Sample records for susceptibility measurements support

  1. Magnetic Susceptability Measurements in Superconductors (United States)

    Kim, Jason; Mallory, Kendall; Seim, Ryan


    A new undergraduate research facility in magnetic susceptability measurements on superconductors is being developed at the University of Northern Colorado. Initial data measurements of the magnetic susceptability of various superconductors will be presented. These measurements were obtained with a liquid helium/nitrogen dewar that was reassembled for use in this project. The cryostat consists of two separate dewars, the first of which contains liquid nitrogen, the second, liquid helium. The liquid nitrogen dewar is used to keep the helium bath from evaporating off too quickly. Data on the evaporation rates of the two liquids will also be presented.

  2. Measurements of temperature dependence of 'localized susceptibility'

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Ishii, H; Takayama, Y; Obu, K; Muro, T; Saitoh, Y; Matsuda, T D; Sugawara, H; Sato, H


    The magnetic susceptibility of some rare-earth compounds is estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of rare-earth 3d-4f absorption spectra. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility obtained by the MCD measurement is remarkably different from the bulk susceptibility in most samples, which is attributed to the strong site selectivity of the core MCD measurement.

  3. Accuracy of magnetic resonance based susceptibility measurements (United States)

    Erdevig, Hannah E.; Russek, Stephen E.; Carnicka, Slavka; Stupic, Karl F.; Keenan, Kathryn E.


    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map the magnetic susceptibility of tissue to identify cerebral microbleeds associated with traumatic brain injury and pathological iron deposits associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Accurate measurements of susceptibility are important for determining oxygen and iron content in blood vessels and brain tissue for use in noninvasive clinical diagnosis and treatment assessments. Induced magnetic fields with amplitude on the order of 100 nT, can be detected using MRI phase images. The induced field distributions can then be inverted to obtain quantitative susceptibility maps. The focus of this research was to determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements using simple phantom geometries and to compare the susceptibility measurements with magnetometry measurements where SI-traceable standards are available. The susceptibilities of paramagnetic salt solutions in cylindrical containers were measured as a function of orientation relative to the static MRI field. The observed induced fields as a function of orientation of the cylinder were in good agreement with simple models. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry using NIST-traceable standards. MRI can accurately measure relative magnetic susceptibilities while SQUID magnetometry measures absolute magnetic susceptibility. Given the accuracy of moment measurements of tissue mimicking samples, and the need to look at small differences in tissue properties, the use of existing NIST standard reference materials to calibrate MRI reference structures is problematic and better reference materials are required.

  4. Measuring Nematic Susceptibilities from the Elastoresistivity Tensor (United States)

    Hristov, A. T.; Shapiro, M. C.; Hlobil, Patrick; Maharaj, Akash; Chu, Jiun-Haw; Fisher, Ian

    The elastoresistivity tensor mijkl relates changes in resistivity to the strain on a material. As a fourth-rank tensor, it contains considerably more information about the material than the simpler (second-rank) resistivity tensor; in particular, certain elastoresistivity coefficients can be related to thermodynamic susceptibilities and serve as a direct probe of symmetry breaking at a phase transition. The aim of this talk is twofold. First, we enumerate how symmetry both constrains the structure of the elastoresistivity tensor into an easy-to-understand form and connects tensor elements to thermodynamic susceptibilities. In the process, we generalize previous studies of elastoresistivity to include the effects of magnetic field. Second, we describe an approach to measuring quantities in the elastoresistivity tensor with a novel transverse measurement, which is immune to relative strain offsets. These techniques are then applied to BaFe2As2 in a proof of principle measurement. This work is supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, under Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  5. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility (United States)

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.


    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  6. Measurement for Decision Support. (United States)

    Sheehan, Bernard S.


    In order to explore possible impacts of changing information technology on the role of the institutional research analyst, three institutional research foundations, measurement, human information processing, and decision support technology are examined. (Author/MLW)

  7. Landslide susceptibility mapping using support vector machine and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    learning algorithm; Eng. Geol. 123 225–234. Micheletti N 2011 Landslide susceptibility mapping using adaptive support vector machines and feature selection,. A Master Thesis submitted to University of Lausanne. Faculty of Geosciences and Environment for the Degree of Master of Science in Environmental Geosciences,.

  8. Women Support Providers Are More Susceptible than Men to Emotional Contagion Following Brief Supportive Interactions (United States)

    Magen, Eran; Konasewich, Paul A.


    People in distress often turn to friends for emotional support. Ironically, although receiving emotional support contributes to emotional and physical health, providing emotional support may be distressing as a result of emotional contagion. Women have been found to be more susceptible than men to emotional contagion in certain contexts, but no…

  9. Accuracy of MRI-based Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements (United States)

    Russek, Stephen; Erdevig, Hannah; Keenan, Kathryn; Stupic, Karl

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map tissue susceptibility to identify microbleeds associated with brain injury and pathologic iron deposits associated with neurologic diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Field distortions with a resolution of a few parts per billion can be measured using MRI phase maps. The field distortion map can be inverted to obtain a quantitative susceptibility map. To determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements, a set of phantoms with paramagnetic salts and nano-iron gels were fabricated. The shapes and orientations of features were varied. Measured susceptibility of 1.0 mM GdCl3 solution in water as a function of temperature agreed well with the theoretical predictions, assuming Gd+3 is spin 7/2. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry. The paramagnetic susceptibility sits on top of the much larger diamagnetic susceptibility of water (-9.04 x 10-6), which leads to errors in the SQUID measurements. To extract out the paramagnetic contribution using standard magnetometry, measurements must be made down to low temperature (2K). MRI-based susceptometry is shown to be as or more accurate than standard magnetometry and susceptometry techniques.

  10. A simple and accurate relative alternative magnetic susceptibility measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawilski, B.M., E-mail: zawilski@grenoble.cnrs.f [Institut Neel-MCMF--CNRS-UJF 25, Rue des Martyrs, F 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Marcus, J.; Plaindoux, P. [Institut Neel-MCMF-CNRS-UJF 25, Rue des Martyrs, F 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France)


    Investigation of relative AC magnetic susceptibility interests for many magnetic transition studies such as superconductor transition. A technique based on mutual or self inductive measure provides a fast and relatively easy (no contact) way to determinate the temperature of any transition affecting the magnetic susceptibility. The half Wheatstone inductive/resistive bridge is used instead of the usual RLC quarter bridge in order to balance the bore inductance of the coil. A comparison between quarter and half bridge measurements illustrates the accuracy of our device.

  11. The use of magnetic susceptibility measurements to determine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work presents a study on the application of magnetic susceptibility measurements and geochemical analysis for mapping or assessing heavy metal pollution in the agricultural soil in road proximity. The research work was also done to check any runoff of heavy metals pollution to the Owabi dam which serves ...

  12. The Slab Method to Measure the Topological Susceptibility

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; de Forcrand, Philippe; Dromard, Arthur; Gerber, Urs


    In simulations of a model with topological sectors, algorithms which proceed in small update steps tend to get stuck in one sector, especially on fine lattices. This distorts the numerical results, in particular it is not straightforward to measure the topological susceptibility chi_t. We test a method to measure chi_t even if configurations from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as "slabs". This enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models and for 2-flavour QCD.

  13. Novel Associations between Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Variants and Risk-Predicting Mammographic Density Measures (United States)

    Stone, Jennifer; Thompson, Deborah J.; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Scott, Christopher; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Hazra, Aditi; Li, Jingmei; Eriksson, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Jensen, Matt; Cunningham, Julie; Olson, Janet E.; Purrington, Kristen; Couch, Fergus J.; Brown, Judith; Leyland, Jean; Warren, Ruth M. L.; Luben, Robert N.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Smith, Paula; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Heusinger, Katharina; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Douglas, Julie A.; Shah, Kaanan P.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Woolcott, Christy; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Haiman, Christopher; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Krishnan, Kavitha; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Ursin, Giske; Grenaker Alnaes, Grethe I.; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Gram, Inger Torhild; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Simard, Jacques; Paroah, Paul; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.; Fasching, Peter A.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Hopper, John; Vachon, Celine M.


    Mammographic density measures adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) are heritable predictors of breast cancer risk but few mammographic density-associated genetic variants have been identified. Using data for 10,727 women from two international consortia, we estimated associations between 77 common breast cancer susceptibility variants and absolute dense area, percent dense area and absolute non-dense area adjusted for study, age and BMI using mixed linear modeling. We found strong support for established associations between rs10995190 (in the region of ZNF365), rs2046210 (ESR1) and rs3817198 (LSP1) and adjusted absolute and percent dense areas (all p breast cancer susceptibility variants, associations were found between rs1432679 (EBF1), rs17817449 (MIR1972-2: FTO), rs12710696 (2p24.1), and rs3757318 (ESR1) and adjusted absolute and percent dense areas, respectively. There were associations between rs6001930 (MKL1) and both adjusted absolute dense and non-dense areas, and between rs17356907 (NTN4) and adjusted absolute non-dense area. Trends in all but two associations were consistent with those for breast cancer risk. Results suggested that 18% of breast cancer susceptibility variants were associated with at least one mammographic density measure. Genetic variants at multiple loci were associated with both breast cancer risk and the mammographic density measures. Further understanding of the underlying mechanisms at these loci could help identify etiological pathways implicated in how mammographic density predicts breast cancer risk. PMID:25862352

  14. Landslide susceptibility mapping & prediction using Support Vector Machine for Mandakini River Basin, Garhwal Himalaya, India (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Thakur, Manoj; Dubey, Chandra S.; Shukla, Dericks P.


    In recent years, various machine learning techniques have been applied for landslide susceptibility mapping. In this study, three different variants of support vector machine viz., SVM, Proximal Support Vector Machine (PSVM) and L2-Support Vector Machine - Modified Finite Newton (L2-SVM-MFN) have been applied on the Mandakini River Basin in Uttarakhand, India to carry out the landslide susceptibility mapping. Eight thematic layers such as elevation, slope, aspect, drainages, geology/lithology, buffer of thrusts/faults, buffer of streams and soil along with the past landslide data were mapped in GIS environment and used for landslide susceptibility mapping in MATLAB. The study area covering 1625 km2 has merely 0.11% of area under landslides. There are 2009 pixels for past landslides out of which 50% (1000) landslides were considered as training set while remaining 50% as testing set. The performance of these techniques has been evaluated and the computational results show that L2-SVM-MFN obtains higher prediction values (0.829) of receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-area under the curve) as compared to 0.807 for PSVM model and 0.79 for SVM. The results obtained from L2-SVM-MFN model are found to be superior than other SVM prediction models and suggest the usefulness of this technique to problem of landslide susceptibility mapping where training data is very less. However, these techniques can be used for satisfactory determination of susceptible zones with these inputs.

  15. Precise measurements of diamagnetic susceptibility of benzophenone and paraffin by using a magnetic levitation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K; Mogi, I; Awaji, S; Watanabe, K [High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials, Institute of Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)], E-mail:


    Measurements for temperature dependence of diamagnetic susceptibility were performed under the magnetic levitation condition. The magnetic susceptibility of a single crystal of benzophenone showed monotonous decrease toward to the melting point with increasing temperature. The minimum change of the susceptibility was detected by 1.4 x 10{sup -12} m{sup 3}/kg. On the contrary, slight increase was observed below the melting point in the case of paraffin. The susceptibility of a paraffin melt was found to be smaller than that of the solid state. It was demonstrated that the magnetic levitation enables sensitive and contactless measurements of the diamagnetic susceptibility across the melting point.

  16. Region-specific disturbed iron distribution in early idiopathic Parkinson's disease measured by quantitative susceptibility mapping. (United States)

    He, Naying; Ling, Huawei; Ding, Bei; Huang, Juan; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Zhongping; Liu, Chunlei; Chen, Kemin; Yan, Fuhua


    In Parkinson's disease (PD), iron elevation in specific brain regions as well as selective loss of dopaminergic neurons is a major pathologic feature. A reliable quantitative measure of iron deposition is a potential biomarker for PD and may contribute to the investigation of iron-mediated PD. The primary purpose of this study is to assess iron variations in multiple deep grey matter nuclei in early PD with a novel MRI technique, quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). The inter-group differences of susceptibility and R2* value in deep grey matter nuclei, namely head of caudate nucleus (CN), putamen (PUT), global pallidus (GP), substantia nigra (SN), and red nucleus (RN), and the correlations between regional iron deposition and the clinical features were explored in forty-four early PD patients and 35 gender and age-matched healthy controls. Susceptibility values were found to be elevated within bilateral SN and RN contralateral to the most affected limb in early PD compared with healthy controls (HCs). The finding of increased susceptibility in bilateral SN is consistent with work on a subgroup of patients at the earliest clinical detectable state (Hoehn and Yahr [1967]: Neurology 17:427-442; Stage I). However, increased R2* values were only seen within SN contralateral to the most affected limb in the PD group when compared with controls. Furthermore, bilateral SN magnetic susceptibility positively correlated with disease duration and UPDRS-III scores in early PD. This finding supports the potential value of QSM as a non-invasive quantitative biomarker of early PD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Fully automated measurement of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility using 3D rotator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Studýnka, J.; Chadima, Martin; Suza, P.


    Roč. 629, 26 August (2014), s. 6-13 ISSN 0040-1951 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : AMS * Kappabridge * susceptibility tensor Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.872, year: 2014

  18. A method for the integration of satellite vegetation activities observations and magnetic susceptibility measurements for monitoring heavy metals in soil. (United States)

    D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Macchiato, Maria; Ragosta, Maria; Simoniello, Tiziana


    We present a procedure for monitoring heavy metals in soil based on the integration of satellite and ground-based techniques, tested in an area affected by high anthropogenic pressure. High resolution multispectral satellite data were elaborated to obtain information on vegetation status. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of soils were collected as proxy variable for monitoring heavy metal presence. Chemical analyses of heavy metals were used for supporting and validating the integrated monitoring procedure. Magnetic and chemical measurements were organized in a GIS environment to be overlapped to satellite-based elaborations and to analyze the pattern distribution. Results show the presence of correlation between anomalies in vegetation activity and soil characteristics. The relationship between the distribution of normalized difference vegetation index anomalies and magnetic susceptibility values provides hints for adopting the integrated procedure as preliminary screening to minimize monitoring efforts and costs by supporting the planning activities of field campaigns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Micromagnetic susceptometer for the measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of the actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nave, Stanley Eugene [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)


    A device with the sensitivity for measuring the magnetic susceptibility of small volume samples (10-7 cm3) as a function of temperature from 4.2K to 300K is described as designed specifically for measurements with microgram or submicrogram quantities of the actinide metals. Specifically, results are given for the susceptibility of curium-248 in the temperature range from 4.2K to 300K.

  20. A Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in Gangwon Province, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saro Lee


    Full Text Available In this study, the support vector machine (SVM was applied and validated by using the geographic information system (GIS in order to map landslide susceptibility. In order to test the usefulness and effectiveness of the SVM, two study areas were carefully selected: the PyeongChang and Inje areas of Gangwon Province, Korea. This is because, not only did many landslides (2098 in PyeongChang and 2580 in Inje occur in 2006 as a result of heavy rainfall, but the 2018 Winter Olympics will be held in these areas. A variety of spatial data, including landslides, geology, topography, forest, soil, and land cover, were identified and collected in the study areas. Following this, the spatial data were compiled in a GIS-based database through the use of aerial photographs. Using this database, 18 factors relating to topography, geology, soil, forest and land use, were extracted and applied to the SVM. Next, the detected landslide data were randomly divided into two sets; one for training and the other for validation of the model. Furthermore, a SVM, specifically a type of data-mining classification model, was applied by using radial basis function kernels. Finally, the estimated landslide susceptibility maps were validated. In order to validate the maps, sensitivity analyses were carried out through area-under-the-curve analysis. The achieved accuracies from the SVM were approximately 81.36% and 77.49% in the PyeongChang and Inje areas, respectively. Moreover, a sensitivity assessment of the factors was performed. It was found that all of the factors, except for soil topography, soil drainage, soil material, soil texture, timber diameter, timber age, and timber density for the PyeongChang area, and timber diameter, timber age, and timber density for the Inje area, had relatively positive effects on the landslide susceptibility maps. These results indicate that SVMs can be useful and effective for landslide susceptibility analysis.

  1. Enhancement of MS2D Bartington point measurement of soil magnetic susceptibility (United States)

    Fabijańczyk, Piotr; Zawadzki, Jarosław


    Field magnetometry is fast method used to assess the potential soil pollution. The most popular device used to measure the soil magnetic susceptibility on the soil surface is a MS2D Bartington. Single reading using MS2D device of soil magnetic susceptibility is low time-consuming but often characterized by considerable errors related to the instrument or environmental and lithogenic factors. Typically, in order to calculate the reliable average value of soil magnetic susceptibility, a series of MS2D readings is performed in the sample point. As it was analyzed previously, such methodology makes it possible to significantly reduce the nugget effect of the variograms of soil magnetic susceptibility that is related to the micro-scale variance and measurement errors. The goal of this study was to optimize the process of taking a series of MS2D readings, whose average value constitutes a single measurement, in order to take into account micro-scale variations of soil magnetic susceptibility in proper determination of this parameter. This was done using statistical and geostatistical analyses. The analyses were performed using field MS2D measurements that were carried out in the study area located in the direct vicinity of the Katowice agglomeration. At 150 sample points 10 MS2D readings of soil magnetic susceptibility were taken. Using this data set, series of experimental variograms were calculated and modeled. Firstly, using single random MS2D reading for each sample point, and next using the data set increased by adding one more MS2D reading, until their number reached 10. The parameters of variogram: nugget effect, sill and range of correlation were used to determine the most suitable number of MS2D readings at sample point. The distributions of soil magnetic susceptibility at sample point were also analyzed in order to determine adequate number of readings enabling to calculate reliable average soil magnetic susceptibility. The research leading to these results has

  2. Global Lithospheric Apparent Susceptibility Distribution Converted from Geomagnetic Models by CHAMP and Swarm Satellite Magnetic Measurements (United States)

    Du, Jinsong; Chen, Chao; Xiong, Xiong; Li, Yongdong; Liang, Qing


    magnetic measurements and obtained global lithospheric apparent susceptibility distribution models. Finally, we compared these deduced models with previous results in the literature and some other geophysical, geodetic and geologic datum. Both tests and applications suggest, indeed, that the improved AS85 method can be adopted as a fast and effective interpretation tool of global induced large-scale magnetic anomaly field models in form of spherical harmonics. Arkani-Hamed, J. & Srangway, D.W., 1985. Lateral variations of apparent magnetic susceptibility of lithosphere deduced from Magsat data, J. Geophys. Res., 90(B3), 2655-2664. Gubbins, D., Ivers, D., Masterton, S.M. & Winch, D.E., 2011. Analysis of lithospheric magnetization in vector spherical harmonics, Geophys. J. Int., 187(1), 99-117. Hemant, K. & Maus, S., 2005. Geological modeling of the new CHAMP magnetic anomaly maps using a geographical information system technique, J. Geophys. Res., 110, B12103, doi: 10.1029/2005JB003837. Masterton, S.M., Gubbins, D., Müller, R.D. & Singh, K.H., 2013. Forward modeling of oceanic lithospheric magnetization, Geophys. J. Int., 192(3), 951-962. Nolte, H.J. & Siebert, M., 1987. An analytical approach to the magnetic field of the Earth's crust, J. Geophys., 61, 69-76. This study is supported by State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth's Dynamics (Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) (SKLGED2015-5-5-EZ), Natural Science Fund of Hubei Province (2015CFB361), International Cooperation Project in Science and Technology of China (2010DFA24580), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015M572217 and 2014T70753), Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory (Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan) (SMIL-2015-06) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (41574070, 41104048 and 41504065).

  3. Experimentally measured susceptibility to peer influence and adolescent sexual behavior trajectories: A preliminary study. (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J


    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving "e-confederates" who endorsed sexual risk behaviors. Changes in participants' responses to risk scenarios before versus during the "chat room" were used as a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Participants reported their perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and self-reported their number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months later. Susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners and trajectories of adolescents' own numbers of partners. High perceptions of the number of popular peers' sexual intercourse partners combined with high peer influence susceptibility predicted steeper longitudinal trajectories of adolescents' number of partners. Results provide novel preliminary evidence regarding the importance of peer influence susceptibility in adolescents' development of sexual behaviors.

  4. Experimentally-Measured Susceptibility to Peer Influence and Adolescent Sexual Behavior Trajectories: A Preliminary Study (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.


    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental “chat room” paradigm involving “e-confederates” who endorsed sexual risk behaviors. Changes in participants' responses to risk scenarios before versus during the “chat room” were used as a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Participants reported their perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partner sat baseline, and self-reported their number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months later. Susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners and trajectories of adolescents' own numbers of partners. High perceptions of the number of popular peers' sexual intercourse partners combined with high peer influence susceptibility predicted steeper longitudinal trajectories of adolescents' number of partners. Results provide novel preliminary evidence regarding the importance of peer influence susceptibility in adolescents' development of sexual behaviors. PMID:24999763

  5. Genome-wide linkage scan for colorectal cancer susceptibility genes supports linkage to chromosome 3q

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velculescu Victor E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related mortality. The disease is clinically and genetically heterogeneous though a strong hereditary component has been identified. However, only a small proportion of the inherited susceptibility can be ascribed to dominant syndromes, such as Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC or Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP. In an attempt to identify novel colorectal cancer predisposing genes, we have performed a genome-wide linkage analysis in 30 Swedish non-FAP/non-HNPCC families with a strong family history of colorectal cancer. Methods Statistical analysis was performed using multipoint parametric and nonparametric linkage. Results Parametric analysis under the assumption of locus homogeneity excluded any common susceptibility regions harbouring a predisposing gene for colorectal cancer. However, several loci on chromosomes 2q, 3q, 6q, and 7q with suggestive linkage were detected in the parametric analysis under the assumption of locus heterogeneity as well as in the nonparametric analysis. Among these loci, the locus on chromosome 3q21.1-q26.2 was the most consistent finding providing positive results in both parametric and nonparametric analyses Heterogeneity LOD score (HLOD = 1.90, alpha = 0.45, Non-Parametric LOD score (NPL = 2.1. Conclusion The strongest evidence of linkage was seen for the region on chromosome 3. Interestingly, the same region has recently been reported as the most significant finding in a genome-wide analysis performed with SNP arrays; thus our results independently support the finding on chromosome 3q.

  6. Experimentally Measured Susceptibility to Peer Influence and Adolescent Sexual Behavior Trajectories: A Preliminary Study (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.


    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving…

  7. Experimentally measured susceptibility to peer influence and adolescent sexual behavior trajectories : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choukas-Bradley, S.; Giletta, M.; Widman, L.; Cohen, G.L.; Prinstein, M.J.


    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat

  8. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China. (United States)

    Yu, Xianyu; Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Hu, Youjian


    In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%-19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides.

  9. Hematoma volume measurement in gradient echo MRI using quantitative susceptibility mapping. (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Lou, Min; Liu, Tian; Cui, Deqi; Chen, Xiaomei; Wang, Yi


    A novel quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) processing technology has been developed to map tissue susceptibility property without blooming artifacts. We hypothesize that hematoma volume measurement on QSM is independent of imaging parameters, eliminating its echo time dependence on gradient echo MRI. Gradient echo MRI of 16 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage was processed with susceptibility-weighted imaging, R2* (=1/T2*) mapping, and QSM at various echo times. Hematoma volumes were measured from these images. Linear regression of hematoma volume versus echo time showed substantial slopes for gradient echo magnitude (0.45±0.31 L/s), susceptibility-weighted imaging (0.52±0.46), and R2* (0.39±0.30) but nearly zero slope for QSM (0.01±0.05). At echo time=20 ms, hematoma volume on QSM was 0.80× that on gradient echo magnitude image (R2=0.99). QSM can provide reliable measurement of hematoma volume, which can be performed rapidly and accurately using a semiautomated segmentation tool.

  10. GIS Supported Landslide Susceptibility Modeling at Regional Scale: An Expert-Based Fuzzy Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Chalkias


    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is landslide susceptibility assessment using fuzzy expert-based modeling. Factors that influence landslide occurrence, such as elevation, slope, aspect, lithology, land cover, precipitation and seismicity were considered. Expert-based fuzzy weighting (EFW approach was used to combine these factors for landslide susceptibility mapping (Peloponnese, Greece. This method produced a landslide susceptibility map of the investigated area. The landslides under investigation have more or less same characteristics: lateral based and downslope shallow movement of soils or rocks. The validation of the model reveals, that predicted susceptibility levels are found to be in good agreement with the past landslide occurrences. Hence, the obtained landslide susceptibility map could be acceptable, for landslide hazard prevention and mitigation at regional scale.

  11. Clinical utility of antimicrobial susceptibility measurement plate covering formulated concentrations of various ophthalmic antimicrobial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tou N


    Full Text Available Norihiko Tou,1 Ryohei Nejima,2 Yoshifumi Ikeda,3 Yuichi Hori,4 Kaoru Araki-Sasaki,5 Kazunori Miyata,2 Yoshitsugu Inoue,3 Akihiko Tawara1 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fukuoka, 2Miyata Eye Hospital, Miyazaki, 3Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Tottori, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University Sakura Medical Center, Chiba, 5Ideta Eye Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of SG17, an ophthalmic antimicrobial susceptibility measurement plate.Design: This was a multicenter, retrospective, observational study.Patients and methods: Using clinical isolates from patients with ocular infections, drug susceptibility testing using the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute standards was routinely conducted at five facilities. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the isolated strains were determined using SG17 at the Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University. The records of antimicrobial drugs used and the therapeutic course were evaluated for all cases. The susceptibility results from SG17 and routine methods used at each facility were compared.Results: A total of 112 bacterial strains were isolated from 92 patients. Of these cases, keratitis was the most common (52.2%, followed by conjunctivitis (21.7% and others (26.1%. Principal signs and symptoms resolved in all patients, indicating that therapeutic effects had been achieved. With SG17, drug susceptibility was determined in 98.9% of isolates compared with 30.4% of isolates determined using conventional methods. By adapting the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute standards to SG17 results, we found that 91.3% of patients were susceptible and 7.6% were resistant. In five patients, drugs with a resistant evaluation were initially administered with no effect, and the patients were then switched to

  12. New measurement technique of ductility curve for ductility-dip cracking susceptibility in Alloy 690 welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoi, Kota, E-mail: [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Uegaki, Takanori; Shinozaki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Motomichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)


    The coupling of a hot tensile test with a novel in situ observation technique using a high-speed camera was investigated as a high-accuracy quantitative evaluation method for ductility-dip cracking (DDC) susceptibility. Several types of Alloy 690 filler wire were tested in this study owing to its susceptibility to DDC. The developed test method was used to directly measure the critical strain for DDC and high temperature ductility curves with a gauge length of 0.5 mm. Minimum critical strains of 1.3%, 4.0%, and 3.9% were obtained for ERNiCrFe-7, ERNiCrFe-13, and ERNiCrFe-15, respectively. The DDC susceptibilities of ERNiCrFe-13 and ERNiCrFe-15 were nearly the same and quite low compared with that of ERNiCrFe-7. This was likely caused by the tortuosity of the grain boundaries arising from the niobium content of around 2.5% in the former samples. Besides, ERNiCrFe-13 and ERNiCrFe-15 indicated higher minimum critical strains even though these specimens include higher content of sulfur and phosphorus than ERNiCrFe-7. Thus, containing niobium must be more effective to improve the susceptibility compared to sulfur and phosphorous in the alloy system.

  13. Human cerebral blood volume measurements using dynamic contrast enhancement in comparison to dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artzi, Moran [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Liberman, Gilad; Vitinshtein, Faina; Aizenstein, Orna [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Nadav, Guy [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv (Israel); Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Bokstein, Felix [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Neuro-Oncology Service, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bashat, Dafna Ben [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine and Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv (Israel)


    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) is an important parameter for the assessment of brain tumors, usually obtained using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI. However, this method often suffers from low spatial resolution and high sensitivity to susceptibility artifacts and usually does not take into account the effect of tissue permeability. The plasma volume (v{sub p}) can also be extracted from dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DCE can be used for the measurement of cerebral blood volume in place of DSC for the assessment of patients with brain tumors. Twenty-eight subjects (17 healthy subjects and 11 patients with glioblastoma) were scanned using DCE and DSC. v{sub p} and CBV values were measured and compared in different brain components in healthy subjects and in the tumor area in patients. Significant high correlations were detected between v{sub p} and CBV in healthy subjects in the different brain components; white matter, gray matter, and arteries, correlating with the known increased tissue vascularity, and within the tumor area in patients. This work proposes the use of DCE as an alternative method to DSC for the assessment of blood volume, given the advantages of its higher spatial resolution, its lower sensitivity to susceptibility artifacts, and its ability to provide additional information regarding tissue permeability. (orig.)

  14. An international study on measuring social support : Interactions and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeglas, D.M; Suurmeijer, Th.P.B.M.; Briancon, S; Krol, B; Moum, T.; Sanderman, R.; Bjelle, A.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.


    Recently, a new instrument was developed to measure social support. It consists of two parts; the Social Support Questionnaire for Transactions (SSQT) and the Social Support Questionnaire for Satisfaction with the supportive transactions (SSQS). The SSQT measures the number of supportive

  15. Cirrus Susceptibility to Changes in Ice Nuclei: Physical Processes, Model Uncertainties, and Measurement Needs (United States)

    Jensen, Eric


    In this talk, I will begin by discussing the physical processes that govern the competition between heterogeneous and homogeneous ice nucleation in upper tropospheric cirrus clouds. Next, I will review the current knowledge of low-temperature ice nucleation from laboratory experiments and field measurements. I will then discuss the uncertainties and deficiencies in representations of cirrus processes in global models used to estimate the climate impacts of changes in cirrus clouds. Lastly, I will review the critical field measurements needed to advance our understanding of cirrus and their susceptibility to changes in aerosol properties.

  16. A torque balance measurement of anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility in white matter. (United States)

    van Gelderen, Peter; Mandelkow, Hendrik; de Zwart, Jacco A; Duyn, Jeff H


    Recent MRI studies have suggested that the magnetic susceptibility of white matter (WM) in the human brain is anisotropic, providing a new contrast mechanism for the visualization of fiber bundles and allowing the extraction of cellular compartment-specific information. This study provides an independent confirmation and quantification of this anisotropy. Anisotropic magnetic susceptibility results in a torque exerted on WM when placed in a uniform magnetic field, tending to align the WM fibers with the field. To quantify the effect, excised spinal cord samples were placed in a torque balance inside the magnet of a 7 T MRI system and the magnetic torque was measured as function of orientation. All tissue samples (n = 5) showed orienting effects, confirming the presence of anisotropic susceptibility. Analysis of the magnetic torque resulted in reproducible values for the WM volume anisotropy that ranged from 13.6 to 19.2 ppb. The independently determined anisotropy values confirm estimates inferred from MRI experiments and validate the use of anisotropy to extract novel information about brain fiber structure and myelination. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Technology, Proximity, and Measures of Kin Support. (United States)

    Litwak, Eugene; Kulis, Stephen


    Advances proposition that many current measures of kinship strength may paradoxically indicate inadequate or weakened kinship structures. Presents nonproximity indicators of kinship contact and service delivery that can measure strength of kinship bonds. States principles for assessing at what distance kin can deliver which services. (Author/NB)

  18. Magnetic susceptibility anisotropy: cylindrical symmetry from macroscopically ordered anisotropic molecules and accuracy of MRI measurements using few orientations. (United States)

    Wisnieff, Cynthia; Liu, Tian; Spincemaille, Pascal; Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Yi


    White matter is an essential component of the central nervous system and is of major concern in neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent MRI studies have explored the unique anisotropic magnetic properties of white matter using susceptibility tensor imaging. However, these measurements are inhibited in practice by the large number of different head orientations needed to accurately reconstruct the susceptibility tensor. Adding reasonable constraints reduces the number of model parameters and can help condition the tensor reconstruction from a small number of orientations. The macroscopic magnetic susceptibility is decomposed as a sum of molecular magnetic polarizabilities, demonstrating that macroscopic order in molecular arrangement is essential to the existence of and symmetry in susceptibility anisotropy and cylindrical symmetry is a natural outcome of an ordered molecular arrangement. Noise propagation in the susceptibility tensor reconstruction is analyzed through its condition number, showing that the tensor reconstruction is highly susceptible to the distribution of acquired subject orientations and to the tensor symmetry properties, with a substantial over- or under-estimation of susceptibility anisotropy in fiber directions not favorably oriented with respect to the acquired orientations. It was found that a careful acquisition of three non-coplanar orientations and the use of cylindrical symmetry guided by diffusion tensor imaging allowed reasonable estimation of magnetic susceptibility anisotropy in certain major white matter tracts in the human brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic and Functional Evidence Supports LPAR1 as a Susceptibility Gene for Hypertension. (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Ma, Lu; Li, Yang; Wang, Fang; Zheng, Gu-Yan; Sun, Zhijun; Jiang, Feng; Chen, Yundai; Liu, Huirong; Dang, Aimin; Chen, Xi; Chun, Jerold; Tian, Xiao-Li


    Essential hypertension is a complex disease affected by genetic and environmental factors and serves as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Serum lysophosphatidic acid correlates with an elevated blood pressure in rats, and lysophosphatidic acid interacts with 6 subtypes of receptors. In this study, we assessed the genetic association of lysophosphatidic acid receptors with essential hypertension by genotyping 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms from genes encoding for lysophosphatidic acid receptors, LPAR1, LPAR2, LPAR3, LPAR4, LPAR5, and LPAR6 and their flanking sequences, in 3 Han Chinese cohorts consisting of 2630 patients and 3171 controls in total. We identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs531003 in the 3'-flanking genomic region of LPAR1, associated with hypertension (the Bonferroni corrected P=1.09×10(-5), odds ratio [95% confidence interval]=1.23 [1.13-1.33]). The risk allele C of rs531003 is associated with the increased expression of LPAR1 and the susceptibility of hypertension, particularly in those with a shortage of sleep (P=4.73×10(-5), odds ratio [95% confidence interval]=1.75 [1.34-2.28]). We further demonstrated that blood pressure elevation caused by sleep deprivation and phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction was both diminished in LPAR1-deficient mice. Together, we show that LPAR1 is a novel susceptibility gene for human essential hypertension and that stress, such as shortage of sleep, increases the susceptibility of patients with risk allele to essential hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Edge state magnetism in zigzag-interfaced graphene via spin susceptibility measurements. (United States)

    Makarova, T L; Shelankov, A L; Zyrianova, A A; Veinger, A I; Tisnek, T V; Lähderanta, E; Shames, A I; Okotrub, A V; Bulusheva, L G; Chekhova, G N; Pinakov, D V; Asanov, I P; Šljivančanin, Ž


    Development of graphene spintronic devices relies on transforming it into a material with a spin order. Attempts to make graphene magnetic by introducing zigzag edge states have failed due to energetically unstable structure of torn zigzag edges. Here, we report on the formation of nanoridges, i.e., stable crystallographically oriented fluorine monoatomic chains, and provide experimental evidence for strongly coupled magnetic states at the graphene-fluorographene interfaces. From the first principle calculations, the spins at the localized edge states are ferromagnetically ordered within each of the zigzag interface whereas the spin interaction across a nanoridge is antiferromagnetic. Magnetic susceptibility data agree with this physical picture and exhibit behaviour typical of quantum spin-ladder system with ferromagnetic legs and antiferromagnetic rungs. The exchange coupling constant along the rungs is measured to be 450 K. The coupling is strong enough to consider graphene with fluorine nanoridges as a candidate for a room temperature spintronics material.

  1. Mechanism of Formation of Volcanic Bombs and Achneliths: Insights From Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements. (United States)

    Canon-Tapia, E.


    Volcanic bombs and achneliths are a special type of pyroclastic fragments formed by mildly explosive volcanic eruptions. The common explanation for the general shapes of these types of particles is that they are the result of the rush of air acting on a fluid clot during flight. A competing, less commonly quoted model, envisages the shapes of volcanic bombs as the result of forces acting at the moment of ejection of liquid from the magma pool in the conduit, experiencing an almost negligible modification through its travel on the air. Quantitative evidence supporting either of those two models is limited, or might not be directly applicable to all morphological types. In this work, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is used as a source of information that provides clues concerning the mechanism of formation of volcanic bombs and achneliths in general. AMS results indicate a fundamental difference between two of the most common morphological bomb types, and are used to constraint mechanisms of formation. It is shown that neither of the two most common mechanisms of formation of volcanic bombs seems acceptable on its current form. An alternative, two-step process is therefore outlined. The first step involves ejection of a small volume of magma dragged on top of large bubbles of gas that reach the surface of a magma pool. The second stage involves the disruption of the ejected magma either as the result of the bursting of the gas bubble, or as a consequence of currents of air that further destabilize already formed jets of liquid. This destabilization is not equivalent to the aerodynamic deformation invoked in current models. Finally, the evidence presented by the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility indicates that some types of volcanic bombs are likely to preserve the initial deformation, whereas some others might loose it completely.

  2. Assessment of the environmental degradation susceptibility of the Macaé River Hydrographic Basin with support of geoprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunna Rocha Werneck


    Full Text Available This article presents a thematic exploration of the environmental degradation in the Macaé River Hydrographic Basin. The objective was to provide a cartographic base on relevant issues regarding the Basin, by doing environmental assessment with support of geoprocessing. This aims at providing assistance for public actions in environmental decisions, and suggest applications of data in local and/or regional plannings that may support the development of the Basin Plan. The AHP method – Hierarchic Analytical Process – was used. The resulting map shows the areas of potential environmental degradation, in which those with greater susceptibility are located at the top and middle sections of the river, and the less likely are found on its lower course.

  3. Benchmarking of Governmental Support Measures for University-Industry Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt Rõigas


    Full Text Available This paper aims to benchmark Estonian governmental support measures targeted toward enhancing university-industry collaboration to European best practice and make suggestions for the development of these measures. The intensity and scope of university-industry cooperation support measures varies heavily in Europe. The survey of European University-Business Cooperation, Pro Inno Europe and Erawatch database of policy measures, and Community Innovation Survey reveal that Finnish, German and Austrian support systems are best balanced and provide good university-industry cooperation intensity. The cooperation measures in Estonia are weak and improvement should be made by increasing the Estonian governmental funding, mandatory cooperation in support measures, networking and applied research in universities, on-going application possibilities, reducing the bureaucracy, and improving the timing of measures.

  4. Local nematic susceptibility in stressed BaFe2As2 from NMR electric field gradient measurements (United States)

    Kissikov, T.; Sarkar, R.; Lawson, M.; Bush, B. T.; Timmons, E. I.; Tanatar, M. A.; Prozorov, R.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Fernandes, R. M.; Goh, W. F.; Pickett, W. E.; Curro, N. J.


    The electric field gradient (EFG) tensor at the 75As site couples to the orbital occupations of the As p orbitals and is a sensitive probe of local nematicity in BaFe2As2 . We use nuclear magnetic resonance to measure the nuclear quadrupolar splittings and find that the EFG asymmetry responds linearly to the presence of a strain field in the paramagnetic phase. We extract the nematic susceptibility from the slope of this linear response as a function of temperature and find that it diverges near the structural transition, in agreement with other measures of the bulk nematic susceptibility. Our work establishes an alternative method to extract the nematic susceptibility which, in contrast to transport methods, can be extended inside the superconducting state.

  5. GTFS for Estimating Transit Ridership and Supporting Multimodal Performance Measures (United States)


    This project demonstrates a potential avenue to use new data sources to support State and local agencies in measuring the use and effectiveness of their public transportation systems. General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) data provided by transit...

  6. Antifungal susceptibilities of non-Aspergillus filamentous fungi causing invasive infection in Australia: support for current antifungal guideline recommendations. (United States)

    Halliday, Catriona L; Chen, Sharon C-A; Kidd, Sarah E; van Hal, Sebastian; Chapman, Belinda; Heath, Christopher H; Lee, Andie; Kennedy, Karina J; Daveson, Kathryn; Sorrell, Tania C; Morrissey, C Orla; Marriott, Deborah J; Slavin, Monica A


    Antifungal susceptibilities of non-Aspergillus filamentous fungal pathogens cannot always be inferred from their identification. Here we determined, using the Sensititre(®) YeastOne(®) YO10 panel, the in vitro activities of nine antifungal agents against 52 clinical isolates of emergent non-Aspergillus moulds representing 17 fungal groups in Australia. Isolates comprised Mucorales (n = 14), Scedosporium/Lomentospora spp. (n = 18) and a range of hyaline hyphomycetes (n = 9) and other dematiaceous fungi (n = 11). Excluding Verruconis gallopava, echinocandins demonstrated poor activity (MICs generally >8 mg/L) against these moulds. Lomentospora prolificans (n = 4) and Fusarium spp. (n = 6) demonstrated raised MICs to all antifungal drugs tested, with the lowest being to voriconazole and amphotericin B (AmB), respectively (geometric mean MICs of 3.4 mg/L and 2.2 mg/L, respectively). All Scedosporium apiospermum complex isolates (n = 14) were inhibited by voriconazole concentrations of ≤0.25 mg/L, followed by posaconazole and itraconazole at ≤1 mg/L. Posaconazole and AmB were the most active agents against the Mucorales, with MIC90 values of 1 mg/L and 2 mg/L, respectively, for Rhizopus spp. For dematiaceous fungi, all isolates were inhibited by itraconazole and posaconazole concentrations of ≤0.5 mg/L (MIC90, 0.12 mg/L and 0.25 mg/L, respectively), but voriconazole and AmB also had in vitro activity (MIC90, 0.5 mg/L and 1 mg/L, respectively). Differences in antifungal susceptibility within species and between species within genera support the need for testing individual patient isolates to guide therapy. The Sensititre(®) YeastOne(®) offers a practical alternative to the reference methodology for susceptibility testing of moulds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  7. Additional evidence supports association of common genetic variants in VTI1A and ETFA with increased risk of glioma susceptibility. (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Deng, Zhong; Wang, Maode; Li, Ruichun; Xu, Gaofeng; Bao, Gang


    VTI1A and ETFA were identified recently as susceptibility genes for non-glioblastoma (GBM) of glioma risk in European populations, but the genetic etiology and pathogenesis of glioma have not been fully elucidated. Here, we aimed to investigate whether common genetic variants in VTI1A and ETFA predispose Han Chinese individuals to glioma. The association of thirteen common tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VTI1A and ETFA genes with glioma were assessed in a hospital-based case-control study including 473 non-GBM of glioma patients and 1046 cancer-free controls. Two SNPs (rs11196067 in VTI1A and rs1801591 in ETFA) were found to be significantly associated with non-GBM of glioma risk (rs11196067, adjusted P=0.00018, adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.16-1.61; rs1801591, adjusted P=0.000022, adjusted OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.34-2.20). In further stratified analysis, they were both more pronounced in the adult subgroup. In haplotype-based analysis, two haplotypes were identified to be significant association with glioma. The haplotype "TGA" (P=0.002) in VTI1A and the haplotype "ACA" (Pglioma risk respectively, compared with corresponding non-carriers. In summary, our results indicate that genetic variants in VTI1A and ETFA may modify individual susceptibility to non-GBM of glioma in the Han Chinese population and support the role of the VTI1A and ETFA genes in the occurrence of glioma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of the Second Order Non-linear Susceptibility of Collagen using Polarization Modulation and Phase-sensitive Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoller, P; Kim, B-M; Rubenchik, A M; Reiser, K M; Da Silva, L B


    The measurement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility of collagen in various biological tissues has potential applications in the detection of structural changes which are related to different pathological conditions. We investigate second harmonic generation in rat-tail tendon, a highly organized collagen structure consisting of parallel fibers. Using an electro-optic modulator and a quarter-wave plate, we modulate the linear polarization of an ultra-short pulse laser beam that is used to measure second harmonic generation (SHG) in a confocal microscopy setup. Phase-sensitive detection of the generated signal, coupled with a simple model of the collagen protein structures, allows us to measure a parameter {gamma} related to nonlinear susceptibility and to determine the relative orientation of the structures. Our preliminary results indicate that it may be possible to use this parameter to characterize the structure.

  9. Georeferenced measurement of soil EC as a tool to detect susceptible areas to water erosion. (United States)

    Fabian Sallesses, Leonardo; Aparicio, Virginia Carolina; Costa, Jose Luis


    areas presented the highest occurrence of clay dispersion and rill erosion. This would indicate that with one campaign of cultivation of potato under supplementary irrigation are given the conditions that facilitate erosive events. The georeferenced measurement of EC by contact ground sensors and their visualization through digital cartography could be an interesting tool to detect areas susceptible to erosive events. This information would help in decision making for a soil management that tends to avoid or reduce soil losses due to deterioration of physical and chemical properties by the incorporation of sodium by irrigation. Key words: Irrigation, soil sodium, erosion.

  10. What measure of interpersonal dependency predicts changes in social support? (United States)

    Shahar, Golan


    One of the most intriguing characteristics of interpersonal dependency is its ability to predict elevated levels of social support. Yet studies of interpersonal dependency use various measures to assess this effect. In this study, I compared 3 commonly used measures of interpersonal dependency in terms of their prediction of social support: Hirschfield's Interpersonal Dependency Inventory (IDI; Hirschfeld et al., 1977), the dependency factor of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ; Blatt, D'Afflitti, & Quinlan, 1976), and the Dependency subscale of the Personal Style Inventory (PSI; Robins et al., 1994). A total of 152 undergraduates were administered these measures as well as measures of depressive symptoms and social support a week prior to their first exam period and a week after this period (interval time = 8 weeks). DEQ-dependency predicted an increase in social support, whereas PSI-Dependency and IDI predicted a decrease in social support over time. DEQ-dependency appears to capture better than the other 2 measures the dialectic tension between risk and resilience in interpersonal dependency.

  11. A novel method to measure HLA-DM-susceptibility of peptides bound to MHC class II molecules based on peptide binding competition assay and differential IC50 determination (United States)

    Yin, Liusong; Stern, Lawrence J.


    HLA-DM (DM) functions as a peptide editor that mediates the exchange of peptides loaded onto MHCII molecules by accelerating peptide dissociation and association kinetics. The relative DM-susceptibility of peptides bound to MHCII molecules correlates with antigen presentation and immunodominance hierarchy, and measurement of DM-susceptibility has been a key effort in this field. Current assays of DM-susceptibility, based on differential peptide dissociation rates measured for individually labeled peptides over a long time base, are difficult and cumbersome. Here, we present a novel method to measure DM-susceptibility based on peptide binding competition assays performed in the presence and absence of DM, reported as a delta-IC50 (change in 50% inhibition concentration) value. We simulated binding competition reactions of peptides with various intrinsic and DM-catalyzed kinetic parameters and found that under a wide range of conditions the delta-IC50 value is highly correlated with DM-susceptibility as measured in off-rate assay. We confirmed experimentally that DM-susceptibility measured by delta-IC50 is comparable to that measured by traditional off-rate assay for peptides with known DM-susceptibility hierarchy. The major advantage of this method is that it allows simple, fast and high throughput measurement of DM-susceptibility for a large set of unlabeled peptides in studies of the mechanism of DM action and for identification of CD4+ T cell epitopes. PMID:24583195

  12. A novel method to measure HLA-DM-susceptibility of peptides bound to MHC class II molecules based on peptide binding competition assay and differential IC(50) determination. (United States)

    Yin, Liusong; Stern, Lawrence J


    HLA-DM (DM) functions as a peptide editor that mediates the exchange of peptides loaded onto MHCII molecules by accelerating peptide dissociation and association kinetics. The relative DM-susceptibility of peptides bound to MHCII molecules correlates with antigen presentation and immunodominance hierarchy, and measurement of DM-susceptibility has been a key effort in this field. Current assays of DM-susceptibility, based on differential peptide dissociation rates measured for individually labeled peptides over a long time base, are difficult and cumbersome. Here, we present a novel method to measure DM-susceptibility based on peptide binding competition assays performed in the presence and absence of DM, reported as a delta-IC(50) (change in 50% inhibition concentration) value. We simulated binding competition reactions of peptides with various intrinsic and DM-catalyzed kinetic parameters and found that under a wide range of conditions the delta-IC(50) value is highly correlated with DM-susceptibility as measured in off-rate assay. We confirmed experimentally that DM-susceptibility measured by delta-IC(50) is comparable to that measured by traditional off-rate assay for peptides with known DM-susceptibility hierarchy. The major advantage of this method is that it allows simple, fast and high throughput measurement of DM-susceptibility for a large set of unlabeled peptides in studies of the mechanism of DM action and for identification of CD4+ T cell epitopes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rotational Angle Measurement of Bridge Support Using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Soo Park


    Full Text Available Measuring a very small rotational angle accurately and dynamically is indeed a challenging issue, especially in the case of bridge support. Also, existing inclinometers do not have sufficient resolution and accuracy to measure a bridge’s rotational angle. In this study, a new measurement system was developed to provide a practical means for measuring dynamic rotational angle of a bridge support. It features high resolution and accuracy compared with the available systems on the market. By the combinational use of a laser pointer and a vision-based displacement measurement system, the measurement accuracy was significantly increased. The accuracy and applicability were investigated through laboratory tests. From the laboratory tests, it has been found that the developed system can be applicable to bridge support with very small rotational angle. The effectiveness of the developed system was verified through field tests on real bridges. From the full-scale implementation on two PSC girder bridges, it is observed that the proposed system can measure the rotational angle with a high accuracy and reliability.

  14. Design of a low temperature translation balance for the measurement of paramagnetic and diamagnetic susceptibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowry, G.S.


    A modified Foex and Forrer Translation Balance has been designed for measuring the paramagnetic and diamagnetic properties of materials over the temperature range 77-300/sup 0/K. The systems' temperature range can eventually be extended to 4.2/sup 0/K. The apparatus incorporates a vertical Dewar of Standard variety in addition to a horizontal Dewar for cooling the sample holder and adjacent horizontal supports. The design also allows for the placement of a thermocouple junction in direct contact with a sample. The balance sensitivity, defined as the change in displacement per unit applied force, is 0.0044 cm/dyne. The precision of the balance is +- .5% with an accuracy of 1.5%.

  15. Measurement of the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity of atomically thin by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaswal, Gaurav


    We show how to correctly extract from the ellipsometric data the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity that describe the optical properties of monolayer $\\ m MoS_2$. Theoretically, these parameters stem from modelling a single-layer two-dimensional crystal as a surface current, a truly two-dimensional model. Currently experimental practice is to consider this model equivalent to a homogeneous slab with an effective thickness given by the interlayer spacing of the exfoliating bulk material. We prove that the error in the evaluation of the surface susceptibility of monolayer $\\ m MoS_2$, owing to the use of the slab model, is at least 10% or greater, a significant discrepancy in the determination of the optical properties of this material.

  16. Measurement of social support, community and trust in dentistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Hanne; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Söderfeldt, Björn


    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Relationships among people at work have previously been found to contribute to the perception of having a good work. The aim of the present paper was to develop scales measuring aspects of social support, trust, and community among dentists, and to evaluate psychometric proper...

  17. Deep gray matter iron measurement in patients with liver cirrhosis using quantitative susceptibility mapping: Relationship with pallidal T1 hyperintensity. (United States)

    Lee, Song; Nam, Yoonho; Jang, Jinhee; Na, Gun Hyung; Kim, Dong Goo; Shin, Na-Young; Choi, Hyun Seok; Jung, So-Lyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Kim, Bum-Soo


    The liver is a central organ for the metabolism of iron and manganese and the places where those metals are commonly deposited overlap in the brain. To elucidate the relationship between pallidal T1 hyperintensity and iron deposition in the deep gray matter of liver cirrhosis patients using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). Retrospective case-control study SUBJECTS: In all, 38 consecutive liver cirrhosis patients who received brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as pretransplant evaluation. QSM was reconstructed from 3D multi- or single-echo phase images at 3T. T1 -weighted images were used for the assessment of pallidal hyperintensity and pallidal index (PI). Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of pallidal hyperintensity by consensus of two radiologists. Susceptibility values were acquired for five deep gray matter structures. QSM measures were compared between two groups using the t-test. We also calculated Pearson correlations between QSM measures and PI. In all, 26 patients showed pallidal hyperintensity (T1 h group) and 12 did not (T1 n group). The susceptibility of the globus pallidus (GP) in the T1 h group (120.6 ± 38.1 ppb) was significantly lower than that in the T1 n group (150.0 ± 35.2, P = 0.030). The susceptibility of the dentate nucleus (DN) in the T1 h group (88.1 ± 31.0) was significantly lower than that in the T1 n group (125.6 ± 30.6, P = 0.001). Negative correlation between the susceptibility of GP (r = -0.37, P = 0.022) and the PI, and between DN (r = -0.43, P T1 hyperintensity had lower susceptibility values in the GP and DN than those without it. This suggests a possible interaction between iron and manganese in the brains of liver cirrhosis patients. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Measurement of susceptibility artifacts with histogram-based reference value on magnetic resonance images according to standard ASTM F2119. (United States)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Teichgräber, Ulf K; Güttler, Felix V


    The standard ASTM F2119 describes a test method for measuring the size of a susceptibility artifact based on the example of a passive implant. A pixel in an image is considered to be a part of an image artifact if the intensity is changed by at least 30% in the presence of a test object, compared to a reference image in which the test object is absent (reference value). The aim of this paper is to simplify and accelerate the test method using a histogram-based reference value. Four test objects were scanned parallel and perpendicular to the main magnetic field, and the largest susceptibility artifacts were measured using two methods of reference value determination (reference image-based and histogram-based reference value). The results between both methods were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The difference between both reference values was 42.35 ± 23.66. The difference of artifact size was 0.64 ± 0.69 mm. The artifact sizes of both methods did not show significant differences; the p-value of the Mann-Whitney U-test was between 0.710 and 0.521. A standard-conform method for a rapid, objective, and reproducible evaluation of susceptibility artifacts could be implemented. The result of the histogram-based method does not significantly differ from the ASTM-conform method.

  19. Measurement issues in research on social support and health. (United States)

    Dean, K; Holst, E; Kreiner, S; Schoenborn, C; Wilson, R


    The aims were: (1) to identify methodological problems that may explain the inconsistencies and contradictions in the research evidence on social support and health, and (2) to validate a frequently used measure of social support in order to determine whether or not it could be used in multivariate analyses of population data in research on social support and health. Secondary analysis of data collected in a cross sectional survey of a multistage cluster sample of the population of the United States, designed to study relationships in behavioural, social support and health variables. Statistical models based on item response theory and graph theory were used to validate the measure of social support to be used in subsequent analyses. Data on 1755 men and women aged 20 to 64 years were available for the scale validation. Massive evidence of item bias was found for all items of a group membership subscale. The most serious problems were found in relationship to an item measuring membership in work related groups. Using that item in the social network scale in multivariate analyses would distort findings on the statistical effects of education, employment status, and household income. Evidence of item bias was also found for a sociability subscale. When marital status was included to create what is called an intimate contacts subscale, the confounding grew worse. The composite measure of social network is not valid and would seriously distort the findings of analyses attempting to study relationships between the index and other variables. The findings show that valid measurement is a methodological issue that must be addressed in scientific research on population health.

  20. Models to support students’ understanding of measuring area of circles (United States)

    Rejeki, S.; Putri, R. I. I.


    Many studies showed that enormous students got confused about the concepts of measuring area of circles. The main reason is because mathematics classroom practices emphasized on memorizing formulas rather than understanding concepts. Therefore, in this study, a set of learning activities were designed as an innovation in learning area measurement of circles. The activities involved two models namely grid paper and reshaping which are respectively as a means and a strategy to support students’ learning of area measurement of circles. Design research was used as the research approach to achieve the aim. Thirty-eight of 8th graders in Indonesia were involved in this study. In this study, together with the contextual problems, the grid paper and reshaping sectors, which used as the models in this learning, helped the students to gradually develop their understanding of the area measurement of circles. The grid papers plays important role in comparing and estimating areas. Whereas, the reshaping sectors might support students’ understanding of the circumference and the area measurement of circles. Those two models could be the tool for promoting the informal theory of area measurement. Besides, the whole activities gave important role on distinguishing the area and perimeter of circles.

  1. Measuring ex vivo drug susceptibility in Plasmodium vivax isolates from Cambodia. (United States)

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Lon, Chanthap; Chann, Soklyda; Thay, Kheang Heng; Kong, Nareth; You, Yom; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Thamnurak, Chatchadaporn; Chattrakarn, Sorayut; Praditpol, Chantida; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Wojnarski, Mariusz; Huy, Rekol; Spring, Michele D; Walsh, Douglas S; Patel, Jaymin C; Lin, Jessica; Juliano, Jonathan J; Lanteri, Charlotte A; Saunders, David L


    While intensive Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance surveillance continues in Cambodia, relatively little is known about Plasmodium vivax drug resistance in Cambodia or elsewhere. To investigate P. vivax anti-malarial susceptibility in Cambodia, 76 fresh P. vivax isolates collected from Oddar Meanchey (northern Cambodia) in 2013-2015 were assessed for ex vivo drug susceptibility using the microscopy-based schizont maturation test (SMT) and a Plasmodium pan-species lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) ELISA. P. vivax multidrug resistance gene 1 (pvmdr1) mutations, and copy number were analysed in a subset of isolates. Ex vivo testing was interpretable in 80% of isolates using the pLDH-ELISA, but only 25% with the SMT. Plasmodium vivax drug susceptibility by pLDH-ELISA was directly compared with 58 P. falciparum isolates collected from the same locations in 2013-4, tested by histidine-rich protein-2 ELISA. Median pLDH-ELISA IC50 of P. vivax isolates was significantly lower for dihydroartemisinin (3.4 vs 6.3 nM), artesunate (3.2 vs 5.7 nM), and chloroquine (22.1 vs 103.8 nM) than P. falciparum but higher for mefloquine (92 vs 66 nM). There were not significant differences for lumefantrine or doxycycline. Both P. vivax and P. falciparum had comparable median piperaquine IC50 (106.5 vs 123.8 nM), but some P. falciparum isolates were able to grow in much higher concentrations above the normal standard range used, attaining up to 100-fold greater IC50s than P. vivax. A high percentage of P. vivax isolates had pvmdr1 Y976F (78%) and F1076L (83%) mutations but none had pvmdr1 amplification. The findings of high P. vivax IC50 to mefloquine and piperaquine, but not chloroquine, suggest significant drug pressure from drugs used to treat multidrug resistant P. falciparum in Cambodia. Plasmodium vivax isolates are frequently exposed to mefloquine and piperaquine due to mixed infections and the long elimination half-life of these drugs. Difficulty distinguishing infection due

  2. Spatial prediction of landslide susceptibility using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system combined with frequency ratio, generalized additive model, and support vector machine techniques (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Panahi, Mahdi; Kornejady, Aiding; Wang, Jiale; Xie, Xiaoshen; Cao, Shubo


    The spatial prediction of landslide susceptibility is an important prerequisite for the analysis of landslide hazards and risks in any area. This research uses three data mining techniques, such as an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system combined with frequency ratio (ANFIS-FR), a generalized additive model (GAM), and a support vector machine (SVM), for landslide susceptibility mapping in Hanyuan County, China. In the first step, in accordance with a review of the previous literature, twelve conditioning factors, including slope aspect, altitude, slope angle, topographic wetness index (TWI), plan curvature, profile curvature, distance to rivers, distance to faults, distance to roads, land use, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and lithology, were selected. In the second step, a collinearity test and correlation analysis between the conditioning factors and landslides were applied. In the third step, we used three advanced methods, namely, ANFIS-FR, GAM, and SVM, for landslide susceptibility modeling. Subsequently, the results of their accuracy were validated using a receiver operating characteristic curve. The results showed that all three models have good prediction capabilities, while the SVM model has the highest prediction rate of 0.875, followed by the ANFIS-FR and GAM models with prediction rates of 0.851 and 0.846, respectively. Thus, the landslide susceptibility maps produced in the study area can be applied for management of hazards and risks in landslide-prone Hanyuan County.

  3. Cystic fibrosis patients and families support cross-infection measures. (United States)

    Griffiths, A L; Armstrong, D; Carzino, R; Robinson, P


    A clonal strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) was isolated in 1999 at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, after five unrelated children with cystic fibrosis (CF) died from severe lung disease aged parent and patient responses to the segregation measures to determine overall support. A questionnaire was sent out to the families of 291 CF children treated at the centre. A 65% response rate was obtained. The majority of parents (85%) and patients > or=12 yrs old (63%) were positive about the segregation measures instituted. A total of 11% of parents and 25% of patients were unsure, and 4% of parents and 12% of children gave negative responses. Those who were not happy listed reasons such as concerns about the emotional impact of not socialising with other CF children, inconclusive evidence about person-person spread of infection and feelings of alienation created in the clinic by the separation. In conclusion, the majority of responding cystic fibrosis patients and their families understand and are supportive of infection control measures instituted at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

  4. Invariant measures whose supports possess the strong open set property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald S. Goodman


    Full Text Available Let \\(X\\ be a complete metric space, and \\(S\\ the union of a finite number of strict contractions on it. If \\(P\\ is a probability distribution on the maps, and \\(K\\ is the fractal determined by \\(S\\, there is a unique Borel probability measure \\(\\mu _P\\ on \\(X\\ which is invariant under the associated Markov operator, and its support is \\(K\\. The Open Set Condition (OSC requires that a non-empty, subinvariant, bounded open set \\(V \\subset X\\ exists whose images under the maps are disjoint; it is strong if \\(K \\cap V \

  5. Multiple sclerosis susceptibility-associated SNPs do not influence disease severity measures in a cohort of Australian MS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy J Jensen

    Full Text Available Recent association studies in multiple sclerosis (MS have identified and replicated several single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP susceptibility loci including CLEC16A, IL2RA, IL7R, RPL5, CD58, CD40 and chromosome 12q13-14 in addition to the well established allele HLA-DR15. There is potential that these genetic susceptibility factors could also modulate MS disease severity, as demonstrated previously for the MS risk allele HLA-DR15. We investigated this hypothesis in a cohort of 1006 well characterised MS patients from South-Eastern Australia. We tested the MS-associated SNPs for association with five measures of disease severity incorporating disability, age of onset, cognition and brain atrophy. We observed trends towards association between the RPL5 risk SNP and time between first demyelinating event and relapse, and between the CD40 risk SNP and symbol digit test score. No associations were significant after correction for multiple testing. We found no evidence for the hypothesis that these new MS disease risk-associated SNPs influence disease severity.

