have examined connected speech in demented and non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We assessed the speech production of 35 patients with Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including non-demented PD patients, patients with PD dementia (PDD), and patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), in a semi-structured narrative speech sample in order to characterize impairments of speech fluency and to determine the factors contributing to reduced speech fluency in these patients. Both demented and non-demented PD patients exhibited reduced speech fluency, characterized by reduced overall speech rate and long pauses between sentences. Reduced speech rate in LBSD correlated with measures of between-utterance pauses, executive functioning, and grammatical comprehension. Regression analyses related non-fluent speech, grammatical difficulty, and executive difficulty to atrophy in frontal brain regions. These findings indicate that multiple factors contribute to slowed speech in LBSD, and this is mediated in part by disease in frontal brain regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An Animal Model of Active (Act) Versus Sedentary (Sed) Lifestyle and Susceptibility to Air Pollution: Response to Ozone (O3) in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats Allowed to Train Chronically On Running Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological data suggest that a sedentary lifestyle may contribute to increased suseptibility to environmental pollutants. Furthermore, the association between a sedentary pattern and development of obesity may exacerbate susceptibility. To study the effects of ACT vs. SED l...

  4. Resistance to BN myelogenous leukemia in rat radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, D.E.; Haynor, D.R.; Williams, R.M

    1980-01-01

    Lewis → LBNFl rat radiation chimeras showed marked resistance to transplanted BN myelogenous leukemia when compared to naive LBNFl, LBNFl → LBNFl, or BN → LBNFl. This occurred in the absence of overt graft versus host disease or of anti-BN response in mixed lymphocyte culture. Bone marrow specific antigens may serve as the target of the resistance mechanism. (author)

  5. Characterization of three newly established rat sarcoma cell clones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubová, Monika; Leba, M.; Sedmíková, M.; Vannucci, Luca; Horák, Vratislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 10 (2012), s. 610-618 ISSN 1071-2690 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08063 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : sarcoma * cell clones * lewis rat Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.289, year: 2012

  6. Intestinal T lymphocytes of different rat strains in immunotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruder, M.C.; Spanhaak, S.; Bruijntjes, J.P.; Michielsen, C.P.P.C.; Vos, J.G.; Kuper, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the intestinal mucosal immune cells, with emphasis on single T lymphocytcs, an inventory was made of single and organized lymphocytes in the epithelium and lamina propria of the small intestines of untreated Wistar, Fischer 344, and Lewis rats. The single and organized lymphocytes

  7. Specific acid catalysis and Lewis acid catalysis of Diels–Alder reactions in aqueous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubofu, Egid B.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study of specific acid catalysis and Lewis acid catalysis of Diels–Alder reactions between dienophiles (1, 4 and 6) and cyclopentadiene (2) in water and mixed aqueous media is reported. The reactions were performed in water with copper(II) nitrate as the Lewis acid catalyst whereas

  8. An Integrated Perspective of Humanism and Supernaturalism for Education: C. S. Lewis's Version of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Chun

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores some theoretical reflections on the connection between C. S. Lewis's thoughts on the purpose and process of education and his understanding of supernatural human nature which has been relatively little explored. An introduction about Lewis's career as a college teacher blends into the background of this paper. It is followed by…

  9. Nest-site selection and nest survival of Lewis's woodpecker in aspen riparian woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen R. Newlon; Victoria A. Saab

    2011-01-01

    Riparian woodlands of aspen (Populus tremuloides) provide valuable breeding habitat for several cavity-nesting birds. Although anecdotal information for this habitat is available for Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), no study has previously examined the importance of aspen woodlands to this species' breeding biology. From 2002 to 2004, we monitored 76...

  10. LewiSpace: An Exploratory Study with a Machine Learning Model in an Educational Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Ramla; Ouellet, Sébastien; Frasson, Claude

    2016-01-01

    The use of educational games as a tool for providing learners with a playful and educational aspect is widespread. In this paper, we present an educational game that we developed to teach a chemistry lesson, namely drawing a Lewis diagram. Our game is a 3D environment known as LewiSpace and aims at balancing between playful and educational…

  11. Catalytic Conversion of Glucose into 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Hf(OTf4 Lewis Acid in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of Lewis acidic metal salts were used for glucose dehydration to 5-hydroymethylfurfural (HMF in water. Effect of valence state, ionic radii of Lewis acidic cation, and the type of anions on the catalytic performance have been studied systematically. The experimental results showed that the valence state played an important role in determining catalytic activity and selectivity. It was found that a higher glucose conversion rate and HMF selectivity could be obtained over high valent Lewis acid salts, where the ionic radii of these Lewis acidic metal salts are usually relatively small. Analysis on the effect of the anions of Lewis acid salts on the catalytic activity and the selectivity suggested that a higher glucose conversion and HMF selectivity could be readily obtained with Cl−. Furthermore, the recyclability of high valence state Lewis acid salt was also studied, however, inferior catalytic performance was observed. The deactivation mechanism was speculated to be the fact that high valence state Lewis acid salt was comparatively easier to undergo hydrolysis to yield complicated metal aqua ions with less catalytic activity. The Lewis acidic activity could be recovered by introducing a stoichiometric amount of hydrochloric acid (HCl to the catalytic before the reaction.

  12. Lewis acid catalysis of a Diels-Alder reaction in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, S; Bertoncin, F; Engberts, JBFN

    1996-01-01

    Here we report the first detailed study of a Diels-Alder (DA) reaction that is catalyzed by Lewis acids in water. The effect of Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions as Lewis acid catalysts on the rate and endo-exo selectivity of the DA reaction between the bidentate dienophiles

  13. Lewis acid-catalyzed depolymerization of soda lignin in supercritical ethanol/water mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güvenatam, Burcu; Heeres, Erik H.J.; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2016-01-01

    The depolymerization of lignin model compounds and soda lignin by super Lewis acidic metal triflates has been investigated in a mixture of ethanol and water at 400 °C. The strong Lewis acids convert representative model compounds for the structure-forming linkages in lignin, namely α-O-4, 5-O-4

  14. Specific acid catalysis and Lewis acid catalysis of Diels-Alder reactions in aqueous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubofu, E.B.; Engberts, J.B.F.N.

    A comparative study of specific acid catalysis and Lewis acid catalysis of Diells-Alder reactions between dienophiles (1, 4 and 6) and cyclopentadiene (2) in water and mixed aqueous media is reported. The reactions were performed in water with copper(II) nitrate as the Lewis acid catalyst whereas

  15. Oral Interpretation of C.S. Lewis'"Narnia Tales": A Refracting of "Pictures."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Carolyn

    "The Chronicles of Narnia" are a series of seven fairy tales written by C.S. Lewis that have become popular with both children and adults. Lewis points to five aspects of the fairy tale form that made the form suitable for expressing the images he saw. The aspects are: (1) no love interest; (2) no close psychology; (3) severe restraints…

  16. Reduced frequency of blood group Lewis a-b- in female Type 1 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharagjitsingh, A.V.; Prinsen, K.; Lemkes, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To examine a disputed association between the Lewis(a(-)b(-)) phenotype and Type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Lewis red blood cell phenotyping was performed for 97 T1D White patients and 100 control subjects using monoclonal antibodies. Two historical cohorts were also included as a control...

  17. Elucidating the Key Role of a Lewis Base Solvent in the Formation of Perovskite Films Fabricated from the Lewis Adduct Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaobing; Zhi, Lili; Li, Yahui; Fang, Fei; Cui, Xian; Yao, Youwei; Ci, Lijie; Ding, Kongxian; Wei, Jinquan

    2017-09-27

    High-quality perovskite films can be fabricated from Lewis acid-base adducts through molecule exchange. Substantial work is needed to fully understand the formation mechanism of the perovskite films, which helps to further improve their quality. Here, we study the formation of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite films by introducing some dimethylacetamide into the PbI 2 /N,N-dimethylformamide solution. We reveal that there are three key processes during the formation of perovskite films through the Lewis acid-base adduct approach: molecule intercalation of solvent into the PbI 2 lattice, molecule exchange between the solvent and CH 3 NH 3 I, and dissolution-recrystallization of the perovskite grains during annealing. The Lewis base solvents play multiple functions in the above processes. The properties of the solvent, including Lewis basicity and boiling point, play key roles in forming smooth perovskite films with large grains. We also provide some rules for choosing Lewis base additives to prepare high-quality perovskite films through the Lewis adduct approach.

  18. Exercise for Individuals with Lewy Body Dementia: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Inskip

    Full Text Available Individuals with Lewy body Dementia (LBD, which encompasses both Parkinson disease dementia (PDD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB experience functional decline through Parkinsonism and sedentariness exacerbated by motor, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. Exercise may improve functional outcomes in Parkinson's disease (PD, and Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the multi-domain nature of the LBD cluster of symptoms (physical, cognitive, psychiatric, autonomic results in vulnerable individuals often being excluded from exercise studies evaluating physical function in PD or cognitive function in dementia to avoid confounding results. This review evaluated existing literature reporting the effects of exercise interventions or physical activity (PA exposure on cluster symptoms in LBD.A high-sensitivity search was executed across 19 databases. Full-length articles of any language and quality, published or unpublished, that analysed effects of isolated exercise/physical activity on indicative Dementia with Lewy Bodies or PD-dementia cohorts were evaluated for outcomes inclusive of physical, cognitive, psychiatric, physiological and quality of life measures. The protocol for this review (Reg. #: CRD42015019002 is accessible at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/.111,485 articles were initially retrieved; 288 full articles were reviewed and 89.6% subsequently deemed ineligible due to exclusion of participants with co-existence of dementia and Parkinsonism. Five studies (1 uncontrolled trial, 1 randomized controlled trial and 3 case reports evaluating 16 participants were included. Interventions were diverse and outcome homogeneity was low. Habitual gait speed outcomes were measured in 13 participants and increased (0.18m/s, 95% CI -0.02, 0.38m/s, exceeding moderate important change (0.14m/s for PD cohorts. Other outcomes appeared to improve modestly in most participants.Scarce research investigating exercise in LBD exists. This review confirms

  19. Ransom, Religion, and Red Giants: C.S. Lewis and Fred Hoyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    Famed fantasy writer C.S. Lewis (1898-1963) was known to friends as a well-read astronomy aficionado. However, this medieval scholar and Christian apologist embraced a pre-Copernican universe (with its astrological overtones) in his Chronicles of Narnia series and defended the beauty and relevance of the geocentric model in his final academic work, "The Discarded Image". In the "Ransom Trilogy” ("Out of the Silent Planet", "Perelandra", and "That Hideous Strength") philologist Ransom (loosely based on Lewis's close friend J.R.R. Tolkien) travels to Lewis's visions of Mars and Venus, where he interacts with intelligent extraterrestrials, battles with evil scientists, and aids in the continuation of extraterrestrial Christian values. In the final book, Ransom is joined by a handful of colleagues in open warfare against the satanic N.I.C.E. (National Institute for Coordinated Experiments). Geneticist and evolutionary biologist J.B.S. Haldane criticized Lewis for his scientifically inaccurate descriptions of the planets, and his disdain for the scientific establishment. Lewis responded to the criticism in essays of his own. Another of Lewis's favorite scientific targets was atheist Fred Hoyle, whom he openly criticized for anti-Christian statements in Hoyle's BBC radio series. Writer and Lewis friend Dorothy L. Sayers voiced her own criticism of Hoyle. In a letter, Lewis dismissed Hoyle as "not a great philosopher (and none of my scientific colleagues think much of him as a scientist.” Given Lewis's lack of respect for Hoyle, and use of creative license in describing the planets, and the flat-earth, "geocentric” Narnia, it is surprising that Lewis very carefully includes an astronomically correct description of red giants in two novels in the Narnia series ("The Magician's Nephew" and "The Last Battle"). This inclusion is even more curious given that Fred Hoyle is well-known as one of the pioneers in the field of stellar death and the properties of red giants.

  20. File list: NoD.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 No description Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 Input control Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  2. File list: NoD.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 No description Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  3. DOE/NASA Lewis large-wind-turbine program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    There are several ongoing large wind system development project; ots directed toward meeting the technology requirements for utility applications. First generation tehcnology machines (Mod-0A and Mod-1) and second generation machines (Mod-2) are in opoeration at selected utility sites. Third generation technology machines (Mod-5) are in the design phase and are scheduled for initial operation in 1984 if project funding is continued. An overview of the large wind turbine activities managed by NASA Lewis is provided. These activities include results from the first and second generation field machines (Mod-0A, 01, and -2), the status of the Department of Interior WTS-4 machine for which NASA is responsible for technical management, and the design phase of the third generation wind turbines (Mod-5).

  4. Renal Failure in Dementia with Lewy Bodies Presenting as Catatonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Catatonia, originally described by Karl Kahlbaum in 1874, may be regarded as a set of clinical features found in a subtype of schizophrenia, but the syndrome may also stem from organic causes including vascular parkinsonism, brain masses, globus pallidus lesions, metabolic derangements, and pharmacologic agents, especially first generation antipsychotics. Catatonia may include paratonia, waxy flexibility (cerea flexibilitas), stupor, mutism, echolalia, and catalepsy (abnormal posturing). A case of catatonia as a result of acute renal failure in a patient with dementia with Lewy bodies is described. This patient recovered after intravenous fluid administration and reinstitution of the atypical dopamine receptor blocking agent quetiapine, but benzodiazepines and amantadine are additional possible treatments. Recognition of organic causes of catatonia leads to timely treatment and resolution of the syndrome. PMID:23466522

  5. Renal Failure in Dementia with Lewy Bodies Presenting as Catatonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fekete

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia, originally described by Karl Kahlbaum in 1874, may be regarded as a set of clinical features found in a subtype of schizophrenia, but the syndrome may also stem from organic causes including vascular parkinsonism, brain masses, globus pallidus lesions, metabolic derangements, and pharmacologic agents, especially first generation antipsychotics. Catatonia may include paratonia, waxy flexibility (cerea flexibilitas, stupor, mutism, echolalia, and catalepsy (abnormal posturing. A case of catatonia as a result of acute renal failure in a patient with dementia with Lewy bodies is described. This patient recovered after intravenous fluid administration and reinstitution of the atypical dopamine receptor blocking agent quetiapine, but benzodiazepines and amantadine are additional possible treatments. Recognition of organic causes of catatonia leads to timely treatment and resolution of the syndrome.

  6. Survey on Cosmogenic 26Al in Lewis Cliff Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, K. C.; Alderliesten, C.; Lindner, L.

    1992-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have embarked upon a ^26Al gamma-ray survey of meteorites selected from about 2000 samples recently recovered from the Lewis Cliff Ice Fields (84 degrees 18'S/161 degrees 20'E). Due to its 705-ka half-life ^26Al can be used for estimating terrestrial ages and thus contribute to further characterization of Antarctic meteorites in addition to their classification and thermoluminescence (TL) properties. The ^26Al survey is also useful for identifying meteorites with unusual exposure histories, which merit additional measurements of cosmogenic radionuclides (by AMS) and noble gases. In addition, it provides clues on possible pairings. METHOD: Low-level gamma-ray spectroscopy is well suited for ^26Al survey work, since bulk meteorite samples can be measured routinely and nondestructively without any previous sample preparation. The required size of the samples (30-500 g) makes the method relatively independent of depth effects and compositional inhomogeneities. The use of a high-resolution GeLi detector also allows the determination of the natural ^40K activity and thus the K content of the samples, which can be used as an additional pairing criterion for ordinary chondrites. Also ^137Cs, a fall-out surface contamination [1], is simultaneously measured; low values may be characteristic for meteorites recently fallen or released from the ablating ice. For the detector an efficiency calibration curve has been made that adequately accounts for differences in size and shape of the meteorite samples. RESULTS and DISCUSSION: TERRESTRIAL AGES: So far, we have measured over 30 Lewis Cliff equilibrated H and L chondrites, collected from widely differing locations. Normalized to L-chondrite composition, the ^26Al contents range from 27 to 110 dpm/kg with peaks around 43 and 53 dpm/kg. This bimodal ^26Al distribution is reminiscent of that observed for Allan Hills ordinary chondrites [2]. Tentative terrestrial ages, calculated on the basis of ^26Al saturation

  7. Transport Coefficients for the NASA Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svehla, Roger A.

    1995-01-01

    The new transport property data that will be used in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Chemical Equilibrium and Applications Program (CEA) is presented. It complements a previous publication that documented the thermodynamic and transport property data then in use. Sources of the data and a brief description of the method by which the data were obtained are given. Coefficients to calculate the viscosity, thermal conductivity, and binary interactions are given for either one, or usually, two temperature intervals, typically 300 to 1000 K and 1000 to 5000 K. The form of the transport equation is the same as used previously. The number of species was reduced from the previous database. Many species for which the data were estimated were eliminated from the database. Some ionneutral interactions were added.

  8. A comparison of two instructional methods for drawing Lewis Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Kari

    Two instructional methods for teaching Lewis structures were compared -- the Direct Octet Rule Method (DORM) and the Commonly Accepted Method (CAM). The DORM gives the number of bonds and the number of nonbonding electrons immediately, while the CAM involves moving electron pairs from nonbonding to bonding electrons, if necessary. The research question was as follows: Will high school chemistry students draw more accurate Lewis structures using the DORM or the CAM? Students in Regular Chemistry 1 (N = 23), Honors Chemistry 1 (N = 51) and Chemistry 2 (N = 15) at an urban high school were the study participants. An identical pretest and posttest was given before and after instruction. Students were given instruction with either the DORM (N = 45), the treatment method, or the CAM (N = 44), the control for two days. After the posttest, 15 students were interviewed, using a semistructured interview process. The pretest/posttest consisted of 23 numerical response questions and 2 to 6 free response questions that were graded using a rubric. A two-way ANOVA showed a significant interaction effect between the groups and the methods, F (1, 70) = 10.960, p = 0.001. Post hoc comparisons using the Bonferroni pairwise comparison showed that Reg Chem 1 students demonstrated larger gain scores when they had been taught the CAM (Mean difference = 3.275, SE = 1.324, p Chemistry 1 students performed better with the DORM, perhaps due to better math skills, enhanced working memory, and better metacognitive skills. Regular Chemistry 1 students performed better with the CAM, perhaps because it is more visual. Teachers may want to use the CAM or a direct-pairing method to introduce the topic and use the DORM in advanced classes when a correct structure is needed quickly.

  9. Lewis pair polymerization by classical and frustrated Lewis pairs: Acid, base and monomer scope and polymerization mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yuetao

    2012-01-01

    Classical and frustrated Lewis pairs (LPs) of the strong Lewis acid (LA) Al(C 6F 5) 3 with several Lewis base (LB) classes have been found to exhibit exceptional activity in the Lewis pair polymerization (LPP) of conjugated polar alkenes such as methyl methacrylate (MMA) as well as renewable α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL) and γ-methyl- α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (γ-MMBL), leading to high molecular weight polymers, often with narrow molecular weight distributions. This study has investigated a large number of LPs, consisting of 11 LAs as well as 10 achiral and 4 chiral LBs, for LPP of 12 monomers of several different types. Although some more common LAs can also be utilized for LPP, Al(C 6F 5) 3-based LPs are far more active and effective than other LA-based LPs. On the other hand, several classes of LBs, when paired with Al(C 6F 5) 3, can render highly active and effective LPP of MMA and γ-MMBL; such LBs include phosphines (e.g., P tBu 3), chiral chelating diphosphines, N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), and phosphazene superbases (e.g., P 4- tBu). The P 4- tBu/Al(C 6F 5) 3 pair exhibits the highest activity of the LP series, with a remarkably high turn-over frequency of 9.6 × 10 4 h -1 (0.125 mol% catalyst, 100% MMA conversion in 30 s, M n = 2.12 × 10 5 g mol -1, PDI = 1.34). The polymers produced by LPs at RT are typically atactic (P γMMBL with ∼47% mr) or syndio-rich (PMMA with ∼70-75% rr), but highly syndiotactic PMMA with rr ∼91% can be produced by chiral or achiral LPs at -78 °C. Mechanistic studies have identified and structurally characterized zwitterionic phosphonium and imidazolium enolaluminates as the active species of the current LPP system, which are formed by the reaction of the monomer·Al(C 6F 5) 3 adduct with P tBu 3 and NHC bases, respectively. Kinetic studies have revealed that the MMA polymerization by the tBu 3P/ Al(C 6F 5) 3 pair is zero-order in monomer concentration after an initial induction period, and the polymerization

  10. From Conventional Lewis Acids to Heterogeneous Montmorillonite K10: Eco-Friendly Plant-Based Catalysts Used as Green Lewis Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechelski, Marie; Ghinet, Alina; Louvel, Brice; Dufrénoy, Pierrick; Rigo, Benoît; Daïch, Adam; Waterlot, Christophe

    2018-04-25

    The concept of green chemistry began in the USA in the 1990s. Since the publication of the 12 principles of this concept, many reactions in organic chemistry have been developed, and chemical products have been synthesized under environmentally friendly conditions. Lewis acid mediated synthetic transformations are by far the most numerous and best studied. However, the use of certain Lewis acids may cause risks to environmental and human health. This Review discusses the evolution of Lewis acid catalyzed reactions from a homogeneous liquid phase to the solid phase to yield the expected organic molecules under green, safe conditions. In particular, recent developments and applications of biosourced catalysts from plants are highlighted. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Lewis Research Center studies of multiple large wind turbine generators on a utility network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, L. J.; Triezenberg, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    A NASA-Lewis program to study the anticipated performance of a wind turbine generator farm on an electric utility network is surveyed. The paper describes the approach of the Lewis Wind Energy Project Office to developing analysis capabilities in the area of wind turbine generator-utility network computer simulations. Attention is given to areas such as, the Lewis Purdue hybrid simulation, an independent stability study, DOE multiunit plant study, and the WEST simulator. Also covered are the Lewis mod-2 simulation including analog simulation of a two wind turbine system and comparison with Boeing simulation results, and gust response of a two machine model. Finally future work to be done is noted and it is concluded that the study shows little interaction between the generators and between the generators and the bus.

  12. Barack Obama, John Lewis, and the Legacy of the Civil Rights Struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn T. Eskew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The watershed election in 2008 of Barack Obama as the first President of the United States to have African ancestry resulted from the life work of such civil rights activists as U.S. Congressman John Lewis. Born on a sharecropper’s farm in 1940, the African American Lewis grew up in segregated Alabama. As a college student in Nashville, he joined the sit-in protests and volunteered for the original Freedom Ride in 1961. He was elected chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, becoming the youngest speaker at the March on Washington in 1963. The radical shift to Black ultimately forced Lewis out of SNCC. Consequently Lewis capitalized on the Voting Rights Act of 1965, turned his attentions to voter registration campaigns, and continued working within the system. In 1986 he won election to the U.S. House of Representatives to represent Atlanta’s Fifth Congressional District, a seat he continues to hold today.

  13. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data...

  14. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County project of 2005. The project site covered approximately 223 square miles, divided...

  15. Functional connectivity in cortical regions in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Eva R; Blamire, Andrew M; Firbank, Michael J; O'Brien, John T

    2012-02-01

    Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal were measured to investigate connectivity between key brain regions hypothesized to be differentially affected in dementia with Lewy bodies compared with Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls. These included connections of the hippocampus, because of its role in learning, and parietal and occipital areas involved in memory, attention and visual processing. Connectivity was investigated in 47 subjects aged 60 years and over: 15 subjects with dementia with Lewy bodies, 16 subjects with Alzheimer's disease and 16 control subjects. Subjects were scanned using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system. The mean blood oxygenation level-dependent signal time series was extracted from seed regions in the hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus and primary visual cortex and correlated with all other brain voxels to determine functional connectivity. Both subjects with dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease showed greater connectivity than control subjects. Compared with controls, the dementia with Lewy bodies group had greater connectivity between the right posterior cingulate cortex and other brain areas. In dementia with Lewy bodies, there were no significant differences in hippocampal connectivity compared with controls, but in Alzheimer's disease left hippocampal connectivity was greater compared with controls. There were no significant differences between groups for precuneus or primary visual cortex connectivity. No seed regions showed significantly less connectivity in subjects with dementia with Lewy bodies or Alzheimer's disease compared with controls. We found greater connectivity with the posterior cingulate in dementia with Lewy bodies and with the hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease. Consistent with the known relative preservation of memory in dementia with Lewy bodies compared with Alzheimer

  16. Genetic susceptibility of periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Loos, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we explore and summarize the peer-reviewed literature on putative genetic risk factors for susceptibility to aggressive and chronic periodontitis. A comprehensive literature search on the PubMed database was performed using the keywords ‘periodontitis’ or ‘periodontal

  17. Clinical and imaging correlates of amyloid deposition in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Paul C; Firbank, Michael J; Thomas, Alan J; Lloyd, Jim; Petrides, George; Barnett, Nicola; Olsen, Kirsty; O'Brien, John T

    2018-04-19

    Amyloid deposition is common in dementia with Lewy bodies, but its pathophysiological significance is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between amyloid deposition and clinical profile, gray matter volume, and brain perfusion in dementia with Lewy bodies. Dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 37), Alzheimer's disease (n = 20), and controls (n = 20) underwent a thorough clinical assessment, 3T MRI, and early- and late-phase 18 F-Florbetapir PET-CT to assess cortical perfusion and amyloid deposition, respectively. Amyloid scans were visually categorized as positive or negative. Image analysis was carried out using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 8. There were no significant differences between amyloid-positive and amyloid-negative dementia with Lewy bodies cases in age (P = .78), overall cognitive impairment (P = .83), level of functional impairment (P = .80), or any other clinical or cognitive scale. There were also no significant differences in hippocampal or gray matter volumes. However, amyloid-positive dementia with Lewy bodies cases had lower medial temporal lobe perfusion (P = .03) than amyloid-negative cases, although a combination of medial temporal lobe perfusion, hippocampal volume, and cognitive measures was unable to accurately predict amyloid status in dementia with Lewy bodies. Amyloid deposition was not associated with differences in clinical or neuropsychological profiles in dementia with Lewy bodies, but was associated with imaging evidence of medial temporal lobe dysfunction. The presence of amyloid in dementia with Lewy bodies cannot be identified on the basis of clinical and other imaging features and will require direct assessment via PET imaging or CSF. © 2018 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf

  18. Visual Hallucinations in PD and Lewy Body Dementias: Old and New Hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Onofrj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual Hallucinations (VH are a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s Disease (PD and the Lewy body dementias (LBD of Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB. The origin of VH in PD and LBD is debated: earlier studies considered a number of different possible mechanisms underlying VH including visual disorders, Rapid Eye Movement (REM Sleep Intrusions, dysfunctions of top down or bottom up visual pathways, and neurotransmitter imbalance.

