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Sample records for susceptibility including soft

  1. [Susceptibilities of multidrug-resistant pathogens responsible for complicated skin and soft tissue infections to standard bacteriophage cocktails].

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    Gündoğdu, Aycan; Kılıç, Hüseyin; Ulu Kılıç, Ayşegül; Kutateladze, Mzia

    2016-04-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) may represent a wide clinical spectrum from cellulitis to high-mortality associated necrotizing fasciitis. Limitations in therapy due to the multiple drug resistance, leads to increase in the morbidity and mortality rates, especially in complicated SSTIs such as diabetic foot, decubitus, and surgical wound infections. Therefore, alternative treatment strategies other than antibiotics are needed in appropriate clinical conditions. "Bacteriophage therapy", which is an old method and has been used as part of standard treatment in some countries such as Georgia and Russia, has again become popular worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibilities of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens isolated from patients with complicated SSTIs, against standard bacteriophage (phage) cocktails. Six different ready-made phage preparations [Pyophage, Intestiphage, ENKO, SES, Fersisi and Staphylococcal Bacteriophage (Sb)] used in this study have been provided by G. Eliava Institute, Georgia. Because of the absence of ready-made phage preparations for Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae, Φ1-Φ7 and ΦKL1- ΦKL3 phages were used provided from the same institute's phage library, respectively. Isolation and identification of the pathogens from abscess and wound samples of patients with SSTIs were performed by conventional methods and automatized VITEK(®)-2 (bioMerieux, ABD) system. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted complying CLSI standards' and the bacteria that were resistant to at least two different antibiotic groups were considered as MDR. Accordingly, a total of 33 isolates, nine of them were E.coli (8 ESBL and 1 ESBL + carbapenemase positive); nine were MDR P.aeruginosa; nine were MDR A.baumannii; three were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and three were K.pneumoniae (1 ESBL, 1 carbapenemase and 1 ESBL + carbapenemase positive) were included in the study. The

  2. Molecular characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC isolated from minas soft cheese

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    Mariana Tavares Dias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne disease caused by microorganisms is a problem of public health. Minas soft cheese is a national product manufactured using simple technology; it has high level of acceptance in the country making its production an important economic activity. Many microorganisms may be present in foods including the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli. Overall, E. coli is a harmless commensal bacterium; however, some strains may have a pathogenic potential. Several outbreaks of foodborne diseases associated with consumption of contaminated cheese have been reported, and the presence of pathogenic strains of E. coli has increased. The objective of this study was to isolate, evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility, and characterize, by Multiplex PCR, the pathogenic E. coli strains isolated from Minas cheese commercialized in Rio de Janeiro. Thirty samples were analyzed and five strains of E. coli (EPEC were identified. The assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility revealed 40% of the isolates resistant to ampicillin and 40% with intermediate resistance to ampicillin-sulbactam combination. These findings are a warning signal to health authorities since Minas cheese is a ready to eat food product, and therefore should not pose health risks to the population.

  3. The susceptibility of dental plaque bacteria to the herbs included in Longo Vital®

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    Larsen, T.; Fiehn, N. E.; Østergaard, E.

    1996-01-01

    the in vitro susceptibility of 12 dental plaque bacteria to six individual herbs included in Longo Vital® was determined by a broth dilution method. Paprika, rosemary leaves and peppermint inhibited two thirds of the tested bacteria at 2.8-45 mg/ml, 0.75-12 mg/ml and 3-24 mg/ml corresponding to 0.8-12.5 per...

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence determinant carriage and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with skin and soft tissue infections

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    Fangyou Yu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the antimicrobial susceptibility, carriage of virulence determinants and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs may provide further insights related to clinical outcomes with these infections. From January 2012 to September 2013, a total of 128 non-duplicate S. aureus isolates were recovered from patients with SSTIs. All 128 S. aureus SSTI isolates carried at least five virulence genes tested. Virulence genes detected among at least 70% of all tested isolates included hld (100%, hla (95.3%, icaA (96.9%, clf (99.2%, sdrC (79.7%, sdrD (70.3%, and sdrE (72.7%. The prevalence of MRSA isolates with 10 virulence genes tested (54.4%, 31/56 was significantly higher than that among MSSA isolates (35.2%, 25/71 (p 80.0% of sdrC and sdrD, CC59 isolates had lower prevalence of these two virulence genes. All CC59 isolates were susceptible to gentamicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, while CC5 and CC7 isolates had resistance rates to these two antimicrobials of 25.4% and 20.9%, and 40.0% and 40.0%, respectively. The resistance rates for tetracycline, clindamycin, and erythromycin among CC5 isolates were lower than among CC7 and CC59 isolates. In conclusion, the molecular typing of S. aureus SSTI isolates in the present study showed considerable heterogeneity. ST7 and ST630 became prevailing clones. Different S. aureus clones causing SSTIs were associated with specific antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene profiles.

  5. Susceptibility of recently collected Spanish pneumococci nonsusceptible to oral penicillin from serotypes not included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine.

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    Fenoll, Asunción; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Giménez, María-José; Vicioso, María-Dolores; Robledo, Olga; Granizo, Juan-José; Coronel, Pilar

    2010-06-01

    The susceptibilities of pneumococci recently collected (up to June 2009) in Spain (500 isolates nonsusceptible to oral penicillin and 150 susceptible isolates) from serotypes not included in the conjugate vaccine were determined. Most nonsusceptible isolates (53.6%) belonged to serotype 19A. Susceptibility rates in serotype 19A penicillin-intermediate (n = 201)/penicillin-resistant (n = 67) isolates were <33%/< or =6.0% (erythromycin and oral cephalosporins with defined breakpoints), 85.1%/11.9% (amoxicillin), and 96.0%/52.2% (cefotaxime), respectively. Low susceptibility to common oral beta-lactams was also found in serotypes 11A (95.5% susceptibility to cefotaxime and erythromycin) and 35B.

  6. Susceptibility of Recently Collected Spanish Pneumococci Nonsusceptible to Oral Penicillin from Serotypes Not Included in the 7-Valent Conjugate Vaccine▿

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    Fenoll, Asunción; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Giménez, María-José; Vicioso, María-Dolores; Robledo, Olga; Granizo, Juan-José; Coronel, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibilities of pneumococci recently collected (up to June 2009) in Spain (500 isolates nonsusceptible to oral penicillin and 150 susceptible isolates) from serotypes not included in the conjugate vaccine were determined. Most nonsusceptible isolates (53.6%) belonged to serotype 19A. Susceptibility rates in serotype 19A penicillin-intermediate (n = 201)/penicillin-resistant (n = 67) isolates were <33%/≤6.0% (erythromycin and oral cephalosporins with defined breakpoints), 85.1%/11.9% (amoxicillin), and 96.0%/52.2% (cefotaxime), respectively. Low susceptibility to common oral β-lactams was also found in serotypes 11A (95.5% susceptibility to cefotaxime and erythromycin) and 35B. PMID:20308373

  7. High frequency of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children under 1 year old with skin and soft tissue infections.