  6. Laser biostimulation of wound healing: bioimpedance measurements support histology. (United States)

    Solmaz, Hakan; Dervisoglu, Sergulen; Gulsoy, Murat; Ulgen, Yekta


    Laser biostimulation in medicine has become widespread supporting the idea of therapeutic effects of photobiomodulation in biological tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the biostimulation effect of laser irradiation on healing of cutaneous skin wounds, in vivo, by means of bioimpedance measurements and histological examinations. Cutaneous skin wounds on rats were subjected to 635 nm diode laser irradiations at two energy densities of 1 and 3 J/cm2 separately. Changes in the electrical properties of the wound sites were examined with multi-frequency electrical impedance measurements performed on the 3rd, 7th, 10th, and 14th days following the wounding. Tissue samples were both morphologically and histologically examined to determine the relationship between electrical properties and structure of tissues during healing. Laser irradiations of both energy densities stimulated the wound healing process. In particular, laser irradiation of lower energy density had more evidence especially for the first days of healing process. On the 7th day of healing, 3 J/cm2 laser-irradiated tissues had significantly smaller wound areas compared to non-irradiated wounds (p healing of cutaneous skin wounds. Thus, bioimpedance measurements may be considered as a non-invasive supplementary method for following the healing process of laser-irradiated tissues.

  7. Susceptibility to Peer Influence: Using a Performance-Based Measure to Identify Adolescent Males at Heightened Risk for Deviant Peer Socialization


    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Brechwald, Whitney A.; Cohen, Geoffrey L


    A substantial amount of research has suggested that adolescents’ attitudes and behaviors are influenced by peers; however, little is known regarding adolescents’ individual variability, or susceptibility, to peer influence. In this study, a performance-based index from an experimental paradigm was used to directly measure adolescents’ susceptibility to peers. A total of 36 adolescent boys participated in a “chat room” experiment in which they ostensibly were exposed to deviant or risky social...

  8. Measuring maternal stress and perceived support in 25 Italian NICUs. (United States)

    Montirosso, Rosario; Provenzi, Livio; Calciolari, Guido; Borgatti, Renato


    To determine the validity and reliability of the Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS: NICU) and the Nurse Parental Support Tool (NPST) for use with Italian parents; to investigate to which extent demographic variables and/or situational factors affect NICU-related maternal stress. Mothers (N = 156) of very preterm (VPT) infants from 25 Italian NICUs completed a socio-demographic form, the PSS: NICU and the NPST at discharge. Psychometric properties of both tools were evaluated. High internal consistency and split-half reliability were found for both measures. The multi-dimensional structure of the PSS:NICU was confirmed. Alteration in parental role emerged as the greatest source of NICU-related stress. Length of stay in NICU and familiar socio-economic status explained partial variance in the PSS: NICU scores. NPST score mitigates the stress because of the infant's appearance and behaviour, but not that related to the parental role alteration. PSS: NICU and NPST demonstrated adequate psychometric properties in a large sample of Italian mothers. The need for a psychologically informed support to NICU mothers is suggested. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  9. Theory of in situ measurement of wave-vector-dependent dynamic susceptibility and ESR spectroscopy using the ac Josephson effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, S.E.; Mehran, F.


    The elementary theory of in situ measurements of the wave-vector-dependent dynamic susceptibility chi(q, in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) and superconductor--normal-metal--superconductor (SNS) Josephson junctions is presented in some detail. The theory for more complicated SISN and SINS junctions is also described. In addition, the theory of point-contact and superconducting quantum interference device geometries, relevant to the recent experiments of Baberschke, Bures, and Barnes is developed. Involved is a detailed application of the Maxwell and London equations along with the distributed Josephson effect. In a measurement of chi(q,, the frequency is determined by the relation 2eV/sub 0/ = where V/sub 0/ is the voltage applied across the junction, and the wave vector q is determined by the relation 2edB/sub 0/ = h-dash-barq where d is the effective width of the junction and B/sub 0/ is the magnetic field applied perpendicular to the direction of the current. The relative merits of the different types of junctions are discussed and the expected signal strengths are estimated. The limitations for the maximum measurable frequency and wave vector are also given. It seems probable that the proposed technique can be used to measure spin-wave branches from zero wave vector up to about 10% of the way to the Brillouin zone edge.

  10. Cirrus Susceptibility to Changes in Ice Nuclei: Physical Processes, Model Uncertainties, and Measurement Needs (United States)

    Jensen, Eric


    One of the proposed concepts for mitigating the warming effect of increasing greenhouse gases is seeding cirrus cloud with ice nuclei (IN) in order to reduce the lifetime and coverage of cold cirrus that have a net warming impact on the earth's surface. Global model simulations of the net impact of changing upper tropospheric IN have given widely disparate results, partly as a result of poor understanding of ice nucleation processes in the current atmosphere, and partly as a result of poor representation of these processes in global models. Here, we present detailed process-model simulations of tropical tropopause layer (TTL) transport and cirrus formation with ice nuclei properties based on recent laboratory nucleation experiments and field measurements of aerosol composition. The model is used to assess the sensitivity of TTL cirrus occurrence frequency and microphysical properties to the abundance and efficacy of ice nuclei. The simulated cloud properties compared with recent high-altitude aircraft measurements of TTL cirrus and ice supersaturation. We find that abundant effective IN (either from glassy organic aerosols or crystalline ammonium sulfate with concentrations greater than about 100/L) prevent the occurrences of large ice concentration and large ice supersaturations, both of which are clearly indicated by the in situ observations. We find that concentrations of effective ice nuclei larger than about 50/L can drive significant changes in cirrus microphysical properties and occurrence frequency. However, the cloud occurrence frequency can either increase or decrease, depending on the efficacy and abundance of IN added to the TTL. We suggest that our lack of information about ice nuclei properties in the current atmosphere, as well as uncertainties in ice nucleation processes and their representations in global models, preclude meaningful estimates of climate impacts associated with addition of ice nuclei in the upper troposphere. We will briefly discuss

  11. The effect of diffusion and susceptibility differences on T2 measurements for fluids in porous media and biological tissues. (United States)

    Borgia, G C; Brown, R J; Fantazzini, P


    A number of features of T2 measurements for fluids in porous media have shown behavior contrary to that suggested by intuition developed in other areas. For porous media with relatively uniform pore spaces the following have been observed, in each case for certain ranges only of Xv (susceptibility difference times frequency), D (diffusion coefficient), a (a pore dimension), porespace shape and distribution, echo-time t for single echoes and half-echo-spacing tau for CPMG): (1) In S(t) for FID (free induction decay, S for signal) with constant slope after an initial period of increasing slope; (2) In Ss(t) for single (subscript s) echoes linear (instead of cubic) in t after an initial period; (3) for CPMG R(tau) = 1/T2(tau) - 1/T2(tau-->0) linear in tau over a substantial range; (4) slope of R(tau) independent of D and alpha for this range; (5) slope R(s) of In Ss(t) independent of D and a, and (6) R(s)(t) and R(tau) at long times linear (instead of quadratic) in Xv. These features appear to be compatible with the assumption of a truncated Cauchy-Lorentz distribution of the local magnetic fields due to susceptibility differences. The statistics of repeated sampling of local fields in different parts of the porespace during diffusion lead to a suppression, after a short time, of the effects of diffusion on the FID decay rate and the single-echo decay rate over significant ranges of the parameters. Data are presented to extend the range of parameters studied previously.

  12. Development of a nano-tesla magnetic field shielded chamber and highly precise AC-susceptibility measurement coil at μK temperatures (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Prakash, Om; Ramakrishanan, S.


    A special sample measurement chamber has been developed to perform experiments at ultralow temperatures and ultralow magnetic field. A high permeability material known as cryoperm 10 and Pb is used to shield the measurement space consisting of the signal detecting set-up and the sample. The detecting setup consists of a very sensitive susceptibility coil wound on OFHC Cu bobbin.

  13. Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Variants in LSP1 and RAD51L1 Are Associated with Mammographic Density Measures that Predict Breast Cancer Risk (United States)

    Vachon, Celine M.; Scott, Christopher G.; Fasching, Peter A.; Hall, Per; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Li, Jingmei; Stone, Jennifer; Apicella, Carmel; Odefrey, Fabrice; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Heusinger, Katharina; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Pollan, Marina; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; González-Neira, Anna; Benítez, Javier; van Gils, Carla H.; Lokate, Mariëtte; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Brown, Judith; Leyland, Jean; Varghese, Jajini S.; Easton, Douglas F.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Luben, Robert N.; Warren, Ruth ML; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Loos, Ruth JF; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ursin, Giske; Lee, Eunjung; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Leach, Martin O.; Kwan-Lim, Gek; Couch, Fergus J.; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Krishnan, Kavitha; Southey, Melissa C.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Woolcott, Christy; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Haiman, Christopher A; Walker, Kate; Johnson, Nichola; McCormack, Valerie A.; Biong, Margarethe; Alnæs, Grethe I.G.; Gram, Inger Torhild; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Lindström, Sara; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hunter, David J.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Boyd, Norman F.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Wesolowska, Ewa; Peplonska, Beata; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Reszka, Edyta; Liu, JianJun; Eriksson, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Audley, Tina; Wu, Anna H.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Hopper, John L.; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel


    Background Mammographic density adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) is a heritable marker of breast cancer susceptibility. Little is known about the biological mechanisms underlying the association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk. We examined whether common low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility variants contribute to inter-individual differences in mammographic density measures. Methods We established an international consortium (DENSNP) of 19 studies from 10 countries, comprising 16,895 Caucasian women, to conduct a pooled cross-sectional analysis of common breast cancer susceptibility variants in 14 independent loci and mammographic density measures. Dense and non-dense areas, and percent density, were measured using interactive-thresholding techniques. Mixed linear models were used to assess the association between genetic variants and the square roots of mammographic density measures adjusted for study, age, case status, body mass index (BMI) and menopausal status. Results Consistent with their breast cancer associations, the C-allele of rs3817198 in LSP1 was positively associated with both adjusted dense area (p=0.00005) and adjusted percent density (p=0.001) whereas the A-allele of rs10483813 in RAD51L1 was inversely associated with adjusted percent density (p=0.003), but not with adjusted dense area (p=0.07). Conclusion We identified two common breast cancer susceptibility variants associated with mammographic measures of radio-dense tissue in the breast gland. Impact We examined the association of 14 established breast cancer susceptibility loci with mammographic density phenotypes within a large genetic consortium and identified two breast cancer susceptibility variants, LSP1-rs3817198 and RAD51L1-rs10483813, associated with mammographic measures and in the same direction as the breast cancer association. PMID:22454379

  14. Ordered subset linkage analysis supports a susceptibility locus for age-related macular degeneration on chromosome 16p12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeks Daniel E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a complex disorder that is responsible for the majority of central vision loss in older adults living in developed countries. Phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity complicate the analysis of genome-wide scans for AMD susceptibility loci. The ordered subset analysis (OSA method is an approach for reducing heterogeneity, increasing statistical power for detecting linkage, and helping to define the most informative data set for follow-up analysis. OSA assesses the linkage evidence in subsets of potentially more homogeneous families by rank-ordering family-specific lod scores with respect to trait-associated covariates or phenotypic features. Here, we present results of incorporating five continuous covariates into our genome-wide linkage analysis of 389 microsatellite markers in 62 multiplex families: Body mass index (BMI, systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure, intraocular pressure (IOP, and pack-years of cigarette smoking. Chromosome-wide significance of increases in nonparametric multipoint lod scores in covariate-defined subsets relative to the overall sample was assessed by permutation. Results Using a correction for testing multiple covariates, statistically significant lod score increases were observed for two chromosomal regions: 14q13 with a lod score of 3.2 in 28 families with average IOP ≤ 15.5 (p = 0.002, and 6q14 with a lod score of 1.6 in eight families with average BMI ≥ 30.1 (p = 0.0004. On chromosome 16p12, nominally significant lod score increases (p ≤ 0.05, up to a lod score of 2.9 in 32 families, were observed with several covariate orderings. While less significant, this was the only region where linkage evidence was associated with multiple clinically meaningful covariates and the only nominally significant finding when analysis was restricted to advanced forms of AMD. Families with linkage to 16p12 had higher averages of SBP, IOP and BMI and were

  15. Combining biofilm matrix measurements with biomass and viability assays in susceptibility assessments of antimicrobials against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. (United States)

    Skogman, Malena Elise; Vuorela, Pia Maarit; Fallarero, Adyary


    Despite that three types of assays (measuring biofilm viability, biomass, or matrix) are described to assess anti-biofilm activity, they are rarely used together. As infections can easily reappear if the matrix is not affected after antibiotic treatments, our goal was to explore the simultaneous effects of antibiotics on the viability, biomass and matrix of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms (ATCC 25923). Viability and biomass were quantified using resazurin and crystal violet staining sequentially in the same plate, while matrix staining was conducted with a wheat germ agglutinin-Alexa Fluor 488 fluorescent conjugate. Establishment of the detection limits and linearity ranges allowed concluding that all three methods were able to estimate biofilm formation in a similar fashion. In a susceptibility study with 18-h biofilms, two model compounds (penicillin G and ciprofloxacin) caused a reduction on the viability and biomass accompanied by an increase or not changed levels of the matrix, respectively. This response pattern was also proven for S. aureus Newman, S. epidermidis and E. coli biofilms. A classification of antibiotics based on five categories according to their effects on viability and matrix has been proposed earlier. Our data suggests a sixth group, represented by penicillin, causing decrease in bacterial viability but showing stimulatory effects on the matrix. Further, if effects on the matrix are not taken into account, the long-term chemotherapeutic effect of antibiotics can be jeopardized in spite of the positive effects on biofilms viability and biomass. Thus, measuring all these three endpoints simultaneously provide a more complete and accurate picture.

  16. 45 CFR 270.7 - What data will we use to measure performance on the work support and other measures? (United States)


    ... measure performance on the work support and other measures? (a) We will use Census Bureau data to rank... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What data will we use to measure performance on the work support and other measures? 270.7 Section 270.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  17. Estimating the contribution of Brownian and Néel relaxation in a magnetic fluid through dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado-Camargo, L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Torres-Díaz, I. [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Chiu-Lam, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hernández, M. [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Rinaldi, C., E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)


    We demonstrate how dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements (DMS) can be used to estimate the relative contributions of Brownian and Néel relaxation to the dynamic magnetic response of a magnetic fluid, a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles. The method applies to suspensions with particles that respond through Brownian or Néel relaxation and for which the characteristic Brownian and Néel relaxation times are widely separated. First, we illustrate this using magnetic fluids consisting of mixtures of particles that relax solely by the Brownian or Néel mechanisms. Then, it is shown how the same approach can be applied to estimate the relative contributions of Brownian and Néel relaxation in a suspension consisting of particles obtained from a single synthesis and whose size distribution straddles the transition from Néel to Brownian relaxation. - Highlights: • Method to estimate the contributions of the relaxation mechanism to the magnetic response. • Method applies to cases where the Brownian and Néel peaks do not overlap. • The method applies for ferrofluids prepared with as–synthesized particles.

  18. Longitudinal measurements of tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) susceptibility to insecticides in Arkansas, Louisiana and Mississippi: Associations with insecticide use and insect control recommendations (United States)

    Dose-response assays were conducted from 2008 through 2015 to measure the susceptibility of field populations of Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) from the Delta regions of Arkansas, Louisiana and Mississippi to acephate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, permethrin and sulfoxaflor. A total of 229 fi...

  19. Susceptibility to Peer Influence: Using a Performance-Based Measure to Identify Adolescent Males at Heightened Risk for Deviant Peer Socialization (United States)

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Brechwald, Whitney A.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.


    A substantial amount of research has suggested that adolescents' attitudes and behaviors are influenced by peers; however, little is known regarding adolescents' individual variability, or susceptibility, to peer influence. In this study, a performance-based index from an experimental paradigm was used to directly measure adolescents'…

  20. The analysis of a large Danish family supports the presence of a susceptibility locus for adenoma and colorectal cancer on chromosome 11q24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Laura Aviaja; Eiberg, Hans; Mikkelsen, Hanne Birte


    benefit from prophylactic screening. Consequently, all family members are asked to follow a screening program. The purpose of this study was to localize a new gene which causes colorectal cancer. We performed a linkage analysis using data from a SNP6.0 chip in one large family with 12 affected family....... Major rearrangements were excluded after karyotyping. The linkage analysis with SNP6 data revealed three candidate areas, on chromosome 2, 6 and 11 respectively, with a LOD score close to two and no negative LOD scores. After extended linkage analysis, the area on chromosome 6 was excluded, leaving...... areas on chromosome 2 and chromosome 11 with the highest possible LOD scores of 2.6. Two other studies have identified 11q24 as a candidate area for colorectal cancer susceptibility and this area is supported by our results....

  1. Development of an antibiotic spectrum score based on veterans affairs culture and susceptibility data for the purpose of measuring antibiotic de-escalation: a modified Delphi approach. (United States)

    Madaras-Kelly, Karl; Jones, Makoto; Remington, Richard; Hill, Nicole; Huttner, Benedikt; Samore, Matthew


    Development of a numerical score to measure the microbial spectrum of antibiotic regimens (spectrum score) and method to identify antibiotic de-escalation events based on application of the score. Web-based modified Delphi method. Physician and pharmacist antimicrobial stewards practicing in the United States recruited through infectious diseases-focused listservs. Three Delphi rounds investigated: organisms and antibiotics to include in the spectrum score, operationalization of rules for the score, and de-escalation measurement. A 4-point ordinal scale was used to score antibiotic susceptibility for organism-antibiotic domain pairs. Antibiotic regimen scores, which represented combined activity of antibiotics in a regimen across all organism domains, were used to compare antibiotic spectrum administered early (day 2) and later (day 4) in therapy. Changes in spectrum score were calculated and compared with Delphi participants' judgments on de-escalation with 20 antibiotic regimen vignettes and with non-Delphi steward judgments on de-escalation of 300 pneumonia regimen vignettes. Method sensitivity and specificity to predict expert de-escalation status were calculated. Twenty-four participants completed all Delphi rounds. Expert support for concepts utilized in metric development was identified. For vignettes presented in the Delphi, the sign of change in score correctly classified de-escalation in all vignettes except those involving substitution of oral antibiotics. The sensitivity and specificity of the method to identify de-escalation events as judged by non-Delphi stewards were 86.3% and 96.0%, respectively. Identification of de-escalation events based on an algorithm that measures microbial spectrum of antibiotic regimens generally agreed with steward judgments of de-escalation status.

  2. Support for Alzheimer's Caregivers: Psychometric Evaluation of Familial and Friend Support Measures (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E.


    Objective: Information on the shortened, 20-item version of the Perceived Social Support Scale (S-PSSS) is scarce. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the S-PSSS Family (SSfa) and Friends (SSfr) subscales. Method: Because of their common coping method of social support, a cross-sectional sample of Alzheimer's…

  3. Measurement and prediction of voice support and room gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Brunskog, Jonas; Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka


    Objective acoustic parameters have been measured in 30 school classrooms. These parameters include usual descriptors of the acoustic quality from the listeners’ standpoint, such as reverberation time, speech transmission index, and background noise level, and two descriptors of the acoustic...

  4. Performance Measurement in Production and Support Areas of a Shipyard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... The purpose of this project was to identify and test some alternative performance measurement methods that might be more appropriate for modem shipbuilding and business operations, and to establish...

  5. Discrimination of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus using near-infrared spectroscopy based on Support Vector Machine method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning MA


    Full Text Available Objective To explore the feasibility of distinguishing between methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA using near-infrared spectroscopy and the Support Vector Machine analysis method. Methods The concentration standard curve of the MRSA and MSSA was prepared. The bacteria were amplified and prepared into the same concentration according to the concentration formula. Near-infrared spectroscopy data of the MRSA and MSSA were collected and pretreated with first derivative, smoothing, normalization and baseline correction. After the pretreatment, the correlation analysis of the two kinds of bacteria was executed. The spectral data of bacteria with the wavelength from 900 to 2200 nm were analyzed by principal components. According to the results of cumulative contribution rate, the first three principal components were extracted and used as the input vector to establish Support Vector Machine models in three classifiers (linear, polynomial and RBF and then a comparison of the three models was performed. Results The correlation coefficient of the pretreatment spectral curve of MRSA and MSSA was as high as 1.000. The training and test accuracies of the models were all over 95% after using the principal component analysis and Support Vector Machine models in three classifiers (linear, polynomial and RBF. The RBF classifier had the highest accuracy, and the result was 99.72%±0.21% for training accuracy and 99.47%±0.00% for the test accuracy. Conclusion Near-infrared spectroscopy and the Support Vector Machine analysis method has a high ability to discriminate between MSSA and MRSA. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.12.07

  6. Silicon device performance measurements to support temperature range enhancement (United States)

    Johnson, R. Wayne; Askew, Ray; Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett


    The results of the NPN bipolar transistor (BJT) (2N6023) breakdown voltage measurements were analyzed. Switching measurements were made on the NPN BJT, the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) (TA9796) and the N-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) (RFH75N05E). Efforts were also made to build a H-bridge inverter. Also discussed are the plans that have been made to do life testing on the devices, to build an inductive switching test circuit and to build a dc/dc switched mode converter.

  7. Innovative Operations Measures and Nutritional Support for Mass Endurance Events. (United States)

    Chiampas, George T; Goyal, Anita V


    Endurance and sporting events have increased in popularity and participation in recent years worldwide, and with this comes the need for medical directors to apply innovative operational strategies and nutritional support to meet such demands. Mass endurance events include sports such as cycling and running half, full and ultra-marathons with over 1000 participants. Athletes, trainers and health care providers can all agree that both participant outcomes and safety are of the utmost importance for any race or sporting event. While demand has increased, there is relatively less published guidance in this area of sports medicine. This review addresses public safety, operational systems, nutritional support and provision of medical care at endurance events. Significant medical conditions in endurance sports include heat illness, hyponatraemia and cardiac incidents. These conditions can differ from those typically encountered by clinicians or in the setting of low-endurance sports, and best practices in their management are discussed. Hydration and nutrition are critical in preventing these and other race-related morbidities, as they can impact both performance and medical outcomes on race day. Finally, the command and communication structures of an organized endurance event are vital to its safety and success, and such strategies and concepts are reviewed for implementation. The nature of endurance events increasingly relies on medical leaders to balance safety and prevention of morbidity while trying to help optimize athlete performance.

  8. A framework of technology-supported emotion measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoring, K.C.; Bellermann, Frederik; Mueller, Roland M.; Badke-Schaub, P.G.; Desmet, P.M.A.; Desmet, P.M.A.; Fokkinga, S.F.; Ludden, G.D.S.; Cila, N.; Van Zuthem, H.


    Emotion measurement is a vital aspect for new product development and product improvements (see e.g. P. Desmet & Schifferstein, 2012). Nowadays, new technological devices, data mining, and social media offer many opportunities to invigorate design research. This paper tries to combine both

  9. Helium measurements in support of MHTGR lithium target testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, B.M. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.; Rogers, J.W. [EG and G-Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.


    The New Production-Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (NP-MHTGR) development program sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) has as part of its task the irradiation testing of the lithium target material. The lithium target material tritium ({sup 3}H) production is predominantly through the {sup 6}Li (n,{alpha}){sup 3}H reaction which also produces equal amounts of {sup 4}He ({alpha}). The tritium produced decays to {sup 3}He (12.38 year half-life), with some of this {sup 3}He being converted back to tritium during irradiation via the {sup 3}He(n,p){sup 3}H reaction. From these reactions, and the irradiation time-history, the measurement of the {sup 4}He and {sup 3}He content of a lithium monitor or target material sample can be used to determine several important variables associated with the target material performance, as well as to independently determine the neutron fields associated with the test environment. Helium measurements have been used to determine lithium burnup, tritium retention in target pellets, pellet material composition and variation and threshold temperature for helium release from the pellets. The present paper presents selected results obtained form the various helium measurements and discusses their relevance and importance to the MHTGR target development program.

  10. A proteomics performance standard to support measurement quality in proteomics. (United States)

    Beasley-Green, Ashley; Bunk, David; Rudnick, Paul; Kilpatrick, Lisa; Phinney, Karen


    The emergence of MS-based proteomic platforms as a prominent technology utilized in biochemical and biomedical research has increased the need for high-quality MS measurements. To address this need, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) reference material (RM) 8323 yeast protein extract is introduced as a proteomics quality control material for benchmarking the preanalytical and analytical performance of proteomics-based experimental workflows. RM 8323 yeast protein extract is based upon the well-characterized eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae and can be utilized in the design and optimization of proteomics-based methodologies from sample preparation to data analysis. To demonstrate its utility as a proteomics quality control material, we coupled LC-MS/MS measurements of RM 8323 with the NIST MS Quality Control (MSQC) performance metrics to quantitatively assess the LC-MS/MS instrumentation parameters that influence measurement accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility. Due to the complexity of the yeast proteome, we also demonstrate how NIST RM 8323, along with the NIST MSQC performance metrics, can be used in the evaluation and optimization of proteomics-based sample preparation methods. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Constitutive modelling of an arterial wall supported by microscopic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vychytil J.


    Full Text Available An idealized model of an arterial wall is proposed as a two-layer system. Distinct mechanical response of each layer is taken into account considering two types of strain energy functions in the hyperelasticity framework. The outer layer, considered as a fibre-reinforced composite, is modelled using the structural model of Holzapfel. The inner layer, on the other hand, is represented by a two-scale model mimicing smooth muscle tissue. For this model, material parameters such as shape, volume fraction and orientation of smooth muscle cells are determined using the microscopic measurements. The resulting model of an arterial ring is stretched axially and loaded with inner pressure to simulate the mechanical response of a porcine arterial segment during inflation and axial stretching. Good agreement of the model prediction with experimental data is promising for further progress.

  12. R-matrix calculations in support of impurity influx measurements (United States)

    Ballance, C. P.


    The RMPS (R-Matrix with Pseudo-States) method has been used with great success in the calculation of the collisional data for light fusion-related elements such as helium, beryllium or neon, both in terms of electron-impact excitation and also ground, metastable, and excited state ionisation. However, more complex atomic species such as Molybdenum and Tungsten have been choosen as plasma-facing elements in several tokamak experiments such as NSTX-U. During plasma operation there is an inevitable degree of wall erosion and therefore the determination of this impurity-influx rate from vessel walls needs to be characterized. In terms of atomic physics, this erosion rate can be determined from an SXB ratio and spectroscopic measurements of emitted line radiation. The SXB ratio is generated using a combination of electron-impact ionisation, excitation and the underlying atomic structure transition probabilities. The groundstate of Mo I and Mo II being half-open d shell systems quickly give rise to 100s of levels, and therefore the resulting spectral lines from the neutral and singly ionised species provides a convoluted picture. Therefore, subject to the constraints of spectrometer used, theoretically we are able to survey our structure and collisional calculations and pro-actively suggest particular diagnostic lines. There have been previous R-matrix calculations in LS coupling used for modelling of Mo, with mixed results, however it is hoped that this project shall resolve those differences. A method shall be presented that we use to determine which lines are most beneficial for analysis. I will present current electron-impact excitation and ionisation results for both neutral and singly ionised molybdenum.

  13. Measurement of maternal instrumental support: findings from three population-based cohort studies. (United States)

    Bevans, Katherine B; Bhatt, Suraj K; Pascoe, John M; Pati, Susmita


    To advance the conceptualization and measurement of mother-reported instrumental support, the degree to which an individual receives assistance in the completion of daily life tasks. The psychometric properties of a 9-item instrumental support scale were evaluated using classical (descriptive statistics, factor analyses, evaluation of construct validity) and modern (Rasch modeling, differential item functioning) methods. Differences in perceived instrumental support were evaluated as a function of mothers' socio-demographic characteristics. Factor analytic and differential item functioning analyses provided support for two components of instrumental support, household and childcare assistance. Instrumental support is distinct from structural support and the quality of mothers' social relationships. Socio-demographic characteristics (e.g., marital status, education level, income) are associated with access to instrumental support. Differentiating appropriately between support subtypes may reveal important differences in mother's qualitative instrumental support experiences and facilitate effective targeting of social support interventions.

  14. Measuring the magnetic-field-dependent chemical potential of a low-density three-dimensional electron gas in n -GaAs and extracting its magnetic susceptibility (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Aditya N.; Venkataraman, V.


    We report the magnetic-field-dependent shift of the electron chemical potential in bulk, n -type GaAs at room temperature. A transient voltage of ˜100 μ V was measured across a Au-Al2O3 -GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor in a pulsed magnetic field of ˜6 T . Several spurious voltages larger than the signal that had plagued earlier researchers performing similar experiments were carefully eliminated. The itinerant magnetic susceptibility of GaAs is extracted from the experimentally measured data for four different doping densities, including one as low as 5 ×1015cm-3 . Though the susceptibility in GaAs is dominated by Landau-Peierls diamagnetism, the experimental technique demonstrated can be a powerful tool for extracting the total free carrier magnetization of any electron system. The method is also virtually independent of the carrier concentration and is expected to work better in the nondegenerate limit. Such experiments had been successfully performed in two-dimensional electron gases at cryogenic temperatures. However, an unambiguous report on having observed this effect in any three-dimensional electron gas has been lacking. We highlight the 50 year old literature of various trials and discuss the key details of our experiment that were essential for its success. The technique can be used to unambiguously yield only the itinerant part of the magnetic susceptibility of complex materials such as magnetic semiconductors and hexaborides, and thus shed light on the origin of ferromagnetism in such systems.

  15. Measures of Patient Activation and Social Support in a Peer-Led Support Network for Women With Cardiovascular Disease. (United States)

    Witt, Dawn; Benson, Gretchen; Campbell, Susan; Sillah, Arthur; Berra, Kathy

    Social support has been associated with beneficial effects on many disease states and overall health and well-being. However, there is limited research exploring the impact of peer-led support models among women living with coronary heart disease. This study describes the structure of peer-led support groups offered by WomenHeart (WH): The National Coalition for Women Living with Heart Disease, and assesses WH participants' quality of life and social, emotional, and physical health. Participants were recruited from 50 WH groups. A 70-item online survey was administered, and the main analytic sample included 157 women. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient activation levels (lower activation levels: 1, 2 vs higher activation levels: 3, 4) and social support scores (range: lowest 8 to highest 34), adjusting for age. High levels of social support, patient activation, physical activity, and low levels of stress, anxiety, and depression were reported. Those who were at or above the median for the social support measures (indicating high levels of social support) had greater odds of high levels of patient activation (level 3 or 4) than individuals reporting low levels of social support (OR = 2.23; 95% CI, 1.04-4.76; P = .012). Women who regularly attended a support group by a trained peer leader were highly engaged in their health care and had low levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. These findings lend credibility to the value of the peer support model and could potentially be replicated in other disease states to enhance patient care.

  16. Use of Noninvasive Bone Structural Measurements to Evaluate Stress Fracture Susceptibility Among Female Recruits in U.S. Marine Corps Basic Training: Individual Profiles of Stress Fracture Susceptibility Among Female Recruits in U.S. Marine Corps Basic Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaffer, Rick


    The objective of this study was to derive predictive models of stress fracture susceptibility in female military recruits by administering a questionnaire highlighting exercise and health habits prior...

  17. Measuring Use of Health-Related Support on the Internet: Development of the Health Online Support Questionnaire (HOSQ). (United States)

    Mattsson, Susanne; Olsson, Erik Martin Gustaf; Alfonsson, Sven; Johansson, Birgitta; Carlsson, Maria


    Social support plays an important role for the perceived health in people with health problems and chronic diseases. Provision of different kinds of support during the disease trajectory is crucial for many people. Online support is ubiquitous and represents a promising modality for people with chronic diseases. There are no existing instruments that measure various aspects of online support. The objective of this study was to create a generic questionnaire regarding health-related support online that can be applied to people with various health problems and illnesses. Additionally, we wanted to test the questionnaire in a cancer population to assess its adequacy in the context of severe disease. Initial items for the Health Online Support Questionnaire (HOSQ) were inspired by sociologist James House regarding social support. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted in healthy persons or with minor health problems (n=243) on 31 initial items. The scale was reduced to 18 items and the internal consistency and reliability of the scale was examined along with content validity. Further validation was conducted by a confirmatory analysis on the 18-item scale in a cancer population (n=215). In addition, data on demographics, health problems experienced, and Internet use were collected. The exploratory factor analysis on the final 18-item scale resulted in 2 factors. After scrutinizing the content, these factors were labeled "reading" and "interacting" and they demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach alphas .88 and .77, respectively). The factors were confirmed in the cancer population. The response pattern revealed expected differences both between the interaction and reading scales and according to age, gender, education, and health problems thereby supporting the validity of the HOSQ. The HOSQ may be a reliable and valid instrument for measuring the use of online support for people with health problems, but the results ought to be replicated in more

  18. Evaluation of the Norberg angle threshold: a comparison of Norberg angle and distraction index as measures of coxofemoral degenerative joint disease susceptibility in seven breeds of dogs. (United States)

    Culp, William T N; Kapatkin, Amy S; Gregor, Thomas P; Powers, Michelle Y; McKelvie, Pamela J; Smith, Gail K


    To evaluate the thresholds of 2 radiographic methods used to determine coxofemoral joint laxity in 7 breeds of dogs. Three hundred and fifty clinically normal dogs. Retrospective study. Hip radiographs from 7 breeds of dogs were randomly selected from a database. None of the dogs had radiographic evidence of degenerative joint disease (DJD). Distraction index (DI) and Norberg angle (NA) were measured on these radiographs and compared with DI and NA thresholds for diagnosing DJD susceptibility derived from the literature and from evaluated Borzois. Dogs with a NA or =105 degrees and a DI of >0.32 were considered false-negatives. Mean age of all dogs was 22.9 months. Mean NA for all dogs was 99.37 degrees, and mean DI for all dogs was 0.44. Borzoi mean DI of was significantly less than the mean DI of the other 6 breeds. The highest (most hip laxity) Borzoi DI was 0.32, and the lowest (most hip laxity) Borzoi NA was 99 degrees. False-positive and false-negative diagnoses were identified in 6 of the 7 breeds. Using the NA threshold of 105 degrees (literature established threshold of susceptibility to DJD) resulted in a high percentage of false-negative and false-positive diagnoses. Breeds like the Labrador Retriever and Rottweiler would have large numbers of hip dysplasia susceptible dogs remain in the breeding population based on this NA threshold. False-positive diagnoses were common in breeds like the Australian Shepherd, Borzoi, and German Shepherd effectively eliminating hip dysplasia nonsusceptible dogs from the breeding population. The NA was not an accurate predictor of DJD susceptibility in these 7 breeds of dogs when using a NA threshold of 105 degrees.

  19. Adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta A. Schriber


    Full Text Available Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment encountered (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth. Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts – be they positive or negative – such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. Ultimately, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes.

  20. Adolescent Neurobiological Susceptibility to Social Context (United States)

    Schriber, Roberta A.; Guyer, Amanda E.


    Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment they encounter (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth). Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped in part by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts – be they positive or negative – such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. As such, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes. PMID:26773514

  1. Measuring enzymatic HIV-1 susceptibility to two reverse transcriptase inhibitors as a rapid and simple approach to HIV-1 drug-resistance testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Simple and cost-effective approaches for HIV drug-resistance testing are highly desirable for managing increasingly expanding HIV-1 infected populations who initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART, particularly in resource-limited settings. Non-nucleoside reverse trancriptase inhibitor (NNRTI-based regimens with an NRTI backbone containing lamivudine (3TC or emtricitabine (FTC are preferred first ART regimens. Failure with these drug combinations typically involves the selection of NNRTI- and/or 3TC/FTC-resistant viruses. Therefore, the availability of simple assays to measure both types of drug resistance is critical. We have developed a high throughput screening test for assessing enzymatic resistance of the HIV-1 RT in plasma to 3TC/FTC and NNRTIs. The test uses the sensitive "Amp-RT" assay with a newly-developed real-time PCR format to screen biochemically for drug resistance in single reactions containing either 3TC-triphosphate (3TC-TP or nevirapine (NVP. Assay cut-offs were defined based on testing a large panel of subtype B and non-subtype B clinical samples with known genotypic profiles. Enzymatic 3TC resistance correlated well with the presence of M184I/V, and reduced NVP susceptibility was strongly associated with the presence of K103N, Y181C/I, Y188L, and G190A/Q. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting resistance were 97.0% and 96.0% in samples with M184V, and 97.4% and 96.2% for samples with NNRTI mutations, respectively. We further demonstrate the utility of an HIV capture method in plasma by using magnetic beads coated with CD44 antibody that eliminates the need for ultracentifugation. Thus our results support the use of this simple approach for distinguishing WT from NNRTI- or 3TC/FTC-resistant viruses in clinical samples. This enzymatic testing is subtype-independent and can assist in the clinical management of diverse populations particularly in resource-limited settings.

  2. A comparison of hepatitis A and hepatitis B measures among vaccinated and susceptible online men who have sex with men. (United States)

    Gilbert, L K; Levandowski, B A; Scanlon, K E; Peterson, R S


    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) continue to be major health concerns among men who have sex with men (MSM). The Internet both facilitates high-risk sexual encounters and provides opportunities for promoting healthy behaviours. This study compared self-reported HAV and HBV vaccination levels, based on demographics, health characteristics, hepatitis knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviours among MSM using an online survey posted from February through June 2005. Each participant (n = 968) reported whether they were vaccinated, infected or susceptible for hepatitis A and/or for hepatitis B. Men whose health-care provider recommended vaccination were 12.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.11, 20.55) times more likely to be vaccinated against HAV and 17.93 (95% CI 10.82, 29.70) times more likely to be vaccinated against HBV than those at risk of infection, respectively. These data provide essential information for public health professionals to successfully promote vaccination among members of this population.

  3. Invitro antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species to liposomal amphotericin B, determined using CLSI broth microdilution, and amphotericin B deoxycholate, measured using the Etest. (United States)

    Lovero, Grazia; De Giglio, Osvalda; Rutigliano, Serafina; Diella, Giusy; Caggiano, Giuseppina; Montagna, Maria Teresa


    The antifungal susceptibilities of 598 isolates of Candida spp. (bloodstream and other sterile sites) to liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) versus amphotericin B (AmB) were determined. MICs were calculated using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution (M27-A3) method for L-AmB and the Etest method for AmB. The MIC50/MIC90 (µg ml-1) values for L-AmB broth microdilution and AmB Etest were 0.25/1 and 0.19/0.5, respectively. The overall essential agreement (±2 dilutions) was 91.5 %, ranging from 37.5 % (Candida lusitaniae) to 100 % (Candida glabrata and Candida krusei). Categorical agreement between the two methods was categorized based on a previously published breakpoint (susceptible/resistant MIC cut-off of 1 µg ml-1). The overall categorical agreement at the 48 h reading was 97.3 %, ranging from 72.7 % (C. krusei) to 100 % (Candida albicans). Major and very major discrepancies occurred in 2.3 and 0.3 %, respectively. Spearman's ρ was 0.48 (PCandida spp. to L-AmB and thus to support its use in antifungal treatment.

  4. Family-supportive organization perceptions: validation of an abbreviated measure and theory extension. (United States)

    Booth, Suzanne M; Matthews, Russell A


    Although the concept of family-supportive organization perceptions has been well received in the literature, the actual construct has been relatively understudied. In the present study, we accomplish two goals. First using confirmatory factor analysis, we report on the validation of an abbreviated six-item measure of family-supportive organization perceptions that demonstrates limited measurement error. Second, we link role theory, social support resource theory, and the direct effects model of social support, to suggest that the way in which family-supportive organization perceptions affect work-family conflict is via experiences of domain overload. Contrary to the direct effects model of social support, family-supportive organization perceptions do not differentially impact work and family overload. Consistent with social support resource theory though, the effects of family-supportive organization perceptions on work-to-family and family to-work conflict are fully mediated via work and family overload (respectively). Avenues for future research incorporating family-supportive organization perceptions are also considered.

  5. Ultrasonic fluid quantity measurement in dynamic vehicular applications a support vector machine approach

    CERN Document Server

    Terzic, Jenny; Nagarajah, Romesh; Alamgir, Muhammad


    Accurate fluid level measurement in dynamic environments can be assessed using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach. SVM is a supervised learning model that analyzes and recognizes patterns. It is a signal classification technique which has far greater accuracy than conventional signal averaging methods. Ultrasonic Fluid Quantity Measurement in Dynamic Vehicular Applications: A Support Vector Machine Approach describes the research and development of a fluid level measurement system for dynamic environments. The measurement system is based on a single ultrasonic sensor. A Support Vector Machines (SVM) based signal characterization and processing system has been developed to compensate for the effects of slosh and temperature variation in fluid level measurement systems used in dynamic environments including automotive applications. It has been demonstrated that a simple ν-SVM model with Radial Basis Function (RBF) Kernel with the inclusion of a Moving Median filter could be used to achieve the high levels...

  6. DNA fragile site breakage as a measure of chemical exposure and predictor of individual susceptibility to form oncogenic rearrangements. (United States)

    Lehman, Christine E; Dillon, Laura W; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Wang, Yuh-Hwa


    Chromosomal rearrangements induced by non-radiation causes contribution to the majority of oncogenic fusions found in cancer. Treatment of human thyroid cells with fragile site-inducing laboratory chemicals can cause preferential DNA breakage at the RET gene and generate the RET/PTC1 rearrangement, a common driver mutation in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). Here, we demonstrate that treatment with non-cytotoxic levels of environmental chemicals (benzene and diethylnitrosamine) or chemotherapeutic agents (etoposide and doxorubicin) generates significant DNA breakage within RET at levels similar to those generated by fragile site-inducing laboratory chemicals. This suggests that chronic exposure to these chemicals plays a role in the formation of non-radiation associated RET/PTC rearrangements. We also investigated whether the sensitivity of the fragile RET region could predict the likelihood of rearrangement formation using normal thyroid tissues from patients with and without RET/PTC rearrangements. We found that normal cells of patients with thyroid cancer driven by RET/PTC rearrangements have significantly higher blunt-ended, double-stranded DNA breaks at RET than those of patients without RET/PTC rearrangements. This sensitivity of a cancer driver gene suggests for the first time that a DNA breakage test at the RET region could be utilized to evaluate susceptibility to RET/PTC formation. Further, the significant increase of blunt-ended, double-stranded DNA breaks, but not other types of DNA breaks, in normal cells from patients with RET/PTC-driven tumors suggests that blunt-ended double-stranded DNA breaks are a preferred substrate for rearrangement formation, and implicate involvement of the non-homologous end joining pathway in the formation of RET/PTC rearrangements. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  7. A new support measure to quantify the impact of local optima in phylogenetic analyses.

    KAUST Repository

    Brammer, Grant


    Phylogentic analyses are often incorrectly assumed to have stabilized to a single optimum. However, a set of trees from a phylogenetic analysis may contain multiple distinct local optima with each optimum providing different levels of support for each clade. For situations with multiple local optima, we propose p-support which is a clade support measure that shows the impact optima have on a final consensus tree. Our p-support measure is implemented in our PeakMapper software package. We study our approach on two published, large-scale biological tree collections. PeakMapper shows that each data set contains multiple local optima. p-support shows that both datasets contain clades in the majority consensus tree that are only supported by a subset of the local optima. Clades with low p-support are most likely to benefit from further investigation. These tools provide researchers with new information regarding phylogenetic analyses beyond what is provided by other support measures alone.

  8. Determining the Elastic Modulus of Compliant Thin Films Supported on Substrates from Flat Punch Indentation Measurements (United States)

    M.J. Wald; J.M. Considine; K.T. Turner


    Instrumented indentation is a technique that can be used to measure the elastic properties of soft thin films supported on stiffer substrates, including polymer films, cellulosic sheets, and thin layers of biological materials. When measuring thin film properties using indentation, the effect of the substrate must be considered. Most existing models for determining the...

  9. Cross-National Measurement Invariance of the Teacher and Classmate Support Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun; Rasmussen, Mette


    The cross-national measurement invariance of the teacher and classmate support scale was assessed in a study of 23202 Grade 8 and 10 students from Austria, Canada, England, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, and Slovenia, participating in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2001/2002 study....... A multi-group means and covariance analysis supported configural and metric invariance across countries, but not full scalar equivalence. The composite reliability was adequate and highly consistent across countries. In all seven countries, teacher support showed stronger associations with school...... satisfaction than did classmate support, with the results being highly consistent across countries. The results indicate that the teacher and classmate support scale may be used in cross-cultural studies that focus on relationships between teacher and classmate support and other constructs. However, the lack...

  10. Measurement Development and Validation of the Family Supportive Supervisor Behavior Short-Form (FSSB-SF) (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Bodner, Todd; Crain, Tori


    Recently, scholars have demonstrated the importance of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB), defined as behaviors exhibited by supervisors that are supportive of employees’ family roles, in relation to health, well-being, and organizational outcomes. FSSB was originally conceptualized as a multidimensional, superordinate construct with four subordinate dimensions assessed with 14 items: emotional support, instrumental support, role modeling behaviors, and creative work-family management. Retaining one item from each dimension, two studies were conducted to support the development and use of a new FSSB-Short Form (FSSB-SF). Study 1 draws on the original data from the FSSB validation study of retail employees to determine if the results using the 14-item measure replicate with the shorter 4-item measure. Using data from a sample of 823 information technology professionals and their 219 supervisors, Study 2 extends the validation of the FSSB-SF to a new sample of professional workers and new outcome variables. Results from multilevel confirmatory factor analyses and multilevel regression analyses provide evidence of construct and criterion-related validity of the FSSB-SF, as it was significantly related to work-family conflict, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, control over work hours, obligation to work when sick, perceived stress, and reports of family time adequacy. We argue that it is important to develop parsimonious measures of work-family specific support to ensure supervisor support for work and family is mainstreamed into organizational research and practice. PMID:23730803

  11. Are Facebook "Friends" Helpful? Development of a Facebook-Based Measure of Social Support and Examination of Relationships Among Depression, Quality of Life, and Social Support. (United States)

    McCloskey, Wilfred; Iwanicki, Sierra; Lauterbach, Dean; Giammittorio, David M; Maxwell, Kendal


    Greater social support is predictive of lower depression and higher quality of life (QOL). However, the way in which social support is provided has changed greatly with the expanding role of social networking sites (e.g., Facebook). While there are numerous anecdotal accounts of the benefits of Facebook-based social support, little empirical evidence exists to support these assertions, and there are no empirically validated measures designed to assess social support provided via this unique social networking medium. This study sought to develop an empirically sound measure of Facebook-based social support (Facebook Measure of Social Support [FMSS]) and to assess how this new measure relates to previously established measures of support and two outcome variables: depression and QOL. Following exploratory factor analysis, the FMSS was determined to assess four factors of social support on Facebook (Perceived, Emotional, Negative, Received/Instrumental). The Negative Support factor on the FMSS was most strongly related to both depression and QOL with magnitudes (and direction of relationships) comparable to a traditional measure of perceived social support. However, two FMSS factors (Received/Instrumental and Perceived) were unrelated to both mental health outcomes. Contrary to expectations, elevations in one FMSS factor (Emotional) was associated with worse symptoms of depression and poorer psychological QOL. When taken together, only the absence of negative social support on Facebook is significantly predictive of mental health functioning. Consequently, those hoping to use Facebook as a medium for reducing depression or improving QOL are unlikely to realize significant therapeutic benefits.

  12. Development and piloting of an instrument that measures company support for breastfeeding. (United States)

    Hojnacki, Sarah E; Bolton, Tracie; Fulmer, Ingrid S; Olson, Beth H


    Maternal employment has been cited as a barrier to continued breastfeeding, yet there have been few studies identifying company breastfeeding support. The study objectives were to develop and pilot an instrument that measures formal breastfeeding support in companies. A survey of company breastfeeding supports was developed, based on the literature and expert review, and the survey piloted with Michigan-based companies. Completion of the surveys and open-ended comments indicated survey items were generally well understood. In the study sample (N = 151), significantly more support was offered in companies having more employees as compared to fewer, and in companies from the health care versus all other sectors (P companies reporting requests for support, upper management combining breastfeeding and work, and a population that they felt likely to require breastfeeding support (P companies (3%) had written policies on breastfeeding or pumping at work. However, the majority of companies allow women to pump milk at the worksite (94%), and provide time (73%) and nonrestroom space to pump (78%). Fewer companies allow breastfeeding at the company (22%) or designate a room solely for breastfeeding or pumping (32%). The survey instrument is appropriate to determine breastfeeding supports in companies. In Michigan, larger companies and those in the health care sector provide more supports, most companies provide some type of space and time to pump, but other supports are limited.

  13. Problems in the Latina paradox: measuring social support for pregnant immigrant women from Mexico. (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill


    Women who have immigrated to the United States from Mexico have better than expected birth outcomes. Part of this apparent health 'paradox' has been explained by high levels of social support which are thought to offset known risk factors for low birth weight. Yet common measures of social support during pregnancy suffer from presumptions of cultural homogeneity and a-priori definitions of meaningful social support. Analysis of qualitative data from ethnographic research with 28 low-income immigrant women from Mexico living in south Texas demonstrates that preferences for certain kinds of social support vary considerably, based on how each woman makes meaning of being pregnant. This diversity is one more piece of evidence that minority cultures cannot be essentialised in health disparities research. By not measuring the diversity of desire for different kinds of support, existing correlations between social support and birth outcomes may obscure other important psychosocial mediators, such as pregnancy-related social status, that could impact birth outcomes. Moreover, a measure of pregnancy-related status may offer a more thorough explanation of the 'protective effect' that could be explored independent of immigrant status.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lais Pedroso


    Full Text Available Software developing companies work in a competitive market and are often challenged to make business decisions with impact on competitiveness. Models accessing maturity for software development processes quality, such as CMMI and MPS-BR, comprise process measurements systems (PMS. However, these models are not necessarily suitable to support business decisions, neither to achieve strategic goals. The objective of this work is to analyze how the PMS of software development projects could support business strategies for software developing companies. Results taken from this work show that PMS results from maturity models for software processes can be suited to help evaluating operating capabilities and supporting strategic business decisions.

  15. Magnetic susceptibility measurements in Yellowstone National Park, USA; Beikoku Yellowstone kokuritsu koen ni okeru genchi jikaritsu sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    For the purpose of interpreting data of the aeromagnetic anomalies in Yellowstone National Park in the U.S.A., in-situ magnetization intensity measurements have been carried out in 1994 and 1995 on geological outcrops of rocks in that area. Comparisons and discussions were given on the measurement results, and existing rock magnetic data and aeromagnetic anomaly data available for the area. Outside the Yellowstone caldera, part of granitic gneisses among the Precambrian granitic gneisses and crystalline schists distributed to the north has an abnormally high magnetization intensity of 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI. This could be a powerful anomaly source for the high magnetic anomaly in this area. Paleogene volcanic rocks distributed widely in the eastern part of the park also have magnetization intensity as high as 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher, which are also thought a powerful anomaly source in this area. Part of Pleistocene basalts which are exposed partially in the western part of the park has also very high magnetization intensity at 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher. This suggests correlation with the magnetic anomaly in the east-west direction distributed in this area. Quaternary rhyolites are more magnetic than Quaternary welded tuffs, which should give greater effects to the magnetic anomaly. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  16. The effect of back and feet support on oscillometric blood pressure measurements. (United States)

    Ringrose, Jennifer S; Wong, Jonathan; Yousefi, Farahnaz; Padwal, Raj


    Recommendations to support the back and feet during blood pressure (BP) measurement are not always followed in clinical practice. Our objective was to determine to what extent back and feet support affects mean oscillometric BP measurements. Eighty-five consecutive, consenting participants 18 years or older with systolic BP readings 80-220 mmHg and diastolic BP readings 50-120 mmHg and arm circumferences of 25-43 cm were recruited. BP was measured using an Omron HEM 907 oscillometric device. Back and feet support were examined independently. First, while the feet were supported, two sets of three BP readings were taken in random order: one with the back supported and one with the back unsupported. Next, with the back supported, two sets of three BP readings were taken in random order: one with the feet dangling and one with feet supported. The mean age of the participants was 52.0±20.7 years and the mean arm circumference was 31.0±3.2 cm; 62% were women and 49% had hypertension. The mean BP levels with the back unsupported were slightly higher than those with the back supported (119.8±15.5/69.9±8.9 vs. 119.2±16.4/68.2±8.8 mmHg; difference of 0.7±4.9/1.8±3.0; P=0.21 for systolic and oscillometric BP. The magnitude of effect is greatest on diastolic BP when the back is unsupported.

  17. Struggling for recognition and inclusion-parents' and pupils' experiences of special support measures in school. (United States)

    Isaksson, Joakim; Lindqvist, Rafael; Bergström, Erik


    During the last decade an increasing use of differentiated support measures for pupils with special educational needs, indicative of a discrepancy between educational policies and practices, has been witnessed in Sweden. Another trend has been the increased use of medical diagnoses in school. The aim of this study was to explore the main concern of support given to pupils with special educational needs and how pupils and parents experience and handle this. Interviews were conducted with eight pupils in Grades 7-9-and their parents-at two compulsory schools in a city in northern Sweden. A grounded theory approach was used for analyzing the interview data. A conceptual model was generated illuminating the main concern of special support measures for pupils and parents. The core category of the model, struggling for recognition and inclusion, was related to two categories, which further described how this process was experienced and handled by the participants. These categories were labeled negotiating expertise knowledge within a fragmented support structure and coping with stigma, ambivalence, and special support measures. The developed conceptual model provides a deeper understanding of an ongoing process of struggle for recognition and inclusion in school as described by the pupils and parents.

  18. Struggling for recognition and inclusion–parents’ and pupils’ experiences of special support measures in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Isaksson


    Full Text Available During the last decade an increasing use of differentiated support measures for pupils with special educational needs, indicative of a discrepancy between educational policies and practices, has been witnessed in Sweden. Another trend has been the increased use of medical diagnoses in school. The aim of this study was to explore the main concern of support given to pupils with special educational needs and how pupils and parents experience and handle this. Interviews were conducted with eight pupils in Grades 7–9—and their parents—at two compulsory schools in a city in northern Sweden. A grounded theory approach was used for analyzing the interview data. A conceptual model was generated illuminating the main concern of special support measures for pupils and parents. The core category of the model, struggling for recognition and inclusion, was related to two categories, which further described how this process was experienced and handled by the participants. These categories were labeled negotiating expertise knowledge within a fragmented support structure and coping with stigma, ambivalence, and special support measures. The developed conceptual model provides a deeper understanding of an ongoing process of struggle for recognition and inclusion in school as described by the pupils and parents.

  19. A new measure of dietary social support among African American adolescents (United States)

    The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate a measure of social support for fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents. Focus groups (N = 30) and pilot testing procedures (N = 17) were used to develop and pretest questionnaire item...

  20. Parent-reported social support for child’s fruit and vegetable intake: validity of measures (United States)

    The objective of our study was to develop and validate measures of parental social support to increase their child’s fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. We used a cross-sectional study design by studying participants at school and home. We studied two hundred three parents with at least 1 elemen...

  1. Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Treatment Support Measure (TSM) parent and youth form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonsbeek, A.M.S. van; Holtmaat, C.J.M.; Tiemens, B.G.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.; Jong, K. de


    The Treatment Support Measure (TSM) Parent and Youth were created to help clinicians with actionable feedback when youths are not making sufficient progress in treatment. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Dutch TSM Parent and TSM Youth. Parents (n = 172) and youth (n = 122) were

  2. Relevance of learning analytics to measure and support students' learning in adaptive educational technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannert, M.; Molenaar, I.; Azevedo, R.; Järvelä, S.; Gasevic, D.


    In this poster, we describe the aim and current activities of the EARLI-Centre for Innovative Research (E-CIR) "Measuring and Supporting Student's Self-Regulated Learning in Adaptive Educational Technologies" which is funded by the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction

  3. Support scattering effects on low-gain satellite antenna pattern measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen


    The purpose of the present investigation is to determine the difference between the scattering effects from two types of supports on satellite antenna pattern measurements. The difference in scattering effects is estimated by comparing low-gain antenna patterns recorded when using a foam tower...

  4. Combination of optical shape measurement and augmented reality for task support: II. Real-time feedback of shape measurement results (United States)

    Yamauchi, Makoto; Iwamoto, Kazuyo


    Line heating is a skilled task in shipbuilding to shape the outer plates of ship hulls. Real-time information on the deformation of the plates during the task would be helpful to workers performing this process. Therefore, we herein propose an interactive scheme for supporting workers performing line heating; the system provides such information through an optical shape measurement instrument combined with an augmented reality (AR) system. The instrument was designed and fabricated so that the measured data were represented using coordinates based on fiducial markers. Since the markers were simultaneously used in the AR system for the purpose of positioning, the data could then be displayed to the workers through a head-mounted display as a virtual image overlaid on the plates. Feedback of the shape measurement results was thus performed in real time using the proposed system.

  5. The susceptibility of a mixed model measure of emotional intelligence to faking: a Solomon four-group design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study used a Solomon four-group design to investigate the fakability of a widely used measure of emotional intelligence (EI. Administration instructions (faking/honest-response and testing effects (pre-test/no pre-test were the two conditions (i.e., 2 x 2 examined; two different Solomon four-group designs – one for fake-good instructional treatments and one for fake-bad instructional treatments – were assessed. Participants (n = 300 were randomly assigned to one of the six conditions and results indicate a significant pre-testing effect for fake-bad but not fake-good instructions. However, the interaction of testing and treatment was only significant for fake-good but not fake-bad. As expected, within-subjects designs resulted in higher distortion than between-subjects designs for both fake-good (d-value of 1.08 compared to 0.10 and fake-bad instructions (4.07 vs. 3.56, respectively. Participants were able to fake-bad more than fake-good, irrespective of the design used and scaling effects. Implications for EI assessments are discussed.

  6. [Vaccination as a supporting measure to control animal disease outbreaks in Europe: Findings for Switzerland]. (United States)

    Di Labio, E; Perler, L


    Switzerland and the European Union have a non-vaccination policy for many animal diseases relevant for trade. Because of the relatively low animal density, disease control measures in Switzerland focus on the immediate culling of infected animals. However, the use of vaccines as a supporting measure can represent an effective option to promptly contain an epidemic and to reduce the number of animals to be killed. A prerequisite for the success of vaccination is its early, rapid and purposeful implementation. Vaccinations can be cost-intensive and can entail restrictions in international trade. For the choice of the appropriate control measure it is therefore important to thoroughly assess the epidemiology, the economic consequences of the control measures and the acceptance of these measures by the environment. Because of their special epidemiology, vaccination has clear advantages as a preventive measure for vector-borne diseases.

  7. Measuring exclusive breastfeeding social support: Scale development and validation in Uganda. (United States)

    Boateng, Godfred O; Martin, Stephanie L; Collins, Shalean M; Natamba, Barnabas K; Young, Sera L


    The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for 6 months and continued breastfeeding for at least 2 years. Social support has been widely recognized to influence breastfeeding practices. However, existing scales do not measure exclusive breastfeeding social support (EBFSS), rather they assess social support for any breastfeeding. Further, they are tailored towards high-income settings. Therefore, our objectives were to develop and validate a tool to measure EBFSS in low-income settings. To develop the scale, local and international breastfeeding experts were consulted on modifications to the Hughes' Breastfeeding Social Support Scale. It was then implemented in an observational cohort in Gulu, Uganda, at 1 (n = 238) and 3 (n = 237) months post-partum (NCT02925429). We performed polychoric and polyserial correlations to remove redundant items and exploratory factor analysis at 1 month post-partum to determine the latent factor structure of EBFSS. We further applied confirmatory factor analysis to assess dimensionality of the scale at 3 months post-partum. We then conducted tests of predictive, convergent, and discriminant validity against EBF, self-efficacy, general social support, and depression. The modification of the Hughes' scale resulted in 18 items, which were reduced to 16 after examining variances and factor loadings. Three dimensions of support emerged: Instrumental, Emotional, and Informational, with alpha coefficients of 0.79, 0.85, and 0.83, respectively. Predictive, convergent, and discriminant validity of the resultant EBFSS scale was supported. The EBFSS scale is valid and reliable for measuring EBFSS in northern Uganda and may be of use in other low-income settings to assess determinants of EBF. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Perkinelmer Lamda 950 Measurements in Support of Nasa's Hubble Space Telescope (United States)

    Miller, Kevin H.; Quijada, Manuel A.


    We present visible spectroscopy measurements using the PerkinElmer Lambda 950 grating monochromator in support of two projects at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The first and primary project to be discussed is the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 as an upgrade to the Hubble Space Telescope. Numerous optical filters were measured in the visible and near-infrared regions to experimentally vet the theoretical prediction upon which the filters were engineered. The second topic of our presentation will cover the measurement of SNAP prototype filters from three venders (ASAHI, BARR and JDSU) with applications towards NASAs the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM).

  9. Systematic Review and Critical Analysis of Measures of Social Support Used in Studies of Persons With Type 2 Diabetes. (United States)

    Al-Dwaikat, Tariq N; Hall, Lynne A


    Social support is linked to improved glycemic control and psychosocial well-being of patients diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose was to critically evaluate the psychometric properties of social support measures used in this population. A systematic review of measures of social support was performed using 5 databases. Two hundred and fifty-six studies were initially retrieved, and 48 studies met the inclusion criteria for review. The majority used general measures of perceived social support. Only 17% measured positive and negative social support; 92% used a single measure of social support. The Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) was used in 25% of the studies. Using a combination of social support measures and further evaluation of their psychometric properties in this population is recommended.