  19. A dual Lewis base activation strategy for enantioselective carbene-catalyzed annulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Javier; Orue, Ane; Scheidt, Karl A

    2013-07-24

    A dual activation strategy integrating N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalysis and a second Lewis base has been developed. NHC-bound homoenolate equivalents derived from α,β-unsaturated aldehydes combine with transient reactive o-quinone methides in an enantioselective formal [4 + 3] fashion to access 2-benzoxopinones. The overall approach provides a general blueprint for the integration of carbene catalysis with additional Lewis base activation modes.

  20. Lewis antigen mediated adhesion of freshly removed human bladder tumors to E-selectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skorsteensgaard, Karna; Vestergaard, Else Marie; Langkilde, Niels

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Twenty fresh surgical specimens of human bladder tumors were tested for their ability to adhere to recombinant P and E-selectin. The adhesion was correlated to immunological detection of carbohydrate structures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A static titertray assay with immobilized selectins.......003), whereas no correlation was found to secretor and Lewis genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: These data on clinical specimens indicate that Lewis antigen mediated E-selectin adhesion may play a role in the human bladder cancer disease....

  1. Fate of TCE in heated Fort Lewis soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jed; Fletcher, Kelly E; Löffler, Frank E; Pennell, Kurt D

    2009-02-01

    This study explores the transformation of trichloroethene (TCE) caused by heating contaminated soil and groundwater samples obtained from the East Gate Disposal Yard (EGDY) located in Fort Lewis, WA. After field samples transferring into glass ampules and introducing 1.5 micromol of TCE, the sealed ampules were incubated at temperatures of 25, 50, and 95 degrees C for periods of up to 95.5 days. Although TCE was completely transformed into cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) after 42 days at 25 degrees C by microbial activity, this transformation was not observed at 50 or 95 degrees C. Chloride levels increased after 42 days at 25 degrees C corresponding to the mass of TCE transformed to cis-DCE, were constant at 50 degrees C, and increased at 95 degrees C yielding a TCE degradation half-life of 1.6-1.9 years. These findings indicate that indigenous microbes contribute to the partial dechlorination of TCE to cis-DCE at temperatures of less than 50 degrees C, whereas interphase mass transfer and physical recovery of TCE will predominate over in situ degradation processes at temperatures of greater than 50 degrees C during thermal treatment at the EGDY site.

  2. NASA Lewis steady-state heat pipe code users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tower, L.K.

    1992-06-01

    The NASA Lewis heat pipe code has been developed to predict the performance of heat pipes in the steady state. The code can be used as a design tool on a personal computer or, with a suitable calling routine, as a subroutine for a mainframe radiator code. A variety of wick structures, including a user input option, can be used. Heat pipes with multiple evaporators, condensers, and adiabatic sections in series and with wick structures that differ among sections can be modeled. Several working fluids can be chosen, including potassium, sodium, and lithium, for which the monomer-dimer equilibrium is considered. The code incorporates a vapor flow algorithm that treats compressibility and axially varying heat input. This code facilitates the determination of heat pipe operating temperatures and heat pipe limits that may be encountered at the specified heat input and environment temperature. Data are input to the computer through a user-interactive input subroutine. Output, such as liquid and vapor pressures and temperatures, is printed at equally spaced axial positions along the pipe as determined by the user

  3. Lewis Swift celebrated comet hunter and the people's astronomer

    CERN Document Server

    Kronk, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    This biography covers the life of Lewis Swift (1820-1913), who discovered 13 comets and nearly 1,200 other deep sky objects. All 13 comets found by Swift now bear his name, including three periodic comets with periods of 6 years (11P/Tempel-Swift-LINEAR), 9 years (64P/Swift-Gehrels), and 133 years (109P/Swift-Tuttle). Swift's enthusiasm and success as an amateur astronomer helped make him famous in the United States. With the help of others, Swift was able to buy a 16-inch refractor, the third largest telescope in the United States at the time. Hulbert Harrington Warner built "Warner Observatory" to house this telescope. As a prolific writer and lecturer, Swift's stories appeared in newspapers and magazines, while his lectures showed that he was able to explain anything in a way that everyone could understand.  When Warner went broke during the "Panic of 1893," Swift was forced to leave his home. Almost two dozen invitations arrived from around the United States asking him to bring his telescope to their ci...

  4. Clinical and neuroimage findings of dementia with lewy bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo

    2002-01-01

    Dementia with lewy bodies (DLB) is the second common degenerative dementia and has several characteristics including fluctuating cognition, visual hallucination and Parkinsonism. We investigated clinical manifestations and neuroimaging findings in DLB patients. Ten probable DLB patients were included in this study. Brain MRI, Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT and I-123 IPT SPECT were performed. All patients were men and mean age of onset was 64.2 years (range from 54 to 80). All had fluctuating cognition and Parkinsonism, and 8 had visual hallucination. Dementia preceded Parkinsonism in 3 patients. Fluctuation of K-MMSE ranges from 3 to 8 points. Rest tremor was seen in 5 patients. Brain MRI showed cortical atrophy in all patients. Tc-99m brain perfusion SPECT showed hypoperfusion in occipital area as well as fronto-temporo-parietal areas. I-123 IPT SPECT revealed reduced uptake comparable to Parkinson's disease in the striatum. DLB should be first considered as one of possible diagnosis in patients showing dementia in the early stage of Parkinsonism. Hypoperfusion in the occipital area was thought to be a characteristic finding in DLB and to be helpful in differentiating DLB from other degenerative dementias

  5. Microfluidic Separation of Ethylene and Ethane Using Frustrated Lewis Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Dan; Stephan, Douglas W; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2015-12-21

    Separation of gaseous olefins and paraffins is one of the most important separation processes in the industry. Development of new cost-effective technologies aims at reducing the high energy consumption during the separation process. Here, we took advantage of the reaction of frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) with ethylene to achieve reactive extraction of ethylene from ethylene-ethane mixtures. The extraction was studied using a microfluidic platform, which enabled a rapid, high-throughput assessment of reaction conditions to optimize gas separation efficiency. A separation factor of 7.3 was achieved for ethylene from a 1:1 volume ratio mixture of ethylene and ethane, which corresponded to an extracted ethylene purity of 88 %. The results obtained in the microfluidic studies were validated using infrared spectroscopy. This work paves the way for further development of the FLPs and optimization of reaction conditions, thereby maximizing the separation efficiency of olefins from their mixtures with paraffins. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Streamline segment statistics of premixed flames with nonunity Lewis numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Wang, Lipo; Klein, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The interaction of flame and surrounding fluid motion is of central importance in the fundamental understanding of turbulent combustion. It is demonstrated here that this interaction can be represented using streamline segment analysis, which was previously applied in nonreactive turbulence. The present work focuses on the effects of the global Lewis number (Le) on streamline segment statistics in premixed flames in the thin-reaction-zones regime. A direct numerical simulation database of freely propagating thin-reaction-zones regime flames with Le ranging from 0.34 to 1.2 is used to demonstrate that Le has significant influences on the characteristic features of the streamline segment, such as the curve length, the difference in the velocity magnitude at two extremal points, and their correlations with the local flame curvature. The strengthenings of the dilatation rate, flame normal acceleration, and flame-generated turbulence with decreasing Le are principally responsible for these observed effects. An expression for the probability density function (pdf) of the streamline segment length, originally developed for nonreacting turbulent flows, captures the qualitative behavior for turbulent premixed flames in the thin-reaction-zones regime for a wide range of Le values. The joint pdfs between the streamline length and the difference in the velocity magnitude at two extremal points for both unweighted and density-weighted velocity vectors are analyzed and compared. Detailed explanations are provided for the observed differences in the topological behaviors of the streamline segment in response to the global Le.

  7. Detection of acute renal allograft rejection by analysis of renal tissue proteomics in rat models of renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Yong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the diagnosis of renal allograft rejection requires a renal biopsy. Clinical management of renal transplant patients would be improved if rapid, noninvasive and reliable biomarkers of rejection were available. This study is designed to determine whether such protein biomarkers can be found in renal-graft tissue proteomic approach. Orthotopic kidney transplantations were performed using Fisher (F344 or Lewis rats as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Hence, there were two groups of renal transplant models: one is allograft (from F344 to Lewis rats; another is syngrafts (from Lewis to Lewis rats serving as control. Renal tissues were collected 3, 7 and 14 days after transplantation. As many as 18 samples were analyzed by 2-D Electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. Eleven differentially expressed proteins were identified between groups. In conclusion, proteomic technology can detect renal tissue proteins associated with acute renal allograft rejection. Identification of these proteins as diagnostic markers for rejection in patients′ urine or sera may be useful and non-invasive, and these proteins might serve as novel therapeutic targets that also help to improve the understanding of mechanism of renal rejection.

  8. Detection of acute renal allograft rejection by analysis of Renal TissueProteomics in rat models of renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Y.; Lv, T.; Wang, K.; Li, D.; Huang, Y.; Liu, J.

    2008-01-01

    At present, the diagnosis of renal allograft rejection requires a renalbiopsy. Clinical management of renal transplant patients would be improved ifrapid, noninvasive and reliable biomarkers of rejection were available. Thisstudy is designed to determine whether such protein biomarkers can be foundin renal graft tissue proteomic approach. Orthotopic kidney transplantationswere performed using Fisher (F344) or Lewis rats as donors and Lewis rats asrecipients. Hence, there were two groups of renal transplant models: one isallograft (from F344 to Lewis rats); another is syngrafts (from Lewis toLewis rats) serving as control. Renal tissues were collected 3, 7 and 14 daysafter transplantation. As many 18 samples were analyzed by 2-DElectrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS). Elevendifferentially expressed proteins were identified between groups. Inconclusion, proteomic technology can detect renal tissue proteins associatedwith acute renal allograft rejection. Identification of these proteins asdiagnostic markers for rejection in patient's urine or sera may be useful andnon-invasive, and these proteins might serve as novel therapeutic targetsthat also help to improve the understanding of mechanisms of renal rejection.(author)

  9. Liquid-Phase Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation of Furfural over Homogeneous Lewis Acid-Ru/C Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, Paraskevi; Martin, Nickolas; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2015-06-22

    The catalytic performance of homogeneous Lewis acid catalysts and their interaction with Ru/C catalyst are studied in the catalytic transfer hydrogenation of furfural by using 2-propanol as a solvent and hydrogen donor. We find that Lewis acid catalysts hydrogenate the furfural to furfuryl alcohol, which is then etherified with 2-propanol. The catalytic activity is correlated with an empirical scale of Lewis acid strength and exhibits a volcano behavior. Lanthanides are the most active, with DyCl3 giving complete furfural conversion and a 97 % yield of furfuryl alcohol at 180 °C after 3 h. The combination of Lewis acid and Ru/C catalysts results in synergy for the stronger Lewis acid catalysts, with a significant increase in the furfural conversion and methyl furan yield. Optimum results are obtained by using Ru/C combined with VCl3 , AlCl3 , SnCl4 , YbCl3 , and RuCl3 . Our results indicate that the combination of Lewis acid/metal catalysts is a general strategy for performing tandem reactions in the upgrade of furans. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Lewis Carroll, a educação e o ensino de geometria na Inglaterra vitoriana - Lewis Carroll, education and the teaching of geometry in victorian England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Montoito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Parte da pesquisa motivada pela tradução para o português do livro Euclides e seus rivais modernos, publicado por Lewis Carroll em 1879, este artigo se inscreve numa série de estudos que visam a um exame hermenêutico dessa obra. São discutidos temas relacionados com a educação, a educação matemática e o ensino de geometria na Inglaterra vitoriana.Palavras-chave: Lewis Carroll, Euclides e seus rivais modernos, história da educação, educação matemática, geometria. LEWIS CARROLL, EDUCATION AND THE TEACHING OF GEOMETRY IN VICTORIAN ENGLANDAbstractResearch partly motivated by Lewis Carrroll's Euclid and his modern rivals (1879 portuguese translation, this paper presents some hermeneutical remarks taken as necessary to understand the context in which such book was produced. The paper focuses particularly on education, in general, and on the teaching of mathematics and geometry in victorian England.Key-words: Lewis Carroll, Euclid and his modern rivals, history of education, mathematics education, geometry. LEWIS CARROLL, LA EDUCACIÓN Y EL ENSINO DE GEOMETRÍA EN LA INGLATERRA VICTORIANAResumenParte de la investigación motivada por la traducción al portugués del libro Euclides y sus enemigos modernos, publicado por Lewis Carroll en 1879, este artículo se inscribe en una serie de estudios que tienen por objetivo hacer un examen hermenéutico de la obra. Son aquí discutidos temas relacionados como la educación, la educación matemática y la enseñanza de geometría en la Inglaterra victoriana.Palabras-clave: Lewis Carroll, Euclides y sus enemigos modernos, historia de la educación, educación matemática, geometría. LEWIS CARROLL, L’ÉDUCATION ET L’ENSEIGMENT DE GÉOMÉTRIE EN L’ANGLETERRE VICTORIENNERésuméFaisant partie de la recherche motivée par la traduction en portugais du livre Euclide et ses rivaux modernes, publié par Lewis Carrol en 1879 , cet article s’inscrit dans une série d’études dont le but

  11. Improved lignin polyurethane properties with Lewis acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hoyong; Washburn, Newell R

    2012-06-27

    Chemical modification strategies to improve the mechanical properties of lignin-based polyurethanes are presented. We hypothesized that treatment of lignin with Lewis acids would increase the concentration of hydroxyl groups available to react with diisocyanate monomers. Under the conditions used, hydrogen bromide-catalyzed modification resulted in a 28% increase in hydroxyl group content. Associated increases in hydrophilicity of solvent-cast thin films were also recorded as evidenced by decreases in water contact angle. Polyurethanes were then prepared by first preparing a prepolymer based on mixtures of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and unmodified or modified lignin, then polymerization was completed through addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG), resulting in mass ratios of TDI:lignin:PEG of 43:17:40 in the compositions investigated here. The mixture of TDI and unmodified lignin resulted in a lignin powder at the bottom of the liquid, suggesting it did not react directly with TDI. However, a homogeneous solution resulted when TDI and the hydrogen bromide-treated lignin were mixed, suggesting demethylation indeed increased reactivity and resulted in better integration of lignin into the urethane network. Significant improvements in mechanical properties of modified lignin polyurethanes were observed, with a 6.5-fold increase in modulus, which were attributed to better integration of the modified lignin into the covalent polymer network due to the higher concentration of hydroxyl groups. This research indicates that chemical modification strategies can lead to significant improvements in the properties of lignin-based polymeric materials using a higher fraction of an inexpensive lignin monomer from renewable resources and a lower fraction an expensive, petroleum-derived isocyanate monomer to achieve the required material properties.

  12. Expression of hPNAS-4 Radiosensitizes Lewis Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Hui; Yuan Zhu; Zhu Hong; Li Lei; Shi Huashan; Wang Zi; Fan Yu; Deng Qian; Zeng Jianshuang; He Yinbo; Xiao Jianghong; Li Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to transfer the hPNAS-4 gene, a novel apoptosis-related human gene, into Lewis lung cancer (LL2) and observe its radiosensitive effect on radiation therapy in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: The hPNAS-4 gene was transfected into LL2 cells, and its expression was detected via western blot. Colony formation assay and flow cytometry were used to detect the growth and apoptosis of cells treated with irradiation/PNAS-4 in vitro. The hPNAS-4 gene was transferred into LL2-bearing mice through tail vein injection of the liposome/gene complex. The tumor volumes were recorded after radiation therapy. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were performed to detect the tumor cell growth and apoptosis in vivo. Results: The hPNAS-4 gene was successfully transferred into LL2 cells and tumor tissue, and its overexpressions were confirmed via western blot analysis. Compared with the control, empty plasmid, hPNAS-4, radiation, and empty plasmid plus radiation groups, the hPNAS-4 plus radiation group more significantly inhibited growth and enhanced apoptosis of LL2 cells in vitro and in vivo (P<.05). Conclusions: The hPNAS-4 gene was successfully transferred into LL2 cells and tumor tissue and was expressed in both LL2 cell and tumor tissue. The hPNAS-4 gene therapy significantly enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis of LL2 tumor cells by radiation therapy in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, it may be a potential radiosensitive treatment of radiation therapy for lung cancer.

  13. Lewis M. Rutherfurd and the First Photograph of Solar Granulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. W.; Briggs, John W.; Prosser, Sian

    2017-08-01

    A major astronomical controversy of the mid-19th century was discordant descriptions of the small scale structure of the solar surface. Visual observers contradicted each other by describing the surface as consisting of “corrugations”, “willow leaves”, “rice grains”, “cumuli”, “thatch”, “granules”, etc. Early photographs of the solar surface were not good enough to settle the controversy. The French astronomer Jules Janssen is credited with the first 1876 photographs that clearly showed what we now call solar granulation (1876, CRAS 82, 1363). Upon seeing these images, New Yorker Lewis M. Rutherfurd (1878, MNRAS 38, 410) praised the high quality of Janssen’s images but asserted that he had also photographed granulation as early as 1871 using collodion wet plates. He sent copies of his best photograph to the Royal Astronomical Society to support his assertion. Curious about his claim, Briggs and Harvey set up Rutherfurd’s 13-inch achromatic refractor on Kitt Peak and found that it easily showed well-resolved solar granulation, so his claim might well have been justified. But without his plates we could not confirm the claim. For 140 years the copies of Rutherfurd’s best solar photograph remained in the archives of the Royal Astronomical Society and were recently discovered by Prosser (RAS Photographs A3/001B and A3/002). By coincidence a few days later, Briggs found the original August 11, 1871 plate. Despite poor condition these photographs show solar granulation. There are at least two other possible early claimants (Reade; Vogel) but their plates are almost certainly lost. Rutherfurd was a master of astronomical instrumentation and photography. He was reticent about his work, letting results speak for themselves, so it is satisfying to find that he was justified in making his claim of priority.

  14. Tumour Progression and Spontaneous Regression in the Lewis Rat Sarcoma Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovalská, Jana; Mishra, Rajbardhan; Jebavý, L.; Makovický, P.; Janda, Jozef; Plánská, D.; Červinková, Monika; Horák, Vratislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 12 (2015), s. 6539-6549 ISSN 0250-7005 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : spontaneous regression * progression * sarcoma Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.895, year: 2015

  15. Effect of Feeding Status on Adjuvant Arthritis Severity, Cachexia, and Insulin Sensitivity in Male Lewis Rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stofková, A.; Železná, Blanka; Romzová, Marianna; Uličná, O.; Kiss, A.; Skurlová, M.; Jurcovicová, J.

    -, ID 398026 (2010), s. 1-12 ISSN 0962-9351 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/06/0427; GA ČR GAP303/10/1368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : adjuvant arthritis * feeding Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.059, year: 2010

  16. Effects of the immunomodulator, VGX-1027, in endotoxin-induced uveitis in Lewis rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangano, K; Sardesai, N Y; Quattrocchi, C

    2008-01-01

    VGX-1027 is a novel, low molecular weight, immunomodulatory compound that has shown efficacy against a variety of immuno-inflammatory disease models in animals including autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice, collagen-induced arthritis and chemically induced inflammatory colitis. Here, we have studied ...

  17. Manipulating the Lewis antigen specificity of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin lectinolysin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eLawrence

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs attack cells by punching large holes in their membranes. Lectinolysin from Streptococcus mitis is unique among CDCs due to the presence of an N-terminal lectin domain that enhances the pore-forming activity of the toxin. We recently determined the crystal structures of the lectin domain in complex with various glycans. These structures revealed the molecular basis for the Lewis antigen specificity of the toxin. Based on this information we have used in silico molecular modelling to design a mutant toxin, which we predicted would increase its specificity for Lewis y, an antigen found on the surface of cancer cells. Surprisingly, we found by surface plasmon resonance binding experiments that the resultant mutant lectin domain exhibited higher specificity for Lewis b antigens instead. We then undertook comparative crystallographic and molecular dynamics simulation studies of the wild-type and mutant lectin domains to understand the molecular basis for the disparity between the theoretical and experimental results. The crystallographic results revealed that the net number of interactions between Lewis y and wild-type versus mutant was unchanged whereas there was a loss of a hydrogen bond between mutant and Lewis b compared to wild-type. In contrast, the molecular dynamics studies revealed that the Lewis b antigen spent more time in the binding pocket of the mutant compared to wild-type and the reverse was true for Lewis y. The results of these simulation studies are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the surface plasmon resonance studies. This work is part of a program to engineer lectinolysin so that it will target and kill specific cells in human diseases.

  18. Historical perspectives - The role of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the national space nuclear power programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Sovie, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The history of the NASA Lewis Research Center's role in space nuclear power programs is reviewed. Lewis has provided leadership in research, development, and the advancement of space power and propulsion systems. Lewis' pioneering efforts in nuclear reactor technology, shielding, high temperature materials, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, mechanical and direct energy conversion, high-energy propellants, electric propulsion and high performance rocket fuels and nozzles have led to significant technical and management roles in many natural space nuclear power and propulsion programs.

  19. Historical perspectives: The role of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the national space nuclear power programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Sovie, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The history of the NASA Lewis Research Center's role in space nuclear power programs is reviewed. Lewis has provided leadership in research, development, and the advancement of space power and propulsion systems. Lewis' pioneering efforts in nuclear reactor technology, shielding, high temperature materials, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, mechanical and direct energy conversion, high-energy propellants, electric propulsion and high performance rocket fuels and nozzles have led to significant technical and management roles in many national space nuclear power and propulsion programs.

  20. The effects of artificially induced hyperglycaemia on the response of the Lewis lung carcinoma to radiation and cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    In the treatment of any malignancy it is essential to utilize all known physiological differences that exist between tumour and normal tissue. One well established difference is that tumours, in both rodents and man, have a lower pH than normal tissue. Further reduction in tumour pH occurs in non-vascularised necrotic regions. It is now widely believed that cells, close to necrotic regions, distant from blood vessels are protected from the effects of radiation and chemotherapeutic agents by their hypoxia and reduced rate of proliferation, thus providing the foci for tumour regrowth. Yet, since these cells are situated in an acidic environment they should be the ones most susceptible to exploitation or modification of the tumour's acid:base status. Hyperglycaemia is known to increase tumour acidosis. The effect of such treatment on the tumour response to radiation or to chemotherapeutic agents is being assessed. Initial results indicate that hyperglycaemia can increase or reduce the response of the Lewis lung carcinoma to cyclophosphamide. The type of response obtained is dependent on the duration, level and timing of glucose treatments. Further work is now in progress

  1. Effects of Nicotine and Stress on Anxiety-related and Depression-related Behavior in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-30

    mesolimbic dopamine (3). Picciotto et al (46) highlight the ambiguity of nicotine’s relationship with stress suggesting that the drug can either...Toxicology 57:380-6 43. Lewis EM, Barnett JF, Freshwater L, Hoberman AM, Christian MS. 2002. Sexual maturation data for Crl Sprague-Dawley rats

  2. Stochastic Modeling of Rainfall in Peninsular Malaysia Using Bartlett Lewis Rectangular Pulses Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Suliman Hanaish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three versions of Bartlett Lewis rectangular pulse rainfall models, namely, the Original Bartlett Lewis (OBL, Modified Bartlett Lewis (MBL, and 2N-cell-type Bartlett Lewis model (BL2n, are considered. These models are fitted to the hourly rainfall data from 1970 to 2008 obtained from Petaling Jaya rain gauge station, located in Peninsular Malaysia. The generalized method of moments is used to estimate the model parameters. Under this method, minimization of two different objective functions which involve different weight functions, one weight is inversely proportional to the variance and another one is inversely proportional to the mean squared, is carried out using Nelder-Mead optimization technique. For the purpose of comparison of the performance of the three different models, the results found for the months of July and November are used for illustration. This performance is assessed based on the goodness of fit of the models. In addition, the sensitivity of the parameter estimates to the choice of the objective function is also investigated. It is found that BL2n slightly outperforms OBL. However, the best model is the Modified Bartlett Lewis MBL, particularly when the objective function considered involves weight which is inversely proportional to the variance.

  3. Genomic expression analysis of rat chromosome 4 for skeletal traits at femoral neck

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Imranul; Sun, Qiwei; Liu, Lixiang; Koller, Daniel L.; Liu, Yunlong; Edenberg, Howard J.; Econs, Michael J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Turner, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    Hip fracture is the most devastating osteoporotic fracture type with significant morbidity and mortality. Several studies in humans and animal models identified chromosomal regions linked to hip size and bone mass. Previously, we identified that the region of 4q21-q41 on rat chromosome (Chr) 4 harbors multiple femoral neck quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in inbred Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats. The purpose of this study is to identify the candidate genes for femoral neck structure an...