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    Salazar-Ospina, Lorena; Jiménez, Judy Natalia

    2017-09-21

    Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a large number of infections in pediatric population; however, information about the behavior of such infections in this population is limited. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical, epidemiological, and molecular characteristics of infections caused by methicillin-susceptible and resistant S. aureus (MSSA-MRSA) in a pediatric population. A cross-sectional descriptive study in patients from birth to 14 years of age from three high-complexity institutions was conducted (2008-2010). All patients infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus and a representative sample of patients infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus were included. Clinical and epidemiological information was obtained from medical records and molecular characterization included spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). In addition, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and virulence factor genes were detected. A total of 182 patients, 65 with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus infections and 117 with methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections, were included in the study; 41.4% of the patients being under 1 year. The most frequent infections were of the skin and soft tissues. Backgrounds such as having stayed in day care centers and previous use of antibiotics were more common in patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections (p≤0.05). Sixteen clonal complexes were identified and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains were more diverse. The most common cassette was staphylococcal cassette chromosomemec IVc (70.8%), which was linked to Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl). In contrast with other locations, a prevalence of infections in children under 1 year of age in the city could be observed; this emphasizes the importance of epidemiological knowledge at the local level. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights

  8. GWAS of clinically defined gout and subtypes identifies multiple susceptibility loci that include urate transporter genes.

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    Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Ken; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Shaukat, Amara; Toyoda, Yu; Okada, Yukinori; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Takahiro; Takada, Tappei; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Yasujima, Tomoya; Yuasa, Hiroaki; Shirahama, Yuko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Seiko; Higashino, Toshihide; Kawamura, Yusuke; Ogata, Hiraku; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Danjoh, Inaho; Tokumasu, Atsumi; Ooyama, Keiko; Ito, Toshimitsu; Kondo, Takaaki; Wakai, Kenji; Stiburkova, Blanka; Pavelka, Karel; Stamp, Lisa K; Dalbeth, Nicola; Sakurai, Yutaka; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Hosoyamada, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Yokoo, Takashi; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Inoue, Ituro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toru; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Merriman, Tony R; Matsuo, Hirotaka

    2017-05-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gout and its subtypes was performed to identify novel gout loci, including those that are subtype-specific. Putative causal association signals from a GWAS of 945 clinically defined gout cases and 1213 controls from Japanese males were replicated with 1396 cases and 1268 controls using a custom chip of 1961 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also first conducted GWASs of gout subtypes. Replication with Caucasian and New Zealand Polynesian samples was done to further validate the loci identified in this study. In addition to the five loci we reported previously, further susceptibility loci were identified at a genome-wide significance level (pgout cases, and NIPAL1 and FAM35A for the renal underexcretion gout subtype. While NIPAL1 encodes a magnesium transporter, functional analysis did not detect urate transport via NIPAL1, suggesting an indirect association with urate handling. Localisation analysis in the human kidney revealed expression of NIPAL1 and FAM35A mainly in the distal tubules, which suggests the involvement of the distal nephron in urate handling in humans. Clinically ascertained male patients with gout and controls of Caucasian and Polynesian ancestries were also genotyped, and FAM35A was associated with gout in all cases. A meta-analysis of the three populations revealed FAM35A to be associated with gout at a genome-wide level of significance (p meta =3.58×10-8). Our findings including novel gout risk loci provide further understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of gout and lead to a novel concept for the therapeutic target of gout/hyperuricaemia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. GWAS of clinically defined gout and subtypes identifies multiple susceptibility loci that include urate transporter genes

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    Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Ken; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Shaukat, Amara; Toyoda, Yu; Okada, Yukinori; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Takahiro; Takada, Tappei; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Yasujima, Tomoya; Yuasa, Hiroaki; Shirahama, Yuko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Seiko; Higashino, Toshihide; Kawamura, Yusuke; Ogata, Hiraku; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Danjoh, Inaho; Tokumasu, Atsumi; Ooyama, Keiko; Ito, Toshimitsu; Kondo, Takaaki; Wakai, Kenji; Stiburkova, Blanka; Pavelka, Karel; Stamp, Lisa K; Dalbeth, Nicola; Sakurai, Yutaka; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Hosoyamada, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Yokoo, Takashi; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Inoue, Ituro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toru; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Merriman, Tony R; Matsuo, Hirotaka

    2017-01-01

    Objective A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gout and its subtypes was performed to identify novel gout loci, including those that are subtype-specific. Methods Putative causal association signals from a GWAS of 945 clinically defined gout cases and 1213 controls from Japanese males were replicated with 1396 cases and 1268 controls using a custom chip of 1961 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also first conducted GWASs of gout subtypes. Replication with Caucasian and New Zealand Polynesian samples was done to further validate the loci identified in this study. Results In addition to the five loci we reported previously, further susceptibility loci were identified at a genome-wide significance level (pgout cases, and NIPAL1 and FAM35A for the renal underexcretion gout subtype. While NIPAL1 encodes a magnesium transporter, functional analysis did not detect urate transport via NIPAL1, suggesting an indirect association with urate handling. Localisation analysis in the human kidney revealed expression of NIPAL1 and FAM35A mainly in the distal tubules, which suggests the involvement of the distal nephron in urate handling in humans. Clinically ascertained male patients with gout and controls of Caucasian and Polynesian ancestries were also genotyped, and FAM35A was associated with gout in all cases. A meta-analysis of the three populations revealed FAM35A to be associated with gout at a genome-wide level of significance (pmeta=3.58×10−8). Conclusions Our findings including novel gout risk loci provide further understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of gout and lead to a novel concept for the therapeutic target of gout/hyperuricaemia. PMID:27899376

  10. Antibiotic susceptibility of staphylococci isolates from patients with chronic conjunctivitis: including associated factors and clinical evaluation.

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    Blanco, Claudia; Núñez, María Ximena

    2013-11-01

    To determine species of staphylococci in chronic conjunctivitis, their antibiotic susceptibility pattern, patient treatments, clinical course, and clinical conditions. In this prospective study, 243 conjunctival cultures were taken from 191 patients with chronic conjunctivitis, we obtained staphylococci susceptibility patterns with E-test, and they were analyzed in coagulase-positive and negative. The minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of isolates (MIC90) was determined for Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Additionally, clinical follow-up and associated factors of all patients were analyzed depending on methicillin resistance (MR) or susceptibility (MS) bacterial state. One hundred and eight (44%) cultures were positive; 81 positive cultures were Gram-positive of which, 77 were staphylococci, 29 coagulase-positive with S. aureus as the most prevalent, 89% MS, and 11% MR. And 48 were coagulase-negative with S. epidermidis as the most isolated with 36% of MS and 64% of MR. Poor susceptibility was found in the staphylococcus coagulase-negative/MR group. Moxifloxacin and vancomycin show the best in vitro activity for all isolates. The MIC90 of moxifloxacin and vancomycin were 0.064/1.5, 0.64/3.0, and 1/3.0 for S. aureus-MS, S. epidermidis-MS, and S. epidermidis-MR, respectively. The most frequently associated factors found in patients with positive culture for staphylococcus were exposure to the health care system 23 (29.87%) of 77 patients and dry eye 23 (29.87%) of 77 patients. Both with a proportion of 3 in 10. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated from the conjunctiva with 58.33% of MR; even though multiresistance was detected, their susceptibility to a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone, commonly used, such as moxifloxacin, was preserved.

  11. Comparison of the Susceptibility to Soft Errors of SRAM-Based FPGA Error Correction Codes Implementations

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    Liu, S.; Sorrenti, G.; Reviriego, P.; Casini, F.; Maestro, J. A.; Alderighi, M.; Mecha, H.

    2012-06-01

    Nowadays the reliability issues of SRAM-based Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) operating in harsh environments are well understood. One major effect is Single Event Upsets (SEUs), which are able to invert the stored logical value in flip-flops and memory cells. This issue is more serious when the affected memory cells are part of the configuration memory used for programming the circuit functionality. The consequences may be alterations of the circuit functionality causing errors which may only be corrected by reprogramming the device. For a better understanding of the robustness of programmed circuits, this paper compares two decoders for Error Correction Codes (ECCs). A Hamming Decoder and a One-Step Majority Logic Decoder (OS-MLD) for the Difference-Set Cyclic Codes (DSCC) are analyzed yielding surprisingly unexpected results for their SEU susceptibility, which are interesting for application designers.