  10. Trade policy responses to food price crisis and implications for existing domestic support measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Jensen, Hans Grinsted


    jointly moderated rises of domestic grain prices. In particular, domestic and trade measures on key agricultural inputs such as fertilizers are shown to contribute significantly to expand grain outputs and reduce domestic market prices. While the short-term goal in stabilizing domestic grain prices......Many national governments around the world applied export restrictions in order to achieve domestic market stabilization during the 2007/8 world food price crisis. However, current literature says little about how these export restrictions interact with existing domestic support measures in jointly...... determining domestic market outcomes. This paper analyzes this interaction by providing a quantitative assessment on how increased spending on agricultural domestic support in China offset the negative effects on grain production caused by the country's export restrictions and how these two types of measures...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Millslagle


    Full Text Available Treadmill walking and running using a supportive harness has been used as a training method to rehabilitate injured patients' walking or running gait. Comparison of full weight support (FWS and body weight support (BWS kinematic measures in competitive runners has received little attention. The purpose of this study was to compare selected FWS to BWS kinematic measures in healthy competitive runners. Ten male runners (age = 21.4 ± 1.5 years with a training regimen averaging 64 km per week at 3.8 m·s-1 participated. All participants ran three 3-minute trials. The randomized trial conditions were: FWS, 20% BWS, and 40% BWS. All conditions were videotaped with 2 cameras and a 21-point, 3-D model was generated for analysis. From the position-time data, cycle length (CL, cycle frequency (CF, time of contact (TC, hip-, knee-, ankle- range of motion in degrees (H-ROM, K-ROM, and A-ROM, respectively, and vertical displacement of the center of mass (COM were derived and compared. With increasing support conditions, cycle length increased. Cycle frequency, hip and ankle angle ranges, and COM vertical displacement decreased (p 0.05. BWS running produced significant changes in selected kinematic measures. These changes may provide insight into runners' behavior when using BWS in training or recovery from competition. Additional investigation of BWS training affect with competitive runners would be recommended

  12. A Critical Review of Instruments Measuring Breastfeeding Attitudes, Knowledge, and Social Support. (United States)

    Casal, Corrine S; Lei, Ann; Young, Sera L; Tuthill, Emily L


    Breastfeeding provides beneficial health outcomes for infants and their mothers, and increasing its practice is a national priority in many countries. Despite increasing support to exclusively breastfeed, the prevalence at 6 months remains low. Breastfeeding behavior is influenced by a myriad of determinants, including breastfeeding attitudes, knowledge, and social support. Effective measurement of these determinants is critical to provide optimal support for women throughout the breastfeeding period. However, there are a multitude of available instruments measuring these constructs, which makes identification of an appropriate instrument challenging. Research aim: Our aim was to identify and critically examine the existing instruments measuring breastfeeding attitudes, knowledge, and social support. A total of 16 instruments was identified. Each instrument's purpose, theoretical underpinnings, and validity were analyzed. An overview, validation and adaptation for use in other settings was assessed for each instrument. Depth of reporting and validation testing differed greatly between instruments. Content, construct, and predictive validity were present for most but not all scales. When selecting and adapting instruments, attention should be paid to domains within the scale, number of items, and adaptation.

  13. Bedside Ultrasound Measurement of Rectus Femoris: A Tutorial for the Nutrition Support Clinician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfredo Galindo Martín


    Full Text Available Intensive care unit acquired weakness is a long-term consequence after critical illness; it has been related to muscle atrophy and can be considered as one of the main nutritional support challenges at the intensive care unit. Measuring muscle mass by image techniques has become a new area of research for the nutritional support field, extending our knowledge about muscle wasting and the impact of nutritional approaches in the critical care setting, although currently there is no universally accepted technique to perform muscle measurements by ultrasound. Because of this, we present this tutorial for nutrition support clinicians, in order to understand and perform muscle measurements by this reliable, accessible, low-cost, and easy-to-use technique. Reviewing issues such as quadriceps muscle anatomy, correct technique (do’s and don’ts, identification of structures, and measurement of the rectus femoris and vastus intermedius muscles helps to acquire the basic concepts of this technique and encouraging more research in this field.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Büyükgöze


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the support measures for beginning teachers, and elaborates on mentoring practices in European primary and secondary education institutions, and finally discusses induction practices in Turkey comparatively. The main findings of the research as follows: the common qualification for entry to teaching profession across Europe is a bachelor’s degree which generally last between four and five years, however initial teacher education is usually not sufficient for new teachers as they may experience and encounter problems about teaching, assessing and managing the students. Therefore, in almost more than the half of the European countries a structured induction program is carried out or other support measures are provided for new teachers. Few countries do not organize these programs at national level but at the local level or in schools. The structured induction programs are considered as a compulsory phase ending with a kind of overall assessment in most countries, whereas in some of them it is optional. These induction programs last from several months to 2 years, but the widespread length is about one year. The types of support measures for beginning teachers have been found to be differed across Europe, and mentoring is the most common form among these measures. The implications for educational organizations and teaching is discussed further

  15. Estimativa da susceptibilidade à compactação e do suporte de carga do solo com base em propriedades físicas de solos do Rio Grande do Sul Estimating soil susceptibility to compaction and load support capacity based on physical parameters of soils from Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Akiyoshi Sanches Suzuki


    Full Text Available O conhecimento das relações entre propriedades físicas e mecânicas do solo pode contribuir no desenvolvimento de funções de pedotransferência, que permitam estimar outras propriedades do solo de difícil mensuração. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a relação entre a susceptibilidade à compactação e o suporte de carga com propriedades físicas de solos do sul do Brasil. Foram avaliadas a resistência à penetração, a umidade, a densidade e a compressibilidade de seis solos. A resistência à penetração pode ser estimada pelo modelo que considera a umidade e densidade do solo. Solos com maior densidade inicial apresentaram menor susceptibilidade à compactação e menor deformação, quando submetidos a pressões externas. Quanto maior a resistência do solo à penetração, menor é a deformação e maior é a capacidade de suporte de carga, embora isso não indique solos com qualidade física adequada para as culturas; quanto maior a deformação do solo, maior a susceptibilidade à compactação e menor a capacidade de suporte de carga. A susceptibilidade de um solo à compactação e sua capacidade de suporte de carga podem ser estimadas, respectivamente, pela densidade inicial e pela resistência do solo à penetração.Quantifying the relationship between physical and mechanical soil properties can contribute to the development of pedotransfer functions that allow estimating hard-to-measure soil properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interrelations between susceptibility to compaction and load support with some physical properties of soils from Southern Brazil. Penetration resistance, moisture, bulk density and compressibility of six soils were evaluated. In a model including soil moisture and bulk density as independent variables, the relation with penetration resistance values obtained in the field was high. Soils with higher initial bulk density were less susceptible to compaction and exhibited

  16. Moving distance measurement for hydraulic support based on fruit fly optimization algorithm (United States)

    Wang, Jiabiao; Wang, Zhongbin; Xu, Jing; Tan, Chao; Si, Lei


    Due to the inaccurate and unreliable moving distance measurement of the hydraulic support in mines, a method based on the random circle detection (RCD) algorithm and the fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA) is proposed. According to the changing center and radium of the circle on the support, the relative position of adjacent supports is acquired by the camera. The noise of the collected image is moved, and the edge feature is protected using a bilateral filter. A local adaptive threshold algorithm is used for binary processing of the image. Then, RCD is used to detect the contour, which is similar to the circle. A method to detect the circle based on FOA is used to accurately detect the circle. Subsequently, the relative distance is calculated according to the change of the circle. Finally, the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method are verified though the experiment.

  17. Studies of vanadium-phosphorus-oxygen selective oxidation catalysts by sup 31 P and sup 51 V NMR spin-echo and volume susceptibility measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan.


    The purpose of this work is to characterize the vanadium-phosphorous oxide (V-P-O) catalysts for the selective oxidation of n-butane and 1-butene to maleic anhydride. The utility of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance as an analytical tool in this investigation lies in its sensitivity to the electronic environment surrounding the phosphorous and vanadium nuclei, and proximity of paramagnetic species. Spin-echo mapping NMR of {sup 31}p and {sup 51}v and volume magnetic susceptibility measurements were used as local microscopic probes of the presence of V{sup 5+}, V{sup 4+}, V{sup 3+} species in the model compounds: {beta}-VOPO{sub 4}, {beta}-VOPO{sub 4} treated with n-butane/1-butene, (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} treated with n-butane/1-butene; and industrial catalysts with P/V (phosphorus to vanadium) ratio of 0.9, 1.0 and 1.1, before and after treatment with n-butane and 1-butene. The NMR spectra provide a picture of how the oxidation states of vanadium are distributed in these catalysts. 73 refs., 32 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Reproducible measurement of vancomycin MICs within the susceptible range in Staphylococcus aureus by a broth microdilution method with a "quasi-continuum" gradient of antibiotic concentrations. (United States)

    Falcón, R; Mateo, E M; Talaya, A; Giménez, E; Vinuesa, V; Clari, M Á; Navarro, D


    The availability of reproducible broth microdilution (BMD) methods including inter log 2 antibiotic dilutions for measuring Staphylococcus aureus (SA) vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) within the susceptible range is needed to elucidate the impact of vancomycin MICs on clinical outcomes of invasive SA infections. Here, we report on the development of a very precise BMD method that incorporates the following incremental antibiotic concentrations: 0.50, 0.62, 0.75, 0.87, 1.0, 1.25, 1.40, 1.50, 1.60, 1.75, and 2.0 μg/mL. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation of this method were around 20%. The mean of the differences in MIC values for all isolates obtained across two independent runs performed at one center was 0.04 μg/mL [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.011-0.07 μg/mL] and that for ten isolates measured at two different centers was 0.04 μg/mL (95% CI, 0-13 μg/mL). Vancomycin MIC values differed by less than 0.1 μg/mL between runs for most isolates. Storage of isolates at -20 °C for up to 3 months had no impact on the vancomycin MIC values. The mean vancomycin MIC values obtained by the Etest using a standard inoculum (0.5 McFarland) were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.001) than those measured by BMD and the MIC values measured by the two methods correlated poorly (Rho, 0.319; p = 0.148). Nevertheless, the mean MIC values measured by the Etest using lower inocula (10 7 or 10 6  CFU/mL) and those measured by BMD were comparable and correlated significantly (p = 0.004 for 10 7  CFU/mL and p = 0.029 for 10 6  CFU/mL).

  19. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012]. (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime


    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Social support is supposed to have a beneficial effect on the health and wellbeing of people. It is a central concept in the 'EUropean Research on Incapacitating DIseaes and Social Support' (EURIDISS). In general, two main distinctions concerning social support are made in the literature, providing

  1. The measurement of social support in the European Research on incapaciting diseases and social support : the development of the social support questionnaire for transactions (SSQT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmeijer, T P B M; Doeglas, D M; Briançon, S; Krijnen, W; Krol, B.; Sanderman, R.; Moum, T; Bjelle, A; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.


    Social support is supposed to have a beneficial effect on the health and wellbeing of people. It is a central concept in the "European Research on Incapacitating Diseases and Social Support" (EURIDISS). In general, two main distinctions concerning social support are made in the literature, providing


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy-Jane Gielen


    disengagement work. Moreover, family members such as brothers, sisters, cousins, but also peers, form an at-risk group of travelling to Syria. Supporting families and the broader professional network of the family (such as school teachers should enable practitioners and family members to act upon early warning signals and prevent travel of other family members or peers; Providing family support can work as a very powerful narrative for foreign fighters to come home. A lot of foreign fighters are afraid of returning because they fear prosecution or Guantanamo Bay. In one country were family and individual support was offered on a local level, parents spread the word that ‘the government was there to help them’. This message found its way back to the foreign fighters in Syria, providing a powerful narrative and highlighting the internal/external and local/global dimension of providing support; Finally, foreign fighters cause a lot of grief, anxiety, despair and upset for family members to the point they are no longer actively able to participate in society (not able to work etc. for which psychological counselling is essential. This article will focus on family support as part of counter-radicalisation policy. How can its effectiveness be measured? To answer this question, this article will draw on realistic evaluation which revolves around ‘what works, for who, in which context and how? (Pawson & Tilley 1997. It will discuss the different forms and merits of family support across Europe by drawing upon the lessons learned of practitioners engaging in family support within the Radicalisation Awareness Network (RAN including two case studies in which support was provided offered to families of foreign fighters by myself. Based on these practitioner experiences hypotheses on family support as part of a counter-radicalisation strategy are developed which in turn could be used for empirical testing.

  3. Elder Abuse Decision Support System: Field test outcomes, abuse measure validation, and lessons learned. (United States)

    Conrad, Kendon J; Iris, Madelyn; Liu, Pi-Ju


    The Elder Abuse Decision Support System was designed to meet the critical need for improved methods for assessment and substantiation of elder mistreatment, using a web-based system with standardized measures. Six Illinois agencies participated in the field test. One-year pre/post analyses assessed substantiation results, using Illinois' standard investigation procedure as a comparison. Pre/post acceptability was assessed with caseworkers in focus groups with adult protective service staff. Validity of measures was assessed using Cronbach's alpha and receiver operator characteristic curve analyses with final substantiation decision as a criterion. Increased substantiation of abuse was found. Regarding acceptability, the two systems were found to have differing strengths and weaknesses. Outcome measures had high validity estimates, while focus groups indicated directions for improvement. This study was a successful proof of concept that data collected in the field would be useful for clinical purposes as well as for research.

  4. Socioeconomic Status, Structural and Functional Measures of Social Support, and Mortality (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Berkman, Lisa; Dugravot, Aline; Ferrie, Jane E.; Marmot, Michael; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana


    The authors examined the associations of social support with socioeconomic status (SES) and with mortality, as well as how SES differences in social support might account for SES differences in mortality. Analyses were based on 9,333 participants from the British Whitehall II Study cohort, a longitudinal cohort established in 1985 among London-based civil servants who were 35–55 years of age at baseline. SES was assessed using participant's employment grades at baseline. Social support was assessed 3 times in the 24.4-year period during which participants were monitored for death. In men, marital status, and to a lesser extent network score (but not low perceived support or high negative aspects of close relationships), predicted both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Measures of social support were not associated with cancer mortality. Men in the lowest SES category had an increased risk of death compared with those in the highest category (for all-cause mortality, hazard ratio = 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.21, 2.08; for cardiovascular mortality, hazard ratio = 2.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 3.92). Network score and marital status combined explained 27% (95% confidence interval: 14, 43) and 29% (95% confidence interval: 17, 52) of the associations between SES and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively. In women, there was no consistent association between social support indicators and mortality. The present study suggests that in men, social isolation is not only an important risk factor for mortality but is also likely to contribute to differences in mortality by SES. PMID:22534202

  5. Evaluation of stage acoustics in Seoul Arts Center Concert Hall by measuring stage support. (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Barron, Michael


    Stage acoustics is an important characteristic for concert halls, both for the acoustic quality on stage and for the audience. However, relatively little research has been conducted into the question. This study was based on the investigation of an actual concert hall stage, that of the Seoul Arts Center Concert Hall in Korea. The stage acoustics was evaluated in the actual hall, and with two models: a 1:25 scale model and a computer model. The study was based on the stage support parameter ST1 proposed by Gade as a measure of support for individual performers [Acustica 65, 193-203 (1989)]. The variation of support was measured on the empty stage of the actual hall and in the two models. The effect of musicians on stage, the effect of moving the orchestra, the effect of ceiling height and of stage-wall profile were also investigated. Conclusions are drawn both relating to the Seoul Concert Hall stage and stages in general.

  6. A 3D optical deformation measurement system supported by knowledge-based and learning techniques (United States)

    Reiterer, Alexander; Lehmann, Martin; Miljanovic, Milos; Ali, Haider; Paar, Gerhard; Egly, Uwe; Eiter, Thomas; Kahmen, Heribert


    High accuracy 3D representation and monitoring of objects is receiving increasing interest both in science and industrial applications. Up to now tasks like monitoring of building displacements or deformations were solved by means of artificial targets on the objects of interest, although mature optical 3D measurement and laser scanning techniques are available. Such systems can perform their measurements even without targeting. This paper presents a new optical 3D measurement system, based on the fusion between a geodetic image sensor and a laser scanner. The main goal of its development was the automation of the whole measurement process, including the tasks of point identification and measurement, deformation analysis, and interpretation. This was only possible by means of new methods and techniques originally developed in the area of Artificial Intelligence; both point detection and deformation analysis are supported by decision systems that use such techniques. The resulting complex multi-sensor system is able to measure and analyse the deformation of objects, as shown in experiments. In this article we focus on specific key components and novel techniques that have been developed, and briefly report on the current stage of the whole system.

  7. The conceptualisation and measurement of combat readiness for peace-support operations – an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet C Bester


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conceptualise combat readiness and to construct a normative measurement instrument for use within the context of peace-support operations. The Peace-Support Operations Questionnaire (PSOQ was developed comprising of three types of items, namely an associated component, a disassociated component, and certain generic items applicable to both components. The sample comprised 461 soldiers of the South African National Defence Force. A second-order factor analysis on the 15 sub-scores of the first-order factor analysis yielded two factors. These factors were interpreted as Military Climate and Discipline. The two factors were subjected to an item analysis and yielded reliability coefficients of 0,987 and 0,791. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Measuring Supportive Music and Imagery Interventions: The Development of the Music Therapy Self-Rating Scale. (United States)

    Meadows, Anthony; Burns, Debra S; Perkins, Susan M


    Previous research has demonstrated modest benefits from music-based interventions, specifically music and imagery interventions, during cancer care. However, little attention has been paid to measuring the benefits of music-based interventions using measurement instruments specifically designed to account for the multidimensional nature of music-imagery experiences. The purpose of this study was to describe the development of, and psychometrically evaluate, the Music Therapy Self-Rating Scale (MTSRS) as a measure for cancer patients engaged in supportive music and imagery interventions. An exploratory factor analysis using baseline data from 76 patients who consented to participate in a music-based intervention study during chemotherapy. Factor analysis of 14 items revealed four domains: Awareness of Body, Emotionally Focused, Personal Resources, and Treatment Specific. Internal reliability was excellent (Cronbach alphas ranging from 0.75 to 0.88) and construct and divergent-discriminant validity supported. The MTSRS is a psychometrically sound, brief instrument that captures essential elements of patient experience during music and imagery interventions. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  9. WISE: Automated support for software project management and measurement. M.S. Thesis (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sudhakar


    One important aspect of software development and IV&V is measurement. Unless a software development effort is measured in some way, it is difficult to judge the effectiveness of current efforts and predict future performances. Collection of metrics and adherence to a process are difficult tasks in a software project. Change activity is a powerful indicator of project status. Automated systems that can handle change requests, issues, and other process documents provide an excellent platform for tracking the status of the project. A World Wide Web based architecture is developed for (a) making metrics collection an implicit part of the software process, (b) providing metric analysis dynamically, (c) supporting automated tools that can complement current practices of in-process improvement, and (d) overcoming geographical barrier. An operational system (WISE) instantiates this architecture allowing for the improvement of software process in a realistic environment. The tool tracks issues in software development process, provides informal communication between the users with different roles, supports to-do lists (TDL), and helps in software process improvement. WISE minimizes the time devoted to metrics collection, analysis, and captures software change data. Automated tools like WISE focus on understanding and managing the software process. The goal is improvement through measurement.

  10. Single-station seismic noise measures, microgravity, and 3D electrical tomographies to assess the sinkhole susceptibility: the "Il Piano" area (Elba Island - Italy) case study (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Di Filippo, Michele; Di Nezza, Maria; Carlà, Tommaso; Bardi, Federica; Marini, Federico; Fontanelli, Katia; Intrieri, Emanuele; Fanti, Riccardo


    Sudden subsurface collapse, cavities, and surface depressions, regardless of shape and origin, as well as doline are currently indicate by means of the term "sinkhole". This phenomenon can be classified according to a large variety of different schemes, depending on the dominant formation processes (soluble rocks karstic processes, acidic groundwater circulation, anthropogenic caves, bedrock poor geomechanical properties), and on the geological scenario behind the development of the phenomenon. Considering that generally sinkholes are densely clustered in "sinkhole prone areas", detection, forecasting, early warning, and effective monitoring are key aspects in sinkhole susceptibility assessment and risk mitigation. Nevertheless, techniques developed specifically for sinkhole detection, forecasting and monitoring are missing, probably because of a general lack of sinkhole risk awareness, and an intrinsic difficulties involved in detecting precursory sinkhole deformations before collapse. In this framework, integration of different indirect/non-invasive geophysical methods is the best practice approach. In this paper we present the results of an integrated geophysical survey at "Il Piano" (Elba Island - Italy), where at least nine sinkholes occurred between 2008 and 2014. 120 single-station seismic noise measures, 17 3D electrical tomographies (min area 140.3 m2, max area 10,188.9 m2; min electrode spacing 2 m, max electrode spacing 5 m), 964 measurement of microgravity spaced in a grid of 6 m to 8 m were carried out at the study area. The most likely origin for these sinkholes was considered related to sediment net erosion from the alluvium, caused by downward water circulation between aquifers. Therefore, the goals of the study were: i) obtaining a suitable geological and hydrogeological model of the area; ii) detecting possible cavities which could evolve in sinkholes, and finally iii) assess the sinkhole susceptibility of the area. Among the results of the

  11. How can [Mo(IV)(CN)6](2-), an apparently octahedral (d)(2) complex, be diamagnetic? Insights from quantum chemical calculations and magnetic susceptibility measurements. (United States)

    Radoń, Mariusz; Rejmak, Paweł; Fitta, Magdalena; Bałanda, Maria; Szklarzewicz, Janusz


    Quantum chemical calculations are employed to elucidate the origin of a puzzling diamagnetism for a hexacyanomolybdate(IV) anion, [Mo(CN)6](2-), which was previously reported by Szklarzewicz et al. [Inorg. Chem., 2007, 46, 9531-9533]. The diamagnetism is surprising because for the octahedral (d)(2) complex one would rather expect a (paramagnetic) triplet ground state, clearly favored over a (diamagnetic) singlet state by an exchange interaction between two d electrons in the t2g orbitals. Nevertheless, the present calculations reveal that the minimum energy structure of isolated [Mo(CN)6](2-) is not an octahedron, but a trigonal prism; the latter geometry allows maximization of a σ-donation from the cyanides to the electron-deficient Mo(iv) center. Unlike for the octahedron, for the trigonal prism structure the singlet and triplet spin states are close in energy to within a few kcal mol(-1). Although the actual relative energy of the two spin states turns out to be method-dependent, the complete active space calculations (CASPT2; with the appropriate choice of the IPEA shift parameter) can reproduce the singlet ground state, in agreement with the experimentally observed diamagnetism. Moreover, magnetic measurements reveal a slight increase of the magnetic susceptibility with the increase of temperature from 100 to 300 K, suggesting an admixture of a thermally induced paramagnetism (possibly due to Boltzmann population of the low-energy triplet state) on top of the dominant diamagnetism. Our prediction that the geometry of [Mo(CN)6](2-) should significantly deviate from the ideal octahedron, not only in the gas phase, but also in a periodic DFT model of the crystalline phase, as well as the experimentally confirmed diamagnetic properties, does not agree with the previously reported ideal octahedral structure. We suggest that this crystal structure might have been determined incorrectly (e.g., due to overlooked merohedral twinning or superstructure properties) and

  12. Assessment of climatic and seismic cycles in southern chile from high resolution XRF and magnetic susceptibility measurements of historic lake sediments. (United States)

    Boes, X.; Hubert-Ferrari, A.; Fagel, N.


    The high-resolution sedimentological studies performed on the sediment cores collected in the oceans or in the lakes constitutes the basis for inter-comparison of past climate variability. Among the new high-resolution approaches, the X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis of varved marine and lacustrine cores represents some of the best resolution. These data are particularly useful for tracking short-term climate changes expressed with calibrated time scales. However, the XRF results obtain on the fresh cores surface may be of low resolution because the core material is wet and unconsolidated. One particularly attractive method to solve this problem consists of impregnating the sediment cores with polymers in order to polish the core surface for XRF analyses. This step is essential for being able to get significant XRF and Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) results in the muddy cores. Since the 1960s, the evolution of sediment impregnation methods has been strongly linked to the development of innovative techniques (e.g., sampling devices, cryogenic and vacuum technologies, polymers, etc.). In this communication, we first propose a revised method that may be applied to prepare sediment cores for high-resolution XRF and MS data acquisition. Then we show an example of XRF and MS results obtain on laminated lake sediments from South America (Lago Puyehue, 40°S). As this area is very sensitive in terms of precipitation change (i.e., Southern Westerlies); the XRF data are compared with the regional instrumental precipitation database. The results are discussed in terms of climate and sismo- tectonic impacts over historic times. Our results shows that, in order to better interpret XRF tool over long sequences, the measurements should be first "calibrated" according to instrumental data such as precipitation, temperatures, and earthquake magnitudes.

  13. Review of measures of worksite environmental and policy supports for physical activity and healthy eating. (United States)

    Hipp, J Aaron; Reeds, Dominic N; van Bakergem, Margaret A; Marx, Christine M; Brownson, Ross C; Pamulapati, Surya C; Hoehner, Christine M


    Obesity prevention strategies are needed that target multiple settings, including the worksite. The objective of this study was to assess the state of science concerning available measures of worksite environmental and policy supports for physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE). We searched multiple databases for instruments used to assess worksite environments and policies. Two commonly cited instruments developed by state public health departments were also included. Studies that were published from 1991 through 2013 in peer-reviewed publications and gray literature that discussed the development or use of these instruments were analyzed. Instrument administration mode and measurement properties were documented. Items were classified by general health topic, 5 domains of general worksite strategy, and 19 subdomains of worksite strategy specific to PA or HE. Characteristics of worksite measures were described including measurement properties, length, and administration mode, as well as frequencies of items by domain and subdomain. Seventeen instruments met inclusion criteria (9 employee surveys, 5 manager surveys, 1 observational assessment, and 2 studies that used multiple administration modes). Fourteen instruments included reliability testing. More items were related to PA than HE. Most instruments (n = 10) lacked items in the internal social environment domain. The most common PA subdomains were exercise facilities and lockers/showers; the most common HE subdomain was healthy options/vending. This review highlights gaps in measurement of the worksite social environment. The findings provide a useful resource for researchers and practitioners and should inform future instrument development.

  14. Spatial Visualization Tasks To Support Students’ Spatial Structuring In Learning Volume Measurement

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    Shintia Revina


    Full Text Available Many prior researches found that most of students in grade five tended to have difficulty in fully grasping the concept of volume measurement because they have to build their competence in spatial structuring. The unit of volume “packing” measurement must be integrated and coordinated in three-dimension. On the other hand, it is revealed the errors that students made on the volume measurement tasks with threedimensional cube arrays are related to some aspects of spatial visualization, such as the skill to "read off" two-dimensional representation of solid objects. For those reasons, this research is aimed to develop classroom activities with the use of spatial visualization tasks to support students’ spatial structuring in learning volume measurement. Consequently, design research was chosen as an appropriate means to achieve this research goal. In this research, a sequence of instructional activities is designed and developed based on the hypothesis of students’ learning processes. This research was conducted in grade 5 of SD Pupuk Sriwijaya Palembang, Indonesia.Keywords: volume measurement, spatial structuring, spatial visualization, design research. DOI:

  15. Measurements of the magnetic susceptibility and anisotropy of Tb{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7} single crystal

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    Jana, Y.M.; Ghosh, M.; Ghosh, D. E-mail:; Wanklyn, B.M


    Magnetic susceptibilities {chi}{sub a} and the anisotropy {chi}{sub a}-{chi}{sub c}={delta}{chi} in the ac-plane of the tetragonal crystal of Tb{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7} or TbPG were measured between 300 and 23 K. The crystal field (CF) at the site of the Tb{sup 3+} ion has a unique D{sub 5h} symmetry and the D{sub 5h} axis coincides with the c-axis of the tetragonal (D{sup 4}{sub 4}) crystal, which permitted easy determination of the thermal characteristics of molecular susceptibilities K{sub parallel}, K{sub perpendicular}, K-bar and the anisotropy {delta}K=K{sub perpendicular}-K{sub parallel}. It was found that at 300 K, {delta}K was 31.3% of K-bar and increased by 34.5 times at 23 K, becoming 107% of K-bar, suggesting strong CF effect in TbPG. For analysing these results and the optical spectra reported earlier, the total Hamiltonian, consisting of the atomic and CF interactions, was diagonalized considering 66 intermediately coupled (IC) basis states of the 4f{sup 8} ground configuration of Tb{sup 3+} in the PG host, allowing J-mixing between the IC states. The best-fitted values of the atomic and CF parameters were E{sup 1}=6030, E{sup 2}=35, E{sup 3}=605, {xi}{sub so}=1749, {alpha}=18, {beta}=-673, {gamma}=1918, B{sub 20}=470, B{sub 40}=571, B{sub 60}=2500, B{sub 65}=915 (all in cm{sup -1}). The lowest CF level was found to be a singlet followed by a doublet at 19.5 cm{sup -1} above and the total CF splitting of the {sup 7}F{sub 6} ground term was 280 cm{sup -1}. The calculated value of the nuclear quadrupole splitting <{delta}E{sub Q}> of the ground nuclear level of {sup 159}Tb in TbPG changed from 3.186x10{sup -4} cm{sup -1} (=0.204 mm/s) to 89.65x10{sup -4} cm{sup -1} between 300 and 2 K. The Schottky specific heat C{sub sh} showed a maximum at 26 K and a hump is expected around 14 K in the C{sub p} versus T curve, calculated by substituting the value of the lattice component C{sub L}/R=3.2{+-}0.2 T{sup 3}x10{sup -5} of GdPG.

  16. Multifractal magnetic susceptibility distribution models of hydrothermally altered rocks in the Needle Creek Igneous Center of the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming

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    M. E. Gettings


    Full Text Available Magnetic susceptibility was measured for 700 samples of drill core from thirteen drill holes in the porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit of the Stinkingwater mining district in the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming. The magnetic susceptibility measurements, chemical analyses, and alteration class provided a database for study of magnetic susceptibility in these altered rocks. The distribution of the magnetic susceptibilities for all samples is multi-modal, with overlapping peaked distributions for samples in the propylitic and phyllic alteration class, a tail of higher susceptibilities for potassic alteration, and an approximately uniform distribution over a narrow range at the highest susceptibilities for unaltered rocks. Samples from all alteration and mineralization classes show susceptibilities across a wide range of values. Samples with secondary (supergene alteration due to oxidation or enrichment show lower susceptibilities than primary (hypogene alteration rock. Observed magnetic susceptibility variations and the monolithological character of the host rock suggest that the variations are due to varying degrees of alteration of blocks of rock between fractures that conducted hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of rock from the fractures inward progressively reduces the bulk magnetic susceptibility of the rock. The model introduced in this paper consists of a simulation of the fracture pattern and a simulation of the alteration of the rock between fractures. A multifractal model generated from multiplicative cascades with unequal ratios produces distributions statistically similar to the observed distributions. The reduction in susceptibility in the altered rocks was modelled as a diffusion process operating on the fracture distribution support. The average magnetic susceptibility was then computed for each block. For the purpose of comparing the model results with observation, the simulated magnetic susceptibilities were then averaged over the same

  17. A framework of cloud supported collaborative design in glass lens moulds based on aspheric measurement (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjian; Wang, Yu; Na, Jingxin; Zhi, Yanan; Fan, Yufeng


    Aspheric mould design includes the top-down design and reversal design. In this paper, a new framework of reversal design is proposed combining with cloud supported collaborative design (CSCD) based on aspheric measurement. The framework is a kind of collaborative platform, which is composed of eight modules, including the computerized aspheric precision measurement module (CAPM), computer-aided optical design of aspheric lens system (CAOD), computer-aided design of lens mould (CADLM), FEM(finite element method) simulation of lens molding module (FEMLM), computer-aided manufacture of lens and moulds (CAMLM), measurement data analysis module (MDAM), optical product lifecycle management module (OPLM) and cloud computing network module (CCNM). In this framework, the remote clients send an improved requirement or fabrication demand about optical lens system through CCNM, which transfers this signal to OPLM. In OPLM, one main server is in charge of the task distribution and collaborative work of other six modules. The first measurement data of aspheric lens are produced by clients or our proposed platform CAPM, then are sent to CAOD for optimization and the electronic drawings of lens moulds are generated in CADLM module. According the design drawings, the FEMLM could give the lens-molding simulation parameters through FEM software. The simulation data are used for the second design of moulds in CADLM module. In this case, the moulds could be fabricated in CAMLM by ultra-precision machine, and the aspheric lens could be also produced by lens-molding machine in CAMLM. At last, the final shape of aspheric lens could be measured in CAPM and the data analysis could be conducted in MDAM module. Through the proposed framework, all the work described above could be performed coordinately. And the optimum design data of lens mould could be realized and saved, then shared by all the work team.

  18. Using Support Vector Machines to Detect Therapeutically Incorrect Measurements by the MiniMed CGMS® (United States)

    Bondia, Jorge; Tarín, Cristina; García-Gabin, Winston; Esteve, Eduardo; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Ricart, Wifredo; Vehí, Josep


    Background Current continuous glucose monitors have limited accuracy mainly in the low range of glucose measurements. This lack of accuracy is a limiting factor in their clinical use and in the development of the so-called artificial pancreas. The ability to detect incorrect readings provided by continuous glucose monitors from raw data and other information supplied by the monitor itself is of utmost clinical importance. In this study, support vector machines (SVMs), a powerful statistical learning technique, were used to detect therapeutically incorrect measurements made by the Medtronic MiniMed CGMS®. Methods Twenty patients were monitored for three days (first day at the hospital and two days at home) using the MiniMed CGMS. After the third day, the monitor data were downloaded to the physician's computer. During the first 12 hours, the patients stayed in the hospital, and blood samples were taken every 15 minutes for two hours after meals and every 30 minutes otherwise. Plasma glucose measurements were interpolated using a cubic method for time synchronization with simultaneous MiniMed CGMS measurements every five minutes, obtaining a total of 2281 samples. A Gaussian SVM classifier trained on the monitor's electrical signal and glucose estimation was tuned and validated using multiple runs of k-fold cross-validation. The classes considered were Clarke error grid zones A+B and C+D+E. Results After ten runs of ten-fold cross-validation, an average specificity and sensitivity of 92.74% and 75.49%, respectively, were obtained (see Figure 4). The average correct rate was 91.67%. Conclusions Overall, the SVM performed well, in spite of the somewhat low sensitivity. The classifier was able to detect the time intervals when the monitor's glucose profile could not be trusted due to incorrect measurements. As a result, hypoglycemic episodes missed by the monitor were detected. PMID:19885238

  19. Alcohol increases hypnotic susceptibility. (United States)

    Semmens-Wheeler, Rebecca; Dienes, Zoltán; Duka, Theodora


    One approach to hypnosis suggests that for hypnotic experience to occur frontal lobe activity must be attenuated. For example, cold control theory posits that a lack of awareness of intentions is responsible for the experience of involuntariness and/or the subjective reality of hypnotic suggestions. The mid-dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex and the ACC are candidate regions for such awareness. Alcohol impairs frontal lobe executive function. This study examined whether alcohol affects hypnotisability. We administered 0.8 mg/kg of alcohol or a placebo to 32 medium susceptible participants. They were subsequently hypnotised and given hypnotic suggestions. All participants believed they had received some alcohol. Participants in the alcohol condition were more susceptible to hypnotic suggestions than participants in the placebo condition. Impaired frontal lobe activity facilitates hypnotic responding, which supports theories postulating that attenuation of executive function facilitates hypnotic response, and contradicts theories postulating that hypnotic response involves enhanced inhibitory, attentional or other executive function. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Cultural adaptation of a supportive care needs measure for Hispanic men cancer survivors. (United States)

    Martinez Tyson, Dinorah; Medina-Ramirez, Patricia; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Gwede, Clement K; Bobonis, Margarita; McMillan, Susan C


    Research with ethnic minority populations requires instrumentation that is cultural and linguistically relevant. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Cancer Survivor Unmet Needs measure into Spanish. We describe the iterative, community-engaged consensus-building approaches used to adapt the instrument for Hispanic male cancer survivors. We used an exploratory sequential mixed method study design. Methods included translation and back-translation, focus groups with cancer survivors (n = 18) and providers (n = 5), use of cognitive interview techniques to evaluate the comprehension and acceptability of the adapted instrument with survivors (n = 12), ongoing input from the project's community advisory board, and preliminary psychometric analysis (n = 84). The process emphasized conceptual, content, semantic, and technical equivalence. Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches offered a rigorous, systematic, and contextual approach to translation alone and supports the cultural adaptation of this measure in a purposeful and relevant manner. Our findings highlight the importance of going beyond translation when adapting measures for cross-cultural populations and illustrate the importance of taking culture, literacy, and language into consideration.

  1. Measuring critical care air support teams' performance during extended periods of duty. (United States)

    Lamb, Di


    The Royal Air Force (RAF) Critical Care Air Support Teams (CCASTs) aeromedically evacuate seriously injured service personnel. Long casualty evacuation chains create logistical constraints that must be considered when aeromedically evacuating patients. One constraint is the length of a CCAST mission and its potential effect on team member performance. Despite no evidence of patient care compromise, the RAF has commissioned a study to investigate whether CCAST mission length influences performance. Describing and understanding the role of a CCAST enabled fatigue to be defined. Factors essential to studying fatigue were then identified that were used to develop a theoretical model for designing a study to measure the effects of fatigue on CCAST performance. Relevant factors include the patient's clinical condition, team members' cognition and vigilance levels, and the occupational aviation environment. Further factors influencing overall performance include the duration and complexity of patient interventions, mission length, circadian influences, and fatigue countermeasures.

  2. Measuring Public Procurement for Innovation on the Country Level and the Role of ICT Support

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    Kristina Detelj


    Full Text Available Using of public procurement as a tool for promoting innovations has captured interest of many researchers in recent years. However, most of the research is focused on the impact of public procurement on the company's innovativeness. The article discusses the findings of the literature on this topic and proposes a model on how to transfer the concept from the company level to the level of the whole country. One of the biggest problems is unavailability of appropriate measures of this phenomenon, so the authors suggest that the concept of Public procurement for innovation can be approximated by participation of criterion of the most economically advantageous tender (MEAT. Implementation of this criterion in choosing the best offer can be supported and facilitated by using of ICT which can improve the efficiency of procurement process and enable more innovations.

  3. Application of mobile computers in a measuring system supporting examination of posture diseases (United States)

    Piekarski, Jacek; Klimiec, Ewa; Zaraska, Wiesław


    Measuring system designed and manufactured by the authors and based on mobile computers (smartphones and tablets) working as data recorders has been invented to support diagnosis of orthopedic, especially feet, diseases. The basic idea is to examine a patient in his natural environment, during the usual activities (such as walking or running). The paper describes the proposed system with sensors manufactured from piezoelectric film (PVDF film) and placed in the shoe insole. The mechanical reliability of PVDF film is excellent, though elimination of the pyroelectric effect is required. A possible solution of the problem and the test results are presented in the paper. Data recording is based on wireless transmission to a mobile device used as a data logger.

  4. Building to collective impact: the Global Fund support for measuring reduction in the burden of malaria. (United States)

    Nahlen, Bernard L; Low-Beer, Daniel


    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria was established in 2002 to fund substantial scaling-up coverage of proven and effective interventions to reduce infection, illness, and deaths in those communities most at risk. As of December 2006 the Global Fund has committed $2.6 billion over 5 years to support malaria prevention and control in 85 countries. The Global Fund has worked closely with Roll Back Malaria partners to develop consensus on a set of outcome and impact indicators that have been incorporated into malaria grant agreements. Although the Global Fund has recommended that 5-10% of grant funds be invested in improving the capacity of the national monitoring and evaluation systems, an average of only 3.9% is invested in these systems. Several countries are already demonstrating reductions in the malaria burden. To sustain the scale-up in funding to support malaria interventions, countries must ensure that resources are used now to show robust, systematic, and regular measurement of impact on the burden of malaria.

  5. Relasphone—Mobile and Participative In Situ Forest Biomass Measurements Supporting Satellite Image Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Molinier


    Full Text Available Due to the high cost of traditional forest plot measurements, the availability of up-to-date in situ forest inventory data has been a bottleneck for remote sensing image analysis in support of the important global forest biomass mapping. Capitalizing on the proliferation of smartphones, citizen science is a promising approach to increase spatial and temporal coverages of in situ forest observations in a cost-effective way. Digital cameras can be used as a relascope device to measure basal area, a forest density variable that is closely related to biomass. In this paper, we present the Relasphone mobile application with extensive accuracy assessment in two mixed forest sites from different biomes. Basal area measurements in Finland (boreal zone were in good agreement with reference forest inventory plot data on pine ( R 2 = 0 . 75 , R M S E = 5 . 33 m 2 /ha, spruce ( R 2 = 0 . 75 , R M S E = 6 . 73 m 2 /ha and birch ( R 2 = 0 . 71 , R M S E = 4 . 98 m 2 /ha, with total relative R M S E ( % = 29 . 66 % . In Durango, Mexico (temperate zone, Relasphone stem volume measurements were best for pine ( R 2 = 0 . 88 , R M S E = 32 . 46 m 3 /ha and total stem volume ( R 2 = 0 . 87 , R M S E = 35 . 21 m 3 /ha. Relasphone data were then successfully utilized as the only reference data in combination with optical satellite images to produce biomass maps. The Relasphone concept has been validated for future use by citizens in other locations.

  6. Topological susceptibility from slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Forcrand, Philippe de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); CERN, Physics Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gerber, Urs [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58040 (Mexico)


    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility χ{sub t}. In principle it seems straightforward to measure χ{sub t} by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure χ{sub t} even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of χ{sub t}, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear σ-models.

  7. Topological Susceptibility from Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Gerber, Urs


    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility chi_t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure chi_t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure chi_t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models.

  8. Force Measurement Improvements to the National Transonic Facility Sidewall Model Support System (United States)

    Goodliff, Scott L.; Balakrishna, Sundareswara; Butler, David; Cagle, C. Mark; Chan, David; Jones, Gregory S.; Milholen, William E., II


    The National Transonic Facility is a transonic pressurized cryogenic facility. The development of the high Reynolds number semi-span capability has advanced over the years to include transonic active flow control and powered testing using the sidewall model support system. While this system can be used in total temperatures down to -250Â F for conventional unpowered configurations, it is limited to temperatures above -60Â F when used with powered models that require the use of the high-pressure air delivery system. Thermal instabilities and non-repeatable mechanical arrangements revealed several data quality shortfalls by the force and moment measurement system. Recent modifications to the balance cavity recirculation system have improved the temperature stability of the balance and metric model-to-balance hardware. Changes to the mechanical assembly of the high-pressure air delivery system, particularly hardware that interfaces directly with the model and balance, have improved the repeatability of the force and moment measurement system. Drag comparisons with the high-pressure air system removed will also be presented in this paper.

  9. Prioritization of Disease Susceptibility Genes Using LSM/SVD. (United States)

    Gong, Lejun; Yang, Ronggen; Yan, Qin; Sun, Xiao


    Understanding the role of genetics in diseases is one of the most important tasks in the postgenome era. It is generally too expensive and time consuming to perform experimental validation for all candidate genes related to disease. Computational methods play important roles for prioritizing these candidates. Herein, we propose an approach to prioritize disease genes using latent semantic mapping based on singular value decomposition. Our hypothesis is that similar functional genes are likely to cause similar diseases. Measuring the functional similarity between known disease susceptibility genes and unknown genes is to predict new disease susceptibility genes. Taking autism as an instance, the analysis results of the top ten genes prioritized demonstrate they might be autism susceptibility genes, which also indicates our approach could discover new disease susceptibility genes. The novel approach of disease gene prioritization could discover new disease susceptibility genes, and latent disease-gene relations. The prioritized results could also support the interpretive diversity and experimental views as computational evidence for disease researchers.

  10. Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Treatment Support Measure (TSM) parent and youth form. (United States)

    van Sonsbeek, Maartje A M S; Holtmaat, Catharina J M; Tiemens, Bea G; Hutschemaekers, Giel J M; de Jong, Kim


    The Treatment Support Measure (TSM) Parent and Youth were created to help clinicians with actionable feedback when youths are not making sufficient progress in treatment. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Dutch TSM Parent and TSM Youth. Parents (n = 172) and youth (n = 122) were recruited at 2 outpatient mental health care institutions. Children of participating parents (50.6% boys) had a mean age of 11.9 years (SD = 3.46; range 4-18). Participating youth (30.3% boys) had a mean age of 15.68 years (SD = 1.75; range 12-18). Participants were asked to complete the TSM and questionnaires measuring related constructs once during treatment. Responses to the TSM Parent items were explained by 9 instead of 5 subscales, and responses to the TSM Youth items were explained by 8 instead of 4 subscales. The internal consistency reliability of both the TSM Parent and the TSM Youth scales was generally good. The convergent validity of the TSM Parent and the TSM Youth was also good, although the divergent validity was less convincing. The criterion validity was inconclusive; the TSM Parent was not able to differentiate between problematic and nonproblematic treatments, but multiple scales of the TSM Youth were able to differentiate between these groups. The TSM Parent and TSM Youth have potential to be helpful tools in clinical practice. They could signal potential barriers to youth progress and direct the conversation between the clinician and youth and parents about adaptation of treatment. This is the first study to investigate the psychometric properties of the Treatment Support Measure (TSM) Parent and Youth versions, which are created to help clinicians with actionable feedback when youths are not making sufficient progress in treatment. The Dutch TSM Parent and TSM Youth have moderate to good psychometric properties. The Dutch TSM Parent and TSM Youth might be helpful tools for use in clinical practice: they contain variables that are related

  11. Utility of magnetic susceptibility values for the petrographic analysis of weathering crust basement samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Hernández-Ramsay


    Full Text Available This article exposes the resolving power of the magnetic susceptibility measurements in basement minerals samples of the lateritic weathering profile as an element of complementary analysis in the petrographic characterization of the rocks, and useful in the mapping of the magnetic heterogeneities of the basement. The comparison of the magnetic susceptibility data with the petrographic data of different samples revealed that even in samples that correspond to homogeneous lithotypes, great heterogeneities and differences can be manifested from the physical-mineralogical point of view. In general, a high concordance was observed between the intensity of the weathering processes in the rock samples, and the values of the magnetic susceptibility of such samples. The results support the possibility of extrapolating the composition information to samples with magnetic susceptibility measurements and without petrographic studies.

  12. Accounting and Analytical Support of Measures on Resuming Activity of Trade Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasova Tetyana O.


    Full Text Available Diagnostics of sustainable development is aimed at revealing the critical impact of a company’s institutional and regulatory environment and is one of the main tasks of accounting and analytical support of management. A reflective model of sustainable development management consisting of the system of structure formation elements of functional, financial and market diagnostics is offered. There expanded the tools of the cognitive technology based on modeling the economic situation concerning occurrence of cognitive dissonance with sustainable development of a business unit in an unstable business environment. A flow chart of interdependence between the factors-indicators, target factors of value retention and levers of influence on checkpoints of protecting sustainable development is proposed. In order to develop an effective mechanism for reorganization, there investigated the qualitative composition of the current assets that act as a reserve stock for trade enterprises and the criteria of assessing their liquidity are identified. Three groups of the reserve stock of an enterprise are offered: liquid; conditionally liquid; illiquid. It allowed developing a complex of organizational and methodological measures concerning rehabilitation of a trade enterprise aimed at mobilizing its hidden reserves, optimizing the working capital, restructuring the receivables. Recommendations on fulfilling measures on restructuring capital and liabilities of an enterprise, the economic effect from the introduction of which lies in forming reorganization profit and determining the term of solvency resumption, is developed. There offered measures of functional, financial and market diagnostic that allow revealing illiquid reserve stock and avoiding losses, resuming efficiency and profitability due to the efficient use of the available resources, own reserves, debt restructuring aimed at contextual adaptation of the provisions of the International Standards of

  13. Airborne IPDA Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Methane in Support of MERLIN (United States)

    Kiemle, C.; Amediek, A.; Wirth, M.; Ehret, G.


    Space-based lidar missions targeting greenhouse gases are expected to close observational gaps, e.g., over subarctic permafrost and tropical wetlands, where in-situ and passive remote sensing techniques have difficulties. Consequently, a "Methane Remote Lidar Mission" (MERLIN) was proposed by the German and French space agencies DLR and CNES. MERLIN is now in Phase B, in which all mission components are planned in detail; launch is foreseen in 2020. An integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar will measure weighted columns of atmospheric methane (XCH4) along the satellite track. Primary objective is to provide accurate global observations of methane concentration gradients for inverse numerical models in order to better quantify regional fluxes. DLR has developed an airborne demonstrator, CHARM-F, for technology demonstration and validation purposes. First successful flights on-board the German HALO research aircraft have been performed in May 2015 over Central Europe. The measurements are expected to help solve general retrieval issues for future space-borne IPDA lidars. For example, the CHARM-F flights over ocean and lakes help assess the strength and variability of backscatter from water surfaces. The IPDA weighting function, or measurement sensitivity, is dependent on atmospheric pressure and temperature, in particular close to the surface. We use ECMWF analyses interpolated in space and time to the aircraft track that provide these auxiliary data at 14 km horizontal resolution. Due to the coarse representation of orography the model's pressure and temperature profiles have to be extrapolated down to the true lidar's scattering surface elevation, which generates uncertainties that we assess. We also assess biases by spectroscopic uncertainties in the methane absorption lines' parameters. Overall, the airborne results will support the development of advanced processing algorithms for future space lidar missions such as MERLIN.

  14. Real-Time In-Situ Measurements for Earthquake Early Warning and Space-Borne Deformation Measurement Mission Support (United States)

    Kedar, S.; Bock, Y.; Webb, F.; Clayton, R. W.; Owen, S. E.; Moore, A. W.; Yu, E.; Dong, D.; Fang, P.; Jamason, P.; Squibb, M. B.; Crowell, B. W.


    In situ geodetic networks for observing crustal motion have proliferated over the last two decades and are now recognized as indispensable tools in geophysical research, along side more traditional seismic networks. The 2007 National Research Council’s Decadal Survey recognizes that space-borne and in situ observations, such as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and ground-based continuous GPS (CGPS) are complementary in forecasting, in assessing, and in mitigating natural hazards. However, the information content and timeliness of in situ geodetic observations have not been fully exploited, particularly at higher frequencies than traditional daily CGPS position time series. Nor have scientists taken full advantage of the complementary natures of geodetic and seismic data, as well as those of space-based and in situ observations. To address these deficits we are developing real-time CGPS data products for earthquake early warning and for space-borne deformation measurement mission support. Our primary mission objective is in situ verification and validation for DESDynI, but our work is also applicable to other international missions (Sentinel 1a/1b, SAOCOM, ALOS 2). Our project is developing new capabilities to continuously observe and mitigate earthquake-related hazards (direct seismic damage, tsunamis, landslides, volcanoes) in near real-time with high spatial-temporal resolution, to improve the planning and accuracy of space-borne observations. We also are using GPS estimates of tropospheric zenith delay combined with water vapor data from weather models to generate tropospheric calibration maps for mitigating the largest source of error, atmospheric artifacts, in InSAR interferograms. These functions will be fully integrated into a Geophysical Resource Web Services and interactive GPS Explorer data portal environment being developed as part of an ongoing MEaSUREs project and NASA’s contribution to the EarthScope project. GPS Explorer

  15. Field reconstruction and estimation of the antenna support structure effect on the measurement uncertainty of the BTS1940 antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Pivnenko, Sergey


    the effect of the support structure on the measured field, by reconstructing the currents induced on the support frame with DIATOOL. The field obtained by filtering these currents is presented. Moreover, the spatial resolution obtained by the 3D reconstruction is discussed and compared with the one obtained...

  16. Supporting Hydrometeorological Research and Applications with Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Products and Services (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Deshong, B.; MacRitchie, K.; Greene, M.; Kempler, S.


    Precipitation is an important dataset in hydrometeorological research and applications such as flood modeling, drought monitoring, etc. On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data. The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). GPM products currently available include the following:1. Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products2. Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products (Level-2 and Level-3)3. GPM dual-frequency precipitation radar and their combined products (Level-2 and Level-3)4. Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final run)GPM data can be accessed through a number of data services (e.g., Simple Subset Wizard, OPeNDAP, WMS, WCS, ftp, etc.). A newly released Unified User Interface or UUI is a single interface to provide users seamless access to data, information and services. For example, a search for precipitation products will not only return TRMM and GPM products, but also other global precipitation products such as MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation Systems), etc.New features and capabilities have been recently added in GIOVANNI to allow exploring and inter-comparing GPM IMERG (Integrated Multi-satelliE Retrievals for GPM) half-hourly and monthly precipitation

  17. High precision ground-based measurements of solar diameter in support of PICARD mission (United States)

    Sigismondi, Costantino


    The measurement of the solar diameter is introduced in the wider framework of solar variability and of the influences of the Sun upon the Earth's climate. Ancient eclipses and planetary transits would permit to extend the knowledge of the solar irradiance back to three centuries, through the parameter W=dLogR/dLogL. The method of Baily's beads timing during eclipses is discussed, and a significant improvement with respect to the last 40 years has been obtained by reconstructing the Limb Darkening Function's inflexion point from their light curve and the corresponding lunar valleys' profiles. The case of the Jan 15, 2010 annular eclipse has been studied in detail, as well as the last two transits of Venus. The atlas of Baily's beads, realized with worldwide contributions by IOTA members is presented along with the solar diameter during the eclipse of 2006. The transition between the photographic atlas of the lunar limb (Watts, 1963) and the laser-altimeter map made by the Kaguya lunar probe in 2009 has been followed. The other method for the accurate measurement of the solar diameter alternative to the PICARD / PICARD-sol mission is the drift-scan method used either by the solar astrolabes either by larger telescopes. The observatories of Locarno and Paris have started an observational program of the Sun with this method with encouraging results. For the first time an image motion of the whole Sun has been detected at frequencies of 1/100 Hz. This may start explain the puzzling results of the observational campaigns made in Greenwich and Rome from 1850 to 1955. The meridian line of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome is a giant pinhole telescope and it permits to introduce didactically almost all the arguments of classical astrometry here presented. The support to the PICARD mission continues with the analyses of the transit of Venus and the total eclipse of 2012.

  18. Metrology Measurements of the DSTO Transonic Wind Tunnel Store Support Arm (United States)


    1 2. TWT STORE SUPPORT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ..................................................... 3 3. METROLOGY in the TWT test section ............................................................... 3 Figure 3: Metrology arbor, clinometer, CMM, height...18 List of Tables Table 1: TWT store model support range of motion and design specification

  19. Oscillometric measurement of arterial pulse pressure for patients supported by a rotary blood pump. (United States)

    Yu, Yih-Choung; Peterson, Anna


    A computer model has been developed to evaluate the accuracy of an oscillometric method to measure the arterial pulse pressure from a patient with a rotary ventricular assist device (VAD). This computer model consists of three major components: the cardiovascular system, the HeartMate II VAD, and the operation of an automated cuff. Simulation was performed to mimic failure, recovery, and normal cardiac functions of a patient, supported by the HeartMate II VAD at different levels from minimum to maximum. The oscillating cuff pressure, simulating the air pressure of a deflecting cuff, was obtained from simulation under different conditions to test the accuracy of an oscillometric algorithm in determining the arterial pulse pressure. The algorithm was able to detect the systolic and diastolic arterial pressure with the error within ±2 mmHg in most cases, except the cases when ventricular suction, induced by the VAD, occurred. The results from this study suggested that the oscillometric algorithm is capable to accurately detect the arterial pulse pressure for a rotary VAD patient if the algorithm is properly tuned.

  20. Predicting Weight Support Based on Wake Measurements of a Flying Bird in Still Air (United States)

    Gutierrez, Eric; Lentink, David


    The wake development of a freely flying Pacific Parrotlet (Forpus coelestis) was examined in still air. The bird was trained to fly from perch to perch through the laser sheet while wearing custom-made laser safety goggles. This enabled a detailed study of the evolution of the vortices shed in its wake using high-speed particle image velocimetry at 1000 Hz in the plane transverse to the flight path. The measurement started when the bird was approximately 0.25 wingbeats in front of the laser sheet and stopped after it traveled 3.5 wingbeats beyond the laser sheet. The instantaneous lift force that supports body weight was calculated based on the velocity field, using both the Kuttta-Joukowski and the actuator disk quasi-steady model. During the first few flaps, both models predict an instantaneous lift that is reasonably close to the weight of the bird. Several flaps away from the laser sheet, however, the models predict that the lift steadily declines to about 50% of the weight of the bird. In contrast to earlier reports for bat wakes in wind tunnels, these findings for bird wakes in still air suggest that the predictive strength of quasi-steady force calculations depends on the distance between the animal and the laser sheet.

  1. Constructing indices representing supportiveness of the physical environment for walking using the Rasch measurement model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikora Terri J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to use the Rasch model to 1 assess the psychometric properties of a physical environmental audit instrument and 2 to develop indices of interrelated environmental attributes that summarize environmental supportiveness for walking. Methods A set of items were derived representing two conceptual physical environmental constructs: 1 functional/safety, and; 2 aesthetics. Ad hoc criteria based on point-biserial and Rasch-based fit statistics were used to examine the construct validity and internal reliability of the two constructs. Results The Rasch-based fit statistics assisted in identifying 12 items that belonged to the functional/safety construct and 4 items that belonged to the aesthetic construct. The reliability of the two constructs were low to moderate (functional/safety rβ = 0.19 and aesthetics rβ = 0.35. Conclusion Given the vast number of built environmental attributes, a means of developing summary indices is essential. Future studies should assess the reliability and validity of indices that summarize physical environmental characteristics conducive to walking before testing them in predictive models of physical activity. More research examining procedures for measuring the built environment and techniques for analyzing environmental data are needed to guide future research in this area.

  2. Validation and Generalization of a Method for Precise Size Measurements of Metal Nanoclusters on Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, B W; Morgan, D G; Okamoto, N L; Kulkarni, A; Gates, B C; Browning, N D


    We recently described a data analysis method for precise ({approx}0.1 {angstrom} random error in the mean for a 200 kV instrument with a 3 {angstrom} FWHM probe size) size measurements of small clusters of heavy metal atoms on supports as imaged in a scanning transmission electron microscope, including an experimental demonstration using clusters that were primarily triosmium or decaosmium. The method is intended for low signal-to-noise ratio images of radiation-sensitive samples. We now present a detailed analysis, including a generalization to address issues of particle anisotropy and biased orientation distributions. In the future, this analysis should enable extraction of shape as well as size information, up to the noise-defined limit of information present in the image. We also present results from an extensive series of simulations designed to determine the method's range of applicability and expected performance in realistic situations. The simulations reproduce the experiments quite accurately, enabling a correction of systematic errors so that only the {approx}0.1 {angstrom} random error remains. The results are very stable over a wide range of parameters. We introduce a variation on the method with improved precision and stability relative to the original version, while also showing how simple diagnostics can test whether the results are reliable in any particular instance.

  3. Understanding properties of engineered catalyst supports using contact angle measurements and X-ray reflectivity. (United States)

    Amama, Placidus B; Islam, Ahmad E; Saber, Sammy M; Huffman, Daniel R; Maruyama, Benji


    There is significant interest in broadening the type of catalyst substrates that support the growth of high-quality carbon nanotube (CNT) carpets. In this study, ion beam bombardment has been utilized to modify catalyst substrates for CNT carpet growth. Using a combination of contact angle measurements (CAMs) and X-ray reflectivity (XRR) for the first time, new correlations between the physicochemical properties of pristine and engineered catalyst substrates and CNT growth behavior have been established. The engineered surfaces obtained after exposure to different degrees of ion beam damage have distinct physicochemical properties (porosity, layer thickness, and acid-base properties). The CAM data were analyzed using the van Oss-Chaudhury-Good model, enabling the determination of the acid-base properties of the substrate surfaces. For the XRR data, a Fourier analysis of the interference patterns enabled extraction of layer thickness, while the atomic density and interfacial roughness were extracted by analyzing the amplitude of the interference oscillations. The dramatic transformation of the substrate from "inactive" to "active" is attributed to a combined effect of substrate porosity or damage depth and Lewis basicity. The results reveal that the efficiency of catalyst substrates can be further improved by increasing the substrate basicity, if the minimum surface porosity is established. This study advances the use of a non-thermochemical approach for catalyst substrate engineering, as well as demonstrates the combined utility of CAM and XRR as a powerful, nondestructive, and reliable tool for rational catalyst design.

  4. Dynamical Mass Measurements of Contaminated Galaxy Clusters Using Support Distribution Machines (United States)

    Ntampaka, Michelle; Trac, Hy; Sutherland, Dougal; Fromenteau, Sebastien; Poczos, Barnabas; Schneider, Jeff


    We study dynamical mass measurements of galaxy clusters contaminated by interlopers and show that a modern machine learning (ML) algorithm can predict masses by better than a factor of two compared to a standard scaling relation approach. We create two mock catalogs from Multidark’s publicly available N-body MDPL1 simulation, one with perfect galaxy cluster membership infor- mation and the other where a simple cylindrical cut around the cluster center allows interlopers to contaminate the clusters. In the standard approach, we use a power-law scaling relation to infer cluster mass from galaxy line-of-sight (LOS) velocity dispersion. Assuming perfect membership knowledge, this unrealistic case produces a wide fractional mass error distribution, with a width E=0.87. Interlopers introduce additional scatter, significantly widening the error distribution further (E=2.13). We employ the support distribution machine (SDM) class of algorithms to learn from distributions of data to predict single values. Applied to distributions of galaxy observables such as LOS velocity and projected distance from the cluster center, SDM yields better than a factor-of-two improvement (E=0.67) for the contaminated case. Remarkably, SDM applied to contaminated clusters is better able to recover masses than even the scaling relation approach applied to uncon- taminated clusters. We show that the SDM method more accurately reproduces the cluster mass function, making it a valuable tool for employing cluster observations to evaluate cosmological models.