  4. Lewis-Acid/Base Effects on Gallium Volatility in Molten Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.

    2001-01-01

    It has been proposed that GaCl 3 can be removed by direct volatilization from a Pu-Ga alloy that is dissolved in a molten chloride salt. Although pure GaCl 3 is quite volatile (boiling point, 201 C), the behavior of GaCl 3 dissolved in chloride salts is different due to solution effects and is critically dependent on the composition of the solvent salt (i.e., its Lewis-acid/base character). In this report, the behavior of gallium in prototypical Lewis-acid and Lewis-base salts is compared. It was found that gallium volatility is suppressed in basic melts and enhanced in acidic melts. The implications of these results on the potential for simple gallium removal in molten salt systems are significant

  5. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Sandra; Barakat, Abdellatif; Robitzer, Mike; Di Renzo, Francesco; Dumas, Claire; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    Cellulosic pulps have been successfully isolated from wheat straw through a Lewis acids organosolv treatment. The use of Lewis acids with different hardness produced pulps with different delignification degrees. The cellulosic residue was characterised by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and potential for anaerobic digestibility. Surface area and pore volume increased with the hardness of the Lewis acid, in correspondence with the decrease of the amount of lignin and hemicellulose in the pulp. The non linearity of the correlation between porosity and composition suggests that an agglomeration of cellulose fibrils occurs in the early stages of pulping. All organosolv pulps presented a significantly higher methane potential than the parent straw. A methane evolution of 295Ncm(3)/g OM was reached by a moderate improvement of the accessibility of the native straw. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A chromatographic study of the Lewis acid-base chemistry of zirconia surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, J.A.; Carr, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the chromatographic properties of porous microparticulate zirconium oxide surfaces in aqueous media which are highly dependent upon the chemical composition of the eluent. In particular, retention is controlled by the type and concentration of hard Ligand exchange is the dominant mechanism for the retention of solutes which are Lewis bases. consequently, the capacity factor and plate height depend on both the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of whatever competing Lewis bases may be present in the eluent. These Lewis base eluent components act to control retention in two ways. They modify the net ligand exchange contribution to retention, and they serve as sites for secondary interactions, such as hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions between solutes and the dynamic stationary phase

  7. On the behaviour of biradicaloid [P(μ-NTer)]2 towards Lewis acids and bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Alexander; Schulz, Axel; Villinger, Alexander

    2016-05-07

    The well-known diphosphadiazane-1,3-diyl [P(μ-NTer)]2 (Ter = 2,6-bis(2,4,6-trimethyl-phenyl)-phenyl) was treated with Lewis bases such as N-heterocyclic carbenes and Lewis acids e.g. gold(i) chloride complexes. In the reaction with the Lewis base, fragmentation of the P2N2 framework was observed, yielding a salt of the type [(NHC)2P](+)[(TerN)2P](-) in a clean reaction. The reaction of [P(μ-NTer)]2 with gold(i) chloride afforded 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 complexes. The dinuclear complex [(ClAu)2P(μ-NTer)2P] displays a bridging P atom between both gold centers, as has been observed for P based zwitterions.

  8. Progression of nephropathy after islet of langerhans transplantation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Tadeu Spadella

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of islet of Langerhans transplantation (IT on the kidney lesions of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. Forty-five inbred male Lewis rats were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: group Gl included 15 non-diabetic control rats (NC, group GIT included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats (DC, and group III included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats that received pancreatic islet transplantation prepared by nonenzymatic method from normal donor Lewis rats and injected into the portal vein (IT. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats which were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Clinical and laboratorial parameters were recorded in the mentioned periods in the 3 experimental groups. For histology, the kidneys of all rats of each subgroup were studied and 50 glomeruli and 50 tubules of each kidney were analyzed using light microscopy by two different investigators in a double blind study. The results showed progressive glomerular basement membrane thickening (GBMT, mesangial enlargement (ME, and Bowman's capsule thickening (BCT in the 3 experimental groups throughout the follow-up. These alterations were significantly more severe in DC rats at 6 months when compared to NC rats (p < 0.01. However, the degree of GBMT, ME, and BCT observed in DC rats was not statistically different from IT rats at 1, 3, and 6 months. In addition, Armanni-Ebstein lesions of the tubules (AE and tubular lumen protein (PRO observed in DC rats were also observed in IT rats all over the study. These lesions were never present in NC rats. We conclude that IT did not prevent progression of kidney lesions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats within 6 months after transplantation.

  9. Lewis x is highly expressed in normal tissues: a comparative immunohistochemical study and literature revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, María V; Isla-Larrain, Marina; Rabassa, Martín E; Demichelis, Sandra; Colussi, Andrea G; Crespo, Marina; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Segal-Eiras, Amada

    2007-01-01

    An immunohistochemical analysis was employed to determine the expression of carbohydrate antigens associated to mucins in normal epithelia. Tissue samples were obtained as biopsies from normal breast (18), colon (35) and oral cavity mucosa (8). The following carbohydrate epitopes were studied: sialyl-Lewis x, Lewis x, Lewis y, Tn hapten, sialyl-Tn and Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen. Mucins were also studied employing antibodies against MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6 and also normal colonic glycolipid. Statistical analysis was performed and Kendall correlations were obtained. Lewis x showed an apical pattern mainly at plasma membrane, although cytoplasmic staining was also found in most samples. TF, Tn and sTn haptens were detected in few specimens, while sLewis x was found in oral mucosa and breast tissue. Also, normal breast expressed MUC1 at a high percentage, whereas MUC4 was observed in a small number of samples. Colon specimens mainly expressed MUC2 and MUC1, while most oral mucosa samples expressed MUC4 and MUC1. A positive correlation between MUC1VNTR and TF epitope (r=0.396) was found in breast samples, while in colon specimens MUC2 and colonic glycolipid versus Lewis x were statistically significantly correlated (r=0.28 and r=0.29, respectively). As a conclusion, a defined carbohydrate epitope expression is not exclusive of normal tissue or a determined localization, and it is possible to assume that different glycoproteins and glycolipids may be carriers of carbohydrate antigens depending on the tissue localization considered.

  10. Lewis Base Activation of Silyl Acetals: Iridium-Catalyzed Reductive Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons Olefination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakarapu, Udaya Sree; Bokka, Apparao; Asgari, Parham; Trog, Gabriela; Hua, Yuanda; Nguyen, Hiep H; Rahman, Nawal; Jeon, Junha

    2015-12-04

    A Lewis base promoted deprotonative pronucleophile addition to silyl acetals has been developed and applied to the iridium-catalyzed reductive Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) olefination of esters and the chemoselective reduction of the resulting enoates. Lewis base activation of silyl acetals generates putative pentacoordinate silicate acetals, which fragment into aldehydes, silanes, and alkoxides in situ. Subsequent deprotonative metalation of phosphonate esters followed by HWE with aldehydes furnishes enoates. This operationally convenient, mechanistically unique protocol converts the traditionally challenging aryl, alkenyl, and alkynyl esters to homologated enoates at room temperature within a single vessel.

  11. Anatomy of an organizational change effort at the Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, James R.; Dali, Richard S.

    1988-01-01

    By 1979, after a long decline following the end of the Apollo program, the Lewis Research Center found its very existence endangered because it was not doing the kind of research that could attract funding at the time. New management under Andrew J. Stofan applied a program of strategic planning, participative management, and consensus decision making. A corporate-cultural change was effected which enabled Lewis to commit itself to four fundable research and development projects. Morale-building and training programs which were essential to this change are described.

  12. Susceptibility of brain to aerobic, anaerobic, and fungal organisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, G T; Heppe, R; Winn, H R; Scheld, W M; Rodeheaver, G T

    1983-01-01

    The utility of an experimental animal model is dependent on its ability to simulate the actual clinical situation. With a stereotaxic injection procedure, the susceptibility of rat brain to the spectrum of organisms commonly associated with human brain abscess was determined. Two strains of Escherichia coli were more infective than Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Even between the E. coli strains it was possible to document significant differences in ...

  13. Local quantum thermal susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pasquale, Antonella; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem, namely determining the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing. Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Our method relies on basic concepts of quantum estimation theory, providing an operative strategy to address the local thermal response of arbitrary quantum systems at equilibrium. At low temperatures, it highlights the local distinguishability of the ground state from the excited sub-manifolds, thus providing a method to locate quantum phase transitions.

  14. Topological Susceptibility from Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Gerber, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility chi_t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure chi_t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure chi_t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models.

  15. Topological susceptibility from slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Forcrand, Philippe de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); CERN, Physics Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gerber, Urs [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58040 (Mexico)

    2015-12-14

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility χ{sub t}. In principle it seems straightforward to measure χ{sub t} by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure χ{sub t} even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of χ{sub t}, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear σ-models.

  16. Local quantum thermal susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, Antonella; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem, namely determining the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing. Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Our method relies on basic concepts of quantum estimation theory, providing an operative strategy to address the local thermal response of arbitrary quantum systems at equilibrium. At low temperatures, it highlights the local distinguishability of the ground state from the excited sub-manifolds, thus providing a method to locate quantum phase transitions. PMID:27681458

  17. Susceptibility to anchoring effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anchoring has shown this heuristic to be a very robust psychological phenomenon ubiquitous across many domains of human judgment and decision-making. Despite the prevalence of anchoring effects, researchers have only recently begun to investigate the underlying factors responsible for how and in what ways a person is susceptible to them. This paper examines how one such factor, the Big-Five personality trait of openness-to-experience, influences the effect of previously presented anchors on participants' judgments. Our findings indicate that participants high in openness-to-experience were significantly more influenced by anchoring cues relative to participants low in this trait. These findings were consistent across two different types of anchoring tasks providing convergent evidence for our hypothesis.

  18. NASA Lewis Launch Collision Probability Model Developed and Analyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbacher, Gary; Guptill, James D

    1999-01-01

    There are nearly 10,000 tracked objects orbiting the earth. These objects encompass manned objects, active and decommissioned satellites, spent rocket bodies, and debris. They range from a few centimeters across to the size of the MIR space station. Anytime a new satellite is launched, the launch vehicle with its payload attached passes through an area of space in which these objects orbit. Although the population density of these objects is low, there always is a small but finite probability of collision between the launch vehicle and one or more of these space objects. Even though the probability of collision is very low, for some payloads even this small risk is unacceptable. To mitigate the small risk of collision associated with launching at an arbitrary time within the daily launch window, NASA performs a prelaunch mission assurance Collision Avoidance Analysis (or COLA). For the COLA of the Cassini spacecraft, the NASA Lewis Research Center conducted an in-house development and analysis of a model for launch collision probability. The model allows a minimum clearance criteria to be used with the COLA analysis to ensure an acceptably low probability of collision. If, for any given liftoff time, the nominal launch vehicle trajectory would pass a space object with less than the minimum required clearance, launch would not be attempted at that time. The model assumes that the nominal positions of the orbiting objects and of the launch vehicle can be predicted as a function of time, and therefore, that any tracked object that comes within close proximity of the launch vehicle can be identified. For any such pair, these nominal positions can be used to calculate a nominal miss distance. The actual miss distances may differ substantially from the nominal miss distance, due, in part, to the statistical uncertainty of the knowledge of the objects positions. The model further assumes that these position uncertainties can be described with position covariance matrices

  19. A systematic revision of Baconia Lewis (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Exosternini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Caterino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a complete revision of the species of Baconia. Up until now there have been 27 species assigned to the genus (Mazur, 2011, in two subgenera (Binhister Cooman and Baconia s. str., with species in the Neotropical, Nearctic, Palaearctic, and Oriental regions. We recognize all these species as valid and correctly assigned to the genus, and redescribe all of them. We synonymize Binhister, previously used for a polyphyletic assemblage of species with varied relationships in the genus. We move four species into Baconia from other genera, and describe 85 species as new, bringing the total for the genus to 116 species. We divide these into 12 informal species groups, leaving 13 species unplaced to group. We present keys and diagnoses for all species, as well as habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia for nearly all. The genus now contains the following species and species groups: Baconia loricata group [B. loricata Lewis, 1885, B. patula Lewis, 1885, B. gounellei (Marseul, 1887a, B. jubaris (Lewis, 1901, B. festiva (Lewis, 1891, B. foliosoma sp. n., B. sapphirina sp. n., B. furtiva sp. n., B. pernix sp. n., B. applanatis sp. n., B. disciformis sp. n., B. nebulosa sp. n., B. brunnea sp. n.], B. godmani group [B. godmani (Lewis, 1888, B. venusta (J. E. LeConte, 1845, B. riehli (Marseul, 1862, comb. n., B. scintillans sp. n., B. isthmia sp. n., B. rossi sp. n., B. navarretei sp. n., B. maculata sp. n., B. deliberata sp. n., B. excelsa sp. n., B. violacea (Marseul, 1853, B. varicolor (Marseul, 1887b, B. dives (Marseul, 1862, B. eximia (Lewis, 1888, B. splendida sp. n., B. jacinta sp. n., B. prasina sp. n., B. opulenta sp. n., B. illustris (Lewis, 1900, B. choaspites (Lewis, 1901, B. lewisi Mazur, 1984], B. salobrus group [B. salobrus (Marseul, 1887b, B. turgifrons sp. n., B. crassa sp. n., B. anthracina sp. n., B. emarginata sp. n., B. obsoleta sp. n.], B. ruficauda group [B. ruficauda sp. n., B. repens sp. n.], B. angusta group [B

  20. A systematic revision of Baconia Lewis (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Exosternini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, Michael S; Tishechkin, Alexey K

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a complete revision of the species of Baconia. Up until now there have been 27 species assigned to the genus (Mazur, 2011), in two subgenera (Binhister Cooman and Baconia s. str.), with species in the Neotropical, Nearctic, Palaearctic, and Oriental regions. We recognize all these species as valid and correctly assigned to the genus, and redescribe all of them. We synonymize Binhister, previously used for a polyphyletic assemblage of species with varied relationships in the genus. We move four species into Baconia from other genera, and describe 85 species as new, bringing the total for the genus to 116 species. We divide these into 12 informal species groups, leaving 13 species unplaced to group. We present keys and diagnoses for all species, as well as habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia for nearly all. The genus now contains the following species and species groups: Baconia loricata group [Baconia loricata Lewis, 1885, B. patula Lewis, 1885, Baconia gounellei (Marseul, 1887a), Baconia jubaris (Lewis, 1901), Baconia festiva (Lewis, 1891), Baconia foliosoma sp. n., Baconia sapphirina sp. n., Baconia furtiva sp. n., Baconia pernix sp. n., Baconia applanatis sp. n., Baconia disciformis sp. n., Baconia nebulosa sp. n., Baconia brunnea sp. n.], Baconia godmani group [Baconia godmani (Lewis, 1888), Baconia venusta (J. E. LeConte, 1845), Baconia riehli (Marseul, 1862), comb. n., Baconia scintillans sp. n., Baconia isthmia sp. n., Baconia rossi sp. n., Baconia navarretei sp. n., Baconia maculata sp. n., Baconia deliberata sp. n., Baconia excelsa sp. n., Baconia violacea (Marseul, 1853), Baconia varicolor (Marseul, 1887b), Baconia dives (Marseul, 1862), Baconia eximia (Lewis, 1888), Baconia splendida sp. n., Baconia jacinta sp. n., Baconia prasina sp. n., Baconia opulenta sp. n., Baconia illustris (Lewis, 1900), Baconia choaspites (Lewis, 1901), Baconia lewisi Mazur, 1984], Baconia salobrus group [Baconia salobrus (Marseul, 1887b), Baconia

  1. Anion sensing with a Lewis acidic BODIPY-antimony(v) derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Anna M; Gabbaï, François P

    2017-02-21

    We describe the synthesis of a BODIPY dye substituted with a Lewis acidic antimony(v) moiety. This compound, which has been fully characterized, shows a high affinity for small anions including fluoride and cyanide, the complexation of which elicits a fluorescence turn-on response.

  2. Compensatory shifts in visual perception are associated with hallucinations in Lewy body disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Alan Robert; Bruce, Vicki; Colbourn, Christopher J; Collerton, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Visual hallucinations are a common, distressing, and disabling symptom of Lewy body and other diseases. Current models suggest that interactions in internal cognitive processes generate hallucinations. However, these neglect external factors. Pareidolic illusions are an experimental analogue of hallucinations. They are easily induced in Lewy body disease, have similar content to spontaneous hallucinations, and respond to cholinesterase inhibitors in the same way. We used a primed pareidolia task with hallucinating participants with Lewy body disorders (n = 16), non-hallucinating participants with Lewy body disorders (n = 19), and healthy controls (n = 20). Participants were presented with visual "noise" that sometimes contained degraded visual objects and were required to indicate what they saw. Some perceptions were cued in advance by a visual prime. Results showed that hallucinating participants were impaired in discerning visual signals from noise, with a relaxed criterion threshold for perception compared to both other groups. After the presentation of a visual prime, the criterion was comparable to the other groups. The results suggest that participants with hallucinations compensate for perceptual deficits by relaxing perceptual criteria, at a cost of seeing things that are not there, and that visual cues regularize perception. This latter finding may provide a mechanism for understanding the interaction between environments and hallucinations.

  3. Dorothy L. Sayers and C. S. Lewis: Christian Postmodernism beyond Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    Modern critics do not consider science fiction and mystery novels to be "serious reading", but Dorothy L. Sayers and C. S. Lewis questioned the boundaries between "popular" and "serious" literature. Both Christian writers critically discuss the spiritual crisis of the modern world in each fiction genre. This paper…

  4. Lewis Nkosi: A Fragile Soul's Quest for Home | Gall | English in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lewis Nkosi left South Africa in 1961 on a permanent exit visa on his way to study at Harvard as a Nieman Fellow. During his seventy-three years, he lived in England, America, Zambia, Poland, and Switzerland, and he transitioned from denying homesickness (because he had no home) to feeling it acutely (because he had ...

  5. Curcumin reduces trabecular and cortical bone in naive and Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with curcumin on bone microstructural changes in female C57BL/6 mice in the presence or absence of Lewis lung carcinoma. Morphometric analysis showed that in tumor-bearing mice curcumin at 2% and 4% dietary levels (w/w) significa...

  6. Effect of induced hyperglycemia on metastatic spreading in Lewis lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmakova, N.L.; Fomenkova, T.E.; Fadeeva, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of induced hyperglycemia on the intensity of metastatic dissemination of Lewis lung carcinoma was investigated in experiments on mice. Neither long-, nor short-term hyperglycemia, induced at different phases of dissemination, influenced the intensity of metastatic spreading, primary tumor growth, the time of appearance of metastases, and the average life duration of tumor-bearing animals

  7. Daniel Day-Lewis lihvis Oscari-rolli neli aastat / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2008-01-01

    Paul Thomas Andersoni Upton Sinclairi "Õli" järgi lavastatud "Veri hakkab voolama" ("There Will Be Blood"), peaosas Daniel Day-Lewis : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007. Näitleja võitis oma rolliga parima meespeaosatäitja Oscari. Tema tööst rolli(de)ga

  8. Lewis Acid-Base Properties of a Low Carbon Aluminium Killed Steel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An important factor in achieving maximum adhesion of a particular coating system to the substrate lies in the proper preparation of the substrate prior to the application of paint. The Lewis acid-base properties of the outer metal surface play a determinant role in many of these applications, and the chemical reactions involved ...

  9. Providing Total Quality Fundamentals: 1995 Workshops for the NASA Lewis Research Center's Technical Services Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antczak, Paul; Jacinto,Gilda; Simek, Jimmy

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) agency-wide movement to cultivate a quality workplace is the basis for Lewis Research Center to implement Total Quality Fundamentals (TQF) initiatives. The Lewis Technical Services Directorate (TSD) introduced the Total Quality Fundamentals (TQF) workshops to its work force as an opportunity to introduce the concepts and principles of TQF. These workshops also provided the participants with the opportunity to dialogue with fellow TSD employees and managers. This report describes, through the perspective of the Lewis TSD TQF Coaches, how the TQF work- shop process was accomplished in TSD. It describes the structure for addressing the need, implementation process, input the TSD Coaches provided, common themes and concerns raised, conclusions, and recommendations. The Coaches concluded that these types of workshops could be the key to open the communication channels that are necessary to help everyone at Lewis understand where they fit in the organization. TQF workshops can strengthen the participant's connection with the Mission, Vision of the Center, and Vision of the Agency. Reconunendations are given based on these conclusions that can help the TSD Quality Board develop attainable measures towards a quality workplace.

  10. Lewis-acid catalyzed depolymerization of Protobind lignin in supercritical water and ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güvenatam, B.; Heeres, E.H.J.; Pidko, E.A.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of metal acetates, metal chlorides and metal triflates as Lewis acid catalysts for the depolymerization of soda lignin under supercritical conditions was investigated. The reactions were carried out at 400°C in water and ethanol. Lignin conversion in supercritical water led to formation of

  11. Lewis-acid catalyzed depolymerization of Protobind lignin in supercritical water and ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guvenatam, Burcu; Heeres, Erik H.J.; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Hensen, Ernie J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of metal acetates, metal chlorides and metal triflates as Lewis acid catalysts for the depolymerization of soda lignin under supercritical conditions was investigated. The reactions were carried out at 400 degrees C in water and ethanol. Lignin conversion in supercritical water led to

  12. The Brainstem Pathologies of Parkinson's Disease and Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, Kay; Mahlke, Josefine; Siswanto, Sonny; Krueger, Reijko; Heinsen, Helmut; Auburger, Georg; Bouzrou, Mohamed; Grinberg, Lea T.; Wicht, Helmut; Korf, Horst-Werner; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Rueb, Udo

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are among the human synucleinopathies, which show alpha-synuclein immunoreactive neuronal and/or glial aggregations and progressive neuronal loss in selected brain regions (eg, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, pedunculopontine

  13. Navy John Lewis (TAO 205) Class Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-18

    These wires are placed under tension to support fuel hoses for refueling operations or trolleys that move pallets of provisions, ammunition, or other...SECNAV Mabus Names First TAO(X) Next Generation Oiler After Rep. John Lewis,” USNI News, January 6, 2016. 6 Sam LaGrone, “Navy to Name Ship After Gay

  14. Lack of Neuronal IFN-β-IFNAR Causes Lewy Body- and Parkinson's Disease-like Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Patrick; Hultberg, Jeanette Göransdotter; Wang, JunYang

    2015-01-01

    -causing mutant proteins. Mice lacking Ifnb function exhibited motor and cognitive learning impairments with accompanying α-synuclein-containing Lewy bodies in the brain, as well as a reduction in dopaminergic neurons and defective dopamine signaling in the nigrostriatal region. Lack of IFN-β signaling caused...

  15. Life on the Fringe: The Early Writings of Lewis Nkosi and Nat Nakasa1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One evening in the late 1950s, Lewis Nkosi and his friend Nat Nakasa were walking through downtown Johannesburg when, as both later recalled, they decided to stop into a whites-only restaurant called The Texan. They ordered their coffees at the bar, knowing that the American man behind the counter expected them to ...

  16. Solid State Technology Branch of NASA Lewis Research Center: Fifth Annual Digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The digest is a collection of papers written by the members of the Solid State Technology Branch of NASA Lewis Research Center from June 1992-June 1993. The papers cover a range of topics relating to superconductivity, monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's), coplanar waveguide, and material characterization. Individual papers are abstracted separately on the data base

  17. Paradise Lost and Found: Obedience, Disobedience, and Storytelling in C.S. Lewis and Philip Pullman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Naomi

    2001-01-01

    Considers how in the fantasy series "The Chronicles of Narnia" and "His Dark Materials," by C.S. Lewis and Philip Pullman respectively, the authors use symbols and themes from "Paradise Lost." Notes that each author's narrative choice uses his view of cosmic order to persuade readers that obedience should be…

  18. David Lewis in the Lab: Experimental Results on the Emergence of Meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruner, Justin; O'Connor, Cailin; Rubin, Hannah; Huttegger, S. (Simon)

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we use an experimental approach to investigate how linguistic conventions can emerge in a society without explicit agreement. As a starting point we consider the signaling game introduced by Lewis (Convention 1969). We find that in experimental settings, small groups can quickly

  19. α-Synuclein pathology in the cranial and spinal nerves in Lewy body disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keiko; Mori, Fumiaki; Tanji, Kunikazu; Miki, Yasuo; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Yamada, Masahito; Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    Accumulation of phosphorylated α-synuclein in neurons and glial cells is a histological hallmark of Lewy body disease (LBD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Recently, filamentous aggregations of phosphorylated α-synuclein have been reported in the cytoplasm of Schwann cells, but not in axons, in the peripheral nervous system in MSA, mainly in the cranial and spinal nerve roots. Here we conducted an immunohistochemical investigation of the cranial and spinal nerves and dorsal root ganglia of patients with LBD. Lewy axons were found in the oculomotor, trigeminal and glossopharyngeal-vagus nerves, but not in the hypoglossal nerve. The glossopharyngeal-vagus nerves were most frequently affected, with involvement in all of 20 subjects. In the spinal nerve roots, Lewy axons were found in all of the cases examined. Lewy axons in the anterior nerves were more frequent and numerous in the thoracic and sacral segments than in the cervical and lumbar segments. On the other hand, axonal lesions in the posterior spinal nerve roots appeared to increase along a cervical-to-sacral gradient. Although Schwann cell cytoplasmic inclusions were found in the spinal nerves, they were only minimal. In the dorsal root ganglia, axonal lesions were seldom evident. These findings indicate that α-synuclein pathology in the peripheral nerves is axonal-predominant in LBD, whereas it is restricted to glial cells in MSA. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  20. Stress and Burden among Caregivers of Patients with Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Amanda N.; Zarit, Steven; Taylor, Angela; Galvin, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with Lewy body dementia (LBD) may present a unique set of symptoms and challenges to family caregivers compared with other types of dementia. Prominent difficulties include motor impairment, activities of daily living (ADLs) disability, recurrent behavioral and emotional problems (BEPs), and diagnostic difficulties. These…

  1. Random forest to differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dauwan, Meenakshi; van der Zande, Jessica J.; van Dellen, Edwin; Sommer, Iris E C; Scheltens, Philip; Lemstra, Afina W.; Stam, Cornelis J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to build a random forest classifier to improve the diagnostic accuracy in differentiating dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to quantify the relevance of multimodal diagnostic measures, with a focus on electroencephalography

  2. Induction of rat yolk sac carcinomas with consistent pattern of laminin, entactin, and type IV collagen biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-four yolk sac carcinomas in Lewis rats were experimentally induced by puncturing the pregnant uterine wall with a hypodermic needle at day 9-13 of gestation. Morphologically, the tumours were composed of parietal- and visceral yolk sac carcinoma and to a less degree of trophoblastic giant...