  12. Softly, Softly

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    Diamond, Abigail

    2008-01-01

    The term "soft skills" encompasses a cluster of personality traits, language abilities, personal habits and, ultimately, values and attitudes. Soft skills complement "harder", more technical, skills, such as being able to read or type a letter, but they also have a significant impact on the ability of people to do their jobs…

  13. GWAS of clinically defined gout and subtypes identifies multiple susceptibility loci that include urate transporter genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakayama, A.; Nakaoka, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Sakiyama, M.; Shaukat, A.; Toyoda, Y.; Okada, Y.; Kamatani, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Takada, T.; Inoue, K.; Yasujima, T.; Yuasa, H.; Shirahama, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Shimizu, S.; Higashino, T.; Kawamura, Y.; Ogata, H.; Kawaguchi, M.; Ohkawa, Y.; Danjoh, I.; Tokumasu, A.; Ooyama, K.; Ito, T.; Kondo, T.; Wakai, K.; Stiburkova, B.; Pavelka, K.; Stamp, L.K.; Dalbeth, N.; Sakurai, Y.; Suzuki, H; Hosoyamada, M.; Fujimori, S.; Yokoo, T.; Hosoya, T.; Inoue, I.; Takahashi, A.; Kubo, M.; Ooyama, H.; Shimizu, T.; Ichida, K.; Shinomiya, N.; Merriman, T.R.; Matsuo, H.; Andres, M; Joosten, L.A.; Janssen, M.C.H.; Jansen, T.L.; Liote, F.; Radstake, T.R.; Riches, P.L.; So, A.; Tauches, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gout and its subtypes was performed to identify novel gout loci, including those that are subtype-specific. METHODS: Putative causal association signals from a GWAS of 945 clinically defined gout cases and 1213 controls from Japanese males were

  14. Benthic indicators to use in Ecological Quality classification of Mediterranean soft bottom marine ecosystems, including a new Biotic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A general scheme for approaching the objective of Ecological Quality Status (EcoQ classification of zoobenthic marine ecosystems is presented. A system based on soft bottom benthic indicator species and related habitat types is suggested to be used for testing the typological definition of a given water body in the Mediterranean. Benthic indices including the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the species richness are re-evaluated for use in classification. Ranges of values and of ecological quality categories are given for the diversity and species richness in different habitat types. A new biotic index (BENTIX is proposed based on the relative percentages of three ecological groups of species grouped according to their sensitivity or tolerance to disturbance factors and weighted proportionately to obtain a formula rendering a five step numerical scale of ecological quality classification. Its advantage against former biotic indices lies in the fact that it reduces the number of the ecological groups involved which makes it simpler and easier in its use. The Bentix index proposed is tested and validated with data from Greek and western Mediterranean ecosystems and examples are presented. Indicator species associated with specific habitat types and pollution indicator species, scored according to their degree of tolerance to pollution, are listed in a table. The Bentix index is compared and evaluated against the indices of diversity and species richness for use in classification. The advantages of the BENTIX index as a classification tool for ECoQ include independence from habitat type, sample size and taxonomic effort, high discriminative power and simplicity in its use which make it a robust, simple and effective tool for application in the Mediterranean Sea.

  15. Modern Soft Tissue Pathology | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book comprehensively covers modern soft tissue pathology and includes both tumors and non-neoplastic entities. Soft tissues make up a large bulk of the human body, and they are susceptible to a wide range of diseases. Many soft-tissue tumors are biologically very aggressive, and the chance of them metastasizing to vital organs is quite high. In recent years, the outlook for soft-tissue cancers has brightened dramatically due to the increased accuracy of the pathologist's tools.

  16. The first nationwide surveillance of antibacterial susceptibility patterns of pathogens isolated from skin and soft-tissue infections in dermatology departments in Japan.

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    Watanabe, Shinichi; Ohnishi, Takamitsu; Yuasa, Akira; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Akira; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Manabe, Motomu; Suzuki, Tamio; Otsuka, Fujio; Aihara, Michiko; Iozumi, Ken; Tamaki, Takeshi; Funada, Yuichi; Shinozaki, Mikio; Kobayashi, Motoko; Okuda, Masaru; Kikyo, Go; Kikuchi, Kumi; Okada, Yoshitane; Takeshima, Masanori; Kaneko, Osamu; Ogawa, Natsuki; Ito, Rie; Okuyama, Ryuhei; Shimada, Shinji; Shimizu, Tadamichi; Hatta, Naohito; Manabu, Maeda; Tsutsui, Kiyohiro; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Asada, Hideo; Furukawa, Fukumi; Kurokawa, Ichiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Hide, Michihiro; Muto, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Osamu; Niihara, Hiroyuki; Takagaki, Kenji; Kubota, Yasuo; Sayama, Koji; Sano, Shigetoshi; Furue, Masutaka; Kanekura, Takuro

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the trends of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens isolated from skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI) at dermatology departments in Japan, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide survey in 2013. Three main organisms were collected from SSTI at 30 dermatology departments in medical centers and 10 dermatology clinics. A total of 860 strains - 579 of Staphylococcus aureus, 240 of coagulase-negative Staphylococci, and 41 of Streptococcus pyogenes - were collected and shipped to a central laboratory for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The patient profiles were also studied. Among all 579 strains of S. aureus, 141 (24.4%) were methicillin-resistant (MRSA). Among 97 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains, 54 (55.7%) were methicillin-resistant (MRSE). MRSA and MRSE were more frequently isolated from inpatients than from outpatients. Furthermore, these methicillin-resistant strains were also isolated more frequently from patients with histories of taking antibiotics within 4 weeks and hospitalization within 1 year compared to those without. However, there were no significant differences in MIC values and susceptibility patterns of the MRSA strains between patients with a history of hospitalization within 1 year and those without. Therefore, most of the isolated MRSA cases at dermatology departments are not healthcare-acquired, but community-acquired MRSA. S. pyogenes strains were susceptible to most antibiotics except macrolides. The information in this study is not only important in terms of local public health but will also contribute to an understanding of epidemic clones of pathogens from SSTI. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance gene transfer analysis of foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria spp. isolates including Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, David; Muelli, Mirjam; Weller, Monika; Uruty, Anaïs; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess antibiotic resistance pheno- and genotypes in foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria isolates, as well as to elucidate the horizontal gene transfer potential of detected resistance genes. A small fraction of in total 524 Listeria spp. isolates (3.1%) displayed acquired antibiotic resistance mainly to tetracycline (n = 11), but also to clindamycin (n = 4) and trimethoprim (n = 3), which was genotypically confirmed. In two cases, a tetracycline resistance phenotype was observed together with a trimethoprim resistance phenotype, namely in a clinical L. monocytogenes strain and in a foodborne L. innocua isolate. Depending on the applied guidelines, a differing number of isolates (n = 2 or n = 20) showed values for ampicillin that are on the edge between intermediate susceptibility and resistance. Transferability of the antibiotic resistance genes from the Listeria donors, elucidated in vitro by filter matings, was demonstrated for genes located on transposons of the Tn916 family and for an unknown clindamycin resistance determinant. Transfer rates of up to 10(-5) transconjugants per donor were obtained with a L. monocytogenes recipient and up to 10(-7) with an Enterococcus faecalis recipient, respectively. Although the prevalence of acquired antibiotic resistance in Listeria isolates from this study was rather low, the transferability of these resistances enables further spread in the future. This endorses the importance of surveillance of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in terms of antibiotic susceptibility. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Micafungin triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms, including caspofungin non-susceptible isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, F; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2015-01-01

    Candida biofilms play an important role in infections associated with medical devices and are resistant to antifungals. We hypothesized that the echinocandin micafungin (MICA) exerts an enhanced antifungal activity against caspofungin (CAS)-susceptible (CAS-S) and CAS-non-susceptible (CAS-NS) Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis which is at least in part through apoptosis, even in the biofilm environment. Apoptosis was characterized by detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation, lack of plasma membrane integrity, and metacaspase activation following exposure of Candida biofilm to MICA for 3h at 37°C in RPMI 1640 medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration was higher for CAS (2.0-16.0 μg/mL) than for MICA (1.0-8.0 μg/mL) for Candida biofilms. Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Finally higher ß-1, 3 glucan levels were seen in sessile cells compared to planktonic cells, especially in CAS-NS strains. MICA treatment might induce a metacaspase-dependent apoptotic process in biofilms of both CAS-S C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, and to some degree in CAS-NS strains.