  5. Comparing objective measures of environmental supports for pedestrian travel in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez Daniel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence is growing that the built environment has the potential to influence walking--both positively and negatively. However, uncertainty remains on the best approaches to representing the pedestrian environment in order to discern associations between walking and the environment. Research into the relationship between environment and walking is complex; challenges include choice of measures (objective and subjective, quality and availability of data, and methods for managing quantitative data through aggregation and weighting. In particular, little research has examined how to aggregate built environment data to best represent the neighborhood environments expected to influence residents' behavior. This study examined associations between walking and local pedestrian supports (as measured with an environmental audit, comparing the results of models using three different methods to aggregate and weight pedestrian features. Methods Using data collected in 2005-2006 for a sample of 251 adult residents of Montgomery County, MD, we examined associations between pedestrian facilities and walking behaviors (pedestrian trips and average daily steps. Adjusted negative binomial and ordinary least-squares regression models were used to compare three different data aggregation techniques (raw averages, length weighting, distance weighting for measures of pedestrian facilities that included presence, condition, width and connectivity of sidewalks, and presence of crossing aids and crosswalks. Results Participants averaged 8.9 walk trips during the week; daily step counts averaged 7042. The three aggregation techniques revealed different associations between walk trips and the various pedestrian facilities. Crossing aids and good sidewalk conditions were associated with walk trips more than were other pedestrian facilities, while sidewalk facilities and features showed associations with steps not observed for crossing aids and

  6. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of the Silicon Sensor Support Frames of the CMS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Clerbaux, Barbara; Van der Velde, C; Vancaldenhoven, M; Van Lancker, Luc


    The silicon sensor support elements of the CMS tracker detector are made of carbon fiber, epoxy resin and/or graphite material. A function of the supports is to remove heat generated in the sensors and in the frontend electronics. In this note we present the results of studies we have performed of the thermal conductivity of these support elements. Results are presented for various production batches.

  7. Users’ support as a social resource in educational services: construct validity and measurement invariance of the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Loera


    Full Text Available Social support is an important resource for reducing the risks of stress and burnout at work. It seems to be particularly helpful for educational and social professionals. The constant and intense relationships with users that characterize this kind of service can be very demanding, increasing stress and leading to burnout. While significant attention has been paid to supervisors and colleagues in the literature, users have rarely been considered as possible sources of social support. The only exception is the Zimmermann et al.’ (2011 research, focused on customer support as a resource for workers’ well-being. This paper proposes the validation of the customer-initiated support scale developed by Zimmermann et al. (2011, translated into Italian and focused on educational services users (children’s parents, to measure the user support perceived by workers: the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS. In Study 1 (105 teachers, which specifically involved educators and kindergarten teachers, the items and scale properties were preliminarily examined using descriptive analyses and exploratory factor analysis (EFA. In Study 2 (304 teachers, the construct and criterion validity and scale dimensionality were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. In Study 3 (304 teachers from Study 2 and 296 educators, measurement invariance was tested. The EFA results from Study 1 showed a one-factor solution (explained variance, 67.2%. The scale showed good internal coherence (alpha = .88. The CFA in Study 2 validated the one-factor solution (CFI = .987; SRMR = .054. Bivariate correlations confirmed construct validity; the UISS was positively associated (convergent with user gratitude, and not associated (divergent with disproportionate customer expectations. Regarding the criterion validity test, the UISS was strongly correlated with burnout and job satisfaction. The analysis of measurement invariance performed on the Study 3 data confirmed the equality

  8. Measuring the influence of a mutual support educational intervention within a nursing team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Bridges


    Conclusion: The study demonstrates that education can have an impact on perceptions and awareness of mutual support among nursing team members. The survey instrument can be used effectively to inform leadership areas for improvement and staff development in the effort to improve team coordination and mutual support.

  9. Sustained Implementation Support Scale: Validation of a Measure of Program Characteristics and Workplace Functioning for Sustained Program Implementation. (United States)

    Hodge, Lauren M; Turner, Karen M T; Sanders, Matthew R; Filus, Ania


    An evaluation measure of enablers and inhibitors to sustained evidence-based program (EBP) implementation may provide a useful tool to enhance organizations' capacity. This paper outlines preliminary validation of such a measure. An expert informant and consumer feedback approach was used to tailor constructs from two existing measures assessing key domains associated with sustained implementation. Validity and reliability were evaluated for an inventory composed of five subscales: Program benefits, Program burden, Workplace support, Workplace cohesion, and Leadership style. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 593 Triple P-Positive Parenting Program-practitioners led to a 28-item scale with good reliability and good convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Practitioners sustaining implementation at least 3 years post-training were more likely to have supervision/peer support, reported higher levels of program benefit, workplace support, and positive leadership style, and lower program burden compared to practitioners who were non-sustainers.

  10. Nursing students' perception of academic support in the practicum: Development of a reliable and valid measurement instrument. (United States)

    Arribas-Marín, Juan; Hernández-Franco, Vicente; Plumed-Moreno, Calixto

    The importance of practicum training in health sciences disciplines places prominence on the academic support received by students in this learning environment, both due to its leverage over their perceived level of satisfaction of academic proficiency as well as its impact on their academic performance. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale which facilitates the evaluation of academic support perceived by nursing students during their practicum. The sample is made up of 710 students from three academic levels of the Bachelor's Degree in Nursing. An instrument to evaluate the level of academic support perceived by the students was developed and validated. Subsequently, a measurement model of the dimensions which comprise the academic support in the practicum was created. The Academic Support in the Practicum Scale demonstrated high internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha value=0.913. The validation of the measurement instrument was carried out using confirmatory factor analysis and multi-sample analysis techniques, which presented positive goodness-of-fit indices. The developed tool has shown sufficient validity and high internal consistency. Its adequate psychometric properties lead to the conclusion that the scale provides a reliable and valid measurement of academic support perceived by students during their placement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Wind Measurements to support Offshore Wind Parks (United States)

    Schneiderhan, T.; Lehner, S.; Horstmann, J.; Koch, W.; Schulz-Stellenfleth, J.


    In all countries with shallow coastal waters and a strong mean wind speed offshore wind parks are planned and built. The fast development of wind energy production in Europe led to an installation of more than 18 000 MW by the end of the year 2001. The installed offshore power up to date is about 100 MW. In the near future many projects for wind farms with an output of more than 5000 MW are planned. Some of these projects are already under construction. Offshore wind parks are showing a big potential for future energy production and solving ecological problems in reducing the CO^2 output. The construction and maintenance of offshore wind parks has to face the tough environmental conditions of the open sea resulting extensive maintenance and money. Therefore reliable forecast in particular of the wind and the ocean wave fields is essential. Space borne SAR data as acquired by the ERS satellites or the new ENVISAT satellite, launched in March 2002, provide two dimensional wind fields with a sub-kilometre resolution and a coverage of up to 500 by 500 km in the wide swath mode. They are thus ideally suited to investigate the spatial fine structure like e.g. turbulence in the wake of wind parks, which is an important factor in the optimal siting of wind farms. Due to their high coverage and resolution SAR data can provide information on the impact of the single turbines on the wind field experienced by the neighbouring turbines as well as the effect of the whole wind park on the local climate. This study shows the potential of two dimensional high resolution wind fields measured with space borne synthetic aperture radar to support the construction and operation of wind farms. The data can be used to minimize fatigue loading due to wind gusts as well as to provide short term power forecasts in order to optimise the power output. Examples of wind fields around the already existing offshore wind parks Utgrunden (South of Sweden) and Horns Rev (West of Denmark) and the

  12. Perceptions of the role of general practice and practical support measures for carers of stroke survivors: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Ruth


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Informal carers frequently suffer adverse consequences from caring. General practice teams are well positioned to support them. However, what carers of stroke survivors want and expect from general practice, and the practical support measures they might like, remain largely unexplored. The aims of this study are twofold. Firstly it explores both the support stroke carers would like from general practice and their reactions to the community based support proposed in the New Deal. Secondly, perceptions of a general practice team are investigated covering similar topics to carer interviews but from their perspective. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 stroke carers and 10 members of a general practice team. Carers' experiences and expectations of general practice and opinions of support measures from recent government policy were explored. General practice professionals were asked about their perceived role and their perceptions of carers' support needs. Interviews were content analysed. Results Carers' expectations of support from general practice were low and they neither received nor expected much support for themselves. General practice was seen as reactive primarily because of time constraints. Some carers would appreciate emotional support but others did not want additional services. Responses to recent policy initiatives were mixed with carers saying these might benefit other carers but not themselves. General practice professionals' opinions were broadly similar. They recognise carers' support needs but see their role as reactive, focussed on stroke survivors, rather than carers. Caring was recognised as challenging. Providing emotional support and referral were seen as important but identification of carers was considered difficult. Time constraints limit their support. Responses to recent policy initiatives were positive. Conclusions Carers' expectations of support from general practice for

  13. Acceleration and support post deformation measurements during surface and tunnel transport of a LHC Short Straight Section

    CERN Document Server

    Capatina, O; CERN. Geneva. TS Department


    This technical note is a complement to the technical note [1]. The former technical note dealt with the experimental modal analysis and the road transport with transport restraints and special suspension. The present note describes the measured accelerations and support post deformations during road transport at reduced speed without end restraints or special suspension. This note also reports the accelerations and support post deformations during handling and tunnel transport with the dedicated tunnel vehicle. The measured accelerations are compared with the specified acceleration limits.

  14. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeck, Marcus Matheus Johannes


    In this thesis the author studied the diagnostic procedures for susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH), with special emphasis upon refining the biological diagnostic test and improving protocols and guidelines for investigation of MH susceptibility. MH is a pharmacogenetic disease of skeletal

  15. Genetic linkage analysis supports the presence of two susceptibility loci for alcoholism and heavy drinking on chromosome 1p22.1-11.2 and 1q21.3-24.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis David


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to confirm a previous finding of linkage to alcoholism on chromosome 1 we have carried out a genetic linkage study. Methods DNA from eighteen families, densely affected by alcoholism, was used to genotype a set of polymorphic microsatellite markers at loci approximately 10 centimorgans apart spanning the short arm and part of the long arm of chromosome 1. Linkage analyses were performed using the classical lod score and a model-free method. Three different definitions of affection status were defined, these were 1. Heavy Drinking (HD where affected subjects drank more than the Royal College of Psychiatrists recommended weekly amount. 2. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for alcoholism (RDCA 3. Alcohol Dependence Syndrome (ADS as defined by Edwards and Gross (1976 and now incorporated into ICD10 and DSMIV. Results Linkage analyses with the markers D1S1588, D1S2134, D1S1675 covering the cytogenetic region 1p22.1-11.2 all gave positive two point and multipoint lods with a maximum lod of 1.8 at D1S1588 (1p22.1 for the RDCA definition of alcoholism. Another lod of 1.8 was found with D1S1653 in the region 1q21.3-24.2 using the HD affection model. Conclusion These results both support the presence of linkage in the 1p22.1-11.2 region which was previously implicated by the USA Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA study and also suggest the presence of another susceptibility locus at 1q21.3-24.2.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞUTEU Marius


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to accurately and quickly identify the faults of the tables and supports on which the embroidery machines are placed through vibrations measuring method. Vibrations measurements on Happy embroidery machine were performed at S.C. CONFIDEX S.R.L Oradea. A FFT spectrum analyzer Impaq was used, made by Benstone Instruments Inc –SUA. The measurements were performed in order to seek the role and importance of the rigidity of embroidery machine supports for a better and more efficient performance of the machine. Before performing these measurements was determined the optimal operating mode of the embroidery machine. The vibration measurements were performed in each measuring point, by installing a vibration sensor on the three directions of the Cartesian coordinates system: axial (X, horizontal (Y, vertical (Z. In the present paper is shown only the measuring direction Z (sensor mounting direction and advance of the material on x direction (the embroidery direction this is the most relevant direction, as on this part the embroidery is executed. After performing these vibration measurements on the HAPPY embroidery machine, previously mounted on a big table, after that mounted on a smaller table and a less rigid base. The same vibrations measurements were performed and it was noticed that it is mandatory to position the machine on a big table and a stable base because it will influence both the reliability and the working regime of the machine.

  17. Measures to support the development of organic farming in the EU and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roljević-Nikolić Svetlana


    Full Text Available Aim of this paper work is analyzing the situation in the sector of organic agriculture, as well as system of support that this production provides in the European Union and Serbia. Organic farming shows a dynamic process of growth and development, especially in economically developed countries. In the past ten years, the area under organic production in the EU increased by 70%, the number of certified producers increased by 60%, while the total market value doubled. On the other hand, the growth and development of organic agriculture in Serbia is very slow. Currently, the area under organic production accounted for only 0.4% of total utilized agricultural area, while in this mode of food production certified 0.3% of the total number of farms. Intensive growth of organic farming in the EU provides a stable support both in terms of rate and financial resources, while in Serbia has been changed not only amount of support from year to year but also types of support. On this basis, it can be concluded that a stable government support is crucial for boosting growth and improving the sector of organic agriculture.

  18. An interdisciplinary framework for measuring and supporting adherence in HIV prevention trials of ARV-based vaginal rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M MacQueen


    Full Text Available Introduction: Product adherence and its measurement have emerged as a critical challenge in the evaluation of new HIV prevention technologies. Long-acting ARV-based vaginal rings may simplify use instructions and require less user behaviour, thereby facilitating adherence. One ARV-based ring is in efficacy trials and others, including multipurpose rings, are in the pipeline. Participant motivations, counselling support and measurement challenges during ring trials must still be addressed. In previous HIV prevention trials, this has been done largely using descriptive and post-hoc methods that are highly variable and minimally evaluated. We outline an interdisciplinary framework for systematically investigating promising strategies to support product uptake and adherence, and to measure adherence in the context of randomized, blinded clinical trials. Discussion: The interdisciplinary framework highlights the dual use of adherence measurement (i.e. to provide feedback during trial implementation and to inform interpretation of trial findings and underscores the complex pathways that connect measurement, adherence support and enacted adherence behaviour. Three inter-related approaches are highlighted: 1 adherence support – sequential efforts to define motivators of study product adherence and to develop, test, refine and evaluate adherence support messages; 2 self-reported psychometric measures – creation of valid and generalizable measures based in easily administered scales that capture vaginal ring use with improved predictive ability at screening, baseline and follow-up that better engage participants in reporting adherence; and 3 more objective measurement of adherence – real-time adherence monitoring and cumulative measurement to correlate adherence with overall product effectiveness through innovative designs, models and prototypes using electronic and biometric technologies to detect ring insertion and/or removal or expulsion

  19. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children (United States)

    Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Sample 1 (n=273, aged 8–12 ...

  20. Measuring the Impact of Enterprise Education and Entrepreneurship Support in Higher Education: Can Routinely Collected Data Be of Use? (United States)

    Smith, Kelly


    Policy makers and others charged with driving economic growth often assume a link between entrepreneurship education and business start-up. However, there is little by way of supporting literature in this regard, with few studies exploring impact measures that relate to actual venture creation. This paper considers two routinely collected data…

  1. Perceived Harm of Online Drug-Encouraging Messages: Third-Person Effect and Adolescents' Support for Rectifying Measures (United States)

    Leung, Wan Chi; Lo, Ven-Hwei


    This study examines third-person perceptions (TPP) of two types of online messages--antisocial messages that encourage drug abuse and prosocial messages in the youth anti-drug campaign--and their relationship with support for three types of rectifying measures: restrictive, corrective, and promotional. A survey of 778 secondary school students…

  2. Dynamic Interaction: A Measurement Development and Empirical Evaluation of Knowledge Based Systems and Web 2.0 Decision Support Mashups (United States)

    Beemer, Brandon Alan


    The research presented in this dissertation focuses on the organizational and consumer need for knowledge based support in unstructured domains, by developing a measurement scale for dynamic interaction. Addressing this need is approached and evaluated from two different perspectives. The first approach is the development of Knowledge Based…

  3. Measuring young children's perceptions of support, control, and maintenance in their own social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boosman, K.P.A.; Van der Meulen, Matty; Van Geert, P. L. C.; Jackson, A.E.


    Thirty-eight children (aged 3;7-7;6) and one of their parents took part in a study concerning children perceptions of their social networks. The study made use of a newly developed instrument-the Support, Control and Maintenance Pictures Interview (SCAMPI). The SCAMPI offers an individualized

  4. Objective Versus Subjective Measurement of Stress and Social Support: Combat-Related Reactions. (United States)

    Solomon, Zahava; And Others


    Studied combat intensity, social support, and related stress reactions among soldiers who fought in the 1982 Israeli-Lebanon War, comparing those who experienced combat stress reaction (N=382) and those who did not (N=344). Subjective indicators were found to be stronger predictors than were objective indicators. Combat stress reaction was clearly…

  5. Measuring Social Support and School Belonging in Black/African American and White Children (United States)

    Wegmann, Kate M.


    Objective: To determine the suitability of the Elementary School Success Profile for Children (ESSP-C) for assessment and comparison of social support and school belonging between Black/African American and White students. Methods: Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis and invariance testing were conducted to determine the ESSP-C's validity…

  6. Measuring the Effectiveness of a Mathematics Support Service: An Email Survey (United States)

    Gillard, Jonathan; Robathan, Kirsty; Wilson, Robert


    Over the last decade the "mathematics problem" (students lacking basic mathematical skills on entry into higher education), and proposed solutions of this problem have been widely debated. One method to help combat this issue has been the introduction of mathematics support centres across higher education institutions. This article describes the…

  7. Creative Ideation Meets Relational Support: Measuring Links between These Factors in Early Adolescence (United States)

    Anderson, Ross C.; Pitts, Christine; Smolkowski, Keith


    This study examines measurement of creative ideational behaviors alongside factors of student engagement that may play a role in the development of students' creative potential during early adolescence in school. Two studies used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, cross-validation, and invariance testing of 2 extant measures with…

  8. Implant-supported mandibular removable partial dentures; patient-based outcome measures in relation to implant position. (United States)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Kerdijk, Wouter; Meijer, Henny J A; Cune, Marco S


    To assess the benefits of implant support to Removable Partial Dentures (RPD) in patients with a bilateral free-ending situation in the mandible and to determine the most favorable implant position: the premolar (PM) or the molar (M) region. Thirty subjects with a bilateral unbounded posterior saddle received 2 PM and 2M implants. A new RPD was placed. Implant support was provided 3 months later. Two PM implants supported the RPD. After 3 months the 2M implants were used or vice versa. Outcome measures included oral health related quality of life (OHIP-NL49), general health status (SF-36), contentment assessed on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the number of hours that the RPD was worn. Data were collected prior to treatment, 3 months after having functioned with a new RPD and after 3 and 6 months with implant support. Finally, patients expressed their preferred implant position. The general health status (SF-36) was not influenced. OHIP-NL49 values and mean wearing-time were statistical significantly more favorable for ISRPD's, regardless of the implant position. Per day, the ISRPD's were worn 2-3h more than the unsupported new RPD. Patients' expectations were met as the VAS-scores of anticipated and realized contentment did not reach a statistical significant level (p>0.05). VAS scores for ISRPD's with M implant support were higher than for PM implant support. Finally, 56.7% of subjects preferred the M implant support, 13.3% expressed no preference and 30% opted for PM implant support. Mandibular implant support favorably influences oral health related patient-based outcome measures in patients with a bilateral free-ending situation. The majority of patients prefer the implant support to be in the molar region. Patients with a bilateral free-ending situation in the mandible opposed by a maxillary denture benefit from implant support to their mandibular removable partial denture. Most patients prefer this support to be in the molar region. Copyright © 2016

  9. Anomalous diamagnetic susceptibility in 13-atom platinum nanocluster superatoms. (United States)

    Roduner, Emil; Jensen, Christopher; van Slageren, Joris; Rakoczy, Rainer A; Larlus, Oliver; Hunger, Michael


    We are used to being able to predict diamagnetic susceptibilities χD to a good approximation in atomic increments since there is normally little dependence on the chemical environment. Surprisingly, we find from SQUID magnetization measurements that the χD per Pt atom of zeolite-supported Pt13 nanoclusters exceeds that of Pt(2+) ions by a factor of 37-50. The observation verifies an earlier theoretical prediction. The phenomenon can be understood nearly quantitatively on the basis of a simple expression for diamagnetic susceptibility and the superatom nature of the 13-atom near-spherical cluster. The two main contributions come from ring currents in the delocalized hydride shell and from cluster molecular orbitals hosting the Pt 5d and Pt 6s electrons. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Natural Hazard Susceptibility Assessment for Road Planning Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis. (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline S J; Kalantari, Zahra; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Lyon, Steve W


    Inadequate infrastructural networks can be detrimental to society if transport between locations becomes hindered or delayed, especially due to natural hazards which are difficult to control. Thus determining natural hazard susceptible areas and incorporating them in the initial planning process, may reduce infrastructural damages in the long run. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgments for assessing natural hazard susceptibility through a spatial multi-criteria analysis approach using hydrological, geological, and land use factors. To utilize spatial multi-criteria analysis for decision support, an analytic hierarchy process was adopted where expert judgments were evaluated individually and in an aggregated manner. The estimates of susceptible areas were then compared with the methods weighted linear combination using equal weights and factor interaction method. Results showed that inundation received the highest susceptibility. Using expert judgment showed to perform almost the same as equal weighting where the difference in susceptibility between the two for inundation was around 4%. The results also showed that downscaling could negatively affect the susceptibility assessment and be highly misleading. Susceptibility assessment through spatial multi-criteria analysis is useful for decision support in early road planning despite its limitation to the selection and use of decision rules and criteria. A natural hazard spatial multi-criteria analysis could be used to indicate areas where more investigations need to be undertaken from a natural hazard point of view, and to identify areas thought to have higher susceptibility along existing roads where mitigation measures could be targeted after in-situ investigations.

  11. Natural Hazard Susceptibility Assessment for Road Planning Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline S. J.; Kalantari, Zahra; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Lyon, Steve W.


    Inadequate infrastructural networks can be detrimental to society if transport between locations becomes hindered or delayed, especially due to natural hazards which are difficult to control. Thus determining natural hazard susceptible areas and incorporating them in the initial planning process, may reduce infrastructural damages in the long run. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgments for assessing natural hazard susceptibility through a spatial multi-criteria analysis approach using hydrological, geological, and land use factors. To utilize spatial multi-criteria analysis for decision support, an analytic hierarchy process was adopted where expert judgments were evaluated individually and in an aggregated manner. The estimates of susceptible areas were then compared with the methods weighted linear combination using equal weights and factor interaction method. Results showed that inundation received the highest susceptibility. Using expert judgment showed to perform almost the same as equal weighting where the difference in susceptibility between the two for inundation was around 4%. The results also showed that downscaling could negatively affect the susceptibility assessment and be highly misleading. Susceptibility assessment through spatial multi-criteria analysis is useful for decision support in early road planning despite its limitation to the selection and use of decision rules and criteria. A natural hazard spatial multi-criteria analysis could be used to indicate areas where more investigations need to be undertaken from a natural hazard point of view, and to identify areas thought to have higher susceptibility along existing roads where mitigation measures could be targeted after in-situ investigations.

  12. A comparison sample validation of "your workplace": an instrument to measure perceived alcohol support and consequences from the work environment. (United States)

    Rice, C; Longabaugh, R; Stout, R L


    This paper addresses the psychometric properties of Your Workplace (YWP), an instrument developed to measure perceived influence of workplace norms and attitudes on alcohol involvement and the experience of adverse consequences. Data were collected from a large, geographically dispersed sample of aftercare and outpatients recruited for a multisite clinical trial of alcoholism treatments, Project MATCH. Administration of YWP at the baseline assessment was restricted to workforce participants. A confirmatory factor analysis addressed instrument structure. Internal consistency and concurrent association between measures of general social support, alcohol specific support, and alcohol involvement were examined. YWP scales were found to have adequate internal consistency reliability. Correlation between YWP scales and concurrent measures of alcohol involvement were among the strongest found. Identification of workplace influences on alcohol involvement allows refined assessment and fosters a comprehensive approach to treatment of alcoholism.

  13. Patient Care and Support Measures Overcome Reluctance to Initiate New Regimen Containing Enfuvirtide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Trottier


    Full Text Available Patients can be resistant to initiation of enfuvirtide therapy because of concerns about self-injection and related issues. Because the introduction of a new drug class can substantially enhance the efficacy of an antiretroviral regimen, supporting the patient in the introduction of enfuvirtide, a safe and efficacious agent in a new class, offers therapeutic benefits. In the present patient, who showed resistance to all three of the major antiretroviral drug classes, enfuvirtide was successfully introduced with clinic and peer support group assistance. The patient’s acceptance was enhanced by the use of a needle-free injection system (Biojector, with minimal side effects and significantly improved virological and immunological control.

  14. Constructing indices representing supportiveness of the physical environment for walking using the Rasch measurement model


    Pikora Terri J; Bulsara Max; Mâsse Louise C; McCormack Gavin R; Giles-Corti Billie


    Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to use the Rasch model to 1) assess the psychometric properties of a physical environmental audit instrument and 2) to develop indices of interrelated environmental attributes that summarize environmental supportiveness for walking. Methods A set of items were derived representing two conceptual physical environmental constructs: 1) functional/safety, and; 2) aesthetics. Ad hoc criteria based on point-biserial and Rasch-based fit statistic...

  15. Measuring and Supporting Pre-Service Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Towards Computers, Teaching, and Technology Integration


    Kiili, Carita; Kauppinen, Merja; Coiro, Julie; Utriainen, Jukka


    This paper reports on two studies designed to examine pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs. Study I investigated the measurement properties of a self-efficacy beliefs questionnaire comprising scales for computer self-efficacy, teacher self-efficacy, and self-efficacy towards technology integration. In Study I, 200 pre-service teachers completed the self-efficacy questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analyses resulted in a modified measurement model consisting of the three hypothesized sel...

  16. The evidence supporting methods of tooth width measurement: Part I. Vernier calipers to stereophotogrammetry. (United States)

    Naidu, Devan; Freer, Terrence J


    Measuring tooth widths is a key component of orthodontic treatment planning. Over recent decades, many methods have been proposed to achieve this purpose. The current review highlights and describes the initial techniques. The evidence behind their use is presented along with a brief discussion of their benefits and shortfalls. With knowledge and understanding of the accuracy and limitations of the various measurement methods, the clinician may be better informed and therefore able to select the most appropriate method for clinical practice.

  17. Development of Decision Support Process for Building Energy Conservation Measures and Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Eun Choi


    Full Text Available As policies for energy efficiency of buildings are being actively implemented, building energy performance improvement is urgently required. However, in Korea, information on measures and technologies for building energy efficiency is dispersed and concrete methods are not established, making it difficult to apply effective measures. Therefore, it is required to apply and evaluate energy efficiency measures through database construction integrating diverse information. In this study, the energy efficiency measures in the architectural sector that satisfy domestic legal standards are built. Because of the economic evaluation is necessary for the constructed alternatives, an economic efficiency database was established. The target building was set up, and energy efficiency measures were derived. In addition, a methodology that can induce energy efficient decision making of buildings was proposed, and the energy use evaluation and the economic analysis for each of the alternatives derived from applying the methodology to the target building were carried out. Furthermore, the optimal energy efficiency measures for the target building were suggested through the application of the decision-making process.

  18. A Digital Feedback System to Support Implementation of Measurement-Based Care by School-Based Mental Health Clinicians. (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R; Pullmann, Michael D; Whitaker, Kelly; Ludwig, Kristy; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; McCauley, Elizabeth


    Evidence supports the utility of measurement-based care (MBC) to improve youth mental health outcomes, but clinicians rarely engage in MBC practices. Digital measurement feedback systems (MFS) may reflect a feasible strategy to support MBC adoption and sustainment. This pilot study was initiated to evaluate the impact of a MFS and brief consultation supports to facilitate MBC uptake and sustainment among mental health clinicians in the education sector, the most common mental health service delivery setting for youth. Following an initial training in MBC, 14 clinicians were randomized to either a digital MFS and brief consultation supports or control. Baseline ratings of MBC attitudes, skill, and use were collected. In addition, daily assessment ratings tracked 2 core MBC practices (i.e., assessment tool administration, provision of feedback) over a 6-month follow-up period. Clinicians in the MFS condition demonstrated rapid increases in both MBC practices, whereas the control group did not significantly change. For clinicians in the MFS group, consultation effects were significant for feedback and approached significance for administration. Over the follow-up period, average decreases in the current study were moderate with only 1 of the 2 outcome variables (administration) decreasing significantly. Inspection of individual clinician trajectories revealed substantial within-group trend variation. MFS may represent an effective MBC implementation strategy beyond initial training, although individual clinician response is variable. Identifying feasible and impactful implementation strategies is critical given the ability of MBC to support precision health care.

  19. Implementation and Support Measures for Mixed-age Teaching in Elementary and Junior High Schools: A Multiple Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yi Lin


    Full Text Available As a result of low birth rate and population decline, mixed-age teaching is critical for accommodating the needs of classes with fewer students and for effectively integrating and utilizing school resources to provide students with adaptive learning opportunities. Through literature analysis, classroom observations, and interviews, the underlying reasons for mixed age teaching, methods of implementation and support measures employed by schools are explored. The findings of this study are as follows: 1 The justifications for mixed-age teaching are based on educational philosophy and practical considerations; 2 mixed-age teaching is implemented through four approaches; namely, inquiry-based instruction, team teaching, cooperative learning, and differentiated instruction; and 3 measures for supporting mixed-age teaching can be analyzed and discussed from three aspects: teachers’ professional development, curriculum planning, and school administration support. Overall, implementing mixed-age teaching requires further support on aspects of pre-service teacher education, professional development, curriculum planning, teaching implementation, and administrative measures. Studies on mixed-age teaching in elementary and junior high schools in Taiwan are preliminary. The results of the studies may assist the educational research community in understanding and implementing mixed-age teaching.

  20. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R; Jørgensen, Erik


    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time, introdu......Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time......, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes...

  1. Fidelity susceptibility in the quantum Rabi model (United States)

    Wei, Bo-Bo; Lv, Xiao-Chen


    Quantum criticality usually occurs in many-body systems. Recently it was shown that the quantum Rabi model, which describes a two-level atom coupled to a single model cavity field, presents quantum phase transitions from a normal phase to a superradiate phase when the ratio between the frequency of the two-level atom and the frequency of the cavity field extends to infinity. In this work, we study quantum phase transitions in the quantum Rabi model from the fidelity susceptibility perspective. We found that the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility present universal finite-size scaling behaviors near the quantum critical point of the Rabi model if the ratio between frequency of the two-level atom and frequency of the cavity field is finite. From the finite-size scaling analysis of the fidelity susceptibility, we found that the adiabatic dimension of the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility of fourth order in the Rabi model are 4 /3 and 2, respectively. Meanwhile, the correlation length critical exponent and the dynamical critical exponent in the quantum critical point of the Rabi model are found to be 3 /2 and 1 /3 , respectively. Since the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility are the moments of the quantum noise spectrum which are directly measurable by experiments in linear response regime, the scaling behavior of the fidelity susceptibility in the Rabi model could be tested experimentally. The simple structure of the quantum Rabi model paves the way for experimentally observing the universal scaling behavior of the fidelity susceptibility at a quantum phase transition.

  2. Assessment of the potential REDD+ as a new international support measure for GHG reduction (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Ahn, J.; Kim, H.


    As part of the Paris Agreement, the mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) has high potential to simultaneously contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation through forest conservation and poverty alleviation. Some of 162 Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) submitted by 189 countries representing approximately 98.8% of global GHG emissions include not only unconditional mitigation goals but also conditional goals based on the condition of the provision of international support such as finance, technology transfer and capacity building. Considering REDD+ as one of the main mechanisms to support such work, this study selected ten countries from among Korea's 24 ODA priority partners, taking into consideration their conditional INDC targets alongside sectoral quantified targets such as land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF). The ten selected countries are Indonesia, Cambodia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Ghana, Senegal, Colombia, Peru and Paraguay. Of these countries, most REDD+ projects have been conducted in Indonesia mainly due to the fact that 85% of the country's total GHG emissions are caused by forest conversion and peatland degradation. Therefore, GHG reduction rates and associated projected costs of the Indonesia's REDD+ projects were analyzed in order to offer guidance on the potential of REDD+ to contribute to other INDCs' conditional goals. The result showed that about 0.9 t CO2 ha-1 could be reduced at a cost of USD 23 per year. Applying this estimation to the Cambodian case, which has submitted a conditional INDC target of increasing its forest coverage by 60% (currently 57%) by 2030, suggests that financial support of USD 12.8 million would reduce CO2 emissions by about 5.1 million tones by increasing forest coverage. As there is currently no consideration of LULUCF in Cambodia's INDC, this result represents the opportunity for an additional contribution to

  3. ICT support for measuring customer metrics defined by the Balanced Scorecard method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Dařena


    Full Text Available In the paper an approach to support of strategic management process using the Balanced Scorecard method is discussed. The main focus is primarily directed to the customer perspective as the most important determining factor of today‘s strategic management. The article suggests general framework for construction of individual performance indicators from this field independently on particular implementation of existing information system in the organization. Methods of gaining necessary information from organization‘s database and from organization‘s environment using customer research are considered.

  4. Spectrum Measurement and Analysis of TV Band in Support of Cognitive Radio Operation in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Kishor P.; Skouby, Knud Erik; Prasad, Ramjee


    ) Cognitive Radio operation in TV band. Also we have stressed on the need of quantitative analysis of TVWSs availability and compatibility studies for protection of incumbent services for CR access of TVWSs in India. Also this paper reviews the state-of-the-art in standardization of cognitive access to TVWS.......TV White Spaces constitutes the major portion of the VHF and UHF TV band which is geographically unused after digital switchover. The most important regulatory trend in the context of Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) is the Cognitive access of TV white Spaces. Through spectrum measurement campaign we...... have estimated the spectrum utilization of TV band in Pune, India. We have designed the measurement set up and methodology for the measurement campaign. Our spectrum occupancy analysis provides the realistic view on the spectrum opportunities in India for (i) spectrum refarming of TV band; (ii...

  5. Performance measurement in the UK construction industry and its role in supporting the application of lean construction concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Sarhan


    Full Text Available Performance measurement has received substantial attention from researchers and the construction industry over the past two decades. This study sought to assess UK practitioners’ awareness of the importance of the use of appropriate performance measures and its role in supporting the application of Lean Construction (LC concepts. To enable the study to achieve its objectives, a review of a range of measurements developed to evaluate project performance including those devoted to support LC efforts was conducted. Consequently a questionnaire survey was developed and sent to 198 professionals in the UK construction industry as well as a small sample of academics with an interest in LC. Results indicated that although practitioners recognise the importance of the selection of non-financial performance measures, it has not been properly and widely implemented. The study identified the most common techniques used by UK construction organisations for performance measurement, and ranked a number of non-financial key performance indicators as significant. Some professed to have embraced the Last Planner System methodology as a means for performance measurement and organisational learning, while further questioning suggested otherwise. It was also suggested that substance thinking amongst professionals could be a significant hidden barrier that militates against the successful implementation of LC.

  6. Business Performance Measurements in Asset Management with the Support of Big Data Technologies (United States)

    Campos, Jaime; Sharma, Pankaj; Jantunen, Erkki; Baglee, David; Fumagalli, Luca


    The paper reviews the performance measurement in the domain of interest. Important data in asset management are further, discussed. The importance and the characteristics of today's ICTs capabilities are also mentioned in the paper. The role of new concepts such as big data and data mining analytical technologies in managing the performance measurements in asset management are discussed in detail. The authors consequently suggest the use of the modified Balanced Scorecard methodology highlighting both quantitative and qualitative aspects, which is crucial for optimal use of the big data approach and technologies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime CAMPOS


    Full Text Available The paper reviews the performance measurement in the domain of interest. Important data in asset management are further, discussed. The importance and the characteristics of today’s ICTs capabilities are also mentioned in the paper. The role of new concepts such as big data and data mining analytical technologies in managing the performance meas-urements in asset management are discussed in detail. The authors consequently suggest the use of the modified Bal-anced Scorecard methodology highlighting both quantitative and qualitative aspects, which is crucial for optimal use of the big data approach and technologies.

  8. Doppler Monte Carlo simulations of light scattering in tissue to support laser-Doppler perfusion measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mul, F.F.M.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Greve, Jan


    Doppler Monte Carlo (DMC) simulations of the transport of light through turbid media, e.g., tissue, can be used to predict or to interpret measurements of the blood perfusion of tissue by laser‐Doppler perfusion flowmetry. We describe the physical and mathematical background of Doppler Monte Carlo

  9. Measuring and Supporting Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy towards Computers, Teaching, and Technology Integration (United States)

    Killi, Carita; Kauppinen, Merja; Coiro, Julie; Utriainen, Jukka


    This paper reports on two studies designed to examine pre-service teachers' self-efficacy beliefs. Study I investigated the measurement properties of a self-efficacy beliefs questionnaire comprising scales for computer self-efficacy, teacher self-efficacy, and self-efficacy towards technology integration. In Study I, 200 pre-service teachers…

  10. Marine boundary layer investigations in the False Bay, supported by optical refraction and scintillation measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.N. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Benoist, K.W.; Gunter, W.H.; Vrahimis, G.; October, F.J.


    Knowledge on the marine boundary layer is of importance for the prediction of the optical image quality obtained from long range targets. One property of the boundary layer, that can be studied rather easily by means of optical refraction measurements, is the vertical temperature profile. This

  11. Fuzzy Support System for Total Hip Arthroplasty Stem by Ultrasonic Intraoperative Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Yagi


    Full Text Available This paper describes a fuzzy system of stem implantation on total hip arthroplasty by an ultrasonic device. The system can perform automatic and accurate assessment in the surgery. In this system, we employ a single ultrasonic probe whose center frequency is 1,000 Hz. We detect the acoustic signals when knocking the inserted stem with a hammer. We then have a correlation between the degree of tightening and the attenuation time of acoustic signal. That is, the higher tightened degree implies shorter attenuation period. The support system selects the most suitable stem size by fuzzy inference with respect to the attenuation time and its difference time from correct stem to one larger size stem which dynamically adapts to each patient. As a result, we successfully determined the suitable stem in comparison to the results of the practical surgery.

  12. Full Scale Measurements of the Hydro-Elastic Response of Large Container Ships for Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    and slender bow and stern sections) and their normal cargo loading condition, container ships are typically operated in a still-water hogging condition (tension in deck and compression in the bottom structure). The wave-induced bending moment is added to the still-water bending moment, which, together...... frequency with the waves. Together with the relatively high design speed and often pronounced bow flare this makes large container ship more sensitive to slamming and, consequently, the effects of wave-induced hull girder vibrations. From full scale strain measurements of individual, measured hull girder......, but, in addition to ship size, speed and bow flare angle are also believed to be important factors contributing to the hull girder vibrations. The hull girder vibrational response is found to be dominated by the 2-node vertical bending mode. No torsional vibrations are found but torsion may, however...

  13. Sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees (Apis mellifera). (United States)

    Retschnig, Gina; Williams, Geoffrey R; Mehmann, Marion M; Yañez, Orlando; de Miranda, Joachim R; Neumann, Peter


    Sex-related differences in susceptibility to pathogens are a common phenomenon in animals. In the eusocial Hymenoptera the two female castes, workers and queens, are diploid and males are haploid. The haploid susceptibility hypothesis predicts that haploid males are more susceptible to pathogen infections compared to females. Here we test this hypothesis using adult male (drone) and female (worker) honey bees (Apis mellifera), inoculated with the gut endoparasite Nosema ceranae and/or black queen cell virus (BQCV). These pathogens were chosen due to previously reported synergistic interactions between Nosema apis and BQCV. Our data do not support synergistic interactions between N. ceranae and BQCV and also suggest that BQCV has limited effect on both drone and worker health, regardless of the infection level. However, the data clearly show that, despite lower levels of N. ceranae spores in drones than in workers, Nosema-infected drones had both a higher mortality and a lower body mass than non-infected drones, across all treatment groups, while the mortality and body mass of worker bees were largely unaffected by N. ceranae infection, suggesting that drones are more susceptible to this pathogen than workers. In conclusion, the data reveal considerable sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees and highlight the importance of ultimate measures for determining susceptibility, such as mortality and body quality, rather than mere infection levels.

  14. Sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Retschnig

    Full Text Available Sex-related differences in susceptibility to pathogens are a common phenomenon in animals. In the eusocial Hymenoptera the two female castes, workers and queens, are diploid and males are haploid. The haploid susceptibility hypothesis predicts that haploid males are more susceptible to pathogen infections compared to females. Here we test this hypothesis using adult male (drone and female (worker honey bees (Apis mellifera, inoculated with the gut endoparasite Nosema ceranae and/or black queen cell virus (BQCV. These pathogens were chosen due to previously reported synergistic interactions between Nosema apis and BQCV. Our data do not support synergistic interactions between N. ceranae and BQCV and also suggest that BQCV has limited effect on both drone and worker health, regardless of the infection level. However, the data clearly show that, despite lower levels of N. ceranae spores in drones than in workers, Nosema-infected drones had both a higher mortality and a lower body mass than non-infected drones, across all treatment groups, while the mortality and body mass of worker bees were largely unaffected by N. ceranae infection, suggesting that drones are more susceptible to this pathogen than workers. In conclusion, the data reveal considerable sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees and highlight the importance of ultimate measures for determining susceptibility, such as mortality and body quality, rather than mere infection levels.

  15. Electric Conduction in Solids: a Pedagogical Approach Supported by Laboratory Measurements and Computer Modelling Environments (United States)

    Bonura, A.; Capizzo, M. C.; Fazio, C.; Guastella, I.


    In this paper we present a pedagogic approach aimed at modeling electric conduction in semiconductors, built by using NetLogo, a programmable modeling environment for building and exploring multi-agent systems. `Virtual experiments' are implemented to confront predictions of different microscopic models with real measurements of electric properties of matter, such as resistivity. The relations between these electric properties and other physical variables, like temperature, are, then, analyzed.

  16. Two Dimensional Scattering Analysis of Data-Linked Support Strings for Bistatic Measurement Systems (United States)


    track the aircraft before engaging. In the case of the AAA system, the targets position, velocity, and direction are used to aim the guns . SAM frequency (RF) cable which feeds the received RF to the receiver for measurement. Because it is a shielded coaxial cable, its clutter contribution...878–887, Jun 2002. ISSN 0018-926X. 23. Swarner, W. and Jr. Peters, L. “Radar cross sections of dielectric or plasma coated conducting spheres and

  17. Fabrication of prototype for measuring the exhaled breath temperature (EBT) to support detection of asthma (United States)

    Harnawan, A. A.; Mariati; Fahrudin, A.; Assegaf, A.


    Recently, EBT has been proven as the marker of airways inflammation like asthma and proposed as the non-invasive tool. Although EBT device has already been made but this device is rarely used for patients in Indonesia. The aim of this study is to develop a prototype which accurately measures EBT and is comfortably used by patients including children. This prototype was made using SHT11 as a sensor of EBT which is integrated on a thermal flask 0.5L. This flask filled up patient breath and the temperature of air breath was measured. The EBT of twelve healthy samples and seven samples with asthma was examined using this prototype, the measurement was done within three minutes for all of them. The test results of EBT on healthy samples obtained the median is 33.9°C within of 33.0°C - 34.7°C and EBT on asthma samples obtained median is 35.0°C within the range 34.9°C - 36.0°C.

  18. Domestic support and border measures: some instruments to reduce vulnerability of food security to trade in developing countries


    Laroche Dupraz, Catherine; Huchet Bourdon, Marilyne


    The novelty of this paper is to use national rate of assistance (NRA) to assess the impact of domestic support on food security vulnerability to trade. We first build a theoretical framework linking the vulnerability of food security to trade and national policy intervention in agriculture. Second, we measure the impact of national policy responses to 2008 price surge using the NRA on importable food products for 42 countries over the period 1995-2010. Our results suggest that most developing...

  19. Policy Measures to Support Palliative Care at Home: A Cross-Country Case Comparison in Three European Countries. (United States)

    Maetens, Arno; Beernaert, Kim; Deliens, Luc; Aubry, Régis; Radbruch, Lukas; Cohen, Joachim


    The proportion of people in need of palliative care worldwide is rising, and the majority wish to receive this care at home. Many countries have created policy measures to support palliative care at home. To list and compare existing policy measures designed to support palliative care at home in addition to available primary care services in Belgium, France, and Germany. A cross-country case comparison based on expert consultation, governmental policy documents, and relevant scientific literature. All three countries have policy measures that allow informal caregivers to adapt their working patterns or take leave of absence to provide care without losing employee rights; however, only Belgium offers specific paid palliative care leave. All three countries offer various allowances to people who are dying at home and their caregivers. Cost-reductions for out-of-pocket expenses are available, based on the level of care dependency in Germany and on prognosis in Belgium, but are not provided in France. Mobile home support teams exist in all three countries and are free of charge for patients and caregivers; but only in Belgium and Germany, there are specialist multidisciplinary palliative home care teams. Belgium and Germany provide respite care for palliative patients. European countries with similar contextual characteristics offer comparable policy measures to support palliative care at home in addition to the available primary care services. However, important differences exist in the criteria for access and the extent of what is offered. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurement of the Four-Point Susceptibility of an Out-of-Equilibrium Colloidal Solution of Nanoparticles Using Time-Resolved Light Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Claudio; Di Leonardo, Ricardo; ruocco, giancarlo


    The spatial fluctuations of the dynamics of a colloidal system composed of nanoparticles are probed by a novel experimental setup, which combines homodyne and heterodyne dynamic light scattering focused onto a micron-sized volume via a microscope objective. The technique is used to measure the four...

  1. Moment measurements in dynamic and quasi-static spine segment testing using eccentric compression are susceptible to artifacts based on loading configuration. (United States)

    Van Toen, Carolyn; Carter, Jarrod W; Oxland, Thomas R; Cripton, Peter A


    The tolerance of the spine to bending moments, used for evaluation of injury prevention devices, is often determined through eccentric axial compression experiments using segments of the cadaver spine. Preliminary experiments in our laboratory demonstrated that eccentric axial compression resulted in "unexpected" (artifact) moments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the static and dynamic effects of test configuration on bending moments during eccentric axial compression typical in cadaver spine segment testing. Specific objectives were to create dynamic equilibrium equations for the loads measured inferior to the specimen, experimentally verify these equations, and compare moment responses from various test configurations using synthetic (rubber) and human cadaver specimens. The equilibrium equations were verified by performing quasi-static (5 mm/s) and dynamic experiments (0.4 m/s) on a rubber specimen and comparing calculated shear forces and bending moments to those measured using a six-axis load cell. Moment responses were compared for hinge joint, linear slider and hinge joint, and roller joint configurations tested at quasi-static and dynamic rates. Calculated shear force and bending moment curves had similar shapes to those measured. Calculated values in the first local minima differed from those measured by 3% and 15%, respectively, in the dynamic test, and these occurred within 1.5 ms of those measured. In the rubber specimen experiments, for the hinge joint (translation constrained), quasi-static and dynamic posterior eccentric compression resulted in flexion (unexpected) moments. For the slider and hinge joints and the roller joints (translation unconstrained), extension ("expected") moments were measured quasi-statically and initial flexion (unexpected) moments were measured dynamically. In the cadaver experiments with roller joints, anterior and posterior eccentricities resulted in extension moments, which were unexpected and expected, for those

  2. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of gallium (United States)

    Pankey, T.


    The bulk magnetic susceptibilities of single gallium crystals and polycrystalline gallium spheres were measured at 25??C. The following anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibilities were found: a axis (-0.119??0. 001)??10-6 emu/g, b axis (-0.416??0.002)??10 -6 emu/g, and c axis (-0.229??0.001) emu/g. The susceptibility of the polycrystalline spheres, assumed to be the average value for the bulk susceptibility of gallium, was (-0.257??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at 25??C, and (-0.299??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at -196??C. The susceptibility of liquid gallium was (0.0031??0.001) ??10-6 emu/g at 30??C and 100??C. Rotational diagrams of the susceptibilities in the three orthogonal planes of the unit cell were not sinusoidal. The anisotropy in the single crystals was presumably caused by the partial overlap of Brillouin zone boundaries by the Fermi-energy surface. The large change in susceptibility associated with the change in state was attributed to the absence of effective mass influence in the liquid state. ?? 1960 The American Institute of Physics.

  3. How the design of a sleeping bag can support counter-measuring fatigue (United States)

    Imhof, Barbara; Hoheneder, Waltraut; Vogel, Kaspar; Drudi, Laura


    The paper discusses six case studies of sleeping bag design, one used by astronauts onboard the Space Shuttle and another currently being used on the ISS, which was developed by a Russian company. Two inflatable designs, one by Wubbo Ockels for ESA and one by the University of Technology in Munich in cooperation with NASA are chosen as case studies as well. Two recent designs set a new paradigm and option of sleeping in zero-g. The cut of the sleeping bag of these two design case studies allows the person to relax and sleep in the neutral body position. They were developed by Toshiroh Ikegami from Kyoto City University of Arts and astronaut Chiaki Mukai for JAXA, and by the Vienna based team LIQUIFER Systems Group in cooperation with ESA-astronaut Gerhard Thiele. Currently there is an increased interest in astronauts' and cosmonauts' sleep quality and related comfort because analysis of their sleep quality showed that sleep during long exposure to microgravity does not always ensure good recovery of cognitive and functional capabilities. Present research in the area of sleep and performance preservation include studies by the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) in Moscow and the NASA-JSC study from the Behavioral Health and Performance Element Human Research Program about improving sleep quality on ISS. In the context of the paper the operational medical challenges of sleep quality will be described in order to establish the relevance of effective sleeping bag designs to support spaceflight crewmembers' well-being.

  4. Formation and fluidity measurement of supported lipid bilayer on polyvinyl chloride membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Takuji, E-mail:; Kono, Akiteru, E-mail:; Sawada, Kazuaki [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, 441-8580 (Japan); Futagawa, Masato [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering and Head Office for the Tailor-Made and Baton-Zone Graduate Course, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, 441-8580 (Japan); Tero, Ryugo, E-mail: [Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute and Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, 441-8580 (Japan)


    We prepared an artificial lipid bilayer on a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane on a Si3N4 layer deposited on a Si wafer. We optimized the experimental condition for the fabrication of the PVC membrane, and obtained a PVC membrane with a flat and uniform surface on the scale of several hundreds of micrometer suitable for a substrate for supported lipid bilayers (SLBs). The SLB of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) was formed on the PVC membrane by the vesicle fusion method. The observation with a conventional epi-fluorescence microscope and a confocal laser scanning microscope gave geometrically uniform images of the SLB on the PVC membrane. The fluidity and the mobile fraction of the SLB was evaluated by the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching method, and compared with that on a thermally oxidized SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. The SLB on the PVC membrane contained immobile fraction ∼30%, but the diffusion in the mobile fraction was two times faster than that in the SLB on SiO{sub 2}/Si, which had little immobile fraction.

  5. Measuring molecular abundance profiles from 5 microns ground-based spectroscopy in support of JUNO investigations (United States)

    Blain, Doriann; Fouchet, Thierry; Encrenaz, Thérèse; Drossart, Pierre; Greathouse, Thomas; Orton, Glenn; Fletcher, Leigh


    We report on early results of an observational campaign to support the Juno mission. At the beginning of 2015, using TEXES (Texas Echelon cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph), mounted on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), we obtained data cubes of Jupiter in several spectral ranges between 2100 and 2200 cm-1 (4.5 - 4.7 μm) which probes the atmosphere in the 1-4 bar region, with a spectral resolution of R ≈ 7000 and an angular resolution of ≈ 1.5''. This dataset is analyzed by a code which combines a line-by-line radiative transfer model with a non-linear optimal estimation inversion method. The inversion takes into account the abundance profiles of AsH_3, CO, GeH4 and H_2O, as well as clouds contribution, in addtion to the abundance profiles of NH3 and PH_3. We will present the inverted abundance profiles, the spatial distribution of the molecular abundances, their significance for the understanding of Jupiter's atmospheric dynamics, and how this will be useful for the determination of water abundance up to 200 bars, which is one of the main objectives of the instrument MWR (MicroWave Radiometer) mounted on the Juno spacecraft. This work will also be useful to prepare the analysis of the JIRAM (Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper) 5-microns data aboard Juno.

  6. Settlement Prediction of Road Soft Foundation Using a Support Vector Machine (SVM Based on Measured Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Huiling


    Full Text Available The suppor1t vector machine (SVM is a relatively new artificial intelligence technique which is increasingly being applied to geotechnical problems and is yielding encouraging results. SVM is a new machine learning method based on the statistical learning theory. A case study based on road foundation engineering project shows that the forecast results are in good agreement with the measured data. The SVM model is also compared with BP artificial neural network model and traditional hyperbola method. The prediction results indicate that the SVM model has a better prediction ability than BP neural network model and hyperbola method. Therefore, settlement prediction based on SVM model can reflect actual settlement process more correctly. The results indicate that it is effective and feasible to use this method and the nonlinear mapping relation between foundation settlement and its influence factor can be expressed well. It will provide a new method to predict foundation settlement.

  7. Performance and efficiency of geotextile-supported erosion control measures during simulated rainfall events (United States)

    Obriejetan, Michael; Rauch, Hans Peter; Florineth, Florin


    Erosion control systems consisting of technical and biological components are widely accepted and proven to work well if installed properly with regard to site-specific parameters. A wide range of implementation measures for this specific protection purpose is existent and new, in particular technical solutions are constantly introduced into the market. Nevertheless, especially vegetation aspects of erosion control measures are frequently disregarded and should be considered enhanced against the backdrop of the development and realization of adaptation strategies in an altering environment due to climate change associated effects. Technical auxiliaries such as geotextiles typically used for slope protection (nettings, blankets, turf reinforcement mats etc.) address specific features and due to structural and material diversity, differing effects on sediment yield, surface runoff and vegetational development seem evident. Nevertheless there is a knowledge gap concerning the mutual interaction processes between technical and biological components respectively specific comparable data on erosion-reducing effects of technical-biological erosion protection systems are insufficient. In this context, an experimental arrangement was set up to study the correlated influences of geotextiles and vegetation and determine its (combined) effects on surface runoff and soil loss during simulated heavy rainfall events. Sowing vessels serve as testing facilities which are filled with top soil under application of various organic and synthetic geotextiles and by using a reliable drought resistant seed mixture. Regular vegetational monitoring as well as two rainfall simulation runs with four repetitions of each variant were conducted. Therefore a portable rainfall simulator with standardized rainfall intensity of 240 mm h-1 and three minute rainfall duration was used to stress these systems on different stages of plant development at an inclination of 30 degrees. First results show

  8. Measuring Eco-Innovation: Towards Better Policies to Support Green Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozkrut Dominik


    Full Text Available Green growth strategies thus need to be robust, what requires carefully designed tools. One of the prerequisites is the appropriate green growth measurement framework. It should allow discerning the effectiveness of policies in delivering green growth. This is where this paper tries to offer a new angle by searching for appropriate indicators that can capture different aspects of eco-innovation. Eco-innovation can be defined as innovation that results in a reduction of environmental impact. Country data from the 2008 Community Innovation Survey is used in the analysis. Dataset consist of 14 variables on environmental benefits and motivations. The aim of the presented study is to reduce the number of variables into factors to discover which of available variables form coherent subsets. It is argued here that such approach can help to construct appropriate indicators, that can capture different aspects of eco-innovation, that are crucial from the point of view of policy-making and policy evaluation.

  9. Measurement of specific heat and thermal conductivity of supported and suspended graphene by a comprehensive Raman optothermal method. (United States)

    Li, Qin-Yi; Xia, Kailun; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Yingying; Li, Qunyang; Takahashi, Koji; Zhang, Xing


    The last decade has seen the rapid growth of research on two-dimensional (2D) materials, represented by graphene, but research on their thermophysical properties is still far from sufficient owing to the experimental challenges. Herein, we report the first measurement of the specific heat of multilayer and monolayer graphene in both supported and suspended geometries. Their thermal conductivities were also simultaneously measured using a comprehensive Raman optothermal method without needing to know the laser absorption. Both continuous-wave (CW) and pulsed lasers were used to heat the samples, based on consideration of the variable laser spot radius and pulse duration as well as the heat conduction within the substrate. The error from the laser absorption was eliminated by comparing the Raman-measured temperature rises for different spot radii and pulse durations. The thermal conductivity and specific heat were extracted by analytically fitting the temperature rise ratios as a function of spot size and pulse duration, respectively. The measured specific heat was about 700 J (kg K)(-1) at room temperature, which is in accordance with theoretical predictions, and the measured thermal conductivities were in the range of 0.84-1.5 × 10(3) W (m K)(-1). The measurement method demonstrated here can be used to investigate in situ and comprehensively the thermophysical properties of many other emerging 2D materials.

  10. Breastfeeding protection, promotion, and support in the United States: a time to nudge, a time to measure. (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Chapman, Donna J


    Strong evidence-based advocacy efforts have now translated into high level political support and concrete goals for improving breastfeeding outcomes among women in the United States. In spite of this, major challenge remain for promoting, supporting and especially for protecting breastfeeding in the country. The goals of this commentary are to argue in favor of: A) Changes in the default social and environmental systems, that would allow women to implement their right to breastfeed their infants, B) A multi-level and comprehensive monitoring system to measure process and outcomes indicators in the country. Evidence-based commentary. Breastfeeding rates in the United States can improve based on a well coordinated social marketing framework. This approach calls for innovative promotion through mass media, appropriate facility based and community based support (e.g., Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, WIC-coordinated community based peer counseling), and adequate protection for working women (e.g., longer paid maternity leave, breastfeeding or breast milk extraction breaks during the working day) and women at large by adhering and enforcing the WHO ethics Code for the Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes. Sound infant feeding practices monitoring systems, which include WIC administrative food package data, are needed. Given the current high level of political support to improve breastfeeding in the United States, a window of opportunity has been opened. Establishing breastfeeding as the social norm in the USA will take time, but the global experience indicates that it can be done.

  11. Precise ground motion measurements to support multi-hazard analysis in Jakarta (United States)

    Koudogbo, Fifamè; Duro, Javier; Garcia Robles, Javier; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.


    Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia and is home to approximately 10 million people on the coast of the Java Sea. The Capital District of Jakarta (DKI) sits in the lowest lying areas of the basin. Its topography varies, with the northern part just meters above current sea level and lying on a flood plain. Subsequently, this portion of the city frequently floods. Flood events have been increasing in severity during the past decade. The February 2007 event inundated 235 Km2 (about 36%) of the city, by up to seven meters in some areas. This event affected more than 2.6 million people; the estimated financial and economic losses from this event amounted to US900 million [1][2]. Inundations continue to occur under any sustained rainfall conditions. Flood events in Jakarta are expected to become more frequent in coming years, with a shift from previously slow natural processes with low frequency to a high frequency process resulting in severe socio-economic damage. Land subsidence in Jakarta results in increased vulnerability to flooding due to the reduced gravitational capacity to channel storm flows to the sea and an increased risk of tidal flooding. It continues at increasingly alarming rates, principally caused by intensive deep groundwater abstraction [3]. Recent studies have found typical subsidence rates of 7.5-10 cm a year. In localized areas of north Jakarta subsidence in the range 15-25 cm a year is occurring which, if sustained, would result in them sinking to 4-5 m below sea level by 2025 [3]. ALTAMIRA INFORMATION, company specialized in ground motion monitoring, has developed GlobalSARTM, which combines several processing techniques and algorithms based on InSAR technology, to achieve ground motion measurements with millimetric precision and high accuracy [4]. Within the RASOR (Rapid Analysis and Spatialisation and Of Risk) project, ALTAMIRA INFORMATION will apply GlobalSARTM to assess recent land subsidence in Jakarta, based on the processing of Very High

  12. Fast measurement by infrared spectroscopy as support to woody biofuels quality determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Duca


    measurement of other important biomass parameters (e.g., ash content, high calorific value, nitrogen content, etc..

  13. [Social network and social support measures from the Pró-Saúde Study: pre-tests and pilot study]. (United States)

    Chor, D; Griep, R H; Lopes, C S; Faerstein, E


    We describe methodological steps in the selection of questions on social networks and support for a cohort study of 4,030 employees from a public university in Rio de Janeiro. First, group discussions with volunteers were conducted to explore the adequacy of related concepts. Next, questions in the Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire were submitted to standard "forward-" and "back-translation" procedures. The questions were subsequently evaluated through five stages of pre-tests and a pilot study. No question had a proportion of non-response greater than 5%. Pearson correlation coefficients between questions were distant from both zero and unity; correlation between all items and their dimension score was higher than 0.80 in most cases. Finally, Cronbach Alpha coefficients were above 0.70 within each dimension. Results suggest that social networks and support will be adequately measured and will allow for the investigation of their associations with health outcomes in a Brazilian population.

  14. Genetic susceptibility of periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Loos, B.G.


    In this systematic review, we explore and summarize the peer-reviewed literature on putative genetic risk factors for susceptibility to aggressive and chronic periodontitis. A comprehensive literature search on the PubMed database was performed using the keywords ‘periodontitis’ or ‘periodontal

  15. Fourie susceptible.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    a number of cultivars exhibited field resistance to halo blight and bacterial brown spot, all cultivars were more or less susceptible to .... Cerillos. Alubia. I. 91. 57. Kranskop. Red speckled sugar. II. 97. 63. OPS-RS1. Red speckled sugar. II. 96. 63. OPS-RS2. Red speckled sugar. I. 100. 61. OPS-RS3. Red speckled sugar. II. 97.

  16. Values for the ICECAP-Supportive Care Measure (ICECAP-SCM) for use in economic evaluation at end of life. (United States)

    Huynh, Elisabeth; Coast, Joanna; Rose, John; Kinghorn, Philip; Flynn, Terry


    End of life care may have elements of value that go beyond health. A generic measure of the benefits of end of life care could be helpful to decision makers. Such a measure, based on the capability approach, has recently been developed: the ICECAP Supportive Care Measure. This paper reports the first valuation exercise for that measure, with data from 6020 individuals collected from an on-line general population panel during June 2013. Individuals were asked to complete a stated choice experiment that combined best-worst scaling and a standard discrete choice experiment. Analysis of the best-worst data used limited dependent variable models within the random utility framework including the multinomial logit models and latent class choice model analysis. Exploratory steps were taken to determine the similarity of the best-worst and DCE data before formal testing and pooling of the two data sources. Combined data were analysed in a heteroscedastic conditional logit model adjusting for continuous scale. Two sets of tariffs were generated, one from the best-worst data capturing only main effects, and a second from the pooled data allowing for two-way interactions. Either tariff could be used in economic evaluation of interventions at the end of life, although there are advantages and disadvantages with each. This extensive valuation exercise for the ICECAP Supportive Care Measure, with a large number of members of the general public, could be complemented in the future with best-worst scaling studies amongst those experiencing the end of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a supportive care measure for economic evaluation of end-of-life care using qualitative methods. (United States)

    Sutton, Eileen J; Coast, Joanna


    An imperative to assess the economic impact of care at the end of life is emerging in response to national policy developments in a number of settings. Current focus on health benefits in economic evaluation may not appropriately capture benefits of interventions at the end of life. No instruments are available for measuring such benefits for economic evaluation of end-of-life care. To develop a descriptive system for a measure for use in economic evaluation of end-of-life care. An initial phase of in-depth interviews was conducted to develop conceptual attributes for inclusion in a measure; a second phase of semi-structured repeat interviews with a subsample of informants was carried out to clarify and confirm the final set of attributes and to develop meaningful wording for a measure. In total, 23 older people from three groups across the dying trajectory: older people (1) within the general population, (2) living in residential care and (3) receiving palliative care. Interviews suggested that the important domains to include within this framework from the perspective of those approaching the end-of-life are choice/having a say in decision-making, love and affection/being with people who care, freedom from physical suffering, freedom from emotional suffering, dignity and self-respect, support, and preparation. A full descriptive system comprising seven questions, each representing one attribute, was developed. Economic evaluation should reflect the broader benefits of end-of-life care. Although the supportive care measure developed here requires validation and valuation, it provides a substantial step forward in appropriate economic evaluation of end-of-life care.