  3. Arthritis by autoreactive T cell lines obtained from rats after injection of intestinal bacterial cell wall fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Klasen (Ina); J. Kool (Jeanette); M.J. Melief (Marie-José); I. Loeve (I.); W.B. van den Berg (Wim); A.J. Severijnen; M.P.H. Hazenberg (Maarten)

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ T cell lines (B13, B19) were isolated from the lymph nodes of Lewis rats 12 days after an arthritogenic injection of cell wall fragments of Eubacterium aerofaciens (ECW), a major resident of the human intestinal flora. These cell wall fragments consist of

  4. Platelet deposition in rat heart allografts and the effect of a thromboxane receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foegh, M.L.; Khirabadi, B.S.; Ramwell, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of a thromboxane antagonist, L640,035 on platelet deposition in heart allografts was studied. Twenty Lewis rats received heterotopic allografts from Lewis x Brown-Norway F1 hybrid. All recipients received azathioprine (5 mg/kg/day). The rats were divided into three groups. Groups II and III were also treated daily with either the vehicle for L640,035 or L640,035 respectively. Syngeneic indium-111-labeled platelet deposition was determined in the allograft and the native heart at 6, 9, and 13 days after transplantation; group III was studied on the sixth and ninth day only. A rapidly increasing platelet deposition was seen in allografts from rats given azathioprine; whereas the thromboxane antagonist prevented the increase in platelet deposition on the ninth day

  5. Genetic background of nonmutant Piebald-Virol-Glaxo rats does not influence nephronophthisis phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yengkopiong JP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Jada Pasquale Yengkopiong, Joseph Daniel Wani LakoJohn Garang Memorial University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Bor, Jonglei State, Republic of South SudanBackground: Nephronophthisis (NPHP, which affects multiple organs, is a hereditary cystic kidney disease (CKD, characterized by interstitial fibrosis and numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys. It is caused by mutations in NPHP genes, which encode for ciliary proteins known as nephrocystins. The disorder affects many people across the world and leads to end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study was to determine if the genetic background of the nonmutant female Piebald-Virol-Glaxo (PVG/Seac-/- rat influences phenotypic inheritance of NPHP from mutant male Lewis polycystic kidney rats.Methods: Mating experiments were performed between mutant Lewis polycystic kidney male rats with CKD and nonmutant PVG and Wistar Kyoto female rats without cystic kidney disease to raise second filial and backcross 1 progeny, respectively. Rats that developed cystic kidneys were identified. Systolic blood pressure was determined in each rat at 12 weeks of age using the tail and cuff method. After euthanasia, blood samples were collected and chemistry was determined. Histological examination of the kidneys, pancreas, and liver of rats with and without cystic kidney disease was performed.Results: It was established that the genetic background of nonmutant female PVG rats did not influence the phenotypic inheritance of the CKD from mutant male Lewis polycystic kidney rats. The disease arose as a result of a recessive mutation in a single gene (second filial generation, CKD = 13, non-CKD = 39, Χ2 = 0.00, P ≥ 0.97; backcross 1 generation, CKD = 67, non-CKD = 72, Χ2 = 0.18, P > 0.05 and inherited as NPHP. The rats with CKD developed larger fluid-filled cystic kidneys, higher systolic blood pressure, and anemia, but there were no extrarenal cysts and disease did not lead to

  6. Innate Immune Activation Can Trigger Experimental Spondyloarthritis in HLA-B27/Huβ2m Transgenic Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tok, Melissa N.; Satumtira, Nimman; Dorris, Martha; Pots, Desirée; Slobodin, Gleb; van de Sande, Marleen G.; Taurog, Joel D.; Baeten, Dominique L.; van Duivenvoorde, Leonie M.

    2017-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) does not display the typical features of auto-immune disease. Despite the strong association with MHC class I, CD8(+) T cells are not required for disease induction in the HLA-B27/Huβ2m transgenic rats. We used Lewis HLA-B27/Huβ2m transgenic rats [21-3 × 283-2]F1,

  7. Aerobic capacity mediates susceptibility for the transition from steatosis to steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, E Matthew; McCoin, Colin S; Allen, Julie A; Gastecki, Michelle L; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Fletcher, Justin A; Fu, Xiarong; Ding, Wen-Xing; Burgess, Shawn C; Rector, R Scott; Thyfault, John P

    2017-07-15

    Low intrinsic aerobic capacity is associated with increased all-cause and liver-related mortality in humans. Low intrinsic aerobic capacity in the low capacity runner (LCR) rat increases susceptibility to acute and chronic high-fat/high-sucrose diet-induced steatosis, without observed increases in liver inflammation. Addition of excess cholesterol to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet produced greater steatosis in LCR and high capacity runner (HCR) rats. However, the LCR rat demonstrated greater susceptibility to increased liver inflammatory and apoptotic markers compared to the HCR rat. The progressive non-alcoholic fatty liver disease observed in the LCR rats following western diet feeding was associated with further declines in liver fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiratory capacity compared to HCR rats. Low aerobic capacity increases risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and liver-related disease mortality, but mechanisms mediating these effects remain unknown. We recently reported that rats bred for low aerobic capacity (low capacity runner; LCR) displayed susceptibility to high fat diet-induced steatosis in association with reduced hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and respiratory capacity compared to high aerobic capacity (high capacity runner; HCR) rats. Here we tested the impact of aerobic capacity on susceptibility for progressive liver disease following a 16-week 'western diet' (WD) high in fat (45% kcal), cholesterol (1% w/w) and sucrose (15% kcal). Unlike previously with a diet high in fat and sucrose alone, the inclusion of cholesterol in the WD induced hepatomegaly and steatosis in both HCR and LCR rats, while producing greater cholesterol ester accumulation in LCR compared to HCR rats. Importantly, WD-fed low-fitness LCR rats displayed greater inflammatory cell infiltration, serum alanine transaminase, expression of hepatic inflammatory markers (F4/80, MCP-1, TLR4, TLR2 and IL-1β) and effector caspase (caspase 3 and 7

  8. Thallium kinetics in rat cardiac transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, J.H.; LaRaia, P.J.; Boucher, C.A.; Fallon, J.T.; Buckley, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cardiac transplant rejection is a very complex process involving both cellular and vascular injury. Recently, thallium imaging has been used to assess acute transplant rejection. It has been suggested that changes in thallium kinetics might be a sensitive indicator of transplant rejection. Accordingly, thallium kinetics were assessed in vivo in acute untreated rat heterotopic (cervical) transplant rejection. Male Lewis rats weighing 225-250 g received heterotopic heart transplants from syngeneic Lewis rats (group A; n = 13), or allogeneic Brown Norway rats (group B; n = 11). Rats were imaged serially on the 2nd and the 7th postoperative days. Serial cardiac thallium content was determined utilizing data collected every 150 sec for 2 hr. The data were fit to a monoexponential curve and the decay rate constant (/sec) derived. By day 7 all group B hearts had histological evidence of severe acute rejection, and demonstrated decreased global contraction. Group A hearts showed normal histology and contractility. However, thallium uptakes and washout of the two groups were the same. Peak thallium uptake of group B was +/- 3758 1166 counts compared with 3553 +/- 950 counts in the control group A (P = 0.6395); The 2-hr percentage of washout was 12.1 +/- 1.04 compared with 12.1 +/- 9.3 (P = 1.0000); and the decay constant was -0.00002065 +/- 0.00001799 compared with -0.00002202 +/- 0.00001508 (P = 0.8409). These data indicate that in vivo global thallium kinetics are preserved during mild-to-severe acute transplant rejection. These findings suggest that the complex cellular and extracellular processes of acute rejection limit the usefulness of thallium kinetics in the detection of acute transplant rejection

  9. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  10. Building new discrete supramolecular assemblies through the interaction of iso-tellurazole N-oxides with Lewis acids and bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Peter C; Jenkins, Hilary A; Britten, James F; Vargas-Baca, Ignacio

    2017-10-13

    The supramolecular macrocycles spontaneously assembled by iso-tellurazole N-oxides are stable towards Lewis bases as strong as N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) but readily react with Lewis acids such as BR 3 (R = Ph, F). The electron acceptor ability of the tellurium atom is greatly enhanced in the resulting O-bonded adducts, which consequently enables binding to a variety of Lewis bases that includes acetonitrile, 4-dimethylaminopyridine, 4,4'-bipyridine, triphenyl phosphine, a N-heterocyclic carbene and a second molecule of iso-tellurazole N-oxide.

  11. An order in Lewy body disorders: Retrograde degeneration in hyperbranching axons as a fundamental structural template accounting for focal/multifocal Lewy body disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihara, Toshiki

    2017-04-01

    Initial clinical recognition of "paralysis agitans" by James Parkinson was expanded by Jean-Martin Charcot, who recognized additional clinical findings of his own, such as slowness (distinct from paralysis), rigidity (distinct from spasticity) and characteristic countenance. Charcot assembled these findings under the umbrella of "Parkinson disease (PD)". This purely clinical concept was so prescient and penetrating that subsequent neuropathological and biochemical evidences were ordered along this axis to establish the nigra-central trinity of PD (dopamine depletion, nigral lesion with Lewy bodies: LBs). Although dramatic efficacy of levodopa boosted an enthusiasm for this nigra-centralism, extranigral lesions were identified, especially after identification of alpha-synuclein (αS) as a major constituent of LBs. Frequent αS lesions in the lower brainstem with their presumed upward spread were coupled with the self-propagating property of αS molecule, as a molecular template, to constitute the prion-Braak hypothesis. This hybrid concept might expectedly explain clinical, structural and biochemical features of PD/dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) as if they were stereotypic. In spite of this ordered explanation, recent studies have demonstrated unexpectedly that αS lesions in the human brain, as well as their corresponding clinical manifestations, are much more disordered. Even with such a chaos of LB disorders, affected neuronal groups are uniformly characterized by hyperbranching axons, which may facilitate distal-dominant degeneration and retrograde progression of LB-related degeneration along axons as a fundamental structural order to template LB disorders. This "structural template" hypothesis may explain why: (i) some selective groups are prone to develop Lewy pathology; (ii) their clinical manifestations (especially non-motor components) are vague and generalized without somatotopic accentuation; (iii) distal axons and terminals are preferentially affected

  12. Ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huhn, S.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel (ed.); Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2012), s. 197-204 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:EU FP7(XE) HEALTH-F4-2007-200767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * molecular epidemiology * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.500, year: 2012

  13. Strain, Sex, and Open-Field Behavior: Factors Underlying the Genetic Susceptibility to Helplessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Eimeira; Barrett, Douglas W.; Shumake, Jason D.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2009-01-01

    Learned helplessness represents a failure to escape after exposure to inescapable stress and may model human psychiatric disorders related to stress. Previous work has demonstrated individual differences in susceptibility to learned helplessness. In this study, we assessed different factors associated with this susceptibility, including strain, sex, and open-field behavior. Testing of three rat strains (Holtzman, Long-Evans, and Sprague-Dawley) revealed that Holtzman rats were the most susceptible to helplessness. Holtzman rats not only had the longest escape latencies following inescapable shock, but also showed spontaneous escape deficits in the absence of prior shock when tested with a fixed-ratio 2 (FR2) running response. Moreover, when tested with fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) running—an easy response normally unaffected by helplessness training in rats—inescapable shock significantly increased the escape latencies of Holtzman rats. Within the Holtzman strain, we confirmed recent findings that females showed superior escape performance and therefore appeared more resistant to helplessness than males. However, regression and covariance analyses suggest that this sex difference may be explained by more baseline ambulatory activity among females. In addition, some indices of novelty reactivity (greater exploration of novel vs. familiar open-field) predicted subsequent helpless behavior. In conclusion, Holtzman rats, and especially male Holtzman rats, have a strong predisposition to become immobile when stressed which interferes with their ability to learn active escape responses. The Holtzman strain therefore appears to be a commercially available model for studying susceptibility to helplessness in males, and novelty-seeking may be a marker of this susceptibility. PMID:19428642

  14. ɑ-Synuclein strains and seeding in Parkinson's disease, incidental Lewy body disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelaerts, W; Bousset, L; Baekelandt, V; Melki, R

    2018-04-27

    Several age-related neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the deposition of aberrantly folded endogenous proteins. These proteins have prion-like propagation and amplification properties but so far appear nontransmissible between individuals. Because of the features they share with the prion protein, PrP, the characteristics of pathogenic protein aggregates in several progressive brain disorders, including different types of Lewy body diseases (LBDs), such as Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), have been actively investigated. Even though the pleomorphic nature of these syndromes might suggest different underlying causes, ɑ-synuclein (ɑSyn) appears to play an important role in this heterogeneous group of diseases (the synucleinopathies). An attractive hypothesis is that different types of ɑSyn protein assemblies have a unique and causative role in distinct synucleinopathies. We will discuss the recent research progress on ɑSyn assemblies involved in PD, MSA and DLB; their behavior as strains; current spreading hypotheses; their ability to seed centrally and peripherally; and their implication for disease pathogenesis.

  15. Brush Polymer of Donor-Accepter Dyads via Adduct Formation between Lewis Base Polymer Donor and All Carbon Lewis Acid Acceptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic method that taps into the facile Lewis base (LB→Lewis acid (LA adduct forming reaction between the semiconducting polymeric LB and all carbon LA C60 for the construction of covalently linked donor-acceptor dyads and brush polymer of dyads is reported. The polymeric LB is built on poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT macromers containing either an alkyl or vinyl imidazolium end group that can be readily converted into the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC LB site, while the brush polymer architecture is conveniently constructed via radical polymerization of the macromer P3HT with the vinyl imidazolium chain end. Simply mixing of such donor polymeric LB with C60 rapidly creates linked P3HT-C60 dyads and brush polymer of dyads in which C60 is covalently linked to the NHC junction connecting the vinyl polymer main chain and the brush P3HT side chains. Thermal behaviors, electronic absorption and emission properties of the resulting P3HT-C60 dyads and brush polymer of dyads have been investigated. The results show that a change of the topology of the P3HT-C60 dyad from linear to brush architecture enhances the crystallinity and Tm of the P3HT domain and, along with other findings, they indicate that the brush polymer architecture of donor-acceptor domains provides a promising approach to improve performances of polymer-based solar cells.

  16. NASA Lewis Helps Company With New Single-Engine Business Turbojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Century Aerospace Corporation, a small company in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is developing a six-seat aircraft powered by a single turbofan engine for general aviation. The company had completed a preliminary design of the jet but needed analyses and testing to proceed with detailed design and subsequent fabrication of a prototype aircraft. NASA Lewis Research Center used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses to ferret out areas of excessive curvature in the inlet where separation might occur. A preliminary look at the results indicated very good inlet performance; and additional calculations, performed with vortex generators installed in the inlet, led to even better results. When it was initially determined that the airflow distortion pattern at the compressor face fell outside of the limits set by the engine manufacturer, the Lewis team studied possible solutions, selected the best, and provided recommendations. CFD results for the inlet system were so good that wind tunnel tests were unnecessary.

  17. Elk Monitoring Protocol for Lewis and Clark National Historical Park, Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Griffin, Paul C.; Boetsch, John R.; Cole, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelti) herds that frequent Lewis and Clark National Historical Park (NHP) is central to the park’s purpose of preserving the historic, cultural, scenic, and natural resources. Elk were critical to sustaining the members of the Lewis and Clark expedition by providing food and clothing over the winter of 1805-1806. Today, elk viewing opportunities in the park and surrounding region generate broad appeal with the visiting public, which number over 250,000 per year at the Fort Clatsop visitor center. This protocol describes procedures for monitoring trends in the use of the Fort Clatsop area by Roosevelt elk. Specific objectives of elk monitoring in Lewis and Clark NHP are to measure the relative use and proportion of area used by elk during winter in the Fort Clatsop Unit of the park, and the rate at which elk are sighted from roads in and around the park. Relative use and the proportion of area used by elk are determined from elk fecal pellet surveys conducted every other year in the Fort Clatsop park unit. Pairs of observers visit a systematic array of permanent plots in the fall to clear them of elk fecal pellets, and return to the plots in late winter to count elk fecal pellets that have accumulated during winter. Half of the subplots are counted by two independent observers, which allows for the estimation of relative use and proportion of area occupied by elk with analyses of detection biases that account for unseen elk pellet groups. Standardized road surveys are conducted in and near the Fort Clatsop park unit three or four times monthly during alternate months. Data from road surveys are used to quantify the rate that park visitors would be expected to see elk, when driving the selected set of routes. The monitoring protocol is based on three field seasons of development and testing. The protocol narrative describes the background, rationale, sampling design, field methods, analytical methods, data management, reporting

  18. Gallium-containing polymer brush film as efficient supported Lewis acid catalyst in a glass microreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Munirathinam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene sulfonate polymer brushes, grown on the interior of the microchannels in a microreactor, have been used for the anchoring of gallium as a Lewis acid catalyst. Initially, gallium-containing polymer brushes were grown on a flat silicon oxide surface and were characterized by FTIR, ellipsometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. XPS revealed the presence of one gallium per 2–3 styrene sulfonate groups of the polymer brushes. The catalytic activity of the Lewis acid-functionalized brushes in a microreactor was demonstrated for the dehydration of oximes, using cinnamaldehyde oxime as a model substrate, and for the formation of oxazoles by ring closure of ortho-hydroxy oximes. The catalytic activity of the microreactor could be maintained by periodic reactivation by treatment with GaCl3.

  19. Applied high-speed imaging for the icing research program at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Howard; Owens, Jay; Shin, Jaiwon

    1992-01-01

    The Icing Research Tunnel at NASA Lewis Research Center provides scientists a scaled, controlled environment to simulate natural icing events. The closed-loop, low speed, refrigerated wind tunnel offers the experimental capability to test for icing certification requirements, analytical model validation and calibration techniques, cloud physics instrumentation refinement, advanced ice protection systems, and rotorcraft icing methodology development. The test procedures for these objectives all require a high degree of visual documentation, both in real-time data acquisition and post-test image processing. Information is provided to scientific, technical, and industrial imaging specialists as well as to research personnel about the high-speed and conventional imaging systems will be on the recent ice protection technology program. Various imaging examples for some of the tests are presented. Additional imaging examples are available from the NASA Lewis Research Center's Photographic and Printing Branch.

  20. Autoinduced catalysis and inverse equilibrium isotope effect in the frustrated Lewis pair catalyzed hydrogenation of imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussing, Sebastian; Greb, Lutz; Tamke, Sergej; Schirmer, Birgitta; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Luy, Burkhard; Paradies, Jan

    2015-05-26

    The frustrated Lewis pair (FLP)-catalyzed hydrogenation and deuteration of N-benzylidene-tert-butylamine (2) was kinetically investigated by using the three boranes B(C6F5)3 (1), B(2,4,6-F3-C6H2)3 (4), and B(2,6-F2-C6H3)3 (5) and the free activation energies for the H2 activation by FLP were determined. Reactions catalyzed by the weaker Lewis acids 4 and 5 displayed autoinductive catalysis arising from a higher free activation energy (2 kcal mol(-1)) for the H2 activation by the imine compared to the amine. Surprisingly, the imine reduction using D2 proceeded with higher rates. This phenomenon is unprecedented for FLP and resulted from a primary inverse equilibrium isotope effect. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. System Critical Design Audit (CDA). Books 1, 2 and 3; [Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI Lewis Spacecraft Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI) Lewis Spacecraft Program is evaluated. Spacecraft integration, test, launch, and spacecraft bus are discussed. Payloads and technology demonstrations are presented. Mission data management system and ground segment are also addressed.

  2. Intermolecular interactions of trifluorohalomethanes with Lewis bases in the gas phase: an ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Siang; Yin, Chih-Chien; Chao, Sheng D

    2014-10-07

    We perform an ab initio computational study of molecular complexes with the general formula CF3X-B that involve one trifluorohalomethane CF3X (X = Cl or Br) and one of a series of Lewis bases B in the gas phase. The Lewis bases are so chosen that they provide a range of electron-donating abilities for comparison. Based on the characteristics of their electron pairs, we consider the Lewis bases with a single n-pair (NH3 and PH3), two n-pairs (H2O and H2S), two n-pairs with an unsaturated bond (H2CO and H2CS), and a single π-pair (C2H4) and two π-pairs (C2H2). The aim is to systematically investigate the influence of the electron pair characteristics and the central atom substitution effects on the geometries and energetics of the formed complexes. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecule MP2 and coupled-cluster single double with perturbative triple [CCSD(T)] levels of theory have been employed, together with a series of basis sets up to aug-cc-pVTZ. The angular and radial configurations, the binding energies, and the electrostatic potentials of the stable complexes have been compared and discussed as the Lewis base varies. For those complexes where halogen bonding plays a significant role, the calculated geometries and energetics are consistent with the σ-hole model. Upon formation of stable complexes, the C-X bond lengths shorten, while the C-X vibrational frequencies increase, thus rendering blueshifting halogen bonds. The central atom substitution usually enlarges the intermolecular bond distances while it reduces the net charge transfers, thus weakening the bond strengths. The analysis based on the σ-hole model is grossly reliable but requires suitable modifications incorporating the central atom substitution effects, in particular, when interaction components other than electrostatic contributions are involved.

  3. Sustainable Materials Replacement for Prevention of Corrosion at Fort Lewis, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    documents a building reclamation project at Fort Lewis, WA, in which significant portions of the work were completed using market -available sustainable...contractors to submit previous technology performance or test documentation, which is generally published as products are introduced to the market . If...evaluate the performance of the E2C2 in its final configuration. Energy use will be analyzed using a Building Infor- mation Model ( BIM ) to simulate

  4. Humour in the Game of Kings: The Sideways Glancing Warder of the Lewis Chessmen

    OpenAIRE

    Hüsing, Annika

    2014-01-01

    The cultural turn of the twentieth century’s last quarter gradually led to a new approach to the classical objects of historical research. Historians nowadays are required to take on a 'cultural perspective' in the course of their studies. Using the example of a particular piece of the Lewis Chessmen this paper examines both the benefits and the limitations that come about with the cultural approach and cautions against a too rigid application.

  5. Energy efficiency campaign for residential housing at the Fort Lewis army installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AH McMakin; RE Lundgren; EL Malone

    2000-02-23

    In FY1999, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted an energy efficiency campaign for residential housing at the Fort Lewis Army Installation near Tacoma, Washington. Preliminary weather-corrected calculations show energy savings of 10{percent} from FY98 for energy use in family housing. This exceeded the project's goal of 3{percent}. The work was funded by the U.S. DOEs Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The project adapted FEMP's national ``You Have the Power Campaign'' at the local level, tailoring it to the military culture. The applied research project was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of tailored, research-based strategies to promote energy conservation in military family housing. In contrast to many energy efficiency efforts, the campaign focused entirely on actions residents could take in their own homes, as opposed to technology or housing upgrades. Behavioral change was targeted because residents do not pay their own utility bills; thus other motivations must drive personal energy conservation. This campaign augments ongoing energy savings from housing upgrades carried out by Fort Lewis. The campaign ran from September 1998 through August 1999. The campaign strategy was developed based on findings from previous research and on input from residents and officials at Fort Lewis. Energy use, corrected to account for weather differences, was compared with the previous year's use. Survey responses from 377 of Fort Lewis residents of occupied housing showed that the campaign was moderately effective in promoting behavior change. Of those who were aware of the campaign, almost all said they were now doing one or more energy-efficient things that they had not done before. Most people were motivated by the desire to do the right thing and to set a good example for their children. They were less motivated by other factors.

  6. Divergent functional connectivity during attentional processing in Lewy body dementia and Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kobeleva, Xenia; Firbank, Michael; Peraza, Luis; Gallagher, Peter; Thomas, Alan; Burn, David J.; O'Brien, John; Taylor, John-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Attention and executive dysfunction are features of Lewy body dementia (LBD) but their neuroanatomical basis is poorly understood. To investigate underlying dysfunctional attention-executive network (EXEC) interactions, we examined functional connectivity (FC) in 30 patients with LBD, 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 21 healthy controls during an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. Participants performed a modified Attention Network Test (ANT),...

  7. Technology requirements to be addressed by the NASA Lewis Research Center Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydelott, J. C.; Rudland, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is responsible for the planning and execution of a scientific program which will provide advance in space cryogenic fluid management technology. A number of future space missions were identified that require or could benefit from this technology. These fluid management technology needs were prioritized and a shuttle attached reuseable test bed, the cryogenic fluid management facility (CFMF), is being designed to provide the experimental data necessary for the technology development effort.

  8. Regionalization of the Modified Bartlett-Lewis Rectangular Pulse Stochastic Rainfall Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dongkyun Kim; Francisco Olivera; Huidae Cho; Scott A. Socolofsky

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of the Modified Bartlett-Lewis Rectangular Pulse (MBLRP) stochastic rainfall simulation model were regionalized across the contiguous United States. Three thousand four hundred forty-four National Climate Data Center (NCDC) rain gauges were used to obtain spatial and seasonal patterns of the model parameters. The MBLRP model was calibrated to minimize the discrepancy between the precipitation depth statistics between the observed and MBLRP-generated precipitation time series. These...

  9. Lewis base catalyzed enantioselective allylic hydroxylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates with water

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Bo

    2011-08-19

    A Lewis base catalyzed allylic hydroxylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates has been developed. Various chiral MBH alcohols can be synthesized in high yields (up to 99%) and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 94% ee). This is the first report using water as a nucleophile in asymmetric organocatalysis. The nucleophilic role of water has been verified using 18O-labeling experiments. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Borax in the supraglacial moraine of the Lewis Cliff, Buckley Island quadrangle--first Antarctic occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, J.J.; Muhs, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    During the 1987-1988 austral summer field season, membersof the south party of the antarctic search for meteorites south-ern team* working in the Lewis Cliff/Colbert Hills region dis-covered several areas of unusual mineralization within theLewis Cliff ice tongue and its associated moraine field (figure1). The Lewis Cliff ice tongue (84°15'S 161°25'E) is a meteorite-stranding surface of ablating blue ice, about 2.3 by 7.0 kilo-meters, bounded on the west by the Lewis Cliff, on the northand northeast by a large supraglacial moraine, and on the eastby the Colbert Hills. To the south it opens to the Walcott Névé.Because it is a meteorite-stranding surface, the major component of ice motion in the area is believed to be vertical(Whillans and Cassidy 1983). The presence of Thule-Baffinmoraines at the northern terminus of the blue ice tends tosupport the hypothesis that the area underlying the moraineis essentially stagnant and that ice arriving from the south ispiling up against it. Areas containing mineral deposits werefound within the moraine field to the north and east of theblue ice margin and also along the east margins of the blue iceitself. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses of these depositshave shown that they are composed predominantly of nah-colite (NaHCO3), trona [Na3(CO3)(HCO3) · 2H20], borax[Na2B405(OH)4 · 8H20], and a new hexagonal hydrous sulfatespecies. This paper reports the details of the borax occurrence,because it is the first known on the continent.