  19. Increased In Vitro Phenol-Soluble Modulin Production is Associated with Soft Tissue Infection Source in Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus

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    Qi, Robert; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu; Berlon, Nicholas R.; Park, Lawrence; Fu, Chih-lung; Messina, Julia A.; Thaden, Joshua T.; Yan, Qin; Ruffin, Felicia; Maskarinec, Stacey; Warren, Bobby; Chu, Vivian H.; Fortes, Claudio Q.; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Kanafani, Zeina A.; Otto, Michael; Fowler, Vance G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Phenol-soluble modulins (PSM) are amphipathic proteins produced by Staphylococcus aureus that promote virulence, inflammatory response, and biofilm formation. We previously showed that MRSA isolates from soft tissue infection (SSTI) produced significantly higher levels of PSM than MRSA isolates from hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or infective endocarditis (IE). In this investigation, we sought to validate this finding in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. Methods MSSA isolates (n=162) from patients with SSTI, HAP, and IE were matched 1:1:1 based on geographic origin of the infection to form 54 triplets (North America n=27, Europe n=25, Australia n=2). All isolates underwent spa-typing and were classified using eGenomics. In vitro PSM production was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Fischer’s Exact Test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used for statistical analysis. Results Spa1 was more common in SSTI (14.81% SSTI, 3.70% HAP, 1.85% IE) (p<0.03). Spa2 was more common in HAP (0% SSTI, 12.96% HAP, 3.70% IE) (p<0.01). Levels of PSMα1-4 all differed significantly among the three clinical groups, with SSTI isolates producing the highest levels and IE producing the lowest levels of PSMα1-4. Spa1 isolates produced significantly more delta-toxin (p<0.03) than non-Spa1 isolates. No associations between PSM levels and clinical outcome of SSTI, HAP, or IE were identified. Conclusion Production of PSMα1-4 is highest in SSTI MSSA isolates, supporting the hypothesis that these peptides are important for SSTI pathogenesis. These findings are similar to those described in MRSA, and demonstrate that associations between PSM levels and type of infection are independent of the methicillin resistance status of the isolate. PMID:26778460

  20. Increased in vitro phenol-soluble modulin production is associated with soft tissue infection source in clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Robert; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu; Berlon, Nicholas R; Park, Lawrence; Fu, Chih-Lung; Messina, Julia A; Thaden, Joshua T; Yan, Qin; Ruffin, Felicia; Maskarinec, Stacey; Warren, Bobby; Chu, Vivian H; Fortes, Claudio Q; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Kanafani, Zeina A; Otto, Michael; Fowler, Vance G

    2016-03-01

    Phenol-soluble modulins (PSM) are amphipathic proteins produced by Staphylococcus aureus that promote virulence, inflammatory response, and biofilm formation. We previously showed that MRSA isolates from soft tissue infection (SSTI) produced significantly higher levels of PSM than MRSA isolates from hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or infective endocarditis (IE). In this investigation, we sought to validate this finding in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. MSSA isolates (n = 162) from patients with SSTI, HAP, and IE were matched 1:1:1 based on geographic origin of the infection to form 54 triplets (North America n = 27, Europe n = 25, Australia n = 2). All isolates underwent spa typing and were classified using eGenomics. In vitro PSM production was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Fischer's Exact Test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used for statistical analysis. Spa1 was more common in SSTI (14.81% SSTI, 3.70% HAP, 1.85% IE) (p < 0.03). Spa2 was more common in HAP (0% SSTI, 12.96% HAP, 3.70% IE) (p < 0.01). Levels of PSMα1-4 all differed significantly among the three clinical groups, with SSTI isolates producing the highest levels and IE producing the lowest levels of PSMα1-4. Spa1 isolates produced significantly more delta-toxin (p < 0.03) than non-Spa1 isolates. No associations between PSM levels and clinical outcome of SSTI, HAP, or IE were identified. Production of PSMα1-4 is highest in SSTI MSSA isolates, supporting the hypothesis that these peptides are important for SSTI pathogenesis. These findings are similar to those described in MRSA, and demonstrate that associations between PSM levels and type of infection are independent of the methicillin-resistance status of the isolate. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Fuzzy Soft Sets and Fuzzy Soft Lattices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shao, Yingchao; Qin, Keyun

    2012-01-01

    .... In this paper, the notion of fuzzy soft lattice is defined and some related properties are derived, which extends the notion of a fuzzy lattice to include the algebraic structures of soft sets...

  2. Autism genetic database (AGD: a comprehensive database including autism susceptibility gene-CNVs integrated with known noncoding RNAs and fragile sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebizadeh Zohreh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a highly heritable complex neurodevelopmental disorder, therefore identifying its genetic basis has been challenging. To date, numerous susceptibility genes and chromosomal abnormalities have been reported in association with autism, but most discoveries either fail to be replicated or account for a small effect. Thus, in most cases the underlying causative genetic mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present work, the Autism Genetic Database (AGD was developed as a literature-driven, web-based, and easy to access database designed with the aim of creating a comprehensive repository for all the currently reported genes and genomic copy number variations (CNVs associated with autism in order to further facilitate the assessment of these autism susceptibility genetic factors. Description AGD is a relational database that organizes data resulting from exhaustive literature searches for reported susceptibility genes and CNVs associated with autism. Furthermore, genomic information about human fragile sites and noncoding RNAs was also downloaded and parsed from miRBase, snoRNA-LBME-db, piRNABank, and the MIT/ICBP siRNA database. A web client genome browser enables viewing of the features while a web client query tool provides access to more specific information for the features. When applicable, links to external databases including GenBank, PubMed, miRBase, snoRNA-LBME-db, piRNABank, and the MIT siRNA database are provided. Conclusion AGD comprises a comprehensive list of susceptibility genes and copy number variations reported to-date in association with autism, as well as all known human noncoding RNA genes and fragile sites. Such a unique and inclusive autism genetic database will facilitate the evaluation of autism susceptibility factors in relation to known human noncoding RNAs and fragile sites, impacting on human diseases. As a result, this new autism database offers a valuable tool for the research