  18. Impact of Sport Context and Support on the Use of a Self-Report Measure for Athlete Monitoring (United States)

    Saw, Anna E.; Main, Luana C.; Gastin, Paul B.


    Athlete self-report measures (ASRM) are a popular method of athlete monitoring in high-performance sports. With increasing recognition and accessibility, ASRM may potentially be utilized by athletes from diverse sport contexts. The purpose of the present study was to improve understanding of ASRM implementation across different sport contexts by observing uptake and compliance of a newly implemented ASRM over 16 weeks, and investigating the perceived roles and factors influencing implementation. Athletes (n=131) completed an electronic survey at baseline and week 16 on their perceptions and experiences with ASRM implementation respectively. Despite initial interest, only 70 athletes attempted to use the ASRM. Of these athletes, team sport athletes who were supported by their coach or sports program to use the ASRM were most compliant (p sport athletes was 28 ± 40 % and 8 ± 18 % respectively. Self-directed athletes were motivated to monitor themselves, and rated desired content and minimal burden as key factors for initial and ongoing compliance. Supported athletes were primarily motivated to comply for the benefit of their coach or sports program rather than themselves, however rated data output as a key factor for their continued use. Factors of the measure outweighed those of the social environment regardless of sport context, however the influence of social environmental factors should not be discounted. The findings of the present study demonstrate the impact of sport context on the implementation of an ASRM and the need to tailor implementation strategies accordingly. Key points Athletes perceive ASRM and the factors influencing implementation differently. Therefore, to encourage compliance, it is important to tailor implementation strategies to the athlete and their sport context to increase appeal and minimize unappealing factors. Athletes using an ASRM on their own accord typically favor a measure which meets their needs and interests, with minimal burden

  19. Flying with the wind: Scale dependency of speed and direction measurements in modelling wind support in avian flight (United States)

    Safi, Kamran; Kranstauber, Bart; Weinzierl, Rolf P.; Griffin, Larry; Reese, Eileen C.; Cabot, David; Cruz, Sebastian; Proaño, Carolina; Takekawa, John Y.; Newman, Scott H.; Waldenström, Jonas; Bengtsson, Daniel; Kays, Roland; Wikelski, Martin; Bohrer, Gil


    Background: Understanding how environmental conditions, especially wind, influence birds' flight speeds is a prerequisite for understanding many important aspects of bird flight, including optimal migration strategies, navigation, and compensation for wind drift. Recent developments in tracking technology and the increased availability of data on large-scale weather patterns have made it possible to use path annotation to link the location of animals to environmental conditions such as wind speed and direction. However, there are various measures available for describing not only wind conditions but also the bird's flight direction and ground speed, and it is unclear which is best for determining the amount of wind support (the length of the wind vector in a bird’s flight direction) and the influence of cross-winds (the length of the wind vector perpendicular to a bird’s direction) throughout a bird's journey.Results: We compared relationships between cross-wind, wind support and bird movements, using path annotation derived from two different global weather reanalysis datasets and three different measures of direction and speed calculation for 288 individuals of nine bird species. Wind was a strong predictor of bird ground speed, explaining 10-66% of the variance, depending on species. Models using data from different weather sources gave qualitatively similar results; however, determining flight direction and speed from successive locations, even at short (15 min intervals), was inferior to using instantaneous GPS-based measures of speed and direction. Use of successive location data significantly underestimated the birds' ground and airspeed, and also resulted in mistaken associations between cross-winds, wind support, and their interactive effects, in relation to the birds' onward flight.Conclusions: Wind has strong effects on bird flight, and combining GPS technology with path annotation of weather variables allows us to quantify these effects for

  20. Inline Measurement of Particle Concentrations in Multicomponent Suspensions using Ultrasonic Sensor and Least Squares Support Vector Machines. (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaobin; Jiang, Shulan; Yang, Yili; Liang, Jian; Shi, Tielin; Li, Xiwen


    This paper proposes an ultrasonic measurement system based on least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) for inline measurement of particle concentrations in multicomponent suspensions. Firstly, the ultrasonic signals are analyzed and processed, and the optimal feature subset that contributes to the best model performance is selected based on the importance of features. Secondly, the LS-SVM model is tuned, trained and tested with different feature subsets to obtain the optimal model. In addition, a comparison is made between the partial least square (PLS) model and the LS-SVM model. Finally, the optimal LS-SVM model with the optimal feature subset is applied to inline measurement of particle concentrations in the mixing process. The results show that the proposed method is reliable and accurate for inline measuring the particle concentrations in multicomponent suspensions and the measurement accuracy is sufficiently high for industrial application. Furthermore, the proposed method is applicable to the modeling of the nonlinear system dynamically and provides a feasible way to monitor industrial processes.

  1. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a New Measure of Pain-Related Support Preferences: The Pain Response Preference Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan A McWilliams


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioural conceptualizations of chronic pain posit that solicitous responses to pain behaviours are positively reinforcing and play a role in the development of chronic pain and disability. Recent research suggests that studies investigating this model were likely limited by the use of only a few narrowly defined categories of responses to pain behaviour. A measure of preferences regarding pain-related social support has the potential to improve behavioural models of chronic pain by identifying other potentially reinforcing responses to pain behaviour.

  2. The Chinese ground-based instrumentation in support of the combined Cluster/Double Star satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.-Y. Liu


    Full Text Available Ground-based observations can be used to provide substantial support for Cluster/Double Star measurements and greatly enhance the mission's scientific return. There are six Chinese ground stations involved in coordinated cluster/Double Star and ground-based instrument observations. Among them, the Chinese Zhongshan Station in Antarctica and the Yellow River Station on Svalbard are closely magnetic conjugate and are situated under the ionospheric projection of the magnetospheric cusp regions, which, combined with satellite data, provide a perfect configuration to conduct conjugate studies of cusp phenomena. In this paper we present the ground-based instrumentation at these stations, discuss the restriction which is applyed to the optical sites and present an overview of the occurrences for conjunctions of these instruments with the spacecraft. Samples of data products are given to illustrate the potential use of these instrumentations in coordination with Cluster/Double Star measurements.

  3. The Chinese ground-based instrumentation in support of the combined Cluster/Double Star satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.-Y. Liu


    Full Text Available Ground-based observations can be used to provide substantial support for Cluster/Double Star measurements and greatly enhance the mission's scientific return. There are six Chinese ground stations involved in coordinated cluster/Double Star and ground-based instrument observations. Among them, the Chinese Zhongshan Station in Antarctica and the Yellow River Station on Svalbard are closely magnetic conjugate and are situated under the ionospheric projection of the magnetospheric cusp regions, which, combined with satellite data, provide a perfect configuration to conduct conjugate studies of cusp phenomena. In this paper we present the ground-based instrumentation at these stations, discuss the restriction which is applyed to the optical sites and present an overview of the occurrences for conjunctions of these instruments with the spacecraft. Samples of data products are given to illustrate the potential use of these instrumentations in coordination with Cluster/Double Star measurements.

  4. The incidences of oxidative –stress occurrence following two metabolic support measures in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh


    Full Text Available Background: A high percentage of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU have systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS criteria. Free radicals play an important role in initiation and development of SIRS. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the molecular changes of cellular antioxidant power in patients with SIRS who received enteral nutrition (EN or EN combined with parenteral nutrition (PN. Methods: Two groups of 10 patients were enrolled in this randomized, controlled clinical trial. Those in the treatment group received EN+PN and the control group received only EN. Venous blood samples were taken just prior to initiation of nutritional support and then 24, 48 and 72 hours following entry into the study for examination of antioxidant parameters including total thiol, total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation. Results: The two supportive regimens had different affects on total antioxidant capacity (P=0.005. In the EN group the amount of total antioxidant capacity was not significantly different in different days (P>0.05, but in the EN+PN group it was significantly different on third and forth days as compared to the first day. The two other parameters had no significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion: These results are suggesting that an increase in oxidative stress bio-markers are not necessarily related to the route of pharmaconutrition and may occur independently during metabolic support measures. Keywords: Parenteral Nutrition, Enteral Nitrition, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Oxidative stress

  5. Indicators measuring the performance of malaria programs supported by the global fund in Asia, progress and the way forward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkou Zhao

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In 2010, the Global Fund provided more than 75% of external international financing for malaria control. The Global Fund uses performance based funding in the grants it finances. This paper analyses the indicators used to measure the performance of Global Fund supported malaria grants in Asia. METHODS: Indicators used in the performance frameworks for all Global Fund supported malaria grants in Asia were retrieved from grant database and grouped into impact, outcome, output and input categories and categorized by service delivery areas. Indicators of each group were compared over rounds. Indicators used in performance frameworks were compared with internationally adopted indicators included in the Monitoring and Evaluation Toolkit developed by the Global Fund and international technical agencies. RESULTS: Between 2002 and 2010, 1,434 indicators were included in the performance frameworks of the 48 malaria grants awarded in Asia, including 229 impact and 227 outcome indicators, 437 output and 541 input indicators, with an average of 29.9 indicators per grant. The proportion of impact and outcome indicators increased over rounds, with that of input indicators declining from 44.1% in Round 1 to 22.7% in Round 9. CONCLUSIONS: Input indicators, which have predominated the performance frameworks of the Global Fund supported malaria programs in Asia have declined between Rounds 1 and 9. However, increased alignment with internationally adopted indicators included in the Monitoring and Evaluation Toolkit is needed to improve the validity of reported results.

  6. Direct measurement of double-layer, van der Waals, and polymer depletion attraction forces between supported cationic bilayers. (United States)

    Anderson, Travers H; Donaldson, Stephen H; Zeng, Hongbo; Israelachvili, Jacob N


    The interactions of supported cationic surfactant bilayers and the effects of nonadsorbing cationic polyelectrolytes on these interactions were studied using the surface forces apparatus (SFA) technique. Bilayers of the cationic surfactant di(tallow ethyl ester) dimethyl ammonium chloride (DEEDMAC) were deposited on mica surfaces using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, and the interactions between the bilayers were measured in various salt, nonionic polymer (PEG), and cationic polyelectrolyte solutions at different polymer molecular weights and concentrations. The forces between the bilayers in CaCl(2) solution are purely repulsive and follow the DLVO theory quantitatively down to bilayer separations of ∼2 nm. Addition of nonadsorbing polymer or polyelectrolyte has a number of effects on the interactions including the induction of a depletion-attraction between the bilayers and screening of the double-layer repulsion due to the added ions in the solution from the polyelectrolyte. The experimental results are shown to agree well with standard theories of depletion attraction and double-layer screening associated with dissolved polyelectrolyte. We also observed significant time and rate effects on measuring the equilibrium bilayer-bilayer interactions possibly due to the unexpectedly long times (>1 min) associated with the charge regulation of the bilayer surfaces. Implications for the interactions and stability of vesicle dispersions, i.e., of free rather than supported bilayers, in polymer solutions are discussed.

  7. Cooperative measures to support the Indo-Pak Agreement Reducing Risk from Accidents Relating to Nuclear Weapons.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Sitakanta [Centre for Air Power Studies, New Delhi (India); Ahmed, Mansoor [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)


    In 2012, India and Pakistan reaffirmed the Agreement on Reducing the Risk from Accidents Relating to Nuclear Weapons. Despite a history of mutual animosity and persistent conflict between the two countries, this agreement derives strength from a few successful nuclear confidence building measures that have stood the test of time. It also rests on the hope that the region would be spared a nuclear holocaust from an accidental nuclear weapon detonation that might be misconstrued as a deliberate use of a weapon by the other side. This study brings together two emerging strategic analysts from South Asia to explore measures to support the Agreement and further develop cooperation around this critical issue. This study briefly dwells upon the strategic landscape of nuclear South Asia with the respective nuclear force management structures, doctrines, and postures of India and Pakistan. It outlines the measures in place for the physical protection and safety of nuclear warheads, nuclear materials, and command and control mechanisms in the two countries, and it goes on to identify the prominent, emerging challenges posed by the introduction of new weapon technologies and modernization of the respective strategic forces. This is followed by an analysis of the agreement itself leading up to a proposed framework for cooperative measures that might enhance the spirit and implementation of the agreement.

  8. Measurement and Analysis of Structural Integrity of Reactor Core Support Structure in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Plant (United States)

    Ansari, Saleem A.; Haroon, Muhammad; Rashid, Atif; Kazmi, Zafar


    Extensive calculation and measurements of flow-induced vibrations (FIV) of reactor internals were made in a PWR plant to assess the structural integrity of reactor core support structure against coolant flow. The work was done to meet the requirements of the Fukushima Response Action Plan (FRAP) for enhancement of reactor safety, and the regulatory guide RG-1.20. For the core surveillance measurements the Reactor Internals Vibration Monitoring System (IVMS) has been developed based on detailed neutron noise analysis of the flux signals from the four ex-core neutron detectors. The natural frequencies, displacement and mode shapes of the reactor core barrel (CB) motion were determined with the help of IVMS. The random pressure fluctuations in reactor coolant flow due to turbulence force have been identified as the predominant cause of beam-mode deflection of CB. The dynamic FIV calculations were also made to supplement the core surveillance measurements. The calculational package employed the computational fluid dynamics, mode shape analysis, calculation of power spectral densities of flow & pressure fields and the structural response to random flow excitation forces. The dynamic loads and stiffness of the Hold-Down Spring that keeps the core structure in position against upward coolant thrust were also determined by noise measurements. Also, the boron concentration in primary coolant at any time of the core cycle has been determined with the IVMS.

  9. Measurement Space Drill Support (United States)


    calendar within the CoBP SharePoint portal but it is not updated or maintained. The center Ops are notified if they are hosting the event since a...Recommendation: It is recommended that the center operations office within TRAC maintain the SharePoint calendar with upcoming MS drills and notify other

  10. Airborne In Situ and Ground-based Polarimetric Radar Measurements of Tropical Convection in Support of CRYSTAL-FACE (United States)

    Poellot, Michael R.; Kucera, Paul A.


    This report describes the work performed by the University of North Dakota (UND) under NASA Grant NAG5-11509, titled Airborne In Situ and Ground-based Polarimetric Radar Measurements of Tropical Convection in Support of CRYSTAL-FACE. This work focused on the collection of data by two key platforms: the UND Citation II research aircraft and the NASA NPOL radar system. The CRYSTAL-FACE (C-F) mission addresses several key issues from the NASA Earth System Enterprise, including the variability of water in the atmosphere, the forcing provided by tropical cirrus and the response of the Earth system to this forcing. In situ measurements and radar observations of tropical convection, cirrus clouds and their environment are core elements of C-F. One of the primary issues that C-F is addressing is the relationship of tropical cirrus anvils to precipitating deep convection. The in situ measurements from C-F are being used to validate remote sensing of Earth-Atmosphere properties, increase our knowledge of upper tropospheric water vapor and its distribution, and increase our knowledge of tropical cirrus cloud morphology and composition. Radar measurements, especially polarimetric diversity observations available fiom the NASA NPOL radar, are providing essential information about the initiation, modulation, and dissipation of convective cores and the generation of associated anvils in tropical convection. Specifically, NPOL radar measurements contain information about convective intensity and its vertical structure for comparison with thermodynamic and kinematic environmental measurements observed from soundings. Because of the polarimetric diversity of MOL, statistics on bulk microphysical properties can be retrieved and compared to the other characteristics of convection and associated cirrus anvils. In summary, the central objectives of this proposal were to deploy the UND Citation research aircraft as an in situ sensing platform for this mission and to provide collaborative

  11. Genetic Susceptibility to Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kovacic


    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Advances in techniques of molecular genetics have revealed that genetic ground significantly influences susceptibility to atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Besides further investigations of monogenetic diseases, candidate genes, genetic polymorphisms, and susceptibility loci associated with atherosclerotic diseases have been identified in recent years, and their number is rapidly increasing. This paper discusses main genetic investigations fields associated with human atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The paper concludes with a discussion of the directions and implications of future genetic research in arteriosclerosis with an emphasis on prospective prediction from an early age of individuals who are predisposed to develop premature atherosclerosis as well as to facilitate the discovery of novel drug targets.

  12. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility (United States)

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.


    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  13. In Vivo Parasitological Measures of Artemisinin Susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stepniewska, Kasia; Ashley, Elizabeth; Lee, Sue J.; Anstey, Nicholas; Barnes, Karen I.; Binh, Tran Quang; d'Alessandro, Umberto; Day, Nicholas P. J.; de Vries, Peter J.; Dorsey, Grant; Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Mayxay, Mayfong; Newton, Paul N.; Olliaro, Piero; Osorio, Lyda; Price, Ric N.; Rowland, Mark; Smithuis, Frank; Taylor, Walter R. J.; Nosten, François; White, Nicholas J.


    Parasite clearance data from 18,699 patients with falciparum malaria treated with an artemisinin derivative in areas of low (n = 14,539), moderate (n = 2077), and high (n = 2083) levels of malaria transmission across the world were analyzed to determine the factors that affect clearance rates and

  14. Guidance for industry: patient-reported outcome measures: use in medical product development to support labeling claims: draft guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Abstract This guidance describes how the FDA evaluates patient-reported outcome (PRO instruments used as effectiveness endpoints in clinical trials. It also describes our current thinking on how sponsors can develop and use study results measured by PRO instruments to support claims in approved product labeling (see appendix point 1. It does not address the use of PRO instruments for purposes beyond evaluation of claims made about a drug or medical product in its labeling. By explicitly addressing the review issues identified in this guidance, sponsors can increase the efficiency of their endpoint discussions with the FDA during the product development process, streamline the FDA's review of PRO endpoint adequacy, and provide optimal information about the patient's perspective of treatment benefit at the time of product approval. A PRO is a measurement of any aspect of a patient's health status that comes directly from the patient (i.e., without the interpretation of the patient's responses by a physician or anyone else. In clinical trials, a PRO instrument can be used to measure the impact of an intervention on one or more aspects of patients' health status, hereafter referred to as PRO concepts, ranging from the purely symptomatic (response of a headache to more complex concepts (e.g., ability to carry out activities of daily living, to extremely complex concepts such as quality of life, which is widely understood to be a multidomain concept with physical, psychological, and social components. Data generated by a PRO instrument can provide evidence of a treatment benefit from the patient perspective. For this data to be meaningful, however, there should be evidence that the PRO instrument effectively measures the particular concept that is studied. Generally, findings measured by PRO instruments may be used to support claims in approved product labeling if the claims are derived from adequate and well-controlled investigations that use PRO

  15. Measurement of the t$\\bar{t}$ cross section at the Run II Tevatron using Support Vector Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Benjamin Eric [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)


    This dissertation measures the t$\\bar{t}$ production cross section at the Run II CDF detector using data from early 2001 through March 2007. The Tevatron at Fermilab is a p$\\bar{p}$ collider with center of mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. This data composes a sample with a time-integrated luminosity measured at 2.2 ± 0.1 fb-1. A system of learning machines is developed to recognize t$\\bar{t}$ events in the 'lepton plus jets' decay channel. Support Vector Machines are described, and their ability to cope with a multi-class discrimination problem is provided. The t$\\bar{t}$ production cross section is then measured in this framework, and found to be σt$\\bar{t}$ = 7.14 ± 0.25 (stat)-0.86+0.61(sys) pb.

  16. Financial Measures for Electric Vehicles:Supporting the Integration of Renewable Energy in the Mobility Sector in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bickert


    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EV are able to support the transition of sectors towards sustainability. The operation of these vehicles with renewable energies saves local and global emissions. Furthermore, fluctuating renewable energies can be integrated in existing energy systems by using electric vehicles for grid services. Thus, implementation of advantages requires market establishment of electric vehicles. The article provides a review on potentials of market development by comparing and studying costs of electric and conventional vehicles as well as effects of financial measures on costs of EV. These cost comparisons are based on market data and predictions of cost developments for private consumers in Germany. Costs are analysed by an economic model of Total Cost of Ownership (TCO, aiming to display financial proportionality between vehicles in different years of acquisition (2010 to 2030. In a further step, external financial measures are analysed and integrated in the cost model as one possibility to enhance and secure the market introduction. Findings demonstrate that higher costs of acquisition of electric vehicles cannot be compensated by lower costs of operation. While mobility costs of conventionally vehicles stay constant or even increase during the considered years, mobility costs of electric vehicles significantly decrease especially in the upcoming years. In all cases mobility costs of electric vehicles exceed costs of conventional vehicles, but differences are reduced from 19€ct in 2010 to 3€ct in 2030. Cost decreases of the battery have high influence on the increasing financial comparability of EV. Concerning financial measures especially a differentiation of energy prices and a compensation of grid services can help to decrease total costs of EV and to manage a shift from fossil energy resources to electricity in the mobility sector. The existing tax exemption for EV compensates only a little fraction (about 6% of the cost

  17. Expert opinion on landslide susceptibility elicted by probabilistic inversion from scenario rankings (United States)

    Lee, Katy; Dashwood, Claire; Lark, Murray


    For many natural hazards the opinion of experts, with experience in assessing susceptibility under different circumstances, is a valuable source of information on which to base risk assessments. This is particularly important where incomplete process understanding, and limited data, limit the scope to predict susceptibility by mechanistic or statistical modelling. The expert has a tacit model of a system, based on their understanding of processes and their field experience. This model may vary in quality, depending on the experience of the expert. There is considerable interest in how one may elicit expert understanding by a process which is transparent and robust, to provide a basis for decision support. One approach is to provide experts with a set of scenarios, and then to ask them to rank small overlapping subsets of these with respect to susceptibility. Methods of probabilistic inversion have been used to compute susceptibility scores for each scenario, implicit in the expert ranking. It is also possible to model these scores as functions of measurable properties of the scenarios. This approach has been used to assess susceptibility of animal populations to invasive diseases, to assess risk to vulnerable marine environments and to assess the risk in hypothetical novel technologies for food production. We will present the results of a study in which a group of geologists with varying degrees of expertise in assessing landslide hazards were asked to rank sets of hypothetical simplified scenarios with respect to land slide susceptibility. We examine the consistency of their rankings and the importance of different properties of the scenarios in the tacit susceptibility model that their rankings implied. Our results suggest that this is a promising approach to the problem of how experts can communicate their tacit model of uncertain systems to those who want to make use of their expertise.

  18. Characterization of graphite-supported palladium-cobalt catalysts by temperature-programmed reduction and magnetic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noronha, F.B.; Schmal, M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Nicot, C. [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, Villeurbanne (France)] [and others


    Graphite-supported cobalt, palladium, and cobalt-palladium systems were prepared by a simple impregnation technique and submitted to hydrogen reduction in a temperature-programmed mode. Using X-ray diffraction to define the structure of the calcined precursors, magnetic measurements to determine the amount of metallic cobalt formed after reduction, and analysis of the gaseous medium during the reduction, a general model for the reduction of the graphite supported catalysts has been suggested. At room temperature, both pure PdO and PdO associated with Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} are reduced to the metallic state. In the case of bimetallic systems, a fraction of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} in close proximity or interfaced with PdO can be reduced to the metallic state and to COO species, demonstrating a strong catalytic effect of palladium on the reduction of cobalt oxides. At temperatures between 298 and 500 K, depending on the catalyst formulation, the presence of metallic palladium promotes the reduction of a large fraction of oxidized cobalt. At higher reduction temperature, at least two competitive phenomena were detected: direct reduction of the residual oxidized cobalt by the graphite, leading to carbon monoxide and dioxide formation, and hydrogasification of the graphite catalyzed by the supported metals, leading mainly to methane formation. Together with a possible short-range palladium-activated hydrogen migration, at low and moderate temperatures, long-range migration of particles is necessary to explain the observations. These migrations, in turn, favor the formation of bimetallic particles, after reduction at 773 K. 53 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Estimation of bonding nature using diamagnetic susceptibility. (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Keisuke; Sato, Toyoto; Orimo, Shin-ichi


    A chemical bond includes both covalent and ionic characteristics. We develop an experimental method to estimate the degree of each contribution based on magnetic susceptibility measurements, in which Pascal's scheme for Larmor diamagnetism is combined with electronegativity. The applicability to metal hydrides is also shown.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococci species from cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus species isolated from foremilk samples. Setting: Milk was collected from five farms within a 70 km radius of Gaborone, Botswana. Subjects: Two hundred and twenty five staphylococci isolates from foremilk samples. Main outcome measures: ...

  1. The Job Accommodation Scale (JAS): psychometric evaluation of a new measure of employer support for temporary job modifications. (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Kristman, Vicki L; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Soklaridis, Sophie; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Côté, Pierre; Loisel, Patrick


    An employer offer of temporary job modification is a key strategy for facilitating return-to-work for musculoskeletal conditions, but there are no validated scales to assess the level of support for temporary job modifications across a range of job types and organizations. To pilot test a new 21-item self-report measure [the Job Accommodation Scale (JAS)] to assess its applicability, internal consistency, factor structure, and relation to physical job demands. Supervisors (N = 804, 72.8 % male, mean age = 46) were recruited from 19 employment settings in the USA and Canada and completed a 30-min online survey regarding job modification practices. As part of the survey, supervisors nominated and described a job position they supervised and completed the JAS for a hypothetical worker (in that position) with an episode of low back pain. Job characteristics were derived from the occupational informational network job classification database. The full response range (1-4) was utilized on all 21 items, with no ceiling or floor effects. Avoiding awkward postures was the most feasible accommodation and moving the employee to a different site or location was the least feasible. An exploratory factor analysis suggested five underlying factors (Modify physical workload; Modify work environment; Modify work schedule; Find alternate work; and Arrange for assistance), and there was an acceptable goodness-of-fit for the five parceled sub-factor scores as a single latent construct in a measurement model (structural equation model). Job accommodations were less feasible for more physical jobs and for heavier industries. The pilot administration of the JAS with respect to a hypothetical worker with low back pain showed initial support for its applicability, reliability, and validity when administered to supervisors. Future studies should assess its validity for use in actual disability cases, for a range of health conditions, and to assess different stakeholder opinions about the

  2. Impact of Sport Context and Support on the Use of a Self-Report Measure for Athlete Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Saw, Luana C. Main, Paul B. Gastin


    Full Text Available Athlete self-report measures (ASRM are a popular method of athlete monitoring in high-performance sports. With increasing recognition and accessibility, ASRM may potentially be utilized by athletes from diverse sport contexts. The purpose of the present study was to improve understanding of ASRM implementation across different sport contexts by observing uptake and compliance of a newly implemented ASRM over 16 weeks, and investigating the perceived roles and factors influencing implementation. Athletes (n=131 completed an electronic survey at baseline and week 16 on their perceptions and experiences with ASRM implementation respectively. Despite initial interest, only 70 athletes attempted to use the ASRM. Of these athletes, team sport athletes who were supported by their coach or sports program to use the ASRM were most compliant (p < 0.001 with a mean compliance of 84 ± 21 %. Compliance for self-directed individual and team sport athletes was 28 ± 40 % and 8 ± 18 % respectively. Self-directed athletes were motivated to monitor themselves, and rated desired content and minimal burden as key factors for initial and ongoing compliance. Supported athletes were primarily motivated to comply for the benefit of their coach or sports program rather than themselves, however rated data output as a key factor for their continued use. Factors of the measure outweighed those of the social environment regardless of sport context, however the influence of social environmental factors should not be discounted. The findings of the present study demonstrate the impact of sport context on the implementation of an ASRM and the need to tailor implementation strategies accordingly.

  3. Measurement of Health Disparities, Health Inequities, and Social Determinants of Health to Support the Advancement of Health Equity. (United States)

    Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Talih, Makram; Huang, David; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Bouye, Karen; Beckles, Gloria


    Reduction of health disparities and advancement of health equity in the United States require high-quality data indicative of where the nation stands vis-à-vis health equity, as well as proper analytic tools to facilitate accurate interpretation of these data. This article opens with an overview of health equity and social determinants of health. It then proposes a set of recommended practices in measurement of health disparities, health inequities, and social determinants of health at the national level to support the advancement of health equity, highlighting that (1) differences in health and its determinants that are associated with social position are important to assess; (2) social and structural determinants of health should be assessed and multiple levels of measurement should be considered; (3) the rationale for methodological choices made and measures chosen should be made explicit; (4) groups to be compared should be simultaneously classified by multiple social statuses; and (5) stakeholders and their communication needs can often be considered in the selection of analytic methods. Although much is understood about the role of social determinants of health in shaping the health of populations, researchers should continue to advance understanding of the pathways through which they operate on particular health outcomes. There is still much to learn and implement about how to measure health disparities, health inequities, and social determinants of health at the national level, and the challenges of health equity persist. We anticipate that the present discussion will contribute to the laying of a foundation for standard practice in the monitoring of national progress toward achievement of health equity.

  4. The Relationship Between Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports and Performance on State Accountability Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Marin


    Full Text Available This study examined data from 96 schools in a Southeastern U.S. state participating in training and/or coaching on School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS provided by the State Personnel Development Grant (SPDG in their state. Schools studied either received training only (“non-intensive” sites or training and on-site coaching (“intensive” sites. Fidelity of implementation was self-evaluated by both types of schools using the Benchmarks of Quality (BOQ. Some schools were also externally evaluated using the School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET, with those scoring 80% or higher determined “model sites.” Using an independent sample t-test, analyses revealed statistically significant differences between intensive and nonintensive schools’ Quality of Distribution Index (QDI scores and between model sites and nonmodel sites on QDI scores. Correlations were performed to determine whether the fidelity of implementation of SWPBIS as measured by the BOQ was related to any of the state’s accountability measures: performance classification, QDI, or growth.

  5. A risk-based decision support framework for selection of appropriate safety measure system for underground coal mines. (United States)

    Samantra, Chitrasen; Datta, Saurav; Mahapatra, Siba Sankar


    In the context of underground coal mining industry, the increased economic issues regarding implementation of additional safety measure systems, along with growing public awareness to ensure high level of workers safety, have put great pressure on the managers towards finding the best solution to ensure safe as well as economically viable alternative selection. Risk-based decision support system plays an important role in finding such solutions amongst candidate alternatives with respect to multiple decision criteria. Therefore, in this paper, a unified risk-based decision-making methodology has been proposed for selecting an appropriate safety measure system in relation to an underground coal mining industry with respect to multiple risk criteria such as financial risk, operating risk, and maintenance risk. The proposed methodology uses interval-valued fuzzy set theory for modelling vagueness and subjectivity in the estimates of fuzzy risk ratings for making appropriate decision. The methodology is based on the aggregative fuzzy risk analysis and multi-criteria decision making. The selection decisions are made within the context of understanding the total integrated risk that is likely to incur while adapting the particular safety system alternative. Effectiveness of the proposed methodology has been validated through a real-time case study. The result in the context of final priority ranking is seemed fairly consistent.

  6. Susceptibility for thin ideal media and eating styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    This study examined the relations between susceptibility for thin ideal media and restrained, emotional and external eating, directly and indirectly through body dissatisfaction. Thin ideal media susceptibility, body dissatisfaction and eating styles were measured in a sample of 163 female students.

  7. Backside calibration potentiometry: ion activity measurements with selective supported liquid membranes by calibrating from the inner side of the membrane. (United States)

    Malon, Adam; Bakker, Eric; Pretsch, Ernö


    In direct potentiometry, the magnitude of the measured potentials is used to determine the composition of the sample. While this places rather formidable demands on the required reproducibility of the associated potential measurements, typically on the order of microvolts, in vitro clinical analyses of blood samples are today successfully performed with direct potentiometry using ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). Unfortunately, most other analytical situations do not permit the sensor to be recalibrated every few minutes, as in environmental monitoring or in vivo measurements, and direct potentiometry is often bound to fail as an accurate method in these circumstances. This paper introduces a novel direction for potentiometric sensing, termed backside calibration potentiometry. Chemical asymmetries across thin supported liquid ISE membranes are assessed by determining the direction of potential drift upon changing the stirring rate on either side of the membrane. Disappearance of this drift indicates the disappearance of concentration gradients across the membrane and is used to determine the sample composition if the solution composition at the backside of the membrane and the interfering ion concentration in the sample are known. For practical determinations, the concentration of either the primary or the interfering ion is varied in the reference solution until the stirring effect disappears. The procedure is demonstrated with a Ca2+-selective membrane using Ba2+ as the dominant interfering ion. Another example includes the determination of Pb2+ in environmental samples where the pH is adjusted to a known level. At pH 4.0, H+ turns out to be the dominant interfering ion. The practical applicability of the method is shown with different environmental water samples, for which the results obtained with the novel method are compared with those obtained by traditional calibration using standard additions. The limitations of the novel method in terms of accuracy and

  8. Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.


    Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.

  9. High Frequency, Long Time Series Measurements from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring in Support of SIMBIOS. Chapter 8 (United States)

    Dickey, Tommy; Dobeck, Laura; Sigurdson, David; Zedler, Sarah; Manov, Derek; Yu, Xuri


    It has been recognized that optical moorings are important platforms for the validation of Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). It was recommended that optical moorings be maintained in order to: (1) provide long-term time series comparisons between in situ and SeaWIFS measurements of normalized water-leaving radiance; (2) develop and test algorithms for pigment biomass and phytoplankton primary productivity; and (3) provide long-term, virtually continuous in situ observations which can be used to determine and optimize the accuracy of derived satellite products. These applications require the use of in situ radiometers for long periods of time to evaluate and correct for inherent satellite undersampling (aliasing and biasing) and degradation of satellite color sensors (e.g., drifts as experienced by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner). The Bermuda Testbed Mooring (BTM) program was initiated in 1994 at a site located about 80km southeast of Bermuda in waters of about 4530 m depth. In August 1997, with NASA's support, we started to provide the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) program with large volumes of high frequency, long-term time-series bio-optical data from the BTM for SeaWiFS satellite ocean color groundtruthing and algorithm development. This NASA supported portion of the BTM activity spanned three years and covered five BTM deployments. During these three years, the quality of radiometric data has improved dramatically. Excellent agreement between BTM moored data and both SeaWiFS and nearby ship profile radiometric data demonstrate that technical advances in the moored optical observations have reduced the major difficulties that moored platforms face: biofouling and less frequent calibration.

  10. Assessment of synchronization measures for effective ventricular support by using the shape memory alloy fibred artificial myocardium in goats. (United States)

    Shiraishi, Y; Yambe, T; Saijo, Y; Sato, F; Tanaka, A; Yoshizawa, M; Sugai, T K; Kaneko, Y; Sato, Y; Uematsu, M; Umezu, M; Fujimoto, T; Masumoto, N; Liu, H; Baba, A; Konno, S; Tabayashi, K; Sasada, H; Homma, D


    Thromboembolic and haemorrhagic complications are the primary causes of mortality and morbidity in patients with artificial hearts, which are known to be induced by the interactions between blood flow and artificial material surfaces. The authors have been developing a new mechanical artificial myocardial assist device by using a sophisticated shape memory alloy fibre in order to achieve the mechanical cardiac support from outside of the heart without a direct blood contacting surface. The original material employed as the actuator of artificial myocardial assist devices was 100um fibred-shaped, which was composed of covalent and metallic bonding structure and designed to generate 4-7 % shortening by Joule heating induced by the electric current input. In this study, we focused on the synchronization of the actuator with native cardiac function, and the phase delay parameter was examined in animal experiments using Saanen goats. Total weight of the device including the actuator was around 150g, and the electric power was supplied transcutaneously. The device could be successfully installed into thoracic cavity, which was able to be girdling the left ventricle. The contraction of the device could be controlled by the originally designed microcomputer. The mechanical contraction signal input had been transmitted with the phase delay of 50-200 msec after the R-wave of ECG, and hemodynamic changes were investigated. Cardiac output and systolic left ventricular pressure were elevated with 20% delay of cardiac cycle by 27% and 7%, respectively, although there was smaller difference under the condition of the delay of over 30%. Therefore, it was suggested that the synchronization measures should be examined in order to achieve sophisticated ventricular passive/active support on physiological demand.

  11. Crisis Reliability Indicators Supporting Emergency Services (CRISES): A Framework for Developing Performance Measures for Behavioral Health Crisis and Psychiatric Emergency Programs. (United States)

    Balfour, Margaret E; Tanner, Kathleen; Jurica, Paul J; Rhoads, Richard; Carson, Chris A


    Crisis and emergency psychiatric services are an integral part of the healthcare system, yet there are no standardized measures for programs providing these services. We developed the Crisis Reliability Indicators Supporting Emergency Services (CRISES) framework to create measures that inform internal performance improvement initiatives and allow comparison across programs. The framework consists of two components-the CRISES domains (timely, safe, accessible, least-restrictive, effective, consumer/family centered, and partnership) and the measures supporting each domain. The CRISES framework provides a foundation for development of standardized measures for the crisis field. This will become increasingly important as pay-for-performance initiatives expand with healthcare reform.

  12. Relevance Vector Machine and Support Vector Machine Classifier Analysis of Scanning Laser Polarimetry Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measurements (United States)

    Bowd, Christopher; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Zhang, Zuohua; Zangwill, Linda M.; Hao, Jiucang; Lee, Te-Won; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Goldbaum, Michael H.


    Purpose To classify healthy and glaucomatous eyes using relevance vector machine (RVM) and support vector machine (SVM) learning classifiers trained on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements obtained by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP). Methods Seventy-two eyes of 72 healthy control subjects (average age = 64.3 ± 8.8 years, visual field mean deviation =−0.71 ± 1.2 dB) and 92 eyes of 92 patients with glaucoma (average age = 66.9 ± 8.9 years, visual field mean deviation =−5.32 ± 4.0 dB) were imaged with SLP with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC; Laser Diagnostic Technologies, San Diego, CA). RVM and SVM learning classifiers were trained and tested on SLP-determined RNFL thickness measurements from 14 standard parameters and 64 sectors (approximately 5.6° each) obtained in the circumpapillary area under the instrument-defined measurement ellipse (total 78 parameters). Tenfold cross-validation was used to train and test RVM and SVM classifiers on unique subsets of the full 164-eye data set and areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve for the classification of eyes in the test set were generated. AUROC curve results from RVM and SVM were compared to those for 14 SLP software-generated global and regional RNFL thickness parameters. Also reported was the AUROC curve for the GDx VCC software-generated nerve fiber indicator (NFI). Results The AUROC curves for RVM and SVM were 0.90 and 0.91, respectively, and increased to 0.93 and 0.94 when the training sets were optimized with sequential forward and backward selection (resulting in reduced dimensional data sets). AUROC curves for optimized RVM and SVM were significantly larger than those for all individual SLP parameters. The AUROC curve for the NFI was 0.87. Conclusions Results from RVM and SVM trained on SLP RNFL thickness measurements are similar and provide accurate classification of glaucomatous and healthy eyes. RVM may be preferable to SVM, because it provides a

  13. RNAi knock-downs support roles for the mucin-like (AeIMUC1) gene and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) gene in Aedes aegypti susceptibility to Plasmodium gallinaceum. (United States)

    Berois, M; Romero-Severson, J; Severson, D W


    The mosquito midgut represents the first barrier encountered by the Plasmodium parasite (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) when it is ingested in blood from an infected vertebrate. Previous studies identified the Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mucin-like (AeIMUC1) and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) genes as midgut-expressed candidate genes influencing susceptibility to infection by Plasmodium gallinaceum (Brumpt). We used RNA inference (RNAi) by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) injections to examine ookinete survival to the oocyst stage following individual gene knock-downs. Double-stranded RNA gene knock-downs were performed 3 days prior to P. gallinaceum infection and oocyst development was evaluated at 7 days post-infection. Mean numbers of parasites developing to the oocyst stage were significantly reduced by 52.3% in dsAeIMUC1-injected females and by 36.5% in dsSDR-injected females compared with females injected with a dsβ-gal control. The prevalence of infection was significantly reduced in dsAeIMUC1- and dsSDR-injected females compared with females injected with dsβ-gal; these reductions resulted in a two- and three-fold increase in the number of uninfected individuals, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that both AeIMUC1 and SDR play a role in Ae. aegypti vector competence to P. gallinaceum. © 2011 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

  14. Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology. (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling


    specific incidence rate was comparable in children and the younger adults with that in the other Nordic countries it was notably higher in the elderly population. This in combination with the fact that it is increasing specifically in the elderly men and that the incidence rates in the Nordic countries were comparable two decades back suggest that host specific factors including antifungal consumption rather than genetic differences in susceptibility to fungaemia account for the differences, and hence that it is possibly modifiable by implementing relevant measures. Hence, it was important to investigate the underlying clinical conditions and diagnostic factors and the outcome in Danish patients with fungaemia. In this study we demonstrated that two thirds of the patients had received abdominal surgery or intensive care treatment prior to the development of the fungaemia, a proportion that is higher than in most other studies. We also demonstrated that unless surveillance cultures are handled with careful attention the detection of non-C. albicans may go unnoticed which imply a risk of inappropriate treatment in cases involving intrinsically resistant species. Finally, we demonstrated the necessity of using a fungal blood culture flask in addition to the conventional aerobic and anaerobic ones if all C. glabrata infections (BACTEC) and all polymicrobial infections (BacT/ALERT) are to be diagnosed. Hence close monitoring with the use of improved diagnostic options (such as frequent BC including a mycosis bottle, surveillance cultures and mannan antigen and antibody screening) of particularly ICU and abdominal surgery patients may help better identify patients with fungaemia and allow early treatment. With respect to treatment and outcome we found that the fluconazole resistant species C. glabrata, C. krusei and S. cerevisiae were significantly more common in patients exposed to at least 7 days of antifungal prophylaxis (mainly fluconazole). We also demonstrated that a

  15. Graphene susceptibility in Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Hamze, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Nano Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    We study the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the temperature dependence of the orbital magnetic susceptibility of monolayer graphene. We use the linear response theory and Green's function formalism within the Holstein Hamiltonian model. The results show that the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene sheet have different behaviors in two temperature regions. In the low temperature region, susceptibility increases when the electron-phonon coupling strength increases. On the other hand, the susceptibility reduces with increasing the electron-phonon coupling strength in the high temperature region. - Highlights: Effect of electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene is studied. Linear response theory and Green's function technique in Holstein model are used. Effect of electron-phonon on susceptibility has different behaviors in two temperature regions.

  16. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (United States)

    Andersen, Klaus R.; Jørgensen, Erik; Droce, Aida; Olesen, Tom; Jensen, Bent B.; Rosenvinge, Flemming S.; Sondergaard, Teis E.


    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in high demand in health care fields as antimicrobial-resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here, we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope) which, based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effects within 6 min and within 30 min in complex samples from pigs suffering from catheter-associated urinary tract infections. The oCelloScope system provides a fast high-throughput screening method for detecting bacterial susceptibility that might entail an earlier diagnosis and introduction of appropriate targeted therapy and thus combat the threat from multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The oCelloScope system can be employed for a broad range of applications within bacteriology and might present new vistas as a point-of-care instrument in clinical and veterinary settings. PMID:23596243

  17. Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility ... (United States)

    Conservation of a molecular target across species can be used as a line-of-evidence to predict the likelihood of chemical susceptibility. The web-based Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility (SeqAPASS) tool was developed to simplify, streamline, and quantitatively assess protein sequence/structural similarity across taxonomic groups as a means to predict relative intrinsic susceptibility. The intent of the tool is to allow for evaluation of any potential protein target, so it is amenable to variable degrees of protein characterization, depending on available information about the chemical/protein interaction and the molecular target itself. To allow for flexibility in the analysis, a layered strategy was adopted for the tool. The first level of the SeqAPASS analysis compares primary amino acid sequences to a query sequence, calculating a metric for sequence similarity (including detection of candidate orthologs), the second level evaluates sequence similarity within selected domains (e.g., ligand-binding domain, DNA binding domain), and the third level of analysis compares individual amino acid residue positions identified as being of importance for protein conformation and/or ligand binding upon chemical perturbation. Each level of the SeqAPASS analysis provides increasing evidence to apply toward rapid, screening-level assessments of probable cross species susceptibility. Such analyses can support prioritization of chemicals for further ev

  18. Sorption (Kd) measurements on cinder block and grout in support of dose assessments for Zion Nuclear Station decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milian L.; Sullivan T.


    The Zion Nuclear Power Station is being decommissioned. ZionSolutions proposes to leave much of the below grade structures in place and to fill them with a backfill to provide structural support. Backfills under consideration include “clean” concrete demolition debris from the above grade parts of the facility, a flowable grout, cinder block construction debris and sand. A previous study (Yim, 2012) examined the sorption behavior of five nuclides (Fe-55, Co-60, Ni-63, Sr-85, and Cs-137) on concrete and local soils. This study, commissioned by ZionSolutions and conducted by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) examines the sorption behavior on cinder block and grout materials. Specifically, this study measured the distribution coefficient for four radionuclides of concern using site-groundwater and cinder block from the Zion site and a flowable grout. The distributions coefficient is a measure of the amount of the radionuclide that will remain sorbed to the solid material that is present relative to the amount that will remain in solution. A high distribution coefficient indicates most of the radionuclide will remain on the solid material and will not be available for transport by the groundwater. The radionuclides examined in this set of tests were Co-60, Ni-63, Sr-85, and Cs-137. Tests were performed following ASTM C1733-10, Standard Test Methods for Distribution Coefficients of Inorganic Species by the Batch Method. Sr-85 was used in the testing as an analogue for Sr-90 because it behaves similarly with respect to sorption and has a gamma emission that is easier to detect than the beta emission from Sr-90.

  19. Psychometric Performance of a Novel Measure of Social Support among Spanish-Speaking Immigrant Latino Gay Men (United States)

    Gilbert, Paul A.; Rhodes, Scott D.


    Social support is protective for a variety of health outcomes, and individuals living outside their country of origin ("sojourners") might use social support in distinctive ways. The authors performed a confirmatory factor analysis of the 18-item Index of Sojourner Social Support (ISSS) using data obtained from 190 Spanish-speaking…

  20. Monitoring of Bridges by a Laser Pointer: Dynamic Measurement of Support Rotations and Elastic Line Displacements: Methodology and First Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Artese


    Full Text Available Deck inclination and vertical displacements are among the most important technical parameters to evaluate the health status of a bridge and to verify its bearing capacity. Several methods, both conventional and innovative, are used for structural rotations and displacement monitoring; however, none of these allow, at the same time, precision, automation, static and dynamic monitoring without using high cost instrumentation. The proposed system uses a common laser pointer and image processing. The elastic line inclination is measured by analyzing the single frames of an HD video of the laser beam imprint projected on a flat target. For the image processing, a code was developed in Matlab® that provides instantaneous rotation and displacement of a bridge, charged by a mobile load. An important feature is the synchronization of the load positioning, obtained by a GNSS receiver or by a video. After the calibration procedures, a test was carried out during the movements of a heavy truck maneuvering on a bridge. Data acquisition synchronization allowed us to relate the position of the truck on the deck to inclination and displacements. The inclination of the elastic line at the support was obtained with a precision of 0.01 mrad. The results demonstrate the suitability of the method for dynamic load tests, and the control and monitoring of bridges.

  1. How adolescents view the tobacco endgame and tobacco control measures: trends and associations in support among 14-15 year olds. (United States)

    Jaine, Richard; Healey, Benjamin; Edwards, Richard; Hoek, Janet


    Adolescents represent the next generation and have the greatest amount to gain from the tobacco endgame. They will provide the future momentum to achieve the tobacco endgame, thus it is important that their views on interventions are monitored. We examined support among 14-15-year-old New Zealanders for tobacco endgame goals and measures, and trends in this support from 2009 to 2012. This study used data from an annual survey of over 25 000 Year 10 students (14-15 year olds) undertaken by Action on Smoking and Health New Zealand. We assessed support for five tobacco control goals and measures: living in a smoke-free country; having fewer tobacco retail outlets; not selling tobacco in 10 years' time; implementing outdoor smoking bans; and raising the price of tobacco. Support for living in a smoke-free country was 59%, while support for a ban on all tobacco sales in 10 years' time was 57% in the most recent survey year. Most respondents supported each of the tobacco control measures and gave strongest support to having fewer places where tobacco could be sold (71% in 2012). Support for the other two tobacco control measures in the most recent year ranged from 59% to 64% and had increased over time, in most cases significantly. Support was strongest among non-smokers and declined as participants' smoking frequency increased. Young people support New Zealand's smoke-free goal and interventions that could help achieve it; this evidence should galvanise policy action, which remains out of step with public opinion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  2. Forecasting of radiation fog with a new decision support system based on automatic LIDAR-ceilometer measurements (United States)

    Laffineur, Quentin; Haeffelin, Martial; Bravo-Aranda, Juan-Antonio; Drouin, Marc-Antoine; Casquero-Vera, Juan-Andrés; Dupont, Jean-Charles; De Backer, Hugo


    Radiation fog is the most frequent cause of surface visibility below 1 km, and is one of the most common and persistent weather hazards encountered in aviation and to nearly all forms of surface transport. Forecasting radiation fog can be difficult, a number of approaches have been used to integrate the satellite data, numerical modeling and standard surface observations. These approaches lack generally the vertical and temporal resolution, representation of boundary layer and microphysical processes. They typically do not represent accurately the activation processes of fog droplets that depend on the chemical and physical properties of the aerosols. The automatic LIDAR-ceilometer (ALC) primarily designed for cloud base height detection has greatly improved over the last years and now offers the opportunity to analyse in near real-time the backscatter signal in the boundary layer that potentially contains major information to predict radiation fog formation or not. During the preliminary stage of fog formation, the backscatter profile may be influenced by atmospheric humidity due to the presence in the atmosphere of hygroscopic aerosols that see their size increase with their moisture content inducing an increase of the backscatter magnitude. In the framework of TOPROF (COST-ACTION, activities, collaboration was initiated between the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMI) and the Site Instrumental de Recherche par Télédéction Atmosphérique (SIRTA, IPSL) to develop a forward stepwise screening algorithm (PARAFOG) to help prediction of radiation fog formation. PARAFOG is a new decision support system for radiation fog forecasting based on analysis of the attenuated backscatter measured by ALCs, found at most airports, which provides information about the aerosol-particle hygroscopic growth process (Haeffelin et al., 2016). The monitoring of this hygroscopic growth process could provide useful warning to forecasters, in

  3. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping in Cerebral Cavernous Malformations: Clinical Correlations. (United States)

    Tan, H; Zhang, L; Mikati, A G; Girard, R; Khanna, O; Fam, M D; Liu, T; Wang, Y; Edelman, R R; Christoforidis, G; Awad, I A


    Quantitative susceptibility mapping has been shown to assess iron content in cerebral cavernous malformations. In this study, our aim was to correlate lesional iron deposition assessed by quantitative susceptibility mapping with clinical and disease features in patients with cerebral cavernous malformations. Patients underwent routine clinical scans in addition to quantitative susceptibility mapping on 3T systems. Data from 105 patients met the inclusion criteria. Cerebral cavernous malformation lesions identified on susceptibility maps were cross-verified by T2-weighted images and differentiated on the basis of prior overt hemorrhage. Mean susceptibility per cerebral cavernous malformation lesion (χ̄lesion) was measured to correlate with lesion volume, age at scanning, and hemorrhagic history. Temporal rates of change in χ̄lesion were evaluated in 33 patients. Average χ̄lesion per patient was positively correlated with patient age at scanning (P cavernous malformation lesions with prior overt hemorrhages exhibited higher χ̄lesion than those without (P cavernous malformation lesions, higher mean quantitative susceptibility mapping signal in hemorrhagic lesions, and minimum longitudinal quantitative susceptibility mapping signal change in clinically stable lesions. Quantitative susceptibility mapping has the potential to be a novel imaging biomarker supplementing conventional imaging in cerebral cavernous malformations. The clinical significance of such measures merits further study. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  4. Frost susceptibility of granular subbase materials contaminated by deicing chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Orlander, Tobias; Doré, Guy


    in order to determine the frost susceptibility of the material when it is contaminated by a deicing agent. Two series of three freezing tests with isothermal cooling has been conducted using identical saline gradient added through brine. Two types of cooling ramp, an automatic cooling and a manual cooling......, were used in order to determine any influence from the cooling ramp. The tests included settings that allowed the samples additional brine during freezing. Hence, the water and salinity were measured before and after the tests in order to determine the redistribution of water and salinity. The test...... results do not support the theory that a saline gradient effectively can replace a thermal gradient and create favorable conditions for frost heave. There was no evidence of ice segregation during the tests. During freezing, heave of maximum 0.02 % was observed which, however, is not considered...

  5. In vitro susceptibility of goat mononuclear cells to bluetongue virus. (United States)

    Garg, A K; Prasad, G


    Goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured and their susceptibility to bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 1 was tested. A small number of adherent and non-adherent cells were found positive for BTV antigens by immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence tests. Both adherent and non-adherent cells supported limited level of viral replication as evidenced by low titre in the biological assay, thus indicating their susceptibility.

  6. Microwave susceptibility experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConaghy, C.


    In certain experimental environments, systems can be affected or damaged by microwave pulses. I have conducted tests at LLNL to understand the phenomenology of microwave susceptibility of system components and subsystem components. To date, my experiments have concentrated on bipolar transistors, similar to what might be used in discrete analog circuits, and on CMOS RAM chips, which might be used in a computer memory system. I observed a decrease in failure energies for both the transistor and the integrated curcuit as I shortened the microwave pulse width. An S band (2.86 GHz) transmit/receive (T/R) tube has also been tested both at S band and at X band (8.16 GHz). The S band pulse had limitations in rise-time from zero power, which had an effect on the amount of power that could be transmitted through the T/R tube, as much as 0.7% of the incident power passed through the tube. All tests were conducted in closed-waveguide or coax test-fixtures, in contrast to the anechoic chambers utilized by other experimenters. I have used both S band and X band Klystron generators. For very high power (greater than 1 MW), I used an additional pulse-compression cavity at S band. Other subsystem components such as an X band mixer and an X band T/R tube will be tested in the future. 8 references.

  7. [Antimicrobial susceptibility cumulative reports]. (United States)

    Canut-Blasco, Andrés; Calvo, Jorge; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Martínez, Luis


    Cumulative reports on antimicrobial susceptibility tests data are important for selecting empirical treatments, as an educational tool in programs on antimicrobial use, and for establishing breakpoints defining clinical categories. These reports should be based on data validated by clinical microbiologists using diagnostic samples (not surveillance samples). In order to avoid a bias derived from including several isolates obtained from the same patient, it is recommended that, for a defined period, only the first isolate is counted. A minimal number of isolates per species should be presented: a figure of >=30 isolates is statistically acceptable. The report is usually presented in a table format where, for each cell, information on clinically relevant microorganisms-antimicrobial agents is presented. Depending on particular needs, multiple tables showing data related to patients, samples, services or special pathogens can be prepared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Susceptibility of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Naegleria ssp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, L.Y.


    The susceptibility of four species of Naegleria amoebae to complement-mediated lysis was determined. The amoebicidal activity of normal human serum (NHS) and normal guinea pig serum (NGPS) for Naegleria amoebae was measured by an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Release of radioactivity from amoebae labeled with {sup 3}H-uridine and visual observation with a compound microscope were used as indices of lysis. Susceptibility or resistance to complement-mediated lysis in vitro correlated with the in vivo pathogenic potential. Nonpathogenic Naegleria amoebae were lysed at a faster rate and at higher cell concentrations than were pathogenic amoebae. Electrophoretic analysis of NHS incubated with pathogenic or nonpathogenic Naegleria spp. demonstrated that amoebae activate the complement cascade resulting in the production of C3 and C5 complement cleavage products. Treatment with papain or trypsin for 1 h, but not with sialidase, increase the susceptibility of highly pathogenic, mouse-passaged N. fowleri to lysis. Treatment with actinomycin D, cycloheximide or various protease inhibitors for 4 h did not increase susceptibility to lysis. Neither a repair process involving de novo protein synthesis nor a complement-inactivating protease appear to account for the increase resistance of N. fowleri amoebae to complement-mediated lysis. A binding study with {sup 125}I radiolabeled C9 indicated that the terminal complement component does not remain stably bound to the membrane of pathogenic amoebae.

  9. Social support in ordinary life and laboratory measures of cardiovascular reactivity: gender differences in habituation-sensitization. (United States)

    Hughes, Brian M


    Gender differences in coronary heart disease are mirrored by gender differences both in cardiovascular reactivity to stress and in the nature and content of social support networks. However, little research has examined the association between cardiovascular reactivity in the laboratory and social support outside; and none has established whether gender differences in such associations can elucidate relevant psychosomatic mechanisms. In addition, in general, studies of cardiovascular reactivity fail to take adequate account of cardiovascular response habituation. The present study sought to examine gender differences in associations between psychometrically assessed social support and cardiovascular reactivity and, in particular, response habituation patterns. Ninety-two undergraduate men and women underwent two consecutive cardiovascular reactivity assessments, after having provided psychometric assessments of quantity and quality of social support in ordinary life. Inverse associations between social support and cardiovascular reactivity during the second assessment suggested that highly-supported women exhibited cardiovascular response habituation. For men, the opposite trend-that of support-related cardiovascular sensitization-was found. Results were unaffected by performance of the task used to elicit reactivity or by participant ratings of task dimensions. These findings suggest that men and women differ in the degree to which social support in ordinary life moderates cardiovascular stress responses in laboratories. This difference is highlighted when looking at how cardiovascular responses fluctuate over repeated testing. Habituation-sensitization patterns suggest that, when dealing with difficult tasks, women may derive benefit from background social relationships whereas men may find that such background relationships bring additional pressures.

  10. Definition of a magnetic susceptibility of conglomerates with magnetite particles. Particularities of defining single particle susceptibility (United States)

    Sandulyak, A. A.; Sandulyak, A. V.; Ershova, V.; Pamme, N.; Ngmasom, B.; Iles, A.


    Data of a magnetic susceptibility of ferro-and the ferrimagnetic particles of many technogenic, natural, special media are especially demanded for the solution of various tasks connected with purposeful magnetic impact on these particles. One of productive approaches to definition of a magnetic susceptibility χ of these particles consists in receiving experimental data of a susceptibility of disperse samples with a disperse phase of these particles. The paper expounds and analyses the results of experiments on defining (by Faraday method in a magnetic field with intensity H = 90-730 kA/m) the magnetic susceptibility of disperse samples (conglomerates) with a given volume ratio γ of magnetite particles (γ = 0.0065-0.25). The corresponding families of concentration and field dependences are provided alongside with discussing the applicability of linear and exponential functions to describe these dependences. We consider the possibility of defining single particles susceptibility χ (with simultaneous obtaining field dependence of this susceptibility) by the commonly used relation χ = /γ both at relatively small (preferable for accuracy reasons) values γ - to γ = 0.02…0.025, as well as at increased values γ - up to γ = 0.25. The data χ are provided depending on H and correlating with known data at H defined here value of constant-multiplier (0.8), it provides the grounds for obtaining valid data χ, employing the results of measuring for conglomerates with not obligatory small values of γ. It is demonstrated that being obtained by data χ, the calculated field dependence of the particle matter magnetic susceptibility χm (for the case when the particles are traditionally likened to balls with the characteristic for them demagnetising factor equalling 1/3) complies with the anticipated inverse function χm ∼ 1/H in the studied area H (where magnetization M expressed as M = χH reaches saturation M = Const).

  11. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of {sigma} plutonium alloys. Contribution to the study of the 5f electrons localization in the plutonium; Mesure de la susceptibilite magnetique d`alliages de plutonium en phase delta. Contribution a l`etude de la localisation des electrons 5f dans le plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot-Reymond, S


    Physical properties of actinide metals are essentially ruled by the 5f electrons localization. From a theoretically point of view, this localization is more important in the {delta}-phase than in the {alpha}-one. To compare their magnetic behaviour, low temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements have been performed and previous-resistivity data have been analysed. Experimental results and theoretical data can be conciliate by the existence of a Kondo effect in the {delta}-Pu phase. (author) 63 refs.

  12. Determinants of electoral support for anti-gay marriage constitutional amendments: an examination of 2006 votes on ballot measures in the states. (United States)

    Burnett, Raymond Christopher; Salka, William M


    In the fall of 2006, seven states passed constitutional amendments banning gay marriage. This study examines the determinants of support for those measures, as expressed by the countywide vote in favor of each gay marriage ban. A number of hypotheses are explored that examine the urban/rural nature of each county, as well as the political and demographic characteristics of county residents. The findings indicate that countywide support for the Republican Party, and lower income and education levels, are associated with support for gay marriage bans.

  13. What Do Capacity Deployment Rates Tell Us about the Efficiency of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources Support Measures in Greece?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Papadelis


    Full Text Available The efficiency of fiscal support for electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E is a multifaceted notion that cannot be adequately described by a single metric. Efficiency is related to the ability of a policy measure to support deployment without creating negative feedback effects. These negative effects may stem from saturation of the grid’s ability to absorb an increased amount of RES-E power, the inability of regulatory bodies to cope with the larger workload due to the increased number of projects requesting permits or from rent-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the primary rationale for feed-in tariffs (FITs and other fiscal support schemes is that increased deployment of RES-E technologies will lead to reductions in costs and increases in efficiency. As a result, the efficiency of an RES-E support policy should be also judged by its ability to capitalize on cost reductions. Overall, we present an approach to facilitate ongoing assessments of the efficiency of support measures for RES-E deployment. We demonstrate the proposed approach using the FIT support policy in Greece as a case study. In particular, the RES-E support policy in Greece has been recently revised through tariff cuts and a moratorium on new production licenses. We aim to demonstrate that if publicly available data are appropriately monitored, a policy revision can take place in a timelier and less disruptive manner.