  11. Terrestrial ages of ordinary chondrites from the lewis cliff stranding area, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, K. C.; Lindner, L.; Alderliesten, C.; van der Borg, K.

    1999-07-01

    We determined terrestrial ages of ordinary chondrites from the Lewis Cliff stranding area, East Antarctica, on the basis of the concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be (t1/2 = 1.51 Ma), 26Al (t1/2 = 0.705 Ma) and 36Cl (t1/2 = 0.301 Ma). After an initial 26Al -ray survey of 91 meteorites suggested that many have terrestrial ages larger than 0.1 Ma, we selected 62 meteorites for 10Be and 26Al measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and measured 36Cl in twelve of those. Low terrestrial ages (Ma) were found for about 60% of the meteorites, whereas all others have ages between 0.1 and 0.5 Ma, except for one exceptional age of >2 Ma (Welten et al., 1997). Our major conclusions are: (1) The Lewis Cliff H-chondrites show similar ages as those from the Allan Hills Ice-fields, but the L-chondrites are about a factor of two younger than those from Allan Hills, which indicates that Lewis Cliff is a younger stranding area. (2) The terrestrial age distributions at different parts of the Lewis Cliff stranding area generally agree with simple meteorite concentration models, although differences in weathering rate may also play a role. (3) We confirm that meteorites with natural thermoluminescence (TL) levels >80 krad are associated with low terrestrial ages (Benoit et al., 1992), but conclude that natural TL levels <80 krad can not be used to calculate the terrestrial age of a meteorite. Natural TL levels do seem useful to estimate relative terrestrial ages of large groups of meteorites and to determine differences in surface exposure age of paired meteorite fragments. (4) Of the 62 meteorites measured with AMS, 31 were assigned to eleven different pairing groups, mainly on the basis of their cosmogenic nuclide record. The meteorites are estimated to represent between 42 and 52 distinct falls.

  12. Lewis acid tuned facial stereodivergent HDA reactions using beta-substituted N-vinyloxazolidinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohier, Frédéric; Bouhadjera, Keltoum; Faye, Djibril; Gaulon, Catherine; Maisonneuve, Vincent; Dujardin, Gilles; Dhal, Robert

    2007-01-18

    The [4 + 2] acido-catalyzed heterocycloaddition between new beta-substituted N-vinyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-ones (with R' = Me, Ar, CH2 Ar) and beta,gamma-unsaturated alpha-ketoesters (R = Ar) afforded heteroadducts with high levels of endo and facial selectivities. A complete reversal of facial differentiation was achieved by varying the Lewis acid, leading to the stereoselective formation of either endo-alpha or endo-beta adducts. [reaction: see text].

  13. Applied Analytical Combustion/emissions Research at the NASA Lewis Research Center - a Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deur, J. M.; Kundu, K. P.; Nguyen, H. L.

    1992-01-01

    Emissions of pollutants from future commercial transports are a significant concern. As a result, the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is investigating various low emission combustor technologies. As part of this effort, a combustor analysis code development program was pursued to guide the combustor design process, to identify concepts having the greatest promise, and to optimize them at the lowest cost in the minimum time.

  14. Applied analytical combustion/emissions research at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deur, J. M.; Kundu, K. P.; Nguyen, H. L.

    1992-01-01

    Emissions of pollutants from future commercial transports are a significant concern. As a result, the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is investigating various low emission combustor technologies. As part of this effort, a combustor analysis code development program was pursued to guide the combustor design process, to identify concepts having the greatest promise, and to optimize them at the lowest cost in the minimum time.

  15. Synthesis, characterization, and application of two Al(OR(F))3 Lewis superacids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Anne; Trapp, Nils; Himmel, Daniel; Böhrer, Hannes; Schlüter, Peter; Scherer, Harald; Krossing, Ingo

    2012-07-23

    We report herein the synthesis and full characterization of the donor-free Lewis superacids Al(OR(F))(3) with OR(F) = OC(CF(3))(3) (1) and OC(C(5)F(10))C(6)F(5) (2), the stabilization of 1 as adducts with the very weak Lewis bases PhF, 1,2-F(2)C(6)H(4), and SO(2), as well as the internal C-F activation pathway of 1 leading to Al(2)(F)(OR(F))(5) (4) and trimeric [FAl(OR(F))(2)](3) (5, OR(F) = OC(CF(3))(3)). Insights have been gained from NMR studies, single-crystal structure determinations, and DFT calculations. The usefulness of these Lewis acids for halide abstractions has been demonstrated by reactions with trityl chloride (NMR; crystal structures). The trityl salts allow the introduction of new, heteroleptic weakly coordinating [Cl-Al(OR(F))(3)](-) anions, for example, by hydride or alkyl abstraction reactions. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Surface functionalization of two-dimensional metal chalcogenides by Lewis acid-base chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Sidong; Wang, Xifan; Li, Bo; Kang, Jiahao; He, Yongmin; George, Antony; Ge, Liehui; Gong, Yongji; Dong, Pei; Jin, Zehua; Brunetto, Gustavo; Chen, Weibing; Lin, Zuan-Tao; Baines, Robert; Galvão, Douglas S.; Lou, Jun; Barrera, Enrique; Banerjee, Kaustav; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel

    2016-05-01

    Precise control of the electronic surface states of two-dimensional (2D) materials could improve their versatility and widen their applicability in electronics and sensing. To this end, chemical surface functionalization has been used to adjust the electronic properties of 2D materials. So far, however, chemical functionalization has relied on lattice defects and physisorption methods that inevitably modify the topological characteristics of the atomic layers. Here we make use of the lone pair electrons found in most of 2D metal chalcogenides and report a functionalization method via a Lewis acid-base reaction that does not alter the host structure. Atomic layers of n-type InSe react with Ti4+ to form planar p-type [Ti4+n(InSe)] coordination complexes. Using this strategy, we fabricate planar p-n junctions on 2D InSe with improved rectification and photovoltaic properties, without requiring heterostructure growth procedures or device fabrication processes. We also show that this functionalization approach works with other Lewis acids (such as B3+, Al3+ and Sn4+) and can be applied to other 2D materials (for example MoS2, MoSe2). Finally, we show that it is possible to use Lewis acid-base chemistry as a bridge to connect molecules to 2D atomic layers and fabricate a proof-of-principle dye-sensitized photosensing device.

  17. Visual cortex in dementia with Lewy bodies: magnetic resonance imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John-Paul; Firbank, Michael J.; He, Jiabao; Barnett, Nicola; Pearce, Sarah; Livingstone, Anthea; Vuong, Quoc; McKeith, Ian G.; O’Brien, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Visual hallucinations and visuoperceptual deficits are common in dementia with Lewy bodies, suggesting that cortical visual function may be abnormal. Aims To investigate: (1) cortical visual function using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); and (2) the nature and severity of perfusion deficits in visual areas using arterial spin labelling (ASL)-MRI. Method In total, 17 participants with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB group) and 19 similarly aged controls were presented with simple visual stimuli (checkerboard, moving dots, and objects) during fMRI and subsequently underwent ASL-MRI (DLB group n = 15, control group n = 19). Results Functional activations were evident in visual areas in both the DLB and control groups in response to checkerboard and objects stimuli but reduced visual area V5/MT (middle temporal) activation occurred in the DLB group in response to motion stimuli. Posterior cortical perfusion deficits occurred in the DLB group, particularly in higher visual areas. Conclusions Higher visual areas, particularly occipito-parietal, appear abnormal in dementia with Lewy bodies, while there is a preservation of function in lower visual areas (V1 and V2/3). PMID:22500014

  18. Efficient Lewis Acid Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Synthesis of the Key Intermediate of Coenzyme Q10 under Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Efferth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of a valuable intermediate of coenzyme Q10 by microwave-assisted Lewis acidic ionic liquid (IL-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylation is reported. The acidity of six [Etpy]BF4-based ionic liquids was characterized by means of the FT-IR technique using acetonitrile as a molecular probe. The catalytic activities of these ionic liquids were correlated with their Lewis acidity. With increasing Lewis acid strength of the ionic liquids, their catalytic activity in the Friedel-Crafts reaction increased, except for [Etpy]BF4-AlCl3. The effects of the reaction system, the molar fraction of Lewis acid in the Lewis acid ILs and heating techniques were also investigated. Among the six Lewis acid ionic liquids tested [Etpy]BF4-ZnCl2 showed the best catalytic activity, with a yield of 89% after a very short reaction time (150 seconds. This procedure has the advantages of higher efficiency, better reusability of ILs, energy conservation and eco-friendliness. The method has practical value for preparation of CoQ10 on an industrial scale.

  19. Case report of Lewy body disease mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a 44-year-old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Aubert, Laure; Pariente, Jérémie; Dumas, Herve; Payoux, Pierre; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Puel, Michèle; Vital, Anne; Guedj, Eric; Lesage, Suzanne; Peoc'h, Katell; Brefel Courbon, Christine; Ory Magne, Fabienne

    2016-07-30

    Few patients are reported with dementia with Lewy bodies before fifty years-old, which may partly reflect the difficulty of accurate diagnosis in young population. We report the case of a 44-year-old male with pathologically confirmed sporadic dementia with Lewy bodies, who did not fulfil the revised clinical criteria for this disease. We document this atypical case with clinical and cognitive evaluation, imaging, biochemistry, genetics and pathology investigations. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was first suspected in this patient with no previous medical history, who developed acute and rapid cognitive impairment, L-dopa-non-responsive parkinsonism, and delusion. Positive 14-3-3 protein was initially detected in cerebrospinal fluid and until the late stages of the disease. Severe atrophy with no diffusion hypersignal was found on structural MRI as well as an extensive hypometabolism on (18)F-FDG-PET, in comparison to age-matched healthy volunteers. Genetic investigation found no alpha-synuclein gene mutation. The patient died within 5 years, and post-mortem examination found numerous Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites consistent with pure Lewy body disease. This comprehensively described case illustrates that dementia with Lewy bodies can occur in young patients with atypical clinical presentation. Biochemistry and neuroimaging investigations can sometimes be insufficient to allow accurate diagnostic. More specific markers to support such diagnosis are needed.

  20. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ban

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4 and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg. Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity.

  1. Lewis Acid Pairs for the Activation of Biomass-derived Oxygenates in Aqueous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Yuriy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this project is to understand the mechanistic aspects behind the cooperative activation of oxygenates by catalytic pairs in aqueous media. Specifically, we will investigate how the reactivity of a solid Lewis acid can be modulated by pairing the active site with other catalytic sites at the molecular level, with the ultimate goal of enhancing activation of targeted functional groups. Although unusual catalytic properties have been attributed to the cooperative effects promoted by such catalytic pairs, virtually no studies exist detailing the use heterogeneous water-tolerant Lewis pairs. A main goal of this work is to devise rational pathways for the synthesis of porous heterogeneous catalysts featuring isolated Lewis pairs that are active in the transformation of biomass-derived oxygenates in the presence of bulk water. Achieving this technical goal will require closely linking advanced synthesis techniques; detailed kinetic and mechanistic investigations; strict thermodynamic arguments; and comprehensive characterization studies of both materials and reaction intermediates. For the last performance period (2014-2015), two technical aims were pursued: 1) C-C coupling using Lewis acid and base pairs in Lewis acidic zeolites. Tin-, zirconium-, and hafnium containing zeolites (e.g., Sn-, Zr-, and Hf-Beta) are versatile solid Lewis acids that selectively activate carbonyl functional groups. In this aim, we demonstrate that these zeolites catalyze the cross-aldol condensation of aromatic aldehydes with acetone under mild reaction conditions with near quantitative yields. NMR studies with isotopically labeled molecules confirm that acid-base pairs in the Si-O-M framework ensemble promote soft enolization through α-proton abstraction. The Lewis acidic zeolites maintain activity in the presence of water and, unlike traditional base catalysts, in acidic solutions. 2) One-pot synthesis of MWW zeolite nanosheets for activation of bulky substrates. Through

  2. Effects of repetitive audiogenic stimulation on open field activity in audiogenic sensitive and non-sensitive wag/rij rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikbaev, A.F.; Balabanov, D.V.; Sadovnikov, S.V.; Karpova, A.V.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Kuznetsova, G.D.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Chepurnov, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    A certain part of WAG/Rij rats combines genetically predisposed absence epilepsy with susceptibility to the development of audiogenic seizures. Repeated sound stimulation leads in audiogenic susceptible rats to propagation of epileptic discharges from the brainstem to the forebrain and neocortex. In

  3. Cerebral malaria: susceptibility weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinit Baliyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria is one of the fatal complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Pathogenesis involves cerebral microangiopathy related to microvascular plugging by infected red blood cells. Conventional imaging with MRI and CT do not reveal anything specific in case of cerebral malaria. Susceptibility weighted imaging, a recent advance in the MRI, is very sensitive to microbleeds related to microangiopathy. Histopathological studies in cerebral malaria have revealed microbleeds in brain parenchyma secondary to microangiopathy. Susceptibility weighted imaging, being exquisitely sensitive to microbleeds may provide additional information and improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in cerebral malaria.

  4. Topological susceptibility from the overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    The chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing of Ginsparg-Wilson fermionic actions constrains the renormalization of the lattice operators; in particular, the topological susceptibility does not require any renormalization, when using a fermionic estimator to define the topological charge....... Therefore, the overlap formalism appears as an appealing candidate to study the continuum limit of the topological susceptibility while keeping the systematic errors under theoretical control. We present results for the SU(3) pure gauge theory using the index of the overlap Dirac operator to study...

  5. Susceptibility to noise exposure during postnatal development in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybalko, Natalia; Syka, Josef

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 155, - (2001), s. 32-40 ISSN 0378-5955 R&D Projects: GA MZd NK4747; GA ČR GA309/97/0830 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : noise exposure * enhancement Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.586, year: 2001

  6. Prion protein and scrapie susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.A.; Bossers, A.; Schreuder, B.E.C.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents briefly current views on the role of prion protein (PrP) in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies or prion diseases and the effect of PrP polymoryhisms on the susceptibility to these diseases, with special emphasis on sheep scrapie. The PrP genotype of sheep apears to be a

  7. Antifungal susceptibilities of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lennox K; Tuohy, Marion J; Wilson, Deborah A; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Kazembe, Peter N; Tansuphasawadikul, Somsit; Eampokalap, Boonchuay; Chaovavanich, Achara; Reller, L Barth; Jarvis, William R; Hall, Gerri S; Procop, Gary W

    2004-01-01

    Susceptibility profiles of medically important fungi in less-developed countries remain uncharacterized. We measured the MICs of amphotericin B, 5-flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole for Cryptococcus neoformans clinical isolates from Thailand, Malawi, and the United States and found no evidence of resistance or MIC profile differences among the countries.

  8. India, Genomic diversity & Disease susceptibility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. India, Genomic diversity & Disease susceptibility · India, a paradise for Genetic Studies · Involved in earlier stages of Immune response protecting us from Diseases, Responsible for kidney and other transplant rejections Inherited from our parents · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7.

  9. Cocoa Diet Prevents Antibody Synthesis and Modifies Lymph Node Composition and Functionality in a Rat Oral Sensitization Model

    OpenAIRE

    Camps-Bossacoma, Mariona; Abril-Gil, Mar; Salda?a-Ruiz, Sandra; Franch, ?ngels; P?rez-Cano, Francisco J.; Castell, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa powder, a rich source of polyphenols, has shown immunomodulatory properties in both the intestinal and systemic immune compartments of rats. The aim of the current study was to establish the effect of a cocoa diet in a rat oral sensitization model and also to gain insight into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) activities induced by this diet. To achieve this, three-week-old Lewis rats were fed either a standard diet or a diet with 10% cocoa and were orally sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA)...

  10. Clinical and pathological study on early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orimo, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    [ 123 I] Meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy has been used to evaluate postganglionic cardiac sympathetic innervation in heart diseases and some neurological disorders. To see clinical usefulness of MIBG myocardial scintigraphy to differentiate Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from related movement disorders and Alzheimer disease (AD), we performed MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in patients with these disorders. Cardiac uptake of MIBG is specifically reduced in PD and DLB, and this imaging approach is a sensitive diagnostic tool that possibly differentiates PD and DLB from related movement disorders and AD. To see pathological basis of the reduced cardiac uptake of MIBG in Lewy body disease, we immunohistichemically examined cardiac tissues from patients with PD, DLB, related movement disorders and AD using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and phosphorylated neurofilament (NF). Not only TH- but also NF-immunoreactive (ir) axons in the epicardial nerve fascicles were markedly decreased in Lewy body disease, namely cardiac sympathetic denervation, which accounts for the reduced cardiac uptake of MIBG in Lewy body disease. Patients with PD and DLB have Lewy bodies (LBs) in the nervous system, whereas patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, parkin-associated PD and AD have no LBs in the nervous system. Even in patients with MSA, cardiac sympathetic denervation was associated with the presence of LBs. Therefore, cardiac sympathetic denervation is closely related to the presence of LBs in a wide range of neurodegenerative processes. Taken together, we conclude that the reduced cardiac uptake of MIBG is a potential biomarker for the presence of LBs. Because α-synuclein is one of the key molecules in the pathogenesis of PD, we further investigate how α-synuclein aggregates are involved in degeneration of the cardiac sympathetic nerve in PD. We

  11. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort's electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils number-sign 2 and number-sign 6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort

  12. L-selectin-carbohydrate interactions: relevant modifications of the Lewis x trisaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, W J; Katsumoto, T R; Bertozzi, C R; Rosen, S D; Kiessling, L L

    1996-11-26

    Protein-carbohydrate interactions are known to mediate cell-cell recognition and adhesion events. Specifically, three carbohydrate binding proteins termed selectins (E-, P-, and L-selectin) have been shown to be essential for leukocyte rolling along the vascular endothelium, the first step in the recruitment of leukocytes from the blood into inflammatory sites or into secondary lymphoid organs. Although this phenomenon is well-established, little is known about the molecular-level interactions on which it depends. All three selectins recognize sulfated and sialylated derivatives of the Lewis x [Le(x):Gal beta 1-->4(Fuc alpha 1-->3)GlcNAc] and Lewis a [Le(a): Gal beta 1-->3(Fuc alpha 1-->4)GlcNAc] trisaccharide cores with affinities in the millimolar range, and it is believed that variants of these structures are the carbohydrate determinants of selectin recognition. Recently it was shown that the mucin GlyCAM-1, a secreted physiological ligand for L-selectin, is capped with sulfated derivatives of sialyl Lewis x [sLe(x): Sia alpha 2-->3Gal beta 1-->4(Fuc alpha 1-->3)GlcNAc] and that sulfation is required for the high-affinity interaction between GlyCAM-1 and L-selectin. To elucidate the important sites of sulfation on Le(x) with respect to L-selectin recognition, we have synthesized six sulfated Le(x) analogs and determined their abilities to block binding of a recombinant L-selectin-Ig chimera to immobilized GlyCAM-1. Our results suggest that 6-sulfo sLe(x) binds to L-selectin with higher affinity than does sLe(x) or 6'-sulfo sLe(x) and that sulfation of sLe(x) capping groups on GlyCAM-1 at the 6-position is important for L-selectin recognition.

  13. Lewis Acid-Base Chemistry of 7-Azaisoindigo-Based Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Nicholas M; Fransishyn, Kyle M; Kelly, Timothy L

    2017-07-26

    Low-band-gap organic semiconductors are important in a variety of organic electronics applications, such as organic photovoltaic devices, photodetectors, and field effect transistors. Building on our previous work, which introduced 7-azaisoindigo as an electron-deficient building block for the synthesis of donor-acceptor organic semiconductors, we demonstrate how Lewis acids can be used to further tune the energies of the frontier molecular orbitals. Coordination of a Lewis acid to the pyridinic nitrogen of 7-azaisoindigo greatly diminishes the electron density in the azaisoindigo π-system, resulting in a substantial reduction in the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy. This results in a smaller highest occupied molecular orbital-LUMO gap and shifts the lowest-energy electronic transition well into the near-infrared region. Both H + and BF 3 are shown to coordinate to azaisoindigo and affect the energy of the S 0 → S 1 transition. A combination of time-dependent density functional theory and UV/vis and 1 H NMR spectroscopic titrations reveal that when two azaisoindigo groups are present and high concentrations of acid are used, both pyridinic nitrogens bind Lewis acids. Importantly, we demonstrate that this acid-base chemistry can be carried out at the solid-vapor interface by exposing thin films of aza-substituted organic semiconductors to vapor-phase BF 3 ·Et 2 O. This suggests the possibility of using the BF 3 -bound 7-azaisoindigo-based semiconductors as n-type materials in various organic electronic applications.

  14. The μ3 model of acids and bases: extending the Lewis theory to intermetallics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Timothy E; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2012-04-02

    A central challenge in the design of new metallic materials is the elucidation of the chemical factors underlying the structures of intermetallic compounds. Analogies to molecular bonding phenomena, such as the Zintl concept, have proven very productive in approaching this goal. In this Article, we extend a foundational concept of molecular chemistry to intermetallics: the Lewis theory of acids and bases. The connection is developed through the method of moments, as applied to DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations. We begin by illustrating that the third and fourth moments (μ(3) and μ(4)) of the electronic density of states (DOS) distribution tune the properties of a pseudogap. μ(3) controls the balance of states above and below the DOS minimum, with μ(4) then determining the minimum's depth. In this way, μ(3) predicts an ideal occupancy for the DOS distribution. The μ(3)-ideal electron count is used to forge a link between the reactivity of transition metals toward intermetallic phase formation, and that of Lewis acids and bases toward adduct formation. This is accomplished through a moments-based definition of acidity which classifies systems that are electron-poor relative to the μ(3)-ideal as μ(3)-acidic, and those that are electron-rich as μ(3)-basic. The reaction of μ(3) acids and bases, whether in the formation of a Lewis acid/base adduct or an intermetallic phase, tends to neutralize the μ(3) acidity or basicity of the reactants. This μ(3)-neutralization is traced to the influence of electronegativity differences at heteroatomic contacts on the projected DOS curves of the atoms involved. The role of μ(3)-acid/base interactions in intermetallic phases is demonstrated through the examination of 23 binary phases forming between 3d metals, the stability range of the CsCl type, and structural trends within the Ti-Ni system.

  15. Susceptible-infected-recovered and susceptible-exposed-infected models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, Tania; De Oliveira, Mario J

    2011-01-01

    Two stochastic epidemic lattice models, the susceptible-infected-recovered and the susceptible-exposed-infected models, are studied on a Cayley tree of coordination number k. The spreading of the disease in the former is found to occur when the infection probability b is larger than b c = k/2(k - 1). In the latter, which is equivalent to a dynamic site percolation model, the spreading occurs when the infection probability p is greater than p c = 1/(k - 1). We set up and solve the time evolution equations for both models and determine the final and time-dependent properties, including the epidemic curve. We show that the two models are closely related by revealing that their relevant properties are exactly mapped into each other when p = b/[k - (k - 1)b]. These include the cluster size distribution and the density of individuals of each type, quantities that have been determined in closed forms.

  16. Nonlinear electromagnetic susceptibilities of unmagnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    Fully electromagnetic nonlinear susceptibilities of unmagnetized plasmas are analyzed in detail. Concrete expressions of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility are found in various forms in the literature, usually in connection with the discussions of various three-wave decay processes, but the third-order susceptibilities are rarely discussed. The second-order susceptibility is pertinent to nonlinear wave-wave interactions (i.e., the decay/coalescence), whereas the third-order susceptibilities affect nonlinear wave-particle interactions (i.e., the induced scattering). In the present article useful approximate analytical expressions of these nonlinear susceptibilities that can be readily utilized in various situations are derived

  17. Did Immanuel Kant have dementia with Lewy bodies and REM behavior disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marcelo; Slachevsky, Andrea; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego

    2010-06-01

    Immanuel Kant, one of the most brilliant minds of the XVIII century and of western philosophy, suffered from dementia in his late years. Based on the analysis of testimonies of his close friends, in this report we describe his neurological disorder which, after 8years of evolution, led to his death. His cognitive decline was strongly associated with a parasomnia compatible with a severe rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder (RBD) and dementia with Lewy bodies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Demystifying the constancy of the Ermakov-Lewis invariant for a time-dependent oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, T.

    2018-03-01

    It is well known that the time-dependent harmonic oscillator (TDHO) possesses a conserved quantity, usually called Ermakov-Lewis invariant. I provide a simple physical interpretation of this invariant as well as a whole family of related invariants. This interpretation does not seem to have been noticed in the literature before. The procedure also allows one to tackle some key conceptual issues which arise in the study of quantum fields in the external, time-dependent backgrounds like in the case of particle production in an expanding universe and Schwinger effect.

  19. Interphase transfer kinetics of uranium using the drop method, Lewis cell, and Kenics mixer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, D.E.; Mailen, J.C.; Thiel, S.W.; Scott, T.C.; Yates, R.G.

    1979-05-01

    The rate constants for the interphase transfer of uranium between 3.5 M HNO 3 and tributyl phosphate (TBP) - normal hydrocarbon diluent solutions have been measured using the single drop method, Lewis cell method, and a Kenics mixer - centrifugal separator. Rate constants obtained by all methods were the same within experimental error. The variables studied that affect the rate constants include the TBP concentration, the acidity and total neutral nitrate concentrations of the aqueous phase, and temperature. Results of these tests indicate that the rate controlling mechanism is chemical reaction at the interface

  20. Gothic elements in contemporary detective story : Matthew Gregory Lewis and Minette Walters compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Marinko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most shocking Gothic novels was written by Matthew Gregory Lewis in 1796. His Gothic novel The Monk contains all the typical Gothic elements such as a ruined castle, aggressive villain, women in distress, the atmosphere of terror and horror and a lot more. This article analyses and compares to what extent the Gothic elements of the late 18th century survived in the contemporary detective story The Ice House (1993 written by Minette Walters and how these elements have changed.