  3. Effects of Cd and Ni toxicity to Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions in soft and hard water including a German lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Elisa, E-mail: Elisa.Andresen@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Opitz, Judith, E-mail: Daniela.Opitz@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Thomas, George, E-mail: George.Thomas@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Stärk, Hans-Joachim, E-mail: Ha-Jo.Staerk@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Dienemann, Holger, E-mail: Holger.Dienemann@smul.sachsen.de [Saxon State Company for Environment and Agriculture, Business Domain 5 (Laboratory), Department 53, Bitterfelder Str. 25, D-04849 Bad Düben (Germany); Jenemann, Kerstin, E-mail: Kerstin.Jenemann@smul.sachsen.de [Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Abteilung Wasser, Boden, Wertstoffe, Zur Wetterwarte 11, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Dickinson, Bryan C., E-mail: Bryan.Dickinson@gmail.com [Harvard University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Küpper, Hendrik, E-mail: Hendrik.Kuepper@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Institute of Physical Biology, Branišovská 31, CZ-370 05 České Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Hardly any macrophytic growth occurred in an oligotrophic hard water lake in Germany. •All parameters were optimal, besides elevated, nanomolar concentrations of Ni and Cd. •We cultivated submerged macrophytes in real and simulated hard and soft lake water. •Nanomolar Cd and Ni inhibited the plants’ photosynthetic light reactions in soft water. •The inhibition was synergistic, i.e. stronger than the addition of Cd and Ni effects. -- Abstract: Even essential trace elements are phytotoxic over a certain threshold. In this study, we investigated whether heavy metal concentrations were responsible for the nearly complete lack of submerged macrophytes in an oligotrophic lake in Germany. We cultivated the rootless aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions like sinusoidal light and temperature cycles and a low plant biomass to water volume ratio. Experiments lasted for six weeks and were analysed by detailed measurements of photosynthetic biophysics, pigment content and hydrogen peroxide production. We established that individually non-toxic cadmium (3 nM) and slightly toxic nickel (300 nM) concentrations became highly toxic when applied together in soft water, severely inhibiting photosynthetic light reactions. Toxicity was further enhanced by phosphate limitation (75 nM) in soft water as present in many freshwater habitats. In the investigated lake, however, high water hardness limited the toxicity of these metal concentrations, thus the inhibition of macrophytic growth in the lake must have additional reasons. The results showed that synergistic heavy metal toxicity may change ecosystems in many more cases than estimated so far.

  4. In vitro susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from skin and soft tissue infections to vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid and tedizolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Marcela Vanegas Múnera

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: In vitro effectiveness of tedizolid was superior for isolates from skin and soft tissue infections in comparison with the other antibiotics evaluated. The above added to its less toxicity, good bioavailability, daily dose and unnecessity of dosage adjustment, make tedizolid in a promising alternative for the treatment of infections caused by MRSA.

  5. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti to three imported Chikungunya virus strains, including the E1/226V variant in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tien-Huang; Jian, Shu-Wan; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Lin, Cheo; Wang, Pei-Feng; Su, Chien-Ling; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Shu, Pei-Yun; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    An E1/226V variant Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) efficiently transmitted by Aedes albopictus to humans poses a significant threat to public health for those areas with the presence of Aedes albopictus, including Taiwan. We infected three imported CHIKV isolates including the E1/226V variant with Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti in the laboratory to understand the disease risk. Viral RNA was measured by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The viral susceptibility varied by virus strain and mosquito species and strain. The Asian virus strain started to replicate at 5-6 days post infection (dpi) with the maximum virus yield, ranging from 10(3.63) to 10(3.87) at 5-10 dpi in both species. The variant CHIKV Central/East/South African (CESA) virus genotype replicated earlier at 1 dpi with the maximum virus yield ranging from 10(5.63) to 10(6.52) at 3-6 dpi in Ae. albopictus females while the nonvariant virus strain replicated at 1-2 dpi with the maximum virus yield ranging from 10(5.51) to 10(6.27) at 6-12 dpi. In Ae. aegypti, these viruses replicated at 1-2 dpi, with maximum yields at 4-5 dpi (range from 10(5.38) to 10(5.62)). We concluded that the risk of CHIKV in Taiwan is high in all distribution areas of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for the CESA genotype and that the E1/226V variant virus strain presents an even higher risk. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Genotypic and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Analysis of ISAba Elements and blaOXA-23-like Genes Including A New Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas eBahador

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-AB causes serious nosocomial infections, especially in ICU wards of hospitals, worldwide. Expression of blaOXA genes is the chief mechanism of conferring carbapenem resistance among CR-AB. Although some blaOXA genes have been studied among CR-AB isolates from Iran, their blaOXA-23-like genes have not been investigated. We used a multiplex-PCR to detect Ambler class A, B, and D carbapenemases of 85 isolates, and determined that 34 harbored blaOXA-23-like genes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP genotyping, followed by DNA sequencing of blaOXA-23-like amplicons of CR-AB from each AFLP group was used to characterize their blaOXA-23-like genes. We also assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of CR-AB isolates, and tested whether they harbored insertion sequences ISAba1 and ISAba4. Sequence comparison with reference strain A. baumannii (NCTC12156 revealed five types of mutations in blaOXA-23-like genes; including one novel variant and four mutants that were already reported from China and the USA. All of the blaOXA-23-like genes mutations were associated with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs against imipenem. ISAba1 and ISAba4 sequences were detected upstream of blaOXA-23 genes in 19% and 7% of isolates, respectively. The isolation of CR-AB with new blaOXA-23 mutations including some that have been reported from the USA and China highlights CR-AB pervasive distribution, which underscores the importance of concerted national and global efforts to control the spread of CR-AB isolates worldwide.

  7. Evaluation of Caspofungin Susceptibility Testing by the New Vitek 2 AST-YS06 Yeast Card Using a Unique Collection of FKS Wild-Type and Hot Spot Mutant Isolates, Including the Five Most Common Candida Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astvad, Karen M; Perlin, David S; Johansen, Helle K

    2013-01-01

    susceptibility card to correctly identify the fks mutants from wt isolates and compared the performance to those of the CLSI and EUCAST reference methods. A collection of 98 Candida isolates, including 31 fks hot spot mutants, were included. Performance was evaluated using the FKS genotype as the "gold standard...

  8. Soft buckling actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M.

    2017-12-26

    A soft actuator is described, including: a rotation center having a center of mass; a plurality of bucklable, elastic structural components each comprising a wall defining an axis along its longest dimension, the wall connected to the rotation center in a way that the axis is offset from the center of mass in a predetermined direction; and a plurality of cells each disposed between two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components and configured for connection with a fluid inflation or deflation source; wherein upon the deflation of the cell, the bucklable, elastic structural components are configured to buckle in the predetermined direction. A soft actuating device including a plurality of the soft actuators and methods of actuation using the soft actuator or soft actuating device disclosed herein are also described.

  9. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti to three imported Chikungunya virus strains, including the E1/226V variant in Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Tien-Huang; Jian, Shu-Wan; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Lin, Cheo; Wang, Pei-Feng; Su, Chien-Ling; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Shu, Pei-Yun; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    An E1/226V variant Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) efficiently transmitted by Aedes albopictus to humans poses a significant threat to public health for those areas with the presence of Aedes albopictus, including Taiwan...

  10. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti to three imported Chikungunya virus strains, including the E1/226V variant in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tien-Huang; Jian, Shu-Wan; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Lin, Cheo; Wang, Pei-Feng; Su, Chien-Ling; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Shu, Pei-Yun; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    An E1/226V variant Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) efficiently transmitted by Aedes albopictus to humans poses a significant threat to public health for those areas with the presence of Aedes albopictus, including Taiwan. Methods: We infected three imported CHIKV isolates including the E1/226V variant with Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti in the laboratory to understand the disease risk. Viral RNA was measured by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: The viral su...

  11. ATLAS soft QCD results

    CERN Document Server

    Sykora, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Recent results of soft QCD measurements performed by the ATLAS collaboration are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive spectra, underlying event and particle correlations in p-p and p-Pb collisions.