  14. Susceptibility of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes. (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E


    We investigated differential susceptibility of lady beetles to entomopathogenic nematodes, for two reasons: (1) to estimate potential nontarget effects on natural lady beetle populations, (2) to compare the susceptibility of exotic versus native lady beetle species. We hypothesize that successful establishment of some exotically introduced arthropods may be due, in part, to a lower susceptibility relative to competing native species. In laboratory studies, we compared the pathogenicity, virulence, and reproductive capacity of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae among two native (Coleomegilla maculata and Olla v-nigrum) and two successfully established exotic (Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata) lady beetles, and a known susceptible lepidopteran host, Agrotis ipsilon. After 1 and 2 days of exposure to either nematode species, mortality of A. ipsilon was higher than in all lady beetles. Thus, we predict that nematode field applications would have significantly less impact on lady beetle populations than on a susceptible target pest. Additionally, the impact of soil-applied nematodes may be lower on lady beetles than on soil-dwelling hosts because the former spends relatively less time on the soil. Exotic lady beetles were less susceptible to nematode infection than native species. Reproductive capacity data also indicated lower host suitability in H. axyridis, but not in C. septempunctata. Overall, the hypothesis that low susceptibility to pathogens in certain exotic lady beetles may have contributed to competitive establishment was supported (especially for H. axyridis). Additional studies incorporating different hosts and pathogens from various geographic locations will be required to further address the hypothesis.

  15. Seroprevalence and susceptibility to hepatitis A in the European Union and European Economic Area: a systematic review. (United States)

    Carrillo-Santisteve, Paloma; Tavoschi, Lara; Severi, Ettore; Bonfigli, Sandro; Edelstein, Michael; Byström, Emma; Lopalco, Pierluigi


    Most of the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) is considered a region of very low hepatitis A virus (HAV) endemicity; however, geographical differences exist. We did a systematic review with the aim of describing seroprevalence and susceptibility in the general population or special groups in the EU and EEA. We searched databases and public health national institutes websites for HAV seroprevalence records published between Jan 1, 1975, and June 30, 2014, with no language restrictions. An updated search was done on Aug 10, 2016. We defined seroprevalence profiles (very low, low, and intermediate) as the proportion of the population with age-specific anti-HAV antibodies at age 15 and 30 years, and susceptibility profiles (low, moderate, high, and very high) as the proportion of susceptible individuals at age 30 and 50 years. We included 228 studies from 28 of 31 EU and EEA countries. For the period 2000-14, 24 countries had a very low seroprevalence profile, compared with five in 1975-89. The susceptibility among adults ranged between low and very high and had a geographical gradient, with three countries in the low susceptibility category. Since 1975, EU and EEA countries have shown decreasing seropositivity; however, considerable regional variability exists. The main limitations of this study are that the studies retrieved for analysis might not be representative of all EU and EEA publications about HAV and might have poor national representativeness. A large proportion of EU and EEA residents are now susceptible to HAV infection. Our Review supports the need to reconsider specific prevention and control measures, to further decrease HAV circulation while providing protection against the infection in the EU and EEA, and could be used to inform susceptible travellers visiting EU and EEA countries with different HAV endemicity levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isolates vere made using standard methods, Antibiotic susceptibility tests against commonly prescribed ... Acute otitis media is rapid with short .... sensitivity tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests: The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of major Gram positive and negative bacterial isolates obtained from clinical specimens.

  17. Quantitative susceptibility mapping of small objects using volume constraints. (United States)

    Liu, Saifeng; Neelavalli, Jaladhar; Cheng, Yu-Chung N; Tang, Jin; Mark Haacke, E


    Microbleeds have been implicated to play a role in many neurovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The diameter of each microbleed has been used previously as a possible quantitative measure for grading microbleeds. We propose that magnetic susceptibility provides a new quantitative measure of extravasated blood. Recently, a Fourier-based method has been used that allows susceptibility quantification from phase images for any arbitrarily shaped structures. However, when very small objects, such as microbleeds, are considered, the accuracy of this susceptibility mapping method still remains to be evaluated. In this article, air bubbles and glass beads are taken as microbleed surrogates to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of the susceptibility mapping method. We show that when an object occupies only a few voxels, an estimate of the true volume of the object is necessary for accurate susceptibility quantification. Remnant errors in the quantified susceptibilities and their sources are evaluated. We show that quantifying magnetic moment, rather than the susceptibility of these small structures, may be a better and more robust alternative. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Hypnotic susceptibility and dream characteristics. (United States)

    Zamore, N; Barrett, D


    This study examined the relationship of hypnotic susceptibility to a variety of dream characteristics and types of dream content. A Dream Questionnaire was constructed synthesizing Gibson's dream inventory and Hilgard's theoretical conceptions of hypnosis. Employing the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the Field Inventory for evaluating hypnotic response, several dream dimensions correlated significantly with hypnotizability. For subjects as a whole, the strongest correlates were the frequency of dreams which they believed to be precognitive and out-of-body dreams. Ability to dream on a chosen topic also correlated significantly with hypnotic susceptibility for both genders. For females only, there was a negative correlation of hypnotic susceptibility to flying dreams. Absorption correlated positively with dream recall, ability to dream on a chosen topic, reports of conflict resolution in dreams, creative ideas occurring in dreams, amount of color in dreams, pleasantness of dreams, bizarreness of dreams, flying dreams and precognitive dreams.

  19. Susceptibility to peer pressure and attachment to friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotar-Rihtarić Martina


    Full Text Available The role of attachment to friends in the explanation of adolescents’ susceptibility to peer pressure was explored, regarding the way these two constructs are measured. In Study 1, 475 high school students (194 boys and 281 girls were given Susceptibility to Peer Pressure Questionnaire, and their attachment to friends was measured with Modified Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory and Relationship Scales Questionnaire. One month later, 80 boys and 80 girls participated in Study 2, where they completed the same Susceptibility to Peer Pressure Questionnaire in a chat-room simulation, convinced that they can see other students’ answers and that their own answers could be seen by others. When susceptibility to peer pressure was measured by self-report questionnaire, the level of avoidance proved to be a significant predictor for boys, while the level of anxiety and the model of others were significant predictors for girls. When susceptibility to peer pressure was measured experimentally, the results showed that attachment dimensions predict only girls’ susceptibility and that the only significant predictor is their model of others.

  20. [Rapid antibiotic susceptibility test in Clinical Microbiology]. (United States)

    March Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto; Bratos Pérez, Miguel Ángel


    The most widely used antibiotic susceptibility testing methods in Clinical Microbiology are based on the phenotypic detection of antibiotic resistance by measuring bacterial growth in the presence of the antibiotic being tested. These conventional methods take typically 24hours to obtain results. A review is presented here of recently developed techniques for the rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibility. Data obtained with different methods such as molecular techniques, flow cytometry, chemiluminescence, mass spectrometry, commercial methods used in routine work, colorimetric methods, nephelometry, microarrays, microfluids, and methods based on cell disruption and sequencing, are analyzed and discussed in detail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  1. Ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huhn, S.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel (ed.); Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.


    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2012), s. 197-204 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:EU FP7(XE) HEALTH-F4-2007-200767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * molecular epidemiology * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.500, year: 2012

  2. Susceptibility to COPD: differential proteomic profiling after acute smoking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Franciosi

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, yet only a subset of smokers develops COPD. Family members of patients with severe early-onset COPD have an increased risk to develop COPD and are therefore defined as "susceptible individuals". Here we perform unbiased analyses of proteomic profiles to assess how "susceptible individuals" differ from age-matched "non-susceptible individuals" in response to cigarette smoking. Epithelial lining fluid (ELF was collected at baseline and 24 hours after smoking 3 cigarettes in young individuals susceptible or non-susceptible to develop COPD and older subjects with established COPD. Controls at baseline were older healthy smoking and non-smoking individuals. Five samples per group were pooled and analysed by stable isotope labelling (iTRAQ in duplicate. Six proteins were selected and validated by ELISA or immunohistochemistry. After smoking, 23 proteins increased or decreased in young susceptible individuals, 7 in young non-susceptible individuals, and 13 in COPD in the first experiment; 23 proteins increased or decreased in young susceptible individuals, 32 in young non-susceptible individuals, and 11 in COPD in the second experiment. SerpinB3 and Uteroglobin decreased after acute smoke exposure in young non-susceptible individuals exclusively, whereas Peroxiredoxin I, S100A9, S100A8, ALDH3A1 (Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 decreased both in young susceptible and non-susceptible individuals, changes being significantly different between groups for Uteroglobin with iTRAQ and for Serpin B3 with iTRAQ and ELISA measures. Peroxiredoxin I, SerpinB3 and ALDH3A1 increased in COPD patients after smoking. We conclude that smoking induces a differential protein response in ELF of susceptible and non-susceptible young individuals, which differs from patients with established COPD. This is the first study applying unbiased proteomic profiling to unravel the underlying

  3. Local magnetic susceptibility in rare-earth compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Obu, K


    The element specific magnetic susceptibilities of some rare-earth compounds are estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism at rare-earth M sub 4 sub , sub 5 absorption edges. The temperature dependences of the rare-earth 4f local magnetic susceptibilities in dense Kondo materials, CeNi, CeSn sub 3 and CeRu sub 4 Sb sub 1 sub 2 , are remarkably different from those of the bulk magnetic susceptibilities measured by a conventional magnetometer, although the 4f electron is regarded to mainly hold the magnetic moment in these compounds. In contrast, the rare-earth 4f local magnetic susceptibility of ferromagnetic NdFe sub 4 P sub 1 sub 2 shows almost as similar behavior as the bulk one.

  4. Magnetic Susceptibilities as they appeared to me - An Amperian approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Bosch, A.


    Starting from scratch, the book narrates a systematic story of the basic ideas you need for understanding quasi static magnetic susceptibilities. The story leans on the authors 25 year experience measuring susceptibilities following the Faraday technique (related with solid state physics, radiation effects, materials and magneto chemistry). The base of magnetism, the current-current interaction, is the linkage between the topics treated. The number of mathematical equations are reduced to a minimum and can be skipped without losing the thread of the story. The story is positive towards the sound bases of magnetism. However, room is left for the interpretation of measuring data. As the word susceptibility covers different meanings, the story answers for different situations the question: what is susceptible to what for creating what?

  5. Modeling and Explaining Content: Definition, Research Support, and Measurement of the "ETS"® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) Assessment Series. Research Memorandum No. RM-16-07 (United States)

    Stickler, Leslie; Sykes, Gary


    This report reviews the scholarly and research evidence supporting the construct labeled modeling and explaining content (MEC), which is measured via a performance assessment in the "ETS"® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) assessment series. This construct involves practices at the heart of teaching that deal with how…

  6. Sensor monitoring to measure and support daily functioning for independently living older people: a systematic review and road map for further development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, Margriet C.; Poerbodipoero, Soemitro; Robben, Saskia; Daams, Joost; van Hartingsveldt, Margo; de Vos, Rien; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Kröse, Ben; Buurman, Bianca M.


    To study sensor monitoring (use of a sensor network placed in the home environment to observe individuals' daily functioning (activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living)) as a method to measure and support daily functioning for older people living independently at home.

  7. Sensor monitoring to measure and support daily functioning for independently living older people: A systematic review and road map for further development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, M.C.; Poerbodipoero, S.; Robben, S.; Daams, J.; van Hartingsveldt, M.; de Vos, R.; de Rooij, S.E.; Kröse, B.; Buurman, B.M.


    Objectives To study sensor monitoring (use of a sensor network placed in the home environment to observe individuals' daily functioning (activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living)) as a method to measure and support daily functioning for older people living independently

  8. Central Office Supports for Data-Driven Talent Management Decisions: Evidence from the Implementation of New Systems for Measuring Teacher Effectiveness (United States)

    Grissom, Jason A.; Rubin, Mollie; Neumerski, Christine M.; Cannata, Marisa; Drake, Timothy A.; Goldring, Ellen; Schuermann, Patrick


    School districts increasingly push school leaders to utilize multiple measures of teacher effectiveness, such as observation ratings or value-added scores, in making talent management decisions, including teacher hiring, assignment, support, and retention, but we know little about the local conditions that promote or impede these processes. We…

  9. Quality assurance guidance for field sampling and measurement assessment plates in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document is one of several guidance documents developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). These documents support the EM Analytical Services Program (ASP) and are based on applicable regulatory requirements and DOE Orders. They address requirements in DOE Orders by providing guidance that pertains specifically to environmental restoration and waste management sampling and analysis activities. DOE 5700.6C Quality Assurance (QA) defines policy and requirements to establish QA programs ensuring that risks and environmental impacts are minimized and that safety, reliability, and performance are maximized. This is accomplished through the application of effective management systems commensurate with the risks imposed by the facility and the project. Every organization supporting EM`s environmental sampling and analysis activities must develop and document a QA program. Management of each organization is responsible for appropriate QA program implementation, assessment, and improvement. The collection of credible and cost-effective environmental data is critical to the long-term success of remedial and waste management actions performed at DOE facilities. Only well established and management supported assessment programs within each EM-support organization will enable DOE to demonstrate data quality. The purpose of this series of documents is to offer specific guidance for establishing an effective assessment program for EM`s environmental sampling and analysis (ESA) activities.

  10. Implant-supported mandibular removable partial dentures; patient-based outcome measures in relation to implant position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Kerdijk, Wouter; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Cune, Marco S.


    Objectives: To assess the benefits of implant support to Removable Partial Dentures (RPD) in patients with a bilateral free-ending situation in the mandible and to determine the most favorable implant position: the premolar (PM) or the molar (M) region. Methods: Thirty subjects with a bilateral

  11. Development and Initial Validation of a Measure to Assess Factors Related to Sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; MacKay, Leslie D.; Hume, Amanda E.; Doolittle, Jennifer; Vincent, Claudia G.; Horner, Robert H.; Ervin, Ruth A.


    Sustainability of effective practices in schools is a critical area for research in any domain. The purpose of this article is to describe and evaluate the validity and reliability of a recently developed research instrument designed to evaluate schools' capacity to sustain school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) efforts at the universal…

  12. Development and implementation of a local government survey to measure community supports for healthy eating and active living. (United States)

    Moore, Latetia V; Carlson, Susan A; Onufrak, Stephen; Carroll, Dianna D; Galuska, Deborah


    The ability to make healthy choices is influenced by where one lives, works, shops, and plays. Locally enacted policies and standards can influence these surroundings but little is known about the prevalence of such policies and standards that support healthier behaviors. In this paper, we describe the development of a survey questionnaire designed to capture local level policy supports for healthy eating and active living and findings and lessons learned from a 2012 pilot in two states, Minnesota and California, including respondent burden, survey sampling and administration methods, and survey item feasibility issues. A 38-item, web-based, self-administered survey and sampling frame were developed to assess the prevalence of 22 types of healthy eating and active living policies in a representative sample of local governments in the two states. The majority of respondents indicated the survey required minimal effort to complete with half taking plan including emails and phone calls was required to achieve a 68% response rate (versus a 37% response rate for email only reminders). Local governments with larger residential populations reported having healthy eating and active living policies and standards more often than smaller governments. Policies that support active living were more common than those that support healthy eating and varied within the two states. The methods we developed are a feasible data collection tool for estimating the prevalence of municipal healthy eating and active living policies and standards at the state and national level.

  13. Motivation, Needs Support, and Language Arts Classroom Practices: Creation and Validation of a Measure of Young Adolescents' Perceptions (United States)

    Pennington, Sarah E.


    Early adolescence is a critical time for examining academic motivation, specifically motivation to read. To support self-determined motivation to read, students' needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness must be met within the classroom context. Because classroom instructional practices are a key component of adolescents' daily experiences…

  14. Is Streptococcus pyogenes Resistant or Susceptible to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole? (United States)

    Lilliebridge, Rachael A.; Tong, Steven Y. C.; Baird, Robert W.; Ward, Peter; McDonald, Malcolm I.; Currie, Bart J.; Carapetis, Jonathan R.


    Streptococcus pyogenes is commonly believed to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), resulting in reservations about using SXT for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) where S. pyogenes is involved. S. pyogenes' in vitro susceptibility to SXT depends on the medium's thymidine content. Thymidine allows S. pyogenes to bypass the sulfur-mediated inhibition of folate metabolism and, historically, has resulted in apparently reduced susceptibility of S. pyogenes to sulfur antibacterials. The low thymidine concentration in Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) is now regulated. We explored S. pyogenes susceptibility to SXT on various media. Using two sets of 100 clinical S. pyogenes isolates, we tested for susceptibility using SXT Etests on MHA containing defibrinated horse blood and 20 mg/liter β-NAD (MHF), MHA with sheep blood (MHS), MHA alone, MHA with horse blood (MHBA), and MHA with lysed horse blood (MHLHBA). European Committee on Antibacterial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints defined susceptibility (MIC, ≤1 mg/liter) and resistance (MIC, >2 mg/liter). In study 1, 99% of S. pyogenes isolates were susceptible to SXT on MHA, MHBA, and MHLHBA, with geometric mean MICs of 0.04, 0.04, and 0.05 mg/liter, respectively. In study 2, all 100 S. pyogenes isolates were susceptible to SXT on MHF, MHS, MHA, and MHLHBA with geometric mean MICs of 0.07, 0.16, 0.07, and 0.09 mg/liter, respectively. This study confirms the in vitro susceptibility of S. pyogenes to SXT, providing support for the use of SXT for SSTIs. A clinical trial using SXT for impetigo is ongoing. PMID:23052313

  15. ventilatory support

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinfu Betemariam, Gebreyesus Hagos. Abstract. Background: Mechanical Ventilation is a supportive measure for patients who are in respiratory failure. Objective: Designed to identify the commonest pathology responsible for admission to the unit for mechanical respiratory support. Method: A prospective case study ...

  16. MyOSD 2014: Evaluating Oceanographic Measurements Contributed by Citizen Scientists in Support of Ocean Sampling Day. (United States)

    Schnetzer, Julia; Kopf, Anna; Bietz, Matthew J; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Ristov, Aleksandar Pop; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Kottmann, Renzo


    The first Ocean Sampling Day (OSD) took place on June 21, 2014. In a coordinated effort, an internationally distributed group of scientists collected samples from marine surface waters in order to study microbial diversity on a single day with global granularity. Concurrently, citizen scientists enriched the OSD initiative through the MyOSD project, providing additional oceanographic measurements crucial to the contextualization of microbial diversity. Clear protocols, a user-friendly smartphone application, and an online web-form guided citizens in accurate data acquisition, promoting quality submissions to the project's information system. To evaluate the coverage and quality of MyOSD data submissions, we compared the sea surface temperature measurements acquired through OSD, MyOSD, and automatic in situ systems and satellite measurements. Our results show that the quality of citizen-science measurements was comparable to that of scientific measurements. As 79% of MyOSD measurements were conducted in geographic areas not covered by automatic in situ or satellite measurement, citizen scientists contributed significantly to worldwide oceanographic data gathering. Furthermore, survey results indicate that participation in MyOSD made citizens feel more engaged in ocean issues and may have increased their environmental awareness and ocean literacy.

  17. MyOSD 2014: Evaluating Oceanographic Measurements Contributed by Citizen Scientists in Support of Ocean Sampling Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schnetzer


    Full Text Available The first Ocean Sampling Day (OSD took place on June 21, 2014. In a coordinated effort, an internationally distributed group of scientists collected samples from marine surface waters in order to study microbial diversity on a single day with global granularity. Concurrently, citizen scientists enriched the OSD initiative through the MyOSD project, providing additional oceanographic measurements crucial to the contextualization of microbial diversity. Clear protocols, a user-friendly smartphone application, and an online web-form guided citizens in accurate data acquisition, promoting quality submissions to the project’s information system. To evaluate the coverage and quality of MyOSD data submissions, we compared the sea surface temperature measurements acquired through OSD, MyOSD, and automatic in situ systems and satellite measurements. Our results show that the quality of citizen-science measurements was comparable to that of scientific measurements. As 79% of MyOSD measurements were conducted in geographic areas not covered by automatic in situ or satellite measurement, citizen scientists contributed significantly to worldwide oceanographic data gathering. Furthermore, survey results indicate that participation in MyOSD made citizens feel more engaged in ocean issues and may have increased their environmental awareness and ocean literacy.

  18. Identifying predictors of activity based anorexia susceptibility in diverse genetic rodent populations. (United States)

    Pjetri, Eneda; de Haas, Ria; de Jong, Simone; Gelegen, Cigdem; Oppelaar, Hugo; Verhagen, Linda A W; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Adan, Roger A; Olivier, Berend; Kas, Martien J


    Animal studies are very useful in detection of early disease indicators and in unravelling the pathophysiological processes underlying core psychiatric disorder phenotypes. Early indicators are critical for preventive and efficient treatment of progressive psychiatric disorders like anorexia nervosa. Comparable to physical hyperactivity observed in anorexia nervosa patients, in the activity-based anorexia rodent model, mice and rats express paradoxical high voluntary wheel running activity levels when food restricted. Eleven inbred mouse strains and outbred Wistar WU rats were exposed to the activity-based anorexia model in search of identifying susceptibility predictors. Body weight, food intake and wheel running activity levels of each individual mouse and rat were measured. Mouse strains and rats with high wheel running activity levels during food restriction exhibited accelerated body weight loss. Linear mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed that baseline wheel running activity levels preceding the scheduled food restriction phase strongly predicted activity-based anorexia susceptibility (mice: Beta  =  -0.0158 (±0.003 SE), Prats: Beta  =  -0.0242 (±0.004 SE), P<0.0001) compared to other baseline parameters. These results suggest that physical activity levels play an important role in activity-based anorexia susceptibility in different rodent species with genetically diverse background. These findings support previous retrospective studies on physical activity levels in anorexia nervosa patients and indicate that pre-morbid physical activity levels could reflect an early indicator for disease severity.

  19. Identifying predictors of activity based anorexia susceptibility in diverse genetic rodent populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneda Pjetri

    Full Text Available Animal studies are very useful in detection of early disease indicators and in unravelling the pathophysiological processes underlying core psychiatric disorder phenotypes. Early indicators are critical for preventive and efficient treatment of progressive psychiatric disorders like anorexia nervosa. Comparable to physical hyperactivity observed in anorexia nervosa patients, in the activity-based anorexia rodent model, mice and rats express paradoxical high voluntary wheel running activity levels when food restricted. Eleven inbred mouse strains and outbred Wistar WU rats were exposed to the activity-based anorexia model in search of identifying susceptibility predictors. Body weight, food intake and wheel running activity levels of each individual mouse and rat were measured. Mouse strains and rats with high wheel running activity levels during food restriction exhibited accelerated body weight loss. Linear mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed that baseline wheel running activity levels preceding the scheduled food restriction phase strongly predicted activity-based anorexia susceptibility (mice: Beta  =  -0.0158 (±0.003 SE, P<0.0001; rats: Beta  =  -0.0242 (±0.004 SE, P<0.0001 compared to other baseline parameters. These results suggest that physical activity levels play an important role in activity-based anorexia susceptibility in different rodent species with genetically diverse background. These findings support previous retrospective studies on physical activity levels in anorexia nervosa patients and indicate that pre-morbid physical activity levels could reflect an early indicator for disease severity.

  20. Development and implementation of a local government survey to measure community supports for healthy eating and active living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latetia V Moore


    Full Text Available The ability to make healthy choices is influenced by where one lives, works, shops, and plays. Locally enacted policies and standards can influence these surroundings but little is known about the prevalence of such policies and standards that support healthier behaviors. In this paper, we describe the development of a survey questionnaire designed to capture local level policy supports for healthy eating and active living and findings and lessons learned from a 2012 pilot in two states, Minnesota and California, including respondent burden, survey sampling and administration methods, and survey item feasibility issues. A 38-item, web-based, self-administered survey and sampling frame were developed to assess the prevalence of 22 types of healthy eating and active living policies in a representative sample of local governments in the two states. The majority of respondents indicated the survey required minimal effort to complete with half taking <20 min to complete the survey. A non-response follow-up plan including emails and phone calls was required to achieve a 68% response rate (versus a 37% response rate for email only reminders. Local governments with larger residential populations reported having healthy eating and active living policies and standards more often than smaller governments. Policies that support active living were more common than those that support healthy eating and varied within the two states. The methods we developed are a feasible data collection tool for estimating the prevalence of municipal healthy eating and active living policies and standards at the state and national level.

  1. Financial Measures for Electric Vehicles:Supporting the Integration of Renewable Energy in the Mobility Sector in Germany


    Bickert, Stefan


    Electric vehicles (EV) are able to support the transition of sectors towards sustainability. The operation of these vehicles with renewable energies saves local and global emissions. Furthermore, fluctuating renewable energies can be integrated in existing energy systems by using electric vehicles for grid services. Thus, implementation of advantages requires market establishment of electric vehicles. The article provides a review on potentials of market development by comparing and studying ...

  2. Genetic architecture of intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany S Girgis


    Full Text Available Antibiotic exposure rapidly selects for more resistant bacterial strains, and both a drug's chemical structure and a bacterium's cellular network affect the types of mutations acquired.To better characterize the genetic determinants of antibiotic susceptibility, we exposed a transposon-mutagenized library of Escherichia coli to each of 17 antibiotics that encompass a wide range of drug classes and mechanisms of action. Propagating the library for multiple generations with drug concentrations that moderately inhibited the growth of the isogenic parental strain caused the abundance of strains with even minor fitness advantages or disadvantages to change measurably and reproducibly. Using a microarray-based genetic footprinting strategy, we then determined the quantitative contribution of each gene to E. coli's intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility. We found both loci whose removal increased general antibiotic tolerance as well as pathways whose down-regulation increased tolerance to specific drugs and drug classes. The beneficial mutations identified span multiple pathways, and we identified pairs of mutations that individually provide only minor decreases in antibiotic susceptibility but that combine to provide higher tolerance.Our results illustrate that a wide-range of mutations can modulate the activity of many cellular resistance processes and demonstrate that E. coli has a large mutational target size for increasing antibiotic tolerance. Furthermore, the work suggests that clinical levels of antibiotic resistance might develop through the sequential accumulation of chromosomal mutations of small individual effect.

  3. Adolescent Susceptibility to Peer Influence in Sexual Situations (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.


    Purpose One consistent predictor of adolescents’ engagement in sexual risk behavior is their belief that peers are engaging in similar behavior; however, not all youth are equally susceptible to these peer influence effects. Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence is critical to identifying adolescents at risk for negative health outcomes. The purpose of this project was to identify predictors of susceptibility to peer influence using a novel performance-based measure of sexual risk-taking. Methods Participants were 300 early adolescents (Mage=12.6; 53% female; 44% Caucasian) who completed 1) a pretest assessment of demographics, sexual attitudes, and hypothetical scenarios measuring the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior, and 2) a subsequent experimental procedure that simulated an internet chat room in which youth believed they were communicating with peers regarding these same hypothetical scenarios. In reality, these “peers” were computer-programmed e-confederates. Changes in responses to the sexual scenarios in the private pretest versus during the public chat room provided a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Results In total, 78% of youth provided more risky responses in the chat room than in pretest. The most robust predictor of this change was gender, with boys significantly more susceptible to peer influence than girls. Significant interactions also were noted, with greater susceptibility among boys with later pubertal development and African American boys. Conclusion Results confirm that not all youth are equally susceptible to peer influence. Consistent with sexual script theory, boys evidence greater susceptibility to social pressure regarding sexual behavior than girls. PMID:26794431

  4. Adolescent Susceptibility to Peer Influence in Sexual Situations. (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W; Prinstein, Mitchell J


    One consistent predictor of adolescents' engagement in sexual risk behavior is their belief that peers are engaging in similar behavior; however, not all youth are equally susceptible to these peer influence effects. Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence is critical to identifying adolescents at risk for negative health outcomes. The purpose of this project was to identify predictors of susceptibility to peer influence using a novel performance-based measure of sexual risk taking. Participants were 300 early adolescents (Mage = 12.6 years; 53% female; 44% Caucasian) who completed (1) a pretest assessment of demographics, sexual attitudes, and hypothetical scenarios measuring the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior and (2) a subsequent experimental procedure that simulated an Internet chat room in which youth believed that they were communicating with peers regarding these same hypothetical scenarios. In reality, these "peers" were computer-programmed e-confederates. Changes in responses to the sexual scenarios in the private pretest versus during the public chat room provided a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. In total, 78% of youth provided more risky responses in the chat room than those in pretest. The most robust predictor of this change was gender, with boys significantly more susceptible to peer influence than girls. Significant interactions also were noted, with greater susceptibility among boys with later pubertal development and African-American boys. Results confirm that not all youth are equally susceptible to peer influence. Consistent with sexual script theory, boys evidence greater susceptibility to social pressure regarding sexual behavior than girls. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ban


    Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4 and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg. Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity.

  6. Data in support for the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD by tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Jensen


    Full Text Available This article provides data and a method related to a research paper entitled “Assessing vitamin D nutritional status: is capillary blood adequate?” (Jensen et al., 2016 [1]. Circulating 25OHD, the accepted biomarker of the vitamin D nutritional status, is routinely measured by automated immunoassays, that although may be performed in hospital central laboratories, often suffer from a lack of specificity with regards to the different vitamin D metabolites, “Measurement of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a historical review” (Le Goff et al., 2015 [2]. Mass spectrometry offers this specificity. This article describes the performance of an in-house tandem mass spectrometry method for the individual measurement of 25OHD3, 25OHD2 and 3-épi-25OHD3.

  7. Religion, spirituality, social support and quality of life: measurement and predictors CASP-12(v2) amongst older Ethiopians living in Addis Ababa. (United States)

    Hamren, Kidist; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Hyde, Martin


    As African populations begin to age developing accurate measures of quality of life (QoL) in later life for use on the continent is becoming imperative. This study evaluates the measurement and predictors of QoL amongst older Ethiopians. The data come from a multi-stage cluster sample of 214 people aged 55 and over living in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. QoL was measured using the CASP-12(v2). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the properties of the scale. The relationships between social support, religiosity/spirituality and socio-demographic factors on QoL were tested with linear regression analyses. The CASP subscales exhibited good internal reliability and the CFA provides reasonable support for an 11-item 4-factor model (CFI, 0.954; RMSEA 0.075). Multivariate regression analyses suggest that both religiousness/spirituality and social support have positive relationships with QoL. Older people in Africa can often be socially isolated, marginalised and in extreme poverty. Yet few studies have looked at QoL more generally and there is no accepted gold standard measurement of QoL. Yet such a development would allow researchers to directly compare QoL and the determinants of QoL amongst older Africans and those elsewhere. The results show that a modified 11-item CASP is a meaningful measure of QoL for use with older Ethiopians. Both religiousness/spirituality and social support are positively associated with QoL and might be important buffers against deprivation.

  8. The landslide susceptibility map of Italy at 1:1 Million scale (United States)

    Trigila, A.; Catani, F.; Casagli, N.; Crosta, G.; Esposito, C.; Frattini, P.; Iadanza, C.; Lagomarsino, D.; Lari, S.; Scarascia Mugnozza, G.; Segoni, S.; Spizzichino, D.; Tofani, V.


    a significant number of statistical units. These tests also demonstrated that large grid-cells (100x100 m, 500x500 m) are suitable terrain units for the scale of the analysis. Considering the results of the tests, the Bayesian Tree Random Forest model was selected to produce the 1:1,000,000 susceptibility map of Italy. Landslide susceptibility map of Italy at 1:1,000,000 scale can be an important support for the implementation of pan-European landslide susceptibility map and a useful tools for the EU policies and measures finalized to the landslide risk reduction and mitigation.

  9. Ventilation distribution measured with EIT at varying levels of pressure support and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist in patients with ALI. (United States)

    Blankman, Paul; Hasan, Djo; van Mourik, Martijn S; Gommers, Diederik


    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of varying levels of assist during pressure support (PSV) and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) on the aeration of the dependent and non-dependent lung regions by means of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). We studied ten mechanically ventilated patients with Acute Lung Injury (ALI). Positive-End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) and PSV levels were both 10 cm H₂O during the initial PSV step. Thereafter, we changed the inspiratory pressure to 15 and 5 cm H₂O during PSV. The electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) during pressure support ten was used to define the initial NAVA gain (100 %). Thereafter, we changed NAVA gain to 150 and 50 %, respectively. After each step the assist level was switched back to PSV 10 cm H₂O or NAVA 100 % to get a new baseline. The EIT registration was performed continuously. Tidal impedance variation significantly decreased during descending PSV levels within patients, whereas not during NAVA. The dorsal-to-ventral impedance distribution, expressed according to the center of gravity index, was lower during PSV compared to NAVA. Ventilation contribution of the dependent lung region was equally in balance with the non-dependent lung region during PSV 5 cm H₂O, NAVA 50 and 100 %. Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist ventilation had a beneficial effect on the ventilation of the dependent lung region and showed less over-assistance compared to PSV in patients with ALI.

  10. Measurement of adherence in a randomised controlled trial of a complex intervention: supported self-management for adults with learning disability and type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Graham, Liz; Wright, Judy; Walwyn, Rebecca; Russell, Amy M; Bryant, Louise; Farrin, Amanda; House, Allan


    Reporting adherence to intervention delivery and uptake is a detailed way of describing what was actually delivered and received, in comparison to what was intended. Measuring and reporting adherence is not routinely done well in complex interventions. The OK Diabetes trial (ISRCTN41897033) aimed to develop and subsequently test the feasibility of implementing a supported self-management intervention in adults with a learning disability and type 2 diabetes. A key study objective was to develop a measure of adherence to the intervention. We conducted a systematic review of published literature, extracting data from included papers using a standardised proforma. We undertook a narrative synthesis of papers to determine the form and content of methods for adherence measurement for self-management interventions in this population that had already been developed. We used the framework and data extraction form developed for the review as the basis for an adherence measurement tool that we applied in the OK Diabetes trial. The literature review found variability in the quality and content of adherence measurement and reporting, with no standardised approach. We were able to develop an adherence measure based upon the review, and populate it with data collected during the OK Diabetes trial. The adherence tool proved satisfactory for recording and measuring adherence in the trial. There remains a need for a standardised approach to adherence measurement in the field of complex interventions. We have shown that it is possible to produce a simple, feasible measure for assessing adherence in the OK Diabetes trial.

  11. Environmental opportunities questionnaire: development of a measure of the environment supporting early motor development in the first year of life. (United States)

    Doralp, Samantha; Bartlett, Doreen J


    The development and testing of a measure evaluating the quality and variability in the home environment as it relates to the motor development of infants during the first year of life. A sample of 112 boys and 95 girls with a mean age of 7.1 months (SD 1.8) and GA of 39.6 weeks (SD 1.5) participated in the study. The measurement development process was divided into three phases: measurement development (item generation or selection of items from existing measurement tools), pilot testing to determine acceptability and feasibility to parents, and exploratory factor analysis to organize items into meaningful concepts. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were also determined. The environmental opportunities questionnaire (EOQ) is a feasible 21-item measure comprised of three factors including opportunities in the play space, sensory variety and parental encouragement. Overall, test-retest reliability was 0.92 (CI 0.84-0.96) and the internal consistency is 0.79. The EOQ emphasizes quality of the environment and access to equipment and toys that have the potential to facilitate early motor development. The preliminary analyses reported here suggest more work could be done on the EOQ to strengthen its use for research or clinical purposes; however, it is adequate for use in its current form. Implications for Rehabilitation New and feasible 21-item questionnaire that enables identification of malleable environmental factors that serve as potential points of intervention for children that are not developing typically. Therapeutic tool for use by therapists to inform and guide discussions with caregivers about potential influences of environmental, social and attitudinal factors in their child's early development.

  12. Inherited susceptibility and radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)


    There is continuing concern that some people in the general population may have genetic makeups that place them at particularly high risk for radiation-induced cancer. The existence of such a susceptible subpopulation would have obvious implications for the estimation of risks of radiation exposure. Although it has been long known that familial aggregations of cancer do sometimes occur, recent evidence suggests that a general genetic predisposition to cancer does not exist; most cancers occur sporadically. On the other hand, nearly 10% of the known Mendelian genetic disorders are associated with cancer. A number of these involve a familial predisposition to cancer, and some are characterized by an enhanced susceptibility to the induction of cancer by various physical and chemical carcinogens, including ionizing radiation. Such increased susceptibility will depend on several factors including the frequency of the susceptibility gene in the population and its penetrance, the strength of the predisposition, and the degree to which the cancer incidence in susceptible individuals may be increased by the carcinogen. It is now known that these cancer-predisposing genes may be responsible not only for rare familial cancer syndromes, but also for a proportion of the common cancers. Although the currently known disorders can account for only a small fraction of all cancers, they serve as models for genetic predisposition to carcinogen-induced cancer in the general population. In the present report, the author describes current knowledge of those specific disorders that are associated with an enhanced predisposition to radiation-induced cancer, and discusses how this knowledge may bear on the susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer in the general population and estimates of the risk of radiation exposure.

  13. AC susceptibility in superconducting Pb-Bi alloys; Pb-Bi chodendotai no koryu taijiritsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, A.; Mawatari, K.; Akune, T.; Sakamoto, N. [Kyushu sangyo Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering


    It is effective to measure the ac magnetic susceptibility by the control of the pin force. The control of pin force of the oxide superconductor measured the ac magnetic susceptibility using Pb-Bi alloy in which the control of the pin force was the easy metal system superconductor, because it is difficult, and then, evaluation and examination were carried out with peaks in the imaginary part of got ac magnetic susceptibility, etc. in respect of the relation with the pinning characteristics. (NEDO)

  14. pitting corrosion susceptibility pitting corrosion susceptibility of aisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. The susceptibility of austenitic (AISI 301) stainless steel to pitting corrosion was evaluated in sodium chloride. (NaCl) solutions ... AISI 301 steel suffers from pitting corrosion in all the investigated solutions. AISI 301 steel suffers from ..... [1] Ijeomah, M.N.C. Elements of Corrosion and Protection. Theory, Auto Century ...

  15. Molecular analysis of Arabidopsis susceptibility to oomycete pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, N.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412352818


    Plants are under constant attack by pathogens, but successful infections are more exception than rule. Plants use their defense system to fend off many attackers. On the other hand, they also contain so-called susceptibility genes (S genes), that facilitate or support the infection process.

  16. Comparative susceptibility of vero and baby hamster kidney cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to assess the comparative susceptibility of the different cell lines to PPRV using virus isolation by Vero and BHK cell lines from field samples. The inoculated BHK and Vero cells supported the growth of the virus with syncytia formation more commonly observed in the BHK cells while vacuolation ...

  17. Growth, carcase and meat characteristics of stress susceptible and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resultant loss in mass (Klingbiel, Naude & Van Essen,. 1976), undesirable colour and accumulation of undesirable fluid (Lister, Gregory & Warris, 1981). In summary, results of the present study support previous data collected on the growth and carcase characteristics of stress susceptible Landrace pigs. In general, stress ...

  18. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies of Campanian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The observed AMS parameters like shape factor () (prolate to oblate), value and random distribution of minimum (3) and maximum (1) susceptibility axes are supported for secondary fabrics in Kallankurichchi Formation as a result of post-depositional processes. Based on petrographic studies, it can be established ...

  19. Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    CERN Document Server

    Aalseth, C E; Haas, D A; Hoppe, E W; Hyronimus, B J; Keillor, M E; Mace, E K; Orrell, J L; Seifert, A; Woods, V T


    On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced from neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca(n,{\\alpha})37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for completion of an inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This paper presents a low-background internal-source gas proportional counter with an 37Ar measurement sensitivity level equivalent to 45.1 mBq/SCM in whole air.

  20. Landslide susceptibility mapping using support vector machine and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geospatial Information Science Research Centre (GISRC), University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Department of Civil Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Key Laboratory of Active Tectonics and Volcano, Institute of Geology, China Earthquake ...

  1. A spatial decision support system for pipe-break susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Municipal water distribution maintenance is very important for sustainable urban development. Water pipe-breaks result not only in disrupting service but also in significant loss of water, which otherwise could have been sold to the consumer. In countries where water is scarce, such as South Africa, water losses can be ...

  2. Validation of a Social Networks and Support Measurement Tool for Use in International Aging Research: The International Mobility in Aging Study. (United States)

    Ahmed, Tamer; Belanger, Emmanuelle; Vafaei, Afshin; Koné, Georges K; Alvarado, Beatriz; Béland, François; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria


    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new instrument to assess social networks and social support (IMIAS-SNSS) for different types of social ties in an international sample of older adults. The study sample included n = 1995 community dwelling older people aged between 65 and 74 years from the baseline of the longitudinal International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). In order to measure social networks for each type of social tie, participants were asked about the number of contacts, the number of contacts they see at least once a month or have a very good relationship with, or speak with at least once a month. For social support, participants had to rate the level of social support provided by the four types of contacts for five Likert scale items. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was conducted to determine the goodness of fit of the measurement models. Satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices confirmed the satisfactory factorial structure of the IMIAS-SNSS instrument. Reliability coefficients were 0.80, 0.81, 0.85, and 0.88 for friends, children, family, and partner models, respectively. The models were confirmed by CFA for each type of social tie. Moreover, IMIAS-SNSS detected gender differences in the older adult populations of IMIAS. These results provide evidence supporting that IMIAS-SNSS is a psychometrically sound instrument and of its validity and reliability for international populations of older adults.

  3. X-ray-induced reduction of Au ions in an aqueous solution in the presence of support materials and in situ time-resolved XANES measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, Yuji, E-mail:; Nakagawa, Takashi; Seino, Satoshi; Kugai, Junichiro; Yamamoto, Takao A. [Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nitani, Hiroaki; Niwa, Yasuhiro [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)


    In situ time-resolved XANES measurements of Au ions in an aqueous solution in the presence of support materials were performed under synchrotron X-ray irradiation. The synchrotron X-ray-induced reduction of Au ions leads to the formation of Au nanoparticles on the carbon particles, acrylic cell or polyimide window. The deposited Au metallic spots were affected by the wettability of carbon particles. Synchrotron X-ray-induced reduction of Au ions in an aqueous solution with or without support materials is reported. To clarify the process of radiation-induced reduction of metal ions in aqueous solutions in the presence of carbon particles as support materials, in situ time-resolved XANES measurements of Au ions were performed under synchrotron X-ray irradiation. XANES spectra were obtained only when hydrophobic carbon particles were added to the precursor solution containing Au ions. Changes in the shape of the XANES spectra indicated a rapid reduction from ionic to metallic Au in the precursor solution owing to synchrotron X-ray irradiation. In addition, the effects of the wettability of the carbon particles on the deposited Au metallic spots were examined. The deposited Au metallic spots were different depending on the relationship of surface charges between metal precursors and support materials. Moreover, a Au film was obtained as a by-product only when hydrophilic carbon particles were added to the precursor solution containing the Au ions.

  4. The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and metrological support for measuring radiometric properties of objects of observations (United States)

    Krutikov, V. N.; Sapritsky, V. I.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Lisiansky, B. E.; Morozova, S. P.; Ogarev, S. A.; Panfilov, A. S.; Sakharov, M. K.; Samoylov, M. L.; Bingham, G.; Humpherys, T.; Thurgood, A.; Privalsky, V. E.


    The international Global Earth Observation System of Systems is at its initial stage. We present some general information about the program and formulate the task of ensuring the uniformity of radiometric measurements to be conducted by all the participating national systems. Methods of solving the task are suggested on the basis of the wide application of standard sources that use phase transition of eutectic alloys and pure metals as well as with the help of improved ground calibration facilities.

  5. Supporting Security against SYN Flooding Attack in Distributed DoS Via Measuring IPFIX-Based Traffic (United States)

    Alipour, H.; Kia, M. Kashefi; Esmaeili, M.

    Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers after 2000 have become a serious problem. In the distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks often seen recently, multiple distributed nodes concurrently attack a single server. To assure that network services will not be interrupted, faster and more effective defense mechanisms is needed to protect against malicious traffic, especially SYN floods. One problem in detecting SYN flood traffic is that server nodes or firewalls cannot distinguish the SYN packets of normal TCP connections from those of a SYN flood attack. Our method, FDFIX, relies on the use of monitoring and measurement techniques to evaluate the impact of DoS attacks. It uses flow based measurements. Capturing flow information is very important for detecting DoS and also other kinds of attacks. Flow monitoring allows detecting suspicious traffics and in the next step can analyze attacking flows and the results can be used for defense methods. Our method provides required information for many mechanisms that use traffic measurement as their input.

  6. Calculations to Support On-line Neutron Spectrum Adjustment by Measurements with Miniature Fission Chambers in the JSI TRIGA Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiba Tanja


    Full Text Available Preliminary calculations were performed with the aim to establish optimal experimental conditions for the measurement campaign within the collaboration between the Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI and Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives (CEA Cadarache. The goal of the project is to additionally characterize the neutron spectruminside the JSI TRIGA reactor core with focus on the measurement epi-thermal and fast part of the spectrum. Measurements will be performed with fission chambers containing different fissile materials (235U, 237Np and 242Pu covered with thermal neutron filters (Cd and Gd. The changes in the detected signal and neutron flux spectrum with and without transmission filter were studied. Additional effort was put into evaluation of the effect of the filter geometry (e.g. opening on the top end of the filter on the detector signal. After the analysis of the scoping calculations it was concluded to position the experiment in the outside core ring inside one of the empty fuel element positions.

  7. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Bondarev


    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective is to determine the stress-strain state of supporting structures of the head car body and the traction transmission unit, which can be created in the operation of emergency situations, and to develop the measures aimed at improving the stress-strain state of these elements. Methodology. In order to achieve this objective, in performing the work an experimental determination of efforts and stress levels in the most loaded elements of supporting structures as well as the traction transmission units was conducted; design models for the theoretical determination of stress and effort levels were developed. Findings. Based on the analysis of the calculation results the best options for the upgrades, which have been put into the basis of proposals aimed at improving the strength indices, were revealed. Originality. Based on the experimental and theoretical studies, scientific monitoring of development works on modernization and improvement of strength indices of supporting structures of head cars of diesel trains DR1A was performed. Practical value. The technical solution to the measures, which are to be carried out beyond the limits of assigned operation lifetime for diesel train of the series specified was developed and transferred to the Ukrzaliznytsia experts to introduce the proposed measures on improving the strength indices.

  9. The patient-reported outcome (PRO) consortium: filling measurement gaps for PRO end points to support labeling claims. (United States)

    Coons, S J; Kothari, S; Monz, B U; Burke, L B


    The importance of appropriately and effectively incorporating the patient's voice into the evaluation of new medical products has been recognized and affirmed by regulators.(1,2,3) Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are increasingly being assessed in clinical trials to quantify treatment benefits such as symptom relief and improved functioning. Translating PRO-based treatment benefits into labeling claims can provide information to physicians and patients and assist in prescribing decisions.(4,5) Hence, standardizing the valid and reliable measurement of PRO end points is critical.

  10. A Semimetal Model of the Normal State Susceptibility and Transport Properties of Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 Superconductors (United States)

    Sales, Brian; Sefat, Athena; McGuire, Michael; Mandrus, David


    A simple two-band 3D model of a semimetal is constructed to see which normal state features of the Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 superconductors can be qualitatively understood within this framework. The model is able to account in a semiquantitative fashion for the measured magnetic susceptibility, Hall, and Seebeck data, and the low temperature Sommerfeld coefficient for 0 thinking about the physics of these interesting materials. Although many of the static magnetic properties, such as the increase of the magnetic susceptibility with temperature, are reproduced by the model, none of the spin-fluctuation dynamics are addressed. A general conclusion from the model is that the magnetic susceptibility of most semimetals should increase with temperatures. This is indeed found to be the case for two well-known semimetals Bi and TiSe2. Research supported by the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering.

  11. A novel method of protein secondary structure prediction with high segment overlap measure: support vector machine approach. (United States)

    Hua, S; Sun, Z


    We have introduced a new method of protein secondary structure prediction which is based on the theory of support vector machine (SVM). SVM represents a new approach to supervised pattern classification which has been successfully applied to a wide range of pattern recognition problems, including object recognition, speaker identification, gene function prediction with microarray expression profile, etc. In these cases, the performance of SVM either matches or is significantly better than that of traditional machine learning approaches, including neural networks.The first use of the SVM approach to predict protein secondary structure is described here. Unlike the previous studies, we first constructed several binary classifiers, then assembled a tertiary classifier for three secondary structure states (helix, sheet and coil) based on these binary classifiers. The SVM method achieved a good performance of segment overlap accuracy SOV=76.2 % through sevenfold cross validation on a database of 513 non-homologous protein chains with multiple sequence alignments, which out-performs existing methods. Meanwhile three-state overall per-residue accuracy Q(3) achieved 73.5 %, which is at least comparable to existing single prediction methods. Furthermore a useful "reliability index" for the predictions was developed. In addition, SVM has many attractive features, including effective avoidance of overfitting, the ability to handle large feature spaces, information condensing of the given data set, etc. The SVM method is conveniently applied to many other pattern classification tasks in biology. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. In Situ Water Vapor Measurements Using Coupled UV Fragment Fluorescence/Absorption Spectroscopy in Support of CRYSTAL-FACE (United States)

    Anderson, James G.


    Understanding the coupling of dynamics, chemistry, and radiation within the context of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) and the national Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) requires, as a first-order priority, high spatial resolution, high-accuracy observations of water in its various phases. Given the powerful diagnostic importance of the condensed phases of water for dynamics and the impact of phase changes in water on the radiation field, the accurate, in situ observation of water vapor is of central importance to CRYSTAL FACE (CF). This is clear both from the defined scientific objectives of the NRA and from developments in the coupled fields of stratosphere/troposphere exchange, cirrus cloud formation/removal and mechanisms for the distribution of water vapor in the middle/upper troposphere. Accordingly, we were funded under NASA Grant NAG5-11548 to perform the following tasks for the CF mission: 1. Prepare the water vapor instrument for integration into the WB57F and test flights scheduled for Spring 2002. 2. Calibrate and prepare the water vapor instrument for the Summer 2002 CF science flights based in Jacksonville, Florida. 3. Provide both science and engineering support for the above-mentioned efforts. 4. Analyze and interpret the CF data in collaboration with other mission scientists. 5. Attend the science workshop in Spring 2003. 6. Publish the data and analysis in peer-reviewed journals.

  13. Topological susceptibility from the overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio


    The chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing of Ginsparg-Wilson fermionic actions constrains the renormalization of the lattice operators; in particular, the topological susceptibility does not require any renormalization, when using a fermionic estimator to define the topological charge. Theref...

  14. Spin dynamics of the LAGEOS satellite in support of a measurement of the Earth's gravitomagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, S. (Theoretical Astrophysics Group (T-6, MS B288), Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)); Holz, D.E. (Department of Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States) Theoretical Astrophysics Group (T-6, MS B288), Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)); Kheyfets, A. (Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8205 (United States)); Matzner, R.A. (Center for Relativity and Physics Department, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1081 (United States) Applied Research Laboratories, The University of Texas at Austin, P.O. Box 8029, Austin, Texas 78713-8209 (United States)); Miller, W.A. (Theoretical Astrophysics Group (T-6, MS B288), Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States) Astrodynamics Bran


    LAGEOS is an accurately tracked, dense spherical satellite covered with 426 retroreflectors. Ciufolini has suggested the launch of an additional satellite (LAGEOS-3) into an orbit supplementary to that of the 1976-launched LAGEOS-1. In addition to providing a more accurate real-time measurement of the Earth's length of day and polar wobble, this paired-satellite experiment would provide the first direct measurement of the general relativistic frame-dragging effect. Of the five dominant error sources in this experiment, the largest one involves surface forces on the satellite, and their consequent impact on the orbital nodal precession. The surface forces are a function of the spin dynamics of the satellite. Consequently, we undertake here a theoretical effort to model the spin dynamics of LAGEOS. In this paper we derive, and solve numerically, a set of Euler equations that evolve the angular momentum vector for a slightly oblate spheroid of brass orbiting an Earth-like mass, idealized as being a perfect sphere and having a perfect polar-oriented dipole magnetic field. We have identified three phases of the rotational dynamics---a fast spin phase, a spin-orbit resonance phase, and an asymptotic (tidally locked) phase. From our numerical runs we give analytic expressions for this tidally locked phase.

  15. In vitro susceptibility testing of fluoroquinolone activity against Salmonella: recent changes to CLSI standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humphries, R. M.; Fang, F. C.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller


    significance, and data supporting the revised ciprofloxacin break points. We encourage clinical laboratories to adopt the revised CLSI ciprofloxacin break points for all Salmonella isolates in which susceptibility testing is indicated and discuss the technical issues for laboratories using commercial...... antimicrobial susceptibility systems. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved....

  16. Risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility in ventilator associated pneumonia: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Babazadeh


    Full Text Available Background: Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP is one of the serious complications of ventilatory support, occurring in ICUs. The aim of this study was to determine various risk factors associated with the acquisition of Acinetobacter infection and its antimicrobial susceptibility pattern.Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in the ICUs of Rasoul-e-Akram Hospital in Tehran, Iran during the year 2011. A total of 51 endobronchial aspirates from intubated patients who had been clinically diagnosed to have VAP were studied bacteriologically. The in vitro susceptibility was determined by disk-diffusion and broth microdilution MIC methods.Results: Out of 51 patients with VAP, 35 (66.66% had positive cultures for Acineto-bacter species. In vitro susceptibility test revealed that a high percentage of isolates were resistant to imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, third generation cephalosporines, and aminoglycosides.Conclusion: The antimicrobial resistance of gram negative bacteria, particularly Acine-tobacter species, is increasing and preventive measures need to be taken as a matter of urgency.

  17. Measuring NH3 and other molecular abundance profiles from 5 microns ground-based spectroscopy in support of JUNO investigations (United States)

    Blain, Doriann; Fouchet, Thierry; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Bézard, Bruno; Encrenaz, Therese; Lacy, John H.; Drossart, Pierre


    We report on results of an observational campaign to support the Juno mission. At the beginning of 2016, using TEXES (Texas Echelon cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph), mounted on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), we obtained data cubes of Jupiter in the 1930--1943 cm-1 and 2135--2153 cm-1 spectral ranges (around 5 μm), which probe the atmosphere in the 1--4 bar region, with a spectral resolution of ≈0.3 cm-1 (R≈7000) and an angular resolution of ≈1.5''.This dataset is analyzed by a code that combines a line-by-line radiative transfer model with a non-linear optimal estimation inversion method. The inversion retrieves the abundance profiles of NH3 and PH3, which are the main conbtributors at these wavelengths, as well as the cloud transmittance. This retrieval is performed over more than one thousand pixels of our data cubes, producing effective maps of the disk, where all the major belts are visible (NEB, SEB, NTB, STB, NNTB and SSTB).We will present notably our retrieved NH3 abundance maps which can be compared with the unexpected latitudinal distribution observed by Juno's MWR (Bolton et al., 2017 and Li et al. 2017), as well as our other species retrieved abundance maps and discuss on their significance for the understanding of Jupiter's atmospheric dynamics.References:Bolton, S., et al. (2017), Jupiter’s interior and deep atmosphere: The first close polar pass with the Juno spacecraft, Science, doi:10.1126/science.aal2108, in press.Li, C., A. P. Ingersoll, S. Ewald, F. Oyafuso, and M. Janssen (2017), Jupiter’s global ammonia distribution from inversion of Juno Microwave Radiometer observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1002/2017GL073159, in press.

  18. Iron mapping using the temperature dependency of the magnetic susceptibility. (United States)

    Birkl, Christoph; Langkammer, Christian; Krenn, Heinz; Goessler, Walter; Ernst, Christina; Haybaeck, Johannes; Stollberger, Rudolf; Fazekas, Franz; Ropele, Stefan


    The assessment of iron content in brain white matter (WM) is of high importance for studying neurodegenerative diseases. While R2 * mapping and quantitative susceptibility mapping is suitable for iron mapping in gray matter, iron mapping in WM still remains an unsolved problem. We propose a new approach for iron mapping, independent of diamagnetic contributions of myelin by assessing the temperature dependency of the paramagnetic susceptibility. We used unfixed human brain slices for relaxometry and calculated R2 ' as a measure for microscopic susceptibility variations at several temperatures (4°C-37°C) at 3 Tesla. The temperature coefficient of R2 ' (TcR2p) was calculated by linear regression and related to the iron concentration found by subsequent superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In line with SQUID measurements, R2 ' mapping showed a linear temperature dependency of the bulk susceptibility with the highest slope in gray matter. Even in WM, TcR2p yielded a high linear correlation with the absolute iron concentration. According to Curie's law, only paramagnetic matter exhibits a temperature dependency while the diamagnetism shows no effect. We have demonstrated that the temperature coefficient (TcR2p) can be used as a measure of the paramagnetic susceptibility despite of an unknown diamagnetic background. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Identification of green tea's (Camellia sinensis (L.)) quality level according to measurement of main catechins and caffeine contents by HPLC and support vector classification pattern recognition. (United States)

    Chen, Quansheng; Guo, Zhiming; Zhao, Jiewen


    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was identified green tea's quality level by measurement of catechins and caffeine content. Four grades of roast green teas were attempted in this work. Five main catechins ((-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epicatechin (EC), and (+)-catechin (C)) and caffeine contents were measured simultaneously by HPLC. As a new chemical pattern recognition, support vector classification (SVC) was applied to develop identification model. Some parameters including regularization parameter (R) and kernel parameter (K) were optimized by the cross-validation. The optimal SVC model was achieved with R=20 and K=2. Identification rates were 95% in the training set and 90% in the prediction set, respectively. Finally, compared with other pattern recognition approaches, SVC algorithm shows its excellent performance in identification results. Overall results show that it is feasible to identify green tea's quality level according to measurement of main catechins and caffeine contents by HPLC and SVC pattern recognition.

  20. The influence of wearing schemes and supportive telephone calls on adherence in accelerometry measurement: results of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg N


    Full Text Available Neeltje van den Berg,1,2 Sabina Ulbricht,2,3 Thea Schwaneberg,1,2 Kerstin Weitmann,1,2 Franziska Weymar,1–3 Stefan Groß,2,4 Marcus Dörr,2,4 Wolfgang Hoffmann1,2 1Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, 2German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK, Partner Site Greifswald, 3Institute of Social Medicine and Prevention, University Medicine Greifswald, 4Department of Internal Medicine B, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany Background: Physical activity (PA can be assessed by accelerometer monitors. However, a high adherence to wearing this device is essential to obtain valid data. In this study, the influence of different wearing schemes and additional supportive phone calls (SPCs on adherence was examined. Methods: A randomized study with four groups was conducted in the context of a health examination program among participants aged 40–75 years without a history of cardiovascular diseases. Participants were recruited in different settings (general medical practices, job center, and health insurance. The participants were asked to wear an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days according to the wearing scheme “day and night” or “day only” and received or did not receive SPCs. Full adherence was defined as a total wearing time of 98 hours (between 8 am and 10 pm during 7 days. A generalized linear model was used to calculate the difference between the maximum possible and the observed adherence. Results: Adherence could be assessed for 249 participants (mean age: 56.40 years; standard deviation [SD] 9.83, 40% males. The mean wearing time was 84.04 hours (SD 20.75. Participants with the wearing scheme day and night were significantly more adherent than participants with the wearing scheme day only (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.63; P=0.005. SPCs had no additional effect on adherence (IRR 0.80; P=0.168. Conclusion: To assess PA, the wearing scheme day and night provides the best possible

  1. The effect of dissolved oxygen on the susceptibility of blood. (United States)

    Berman, Avery J L; Ma, Yuhan; Hoge, Richard D; Pike, G Bruce


    It has been predicted that, during hyperoxia, excess O2 dissolved in arterial blood will significantly alter the blood's magnetic susceptibility. This would confound the interpretation of the hyperoxia-induced blood oxygenation level-dependent signal as arising solely from changes in deoxyhemoglobin. This study, therefore, aimed to determine how dissolved O2 affects the susceptibility of blood. We present a comprehensive model for the effect of dissolved O2 on the susceptibility of blood and compare it with another recently published model, referred to here as the ideal gas model (IGM). For validation, distilled water and samples of bovine plasma were oxygenated over a range of hyperoxic O2 concentrations and their susceptibilities were determined using multiecho gradient echo phase imaging. In distilled water and plasma, the measured changes in susceptibility were very linear, with identical slopes of 0.062 ppb/mm Hg of O2. This change was dramatically less than previously predicted using the IGM and was close to that predicted by our model. The primary source of error in the IGM is the overestimation of the volume fraction occupied by dissolved O2. Under most physiological conditions, the susceptibility of dissolved O2 can be disregarded in MRI studies employing hyperoxia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Measurement of perfusion using the first-pass dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) MRI in neurooncology. Physical basics and clinical applications; Perfusionsmessung mit der T2*-Kontrastmitteldynamik in der Neuroonkologie. Physikalische Grundlagen und klinische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.-A.; Giesel, F.L.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Essig, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg (Germany). Abteilung Radiologie; Risse, F.; Schad, L.R. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg (Germany). Abteilung Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie


    Perfusion imaging in the central nervous system (CNS) is mostly performed using the first-pass dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) MRI. The first-pass of a contrast bolus in brain tissue is monitored by a series of T2*-weighted MR images. The susceptibility effect of the paramagnetic contrast agent leads to a signal loss that can be converted, using the principles of the indicator dilution theory, into an increase of the contrast agent concentration. From these data, parameter maps of cerebral blood volume (CBV) and flow (CBF) can be derived. Regional CBF and CBV values can be obtained by region-of-interest analysis. This review article describes physical basics of DSC MRI and summarizes the literature of DSC MRI in neurooncological issues. Studies, all with relatively limited patient numbers, report that DSC MRI is useful in the preoperative diagnosis of gliomas, CNS-lymphomas, and solitary metastases, as well as in the differentiation of these neoplastic lesions from infections and tumor-like manifestations of demyelinating disease. Additionally, DSC MRI is suitable for determining glioma grade and regions of active tumor growth which should be the target of stereotactic biopsy. After therapy, DSC MRI helps better assessing the tumor response to therapy, residual tumor after therapy, and possible treatment failure and therapy-related complications, such as radiation necrosis. The preliminary results show that DSC MRI is a diagnostic tool depicting regional variations in microvasculature of normal and diseased brains. (orig.) [German] Die MRT-Perfusionsmessungen im Zentralnervensystem (ZNS) werden derzeit hauptsaechlich mit der kontrastmittelverstaerkten T2*-Dynamik durchgefuehrt, die die Passage eines schnellen Kontrastmittelbolus mit einer Serie von T2*-gewichteten MRT-Aufnahmen verfolgt und charakterisiert. Dabei wird der Signalabfall, bedingt durch den Suszeptibilitaetseffekt des paramagnetischen Kontrastmittels, mittels geeigneter


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Flood susceptibility assessment in the Niraj basin. In the context of global warming and the increasing frequency of extreme weather events, it becomes evident that we have to face natural hazards, such as floods. In the area of Niraj basin this phenomenon is specific both in the spring, because of the snow melting and of the precipitations which come along with the season, and then in the summer because of the torrential precipitations but rarely in autumn and winter. The aim of this paper is to determinate the susceptibility of the zone and obtain a map which will take into consideration the possibility of a flooding. Defining vulnerability can help us understand this type of natural disasters and find the best ways to reduce it. For this purpose we use thematic layers, morphological characteristics (slope and depth fragmentation, hydrological characteristics, geology, pedology (permeability and soil texture, landuse, precipitation data, and human interventions because in this way we have the possibility to use data mining for this purpose. Data mining will allow us to extract new information based on the existing sets of data.The final result will be a thematic map that highlights the areas which are exposed to the flood. Therefore, this map can be used as a support decision for local government or business purposes.