  1. The study of fMRI in Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia and Lewy bodies dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bing; Xu Jun; Xu Yun; Zhu Bin

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are the main type of neuro degenerative diseases, but the FTD and DLB are always confused with AD. Structural MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy have the potential to support the diagnosis of AD and the relative disease. Brain atrophy pattern, apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy pattern, the distribution mode of N-acetylaspartate and myo-inositol in temporal lobe, hippocampus, parietal lobe, frontal lobe could help to differentiate AD from FTD, DLB and those patterns are in accordance with the pathological changes. (authors)

  2. Verba tene, res sequentur. Lewis Carroll’s play on words and linguistic-textual generation

    OpenAIRE

    Katajamäki, Sakari

    2016-01-01

    In the beginning of Lewis Carroll’s Through the Looking-Glass (1872), the chessman White King is writing a note in his memorandum book, but his pencil does not obey him. The poor King struggles with it but, despite his efforts, he is not able to write what he intends. The text that appears in his book is something entirely peculiar and contrary to his intention: “The White Knight is sliding down the poker. He balances badly.” This episode reflects the manner in which language is often represe...

  3. Recent advances in Ni-H2 technology at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalezsanabria, O. D.; Britton, D. L.; Smithrick, J. J.; Reid, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has concentrated its efforts on advancing the Ni-H2 system technology for low Earth orbit applications. Component technology as well as the design principles were studied in an effort to understand the system behavior and failure mechanisms in order to increase performance and extend cycle life. The design principles were previously addressed. The component development is discussed, in particular the separator and nickel electrode and how these efforts will advance the Ni-H2 system technology.

  4. General aviation internal combustion engine research programs at NASA-Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    An update is presented of non-turbine general aviation engine programs underway at the NASA-Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The program encompasses conventional, lightweight diesel and rotary engines. Its three major thrusts are: (a) reduced SFC's; (b) improved fuels tolerance; and (c) reducing emissions. Current and planned future programs in such areas as lean operation, improved fuel management, advanced cooling techniques and advanced engine concepts, are described. These are expected to lay the technology base, by the mid to late 1980's, for engines whose life cycle fuel costs are 30 to 50% lower than today's conventional engines.

  5. Lewis, S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    This paper briefly reviews the investigation between 1969 and 1975 into substitutes for chock support timber. The parameters for the design of the substitutes were very exacting, having been based on the original material and as the investigation progressed it was necessary to modify and make changes. Of the large variety of materials tested the discard was considerable; however suitable ductile structures were found, utilizing reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete. Successful laboratory testing was eventually confirmed by satisfactory trials in a number of underground situations.

  6. Reducing Susceptibility to Courtesy Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachleda, Catherine L; El Menzhi, Leila

    2018-06-01

    In light of the chronic shortage of health professionals willing to care for HIV/AIDS patients, and rising epidemics in many Muslim countries, this qualitative study examined susceptibility and resistance to courtesy stigma as experienced by nurses, doctors, and social workers in Morocco. Forty-nine in-depth interviews provided rich insights into the process of courtesy stigma and how it is managed, within the context of interactions with Islam, interactions within the workplace (patients, other health professionals), and interactions outside the workplace (the general public, friends, and family). Theoretically, the findings extend understanding of courtesy stigma and the dirty work literature. The findings also offer practical suggestions for the development of culturally appropriate strategies to reduce susceptibility to courtesy stigmatization. This study represents the first to explore courtesy stigma as a process experienced by health professionals providing HIV/AIDS care in an Islamic country.

  7. Genetic susceptibility to Grave's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Chen, Qiuying

    2013-06-01

    The variety of clinical presentations of eye changes in patients with Graves' disease (GD) suggests that complex interactions between genetic, environmental, endogenous and local factors influence the severity of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). It is thought that the development of GO might be influenced by genetic factors and environmental factors, such as cigarette smoking. At present, however, the role of genetic factors in the development of GO is not known. On the basis of studies with candidate genes and other genetic approaches, several susceptibility loci in GO have been proposed, including immunological genes, human leukocyte antigen (HLA), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), regulatory T-cell genes and thyroid-specific genes. This review gives a brief overview of the current range of major susceptibility genes found for GD.

  8. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue, gut microbes and susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisavljević, S; Lukić, J; Momčilović, M; Miljković, M; Jevtić, B; Kojić, M; Golić, N; Mostarica Stojković, M; Miljković, D

    2016-06-01

    Gut microbiota and gut-associated lymphoid tissue have been increasingly appreciated as important players in pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of multiple sclerosis that can be induced with an injection of spinal cord homogenate emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant in Dark Agouti (DA) rats, but not in Albino Oxford (AO) rats. In this study, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), Peyer's patches (PP) and gut microbiota were analysed in these two rat strains. There was higher proportion of CD4(+) T cells and regulatory T cells in non-immunised DA rats in comparison to AO rats. Also, DA rat MLN and PP cells were higher producers of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ and interleukin-17. Finally, microbial analyses showed that uncultivated species of Turicibacter and Atopostipes genus were exclusively present in AO rats, in faeces and intestinal tissue, respectively. Thus, it is clear that in comparison of an EAE-susceptible with an EAE-resistant strain of rats, various discrepancies at the level of gut associated lymphoid tissue, as well as at the level of gut microbiota can be observed. Future studies should determine if the differences have functional significance for EAE pathogenesis.

  9. Antibiotic susceptibility of Atopobium vaginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschraegen Gerda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that a recently described anaerobic bacterium, Atopobium vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV. Thus far the four isolates of this fastidious micro-organism were found to be highly resistant to metronidazole and susceptible for clindamycin, two antibiotics preferred for the treatment of BV. Methods Nine strains of Atopobium vaginae, four strains of Gardnerella vaginalis, two strains of Lactobacillus iners and one strain each of Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii were tested against 15 antimicrobial agents using the Etest. Results All nine strains of A. vaginae were highly resistant to nalidixic acid and colistin while being inhibited by low concentrations of clindamycin (range: G. vaginalis strains were also susceptible for clindamycin ( 256 μg/ml but susceptible to clindamycin (0.023 – 0.125 μg/ml. Conclusion Clindamycin has higher activity against G. vaginalis and A. vaginae than metronidazole, but not all A. vaginae isolates are metronidazole resistant, as seemed to be a straightforward conclusion from previous studies on a more limited number of strains.

  10. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns Of Salmonella Species In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % susceptible to cefepime and carbapenem, 91% to azithromycin, 82.1% to cefixime and 73% to quinolones. Also susceptibility to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, augmentin and amikacin ...

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles for mastitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, L S; Benson, R H; Post, J E; DeCloux, J C

    1985-10-01

    Susceptibility tests were performed on milk samples representing prevalent mastitis infections in certain herds. Susceptibility patterns of the same bacterial species from several mastitis infections in the same herd were consistent. The herd antibiotic susceptibility profiles were used as a basis for selecting antibiotics for treatment of all such mastitis cases in that herd. A high degree of correlation was seen between the susceptibility test results and treatment results. Susceptibility patterns of the same bacterial species from mastitis infections in different herds varied greatly, which indicated that any one antibiotic would not work equally well against the same bacterial infection in every herd. Therefore, treatment should be selected on the basis of susceptibility test results. When both Streptococcus and Staphylococcus mastitis occurred in the same herd, the susceptibility patterns for the 2 bacterial species varied widely. Therefore, for herds that experienced both streptococcal and staphylococcal mastitis, antibiotics to which both bacterial species were susceptible were used for treatment.

  12. Quetiapine effective in treatment of inappropriate sexual behavior of lewy body disease with predominant frontal lobe signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Pathak, Amit; Munda, Sanjay; Bagati, Dhruv

    2009-01-01

    Dementia of Lewy body disease is the second most common degenerative cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, among all the dementias. The core features are a progressive dementia, fluctuations in cognitive functions, visual hallucinations, and spontaneous parkinsonism. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, severe neuroleptic sensitivity, and low dopamine transporter uptake in basal ganglia are other suggestive features. Behavioral abnormalities are commonly present in the form of aggressive behavior, irritability, and uninhibited behaviors. These are mostly seen in the advanced stages of dementia. However, inappropriate sexual behavior is uncommonly seen in such cases. Three types of inappropriate sexual behaviors commonly found in cases of dementia are sex talks, sexual acts, and implied sexual acts. Such inappropriate sexual behaviors have not been described adequately in dementia of Lewy body disease. We report inappropriate sexual behaviors in a case of dementia of Lewy body disease, which improved rapidly after treatment with quetiapine.

  13. Calibration and comparison of the NASA Lewis free-piston Stirling engine model predictions with RE-1000 test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M.

    1987-01-01

    A free-piston Stirling engine performance code is being upgraded and validated at the NASA Lewis Research Center under an interagency agreement between the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and NASA Lewis. Many modifications were made to the free-piston code in an attempt to decrease the calibration effort. A procedure was developed that made the code calibration process more systematic. Engine-specific calibration parameters are often used to bring predictions and experimental data into better agreement. The code was calibrated to a matrix of six experimental data points. Predictions of the calibrated free-piston code are compared with RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine sensitivity test data taken at NASA Lewis. Resonable agreement was obtained between the code predictions and the experimental data over a wide range of engine operating conditions.

  14. Self-Assembled Nanocomposite Organic Polymers with Aluminum and Scandium as Heterogeneous Water-Compatible Lewis Acid Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, Hiroyuki; Sonoyama, Arisa; Hayrapetyan, Davit; Kobayashi, Shū

    2015-09-01

    While water-compatible Lewis acids have great potential as accessible and environmentally benign catalysts for various organic transformations, efficient immobilization of such Lewis acids while keeping high activity and without leaching of metals even under aqueous conditions is a challenging task. Self-assembled nanocomposite catalysts of organic polymers, carbon black, aluminum reductants, and scandium salts as heterogeneous water-compatible Lewis acid catalysts are described. These catalysts could be successfully applied to various C-C bond-forming reactions without leaching of metals. Scanning transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that the nanocomposite structure of Al and Sc was fabricated in these heterogeneous catalysts. It is noted that Al species, which are usually decomposed rapidly in the presence of water, are stabilized under aqueous conditions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Controlled synthesis of multi-morphology Te crystals by a convenient Lewis acid/base-assisted solvothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaoping; Yuan Lin; Zhou Shaomin; Lou Shiyun; Wang Yongqiang; Gao Tao; Liu YuBiao; Shi Xiaojing

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the controlled growth of multi-morphology Te crystals by a convenient Lewis acid/base-assisted solvothermal method for the first time. The morphological transformation from one-dimension (1D) nanostructures to 2D hierarchical flowerlike microarchitecture has been observed. The nanorods and nanowires with a well-defined crystallographical structure and the hierarchical flowers microarchitecture were obtained by changing the Lewis acids/bases. Lewis acids/bases were found to be crucial for the formation of the products by not only acting as the pH regulator but also as the shape controller, owing to their hydrolysis in the solvent to in situ form H + /OH − and hydrates. The results suggest that this should be an effective approach to the control the growth of t-Te crystals with interesting multiple morphologies, which are of interest for both theoretical investigations and practical applications.

  16. Fourteen-Day Subchronic Oral Toxicity Study of 4-Nitrophenyl Methyl (Phenyl) Phosphinate in Male and Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    because of concern about the susceptibility of the compound to hydrolysis. If the compound were microencapsulated , one could then mix it with the diet... Enzymatic Activity in Serum...............32 Table 8 - Effect of MPP on Cholinesterase Activity in Plasma ........ 33 Red Blood Cell and Brain I A...4 w) c - U,- APEN I D S C N NC a N Lewis--30 TABLE 7 Egfeat of MPP* on Enzymatic Activity in Serum Aspartate Alanlne Lactate Creatine Amino- Amino

  17. Familial diffuse Lewy body disease, eye movement abnormalities, and distribution of pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Francesca M; Henson, Craig; Staunton, Hugh

    2002-03-01

    Familial diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD) is rare and not yet associated with a defect in the synuclein gene. In the differential diagnosis of the parkinsonian syndromes, defects in vertical gaze tend to be identified with progressive supranuclear palsy. False-positive diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy can occur, and defects in vertical gaze have been reported in DLBD, although so far a pure vertical gaze palsy associated with pathological abnormalities in the substrate for vertical gaze has not been described. To report the clinical and pathological findings in 2 siblings with DLBD, and to relate the distribution of the pathological abnormalities in the brainstem to centers for vertical gaze. For several years, 2 Irish siblings experienced a progressive parkinsonism-dementia complex associated in one with a defect in vertical gaze and in both with visual hallucinations. In both patients, results of pathological examination revealed (1) Lewy bodies positive for ubiquitin and alpha-synuclein together with cell loss and gliosis in the substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, and neocortex; and (2) similar findings in the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, the posterior commissure, and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (substrates for vertical gaze). Familial DLBD (not shown to be genetically as distinct from environmentally transmitted) has been shown to exist in an Irish family. Caution should be enjoined in the interpretation of defects in vertical gaze in the differential diagnosis of the parkinsonian syndromes.

  18. Lewis basicity, adhesion thermodynamic work and coordinating ability on aminated silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, M. Alejandra; Paniagua, Sergio A.; Borge, Ignacio; Viales, Christian; Montero, Mavis L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Silicon(1 0 0) surfaces with diamines followed by anchoring of copper complexes over the diamine layer, an approach that could be used for advanced functionalization of semiconducting surfaces. • Lewis basicity (using Fowkes–van Oss–Chaudhury–Good surface tension model) and adhesion thermodynamic work (using chemical force microscopy) were determined. • Higher basicity and thermodynamic work correlate with selective copper acetate monolayer grow. The cyclic voltammetry studies confirm the confined copper redox activity. - Abstract: Silicon(1 0 0) surfaces have been modified with three different amines (aniline, benzylamine and dodecylamine) and diamines (4-aminopyridine, 4-aminomethylpyridine, 1,12-dodecyldiamine). The surface energy was measured by contact angle technique. For Si-diamine surfaces, Lewis basicity (using Fowkes–van Oss–Chaudhury–Good surface tension model) and adhesion thermodynamic work (using chemical force microscopy) were determined. We related these data, the amine/diamine nature and their geometry on the surface (via DFT calculations) with the consequent ability to coordinate copper(II) acetate. Finally, copper(II) acetate monolayers behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry

  19. Cholinergic and dopaminergic activities in senile dementia of Lewy body type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, E K; Marshall, E; Perry, R H; Irving, D; Smith, C J; Blessed, G; Fairbairn, A F

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of brain tissue in a recently identified group of elderly demented patients suggest a neurochemical basis for some of the clinical features. Senile dementia of the Lewy body type (SDLT) can be distinguished from classical Alzheimer disease (AD) clinically by its acute presentation with confusion frequently accompanied by visual hallucinations, and neuropathologically by the presence of Lewy bodies and senile plaques (but not generally neurofibrillary tangles) in the cerebral cortex. Reductions in the cortical cholinergic enzyme choline acetyltransferase were more pronounced in individuals with (80%) compared to those without (50%) hallucinations and correlated strongly with mental test scores in the group as a whole. In the caudate nucleus, dopamine levels were related to the number of neurons in the substantia nigra, there being a 40-60% loss of both in SDLT--probably accounting for mild extrapyramidal features in some of these cases--compared with an 80% loss in Parkinson disease and no change in AD. The cholinergic correlates of mental impairment in SDLT together with the relative absence of cortical neurofibrillary tangles and evidence for postsynaptic cholinergic receptor compensation raise the question of whether this type of dementia may be more amenable to cholinotherapy than classical AD.

  20. Diffusible gradients are out - an interview with Lewis Wolpert. Interviewed by Richardson, Michael K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    In 1969, Lewis Wolpert published a paper outlining his new concepts of "pattern formation" and "positional information". He had already published research on the mechanics of cell membranes in amoebae, and a series of classic studies of sea urchin gastrulation with Trygve Gustavson. Wolpert had presented his 1969 paper a year earlier at a Woods Hole conference, where it received a very hostile reception: "I wasnt asked back to America for many years!". But with Francis Crick lining up in support of diffusible morphogen gradients, positional information eventually became established as a guiding principle for research into biological pattern formation. It is now clear that pattern formation is much more complex than could possibly have been imagined in 1969. But Wolpert still believes in positional information, and regards intercalation during regeneration as its best supporting evidence. However, he and others doubt that diffusible morphogen gradients are a plausible mechanism: "Diffusible gradients are too messy", he says. Since his retirement, Lewis Wolpert has remained active as a theoretical biologist and continues to publish in leading journals. He has also campaigned for a greater public understanding of the stigma of depression. He was interviewed at home in London on July 26th, 2007 by Michael Richardson.

  1. Reflections on Centaur Upper Stage Integration by the NASA Lewis (Glenn) Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Glenn (then Lewis) Research Center (GRC) led several expendable launch vehicle (ELV) projects from 1963 to 1998, most notably the Centaur upper stage. These major, comprehensive projects included system management, system development, integration (both payload and stage), and launch operations. The integration role that GRC pioneered was truly unique and highly successful. Its philosophy, scope, and content were not just invaluable to the missions and vehicles it supported, but also had significant Agency-wide benefits. An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center) philosophy on ELV integration is provided, focusing on Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur vehicles and programs. The necessity of having a stable, highly technically competent in-house staff is discussed. Significant depth of technical penetration of contractor work is another critical component. Functioning as a cohesive team was more than a concept: GRC senior management, NASA Headquarters, contractors, payload users, and all staff worked together. The scope, content, and history of launch vehicle integration at GRC are broadly discussed. Payload integration is compared to stage development integration in terms of engineering and organization. Finally, the transition from buying launch vehicles to buying launch services is discussed, and thoughts on future possibilities of employing the successful GRC experience in integrating ELV systems like Centaur are explored.

  2. Alpha-synuclein oligomers - neurotoxic molecules in Parkinson’s disease and other Lewy body disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ingelsson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adverse intra- and extracellular effects of toxic α-synuclein are believed to be central to the pathogenesis in Parkinson’s disease and other disorders with Lewy body pathology in the nervous system. One of the physiological roles of α-synuclein relates to the regulation of neurotransmitter release at the presynapse, although it is still unclear whether this mechanism depends on the action of monomers or smaller oligomers. As for the pathogenicity, accumulating evidence suggest that prefibrillar species, rather than the deposits per se, are responsible for the toxicity in affected cells. In particular, larger oligomers or protofibrils of α-synuclein have been shown to impair protein degradation as well as the function of several organelles, such as the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum. Accumulating evidence further suggest that oligomers/protofibrils may have a toxic effect on the synapse, which may lead to disrupted electrophysiological properties. In addition, recent data indicate that oligomeric α-synuclein species can spread between cells, either as free-floating proteins or via extracellular vesicles, and thereby act as seeds to propagate disease between interconnected brain regions. Taken together, several lines of evidence suggest that α-synuclein have neurotoxic properties and therefore should be an appropriate molecular target for therapeutic intervention in Parkinson’s disease and other disorders with Lewy pathology. In this context, immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies against α-synuclein oligomers/protofibrils should be a particularly attractive treatment option.

  3. Recombinant human endostatin improves tumor vasculature and alleviates hypoxia in Lewis lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Fang; Wang Jin; Zou Yi; Bao Yong; Huang Wenlin; Chen Guangming; Luo Xianrong; Chen Ming

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether recombinant human endostatin can create a time window of vascular normalization prior to vascular pruning to alleviate hypoxia in Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Methods: Kinetic changes in morphology of tumor vasculature in response to recombinant human endostatin were detected under a confocal microscope with immunofluorescent staining in Lewis lung carcinomas in mice. The hypoxic cell fraction of different time was assessed with immunohistochemical staining . Effects on tumor growth were monitored as indicated in the growth curve of tumors . Results: Compared with the control group vascularity of the tumors was reduced over time by recombinant human endostatin treatment and significantly regressed for 9 days. During the treatment, pericyte coverage increased at day 3, increased markedly at day 5, and fell again at day 7. The vascular basement membrane was thin and closely associated with endothelial cells after recombinant human endostatin treatment, but appeared thickened, loosely associated with endothelial cells in control tumors. The decrease in hypoxic cell fraction at day 5 after treatment was also found. Tumor growth was not accelerated 5 days after recombinant human endostatin treatment. Conclusions: Recombinant human endostatin can normalize tumor vasculature within day 3 to 7, leading to improved tumor oxygenation. The results provide important experimental basis for combining recombinant human endostatin with radiation therapy in human tumors. (authors)

  4. Narrative Organization Deficit in Lewy Body Disorders Is Related to Alzheimer Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Murray; Irwin, David J; Jester, Charles; Halpin, Amy; Ash, Sharon; Rascovsky, Katya; Weintraub, Daniel; McMillan, Corey T

    2017-01-01

    Background: Day-to-day interactions depend on conversational narrative, and we examine here the neurobiological basis for difficulty organizing narrative discourse in patients with Lewy body disorders (LBD). Method: Narrative organization was examined in 56 non-aphasic LBD patients, including a non-demented cohort ( n = 30) with Parkinson's disease (PD) or PD-Mild Cognitive Impairment PD-MCI,) and a cohort with mild dementia ( n = 26) including PD-dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), with similar age and education but differing in MMSE ( p organization of brief, familiar narratives (e.g., going fishing, wrapping a present). A subgroup of 24 patients had MRI assessment of regional gray matter (GM) atrophy and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, including beta amyloid (Aβ), total-tau ( t -tau), and phosphorylated-tau ( p -tau). Results: Mildly demented LBD patients had a significant deficit judging narratives compared to non-demented patients, but this deficit was not correlated with MMSE. Regression analyses instead related narrative organization to regions of frontal GM atrophy, and CSF levels of Aβ and t -tau associated with presumed AD pathology in these frontal regions. Conclusion: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that CSF markers of AD pathology associated with frontal regions play a role in difficulty organizing narratives in LBD.

  5. Numerical Modeling of Climatic Change from the Terminus Record of Lewis Glacier, Mount Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruss, Phillip Donald

    Over the last 100 years, the glaciers and lakes of East Africa have undergone dramatic change in response to climatic forcing. However, the available conventional meterological series have not proven sufficient to explain these environmental events. The secular climatic change at Lewis Glacier, Mount Kenya (0(DEGREES)9'S, 37(DEGREES)19'E), is reconstructed from its terminus record documented since 1893. The short-time-step numerical model developed for this study consists of climate and ice dynamics segments. The climate segment directly computes the effect on the net balance of change in the four forcings: precipitation, albedo, cloudiness, and temperature. The flow segment calculates the dynamic glacier response to net balance variation. Climatic change occurs over a wide range of time scales. Each glacier responds in a unique fashion to this spectrum of climatic forcings. The response of the Lewis terminus extent to repeated sinusoidal fluctuation in the net balance is calculated. The net balance versus elevation profile is separately translated along the orthogonal balance and elevation axes. Net balance amplitudes of 0.1 to 0.5 m a('-1) of ice and 10 to 50 m elevation, respectively, and periods ranging from 20 to 1000 years are covered. Consideration of the Lewis response is perspective with similar results for Hintereisferner, Storglaciaren, and Berendon and South Cascade Glaciers identifies general characteristics of the time lag and amplitude of the terminus response. The magnitude and timing of the change in only one of the climatic forcings precipitation, albedo, cloudiness, or temperature necessary to produce the retreat of the Lewis terminus from its late 19th century maximum are computed. Equivalent changes for two scenarios of simultaneous variation, namely precipitation/albedo/cloudiness and temperature/albedo, are also estimated. These numerical results are interpreted in the light of long-term lake level, river flow, and instrumental information. A

  6. An exploratory study of proficient undergraduate Chemistry II students' application of Lewis's model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sumudu R.

    This exploratory study was based on the assumption that proficiency in chemistry must not be determined exclusively on students' declarative and procedural knowledge, but it should be also described as the ability to use variety of reasoning strategies that enrich and diversify procedural methods. The study furthermore assumed that the ability to describe the structure of a molecule using Lewis's model and use it to predict its geometry as well as some of its properties is indicative of proficiency in the essential concepts of covalent bonding and molecule structure. The study therefore inquired into the reasoning methods and procedural techniques of proficient undergraduate Chemistry II students when solving problems, which require them to use Lewis's model. The research design included an original survey, designed by the researcher for this study, and two types of interviews, with students and course instructors. The purpose of the survey was two-fold. First and foremost, the survey provided a base for the student interview selection, and second it served as the foundation for the inquiry into the strategies the student use when solving survey problems. Twenty two students were interviewed over the course of the study. The interview with six instructors allowed to identify expected prior knowledge and skills, which the students should have acquired upon completion of the Chemistry I course. The data, including videos, audios, and photographs of the artifacts produced by students during the interviews, were organized and analyzed manually and using QSR NVivo 10. The research found and described the differences between proficient and non-proficient students' reasoning and procedural strategies when using Lewis's model to describe the structure of a molecule. One of the findings clearly showed that the proficient students used a variety of cues to reason, whereas other students used one memorized cue, or an algorithm, which often led to incorrect representations in

  7. Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Chunlei; Duong, Timothy Q; van Zijl, Peter C M; Li, Xu

    2017-04-01

    Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) is a recently developed MRI technique that allows quantitative determination of orientation-independent magnetic susceptibility parameters from the dependence of gradient echo signal phase on the orientation of biological tissues with respect to the main magnetic field. By modeling the magnetic susceptibility of each voxel as a symmetric rank-2 tensor, individual magnetic susceptibility tensor elements as well as the mean magnetic susceptibility and magnetic susceptibility anisotropy can be determined for brain tissues that would still show orientation dependence after conventional scalar-based quantitative susceptibility mapping to remove such dependence. Similar to diffusion tensor imaging, STI allows mapping of brain white matter fiber orientations and reconstruction of 3D white matter pathways using the principal eigenvectors of the susceptibility tensor. In contrast to diffusion anisotropy, the main determinant factor of the susceptibility anisotropy in brain white matter is myelin. Another unique feature of the susceptibility anisotropy of white matter is its sensitivity to gadolinium-based contrast agents. Mechanistically, MRI-observed susceptibility anisotropy is mainly attributed to the highly ordered lipid molecules in the myelin sheath. STI provides a consistent interpretation of the dependence of phase and susceptibility on orientation at multiple scales. This article reviews the key experimental findings and physical theories that led to the development of STI, its practical implementations, and its applications for brain research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Susceptibility Tensor Imaging (STI) of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Chunlei; Duong, Timothy Q.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) is a recently developed MRI technique that allows quantitative determination of orientation-independent magnetic susceptibility parameters from the dependence of gradient echo signal phase on the orientation of biological tissues with respect to the main magnetic field. By modeling the magnetic susceptibility of each voxel as a symmetric rank-2 tensor, individual magnetic susceptibility tensor elements as well as the mean magnetic susceptibility (MMS) and magnetic susceptibility anisotropy (MSA) can be determined for brain tissues that would still show orientation dependence after conventional scalar-based quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) to remove such dependence. Similar to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), STI allows mapping of brain white matter fiber orientations and reconstruction of 3D white matter pathways using the principal eigenvectors of the susceptibility tensor. In contrast to diffusion anisotropy, the main determinant factor of susceptibility anisotropy in brain white matter is myelin. Another unique feature of susceptibility anisotropy of white matter is its sensitivity to gadolinium-based contrast agents. Mechanistically, MRI-observed susceptibility anisotropy is mainly attributed to the highly ordered lipid molecules in myelin sheath. STI provides a consistent interpretation of the dependence of phase and susceptibility on orientation at multiple scales. This article reviews the key experimental findings and physical theories that led to the development of STI, its practical implementations, and its applications for brain research. PMID:27120169

  9. Measurements of temperature dependence of 'localized susceptibility'

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Ishii, H; Takayama, Y; Obu, K; Muro, T; Saitoh, Y; Matsuda, T D; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of some rare-earth compounds is estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of rare-earth 3d-4f absorption spectra. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility obtained by the MCD measurement is remarkably different from the bulk susceptibility in most samples, which is attributed to the strong site selectivity of the core MCD measurement.