  12. Gene expression and metabolism preceding soft scald, a chilling injury of 'Honeycrisp' apple fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisso, Rachel S; Gapper, Nigel E; Mattheis, James P; Sullivan, Nathanael L; Watkins, Christopher B; Giovannoni, James J; Schaffer, Robert J; Johnston, Jason W; Hanrahan, Ines; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Rudell, David R

    2016-10-12

    'Honeycrisp' is an apple cultivar that is susceptible to soft scald, a chilling injury expressed as necrotic patches on the peel. Improved understanding of metabolism associated with the disorder would improve our understanding of soft scald and contribute to developing more effective management strategies for apple storage. It was expected that specific gene expression and specific metabolite levels in the peel would be linked with soft scald risk at harvest and/or specific time points during cold storage. Fruit from nine 'Honeycrisp' apple orchards that would eventually develop different incidences of soft scald between 4 and 8 weeks of cold air storage were used to contrast and determine differential transcriptomic and metabolomic changes during storage. Untargeted metabolic profiling revealed changes in a number of distinct pathways preceding and concurrent with soft scald symptom development, including elevated γ-aminobutryic acid (GABA), 1-hexanol, acylated steryl glycosides, and free p-coumaryl acyl esters. At harvest, levels of sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid acyl esters were relatively higher in peel of fruit that did not later develop the disorder. RNA-seq driven gene expression profiling highlighted possible involvement of genes and associated metabolic processes with soft scald development. These included elevated expression of genes involved in lipid peroxidation and phenolic metabolism in fruit with soft scald, and isoprenoid/brassinosteroid metabolism in fruit that did not develop soft scald. Expression of other stress-related genes in fruit that developed soft scald included chlorophyll catabolism, cell wall loosening, and lipid transport while superoxide dismutases were up-regulated in fruit that did not develop the disorder. This study delineates the sequential transcriptomic and metabolomic changes preceding soft scald symptom development. Changes were differential depending on susceptibility of fruit to the disorder and could be attributed to

  13. Susceptibility trends including emergence of linezolid resistance among coagulase-negative staphylococci and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from invasive infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Desroches, Marine; Bourgeois-Nicolaos, Nadège; Potier, Julien; Jehl, François; Lina, Gérard; Cattoir, Vincent; Vandenesh, François; Doucet-Populaire, Florence

    2015-12-01

    Multiresistance in staphylococci constitutes a major challenge for the antimicrobial chemotherapy of invasive infections such as bacteraemia or bone and joint infections (BJIs). A nationwide prospective study was performed to detect antimicrobial resistance trends among staphylococci causing invasive infections. Between October 2011 and February 2012, 367 meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 695 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were collected from 37 French hospitals, mainly from bacteraemia (59.9%) and osteoarticular infections (29.0%). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution, and specific screening and confirmation tests were performed to detect heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA). Staphylococcal isolates exhibiting a linezolid MIC>4 mg/L were further characterised to determinate their clonal relationships and the mechanism of resistance. MRSA exhibited additional resistances, including levofloxacin (82% associated resistance), gentamicin (13.6%), fusidic acid (13.6%) and rifampicin (6.5%), compromising oral step-down therapy in BJIs. Only two hVISA strains (0.5%) were identified. Among the CoNS, mainly Staphylococcus epidermidis (506/695; 72.8%), resistance to first- and second-line agents was more common. Linezolid resistance was identified in 10 CoNS (1.4%). The most frequent linezolid resistance mechanism was the G2576T mutation in 23S rDNA (9/10). For the first time in France, the cfr gene was found in five related sequence type 2 (ST2) S. epidermidis from two different hospitals, in association with ribosomal RNA and L3 ribosomal protein mutations. These national data must be considered when selecting empirical treatment for invasive staphylococcal infections. Moreover, the emergence and spread of linezolid-resistant CoNS carrying the cfr gene is of concern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Rotting softly and stealthily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Ian K; Birch, Paul R J

    2005-08-01

    The soft rot erwiniae, which are plant pathogens on potato and other crops world-wide, synthesize and secrete large quantities of plant cell wall degrading enzymes that are responsible for the soft rot phenotype, earning them the epithet 'brute force' pathogens. They have been distinguished from classic 'stealth' pathogens, such as Pseudomonas syringae, which possesses an extensive battery of Type III secreted effector proteins and phytotoxins to manipulate and suppress host defences. However, recent studies, including whole-genome sequencing, are revealing many components of stealth pathogenesis within the soft rot erwiniae (SRE), suggesting that 'stealth' and 'brute force' should not be regarded as mutually exclusive modes of pathogenesis.

  15. Dynamics of Soft Matter

    CERN Document Server

    García Sakai, Victoria; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or micr

  16. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Calisti, M.; Picardi, G.; Laschi, C.

    2017-01-01

    Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human���robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human���robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This p...

  17. Soft Lenses*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyhema. Low water content-30 - 40% therefore less well tolerated. Impermeable to gases. Low elasticity and therefore optics not good. Subject to stress and strain especially when drying. Easily infected. A series of cases fitted with Bionite soft lenses is described. Good results were obtained in bullous kera- topathy, dry.

  18. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, soft wearables leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress......; diverse capabilities and meanings of the body; as well as the qualities and capabilities afforded by smart and programmable elements. Textiles behave in particular ways. They are part of culture. No matter a person’s views on fashion, dress, their own or others’ body, they will have an intimate...... relationship with textiles, as they are one of the few products worn much of the time, often in direct contact with the body. When designing wearables a designer must consider a range of requirements that do not typically demand focus when designing products that are not worn, including: sensitivity...

  19. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisti, M; Picardi, G; Laschi, C

    2017-05-01

    Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human-robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human-robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This paper aims to provide a reference guide for researchers approaching mobile soft robotics, to describe the underlying principles of soft robot locomotion with its pros and cons, and to envisage applications and further developments for mobile soft robotics. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...... brought together in one transdisciplinary process of curating a semantics of sound: Technological, Humanistic /Curatorial, and Design / Action-based practice....

  1. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound a...... brought together in one transdisciplinary process of curating a semantics of sound: Technological, Humanistic /Curatorial, and Design / Action-based practice....

  2. Mechanics of soft materials

    CERN Document Server

    Volokh, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a concise introduction to soft matter modelling. It offers an up-to-date review of continuum mechanical description of soft and biological materials from the basics to the latest scientific materials. It includes multi-physics descriptions, such as chemo-, thermo-, electro- mechanical coupling. It derives from a graduate course at Technion that has been established in recent years. It presents original explanations for some standard materials and features elaborated examples on all topics throughout the text. PowerPoint lecture notes can be provided to instructors. .

  3. Computational dynamics of soft machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyan; Tian, Qiang; Liu, Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Soft machine refers to a kind of mechanical system made of soft materials to complete sophisticated missions, such as handling a fragile object and crawling along a narrow tunnel corner, under low cost control and actuation. Hence, soft machines have raised great challenges to computational dynamics. In this review article, recent studies of the authors on the dynamic modeling, numerical simulation, and experimental validation of soft machines are summarized in the framework of multibody system dynamics. The dynamic modeling approaches are presented first for the geometric nonlinearities of coupled overall motions and large deformations of a soft component, the physical nonlinearities of a soft component made of hyperelastic or elastoplastic materials, and the frictional contacts/impacts of soft components, respectively. Then the computation approach is outlined for the dynamic simulation of soft machines governed by a set of differential-algebraic equations of very high dimensions, with an emphasis on the efficient computations of the nonlinear elastic force vector of finite elements. The validations of the proposed approaches are given via three case studies, including the locomotion of a soft quadrupedal robot, the spinning deployment of a solar sail of a spacecraft, and the deployment of a mesh reflector of a satellite antenna, as well as the corresponding experimental studies. Finally, some remarks are made for future studies.

  4. Soft Robotics Week

    CERN Document Server

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.