  4. Aquifer susceptibility in Virginia, 1998-2000 (United States)

    Nelms, David L.; Harlow, George E.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades


    and springs in the fractured-rock terrains (the Appalachian Plateaus, Valley and Ridge, Blue Ridge, and Piedmont regional aquifer systems) contained concentrations of CFCs and 3H greater than one or both of the thresholds. Because all of the water samples exceeded at least one of the threshold values, young water is present throughout most of these regional aquifer systems; therefore, water supplies developed in these systems are susceptible to contamination from near-surface sources. No relation between well depth and presence of CFCs is evident from samples in the fractured-rock terrains. More than 95 percent of the samples for which the dating methods were applicable contained waters with apparent ages less than 35 years. About 5 percent of these samples, most of which were from the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regional aquifer systems, contained young waters with apparent ages of less than 5 years. Most of the samples from the Valley and Ridge Carbonate, Blue Ridge, and Piedmont regional aquifer systems had young water fractions of more than 50 percent, whereas samples from the Coastal Plain Shallow and Appalachian Plateaus regional aquifer systems contained less than 40 percent young waters. Concentrations of CFCs in excess of air-water equilibrium, which can indicate that nonatmospheric sources (such as sewage effluent) have introduced CFCs into the ground-water system, were measured in 6 and 48 percent of the water samples from the Coastal Plain and fractured-rock regional aquifer systems, respectively. The nitrate (NO3) concentrations greater than the USGS detection level of 0.05 milligrams per liter generally increase as the apparent age of the young water fraction decreases, with the highest NO3 concentrations for samples in which one or more of the CFCs are above modern atmospheric mixing ratios (commonly referred to as 'contaminated' for ground-water dating purposes). Most of the samples in which NO3 was detected w

  5. Susceptibility analysis of landslide in Chittagong City Corporation Area, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Das


    Full Text Available In Chittagong city, landslide phenomena is the most burning issue which causes great problems to the life and properties and it is increasing day by day and becoming one of the main problems of city life. On 11 June 2007, a massive landslide happened in Chittagong City Corporation (CCC area, a large number of foothill settlements and slums were demolished; more than 90 people died and huge resource destruction took place. It is therefore essential to analyze the landslide susceptibility for CCC area to prepare mitigation strategies as well as assessing the impacts of climate change. To assess community susceptibility of landslide hazard, a landslide susceptibility index map has been prepared using analytical hierarchy process (AHP model based on geographic information system (GIS and remote sensing (RS and its susceptibility is analyzed through community vulnerability assessment tool (CVAT. The major findings of the research are 27% of total CCC area which is susceptible to landslide hazard and whereas 6.5 areas are found very highly susceptible. The landslide susceptible areas of CCC have also been analyzed in respect of physical, social, economic, environmental and critical facilities and it is found that the overall CCC area is highly susceptible to landslide hazard. So the findings of the research can be utilized to prioritize risk mitigation investments, measures to strengthen the emergency preparedness and response mechanisms for reducing the losses and damages due to future landslide events. DOI: International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 157-181

  6. The use of total susceptibility in the analysis of long term PM10 (PM2.5) collected at Hungarian air quality monitoring stations (United States)

    Márton, Emö; Domján, Ádám; Lautner, Péter; Szentmarjay, Tibor; Uram, János


    Air monitoring stations in Hungary are operated by Environmental, Nature Conservancy and Water Pollution Inspectorates, according to the CEN/TC 264 European Union standards. PM10 samples are collected on a 24-hour basis, for two weeks in February, in May, in August and in November. About 720m3 air is pumped through quartz filters daily. Mass measurements and toxic metal analysis (As, Pb, Cd, Ni) are made on each filter (Whatmann DHA-80 PAH, 150 mm diameter) by the inspectorates. We have carried out low field magnetic susceptibility measurements using a KLY-2 instrument on all PM10 samples collected at 9 stations from 2009 on (a total of more than 2000 filters). One station, located far from direct sources, monitors background pollution. Here PM2.5 was also collected in two-week runs, seven times during the period of 2009-2012 and made available for the non-destructive magnetic susceptibility measurements. Due to the rather weak magnetic signal, the susceptibility of each PM-10 sample was computed from 10, that of each PM2.5 sample from 20 measurements. Corrections were made for the susceptibility of the sample holder, for the unpolluted filter (provided with each of the two-week runs), and for the plastic bag containing the samples. The susceptibilities of the PM10 samples were analyzed from different aspects, like the degree of magnetic pollution at different stations, daily and seasonal variations of the total and mass susceptibilities compared to the mass of the pollutants and in relation to the concentrations of the toxic elements. As expected, the lowest total and mass susceptibilities characterize the background station (pollution arrives mostly from distant sources, Vienna, Bratislava or even the Sudeten), while the highest values were measured for an industrial town with heavy traffic. At the background station the mass of the PM10 and PM2.5, respectively for the same period are quite similar, while the magnetic susceptibilities are usually higher in the

  7. The role of sleep disturbances in the longitudinal relationship between psychosocial working conditions, measured by work demands and support, and depression. (United States)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Westerlund, Hugo


    Because work demands and lack of social support seem to be prospectively linked to sleep problems, and sleep problems are linked to depression, sleep problems may play a role in the relationship between these work characteristics and depressive symptoms. In order to shed more light on this relationship, the current study investigated whether disturbed sleep is a mediator in the longitudinal relationships between work demands, social support, and depression. Longitudinal cohort study with repeated survey measures on four occasions. Swedish workforce. 2,017 working participants from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. Work demands (four items) and social support (six items) were assessed with the Demand Control Questionnaire, disturbed sleep (four items) with the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire, and depressive symptoms with a brief subscale (six items) from the Symptom Checklist. Autoregressive longitudinal mediation models using structural equation modeling were tested. The work characteristics, and disturbed sleep, were found to be separately associated with depressive symptoms in subsequent waves. However, only demands were found to be longitudinally related to subsequent disturbed sleep. The longitudinal autoregressive models supported a weak mediating role of disturbed sleep in the relationship between demands and depressive symptoms (standardized beta 0.008, P depressive symptoms. These results indicate that higher demands at work might cause an increase in depressive symptoms, in part, by increasing disturbed sleep, although the mediated effect was relatively small compared to the total effect. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. Developing and testing a street audit tool using Google Street View to measure environmental supportiveness for physical activity. (United States)

    Griew, Pippa; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Foster, Charlie; Coombes, Emma; Jones, Andy; Wilkinson, Paul


    Walking for physical activity is associated with substantial health benefits for adults. Increasingly research has focused on associations between walking behaviours and neighbourhood environments including street characteristics such as pavement availability and aesthetics. Nevertheless, objective assessment of street-level data is challenging. This research investigates the reliability of a new street characteristic audit tool designed for use with Google Street View, and assesses levels of agreement between computer-based and on-site auditing. The Forty Area STudy street VIEW (FASTVIEW) tool, a Google Street View based audit tool, was developed incorporating nine categories of street characteristics. Using the tool, desk-based audits were conducted by trained researchers across one large UK town during 2011. Both inter and intra-rater reliability were assessed. On-site street audits were also completed to test the criterion validity of the method. All reliability scores were assessed by percentage agreement and the kappa statistic. Within-rater agreement was high for each category of street characteristic (range: 66.7%-90.0%) and good to high between raters (range: 51.3%-89.1%). A high level of agreement was found between the Google Street View audits and those conducted in-person across the nine categories examined (range: 75.0%-96.7%). The audit tool was found to provide a reliable and valid measure of street characteristics. The use of Google Street View to capture street characteristic data is recommended as an efficient method that could substantially increase potential for large-scale objective data collection.

  9. Lake on life support: Evaluating urban lake management measures by using a coupled 1D-modelling approach (United States)

    Ladwig, Robert; Kirillin, Georgiy; Hinkelmann, Reinhard; Hupfer, Michael


    Urban surface water systems and especially lakes are heavily stressed and modified systems to comply with water management goals and expectations. In this study we focus on Lake Tegel in Berlin, Germany, as a representative of heavily modified urban lakes. In the 20th century, Lake Tegel received increased loadings of nutrients and leached heavy metals from an upstream sewage farm resulting in severe eutrophication problems. The construction of two upstream treatment plants caused a lowering of nutrient concentrations and a re-oligotrophication of the lake. Additionally, artificial aerators, to keep the hypolimnion oxic, and a lake pipeline, to bypass water for maintaining a minimum discharge, went into operation. Lake Tegel is still heavily used for drinking water extraction by bank filtration. These interacting management measures make the system vulnerable to changing climate conditions and pollutant loads. Past modelling studies have shown the complex hydrodynamics of the lake. Here, we are following a simplified approach by using a less computational time consuming vertical 1D-model to simulate the hydrodynamics and the ecological interactions of the system by coupling the General Lake Model to the Aquatic Ecodynamics Model Library 2. For calibration of the multidimensional parameter space we applied the Covariance Matrix Adaption-Evolution Strategy algorithm. The model is able to sufficiently replicate the vertical field temperature profiles of Lake Tegel as well as to simulate similar concentration ranges of phosphate, dissolved oxygen and nitrate. The calibrated model is used to run an uncertainty analysis by sampling the simulated data within the meaning of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Finally, we are evaluating different scenarios: (1) changing air temperatures, precipitation and wind speed due to effects of climate change, (2) decreased discharges into the lake due to bypassing treated effluents into a near stream instead of Lake Tegel, and (3

  10. Reducing Susceptibility to Courtesy Stigma. (United States)

    Bachleda, Catherine L; El Menzhi, Leila


    In light of the chronic shortage of health professionals willing to care for HIV/AIDS patients, and rising epidemics in many Muslim countries, this qualitative study examined susceptibility and resistance to courtesy stigma as experienced by nurses, doctors, and social workers in Morocco. Forty-nine in-depth interviews provided rich insights into the process of courtesy stigma and how it is managed, within the context of interactions with Islam, interactions within the workplace (patients, other health professionals), and interactions outside the workplace (the general public, friends, and family). Theoretically, the findings extend understanding of courtesy stigma and the dirty work literature. The findings also offer practical suggestions for the development of culturally appropriate strategies to reduce susceptibility to courtesy stigmatization. This study represents the first to explore courtesy stigma as a process experienced by health professionals providing HIV/AIDS care in an Islamic country.

  11. [Oxidative stress and susceptibility of periodontal disease]. (United States)

    Zhang, Mei-fang; Huang, Yi-jing; Zhang, Hai-feng; Tang, Wen; Zhou, Jie


    To investigate the relationship between dietary antioxidant status and susceptibility of periodontal disease in humans. Fifty patients with moderate-to-sever periodontal disease and 50 subjects without periodontal disease were enrolled in this study. Food frequency questionnaire and 72-hour diet recall were conducted to study the dietary pattern and antioxidant nutrients intake in patients and healthy subjects. Nutritional status including vitamins, mineral substance, and antioxidant enzymes in these 2 groups were analyzed in serum and saliva samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). SPSS 19.0 software package was used for paired t test. Compared with the control group, the chronic periodontal group had lower levels of potatoes, aquatic product, milk, soy, fresh vegetables, fruit and vitamin supplements intake(Pperiodontal disease group than that in the control group (Pperiodontal group than in the control group (Pperiodontal disease. The antioxidant nutrients may help to protect paradentium. Supported by Research Fund from Shanghai Municipal Health Bureau (20114103).

  12. Sociability and susceptibility to the common cold. (United States)

    Cohen, Sheldon; Doyle, William J; Turner, Ronald; Alper, Cuneyt M; Skoner, David P


    There is considerable evidence that social relationships can influence health, but only limited evidence on the health effects of the personality characteristics that are thought to mold people's social lives. We asked whether sociability predicts resistance to infectious disease and whether this relationship is attributable to the quality and quantity of social interactions and relationships. Three hundred thirty-four volunteers completed questionnaires assessing their sociability, social networks, and social supports, and six evening interviews assessing daily interactions. They were subsequently exposed to a virus that causes a common cold and monitored to see who developed verifiable illness. Increased sociability was associated in a linear fashion with a decreased probability of developing a cold. Although sociability was associated with more and higher-quality social interactions, it predicted disease susceptibility independently of these variables. The association between sociability and disease was also independent of baseline immunity (virus-specific antibody), demographics, emotional styles, stress hormones, and health practices.

  13. Antimycotics susceptibility testing of dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina


    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are moulds that produce infections of the skin, hair and nails of humans and animals. The most common forms among these infections are onychomycosis and tinea pedis affecting 20% of world population. These infections are usually chronic. The treatment of dermatophytoses tends to be prolonged partly because available treatments are not very effective. Antifungal drug consumption and public health expenditure are high worldwide, as well as in Serbia. For adequate therapy, it is necessary to prove infection by isolation of dermatophytes and to test the antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Susceptibility testing is important for the resistance monitoring, epidemiological research and to compare in vitro activities of new antifungal agents. The diffusion and dilution methods of susceptibility tests are used, and technical issues of importance for the proper performance and interpretation of test results are published in the document E.DEF 9.1 (EUCAST and M38-A2 (CLSI. The aim of our paper is to promptly inform the public about technical achievements in this area, as well as the new organization of laboratory for medical mycology in our country. The formation of laboratory networks coordinated by the National Reference Laboratory for the cause of mycosis need to enable interlaboratory studies and further standardization of methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes, reproducibility of tests and clinical correlation monitoring (MIK values and clinical outcome of dermatophytosis. The importance of the new organization is expected efficient improvement in the dermatophytosis therapy at home, better quality of patient's life and the reduction of the cost of treatment.

  14. Magnetic susceptibility as a biosignature in stromatolites (United States)

    Petryshyn, Victoria A.; Corsetti, Frank A.; Frantz, Carie M.; Lund, Steve P.; Berelson, William M.


    Microbialites have long been a focus of study in geobiology because they are macroscopic sedimentary records of the activities of microscopic organisms. However, abiotic processes can result in microbialite-like morphologies. Developing robust tools for substantiating the biogenicity of putative microbialites remains an important challenge. Here, we report a new potential biosignature based on the detrital magnetic mineral component present in nearly all sedimentary rocks. Detrital grains falling onto a hard, abiogenic, chemically precipitated structure would be expected to roll off surfaces at high incline angles. Thus, the distribution of grains in an abiogenic microbialite should exhibit a dependence on the dip angle along laminae. In contrast, a microbialite formed by the active trapping and binding of detrital grains by microorganisms could exhibit a distribution of detrital grains significantly less dependent on the dip angle of the laminae. However, given that most ancient stromatolites are micritic (composed of carbonate mud), tracking detrital grains vs. precipitated carbonate is not straightforward. Recent advances in our ability to measure miniscule magnetic fields open up the possibility to map magnetic susceptibility as a tracer of detrital grains in stromatolites. In abiogenic carbonate precipitation experiments, magnetic susceptibility fell to zero when the growth surface was inclined above 30° (the angle at which grains rolled off). In cyanobacterial mat experiments, even vertically inclined mats held magnetic material. The results indicate that cyanobacterial mats trap and bind small grains more readily than abiogenic carbonate precipitates alone. A variety of stromatolites of known and unknown biogenicity were then analyzed. Tested stromatolites span many different ages (Eocene to Holocene) and depositional environments (hot springs, lakes), and compositional forms (micritic, sparry crusts, etc.). The results were consistent with the laboratory

  15. Orientational Glasses: NMR and Electric Susceptibility Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Sullivan


    Full Text Available We review the results of a wide range of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMRmeasurements of the local order parameters and the molecular dynamics of solid ortho-para hydrogen mixtures and solid nitrogen-argon mixtures that form novel molecular orientational glass states at low temperatures. From the NMR measurements, the distribution of the order parameters can be deduced and, in terms of simple models, used to analyze the thermodynamic measurements of the heat capacities of these systems. In addition, studies of the dielectric susceptibilities of the nitrogen-argon mixtures are reviewed in terms of replica symmetry breaking analogous to that observed for spin glass states. It is shown that this wide set of experimental results is consistent with orientation or quadrupolar glass ordering of the orientational degrees of freedom.

  16. Family system characteristics and psychological adjustment to cancer susceptibility genetic testing: a prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Brocker-Vriends, A.H.; Asperen, C.J. van; Sijmons, R.H.; Seynaeve, C.; Gool, A.R. van; Klijn, J.G.M.; Tibben, A.


    This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis

  17. Family system characteristics and psychological adjustment to cancer susceptibility genetic testing : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis

  18. Antibiotic susceptibility of Atopobium vaginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschraegen Gerda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that a recently described anaerobic bacterium, Atopobium vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV. Thus far the four isolates of this fastidious micro-organism were found to be highly resistant to metronidazole and susceptible for clindamycin, two antibiotics preferred for the treatment of BV. Methods Nine strains of Atopobium vaginae, four strains of Gardnerella vaginalis, two strains of Lactobacillus iners and one strain each of Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii were tested against 15 antimicrobial agents using the Etest. Results All nine strains of A. vaginae were highly resistant to nalidixic acid and colistin while being inhibited by low concentrations of clindamycin (range: G. vaginalis strains were also susceptible for clindamycin ( 256 μg/ml but susceptible to clindamycin (0.023 – 0.125 μg/ml. Conclusion Clindamycin has higher activity against G. vaginalis and A. vaginae than metronidazole, but not all A. vaginae isolates are metronidazole resistant, as seemed to be a straightforward conclusion from previous studies on a more limited number of strains.

  19. A Heuristic Approach to Global Landslide Susceptibility Mapping (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas; Kirschbaum, Dalia B.


    Landslides can have significant and pervasive impacts to life and property around the world. Several attempts have been made to predict the geographic distribution of landslide activity at continental and global scales. These efforts shared common traits such as resolution, modeling approach, and explanatory variables. The lessons learned from prior research have been applied to build a new global susceptibility map from existing and previously unavailable data. Data on slope, faults, geology, forest loss, and road networks were combined using a heuristic fuzzy approach. The map was evaluated with a Global Landslide Catalog developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, as well as several local landslide inventories. Comparisons to similar susceptibility maps suggest that the subjective methods commonly used at this scale are, for the most part, reproducible. However, comparisons of landslide susceptibility across spatial scales must take into account the susceptibility of the local subset relative to the larger study area. The new global landslide susceptibility map is intended for use in disaster planning, situational awareness, and for incorporation into global decision support systems.

  20. Cross-Layer Measurement on an IEEE 802.11g Wireless Network Supporting MPEG-2 Video Streaming Applications in the Presence of Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sona


    Full Text Available The performance of wireless local area networks supporting video streaming applications, based on MPEG-2 video codec, in the presence of interference is here dealt with. IEEE 802.11g standard wireless networks, that do not support QoS in according with IEEE 802.11e standard, are, in particular, accounted for and Bluetooth signals, additive white Gaussian noise, and competitive data traffic are considered as sources of interference. The goal is twofold: from one side, experimentally assessing and correlating the values that some performance metrics assume at the same time at different layers of an IEEE 802.11g WLAN delivering video streaming in the presence of in-channel interference; from the other side, deducing helpful and practical hints for designers and technicians, in order to efficiently assess and enhance the performance of an IEEE 802.11g WLAN supporting video streaming in some suitable setup conditions and in the presence of interference. To this purpose, an experimental analysis is planned following a cross-layer measurement approach, and a proper testbed within a semianechoic chamber is used. Valuable results are obtained in terms of signal-to-interference ratio, packet loss ratio, jitter, video quality, and interference data rate; helpful hints for designers and technicians are finally gained.

  1. Universal locality of quantum thermal susceptibility (United States)

    De Palma, Giacomo; De Pasquale, Antonella; Giovannetti, Vittorio


    The ultimate precision of any measurement of the temperature of a quantum system is the inverse of the local quantum thermal susceptibility [A. De Pasquale et al., Nat. Commun. 7, 12782 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms12782] of the subsystem with which the thermometer interacts. If this subsystem can be described with the canonical ensemble, such quantity reduces to the variance of the local Hamiltonian, which is proportional to the heat capacity of the subsystem. However, the canonical ensemble might not apply in the presence of interactions between the subsystem and the rest of the system. In this work, we address this problem in the framework of locally interacting quantum systems. We prove that the local quantum thermal susceptibility of any subsystem is close to the variance of its local Hamiltonian, provided the volume-to-surface ratio of the subsystem is much larger than the correlation length. This result greatly simplifies the determination of the ultimate precision of any local estimate of the temperature and rigorously determines the regime where interactions can affect this precision.

  2. The Virtual Care Climate Questionnaire: Development and Validation of a Questionnaire Measuring Perceived Support for Autonomy in a Virtual Care Setting. (United States)

    Smit, Eline Suzanne; Dima, Alexandra Lelia; Immerzeel, Stephanie Annette Maria; van den Putte, Bas; Williams, Geoffrey Colin


    Web-based health behavior change interventions may be more effective if they offer autonomy-supportive communication facilitating the internalization of motivation for health behavior change. Yet, at this moment no validated tools exist to assess user-perceived autonomy-support of such interventions. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the virtual climate care questionnaire (VCCQ), a measure of perceived autonomy-support in a virtual care setting. Items were developed based on existing questionnaires and expert consultation and were pretested among experts and target populations. The virtual climate care questionnaire was administered in relation to Web-based interventions aimed at reducing consumption of alcohol (Study 1; N=230) or cannabis (Study 2; N=228). Item properties, structural validity, and reliability were examined with item-response and classical test theory methods, and convergent and divergent validity via correlations with relevant concepts. In Study 1, 20 of 23 items formed a one-dimensional scale (alpha=.97; omega=.97; H=.66; mean 4.9 [SD 1.0]; range 1-7) that met the assumptions of monotonicity and invariant item ordering. In Study 2, 16 items fitted these criteria (alpha=.92; H=.45; omega=.93; mean 4.2 [SD 1.1]; range 1-7). Only 15 items remained in the questionnaire in both studies, thus we proceeded to the analyses of the questionnaire's reliability and construct validity with a 15-item version of the virtual climate care questionnaire. Convergent validity of the resulting 15-item virtual climate care questionnaire was confirmed by positive associations with autonomous motivation (Study 1: r=.66, Pclimate care questionnaire accurately assessed participants' perceived autonomy-support offered by two Web-based health behavior change interventions. Overall, the scale showed the expected properties and relationships with relevant concepts, and the studies presented suggest this first version of the virtual climate care questionnaire

  3. High-Precision Laboratory Measurements Supporting Retrieval of Water Vapor, Gaseous Ammonia, and Aqueous Ammonia Clouds with the Juno Microwave Radiometer (MWR) (United States)

    Steffes, Paul G.; Hanley, Thomas R.; Karpowicz, Bryan M.; Devaraj, Kiruthika; Noorizadeh, Sahand; Duong, Danny; Chinsomboon, Garrett; Bellotti, Amadeo; Janssen, Michael A.; Bolton, Scott J.


    The NASA Juno mission includes a six-channel microwave radiometer system (MWR) operating in the 1.3-50 cm wavelength range in order to retrieve abundances of ammonia and water vapor from the microwave signature of Jupiter (see Janssen et al. 2016). In order to plan observations and accurately interpret data from such observations, over 6000 laboratory measurements of the microwave absorption properties of gaseous ammonia, water vapor, and aqueous ammonia solution have been conducted under simulated Jovian conditions using new laboratory systems capable of high-precision measurement under the extreme conditions of the deep atmosphere of Jupiter (up to 100 bars pressure and 505 K temperature). This is one of the most extensive laboratory measurement campaigns ever conducted in support of a microwave remote sensing instrument. New, more precise models for the microwave absorption from these constituents have and are being developed from these measurements. Application of these absorption properties to radiative transfer models for the six wavelengths involved will provide a valuable planning tool for observations, and will also make possible accurate retrievals of the abundance of these constituents during and after observations are conducted.

  4. Risk Assessment: How Crucial in Determining Child's Susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a global concern to curtail the prevalence of child abuse. However, certain difficulties are posed in meeting this objective in Nigeria, because child social workers often lack the practical or theoretical skills for detecting those children that are susceptible to abuse and thus, in need of early protective measures.

  5. Growth, carcase and meat characteristics of stress susceptible and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth rate, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, muscle pH, backfat thickness, dressing percentage, drip loss, cooking loss, water holding capacity, and shear force were measured in 47 South African Landrace gilts of which 30 were classified as stress resistant and 17 as stress susceptible with the halothane test.

  6. Suitability of Vitek 2 System in Identification and Susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To verify the accuracy of direct Vitek testing for blood cultures with Gramnegative bacilli. Design: Validation study. Setting: Aga Khan University Hospital Nairobi. Subjects: Twenty two positive blood cultures. Main outcome measures: Correct bacteria identification and errors for susceptibility testing. Results: Of the ...

  7. Commitments, Expectations, Affordances and Susceptibilities: Towards Positional Agent Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sileno, G.; Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Chen, Q.; Torroni, P.; Villata, S.; Hsu, J.; Omicini, A.


    The paper introduces an agent architecture centered around the notions of commitment, expectation, affordance, and susceptibility. These components are to a certain measure at the base of any agent system, however, inspired by research in explanation-based decision making, this contribution attempts

  8. A training program for anthropometric measurements by a dedicated nutrition support team improves nutritional status assessment of the critically ill child. (United States)

    Valla, Frederic V; Ford-Chessel, Carole; Meyer, Rosan; Berthiller, Julien; Dupenloup, Christine; Follin-Arbelet, Nathalie; Hubert, Anna; Javouhey, Etienne; Peretti, Noel


    The cornerstone of an optimal nutrition approach in PICUs is to evaluate the nutritional status of any patient. Anthropometric measurements and nutritional indices calculation allow for nutritional status assessment, which is not often part of routine management, as it is considered difficult to perform in this setting. We designed a study to evaluate the impact of a training program by the PICU nutritional support team on the implementation of routine anthropometric measurements on our PICU. A prospective study was performed over a 2-year period, which included: a baseline evaluation of nutritional assessment, knowledge, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and head and mid upper arm circumferences), and nutritional indices calculation in patient files. This was followed by a training program to implement the newly developed nutrition assessment guidelines, which included anthropometrical measurements and also the interpretation of these. The impact of this nutritional assessment program was reviewed annually for 2 years after the implementation. PICU--Lyon, France. PICU nursing and medical staff, and patients admitted in February 2011, 2012, and 2013. Training program. Ninety-nine percent of staff (n = 145) attended the individual teaching. We found significant progress in nutritional awareness and confidence about nutritional assessment following the teaching program. In addition, an improvement in staff knowledge about undernutrition and its consequences were found. We enrolled 41, 55, and 91 patients in 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. There was a significant increase in anthropometric measurements during this time: 32%, 65% (p = 0.002), and 96% in 2013 (p Nutritional indices were calculated in 20%, 74% (p nutritional assessment teaching program that highlights both the importance and techniques of anthropometrical measurements has successfully been implemented in a PICU. It managed to improve staff knowledge and nutritional practice.

  9. Mediation and modification of genetic susceptibility to obesity by eating behaviors. (United States)

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Clifton, Emma Ad; Day, Felix R; Clément, Karine; Brage, Soren; Forouhi, Nita G; Griffin, Simon J; Koudou, Yves Akoli; Pelloux, Véronique; Wareham, Nicholas J; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara; Ong, Ken K


    Background: Many genetic variants show highly robust associations with body mass index (BMI). However, the mechanisms through which genetic susceptibility to obesity operates are not well understood. Potentially modifiable mechanisms, including eating behaviors, are of particular interest to public health. Objective: Here we explore whether eating behaviors mediate or modify genetic susceptibility to obesity. Design: Genetic risk scores for BMI (BMI-GRSs) were calculated for 3515 and 2154 adults in the Fenland and EDEN (Etude des déterminants pré et postnatals de la santé et du développement de l'enfant) population-based cohort studies, respectively. The eating behaviors-emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and cognitive restraint-were measured through the use of a validated questionnaire. The mediating effect of each eating behavior on the association between the BMI-GRS and measured BMI was assessed by using the Sobel test. In addition, we tested for interactions between each eating behavior and the BMI-GRS on BMI. Results: The association between the BMI-GRS and BMI was mediated by both emotional eating (EDEN: P- Sobel = 0.01; Fenland: P- Sobel = 0.02) and uncontrolled eating (EDEN: P- Sobel = 0.04; Fenland: P -Sobel = 0.0006) in both sexes combined. Cognitive restraint did not mediate this association ( P -Sobel > 0.10), except among EDEN women ( P -Sobel = 0.0009). Cognitive restraint modified the relation between the BMI-GRS and BMI among men (EDEN: P -interaction = 0.0001; Fenland: P -interaction = 0.04) and Fenland women ( P -interaction = 0.0004). By tertiles of cognitive restraint, the association between the BMI-GRS and BMI was strongest in the lowest tertile of cognitive restraint, and weakest in the highest tertile. Conclusions: Genetic susceptibility to obesity was partially mediated by the "appetitive" eating behavior traits (uncontrolled and emotional eating) and, in 3 of the 4 population groups studied, was modified by cognitive restraint

  10. Comparative Assessment of Three Nonlinear Approaches for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in a Coal Mine Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaomei Su


    Full Text Available Landslide susceptibility mapping is the first and most important step involved in landslide hazard assessment. The purpose of the present study is to compare three nonlinear approaches for landslide susceptibility mapping and test whether coal mining has a significant impact on landslide occurrence in coal mine areas. Landslide data collected by the Bureau of Land and Resources are represented by the X, Y coordinates of its central point; causative factors were calculated from topographic and geologic maps, as well as satellite imagery. The five-fold cross-validation method was adopted and the landslide/non-landslide datasets were randomly split into a ratio of 80:20. From this, five subsets for 20 times were acquired for training and validating models by GIS Geostatistical analysis methods, and all of the subsets were employed in a spatially balanced sample design. Three landslide models were built using support vector machine (SVM, logistic regression (LR, and artificial neural network (ANN models by selecting the median of the performance measures. Then, the three fitted models were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves (AUC and the performance measures. The results show that the prediction accuracies are between 73.43% and 87.45% in the training stage, and 67.16% to 73.13% in the validating stage for the three models. AUCs vary from 0.807 to 0.906 and 0.753 to 0.944 in the two stages, respectively. Additionally, three landslide susceptibility maps were obtained by classifying the range of landslide probabilities into four classes representing low (0–0.02, medium (0.02–0.1, high (0.1–0.85, and very high (0.85–1 probabilities of landslides. For the distributions of landslide and area percentages under different susceptibility standards, the SVM model has more relative balance in the four classes compared to the LR and the ANN models. The result reveals that the SVM model possesses better

  11. Differential susceptibility of Aeromonas hydrophila and Enterobacteriaceae to nalidixic acid. (United States)

    Zemelman, R; Dominguez, M; Merino, C; Silva, J; Gonzalez, C; Mondaca, M A


    The susceptibility of 49 strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and 77 strains of Enterobacteriaceae towards nalidixic acid was compared by tube dilution and agar diffusion methods. A higher susceptibility was exhibited by Aerom. hydrophila and no overlap in MICs was found for strains of the two groups of microorganisms. Discs containing 0.25 microgram of nalidixic acid produced measurable zones of growth inhibition with Aerom. hydrophila and no zones with the Enterobacteriaceae. The use of a disc with 0.25 microgram of nalidixic acid for the primary differentiation of strains of Aerom. hydrophila from those of the Enterobacteriaceae with similar biochemical properties is suggested.

  12. The influence of NDT-Bobath and PNF methods on the field support and total path length measure foot pressure (COP) in patients after stroke. (United States)

    Krukowska, Jolanta; Bugajski, Marcin; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Czernicki, Jan

    In stroke patients, the NDT - (Bobath - Neurodevelopmental Treatment) and PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation) methods are used to achieve the main objective of rehabilitation, which aims at the restoration of maximum patient independence in the shortest possible period of time (especially the balance of the body). The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of the NDT-Bobath and PNF methods on the field support and total path length measure foot pressure (COP) in patients after stroke. The study included 72 patients aged from 20 to 69 years after ischemic stroke with Hemiparesis. The patients were divided into 4 groups by a simple randomization. The criteria for this division were: the body side (right or left) affected by paresis and the applied rehabilitation methods. All the patients were applied the recommended kinesitherapeutic method (randomized), 35 therapy sessions, every day for a period of six weeks. Before initiation of therapy and after 6 weeks was measured the total area of the support and path length (COP (Center Of Pressure) measure foot pressure) using stabilometer platform - alpha. The results were statistically analyzed. After treatment studied traits decreased in all groups. The greatest improvement was obtained in groups with NDT-Bobath therapy. NDT-Bobath method for improving the balance of the body is a more effective method of treatment in comparison with of the PNF method. In stroke patients, the effectiveness of NDT-Bobath method does not depend on hand paresis. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Multifractal model of magnetic susceptibility distributions in some igneous rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Gettings


    Full Text Available Measurements of in-situ magnetic susceptibility were compiled from mainly Precambrian crystalline basement rocks beneath the Colorado Plateau and ranges in Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico. The susceptibility meter used measures about 30 cm3 of rock and measures variations in the modal distribution of magnetic minerals that form a minor component volumetrically in these coarsely crystalline granitic to granodioritic rocks. Recent measurements include 50–150 measurements on each outcrop, and show that the distribution of magnetic susceptibilities is highly variable, multimodal and strongly non-Gaussian. Although the distribution of magnetic susceptibility is well known to be multifractal, the small number of data points at an outcrop precludes calculation of the multifractal spectrum by conventional methods. Instead, a brute force approach was adopted using multiplicative cascade models to fit the outcrop scale variability of magnetic minerals. Model segment proportion and length parameters resulted in 26 676 models to span parameter space. Distributions at each outcrop were normalized to unity magnetic susceptibility and added to compare all data for a rock body accounting for variations in petrology and alteration. Once the best-fitting model was found, the equation relating the segment proportion and length parameters was solved numerically to yield the multifractal spectrum estimate. For the best fits, the relative density (the proportion divided by the segment length of one segment tends to be dominant and the other two densities are smaller and nearly equal. No other consistent relationships between the best fit parameters were identified. The multifractal spectrum estimates appear to distinguish between metamorphic gneiss sites and sites on plutons, even if the plutons have been metamorphosed. In particular, rocks that have undergone multiple tectonic events tend to have a larger range of scaling exponents.

  14. Temperature dependence of topological susceptibility using gradient flow

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, Yusuke; Kanaya, Kazuyuki; Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Umeda, Takashi; Iwami, Ryo; Wakabayashi, Naoki


    We study temperature dependence of the topological susceptibility with the $N_{f}=2+1$ flavors Wilson fermion. We have two major interests in this paper. One is a comparison of gluonic and fermionic definitions of the topological susceptibility. Two definitions are related by the chiral Ward-Takahashi identity but their coincidence is highly non-trivial for the Wilson fermion. By applying the gradient flow both for the gauge and quark fields we find a good agreement of these two measurements. The other is a verification of a prediction of the dilute instanton gas approximation at low temperature region $T_{pc}< T<1.5T_{pc}$, for which we confirm the prediction that the topological susceptibility decays with power $\\chi_{t}\\propto(T/T_{pc})^{-8}$ for three flavors QCD.

  15. The role of whole genome sequencing in antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria: report from the EUCAST Subcommittee. (United States)

    Ellington, M J; Ekelund, O; Aarestrup, F M; Canton, R; Doumith, M; Giske, C; Grundman, H; Hasman, H; Holden, M T G; Hopkins, K L; Iredell, J; Kahlmeter, G; Köser, C U; MacGowan, A; Mevius, D; Mulvey, M; Naas, T; Peto, T; Rolain, J-M; Samuelsen, Ø; Woodford, N


    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) offers the potential to predict antimicrobial susceptibility from a single assay. The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing established a subcommittee to review the current development status of WGS for bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). The published evidence for using WGS as a tool to infer antimicrobial susceptibility accurately is currently either poor or non-existent and the evidence / knowledge base requires significant expansion. The primary comparators for assessing genotypic-phenotypic concordance from WGS data should be changed to epidemiological cut-off values in order to improve differentiation of wild-type from non-wild-type isolates (harbouring an acquired resistance). Clinical breakpoints should be a secondary comparator. This assessment will reveal whether genetic predictions could also be used to guide clinical decision making. Internationally agreed principles and quality control (QC) metrics will facilitate early harmonization of analytical approaches and interpretive criteria for WGS-based predictive AST. Only data sets that pass agreed QC metrics should be used in AST predictions. Minimum performance standards should exist and comparative accuracies across different WGS laboratories and processes should be measured. To facilitate comparisons, a single public database of all known resistance loci should be established, regularly updated and strictly curated using minimum standards for the inclusion of resistance loci. For most bacterial species the major limitations to widespread adoption for WGS-based AST in clinical laboratories remain the current high-cost and limited speed of inferring antimicrobial susceptibility from WGS data as well as the dependency on previous culture because analysis directly on specimens remains challenging. For most bacterial species there is currently insufficient evidence to support the use of WGS-inferred AST to guide clinical decision making

  16. Locating the QCD critical end point through peaked baryon number susceptibilities along the freeze-out line (United States)

    Li, Zhibin; Chen, Yidian; Li, Danning; Huang, Mei


    We investigate the baryon number susceptibilities up to fourth order along different freeze-out lines in a holographic QCD model with a critical end point (CEP), and we propose that the peaked baryon number susceptibilities along the freeze-out line can be used as a clean signature to locate the CEP in the QCD phase diagram. On the temperature and baryon chemical potential plane, the cumulant ratio of the baryon number susceptibilities (up to fourth order) forms a ridge along the phase boundary, and develops a sword-shaped “mountain” standing upright around the CEP in a narrow and oblate region. The measurement of baryon number susceptibilities from heavy-ion collision experiments is along the freeze-out line. If the freeze-out line crosses the foot of the CEP mountain, then one can observe the peaked baryon number susceptibilities along the freeze-out line, and the kurtosis of the baryon number distributions has the highest magnitude. The data from the first phase of the beam energy scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider indicates that there should be a peak of the kurtosis of the baryon number distribution at a collision energy of around 5 GeV, which suggests that the freeze-out line crosses the foot of the CEP mountain and the summit of the CEP should be located nearby, around a collision energy of 3–7 GeV. Supported by NSFC (11275213, and 11261130311) (CRC 110 by DFG and NSFC), CAS key project KJCX2-EW-N01, and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS

  17. Application of fuzzy weight of evidence and data mining techniques in construction of flood susceptibility map of Poyang County, China. (United States)

    Hong, Haoyuan; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Ilia, Ioanna; Liu, Junzhi; Zhu, A-Xing; Chen, Wei


    In China, floods are considered as the most frequent natural disaster responsible for severe economic losses and serious damages recorded in agriculture and urban infrastructure. Based on the international experience prevention of flood events may not be completely possible, however identifying susceptible and vulnerable areas through prediction models is considered as a more visible task with flood susceptibility mapping being an essential tool for flood mitigation strategies and disaster preparedness. In this context, the present study proposes a novel approach to construct a flood susceptibility map in the Poyang County, JiangXi Province, China by implementing fuzzy weight of evidence (fuzzy-WofE) and data mining methods. The novelty of the presented approach is the usage of fuzzy-WofE that had a twofold purpose. Firstly, to create an initial flood susceptibility map in order to identify non-flood areas and secondly to weight the importance of flood related variables which influence flooding. Logistic Regression (LR), Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) were implemented considering eleven flood related variables, namely: lithology, soil cover, elevation, slope angle, aspect, topographic wetness index, stream power index, sediment transport index, plan curvature, profile curvature and distance from river network. The efficiency of this new approach was evaluated using area under curve (AUC) which measured the prediction and success rates. According to the outcomes of the performed analysis, the fuzzy WofE-SVM model was the model with the highest predictive performance (AUC value, 0.9865) which also appeared to be statistical significant different from the other predictive models, fuzzy WofE-RF (AUC value, 0.9756) and fuzzy WofE-LR (AUC value, 0.9652). The proposed methodology and the produced flood susceptibility map could assist researchers and local governments in flood mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of insecticides on strawberry aphid Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) on resistant and susceptible strawberry genotypes


    Slobodan Milenković; Dejan Marčić; Pantelija Perić


    Strawberry aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell), is the most important vector of strawberry virus. Breeding of genotypes resistant to this pest is an important preventive control measure, which can be compatible with rational insecticide application. The aim of the paper was to determine effects of dimethoate and deltamethrin on C. fragaefolii populations reared on two strawberry genotypes different in susceptibility: susceptible strawberry cultivar ...

  19. Behaviorally Assessed Sleep and Susceptibility to the Common Cold. (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Hall, Martica H; Cohen, Sheldon


    Short sleep duration and poor sleep continuity have been implicated in the susceptibility to infectious illness. However, prior research has relied on subjective measures of sleep, which are subject to recall bias. The aim of this study was to determine whether sleep, measured behaviorally using wrist actigraphy, predicted cold incidence following experimental viral exposure. A total of 164 healthy men and women (age range, 18 to 55 y) volunteered for this study. Wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries assessed sleep duration and sleep continuity over 7 consecutive days. Participants were then quarantined and administered nasal drops containing the rhinovirus, and monitored over 5 days for the development of a clinical cold (defined by infection in the presence of objective signs of illness). Logistic regression analysis revealed that actigraphy- assessed shorter sleep duration was associated with an increased likelihood of development of a clinical cold. Specifically, those sleeping cold compared to those sleeping > 7 h per night; those sleeping 6.01 to 7 h were at no greater risk (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 0.40-6.95). This association was independent of prechallenge antibody levels, demographics, season of the year, body mass index, psychological variables, and health practices. Sleep fragmentation was unrelated to cold susceptibility. Other sleep variables obtained using diary and actigraphy were not strong predictors of cold susceptibility. Shorter sleep duration, measured behaviorally using actigraphy prior to viral exposure, was associated with increased susceptibility to the common cold. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. Magnetic susceptibility of tektites and some other glasses (United States)

    Senftle, F.E.; Thorpe, A.


    The magnetic susceptibility at several magnetic field strengths of about thirty tektites from various localities have been measured. The susceptibility ranges from 2 ?? 10-6 to about 7.9 ?? 10-6 e.m.u./g. Tektites from a given locality have similar susceptibilities. The intensity of magnetization of all the tektites measured is zero or very small. For comparison, the same measurements have been made on about thirty obsidians. The magnetic susceptibilities cover approximately the same range, but the intensity of magnetization of the impurity was found to be much higher. By heating the obsidians to 1450??C the intensity of magnetization was reduced to zero. From the above data, it is shown that the tektites must have been heated well above 1400??C, and that essentially all the iron is in solution. On the other hand, the evidence shows that obsidians have not been heated much above this temperature, and that there is a significant amount of undissolved iron in the glass, probably as magnetite. Further, if tektites are extraterrestrial, they probably entered the earth's atmosphere as a glass. ?? 1959.

  1. Dynamic magnetic susceptibility and electrical detection of ferromagnetic resonance (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Wang, X. S.; Yuan, H. Y.; Kang, S. S.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, X. R.


    The dynamic magnetic susceptibility of magnetic materials near ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) is very important in interpreting the dc voltage obtained in its electrical detection. Based on the causality principle and the assumption that the usual microwave absorption lineshape of a homogeneous magnetic material around FMR is Lorentzian, the general forms of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility of an arbitrary sample and the corresponding dc voltage lineshapes of its electrical detection were obtained. Our main findings are as follows. (1) The dynamic magnetic susceptibility is not a Polder tensor for a material with an arbitrary magnetic anisotropy. The two off-diagonal matrix elements of the tensor near FMR are not, in general, opposite to each other. However, the linear response coefficient of the magnetization to the total radio frequency (rf) field (the sum of the external and internal rf fields due to precessing magnetization is a quantity which cannot be measured directly) is a Polder tensor. This may explain why the two off-diagonal susceptibility matrix elements were always wrongly assumed to be opposite to each other in almost all analyses. (2) The frequency dependence of dynamic magnetic susceptibility near FMR is fully characterized by six real numbers, while its field dependence is fully characterized by seven real numbers. (3) A recipe of how to determine these numbers by standard microwave absorption measurements for a sample with an arbitrary magnetic anisotropy is proposed. Our results allow one to unambiguously separate the contribution of the anisotropic magnetoresistance to the dc voltage signals from the anomalous Hall effect. With these results, one can reliably extract the information of spin pumping and the inverse spin-Hall effect, and determine the spin-Hall angle. (4) In the case that resonance frequency is not sensitive to the applied static magnetic field, the field dependence of the matrix elements of dynamic magnetic susceptibility, as

  2. Topological Susceptibility in the SU(3) Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Del Debbio, L; Pica, C; Debbio, Luigi Del; Giusti, Leonardo; Pica, Claudio


    We compute the topological susceptibility for the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory by employing the expression of the topological charge density operator suggested by Neuberger's fermions. In the continuum limit we find r_0^4 chi = 0.059(3), which corresponds to chi=(191 +/- 5 MeV)^4 if F_K is used to set the scale. Our result supports the Witten--Veneziano explanation for the large mass of the eta'.

  3. Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Uropathogens in Obstetric Patients


    Sabharwal, Ekadashi R


    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most commonly encountered infections in obstetric patients. Although a variety of etiology is involved, Escherichia coli and other coliforms account for a large majority of these naturally acquired infections. The estimation of local etiology and susceptibility profile could support the most effective empirical treatment. Aim: The current study was undertaken to find the spectrum of micro-organisms responsible for causing UTI in obstetric pat...

  4. Selecting statistical or machine learning techniques for regional landslide susceptibility modelling by evaluating spatial prediction (United States)

    Goetz, Jason; Brenning, Alexander; Petschko, Helene; Leopold, Philip


    With so many techniques now available for landslide susceptibility modelling, it can be challenging to decide on which technique to apply. Generally speaking, the criteria for model selection should be tied closely to end users' purpose, which could be spatial prediction, spatial analysis or both. In our research, we focus on comparing the spatial predictive abilities of landslide susceptibility models. We illustrate how spatial cross-validation, a statistical approach for assessing spatial prediction performance, can be applied with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) as a prediction measure for model comparison. Several machine learning and statistical techniques are evaluated for prediction in Lower Austria: support vector machine, random forest, bundling with penalized linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, weights of evidence, and the generalized additive model. In addition to predictive performance, the importance of predictor variables in each model was estimated using spatial cross-validation by calculating the change in AUROC performance when variables are randomly permuted. The susceptibility modelling techniques were tested in three areas of interest in Lower Austria, which have unique geologic conditions associated with landslide occurrence. Overall, we found for the majority of comparisons that there were little practical or even statistically significant differences in AUROCs. That is the models' prediction performances were very similar. Therefore, in addition to prediction, the ability to interpret models for spatial analysis and the qualitative qualities of the prediction surface (map) are considered and discussed. The measure of variable importance provided some insight into the model behaviour for prediction, in particular for "black-box" models. However, there were no clear patterns in all areas of interest to why certain variables were given more importance over others.

  5. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: A Concise Review with a Comprehensive Summary of Therapeutic Interventions Emphasizing Supportive Measures. (United States)

    Schneider, Jeremy A; Cohen, Philip R


    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are two of the most severe dermatologic conditions occurring in the inpatient setting. There is a lack of consensus regarding appropriate management of SJS and TEN. The scientific literature pertaining to SJS and TEN (subsequently referred to as SJS/TEN) is summarized and assessed. In addition, an interventional approach for the clinician is provided. PubMed was searched with the key words: corticosteroids, cyclosporine, etanercept, intravenous immunoglobulin, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. The papers generated by the search, and their references, were reviewed. Supportive care is the most universally accepted intervention for SJS/TEN. Specific guidelines differ from the care required for patients with thermal burns. Adjuvant therapies are utilized in most severe cases, but the data are thus far underwhelming and underpowered. Using systemic corticosteroids as sole therapy is not supported. A consensus regarding combined corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has not been reached. Data regarding IVIG, currently the standard of care for most referral centers, is conflicting. Newer studies regarding cyclosporine and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors are promising, but not powered to provide definitive evidence of efficacy. Data regarding plasmapheresis is equivocal. Thalidomide increases mortality. Clinicians who manage SJS/TEN should seek to employ interventions with the greatest impact on their patients' condition. While supportive care measures may seem an obvious aspect of SJS/TEN patient care, providers should understand that these interventions are imperative and that they differ from the care recommended for other critically ill or burn patients. While adjuvant therapies are frequently discussed and debated for hospitalized patients with SJS/TEN, a standardized management approach is not yet clear based on the current data. Therefore, until further data

  6. Development of a caregiver-reported measure to support systematic assessment of people with dementia in long-term care: The Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale for Dementia. (United States)

    Ellis-Smith, Clare; Evans, Catherine J; Murtagh, Fliss Em; Henson, Lesley A; Firth, Alice M; Higginson, Irene J; Daveson, Barbara A


    Symptom burden is common for long-term care residents with dementia which if untreated compromises quality of life. Measurement tools can support assessment of symptoms and problems but are not widely used in long-term care settings. We developed the Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale for Dementia derived from the Palliative care Outcome Scale, Palliative care Outcome Scale-Symptom and Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale. To examine the content validity, acceptability and comprehension of Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale for Dementia for routine use in long-term care settings for people with dementia and to refine Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale for Dementia. A multi-method qualitative study consisting of focus groups, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews. Three residential long-term care settings in London, UK. Focus group and semi-structured interview participants included caregiver staff, family, general practitioners and district nurses. Caregiver staff were sampled purposively for cognitive interviews. A total of 26 respondents participated in the focus groups ( n = 21) or semi-structured interviews ( n = 5) and 10 caregiver staff completed cognitive interviews. Additional symptoms and problems included agitation, wandering, sleep problems, communication problems and diarrhoea. Refinements or lay terms were required to improve comprehension and consistency of item response for nausea, drowsiness, delusions/hallucinations, agitation, loss of interest, communication problems and interaction. A video presentation was required to support comprehension of instructions and assessment of verbally compromised residents. Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale for Dementia is a comprehensive and acceptable caregiver-reported measure to detect symptoms and problems in dementia. It is suitable for caregiver staff without professional training as it has been refined and tailored to maximise caregiver expertise, ready for

  7. Structure and characteristics of landslide input data and consequences on landslide susceptibility assessment and prediction capability (United States)

    Oliveira, S. C.; Zezere, J. L.; Garcia, R. A. C.; Piedade, A.


    For the territorial planning and management it is of crucial importance the knowledge of the landslide susceptibility, in order to minimize the physical damages and economic losses associated to a certain instability scenario. Resultant mitigation measures can only be effective if we were able to predict where future landslides will occur. In order to improve the quality of data driven landslide susceptibility assessment, recent research developed worldwide as been focused on some fundamental questions: What is the quality of landslide inventories? What is the most appropriate terrain-unit to adopt? What is the most reliable statistical model? What are the best tools to validate results? In contrast, little attention has been given in the literature to the consequences on the landslide susceptibility assessment resulting from the structure and characteristics of the landslide database. Under the assumption that the conditions that led to slope instability in the past are more likely to generate new instability in the future, the statistically-based landslide susceptibility evaluation for a specific area is based on the spatial correlation between a set of independent, predisposing landslide geo-environmental factors, and the distribution of past landslides, which are considered the dependent variable. Landslides are usually included in the susceptibility models as a single point or as a polygon representing the entire unstable area. The selection of the way landslide information enter into prediction models (point vs polygon) is frequently conditioned by software constrains, and surprisingly, the effects of this choice in landslide susceptibility results has not been made. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quality of susceptibility results obtained for rotational slides in a 12 km2 test site located at north of Lisbon, Portugal considering: (i) the structure and characteristics of landslide input data; (ii) the capacity of different landslide inventories

  8. Evaluating machine learning and statistical prediction techniques for landslide susceptibility modeling (United States)

    Goetz, J. N.; Brenning, A.; Petschko, H.; Leopold, P.


    Statistical and now machine learning prediction methods have been gaining popularity in the field of landslide susceptibility modeling. Particularly, these data driven approaches show promise when tackling the challenge of mapping landslide prone areas for large regions, which may not have sufficient geotechnical data to conduct physically-based methods. Currently, there is no best method for empirical susceptibility modeling. Therefore, this study presents a comparison of traditional statistical and novel machine learning models applied for regional scale landslide susceptibility modeling. These methods were evaluated by spatial k-fold cross-validation estimation of the predictive performance, assessment of variable importance for gaining insights into model behavior and by the appearance of the prediction (i.e. susceptibility) map. The modeling techniques applied were logistic regression (GLM), generalized additive models (GAM), weights of evidence (WOE), the support vector machine (SVM), random forest classification (RF), and bootstrap aggregated classification trees (bundling) with penalized discriminant analysis (BPLDA). These modeling methods were tested for three areas in the province of Lower Austria, Austria. The areas are characterized by different geological and morphological settings. Random forest and bundling classification techniques had the overall best predictive performances. However, the performances of all modeling techniques were for the majority not significantly different from each other; depending on the areas of interest, the overall median estimated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) differences ranged from 2.9 to 8.9 percentage points. The overall median estimated true positive rate (TPR) measured at a 10% false positive rate (FPR) differences ranged from 11 to 15pp. The relative importance of each predictor was generally different between the modeling methods. However, slope angle, surface roughness and plan

  9. Genetic susceptibility to environmental toxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The toxicological challenges to the chemical industry have in recent years been greatly affected by the rapid innovation and development of analytical, molecular and genetic technologies. ECETOC recognises the importance of developing the technical and intellectual skill bases in academia...... and industrial based laboratories to meet the rapid development of the science base of toxicology. As the technology to determine genetic susceptibility develops, so scientist will be able to describe altered gene expression provoked by chemicals long before they are able to offer valid interpretations...... of their meaning. A potential for inadvertently raising concerns over the effect of chemicals in experimental animals or man, or even the intentional misrepresentation of results to suggest chemicals are “playing” with our genes is enormous. History has shown that some individuals and groups in society are willing...

  10. Recommendations on evidence needed to support measurement equivalence between electronic and paper-based patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures: ISPOR ePRO Good Research Practices Task Force report. (United States)

    Coons, Stephen Joel; Gwaltney, Chad J; Hays, Ron D; Lundy, J Jason; Sloan, Jeff A; Revicki, Dennis A; Lenderking, William R; Cella, David; Basch, Ethan


    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are the consequences of disease and/or its treatment as reported by the patient. The importance of PRO measures in clinical trials for new drugs, biological agents, and devices was underscored by the release of the US Food and Drug Administration's draft guidance for industry titled "Patient-Reported Outcome Measures: Use in Medical Product Development to Support Labeling Claims." The intent of the guidance was to describe how the FDA will evaluate the appropriateness and adequacy of PRO measures used as effectiveness end points in clinical trials. In response to the expressed need of ISPOR members for further clarification of several aspects of the draft guidance, ISPOR's Health Science Policy Council created three task forces, one of which was charged with addressing the implications of the draft guidance for the collection of PRO data using electronic data capture modes of administration (ePRO). The objective of this report is to present recommendations from ISPOR's ePRO Good Research Practices Task Force regarding the evidence necessary to support the comparability, or measurement equivalence, of ePROs to the paper-based PRO measures from which they were adapted. The task force was composed of the leadership team of ISPOR's ePRO Working Group and members of another group (i.e., ePRO Consensus Development Working Group) that had already begun to develop recommendations regarding ePRO good research practices. The resulting task force membership reflected a broad array of backgrounds, perspectives, and expertise that enriched the development of this report. The prior work became the starting point for the Task Force report. A subset of the task force members became the writing team that prepared subsequent iterations of the report that were distributed to the full task force for review and feedback. In addition, review beyond the task force was sought and obtained. Along with a presentation and discussion period at an ISPOR meeting

  11. Vaccine effects on heterogeneity in susceptibility and implications for population health management (United States)

    Langwig, Kate E.; Wargo, Andrew R.; Jones, Darbi R.; Viss, Jessie R.; Rutan, Barbara J.; Egan, Nicholas A.; Sá-Guimarães, Pedro; Min Sun Kim,; Kurath, Gael; Gomes, M. Gabriela M.; Lipsitch, Marc; Bansal, Shweta; Pettigrew, Melinda M.


    Heterogeneity in host susceptibility is a key determinant of infectious disease dynamics but is rarely accounted for in assessment of disease control measures. Understanding how susceptibility is distributed in populations, and how control measures change this distribution, is integral to predicting the course of epidemics with and without interventions. Using multiple experimental and modeling approaches, we show that rainbow trout have relatively homogeneous susceptibility to infection with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and that vaccination increases heterogeneity in susceptibility in a nearly all-or-nothing fashion. In a simple transmission model with an R0 of 2, the highly heterogeneous vaccine protection would cause a 35 percentage-point reduction in outbreak size over an intervention inducing homogenous protection at the same mean level. More broadly, these findings provide validation of methodology that can help to reduce biases in predictions of vaccine impact in natural settings and provide insight into how vaccination shapes population susceptibility.

  12. Deflections of an implant-supported cantilever beam subjected to vertically directed loads: in vitro measurements in three dimensions using an optoelectronic method. I. Experimental set-up. (United States)

    Cassel, Björn; Lundgren, Dan; Karlsson, Dan


    The aim of this in vitro study was to develop and test an experimental set-up consisting of a video camera and computer-based optoelectronic motion analysis system, synchronized with a loading device, for studying load-dependent deflections in three dimensions of single implant-supported cantilever beams. One Brånemark System implant was tightly screwed into a steel plate so that the entire implant became submerged. An abutment was attached to the implant and a cast 22-mm-long cantilever gold alloy beam incorporating a prefabricated gold cylinder was attached to the abutment with a prosthetic gold screw. A force transducer was glued on the upper surface of the beam end with its centre 19.4 mm from the centre of the implant abutment gold cylinder unit to register the applied load. A specially designed loading device was used to apply increasing vertical loads of the beam end via the transducer. The motion analysis system was synchronized with the transducer to enable measurements of three-dimensional positional changes of the beam end related to known loads. Vertical loads from 15.7 to 40.4 N were applied resulting in vertical positional changes of the beam end ranging from 40.8 to 225.2 μm (z-axis). The corresponding horizontal changes perpendicular to the long axis of the beam (y-axis) due to counterclockwise horizontal rotation of the beam around the abutment- and prosthetic cylinder threads varied from 7.4 to 77.4 μm. This rotation changed the position of the beam end from 11.9 to 49.3 μm along the x-axis of the coordinate system toward the supporting implant. It was possible to arrange an experimental set-up for optoelectronic 3-D measurements within such a limited measurement volume that would permit satisfactory registrations of small load-dependent deflections of the prosthetic beam and implant components. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Prophylactic stretching does not reduce cramp susceptibility. (United States)

    Miller, Kevin C; Harsen, James D; Long, Blaine C


    Some clinicians advocate stretching to prevent muscle cramps. It is unknown whether static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching increases cramp threshold frequency (TFc ), a quantitative measure of cramp susceptibility. Fifteen individuals completed this randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over study. We measured passive hallux range of motion (ROM) and then performed 3 minutes of either static stretching, PNF stretching (hold-relax-with agonist contraction), or no stretching. ROM was reassessed and TFc was measured. PNF stretching increased hallux extension (pre-PNF 81 ± 11°, post-PNF 90 ± 10°; P PNF 40 ± 7°, post-PNF 40 ± 7°; P > 0.05). Static stretching increased hallux extension (pre-static 80 ± 11°, post-static 88 ± 9°; P 0.05). No ROM changes occurred with no stretching (P > 0.05). TFc was unaffected by stretching (no stretching 18 ± 7 Hz, PNF 16 ± 4 Hz, static 16 ± 5 Hz; P = 0.37). Static and PNF stretching increased hallux extension, but neither increased TFc . Acute stretching may not prevent muscle cramping. Muscle Nerve, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Support of the supporters. (United States)

    Stiefel, F


    A growing body of evidence indicates that health care professionals working with severely ill patients are in need of support. Beside "external" factors, such as heavy clinical patient volume or administrative duties, "intra-psychic stressors," related to the inner significance of contextual factors, are an important source of clinician's distress. Identification of and working through intrapsychic stressors can considerably reduce psychological distress and thus provide effective and long-lasting support of the oncology clinician. This article discusses key elements of intra-psychic stressors, namely (1) emotions towards the patient, (2) awareness of own limits, (3) confusion about empathy, identification, counter-transference and collusion, (4) the influence of early development and life trajectory on career choices and professional identity and (5) the conflicting roles a health care professional being in need of support has to face.