  10. Lewis base catalyzed 1,3-dithiane addition to carbonyl and imino compounds using 2-trimethylsilyl-1,3-dithiane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michida, Makoto; Mukaiyama, Teruaki

    2008-09-01

    Lewis base-catalyzed 1,3-dithiane addition to electrophiles such as carbonyl compounds and N-substituted aldimines with 2-trimethylsilyl-1,3-dithiane (TMS-dithiane) is described. By the activation of the carbon-silicon bond in the presence of a Lewis base catalyst such as tetrabutylammonium phenoxide (PhONnBu(4)), a 1,3-dithiane addition reaction proceeded smoothly to afford the corresponding adducts in good to high yields under mild conditions. This synthesis is also applied to the reactions of ketones having alpha-protons, and of N-substituted aldimines.

  11. Tailoring the Synergistic Bronsted-Lewis acidic effects in Heteropolyacid catalysts: Applied in Esterification and Transesterification Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Meilin; Xue, Lifang; Sun, Zhong; Wang, Shengtian; Wang, Xiaohong; Shi, Junyou

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the influences of Lewis metals on acidic properties and catalytic activities, a series of Keggin heteropolyacid (HPA) catalysts, HnPW11MO39 (M = TiIV, CuII, AlIII, SnIV, FeIII, CrIII, ZrIV and ZnII; for Ti and Zr, the number of oxygen is 40), were prepared and applied in the esterification and transesterification reactions. Only those cations with moderate Lewis acidity had a higher impact. Ti Substituted HPA, H5PW11TiO40, posse lower acid content compared with TixH3−4...

  12. FROM THE LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION TO IBM, DELL, AND SOUTHWEST AIRLINES: TEACHING HISTORY AND LEADERSHIP TO BUSINESS STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Matthews

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available History is not a tomb of dead facts but a resource that can inform and improve everyday decision making. Experience as an analytical tool is invaluable for solving problems in changing and competitive environments. “From the Lewis and Clark Expedition,” which coincides with the National Lewis & Clark Bicentennial Commemoration (2003—2006, demonstrates how contemporary business concepts of visionary leadership, systematic planning, and organizational climate were instrumental to the success of Thomas Jefferson's “Corps of Discovery” and shows how a mastery of these concepts contributed to the successes of the pioneering US corporations IBM, Southwest Airlines, and Dell.

  13. Investigation of prototypal MOFs consisting of polyhedral cages with accessible Lewis-acid sites for quinoline synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Leng, Kunyue; Cash, Lindsay; Chrzanowski, Matthew; Stackhouse, Chavis A; Sun, Yinyong; Ma, Shengqian

    2015-03-21

    A series of prototypal metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) consisting of polyhedral cages with accessible Lewis-acid sites, have been systematically investigated for Friedländer annulation reaction, a straightforward approach to synthesizing quinoline and its derivatives. Amongst them MMCF-2 demonstrates significantly enhanced catalytic activity compared with the benchmark MOFs, HKUST-1 and MOF-505, as a result of a high-density of accessible Cu(II) Lewis acid sites and large window size in the cuboctahedral cage-based nanoreactor of MMCF-2.

  14. Direct conscious telemetry recordings demonstrate increased renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M Salman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired blood pressure control reflex responses, yet direct evidence demonstrating these features of autonomic dysfunction in conscious animals is still lacking. Here we measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP using telemetry-based recordings in a rat model of CKD, the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK rat, and assessed responses to chemoreflex activation and acute stress. Male LPK and Lewis control animals (total n=16 were instrumented for telemetric recording of RSNA and MAP. At 12–13 weeks-of-age, resting RSNA and MAP, sympathetic and haemodynamic responses to both peripheral (hypoxia: 10% O2 and central chemoreflex (hypercapnia: 7% CO2 activation and acute stress (open-field exposure, were measured. As indicators of renal function, urinary protein (UPro and creatinine (Ucr levels were assessed. LPK rats had higher resting RSNA (1.2±0.1 vs. 0.6±0.1 µV, p<0.05 and MAP (151±8 vs. 97±2 mmHg, p<0.05 compared to Lewis. MAP was negatively correlated with Ucr (r=-0.80, p=0.002 and positively correlated with RSNA (r=0.66, p=0.014, with multiple linear regression modeling indicating the strongest correlation was with Ucr. RSNA and MAP responses to activation of the central chemoreflex and open-field stress were reduced in the LPK relative to the Lewis (all p<0.05. This is the first description of dual conscious telemetry recording of RSNA and MAP in a genetic rodent model of CKD. Elevated RSNA is likely a key contributor to the marked hypertension in this model, while attenuated RSNA and MAP responses to central chemoreflex activation and acute stress in the LPK indicate possible deficits in the neural processing of autonomic outflows evoked by these sympathoexcitatory pathways.

  15. Elk monitoring in Lewis and Clark National Historical Park: 2008-2012 synthesis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Paul C.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Cole, Carla; Clatterbuck, Chris; Boetsch, John; Beirne, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelti) herds that frequent Lewis and Clark National Historical Park (NHP) is central to the park’s purpose of preserving the historic, cultural, scenic, and natural resources associated with the winter encampment of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Elk were critically important to the Lewis and Clark expedition in providing food and hides that sustained the expedition during the winter of 1805-06 and supplied them for their return east during 1806. Today, elk remain a key component of interpreting the Lewis and Clark story to over 200,000 park visitors each year at the Fort Clatsop visitor center. In 2008, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began collaborating with Lewis and Clark NHP and the NPS North Coast and Cascades Network to develop a protocol for monitoring long-term changes in the magnitude and spatial patterns of elk use within and adjacent to Lewis and Clark NHP (Griffin et al. 2011). Specific objectives of the monitoring program were to measure trends in (1) relative use of the Fort Clatsop unit by elk during winter; (2) the proportion of areas where elk sign is present in the Fort Clatsop unit in winter; and (3) the frequency of elk sightings from roads in and around the Fort Clatsop unit. This report synthesizes the results of the first four years of monitoring elk distribution and use in Lewis and Clark NHP from 2008-2012. We also present data from FY2012 (Appendix 1), in lieu of an annual report for that year. We used fecal pellet group surveys as the cornerstone for monitoring trends in both relative use of the Fort Clatsop Unit by elk and the proportion of areas where elk sign was present at the end of winter. We estimated pellet group density based on data collected from a network of fecal pellet plots distributed systematically throughout the unit. We developed a double observer sampling scheme that enabled us to estimate detection biases and improve the accuracy of pellet group density estimates. We computed

  16. Magnetic susceptibility of functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, T.; Ferraro, M.B.; Contreras, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Proceeding with a series of works where new criteria are applied to the the calculation of the contribution of molecular fragments to certain properties, results are presented for a group of 1-X-benzenes and 1-X-naphtalenes for the magnetic susceptibility constant. Both the diamagnetic and paramagnetic parts are taken into account. To reduce the problems associated with the Gauge dependence originated in the approximations made, Gauge independent atomic orbitals (GIAO) orbitals are used in the atomic orbital basis. Results are discussed in terms of functional groups. (Author). 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  17. Magnetic susceptibility of curium pnictides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nave, S.E.; Huray, P.G.; Peterson, J.R.; Damien, D.A.; Haire, R.G.

    1981-09-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of microgram quantities of 248 CmP and 248 CmSb has been determined with the use of a SQUID micromagnetic susceptometer over the temperature range 4.2 to 340 K and in the applied magnetic field range of 0.45 to 1600 G. The fcc (NaCl-type) samples yield magnetic transitions at 73K and 162 K for the phosphide and antimonide, respectively. Together with published magnetic data for CmN and CmAs, these results indicate spatially extended exchange interactions between the relatively localized 5f electrons of the metallic actinide atoms

  18. Polygenic susceptibility to testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litchfield, Kevin; Mitchell, Jonathan S; Shipley, Janet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) combined with its strong heritable basis suggests that stratified screening for the early detection of TGCT may be clinically useful. We modelled the efficiency of such a personalised screening approach, based on genetic...... known TGCT susceptibility variants. The diagnostic performance of testicular biopsy and non-invasive semen analysis was also assessed, within a simulated combined screening programme. RESULTS: The area under the curve for the TGCT PRS model was 0.72 with individuals in the top 1% of the PRS having...

  19. Carbonyl Activation by Borane Lewis Acid Complexation: Transition States of H2 Splitting at the Activated Carbonyl Carbon Atom in a Lewis Basic Solvent and the Proton-Transfer Dynamics of the Boroalkoxide Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmat, Mojgan; Privalov, Timofei

    2017-07-06

    By using transition-state (TS) calculations, we examined how Lewis acid (LA) complexation activates carbonyl compounds in the context of hydrogenation of carbonyl compounds by H 2 in Lewis basic (ethereal) solvents containing borane LAs of the type (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B. According to our calculations, LA complexation does not activate a ketone sufficiently enough for the direct addition of H 2 to the O=C unsaturated bond; but, calculations indicate a possibly facile heterolytic cleavage of H 2 at the activated and thus sufficiently Lewis acidic carbonyl carbon atom with the assistance of the Lewis basic solvent (i.e., 1,4-dioxane or THF). For the solvent-assisted H 2 splitting at the carbonyl carbon atom of (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B adducts with different ketones, a number of TSs are computed and the obtained results are related to insights from experiment. By using the Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics with the DFT for electronic structure calculations, the evolution of the (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B-alkoxide ionic intermediate and the proton transfer to the alkoxide oxygen atom were investigated. The results indicate a plausible hydrogenation mechanism with a LA, that is, (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B, as a catalyst, namely, 1) the step of H 2 cleavage that involves a Lewis basic solvent molecule plus the carbonyl carbon atom of thermodynamically stable and experimentally identifiable (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B-ketone adducts in which (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B is the "Lewis acid promoter", 2) the transfer of the solvent-bound proton to the oxygen atom of the (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B-alkoxide intermediate giving the (C 6 F 5 ) 3 B-alcohol adduct, and 3) the S N 2-style displacement of the alcohol by a ketone or a Lewis basic solvent molecule. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Efectos de inhibidores de colinesterasa en pacientes con enfermedad asociada a cuerpos de Lewy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Custodio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar los efectos de los inhibidores de colinesterasas (ICE donepezilo, rivastigmina y galantamina en el tratamiento de demencia con cuerpos de Lewy (DCL y demencia de la enfermedad de Parkinson (DEP. Diseño: Estudio tipo ensayo abierto. Lugar: Servicio de Neurología, Hospital Militar Central (HMC, y Unidad de Diagnóstico de Deterioro Cognitivo y Prevención de Demencia, Clínica Internacional. Participantes: Pacientes con demencia asociada a cuerpos de Lewy y demencia de la enfermedad de Parkinson. Intervenciones: Las mediciones de eficacia en 33 pacientes con diagnóstico de DCL y DEP se realizó con el Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog, Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (ADCS-CGIC, Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADL, Neuro-Psychiatry Inventory (NPI, Prueba de dibujo de Reloj de Manos (PDR-M y la Unified Parkinson´s Disease Rating Scale-motor subscale (UPDRS-part III. Principales medidas de resultados: Síntomas cognitivos, funcionamiento global y actividades de vida diaria de los pacientes. Resultados: Diecisiete pacientes fueron tratados con rivastigmina, 9 con galantamina y 7 con donepezilo. Luego de 6 meses de tratamiento, los pacientes en tratamiento con rivastigmina mejoraron en 1,39 puntos en ADAS-cog respecto de su medición basal, mientras que los pacientes tratados con donepezilo y galantamina no mostraron cambios (cambios <0,2 puntos. Respecto al ADCS-ADL, los pacientes tratados con rivastigmina, donepezilo y galantamina demostraron disminución de 0,42, 0,58 y 0,75 puntos, respectivamente. En el MMSE, los pacientes tratados con rivastigmina y donepezilo no mostraron cambios y los pacientes tratados con galantamina tuvieron una disminución promedio de 1,19 puntos. No hubo diferencias significativas en la incidencia de síntomas parkinsonianos en los tres

  1. Clinical and pathological manifestations of cardiovascular disease in rat models: the influence of acute ozone exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper shows that rat models of cardiovascular diseases have differential degrees of underlying pathologies at a young age. Rodent models of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic disorders are used for examining susceptibility variations to environmental exposures. How...

  2. Beneficial effect of modified peptide inhibitor of alpha4 integrins on experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Luc J. W.; van der Goes, Annette; Wauben, Marca H. M.; Ruuls, Sigrid R.; Döpp, Ed A.; de Groot, Corline J. A.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Elices, Mariano J.; Dijkstra, Christine D.

    2002-01-01

    An important event in the pathogenesis of the autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS) is the recruitment of lymphocytes and inflammatory macrophages to the central nervous system (CNS). Recruitment requires adhesive interactions between the leukocytes and the microvascular endothelium,

  3. Topological susceptibility from the overlap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    The chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing of Ginsparg-Wilson fermionic actions constrains the renormalization of the lattice operators; in particular, the topological susceptibility does not require any renormalization, when using a fermionic estimator to define the topological charge. Therefore, the overlap formalism appears as an appealing candidate to study the continuum limit of the topological susceptibility while keeping the systematic errors under theoretical control. We present results for the SU(3) pure gauge theory using the index of the overlap Dirac operator to study the topology of the gauge configurations. The topological charge is obtained from the zero modes of the overlap and using a new algorithm for the spectral flow analysis. A detailed comparison with cooling techniques is presented. Particular care is taken in assessing the systematic errors. Relatively high statistics (500 to 1000 independent configurations) yield an extrapolated continuum limit with errors that are comparable with other methods. Our current value from the overlap is χ 1/4 = 188±12±5MeV (author)

  4. Comprehensive report of aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, and space science applications of the Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The research activities of the Lewis Research Center for 1988 are summarized. The projects included are within basic and applied technical disciplines essential to aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, and space science/applications. These disciplines are materials science and technology, structural mechanics, life prediction, internal computational fluid mechanics, heat transfer, instruments and controls, and space electronics.

  5. The association of neuroleptic sensitivity in Lewy body disease with a false positive clinical diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, A. W.; Schoenmaker, N.; Rozemuller-Kwakkel, A. J. M.; van Gool, W. A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) share clinical features like cognitive decline, motor disturbances en psychiatric symptoms. Overlapping symptoms may cause physicians to mistake DLB for CJD. METHODS: Clinical data of 12 patients with autopsy-confirmed

  6. Geminal phosphorus/aluminum-based frustrated Lewis pairs: C-H versus C≡C activation and CO2 fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelt, C.; Westenberg, H.; Bertini, F.; Ehlers, A.W.; Slootweg, J.C.; Lammertsma, K.; Uhl, W.

    2011-01-01

    Catch it! Geminal phosphorus/aluminum-based frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) are easily obtained by hydroalumination of alkynylphosphines. These FLPs can activate terminal acetylenes by two competitive pathways, which were analyzed by DFT calculations, and they can bind carbon dioxide reversibly.

  7. An Alternative View of the Thirties: The Industrial Photographs of Lewis Wickes Hine and Margaret Bourke-White.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. Zoe

    The photographs of Margaret Bourke-White and Lewis Wickes Hine are graphic accounts of the urban industrial United States during the Depression of the 1930s. Hine was a sociologist who initially used his camera to promote social reform and is best remembered for his photographs of immigrants at Ellis Island, New York, and of children laboring in…

  8. Experimental observation of pulsating instability under acoustic field in downward-propagating flames at large Lewis number

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Sung Hwan

    2017-10-12

    According to previous theory, pulsating propagation in a premixed flame only appears when the reduced Lewis number, β(Le-1), is larger than a critical value (Sivashinsky criterion: 4(1 +3) ≈ 11), where β represents the Zel\\'dovich number (for general premixed flames, β ≈ 10), which requires Lewis number Le > 2.1. However, few experimental observation have been reported because the critical reduced Lewis number for the onset of pulsating instability is beyond what can be reached in experiments. Furthermore, the coupling with the unavoidable hydrodynamic instability limits the observation of pure pulsating instabilities in flames. Here, we describe a novel method to observe the pulsating instability. We utilize a thermoacoustic field caused by interaction between heat release and acoustic pressure fluctuations of the downward-propagating premixed flames in a tube to enhance conductive heat loss at the tube wall and radiative heat loss at the open end of the tube due to extended flame residence time by diminished flame surface area, i.e., flat flame. The thermoacoustic field allowed pure observation of the pulsating motion since the primary acoustic force suppressed the intrinsic hydrodynamic instability resulting from thermal expansion. By employing this method, we have provided new experimental observations of the pulsating instability for premixed flames. The Lewis number (i.e., Le ≈ 1.86) was less than the critical value suggested previously.

  9. Serotonin depletion increases seizure susceptibility and worsens neuropathological outcomes in kainate model of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Gisela H; Brazete, Cátia S; Soares, Joana I; Luz, Liliana L; Lukoyanov, Nikolai V

    2017-09-01

    Serotonin is implicated in the regulation of seizures, but whether or not it can potentiate the effects of epileptogenic factors is not fully established. Using the kainic acid model of epilepsy in rats, we tested the effects of serotonin depletion on (1) susceptibility to acute seizures, (2) development of spontaneous recurrent seizures and (3) behavioral and neuroanatomical sequelae of kainic acid treatment. Serotonin was depleted by pretreating rats with p-chlorophenylalanine. In different groups, kainic acid was injected at 3 different doses: 6.5mg/kg, 9.0mg/kg or 12.5mg/kg. A single dose of 6.5mg/kg of kainic acid reliably induced status epilepticus in p-chlorophenylalanine-pretreated rats, but not in saline-pretreated rats. The neuroexcitatory effects of kainic acid in the p-chlorophenylalanine-pretreated rats, but not in saline-pretreated rats, were associated with the presence of tonic-clonic convulsions and high lethality. Compared to controls, a greater portion of serotonin-depleted rats showed spontaneous recurrent seizures after kainic acid injections. Loss of hippocampal neurons and spatial memory deficits associated with kainic acid treatment were exacerbated by prior depletion of serotonin. The present findings are of particular importance because they suggest that low serotonin activity may represent one of the major risk factors for epilepsy and, thus, offer potentially relevant targets for prevention of epileptogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder reproduces the hippocampal deficits seen in the human syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Sonal; Samuel, Sherin; Sierra, Olga R.; Cascardi, Michele; Paré, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent progress, the causes and pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remain poorly understood, partly because of ethical limitations inherent to human studies. One approach to circumvent this obstacle is to study PTSD in a valid animal model of the human syndrome. In one such model, extreme and long-lasting behavioral manifestations of anxiety develop in a subset of Lewis rats after exposure to an intense predatory threat that mimics the type of life-and-death situ...

  11. Cationic two-dimensional inorganic networks of antimony oxide hydroxide for Lewis acid catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jinlin; Fei, Honghan

    2018-03-28

    We have successfully synthesized a rare example of inorganic layered materials possessing a positive charge, which is well outside the isostructural set of layered double hydroxides. This layered architecture consists of two-dimensional corrugated [Sb 2 O 2 (OH)] + layers with linear α,ω-alkanedisulfonate anions residing in the interlamellar space. This cationic material displays a chemical robustness under highly acidic aqueous conditions (pH = 1). Combining the robust nature and the high density of Sb III sites on the exposed crystal facets, our cationic layered material is an efficient, recyclable catalyst for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde derivatives with trimethylsilyl cyanide. In addition, the Lewis acidity of the Sb III sites also catalyzes the ketalization of carbonyl groups under "green" solvent-free conditions.

  12. Electronics technician Bill Clark assembling a cannon plug with the help of Jim Lewis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    There is always something needed for a NASA aircraft before a research flight can take place. This photo shows William J. Clark working on one of those 'somethings' while Jimmie C. Lewis watches ready to help. Working on a research project is a challenge, for there is no set pattern to follow. From the drawings to the final product there are many people who contribute to that final product -- the flight. The electronic technicians in the Instrumentation Laboratory at NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility are no exception. Bill Clark is busy creating a cannon plug to be used on the CV-990. He is soldering wires in the appropriate order so the plug will transmit electrical currents correctly when installed in the airplane. Jim stands by to give help and support on the project.

  13. Autonomous Navigation of the SSTI/Lewis Spacecraft Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, R. C.; Long, A. C.; Lee, T.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) is pursuing the application of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to improve the accuracy and economy of spacecraft navigation. High-accuracy autonomous navigation algorithms are being flight qualified in conjunction with GSFC's GPS Attitude Determination Flyer (GADFLY) experiment on the Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI) Lewis spacecraft, which is scheduled for launch in 1997. Preflight performance assessments indicate that these algorithms can provide a real-time total position accuracy of better than 10 meters (1 sigma) and velocity accuracy of better than 0.01 meter per second (1 sigma), with selective availability at typical levels. This accuracy is projected to improve to the 2-meter level if corrections to be provided by the GPS Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) are included.

  14. NASA Lewis Stirling SPRE testing and analysis with reduced number of cooler tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.A.; Cairelli, J.E.; Swec, D.M.; Doeberling, T.J.; Lakatos, T.F.; Madi, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling power converters are a candidate for high capacity space power applications. The Space Power Research Engine (SPRE), a free-piston Stirling engine coupled with a linear alternator, is being tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of the Civil Space Technology Initiative. The SPRE is used as a test bed for evaluating converter modifications which have the potential to improve converter performance and for validating computer code predictions. Reducing the number of cooler tubes on the SPRE has been identified as a modification with the potential to significantly improve power and efficiency. This paper describes experimental tests designed to investigate the effects of reducing the number of cooler tubes on converter power, efficiency and dynamics. Presented are test results from the converter operating with a reduced number of cooler tubes and comparisons between this data and both baseline test data and computer code predictions

  15. Cognitive and motor symptoms in dementia: focus on dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingler, Jennifer Hagerty; Kaufer, Daniel I

    2002-09-01

    To describe the clinical syndrome called dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and highlight its common and unique characteristics with respect to diagnosis and management. Review of the scientific literature including psychiatric literature, reports of clinical trials, and clinical practice guidelines. DLB is a clinical and histopathologic disease, which is second only to Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a cause of dementia in older adults. The clinical syndrome of DLB includes cognitive and motor deterioration reminiscent of symptoms associated with AD and Parkinson's disease (PD) respectively. The late life intersection of cognitive and motor symptoms can present significant challenges in the primary care setting. Recognizing key features of common neurodegenerative disorders is essential to accurately diagnosing and appropriately treating the growing population of older adults who suffer from AD, PD, and DLB.

  16. Cholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body spectrum disorders: the emerging pharmacogenetic story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Benjamin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review provides an update on the current state of pharmacogenetic research in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD and Lewy body disease (LBD as it pertains to the use of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI. AD and LBD are first reviewed from clinical and pathophysiological perspectives. This is followed by a discussion of ChEIs used in the symptomatic treatment of these conditions, focusing on their unique and overlapping pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, which can be used to identify candidate genes for pharmacogenetics studies. The literature published to date is then reviewed and limitations are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of potential endophenotypes which may help to refine future pharmacogenetic studies of response and adverse effects to ChEIs.

  17. Genetic Alzheimer Disease and Sporadic Dementia With Lewy Bodies: A Comorbidity Presenting as Primary Progressive Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picková, Tereza; Matěj, Radoslav; Bezdicek, Ondrej; Keller, Jiří; van der Zee, Julie; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Cséfalvay, Zsolt; Rusina, Robert

    2017-03-01

    We report a 44-year-old woman, with a family history of early-onset dementia, presenting with primary progressive aphasia. This clinically variable syndrome has multiple underlying pathologies, and correlations between clinical manifestations and postmortem neuropathologic findings are controversial. Our patient suffered worsening language impairment with major word-finding difficulties but preserved comprehension. She also developed episodic memory impairment. Her condition progressed to dementia with behavioral changes. Magnetic resonance imaging showed early left perisylvian and bitemporal atrophy. The patient died shortly afterward from colon cancer. Neuropathologic examination revealed advanced early-onset Alzheimer and Lewy body disease, plus a clinically nonrelevant metastasis of her colon cancer in her left parietal lobe. Genetic examination revealed a p.Glu184Asp mutation in the presenilin1 gene. Our findings confirm the importance of a thorough appreciation for the clinical and neuropathologic correlations in patients with atypical neurodegenerative dementias.