  5. Multiaspect Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hashimah Sulaiman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel concept of multiaspect soft set which is an extension of the ordinary soft set by Molodtsov. Some basic concepts, operations, and properties of the multiaspect soft sets are studied. We also define a mapping on multiaspect soft classes and investigate several properties related to the images and preimages of multiaspect soft sets.

  6. MEMS-based shear characterization of soft hydrated samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Gadryn C.; Simmons, Chelsey S.; Gao, Yingning; Fried, Andrew T.; Park, Sung-Jin; Chung, Cindy; Pruitt, Beth L.

    2013-08-01

    We have designed, fabricated, calibrated and tested actuators for shear characterization to assess microscale shear properties of soft substrates. Here, we demonstrate characterization of dry silicone and hydrated polyethylene glycol. Microscale tools, including atomic force microscopes and nanoindenters, often have limited functionality in hydrated environments. While electrostatic comb-drive actuators are particularly susceptible to moisture damage, through chemical vapor deposition of hexamethyldisiloxane, we increase the hydrophobicity of our electrostatic devices to a water contact angle 90 ± 3°. With this technique, we determine the effective shear stiffness of both dry and hydrated samples for a range of soft substrates. Using computational and analytical models, we compare our empirically determined effective shear stiffness with existing characterization methods, rheology, and nanoindentation, for samples with shear moduli ranging from 5-320 kPa. This work introduces a new approach for microscale assessment of synthetic materials that can be used on biological materials for basic and applied biomaterials research.

  7. Soft Matter Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Borsali, Redouane

    2008-01-01

    Progress in basic soft matter research is driven largely by the experimental techniques available. Much of the work is concerned with understanding them at the microscopic level, especially at the nanometer length scales that give soft matter studies a wide overlap with nanotechnology. This 2 volume reference work, split into 4 parts, presents detailed discussions of many of the major techniques commonly used as well as some of those in current development for studying and manipulating soft matter. The articles are intended to be accessible to the interdisciplinary audience (at the graduate student level and above) that is or will be engaged in soft matter studies or those in other disciplines who wish to view some of the research methods in this fascinating field. Part 1 contains articles with a largely (but, in most cases, not exclusively) theoretical content and/or that cover material relevant to more than one of the techniques covered in subsequent volumes. It includes an introductory chapter on some of t...

  8. An assessment on the use of bivariate, multivariate and soft ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper presented herein compares and discusses the use of bivariate, multivariate and soft computing techniques for collapse susceptibility modelling. Conditional probability (CP), logistic regression (LR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) models representing the bivariate, multivariate and soft computing techniques ...

  9. Molecular characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC isolated from minas soft cheese Caracterização molecular e avaliação da suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas enteropatogenicas de E. coli (EPEC, isoladas de queijo minas frescal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Tavares Dias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne disease caused by microorganisms is a problem of public health. Minas soft cheese is a national product manufactured using simple technology; it has high level of acceptance in the country making its production an important economic activity. Many microorganisms may be present in foods including the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli. Overall, E. coli is a harmless commensal bacterium; however, some strains may have a pathogenic potential. Several outbreaks of foodborne diseases associated with consumption of contaminated cheese have been reported, and the presence of pathogenic strains of E. coli has increased. The objective of this study was to isolate, evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility, and characterize, by Multiplex PCR, the pathogenic E. coli strains isolated from Minas cheese commercialized in Rio de Janeiro. Thirty samples were analyzed and five strains of E. coli (EPEC were identified. The assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility revealed 40% of the isolates resistant to ampicillin and 40% with intermediate resistance to ampicillin-sulbactam combination. These findings are a warning signal to health authorities since Minas cheese is a ready to eat food product, and therefore should not pose health risks to the population.Doenças transmitidas por alimentos (DTA, causadas por microrganismos, representam um importante problema de saúde pública. O queijo Minas Frescal é um produto nacional, de tecnologia simples e elevada aceitação no País, tornando sua produção uma importante atividade econômica. Muitos microrganismos podem estar presentes neste alimento e, entre eles, destaca-se a bactéria Escherichia coli (E. coli. De modo geral, E. coli é um comensal inofensivo, entretanto, algumas cepas podem apresentar potencial patogênico. Diversos surtos de DTA, associados ao consumo de queijos contaminados, têm sido relatados e a presença de cepas patogênicas de E. coli cada vez mais observada. Este estudo teve

  10. Soft Translations and Soft Extensions of BCI/BCK-Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazra Sultana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of soft translations of soft subalgebras and soft ideals over BCI/BCK-algebras is introduced and some related properties are studied. Notions of Soft extensions of soft subalgebras and soft ideals over BCI/BCK-algebras are also initiated. Relationships between soft translations and soft extensions are explored.

  11. Bullous Impetigo in Children Infected with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Alone or in Combination with Methicillin-Susceptible S. aureus: Analysis of Genetic Characteristics, Including Assessment of Exfoliative Toxin Gene Carriage▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Da; Higuchi, Wataru; Takano, Tomomi; Saito, Kohei; Ozaki, Kyoko; Takano, Misao; Nitahara, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    Among bullous impetigo isolates, exfoliative toxin (ET) gene carriage was found in 61.5% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates versus 90.6% of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. MRSA-only cases were ETB or ETA positive, while MRSA/MSSA coinfection cases were ET negative for MRSA but ETA positive for MSSA. Collagen adhesin may facilitate some MRSA infections. PMID:21430094

  12. Biological Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  13. Modelling and mitigation of soft-errors in CMOS processors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohani, A.

    2014-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is about soft-errors in digital systems. Different aspects of soft-errors have been addressed here, including an accurate simulation model to emulate soft-errors in a gate-level net list, a simulation framework to study the impact of soft-errors in a VHDL design and an

  14. Soft errors in modern electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolaidis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive presentation of the most advanced research results and technological developments enabling understanding, qualifying and mitigating the soft errors effect in advanced electronics, including the fundamental physical mechanisms of radiation induced soft errors, the various steps that lead to a system failure, the modelling and simulation of soft error at various levels (including physical, electrical, netlist, event driven, RTL, and system level modelling and simulation), hardware fault injection, accelerated radiation testing and natural environment testing, s

  15. Fuzzy Soft Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazmul

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Notions of Lowen type fuzzy soft topological space are introduced and some of their properties are established in the present paper. Besides this, a combined structure of a fuzzy soft topological space and a fuzzy soft group, which is termed here as fuzzy soft topological group is introduced. Homomorphic images and preimages are also examined. Finally, some definitions and results on fuzzy soft set are studied.

  16. Soft storey effects on plastic hinge propagation of moment resisting reinforced concrete building subjected to Ranau earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee Ghuan; Chia, Wei Ting; Majid, Taksiah A.; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed; Adiyanto, Mohd Irwan

    2017-10-01

    On 5th June 2015, a moderate earthquake with Mw 5.9 hit Ranau, resulted in damages of the existing non-seismically designed buildings, such that 61 buildings, including mosques, schools, hospitals and Ranau police headquarters were suffered from different level structural damages. Soft storey irregularity is one of the main reasons of the building damage. This study is to investigate the soft-story effect on the propagation path of plastic hinges RC building under seismic excitation. The plastic hinges formation and seismic performance of five moment resisting RC frames with different infill configurations are studied. The seismic performance of building is evaluated by Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA). Open ground soft storey structure shows the lowest seismic resistance, collapses at 0.55g pga. The maximum interstorey drift ratio (IDRmax) in soft storey buildings ranging from 0.53% to 2.96% which are far greater than bare frame ranging from 0.095% to 0.69%. The presence of infill walls creates stiffer upper stories causing moments concentrate at the soft storey, resulting the path of plastic hinge propagation is dominant at the soft storey columns. Hence, the buildings with soft storey are very susceptible under earthquake load.