  15. Predictive Validity of the Expanded Susceptibility to Smoke Index. (United States)

    Strong, David R; Hartman, Sheri J; Nodora, Jesse; Messer, Karen; James, Lisa; White, Martha; Portnoy, David B; Choiniere, Conrad J; Vullo, Genevieve C; Pierce, John


    The susceptibility to smoking index can be improved as it only identifies one third of future adult smokers. Adding curiosity to this index may increase the identification of future smokers and improve the identification of effective prevention messages. Analyses used data from the California Longitudinal Study of Smoking Transitions in Youth, for whom tobacco use behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs were assessed at 3 time points from age 12 through early adulthood. Logistic regressions were used to evaluate whether baseline curiosity about smoking was predictive of smoking during the 6-year follow-up period and whether curiosity about smoking provided evidence of incremental validity over existing measures of susceptibility to smoking. Compared to those who were classified as definitely not curious about smoking, teens who were classified as probably not curious (OR adj = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.28-2.81) and those classified as definitely curious (OR adj = 2.38, 95% CI= 1.49-3.79) had an increase in the odds of becoming a young adult smoker. Adding curiosity to the original susceptibility to smoking index increased the sensitivity of the enhanced susceptibility index to 78.9% compared to 62.2% identified by the original susceptibility index. However, a loss of specificity meant there was no improvement in the positive predictive value. The enhanced susceptibility index significantly improves identification of teens at risk for becoming young adult smokers. Thus, this enhanced index is preferred for identifying and testing potentially effective prevention messages. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  16. Proteochemometric modeling of HIV protease susceptibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lapins, Maris; Eklund, Martin; Spjuth, Ola; Prusis, Peteris; Wikberg, Jarl E S


    .... Therefore, we used proteochemometrics to model the susceptibility of HIV to protease inhibitors in current use, utilizing descriptions of the physico-chemical properties of mutated HIV proteases...

  17. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping using Structural Feature based Collaborative Reconstruction (SFCR) in the Human Brain (United States)

    Cai, Congbo; Chen, Zhong; van Zijl, Peter C.M.


    The reconstruction of MR quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) from local phase measurements is an ill posed inverse problem and different regularization strategies incorporating a priori information extracted from magnitude and phase images have been proposed. However, the anatomy observed in magnitude and phase images does not always coincide spatially with that in susceptibility maps, which could give erroneous estimation in the reconstructed susceptibility map. In this paper, we develop a structural feature based collaborative reconstruction (SFCR) method for QSM including both magnitude and susceptibility based information. The SFCR algorithm is composed of two consecutive steps corresponding to complementary reconstruction models, each with a structural feature based l1 norm constraint and a voxel fidelity based l2 norm constraint, which allows both the structure edges and tiny features to be recovered, whereas the noise and artifacts could be reduced. In the M-step, the initial susceptibility map is reconstructed by employing a k-space based compressed sensing model incorporating magnitude prior. In the S-step, the susceptibility map is fitted in spatial domain using weighted constraints derived from the initial susceptibility map from the M-step. Simulations and in vivo human experiments at 7T MRI show that the SFCR method provides high quality susceptibility maps with improved RMSE and MSSIM. Finally, the susceptibility values of deep gray matter are analyzed in multiple head positions, with the supine position most approximate to the gold standard COSMOS result. PMID:27019480

  18. Current activities and future directions of comprehensive hepatitis control measures in Japan: The supportive role of the Hepatitis Information Center in building a solid foundation. (United States)

    Oza, Noriko; Isoda, Hiroshi; Ono, Toshiki; Kanto, Tatsuya


    In Japan, hepatitis B or C virus infection has been a major health issue. For the prevention of liver-related deaths, multifaceted strategies have been taken against hepatitis virus. In fiscal year (FY) 2002, nationwide screening for hepatitis was started as a part of health examinations provided by municipal governments. From FY2007, the hepatitis treatment network has been strengthened by the nationwide establishment of regional government-based hepatitis treatment systems, comprising linked regional core centers, specialized institutions for hepatitis treatment, primary care physicians, and regional governments. Special subsidy program for patients with viral hepatitis was started at FY2008. The range of coverage has been expanding from patients treated with interferon to those on nucleotide analogs or interferon-free therapies, including drug prices and examination expenses. The Basic Act on Hepatitis Measures was established in 2009. The Basic Guidelines for Promotion of Control Measures for hepatitis was issued in 2011, comprising nine principles in order to promote measures for hepatitis B and C. The Hepatitis Information Center was established in 2008. Its mission is to provide up-to-date hepatitis-related information, supporting collaboration between regional core centers, and training medical personnel. The revision of the above-mentioned Basic Guidelines in 2016 set the target as the reduction of patients progressing to cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. Achieving this goal definitely requires active collaboration among the national and local governments, regional core centers, and the Hepatitis Information Center, and participation by medical personnel, patients, and people with awareness. © 2017 The Authors Hepatology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Hepatology.

  19. 'The ICECAP-SCM tells you more about what I'm going through': A think-aloud study measuring quality of life among patients receiving supportive and palliative care. (United States)

    Bailey, Cara; Kinghorn, Philip; Orlando, Rosanna; Armour, Kathy; Perry, Rachel; Jones, Louise; Coast, Joanna


    The ICECAP-Supportive Care Measure is a self-complete questionnaire developed to aid economic evaluation of supportive care interventions. To determine the feasibility of completing ICECAP-Supportive Care Measure alongside EQ-5D-5L and ICECAP-A (generic measures used in economic evaluation) among patients receiving hospice care, close persons and healthcare professionals. Participants were asked to 'think aloud' while completing ICECAP-Supportive Care Measure and two other generic measures used in economic evaluation, EQ-5D-5L and ICECAP-A, and then participate in a semi-structured interview. From verbatim transcripts, five raters identified the frequency of errors in comprehension, retrieval, judgement and response. Qualitative data were analysed using constant comparison. Eligible patients were identified from one UK hospice by a research nurse. Close persons and healthcare professionals were identified by the patient. In all, 72 semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (n = 33), close persons (n = 22) and healthcare professionals (n = 17). Patients and close persons reported that the ICECAP-Supportive Care Measure was most appropriate for measuring their quality of life. It appeared more meaningful, easier to complete and had fewest errors (3.9% among patients, 4.5% among close persons) compared to EQ-5D-5L (9.7% among patients, 5.5% among close persons). Healthcare professionals acknowledged the value of the ICECAP-Supportive Care Measure but had fewer errors in completing the EQ-5D-5L (3.5% versus 6.7%). They found it easier to complete because it focuses on observable health states. The ICECAP-Supportive Care Measure is feasible to use and perceived as appropriate for evaluating palliative care interventions. Healthcare professionals with limited knowledge of the patient who act as proxy completers may find the measure difficult to complete. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Language of motivation and emotion in an Internet support group for smoking cessation: explorative use of automated content analysis to measure regulatory focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnsen JAK


    Full Text Available Jan-Are K Johnsen,1 Sara M Vambheim,2 Rolf Wynn,3,4 Silje C Wangberg3,51Department of Clinical Dentistry, University of Tromsø, 2Department of Psychology, University of Tromsø, 3Division of Addiction and Specialized Psychiatry, University Hospital of North-Norway, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, 5Narvik University College, Narvik, NorwayAbstract: The present study describes a novel approach to the identification of the motivational processes in text data extracted from an Internet support group (ISG for smoking cessation. Based on the previous findings that a “prevention” focus might be more relevant for maintaining behavior change, it was hypothesized that 1 language use (ie, the use of emotional words signaling a “promotion” focus would be dominant in the initiating stages of the ISG, and 2 that the proportion of words signaling a prevention focus would increase over time. The data were collected from the ISG site, spanning 4 years of forum activity. The data were analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count application. The first hypothesis – of promotion focus dominance in the initiating stages – was not supported during year 1. However, for all the other years measured, the data showed that a prevention failure was more dominant compared with a promotion failure. The results indicate that content analysis could be used to investigate motivational and language-driven processes in ISGs. Understanding the interplay between self-regulation, lifestyle change, and modern communication channels could be of vital importance in providing the public with better health care services and interventions.Keywords: self-regulation, behavior change, emotion, prevention

  1. Parent-Child Relationship, Temperament, and Physiological Reactions to Fear-Inducing Film Clips: Further Evidence for Differential Susceptibility (United States)

    Gilissen, Renske; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van der Veer, Rene


    Recent studies have supported the intriguing hypothesis that highly reactive infants are most susceptible to the effect of parenting. This study replicates and extends an earlier study on 4-year-olds concerning higher susceptibility of more fearful children to the quality of their relationships with their mothers, as shown by their physiological…

  2. Parent-child relationship, temperament, and physiological reactions to fear-inducing film clips: further evidence for differential susceptibility. (United States)

    Gilissen, Renske; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; van der Veer, René


    Recent studies have supported the intriguing hypothesis that highly reactive infants are most susceptible to the effect of parenting. This study replicates and extends an earlier study on 4-year-olds concerning higher susceptibility of more fearful children to the quality of their relationships with their mothers, as shown by their physiological reactions to fear-inducing film clips. Two groups of children (4- and 7-year-olds) were shown the same fear-inducing and neutral film clips. During the film clips, their skin conductance and heart rate variability were measured. Both 4- and 7-year-olds responded to the fear-inducing film clips with increases in skin conductance and decreases in heart rate variability. A secure relationship affected the reactivity to fearful stimuli in temperamentally more fearful children but not in less fearful children irrespective of children's ages. Our findings add to the growing literature showing that children high in negative emotion are more susceptible to positive as well as negative rearing influences for better and for worse.

  3. Phosphorylcholine impairs susceptibility to biofilm formation of hydrogel contact lenses. (United States)

    Selan, Laura; Palma, Stefano; Scoarughi, Gian Luca; Papa, Rosanna; Veeh, Richard; Di Clemente, Daniele; Artini, Marco


    To compare silicone-hydrogel, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA), and phosphorylcholine-coated (PC-C) contact lenses in terms of their susceptibility to biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Laboratory investigation. Biofilm formation on colonized test lenses was evaluated with confocal microscopy and in vitro antibiotic susceptibility assays. The results of the latter assays were compared with those performed on planktonic cultures of the same organism. For both microorganisms, sessile colonies on silicone-hydrogel and pHEMA lenses displayed lower antibiotic susceptibility than their planktonic counterparts. In contrast, the susceptibility of cultures growing on PC-C lenses was comparable with that for planktonic cultures. In particular, minimum inhibitory concentration for Tazocin (piperacillin plus tazobactam; Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Aprilia, Italy; S. epidermidis) and gentamicin (P. aeruginosa) was identical, either in the presence of PC-C support or in planktonic cultures (Tazocin, lenses (0.4 mug/ml) with respect to planktonic cultures (0.2 mug/ml). Confocal microscopy of lenses colonized for 24 hours with P. aeruginosa green fluorescent protein-expressing cells revealed a sessile colonization on silicone-hydrogel lens and a few isolated bacterial cells scattered widely over the surface of the PC-C lens. An increase in antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial cultures was associated with diminished bacterial adhesion. Our results indicate that PC-C lenses seem to be more resistant than silicone-hydrogel and pHEMA lenses to bacterial adhesion and colonization. This feature may facilitate their disinfection.

  4. Species belonging to the "Streptococcus milleri" group: antimicrobial susceptibility and comparative prevalence in significant clinical specimens. (United States)

    Bantar, C; Fernandez Canigia, L; Relloso, S; Lanza, A; Bianchini, H; Smayevsky, J


    The association between the three species belonging to the "Streptococcus milleri" group and different sites of isolation was examined for 73 successive strains recovered from clinically significant, purulent infections. Susceptibility testing was performed on 64 of these strains. The present study supports the association of particular species with different clinical sources. Susceptibility data suggest that emerging penicillin resistance among Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius isolates may represent a potential clinical problem in the therapeutic management of infections caused by these species. PMID:8818904

  5. Polymorphisms in the prostaglandin receptor EP2 gene confers susceptibility to tuberculosis. (United States)

    Liang, Li; Zhang, Qing; Luo, Liu-Lin; Yue, Jun; Zhao, Yan-Lin; Han, Min; Liu, Li-Rong; Xiao, He-Ping


    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an important lipid mediator of the inflammatory immune response during acute and chronic infections. PGE2 modulates a variety of immune functions via four receptors (EP1-EP4), which mediate distinct PGE2 effects. Mice lacking EP2 are more susceptible to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), have a higher bacterial load, and increase size and number of granulomatous lesions. Our aim was to assess whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in EP2 increase the risk of tuberculosis. DNA re-sequencing revealed five common EP2 variants in the Chinese Han population. We sequenced the EP2 gene from 600 patients and 572 healthy controls to measure SNP frequencies in association with tuberculosis infections (TB) within the population. The rs937337 polymorphism is associated with increased risk to tuberculosis (p=0.0044, odds ratio [OR], 1.67; 95% confidential interval,1.22-2.27). The rs937337 AA genotype and the rs1042618 CC genotype were significantly associated with TB. An estimation of the frequencies of haplotypes revealed a single protective haplotype GACGC for tuberculosis (p=0.00096, odds ratio [OR], 0.56; 95% confidential interval, 0.41-0.77). Furthermore, we determined that the remaining SNPs of EP2 were nominally associated with clinical patterns of disease. We identified genetic polymorphisms in EP2 associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis within a Chinese population. Our data support that EP2 SNPs are genetic predispositions of increased susceptibility to TB and to different clinical patterns of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Preoperative echocardiographic measures of left ventricular mechanics are associated with postoperative vasoactive support in preterm infants undergoing patent ductus arteriosus ligation. (United States)

    Gray, Margaret A; Graham, Eric M; Atz, Andrew M; Bradley, Scott M; Kavarana, Minoo N; Chowdhury, Shahryar M


    Preoperative risk factors associated with poor outcomes after patent ductus arteriosus ligation in preterm infants have not been well defined. The aim of this study was to determine the association between preoperative echocardiographic measures of left ventricular mechanics and postoperative clinical outcomes after patent ductus arteriosus ligation. Preterm infants less than 90 days of age with no other significant congenital anomalies who underwent patent ductus arteriosus ligation between 2007 and 2015 were considered for retrospective analysis. The primary outcome was peak postoperative vasoactive inotropic score. Conventional echocardiographic measures of ventricular size, function, and patent ductus arteriosus size were performed. Echocardiographic single-beat, pressure-volume loop analysis estimates of contractility (end-systolic elastance) and afterload (arterial elastance) were calculated. Ventriculoarterial coupling was assessed using the arterial elastance/end-systolic elastance ratio. Multivariable linear regression was performed using clinical and echocardiographic data. Echocardiograms from 101 patients (42.5% male) were analyzed. We found a statistically significant association between vasoactive inotropic score and both end-systolic elastance and arterial elastance. No patient with arterial elastance/end-systolic elastance greater than 0.78 (n = 32) had a vasoactive inotropic score 20 or greater. Analysis of our secondary outcomes found associations between preoperative end-systolic elastance and postoperative urine output less than 1 mL/kg/h at 24 hours, creatinine change greater than 0.5 mg/dL, and time to first extubation. End-systolic elastance and arterial elastance were the only predictors of postoperative vasoactive inotropic score after patent ductus arteriosus ligation in preterm infants. Those neonates with increased contractility and low afterload were at highest risk for elevated inotropic support. These findings suggest a role

  7. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel


    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is

  8. Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galina-Pantoja, L.; Siggens, K.; Schriek, van M.G.M.; Heuven, H.C.M.


    The goal of this study was to identify pig chromosomal regions associated with susceptibility to salmonellosis. Genomic DNA from pig reference populations with differences in susceptibility to Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis as quantified by spleen and liver bacterial colonization at day 7

  9. Crystal morphology change by magnetic susceptibility force


    Katsuki, Aiko; Aibara, Shigeo; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi


    We found a change in morphology when lysozyme crystals were grown in a magnetic field. The phenomenon was caused by the magnetic force derived from the magnetic susceptibility gradient. We propose that this force should be called the “magnetic susceptibility force".

  10. The intrusive complexof the Island of Giglio: geomagnetic characteristics of plutonic facies with low susceptibility contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cavallini


    Full Text Available Two main plutonic facies characterize the intrusive complex of the Island of Giglio, and the trend of their contact at depth has been modelled using a 2D½ analysis based on a detailed geomagnetic survey in order to verify the geological hypothesis of the subsurface geometry of this contact. The magnetic anomaly connected with the discontinuity is quite low, due to the small difference between the magnetic susceptibilities of the two granitic facies. Development of this model of inversion of the magnetic field, which is in good agreement with the geological interpretation, was made possible by: 1 accurate control of the geomagnetic time variations and consequent temporal reduction, 2 a very low level of the artificial magnetic noise, 3 high density of the magnetic survey, 4 detailed knowledge of the mapped geologic contact between facies and of their petrologic characteristics, and 5 direct local measurements of the magnetic susceptibilities of the key lithologies. The model shows the trends of the geological contact, as projected in three E-W sections, that dips eastward in the range between 210 and 540, supporting the geologic hypothesis that the Pietrabona facies represents an external shell of the shallowly emplaced Giglio monzogranite intrusion.

  11. Susceptibility of whey protein isolate to oxidation and changes in physicochemical, structural, and digestibility characteristics. (United States)

    Feng, Xianchao; Li, Chenyi; Ullah, Niamat; Cao, Jiqianrui; Lan, Yongli; Ge, Wupeng; Hackman, Robert M; Li, Zhixi; Chen, Lin


    Oxidation is an important factor for denaturing of whey protein isolate (WPI) during food processing. We studied the effects of chemical oxidation on physicochemical and structural changes along with in vitro digestibility of WPI in this work. Evaluation of physicochemical changes showed that carbonyl level and dityrosine content increased, whereas total and free thiol group levels decreased for oxidized WPI samples. For the structural changes, protein aggregation was measured by surface hydrophobicity, turbidity, and particle diameter, which was increased for oxidized WPI samples. The increase of the secondary structure β-sheets and antiparallel β-sheet also supported the aggregation of oxidized WPI. A direct quantitative relationship between physicochemical and structural changes and protein digestibility indicated that oxidation-related damage restricts the susceptibility of WPI to proteases. In conclusion, WPI had high susceptibility to oxidative stress, and both physicochemical and structural changes caused by severe oxidative stress could decrease the rate of in vitro digestibility of WPI. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic susceptibility to pancreatic cancer. (United States)

    Klein, Alison P


    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. However, it has the poorest prognosis of any major tumor type, with a 5-yr survival rate of approximately 5%. Cigarette smoking, increased body mass index, heavy alcohol consumption, and a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus have all been demonstrated to increase risk of pancreatic cancer. A family history of pancreatic cancer has also been associated with increased risk suggesting inherited genetic factors also play an important role, with approximately 5-10% of pancreatic cancer patients reporting family history of pancreatic cancer. While the genetic basis for the majority of the familial clustering of pancreatic cancer remains unclear, several important pancreatic cancer genes have been identified. These consist of high penetrance genes including BRCA2 or PALB2, to more common genetic variation associated with a modest increase risk of pancreatic cancer such as genetic variation at the ABO blood group locus. Recent advances in genotyping and genetic sequencing have accelerated the rate at which novel pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes have been identified with several genes identified within the past few years. This review addresses our current understanding of the familial aggregation of pancreatic cancer, established pancreatic cancer susceptablity genes and how this knowledge informs risk assessment and screening for high-risk families. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Genetic Susceptibility to Pancreatic Cancer (United States)

    Klein, Alison P.


    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. However, it has the poorest prognosis of any major tumor type, with a 5-yr survival rate of approximately 5%. Cigarette smoking, increased body mass index, heavy alcohol consumption, and a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus have all been demonstrated to increase risk of pancreatic cancer. A family history of pancreatic cancer has also been associated with increased risk suggesting inherited genetic factors also play an important role, with approximately 5–10% of pancreatic cancer patients reporting family history of pancreatic cancer. While the genetic basis for the majority of the familial clustering of pancreatic cancer remains unclear, several important pancreatic cancer genes have been identified. These consist of high penetrance genes including BRCA2 or PALB2, to more common genetic variation associated with a modest increase risk of pancreatic cancer such as genetic variation at the ABO blood group locus. Recent advances in genotyping and genetic sequencing have accelerated the rate at which novel pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes have been identified with several genes identified within the past few years. This review addresses our current understanding of the familial aggregation of pancreatic cancer, established pancreatic cancer susceptablity genes and how this knowledge informs risk assessment and screening for high-risk families. PMID:22162228

  14. A Review and Analysis of Remote Sensing Capability for Air Quality Measurements as a Potential Decision Support Tool Conducted by the NASA DEVELOP Program (United States)

    Ross, A.; Richards, A.; Keith, K.; Frew, C.; Boseck, J.; Sutton, S.; Watts, C.; Rickman, D.


    This project focused on a comprehensive utilization of air quality model products as decision support tools (DST) needed for public health applications. A review of past and future air quality measurement methods and their uncertainty, along with the relationship of air quality to national and global public health, is vital. This project described current and future NASA satellite remote sensing and ground sensing capabilities and the potential for using these sensors to enhance the prediction, prevention, and control of public health effects that result from poor air quality. The qualitative uncertainty of current satellite remotely sensed air quality, the ground-based remotely sensed air quality, the air quality/public health model, and the decision making process is evaluated in this study. Current peer-reviewed literature suggests that remotely sensed air quality parameters correlate well with ground-based sensor data. A satellite remote-sensed and ground-sensed data complement is needed to enhance the models/tools used by policy makers for the protection of national and global public health communities

  15. Increased LDL susceptibility to oxidation accelerates future carotid artery atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoki Toshinari


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We analyzed the causal relationship between LDL susceptibility to oxidation and the development of new carotid artery atherosclerosis over a period of 5 years. We previously described the determinants related to a risk of cardiovascular changes determined in a Japanese population participating in the Niigata Study, which is an ongoing epidemiological investigation of the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Methods We selected 394 individuals (169 males and 225 females who underwent a second carotid artery ultrasonographic examination in 2001 - 2002 for the present study. The susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was determined as the photometric absorbance and electrophoretic mobility of samples that had been collected in 1996 - 1997. The measurements were compared with ultrasonographic findings obtained in 2001 - 2002. Results The multivariate-adjusted model showed that age (odds ratio (OR, 1.034; 95% confidence interval (95%CI, 1.010 - 1.059, HbA1c (OR, 1.477; 95%CI, 0.980 - 2.225, and photometric O/N (OR, 2.012; 95%CI, 1.000 - 4.051 were significant variables that could independently predict the risk of new carotid artery atherosclerosis. Conclusion The susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was a significant parameter that could predict new carotid artery atherosclerosis over a 5-year period, and higher susceptibility was associated with a higher incidence of new carotid artery atherosclerosis.

  16. Smoking tobacco in Costa Rica: susceptibility, consumption and dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fonseca-Chaves


    Full Text Available Objective. To identify factors associated with susceptibility, tobacco use and addiction in young people from 13 to 15 years of age, to determine conditions of risk and identify possible correlates to the development of public policies on smoking in Costa Rica. Materials and methods. Information available from the four rounds of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS Costa Rica was used. It was based on a sample size of 11 540 youngsters from public and private schools. Indicators of interest and logistic regression models for smoking, susceptibility and addiction were estimated. Results. The prevalence of current consumption shows a significant decrease over the 14 years of the study (17.3% in 1999 and 5.0% in 2013 and, to a lesser intensity, in the index of smoking susceptibility (19.3% in 1999 and 12.4% in 2013. The proportion of young people with addiction has shown a significant increase in the same period. Conclusions. The conditions that explained the significant reduction in smoking prevalence and less susceptibility must be maintained and deepened to achieve full compliance of the MPower measures.

  17. Optimal control in a model of malaria with differential susceptibility (United States)

    Hincapié, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan


    A malaria model with differential susceptibility is analyzed using the optimal control technique. In the model the human population is classified as susceptible, infected and recovered. Susceptibility is assumed dependent on genetic, physiological, or social characteristics that vary between individuals. The model is described by a system of differential equations that relate the human and vector populations, so that the infection is transmitted to humans by vectors, and the infection is transmitted to vectors by humans. The model considered is analyzed using the optimal control method when the control consists in using of insecticide-treated nets and educational campaigns; and the optimality criterion is to minimize the number of infected humans, while keeping the cost as low as is possible. One first goal is to determine the effects of differential susceptibility in the proposed control mechanism; and the second goal is to determine the algebraic form of the basic reproductive number of the model. All computations are performed using computer algebra, specifically Maple. It is claimed that the analytical results obtained are important for the design and implementation of control measures for malaria. It is suggested some future investigations such as the application of the method to other vector-borne diseases such as dengue or yellow fever; and also it is suggested the possible application of free software of computer algebra like Maxima.

  18. The SoilSCAPE Network Multiscale In-situ Soil Moisture Measurements: Innovations in Network Design and Approaches to Upscaling in Support of SMAP (United States)

    Moghaddam, M.; Clewley, D.; Silva, A.; Akbar, R.


    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will provide soil moisture at 3, 9, and 36 km scales through the use of radar and radiometer data. To validate SMAP products, in-situ sensors are required. Typically, validation plans consist of several sensors installed nearly uniformly in the scene. To upscale the soil moisture estimates to the scales of SMAP products requires a large number of sensors, distributed throughout the instrument footprint. Even for the higher resolution SMAP products (3 km) there are often insufficient sensors available within a resolution cell. The Soil moisture Sensing Controller and oPtimal Estimator (SoilSCAPE) project provides a new adaptive validation strategy, including upscaled estimates of soil moisture. By utilizing smarter network technology and optimized sensor placement, more representative measurements of soil moisture are obtained, at a range of spatial scales with lower costs than traditional networks. A large network was established around the Tonzi Ranch site in central California. The network design comprises multiple sites, each with a 10-30 node cluster taking measurements from up to 4 sensors installed at different depths. The nodes wirelessly communicate to a Local Coordinator, which collects data and transmits to a server ( Each node can communicate with the Coordinator up to a distance of 400m. Each station supports up to 60 nodes. Currently 111 nodes have been installed over 6 sites. The SoilSCAPE nonuniform placement of sensors requires novel upscaling methods. Previous studies have used regression, which works well when the measurement is well correlated with other variables. However, soil moisture dependence on various variables could be complex and nonlinear. To account for such complexities, we use the Random Forests algorithm, which is capable of modeling complex non-linear system and can handle continuous and categorical data. The algorithm has not previously been applied to

  19. New design and facilities for the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements (AGrav): A support for the Establishment of a new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System (United States)

    Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard; Bonvalot, Sylvain; Rülke, Axel


    After about 10 years of successful joint operation by BGI and BKG, the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements "AGrav" (see references hereafter) was under a major revision. The outdated web interface was replaced by a responsive, high level web application framework based on Python and built on top of Pyramid. Functionality was added, like interactive time series plots or a report generator and the interactive map-based station overview was updated completely, comprising now clustering and the classification of stations. Furthermore, the database backend was migrated to PostgreSQL for better support of the application framework and long-term availability. As comparisons of absolute gravimeters (AG) become essential to realize a precise and uniform gravity standard, the database was extended to document the results on international and regional level, including those performed at monitoring stations equipped with SGs. By this it will be possible to link different AGs and to trace their equivalence back to the key comparisons under the auspices of International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) as the best metrological realization of the absolute gravity standard. In this way the new AGrav database accommodates the demands of the new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System as recommended by the IAG Resolution No. 2 adopted in Prague 2015. The new database will be presented with focus on the new user interface and new functionality, calling all institutions involved in absolute gravimetry to participate and contribute with their information to built up a most complete picture of high precision absolute gravimetry and improve its visibility. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be provided by BGI to contributors to give a better traceability and facilitate the referencing of their gravity surveys. Links and references: BGI mirror site : BKG mirror site: http

  20. Representation of Linguistic Information Determines Its Susceptibility to Memory Interference


    Jeffrey D. Wammes; Myra A. Fernandes; Janet H. Hsiao


    We used the dual-task paradigm to infer how linguistic information is represented in the brain by indexing its susceptibility to retrieval interference. We measured recognition memory, in bilingual Chinese-English, and monolingual English speakers. Participants were visually presented with simplified Chinese characters under full attention, and later asked to recognize them while simultaneously engaging in distracting tasks that required either phonological or visuo-spatial processing of audi...

  1. Influence of tectonic folding on rockfall susceptibility, American Fork Canyon, Utah, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Coe


    Full Text Available We examine rockfall susceptibility of folded strata in the Sevier fold-thrust belt exposed in American Fork Canyon in north-central Utah. Large-scale geologic mapping, talus production data, rock-mass-quality measurements, and historical rockfall data indicate that rockfall susceptibility is correlated with limb dip and curvature of the folded, cliff-forming Mississippian limestones. On fold limbs, rockfall susceptibility increases as dip increases. This relation is controlled by several factors, including an increase in adverse dip conditions and apertures of discontinuities, and shearing by flexural slip during folding that has reduced the friction angles of discontinuities by smoothing surface asperities. Susceptibility is greater in fold hinge zones than on adjacent limbs primarily because there are greater numbers of discontinuities in hinge zones. We speculate that susceptibility increases in hinge zones as fold curvature becomes tighter.

  2. Integrated Clinical Decision Support Systems Promote Absolute Cardiovascular Risk Assessment: An Important Primary Prevention Measure in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Matthews


    Full Text Available BackgroundAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience a greater burden of disease compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Around one-fifth of the health disparity is caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD. Despite the importance of absolute cardiovascular risk assessment (CVRA as a screening and early intervention tool, few studies have reported its use within the Australian Indigenous primary health care (PHC sector. This study utilizes data from a large-scale quality improvement program to examine variation in documented CVRA as a primary prevention strategy for individuals without prior CVD across four Australian jurisdictions. We also examine the proportion with elevated risk and follow-up actions recorded.MethodsWe undertook cross-sectional analysis of 2,052 client records from 97 PHC centers to assess CVRA in Indigenous adults aged ≥20 years with no recorded chronic disease diagnosis (2012–2014. Multilevel regression was used to quantify the variation in CVRA attributable to health center and client level factors. The main outcome measure was the proportion of eligible adults who had CVRA recorded. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of clients with elevated risk that had follow-up actions recorded.ResultsApproximately 23% (n = 478 of eligible clients had documented CVRA. Almost all assessments (99% were conducted in the Northern Territory. Within this jurisdiction, there was wide variation between centers in the proportion of clients with documented CVRA (median 38%; range 0–86%. Regression analysis showed health center factors accounted for 48% of the variation. Centers with integrated clinical decision support systems were more likely to document CVRA (OR 21.1; 95% CI 5.4–82.4; p < 0.001. Eleven percent (n = 53 of clients were found with moderate/high CVD risk, of whom almost one-third were under 35 years (n = 16. Documentation of follow-up varied with respect to the targeted risk factor

  3. Assessing MRI susceptibility artefact through an indicator of image distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illanes Alfredo


    Full Text Available Susceptibility artefacts in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI caused by medical devices can result in a severe degradation of the MR image quality. The quantification of susceptibility artefacts is regulated by the ASTM standard which defines a manual method to assess the size of an artefact. This means that the estimated artefact size can be user dependent. To cope with this problem, we propose an algorithm to automatically quantify the size of such susceptibility artefacts. The algorithm is based on the analysis of a 3D surface generated from the 2D MR images. The results obtained by the automatic algorithm were compared to the manual measurements performed by study participants. The results show that the automatic and manual measurements follow the same trend. The clear advantage of the automated algorithm is the absence of the inter- and intra-observer variability. In addition, the algorithm also detects the slice containing the largest artefact which was not the case for the manual measurements.

  4. Morocco - Enterprise Support (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation will measure the specific contribution of the training and support program on key business outcomes. There have been no rigorous evaluations conducted...

  5. Biofilm formation and susceptibility to gentamicin and colistin of extremely drug-resistant KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. (United States)

    Naparstek, Livnat; Carmeli, Yehuda; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Banin, Ehud


    KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kpn) is a worldwide challenging pathogen, yet its biofilm-forming potential is not defined. We characterized biofilm formation of this pathogen and determined biofilm susceptibility to gentamicin and colistin. Forty-six KPC-Kpn clinical isolates were studied [sequence type (ST) 258, n = 28; and other STs, n = 18]. Biofilm biomass was determined using the standard assay measured by OD590 (where OD stands for optical density) and visualized using confocal microscopy. Antibiotic effect on biofilm formation was evaluated and susceptibility within biofilm was determined by the minimal biofilm elimination concentration (MBEC) method. KPC-Kpn isolates produced biofilm in the range of 0.02-0.3 OD590, where ST258 isolates produced less biofilm compared with other STs (median OD590 0.07 versus 0.15, respectively; P resistant to gentamicin compared with other STs (resistance rates: 14% versus 66%, respectively; P Gentamicin-resistant isolates (MIC ≥ 32 mg/L) showed a dramatic increase in resistance within the biofilm (up to 234-fold), whereas gentamicin-susceptible isolates (MIC gentamicin resistance was not due to overexpression of the aminoglycoside resistance gene aac(3)-II in the biofilm state. Resistance to colistin in biofilm increased as well, but was less prominent (P gentamicin and colistin, regardless of the genetic lineage. KPC-Kpn and particularly ST258 do not form massive biofilms. Nevertheless, susceptibility to gentamicin of this endemic lineage is retained in its biofilm state, supporting the use of this antibiotic in the clinical scenario.

  6. Spectroscopic AC susceptibility imaging (sASI) of magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficko, Bradley W., E-mail:; Nadar, Priyanka M.; Diamond, Solomon G.


    This study demonstrates a method for alternating current (AC) susceptibility imaging (ASI) of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) using low cost instrumentation. The ASI method uses AC magnetic susceptibility measurements to create tomographic images using an array of drive coils, compensation coils and fluxgate magnetometers. Using a spectroscopic approach in conjunction with ASI, a series of tomographic images can be created for each frequency measurement set and is termed sASI. The advantage of sASI is that mNPs can be simultaneously characterized and imaged in a biological medium. System calibration was performed by fitting the in-phase and out-of-phase susceptibility measurements of an mNP sample with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm to a Brownian relaxation model (R{sup 2}=0.96). Samples of mNPs with core diameters of 10 and 40 nm and a sample of 100 nm hydrodynamic diameter were prepared in 0.5 ml tubes. Three mNP samples were arranged in a randomized array and then scanned using sASI with six frequencies between 425 and 925 Hz. The sASI scans showed the location and quantity of the mNP samples (R{sup 2}=0.97). Biological compatibility of the sASI method was demonstrated by scanning mNPs that were injected into a pork sausage. The mNP response in the biological medium was found to correlate with a calibration sample (R{sup 2}=0.97, p<0.001). These results demonstrate the concept of ASI and advantages of sASI. - Highlights: • Development of an AC susceptibility imaging model. • Comparison of AC susceptibility imaging (ASI) and susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI). • Demonstration of ASI and spectroscopic ASI (sASI) using three different magnetic nanoparticle types. • SASI scan separation of three different magnetic nanoparticles samples using 5 spectroscopic frequencies. • Demonstration of biological feasibility of sASI.

  7. Assessing transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractionation products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bojanowska


    Full Text Available Background: Having considered increasing production of liquid and solid biofuels from rapeseed and bearing in mind its stable and unquestionable position in  the food and animal feed industries, a rational approach towards technologically and logistically efficient utilization of by-products from rapeseed processing is required. The aim of the research presented in the article is to assess the transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractions, varying according to particle size and chemical composition. Methods: Resistance to changes stimulating self-heating has been assumed as the main criterion of transport susceptibility. The following diagnostic variables have been experimentally determined: total protein, crude fat and crude fiber content, porosity, and water activity in the fraction of examined meal. In order to organize a set of particles and to indicate their optimal applications according to criteria chosen with regard to both  utilization and transportation, two aggregate indicators have been calculated. Results: It has been proved that medium-sized particle fractions (0.075-0.4 mm exhibit the lowest transport susceptibility, whereas the those with the largest granulations (>3 mm -have the highest. One significant relationship is the decline of feeding value and concurrent increase in the transport susceptibility of meal fractions, which in practice means that those fractions least-favoured by the animal feed industry can be least cumbersome to transport. Conclusions: It has been suggested that there should be a division of rapeseed meal into two products with different applications and different transport susceptibility. The fractioning of meal can bring numerous, measurable benefits for the meal industry and logistics processes for solid biofuels, where storage and transport properties have considerable importance, alongside commodity price and transport costs.

  8. Measurement of food colour in L*a*b* units from RGB digital image using least squares support vector machine regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Romaniello


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM regression to develop an efficient method to measure the colour of food materials in L*a*b* units by means of a computer vision systems (CVS. A laboratory CVS, based on colour digital camera (CDC, was implemented and three LS-SVM models were trained and validated, one for each output variables (L*, a*, and b* required by this problem, using the RGB signals generated by the CDC as input variables to these models. The colour target-based approach was used to camera characterization and a standard reference target of 242 colour samples was acquired using the CVS and a colorimeter. This data set was split in two sets of equal sizes, for training and validating the LS-SVM models. An effective two-stage grid search process on the parameters space was performed in MATLAB to tune the regularization parameters γ and the kernel parameters σ2 of the three LS-SVM models. A 3-8-3 multilayer feed-forward neural network (MFNN, according to the research conducted by León et al. (2006, was also trained in order to compare its performance with those of LS-SVM models. The LS-SVM models developed in this research have been shown better generalization capability then the MFNN, allowed to obtain high correlations between L*a*b* data acquired using the colorimeter and the corresponding data obtained by transformation of the RGB data acquired by the CVS. In particular, for the validation set, R2 values equal to 0.9989, 0.9987, and 0.9994 for L*, a* and b* parameters were obtained. The root mean square error values were 0.6443, 0.3226, and 0.2702 for L*, a*, and b* respectively, and the average of colour differences ΔEab was 0.8232±0.5033 units. Thus, LS-SVM regression seems to be a useful tool to measurement of food colour using a low cost CVS.

  9. Air sparging as a supporting measure to redevelopment of a LCFC-contaminated industrial site; Air-Sparging als begleitende Sanierungsmassnahme an einem LCKW-kontaminierten Industriestandort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breh, W.; Suttheimer, J. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie; Holub, B. [G.U.T Linz (Austria)


    On a company ground in Vorchdorf, Austria, from the 23{sup rd} to 26{sup th} of July 1996 an air-sparging experiment has been carried out as a supporting measure to a running redevelopment of an LCKW-contamination case. On this occasion compressed air, from which the oil had been extracted, was blown into the contaminated aquifer through a well with a maximum excess pressure of 0,6 MPa. The blowing-in of compressed air caused a mobilisation of the harmful substances in the ground water and the soil air. As a result circa 2,7 kg LCKW could be removed from the underground through neighbouring ground water and soil air wells. For the observed period of time this meant a tripling of the rate of discharge. On the basis of the obtained data we suggested a routine interval of blowing in compressed air into the well 1516. A blowing-in of compressed air into the highly contaminated wells 1617 and 1625 can not be realised until the construction of upstream situated injection wells, because of the danger of an uncontrollable spread of the harmful substances. (orig.) [Deutsch] Auf einem Firmengelaende in Vorchdorf, Oesterreich, wurde vom 23.07. bis 26.07.1996 ein Air-Sparging-Versuch als unterstuetzende Massnahme zur laufenden hydraulisch-pneumatischen Sanierung eines LCKW-Schadensfalles durchgefuehrt. Hierbei wurde entoelte Druckluft ueber einen Brunnen mit einem maximalen Ueberdruck von 600 mbar in den kontaminierten Aquifer eingeblasen. Die Drucklufteinblasung fuehrte zu einer Mobilisierung von Schadstoffen im Grundwasser und in der Bodenluft, so dass ueber benachbarte Grundwasser- und Bodenluftfoerderbrunnen ca. 2,7 kg LCKW aus dem Untergrund entfernt werden konnten. Fuer den Beobachtungszeitraum bedeutet dies eine Verdreifachung des Schadstoffaustrags. Aufgrund der gewonnenen Daten wird ein routinemaessiger Intervallbetrieb der Drucklufteinblasung in einen der Brunnen vorgeschlagen. Fuer zwei kontaminierte Brunnen ist eine Drucklufteinblasung wegen der Gefahr einer


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Joel [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Phillips, Stephen [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)


    Magnetic susceptibility (κ) is a mixed signal in marine sediments, representing primary depositional and secondary diagenetic processes. Production of hydrogen sulfide via anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) at the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) and organoclastic sulfate reduction above the SMT can result in the dissolution of iron oxides, altering κ in sediments in methane gas and gas hydrate bearing regions. We investigated records of κ on the Cascadia margin (ODP Sites 1249 and 1252; IODP Site 1325) using a Zr/Rb heavy mineral proxy from XRF core scanning to identify intervals of primary detrital magnetic susceptibility and intervals and predict intervals affected by magnetite dissolutions. We also measured total sulfur content, grain size distributions, total organic carbon (TOC) content, and magnetic mineral assemblage. The upper 100 m of Site 1252 contains a short interval of κ driven by primary magnetite, with multiple intervals (> 90 m total) of decreased κ correlated with elevated sulfur content, consistent with dissolution of magnetite and re-precipitation of pyrite. In the upper 90 m of Site 1249, κ is almost entirely altered by diagenetic processes, with much of the low κ explained by a high degree of pyritization, and some intervals affected by the precipitation of magnetic iron sulfides. At Site 1325, κ between 0-20 and 51-73 mbsf represents primary mineralogy, and in the interval 24-51 mbsf, κ may be reduced due to pyritization. This integrated approach allows for a prediction of primary κ and the amount of κ loss at each site when compared to actual κ measurements. In the case of magnetite dissolution and full pyritization, these drawdowns in κ are supported by sulfur measurements, and the exposure times of magnetite to hydrogen sulfide can be modeled. The presence of methane and methane hydrates at these sites, as well as large variations in TOC content, suggest that the past migration rates of the SMT and variation in sulfate

  11. Measuring the Perception of the Teachers' Autonomy-Supportive Behavior in Physical Education: Development and Initial Validation of a Multi-Dimensional Instrument (United States)

    Tilga, Henri; Hein, Vello; Koka, Andre


    This research aimed to develop and validate an instrument to assess the students' perceptions of the teachers' autonomy-supportive behavior by the multi-dimensional scale (Multi-Dimensional Perceived Autonomy Support Scale for Physical Education). The participants were 1,476 students aged 12- to 15-years-old. In Study 1, a pool of 37 items was…

  12. In vitro susceptibility to mecillinam of Escherichia coli strains isolated from the urine of pregnant women. (United States)

    Duployez, C; Loiez, C; Cattoen, C; Descamps, D; Wallet, F; Vachée, A


    Pivmecillinam is a safe beta-lactam for use in pregnancy. It has been widely used for the treatment of lower urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the Nordic countries where its efficacy, minor impact on the microbiota, and low level of resistance among the Escherichia coli strains have been proven. However, susceptibility data related to E. coli involved in asymptomatic bacteriuria and lower UTIs in pregnant women is lacking. We aimed to support the 2015 recommendations issued by the French Infectious Diseases Society (SPILF) on gestational UTI, with a particular focus on pivmecillinam. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by 12 hospitals with a maternity department on 235 E. coli strains isolated from the urine of pregnant women. Susceptibility to mecillinam was tested by disk diffusion method using the 2015 recommendations of the antibiogram committee of the French microbiology society (CA-SFM). Global susceptibility to mecillinam was 86.4%. Susceptibility to mecillinam was 96.5% for strains susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and 38.7% for resistant strains. All six extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli strains were susceptible to mecillinam. Given the efficacy and safety of pivmecillinam during pregnancy, it may be used for the documented treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria and acute cystitis in pregnant women. It also represents an alternative for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Human genetic susceptibility and infection with Leishmania peruviana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M.A.; Davis, C.R.; Collins, A. [and others


    Racial differences, familial clustering, and murine studies are suggestive of host genetic control of Leishmania infections. Complex segregation analysis has been carried out by use of the programs POINTER and COMDS and data from a total population survey, comprising 636 nuclear families, from an L. perurviana endemic area. The data support genetic components controlling susceptibility to clinical leishmaniasis, influencing severity of disease and resistance to disease among healthy individuals. A multifactorial model is favored over a sporadic model. Two-locus models provided the best fit to the data, the optimal model being a recessive gene (frequency .57) plus a modifier locus. Individuals infected at an early age and with recurrent lesions are genetically more susceptible than those infected with a single episode of disease at a later age. Among people with no lesions, those with a positive skin-test response are genetically less susceptible than those with a negative response. The possibility of the involvement of more than one gene together with environmental effects has implications for the design of future linkage studies. 31 refs., 7 tabs.

  14. Rainfall-induced Landslide Susceptibility assessment at the Longnan county (United States)

    Hong, Haoyuan; Zhang, Ying


    Landslides are a serious disaster in Longnan county, China. Therefore landslide susceptibility assessment is useful tool for government or decision making. The main objective of this study is to investigate and compare the frequency ratio, support vector machines, and logistic regression. The Longnan county (Jiangxi province, China) was selected as the case study. First, the landslide inventory map with 354 landslide locations was constructed. Then landslide locations were then randomly divided into a ratio of 70/30 for the training and validating the models. Second, fourteen landslide conditioning factors were prepared such as slope, aspect, altitude, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), sediment transport index (STI), plan curvature, lithology, distance to faults, distance to rivers, distance to roads, land use, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and rainfall. Using the frequency ratio, support vector machines, and logistic regression, a total of three landslide susceptibility models were constructed. Finally, the overall performance of the resulting models was assessed and compared using the Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve technique. The result showed that the support vector machines model is the best model in the study area. The success rate is 88.39 %; and prediction rate is 84.06 %.

  15. Susceptibility to Eating Disorders Among Collegiate Female Student–Athletes (United States)

    McLester, Cherilyn N.; Hardin, Robin; Hoppe, Stephanie


    Context: Research has suggested that the prevalence of young women with eating disorders (EDs) is increasing, but determining the exact prevalence of EDs within the female student–athlete (FS-A) population is difficult. Looking at certain traits may help us to identify their level of susceptibility to developing an ED. Objective: To determine the susceptibility of FS-As to EDs in relation to self-concept, including self-esteem and body image. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Athletic training and health centers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions via e-mail questionnaire correspondence. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 439 FS-As from 17 participating institutions completed the questionnaires. The sample was primarily white (83.1%) and underclass (61.8%). Main Outcome Measure(s): The questionnaire consisted of 4 parts: 3 subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Body Cathexis Scale, and demographic items. Results: A total of 6.8% of FS-As were susceptible to anorexia and 1.8% were susceptible to bulimia. The majority of FS-As (61%) reported normal self-esteem levels, whereas 29.4% had high self-esteem. Overall, 64.5% were satisfied and 23% were very satisfied with their body image. Conclusions: These results are generally positive in that they suggest FS-As have high levels of self-concept and are at low risk to develop EDs. However, these findings do not mean that all concerns should be dismissed. Although more than 90% of the respondents were not susceptible to an ED, there are still FS-As who may be. Athletic departments should evaluate their FS-As' levels of self-concept so that their susceptibility to EDs can be addressed. The emotional aspect of health care should be included in providing holistic care for student–athletes. Athletic trainers often are the primary health care providers for FS-As, so they should be made aware of this concern. PMID:24762233

  16. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactamase (ESBL) producing gram-negative uropathogens in Sokoto, Nigeria. ... Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined using the modified Kirby Bauer method. Confirmation of ESBL phenotype was performed by Double-Disc Synergy Test ...

  17. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended spectrum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The emergence of resistant strains of urogenital extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing ... antimicrobial susceptibility test using CLSI recommended, WHO modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. ... Keywords: Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamases, Prevalence, Gram-negative urogenital isolates,.

  18. antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of salmonella species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Empirical treatment for enteric fevers should, therefore, be discouraged while quinolones, cefepime, carbapenem, azithromycin and third generation cephalosporins be given preference. KEY WORDS: Susceptibility, Antimicrobial, Salmonella species, Enteric fever. INTRODUCTION. In the 21st century, enteric fever in the.

  19. Human genetic susceptibility to Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, T.S.; Johnson, M.D.; Scott, W.K.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W. van der; Perfect, J.R.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.


    Infections with Candida spp. have different manifestations in humans, ranging from mucosal to bloodstream and deep-seated disseminated infections. Immunocompromised patients have increased susceptibility to these types of infections, due to reduced capacity to elicit effective innate or adaptive

  20. Landslide susceptibility map: from research to application (United States)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro; Felicioni, Giulia; Antonini, Guendalina


    Susceptibility map is an important and essential tool in environmental planning, to evaluate landslide hazard and risk and for a correct and responsible management of the territory. Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in an area on the basis of local terrain conditions. Can be expressed as the probability that any given region will be affected by landslides, i.e. an estimate of "where" landslides are likely to occur. In this work we present two examples of landslide susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region and for the Perugia Municipality. These two maps were realized following official request from the Regional and Municipal government to the Research Institute for the Hydrogeological Protection (CNR-IRPI). The susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region represents the development of previous agreements focused to prepare: i) a landslide inventory map that was included in the Urban Territorial Planning (PUT) and ii) a series of maps for the Regional Plan for Multi-risk Prevention. The activities carried out for the Umbria Region were focused to define and apply methods and techniques for landslide susceptibility zonation. Susceptibility maps were prepared exploiting a multivariate statistical model (linear discriminant analysis) for the five Civil Protection Alert Zones defined in the regional territory. The five resulting maps were tested and validated using the spatial distribution of recent landslide events that occurred in the region. The susceptibility map for the Perugia Municipality was prepared to be integrated as one of the cartographic product in the Municipal development plan (PRG - Piano Regolatore Generale) as required by the existing legislation. At strategic level, one of the main objectives of the PRG, is to establish a framework of knowledge and legal aspects for the management of geo-hydrological risk. At national level most of the susceptibility maps prepared for the PRG, were and still are obtained

  1. Critical behavior of the magnetic susceptibility of the uniaxial ferromagnet LiHoF4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauvillain, P.; Renard, J. P.; Laursen, Ib


    The magnetic susceptibility of two LiHoF4 single crystals has been measured in the range 1.2-4.2 K. Ferromagnetic order occurs at Tc=1.527 K. Above 2.5 K, the susceptibilities parallel and perpendicular to the fourfold c axis are well interpreted by the molecular-field approximation, taking......, the parallel susceptibility is well described by the classical law with logarithmic corrections theoretically predicted by Larkin and Khmel'mitskii for the uniaxial dipolar ferromagnet or by a power law with a critical-exponent value γ=1.05 rather close to 1. The upper limit of the critical region is (Tmax...

  2. [Recommendations for the analysis of cumulated data in antimicrobial susceptibility in health institutions]. (United States)


    Due to the great variability in antimicrobial resistance patterns, local reports of cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility data are necessary in every health center. The purpose is to guide clinical decisions and the early detection of patterns that allow preventive measures to avoid dissemination of resistant strains. The main objective of this guide is to provide recommendations for the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility data and elaboration of a local report. Recommendations provided in this guide are based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) document "Analysis and Presentation of Cumulative Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Data" (3). Key aspects related to information gathering and data processing, analysis and presentation are described.

  3. Topological susceptibility for the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Del Debbio, L; Pica, C; Debbio, Luigi Del; Giusti, Leonardo; Pica, Claudio


    We present the results of a computation of the topological susceptibility in the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory performed by employing the expression of the topological charge density operator suggested by Neuberger's fermions. In the continuum limit we find r_0^4 chi = 0.059(3), which corresponds to chi=(191 \\pm 5 MeV)^4 if F_K is used to set the scale. Our result supports the Witten--Veneziano explanation for the large mass of the eta'.

  4. Ac magnetic susceptibility study of in vivo nanoparticle biodistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, L; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S; Serna, C J; Morales, M P [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM-CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain); MejIas, R; Barber, D F [Centro Nacional de BiotecnologIa, CNB-CSIC, Darwin 3, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain); Lazaro, F J, E-mail: [Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales y Fluidos, Universidad de Zaragoza, Maria de Luna 3, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain)


    We analysed magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution, before and after cytokine conjugation, in a mouse model by ac susceptibility measurements of the corresponding resected tissues. Mice received repeated intravenous injections of nanoparticle suspension for two weeks and they were euthanized 1 h after the last injection. In general, only 10% of the total injected nanoparticles after multiple exposures were found in tissues. The rest of the particles may probably be metabolized or excreted by the organism. Our findings indicate that the adsorption of interferon to DMSA-coated magnetic nanoparticles changes their biodistribution, reducing the presence of nanoparticles in lungs and therefore their possible toxicity. The specific targeting of the particles to tumour tissues by the use of an external magnetic field has also been studied. Magnetic nanoparticles were observed by transmission electron microscopy in the targeted tissue and quantified by ac magnetic susceptibility.

  5. Genomic analysis suggests higher susceptibility of children to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Danitsja M; Pedersen, Marie; Hendriksen, Peter J M


    Differences in biological responses to exposure to hazardous airborne substances between children and adults have been reported, suggesting children to be more susceptible. Aim of this study was to improve our understanding of differences in susceptibility in cancer risk associated with air...... pollution by comparing genome-wide gene expression profiles in peripheral blood of children and their parents. Gene expression analysis was performed in blood from children and parents living in two different regions in the Czech Republic with different levels of air pollution. Data were analyzed by two...... in relation to air pollution exposure at the transcriptome level. The findings underline the necessity of implementing environmental health policy measures specifically for protecting children's health....

  6. A new approach for pyrazinamide susceptibility testing in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (United States)

    Zimic, Mirko; Loli, Sebastian; Gilman, Robert H; Gutierrez, Andrés; Fuentes, Patricia; Cotrina, Milagros; Kirwan, Daniela; Sheen, Patricia


    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important drug in the treatment of tuberculosis. Microbiological methods of PZA susceptibility testing are controversial and have low reproducibility. After conversion of PZA into pyrazinoic acid (POA) by the bacterial pyrazinamidase enzyme, the drug is expelled from the bacteria by an efflux pump. To evaluate the rate of POA extrusion from Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a parameter to detect PZA resistance. The rate of POA extrusion and PZA susceptibility determined by BACTEC 460 were measured for 34 strains in a previous study. PZA resistance was modeled in a logistic regression with the pyrazinoic efflux rate. POA efflux rate predicted PZA resistance with 70.83%-92.85% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared with BACTEC 460. POA efflux rate could be a useful tool for predicting PZA resistance in M. tuberculosis. Further exploration of this approach may lead to the development of new tools for diagnosing PZA resistance, which may be of public health importance.

  7. Nonlinear dynamic susceptibilities of interacting and noninteracting magnetic nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Joensson, P; García-Palacios, J L; Svedlindh, P


    The linear and cubic dynamic susceptibilities of solid dispersions of nanosized maghemite gamma-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 particles have been measured for three samples with a volume concentration of magnetic particles ranging from 0.3% to 17%, in order to study the effect of dipole-dipole interactions. Significant differences between the dynamic response of the samples are observed. While the linear and cubic dynamic susceptibilities of the most dilute sample compare reasonably well with the corresponding expressions proposed by Raikher and Stepanov for noninteracting particles, the nonlinear dynamic response of the most concentrated sample exhibits at low temperatures similar features as observed in a Ag(11 at% Mn) spin glass.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Germany. (United States)

    Horn, Nicole Nari; Kresken, Michael; Körber-Irrgang, Barbara; Göttig, Stephan; Wichelhaus, Cornelia; Wichelhaus, Thomas A


    Antimicrobial drug resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has become an increasing public health problem. Hence, surveillance of resistance development is of crucial importance to implement adequate treatment guidelines. Data on the spread of antibiotic resistance among gonococcal isolates in Germany, however, is scarce. In a resistance surveillance study conducted by the Paul Ehrlich Society for Chemotherapy between October 2010 and December 2011, 23 laboratories all over Germany were requested to send N. gonorrhoeae isolates to the study laboratory in Frankfurt am Main. Species verification was performed biochemically using ApiNH and with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Etest method. For molecular epidemiological analysis, N. gonorrhoeae strains were genotyped by means of N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing. A total of 213 consecutive gonococcal isolates were analyzed in this nationwide study. Applying EUCAST breakpoints, high resistance rates were found for ciprofloxacin (74%) and tetracycline (41%). Penicillin non-susceptibility was detected in 80% of isolates. The rate of azithromycin resistance was 6%, while all strains were susceptible to spectinomycin, cefixime, and ceftriaxone. Molecular typing of gonococcal isolates revealed a great heterogeneity of 99 different sequence types (ST), but ST1407 predominated (n=39). This is the first comprehensive German multi-centre surveillance study on antibiotic susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of N. gonorrhoeae with implications for antibiotic choice for treatment of gonorrhoea. The World Health Organization supports the concept that an efficacious treatment of gonorrhoea results in at least 95% of infections being cured. Accordingly, as spectinomycin is not available on the German market, only the third generation cephalosporins cefixime and ceftriaxone are regarded as valuable drugs

  9. A pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of using willingness to pay as a measure of value in cancer supportive care: an assessment of amifostine cytoprotection. (United States)

    Dranitsaris, G


    The most commonly used method for pharmacoeconomic studies has been the cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), where the outcome is expressed as an incremental cost per unit of effectiveness (e.g. quality-adjusted life years). Although CEA is a valuable tool for identifying therapies that are more effective and less expensive, deficiencies develop when a given treatment is both more expensive and more effective. An alternative that has not been investigated in the oncology setting is the willingness-to-pay (WTP) method. In this pilot study, a WTP strategy was utilized to estimate the value that the Canadian tax-paying public puts on amifostine, a new cytoprotective agent that reduces the risk of chemotherapy-induced toxicity. The method of WTP was used within the framework of a classical cost-benefit analysis to estimate the net cost or benefit of prophylactic amifostine in patients with ovarian cancer who were receiving chemotherapy. This included direct costs for amifostine administration and hospital savings secondary to the reduced incidence of antineoplastic toxicity. A random sample of 50 Canadian tax-payers were interviewed to ascertain their maximum WTP for the new drug. The WTP survey instrument was simple to administer and easily understood by participants. Respondents stated that they would be willing to pay an average of $Can3,476 (95% confidence interval = $Can2,275 to $Can4,676) as an income tax increase to be paid over their lifetime for the value offered by the product. The benefit was then subtracted from the overall cost of amifostine ($Can3,826). This produced a net cost of $Can350 per patient (95% confidence interval = -$Can850 to $Can1,551), suggesting a situation of cost neutrality. WTP as a measure of value for oncology products is feasible and should be considered for future economic evaluations. The strategy is currently being used at this institution to determine the net societal cost or benefit of other cancer supportive care therapies, such

  10. On Flare-CME Characteristics from Sun to Earth Combining Remote-Sensing Image Data with In Situ Measurements Supported by Modeling (United States)

    Temmer, Manuela; Thalmann, Julia K.; Dissauer, Karin; Veronig, Astrid M.; Tschernitz, Johannes; Hinterreiter, Jürgen; Rodriguez, Luciano


    We analyze the well-observed flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) from 1 October 2011 (SOL2011-10-01T09:18) covering the complete chain of effects - from Sun to Earth - to better understand the dynamic evolution of the CME and its embedded magnetic field. We study in detail the solar surface and atmosphere associated with the flare and CME using the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and ground-based instruments. We also track the CME signature off-limb with combined extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and white-light data from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). By applying the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) reconstruction method and total mass to stereoscopic STEREO-SOHO ( Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) coronagraph data, we track the temporal and spatial evolution of the CME in the interplanetary space and derive its geometry and 3D mass. We combine the GCS and Lundquist model results to derive the axial flux and helicity of the magnetic cloud (MC) from in situ measurements from Wind. This is compared to nonlinear force-free (NLFF) model results, as well as to the reconnected magnetic flux derived from the flare ribbons (flare reconnection flux) and the magnetic flux encompassed by the associated dimming (dimming flux). We find that magnetic reconnection processes were already ongoing before the start of the impulsive flare phase, adding magnetic flux to the flux rope before its final eruption. The dimming flux increases by more than 25% after the end of the flare, indicating that magnetic flux is still added to the flux rope after eruption. Hence, the derived flare reconnection flux is most probably a lower limit for estimating the magnetic flux within the flux rope. We find that the magnetic helicity and axial magnetic flux are lower in the interplanetary space by ˜ 50% and 75%, respectively, possibly indicating an erosion process. A CME mass increase of 10% is observed over a range of {˜} 4 - 20 R_{⊙}. The temporal evolution of the CME

  11. Diagnostic Value of Direct Antibiotic Susceptibility Test for Faster BacterialSusceptibility Reporting in Bacteremia


    Rebriarina Hapsari; Vincentia Rizke Ciptaningtyas; Masfiyah Masfiyah


    Background: Rapid and accurate information on susceptibility of bacteria causing bacteraemia is very helpful in sepsis management. Blood culture is the gold standard for bacteraemia diagnosis. Standard antibiotic susceptibility testing needs at least three days for completion while direct method can give the result a day earlier. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of direct antibiotic susceptibility testing in blood culture. Methods: Bloods from positive BACTEC b...

  12. Rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test based on simple surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic biomarkers


    Chia-Ying Liu; Yin-Yi Han; Po-Han Shih; Wei-Nan Lian; Huai-Hsien Wang; Chi-Hung Lin; Po-Ren Hsueh; Juen-Kai Wang; Yuh-Lin Wang


    Rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurement are important to help reduce the widespread misuse of antibiotics and alleviate the growing drug-resistance problem. We discovered that, when a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli is exposed to an antibiotic, the intensity of specific biomarkers in its surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra drops evidently in two hours. The discovery has been exploi...

  13. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary DeMars

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial treatments result in the host's enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®, aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin, fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin, classical macrolides (erythromycin, azalides (azithromycin, sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and tetracyclines (tetracycline. Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30 interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions. (United States)

    DeMars, Zachary; Biswas, Silpak; Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Renter, David G; Volkova, Victoriya V


    Antimicrobial treatments result in the host's enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment

  15. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Environmental Streptococci Recovered from Bovine Milk Samples in the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Cameron


    , susceptibility decreased with increasing within-herd average somatic cell count, isolates recovered in mid-lactation were more susceptible that isolates recovered in early lactation, and isolates recovered in samples collected post-clinical mastitis were more susceptible than isolates recovered from non-clinical lactating quarters. The results of this research support continued susceptibility of environmental streptococci to beta-lactam antimicrobials. A departure from the expected susceptibility to beta-lactams was the apparent reduced susceptibility of Streptococcus uberis to penicillin.

  16. Tech Support. (United States)

    Beem, Kate


    Discusses technology-support issues, including staff training, cost, and outsourcing. Describes how various school districts manage technology-support services. Features the Technology Support Index, developed by the International Society for Technology in Education, to gauge the operation of school district technology-support programs. (PKP)

  17. 13 reasons why the brain is