  18. The NASA-Lewis/ERDA Solar Heating and Cooling Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, J. P.; Bloomfield, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center plans to carry out a major role in the ERDA Solar Heating and Cooling Program. This role would be to create and test the enabling technology for future solar heating, cooling, and combined heating/cooling systems. The major objectives of the project are to achieve reduction in solar energy system costs, while maintaining adequate performance, reliability, life, and maintenance characteristics. The project approach is to move progressively through component, subsystem, and then system technology advancement phases in parallel with continuing manufacturing cost assessment studies. This approach will be accomplished principally by contract with industry to develop advanced components and subsystems. This advanced hardware will be tested to establish 'technology readiness' both under controlled laboratory conditions and under real sun conditions.

  19. New Model Exhaust System Supports Testing in NASA Lewis' 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, James W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    In early 1996, the ability to run NASA Lewis Research Center's Abe Silverstein 10- by 10- Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10x10) at subsonic test section speeds was reestablished. Taking advantage of this new speed range, a subsonic research test program was scheduled for the 10x10 in the fall of 1996. However, many subsonic aircraft test models require an exhaust source to simulate main engine flow, engine bleed flows, and other phenomena. This was also true of the proposed test model, but at the time the 10x10 did not have a model exhaust capability. So, through an in-house effort over a period of only 5 months, a new model exhaust system was designed, installed, checked out, and made ready in time to support the scheduled test program.

  20. Cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and senile dementia of Lewy body type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, C; Patel, A; Oyebode, F; Wilcock, G

    1996-05-01

    One hundred and twenty-four patients with DSM-III-R dementia were assessed with a standardized battery which included the Geriatric Mental State Schedule, the History and Aetiology Schedule, the Secondary Dementia Schedule and the CAMCOG. Patients with Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT) all had a similar degree of cognitive impairment at the time of the baseline interview. Patients with Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia each experienced a mean decline of 27 points in patients with SDLT. Patients with SDLT had a significantly greater decline of verbal fluency than both the other groups. Women were significantly more impaired than men at the time of the baseline assessment but experienced a similar decline during the year of follow-up.

  1. Cortical serotonin-S2 receptor binding in Lewy body dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, A V; Ferrier, I N; Morris, C M; Jabeen, S; Sahgal, A; McKeith, I G; Edwardson, J A; Perry, R H; Perry, E K

    1991-11-01

    The binding of the selective 5-HT2 antagonist [3H]ketanserin has been investigated in the temporal cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease (SDAT), Parkinson's disease (PD), senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT) and neuropathologically normal subjects (control). 5-HT2 binding was reduced in SDAT, PD with dementia and SDLT. SDAT showed a 5-HT2 receptor deficit across most of the cortical layers. A significant decrease in 5-HT2 binding in the deep cortical layers was found in those SDLT cases without hallucinations. SDLT cases with hallucinations only showed a deficit in one upper layer. There was a significant difference in cortical layers III and V between SDLT without hallucinations and SDLT with hallucinations. The results confirm an abnormality of serotonin binding in various forms of dementia and suggest that preservation of 5-HT2 receptor in the temporal cortex may differentiate hallucinating from non-hallucinating cases of SDLT.

  2. Lewis acid-promoted hydrofluorination of alkynyl sulfides to generate α-fluorovinyl thioethers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bello

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the preparation of α-fluorovinyl thioethers is reported which involves the hydrofluorination of alkynyl sulfides with 3HF·Et3N, a process that requires Lewis acid activation using BF3·Et2O and TiF4. The method gives access to a range of α-fluorovinyl thioethers, some in high stereoselectivity with the Z-isomer predominating over the E-isomer. The α-fluorovinyl thioether motif has prospects as a steric and electronic mimetic of thioester enols and enolates, important intermediates in enzymatic C–C bond forming reactions. The method opens access to appropriate analogues for investigations in this direction.

  3. Hot Corrosion Test Facility at the NASA Lewis Special Projects Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Raymond C.; Cuy, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    The Hot Corrosion Test Facility (HCTF) at the NASA Lewis Special Projects Laboratory (SPL) is a high-velocity, pressurized burner rig currently used to evaluate the environmental durability of advanced ceramic materials such as SiC and Si3N4. The HCTF uses laboratory service air which is preheated, mixed with jet fuel, and ignited to simulate the conditions of a gas turbine engine. Air, fuel, and water systems are computer-controlled to maintain test conditions which include maximum air flows of 250 kg/hr (550 lbm/hr), pressures of 100-600 kPa (1-6 atm), and gas temperatures exceeding 1500 C (2732 F). The HCTF provides a relatively inexpensive, yet sophisticated means for researchers to study the high-temperature oxidation of advanced materials, and the injection of a salt solution provides the added capability of conducting hot corrosion studies.

  4. Automating the Analytical Laboratories Section, Lewis Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, W.G.; Barton, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    We studied the feasibility of computerized automation of the Analytical Laboratories Section at NASA's Lewis Research Center. Since that laboratory's duties are not routine, we set our automation goals with that in mind. We selected four instruments as the most likely automation candidates: an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, an emission spectrometer, an x-ray fluorescence spectrometer, and an x-ray diffraction unit. Our study describes two options for computer automation: a time-shared central computer and a system with microcomputers for each instrument connected to a central computer. A third option, presented for future planning, expands the microcomputer version. We determine costs and benefits for each option. We conclude that the microcomputer version best fits the goals and duties of the laboratory and that such an automated system is needed to meet the laboratory's future requirements

  5. Asymmetric Synthesis of Hydrocarbazoles Catalyzed by an Octahedral Chiral-at-Rhodium Lewis Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Song, Liangliang; Gong, Lei; Meggers, Eric

    2015-12-01

    A bis-cyclometalated chiral-at-metal rhodium complex catalyzes the Diels-Alder reaction between N-Boc-protected 3-vinylindoles (Boc = tert-butyloxycarbonyl) and β-carboxylic ester-substituted α,β-unsaturated 2-acyl imidazoles with good-to-excellent regioselectivity (up to 99:1) and excellent diastereoselectivity (>50:1 d.r.) as well as enantioselectivity (92-99% ee) under optimized conditions. The rhodium catalyst serves as a chiral Lewis acid to activate the 2-acyl imidazole dienophile by two-point binding and overrules the preferred regioselectivity of the uncatalyzed reaction. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Gear noise, vibration, and diagnostic studies at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, J. J.; Oswald, F. B.; Townsend, D. P.; Coy, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command are involved in a joint research program to advance the technology of rotorcraft transmissions. This program consists of analytical as well as experimental efforts to achieve the overall goals of reducing weight, noise, and vibration, while increasing life and reliability. Recent analytical activities are highlighted in the areas of gear noise, vibration, and diagnostics performed in-house and through NASA and U.S. Army sponsored grants and contracts. These activities include studies of gear tooth profiles to reduce transmission error and vibration as well as gear housing and rotordynamic modeling to reduce structural vibration and transmission and noise radiation, and basic research into current gear failure diagnostic methodologies. Results of these activities are presented along with an overview of near-term research plans in the gear noise, vibration, and diagnostics area.

  7. Dark science and techno-utopia: the conservative approach of C. S. Lewis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ramos Vera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The rise of scientific, illustrated and progressive late nineteenth century utopias triggered proposals with alternative meanings. Some of those were articulated through a conservative thought as well as a christian, transcendent and otherworldly metanarrative. C. S. Lewis, for example, provided his answer to the techno-utopia in his essay The Abolition of Man as well as in the novel That Hideous Strength —conclusion of the Cosmic Trilogy (or Ransom Trilogy. We will introduce his challenge through three different arguments: (1 contrary to the project of personality conditioning , education is a link of continuity with the past and of respect for tradition; (2 in the light of the methodological atheism of these dystopias elicited the metaphysical and transcendent lewisian foundation of the imperfection of the human condition; (3 He will reply to the arrogance of social and political engineering by reducing power to a technical criterion of instrumental knowledge with the modest language of politics.

  8. Mineral compositions of plutonic rocks from the Lewis Hills massif, Bay of Islands ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan E.; Elthon, Don

    1988-01-01

    Mineral compositions of residual and cumulate rocks from the Lewis Hills massif of the Bay of Islands ophiolite complex are reported and interpreted in the context of magnetic processes involved in the geochemical evolution of spatially associated diabase dikes. The mineral compositions reflect greater degrees of partial melting than most abyssal peridotites do and appear to represent the most depleted end of abyssal peridotite compositions. Subsolidus equilibration between Cr-Al spinal and olivine generally has occurred at temperatures of 700 to 900 C. The spinel variations agree with the overall fractionation of basaltic magmas producing spinels with progressively lower Cr numbers. The compositions of clinopyroxenes suggest that the fractionation of two different magma series produced the various cumulate rocks.

  9. User manual for NASA Lewis 10 by 10 foot supersonic wind tunnel. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, Ronald H.

    1995-01-01

    This manual describes the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Lewis Research Center and provides information for users who wish to conduct experiments in this facility. Tunnel performance operating envelopes of altitude, dynamic pressure, Reynolds number, total pressure, and total temperature as a function of test section Mach number are presented. Operating envelopes are shown for both the aerodynamic (closed) cycle and the propulsion (open) cycle. The tunnel test section Mach number range is 2.0 to 3.5. General support systems, such as air systems, hydraulic system, hydrogen system, fuel system, and Schlieren system, are described. Instrumentation and data processing and acquisition systems are also described. Pretest meeting formats and schedules are outlined. Tunnel user responsibility and personnel safety are also discussed.

  10. Improved DNA electrophoresis in conditions favoring polyborates and lewis acid complexation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Singhal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial compression among the longer DNA fragments occurs during DNA electrophoresis in agarose and non-agarose gels when using certain ions in the conductive buffer, impairing the range of fragment sizes resolved well in a single gel. Substitutions using various polyhydroxyl anions supported the underlying phenomenon as the complexation of Lewis acids to DNA. We saw significant improvements using conditions (lithium borate 10 mM cations, pH 6.5 favoring the formation of borate polyanions and having lower conductance and Joule heating, delayed electrolyte exhaustion, faster electrophoretic run-speed, and sharper separation of DNA bands from 100 bp to 12 kb in a single run.

  11. Effects of fuel Lewis number on localised forced ignition of turbulent homogeneous mixtures: A numerical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipal Patel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influences of fuel Lewis number LeF (ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 on localised forced ignition and early stages of combustion of stoichiometric and fuel-lean homogeneous mixtures have been analysed using simple chemistry three-dimensional compressible direct numerical simulations for different values of root-mean-square velocity fluctuation and the energy deposition characteristics (i.e. characteristic width and the duration of energy deposition by the ignitor. The localised forced ignition is modelled using a source term in the energy transport equation, which deposits energy in a Gaussian manner from the centre of the ignitor over a stipulated period of time. The fuel Lewis number LeF has been found to have significant influences on the extent of burning of stoichiometric and fuel-lean homogeneous mixtures. It has been shown that the width of ignition energy deposition and the duration over which the ignition energy is deposited have significant influences on the success of ignition and subsequent flame propagation. An increase in the width of ignition energy deposition and the duration of energy deposition for a given amount of ignition energy have been found to have detrimental effects on the ignition event, which may ultimately lead to misfire. For a given value of u' (LeF, the rate of heat transfer from the hot gas kernel increases with increasing LeF (u', which in turn leads to a reduction in the extent of overall burning for both stoichiometric and fuel-lean homogeneous mixtures but the detrimental effects of high values of u' on localised forced ignition are particularly prevalent for fuel-lean mixtures. Detailed physical explanations have been provided for the observed LeF,u' and energy deposition characteristics effects.

  12. The Organization and Anatomy of Narrative Comprehension and Expression in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Sharon; Xie, Sharon; Gross, Rachel Goldmann; Dreyfuss, Michael; Boller, Ashley; Camp, Emily; Morgan, Brianna; O’Shea, Jessica; Grossman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Objective Patients with Lewy body spectrum disorders (LBSD) such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), Parkinson’s disease with dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) exhibit deficits in both narrative comprehension and narrative expression. The present research examines the hypothesis that these impairments are due to a material-neutral deficit in organizational executive resources rather than to impairments of language per se. We predicted that comprehension and expression of narrative would be similarly affected and that deficits in both expression and comprehension of narrative would be related to the same anatomic distribution of prefrontal disease. Method We examined 29 LBSD patients and 26 healthy seniors on their comprehension and expression of narrative discourse. For comprehension, we measured accuracy and latency in judging events with high and low associativity from familiar scripts such as “going fishing.” The expression task involved maintaining the connectedness of events while narrating a story from a wordless picture book. Results LBSD patients were impaired on measures of narrative organization during both comprehension and expression relative to healthy seniors. Measures of organization during narrative expression and comprehension were significantly correlated with each other. These measures both correlated with executive measures but not with neuropsychological measures of lexical semantics or grammar. Voxel-based morphometry revealed overlapping regressions relating frontal atrophy to narrative comprehension, narrative expression, and measures of executive control. Conclusions Difficulty with narrative discourse in LBSD stems in part from a deficit of organization common to comprehension and expression. This deficit is related to prefrontal cortical atrophy in LBSD. PMID:22309984

  13. Transhiatal Chest Drainage After Hybrid Ivor Lewis Esophagectomy: Proof of Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asti, Emanuele; Sironi, Andrea; Bonitta, Gianluca; Bernardi, Daniele; Bonavina, Luigi

    2018-04-01

    Intercostal pleural drainage is standard practice after transthoracic esophagectomy but has some drawbacks. We hypothesized that a transhiatal pleural drain introduced through the subxyphoid port site incision at laparoscopy can be as effective as the intercostal drainage and may enhance patient recovery. A proof of concept study was designed to assess a new method of pleural drainage in patients undergoing hybrid Ivor Lewis esophagectomy (laparoscopy and right thoracotomy). The main study aims were safety and efficacy of transhiatal pleural drainage with a 15 Fr Blake tube connected to a portable vacuum system. Pre- and postoperative data, mean duration, and total and daily output of drainage were recorded in an electronic database. Postoperative complications were scored according to the Dindo-Clavien classification. Between June 2015 and December 2016, 50 of 63 consecutive patients met the criteria for inclusion in the study. No conversions from the portable vacuum system to underwater seal and suction occurred. There was no mortality. The overall morbidity rate was 40%. Two patients (4%) required reoperation for hemothorax and chylothorax, respectively. Percutaneous catheter drainage for residual pneumothorax was necessary in 2 patients (4%) on postoperative day 2. The mean duration of drainage was 7 days (interquartile range [IQR] = 2), and the total volume of drain output was 1580 mL (IQR = 880). No pleural effusion on chest X-ray was detected at the 3-month follow-up visit. Transhiatal pleural drainage is safe and effective after hybrid Ivor Lewis esophagectomy and could replace the intercostal drain in selected patients.

  14. The generalized lewis acid-base titration of palladium and niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cima, M.; Brewer, L.

    1988-12-01

    The high thermodynamic stability of alloys composed of platinum group metals and group IVB and VB metals has been explained by an electronic interaction analogous to the Lewis acid-base concept for nontransition elements. The analogy is further demonstrated by the titration of palladium by addition of niobium. The activity of niobium in solid palladium was measured as a function of concentration by solid-state galvanic cells and study of the ternary oxide phase diagram. The galvanic cells were of the type Pt/NbO2,Nb2O4.8/YDTJNbOy,Nbpd/Pt where the solid electrolyte is yttria-doped thoria (YDT). Ternary phase diagrams for the Pd-Nb-0 and Rh-Nb-0 systems were obtained by characterizing samples equilibrated at 1000 °C. The phase relationships found in the ternary diagrams were also used to derive thermochemical data for the alloys. Thermochemical quantities for other acid-base stabilized alloys such as Nb-Rh, Ti-Pd, and Ti-Rh were also measured. The excess partial molar ΔGxs/R of niobium at infinite dilution was determined to be -31 kilo-Kelvin at 1000 °C, and the AG°JR of formation of a mole of NbPd3.55 is —21 kilo-Kelvin. These results and those for the other systems are used to assess the importance of valence electron configuration, nuclear charge, and crystal field effects in the context of generalized Lewis acid-base theory. It is concluded that both the nuclear charge of the atom and crystal field splitting of the valence orbitals significantly affect the basicity of the platinum group metals.

  15. A Comprehensive Approach to Management of Workplace and Environmental Noise at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Beth A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is home to more than 100 experimental research testing facilities and laboratories, including large wind tunnels and engine test cells, which in combination create a varied and complex noise environment. Much of the equipment was manufactured prior to the enactment of legislation limiting product noise emissions or occupational noise exposure. Routine facility maintenance and associated construction also contributes to a noise exposure management responsibility which is equal in magnitude and scope to that of several small industrial companies. The Noise Program, centrally managed within the Office of Environmental Programs at LRC, maintains overall responsibility for hearing conservation, community noise control, and acoustical and noise control engineering. Centralized management of the LRC Noise Program facilitates the timely development and implementation of engineered noise control solutions for problems identified via either the Hearing Conservation of Community Noise Program. The key element of the Lewis Research Center Noise Program, Acoustical and Noise Control Engineering Services, is focused on developing solutions that permanently reduce employee and community noise exposure and maximize research productivity by reducing or eliminating administrative and operational controls and by improving the safety and comfort of the work environment. The Hearing Conservation Program provides noise exposure assessment, medical monitoring, and training for civil servant and contractor employees. The Community Noise Program aims to maintain the support of LRC's neighboring communities while enabling necessary research operations to accomplish their programmatic goals. Noise control engineering capability resides within the Noise Program. The noise control engineering, based on specific exposure limits, is a fundamental consideration throughout the design phase of new test facilities, labs, and office buildings. In summary, the Noise Program

  16. [Abdominothoracic esophageal resection according to Ivor Lewis with intrathoracic anastomosis : standardized totally minimally invasive technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, N; Walz, M; Ketelhut, M

    2015-05-01

    The clinical and scientific interest in minimally invasive techniques for esophagectomy (MIE) are increasing; however, the intrathoracic esophagogastric anastomosis remains a surgical challenge and lacks standardization. Surgeons either transpose the anastomosis to the cervical region or perform hybrid thoracotomy for stapler access. This article reports technical details and early experiences with a completely laparoscopic-thoracoscopic approach for Ivor Lewis esophagectomy without additional thoracotomy. The extent of radical dissection follows clinical guidelines. Laparoscopy is performed with the patient in a beach chair position and thoracoscopy in a left lateral decubitus position using single lung ventilation. The anvil of the circular stapler is placed transorally into the esophageal stump. The specimen and gastric conduit are exteriorized through a subcostal rectus muscle split incision. The stapler body is placed into the gastric conduit and both are advanced through the abdominal mini-incision transhiatally into the right thoracic cavity, where the anastomosis is constructed. Data were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. A total of 23 non-selected consecutive patients (mean age 69 years, range 46-80 years) with adenocarcinoma (n = 19) or squamous cell carcinoma (n = 4) were surgically treated between June 2010 and July 2013. Neoadjuvant therapy was performed in 15 patients resulting in 10 partial and 4 complete remissions. There were no technical complications and no conversions. Mean operative time was 305 min (range 220-441 min). The median lymph node count was 16 (range 4-42). An R0 resection was achieved in 91 % of patients and 3 anastomotic leaks occurred which were successfully managed endoscopically. There were no postoperative deaths. The intrathoracic esophagogastric anastomosis during minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy can be constructed in a standardized fashion without an additional thoracotomy

  17. Emergence of nitrosourea resistant sublines of Lewis lung tumour following MeCCNU treatment in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, T. C.; Adams, K.; Peacock, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Several different drug retreatment protocols were employed to examine the emergence of resistance to MeCCNU in Lewis lung tumours. Previous studies suggested that although the majority of cells in untreated Lewis lung tumours were sensitive to MeCCNU, there was a very small proportion of resistant cells (approximately 0.001%) that limited "tumour cure' with that drug. If such cells were inherently drug resistant then it should be possible to derive highly resistant tumours by repeated drug treatment. In the first experiment tumours were treated with a single high dose of MeCCNU (35 or 40 mgkg-1) and on regrowth, transplanted into fresh mice and tested for drug sensitivity. Using both excision cell survival and growth delay endpoints, only approximately 25% of tumours were significantly resistant to the test dose, suggesting that many tumours resist the effects of the drug for reasons other than the presence of inherently drug resistant cells. One of the tumours (R4), that regrew after the initial treatment and appeared to be resistant to the test treatment, was retreated with a further 30 mgkg-1 MeCCNU and became more resistant. This line, designated R4/1, was cross-resistant to the other nitrosoureas, BCNU and CCNU, but not to cyclophosphamide, melphalan, cis-platinum or ionising radiation. The effect of treatment dose on the kinetics of MeCCNU resistance development was also studied in a retreatment regimen where the tumours were allowed to regrow and then transplanted into fresh hosts for the next treatment. Resistance developed more quickly at an intermediate dose of 15 mgkg-1 than at 7.5 mgkg-1 where the selective pressure was lower, or at 30 mgkg-1 where there was probably extinction of partially resistant cells. Resistance to MeCCNU developed even more quickly when tumours were retreated several times in the same host, although in a similar experiment with cyclophosphamide no resistance occurred. PMID:3954945

  18. Optimization of Fluosol-DA administration during a fractionated radiation protocol in the Lewis lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teicher, B.A.; McIntosh, N.L.

    1987-01-01

    The perfluorchemical emulsion, Fluosol-DA, in combination with breathing a 100% or 95% oxygen atmosphere, has been shown to enhance the response of several solid rodent tumors to single dose and fractionated radiation treatment. As an approach to determining the optimal dose schedule for Fluosol-DA during a course of fractionated radiation therapy, a total dose of 16 ml/kg of Fluosol-DA was administered either as two doses of 8 ml/kg on days 1 and 3 or as four doses of 4 ml/kg on days 1,2,3 and 4 of a four day protocol using the Lewis lung tumor model system. The Lewis lung tumor was grown s.c. in the flanks of C57BL/6J mice. Treatment was initiated when the tumors were 50-100 mm/sup 3/. Radiation was delivered as 4 daily fractions of 2.5, 4.0 or 5.0 Gray. Fluosol-DA was adminstered i.v. prior to irradiation. Each day carbogen breathing was maintained for 1 hr prior to and during each x-ray treatment. When Fluosol-DA was administered as two doses of 8 ml/kg, the dose modifying factor (DMF) observed was 1.7 +- 0.3. When Fluosol-DA was given as four doses of 4 ml/kg, the DMF was 1.5+-0.3 compared to x-ray treatment with carbogen breathing. It appears, therefore, administering Fluosol-DA at a therapeutic dose less frequently with carbogen breathing with every fraction may produce a better treatment outcome than giving more frequent lower doses

  19. Thoracoscopic management of volvulus of the gastric conduit following minimally invasive Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linson, Jeremy; Latzko, Michael; Ahmed, Bestoun; Awad, Ziad

    2016-07-01

    We present a case of emergent thoracoscopic management of volvulus of the gastric conduit following minimally invasive Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy. The patient is a 69-year-old Caucasian male with a history of adenocarcinoma of the lower third of the esophagus. Initial presentation was dysphagia with solid foods, which progressed in severity until he was unable to swallow anything. EUS demonstrated a partially obstructing mass at 33 cm; biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, stage T3N2Mx. PET scan did not reveal any metastatic disease. Preoperative management included neo-adjuvant chemoradiation therapy (5-FU and cisplatin) and early placement of a jejunal feeding tube. Intra-operative leak test was performed as a matter of routine following completion of the esophagogastric anastomosis. A nasogastric tube was placed intra-operatively and removed on POD2 according to our standard pathway. Postoperatively, the patient progressed without difficulty to POD4, when we routinely obtain an upper GI swallow study. This demonstrated a lack of transit of contrast through the distal neo-esophagus. Follow-up endoscopy revealed volvulus of the gastric conduit with obliteration of the lumen. We immediately took the patient to the OR for thoracoscopic detorsion, which we accomplished successfully by entering the existing trochar sites and using blunt dissection.␣Upon entering the thoracic cavity, the staple line that had been oriented anteriorly was now posterior. Attachments were gently teased away from the chest wall and the conduit was detorsed and anchored to the chest wall in the correct orientation with silk suture. Intra-operative endoscopy demonstrated a patent conduit. Postoperative upper GI fluoroscopy now showed good transit of contrast. The patient continued to improve and was eventually advanced to mechanical soft diet and discharged on postoperative day 9. Early intervention is indicated in cases of volvulus of the gastric conduit following Ivor-Lewis

  20. Cycloheptatrienyl zirconium sandwich complexes with lewis basic phospholyl ligands (phosphatrozircenes): synthesis, structure, bonding and coordination chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glöckner, Andreas; Bannenberg, Thomas; Büschel, Susanne; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Jones, Peter G; Tamm, Matthias

    2011-05-23

    The transmetalation reaction between [(η(7) -C(7) H(7) )ZrCl(tmeda)] (1; tmeda=N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) and various phospholide anions leads to a new class of mixed sandwich complexes: [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(η(5)-C(4)PMe(4))] (2), [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(η(5)-C(4)PH(2)Me(2))] (3) and [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(η(5)-C(4)PPhHMe(2))] (4). The presence of Lewis basic phosphorus atoms and Lewis acidic zirconium atoms allows ambiphilic behaviour to be observed, and X-ray diffraction analysis reveals dimeric arrangements for 2 and 3 with long intermolecular Zr-P bonds, whereas 4 remains monomeric in the solid state. DFT calculations indicate that the metal-phosphorus interaction is weak, and accordingly, complexes 2-4 act as monodentate ligands upon reaction with [W(CO)(5)(thf)]. The resulting complexes [W(CO)(5)(L)] 5-7 (L=2-4) were studied by IR spectroscopy and compared with the [W(CO)(5) ] complex 9, containing the phosphane-functionalised trozircene [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(η(5)-C(5)H(4)PPh(2))] (8). They all show a close resemblance to simple phosphanes, such as PMe(3) , although molecular orbital analysis of 2 reveals that the free electron pair in the phosphatrozircenes is not the HOMO. Four equivalents of 2 can replace 1,4-cyclooctadiene (COD) in [Ni(cod)(2)] to form the homoleptic, distorted tetrahedral complex [Ni{2}(4)] (10). Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.