  17. Soft actuators and soft actuating devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M.

    2017-10-17

    A soft buckling linear actuator is described, including: a plurality of substantially parallel bucklable, elastic structural components each having its longest dimension along a first axis; and a plurality of secondary structural components each disposed between and bridging two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components; wherein every two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components and the secondary structural components in-between define a layer comprising a plurality of cells each capable of being connected with a fluid inflation or deflation source; the secondary structural components from two adjacent layers are not aligned along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis; and the secondary structural components are configured not to buckle, the bucklable, elastic structural components are configured to buckle along the second axis to generate a linear force, upon the inflation or deflation of the cells. Methods of actuation using the same are also described.

  18. [Soft tissue rheumatism in erderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepański, Leszek

    2008-01-01

    Disorders of soft, peri-articular tissues are a common cause of musculoskeletal pain in elderly patients. Nevertheless, most physicians underestimate the role of soft tissue rheumatism in the pathomechanism of the pain. The impairments of soft tissue can not be diagnosed by X-rays examinations, whereas degenerative lesions of joints are easy diagnosed using this method even despite of their uncertain role in producing the symptoms. The incidence of pain syndromes originated from soft tissues differ regarding to the age of patients. In young subjects the incidence of all of them is generally low. Syndromes provoked by overloading during work: repetitive strain syndrome, canal tunnel syndrome, tennis elbow, golfers elbow, shoulder tendon coin disorders and myofascial pain syndrome are common in middle-aged patients. The morbidity of fibromialgia syndrome is also lower in old people probably as the result of diminished numbers and degenerative changes in nociceptive fibers. The syndromes prevailing in elderly patients include trochanteric syndrome and the pain syndromes provoked by muscle spasm depended on posture abnormalities. In the soft tissue pain syndrome prevention adapted to old age kinesitherapy and avoiding muscle overloading are recommended. Soft tissue pain syndromes are usually treated with non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs. In local pain syndromes better results can be obtained by local treatment. Local injections of glikocorticosteroids are usually very effective and safe.

  19. [Diagnosis of calcified deposits in soft tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybier, M; Laredo, J D; Parlier, C; Champsaur, P

    1997-01-01

    Calcific deposit within soft tissues is frequently a clue for diagnosis. The radiological analysis of a calcific deposit within soft tissues includes the following aspects: the basic structure of the calcification, the grade of differentiation of the calcification, the site of the calcification, the number of calcific deposits, the shape of the calcification, the changes in the adjacent non-calcified soft tissues and in the adjacent bone, the course of the clinical signs, the course of the radiological abnormalities.

  20. Soft Neutrosophic Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shabir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the neutrosophic group and subgroup to soft neutrosophic group and soft neutrosophic subgroup respectively. Properties and theorems related to them are proved and many examples are given.

  1. Soft Concurrent Constraint Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Bistarelli, S.; Montanari, U.; Rossi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Soft constraints extend classical constraints to represent multiple consistency levels, and thus provide a way to express preferences, fuzziness, and uncertainty. While there are many soft constraint solving formalisms, even distributed ones, by now there seems to be no concurrent programming framework where soft constraints can be handled. In this paper we show how the classical concurrent constraint (cc) programming framework can work with soft constraints, and we also propose an extension ...

  2. Antibiotic Susceptibilities and Serotyping of Clinical Streptococcus Agalactiae Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altay Atalay

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococci, GBS are frequently responsible for sepsis and meningitis seen in the early weeks of life. GBS may cause perinatal infection and premature birth in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to serotype GBS strains isolated from clinical samples and evaluate their serotype distribution according to their susceptibilities to antibiotics and isolation sites. Material and Methods: One hundred thirty one S. agalactiae strains isolated from the clinical samples were included in the study. Of the strains, 99 were isolated from urine, 20 from soft tissue, 10 from blood and 2 from vaginal swab. Penicillin G and ceftriaxone susceptibilities of GBS were determined by the agar dilution method. Susceptibilities to erythromycin, clindamycin, vancomycin and tetracycline were determined by the Kirby-Bauer method according to CLSI criteria. Serotyping was performed using the latex aglutination method using specific antisera (Ia, Ib, II-VIII. Results: While in 131 GBS strains, serotypes VII and VIII were not detected, the most frequently isolated serotypes were types Ia (36%, III (30.5% and II (13% respectively. Serotype Ia was the most frequently seen serotype in all samples. All GBS isolates were susceptible to penicilin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin. Among the strains, tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin resistance rates were determined as 90%, 14.5%, and 13% respectively. Conclusion: Penicillin is still the first choice of treatment for the infections with all serotypes of S. agalactiae in Turkey.

  3. Soft Mobility and Urban Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some European cases referred to promotion of soft mobility as a new lifestyle aimed to improve benefits on environment and urban liveability. Soft mobility includes any non-motorized transport (human powered mobility. According to this, soft mobility refers to pedestrian, bicycle, roller skate and skateboard transfers. It could be indented as “zeroimpact” mobility too. As a matter of fact, the words to define this way of moving have not been codified yet, therefore mobilitè douce, soft mobility, slow traffic are synonymous in referring mainly to pedestrians and cyclists to indicate alternative to car use. Soft mobility, indeed, can be defined as a special form of sustainable mobility able to optimize urban liveability, by keeping the individual right to move. At present, cities are engaged in defining policies, procedures and interventions to further “slow traffic”, both to relieve the traffic congestion, and to work for regeneration and environmental improvements. This asks for an in-depth cooperation between different political and administrative levels to achieve common objectives of development more attentive to environmental concerns. Despite this increasing attention, the idea of a “network” for soft mobility has not been yet achieved and the supply of integrated facilities and services as an alternative to the car use seems to be still difficult of accomplishment. High disparity characterizes European countries in promoting soft mobility: despite a prolific production of laws and roles referred to emergency of adopting alternative ways of moving to minimize negatives impacts (especially air and noise pollution as very threat to health due to car dependence for urban short distance too. And yet, soft mobility could represent a real occasion of urban and territorial regeneration aimed to rehabilitate some disused paths and routes (greenways. Some successful European cases show how it is possible to

  4. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Stubbs, Alana Y. [Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Graham, Anna R. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Pathology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  5. Soft Condensed Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Richard A L

    2002-11-20

    phenomenologically and formulated through the current percolation model and the Flory-Stockmayer model. The next two chapters consider the molecular order in soft condensed matter. The rich complexity of liquid crystals is emphasized and the Frederiks transition is described in relation to liquid crystal displays. The crystallinity in polymers is discussed and its usual semi-crystallinity presented as a consequence of entanglement and timescales. The next chapter describes the self-assembly of phases and the great importance of the self-assembly phenomenon in solutions of amphiphilic molecules is largely discussed in several specific phenomena. The book ends with a chapter devoted to the description of soft matter realizations in nature. Special attention is paid to the components and structure of life: nucleic acids, proteins, polysaccharides and membranes. There are two appendixes recalling the basic concepts of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. In each chapter, several problems are included, and solutions to a selection of them are given. The bibliography proposed is pertinent and each chapter gives details of further reading, mostly addressed to known books on the topic. The presentation of the book is good. Throughout the book, the relevant, basic or new concepts of each topic are typed in bold characters and succinctly defined. The figures are abundant and adequately illustrate the text either by plots of experimental data or by computed predictions from models. Many schematic representations of structures, molecular distributions or arrangements are also included. In summary, the author has succeeded in producing a scientifically rigorous book of affordable size (around 200 pages) that is well illustrated (about 120 figures) and written in a fluent style that describes the many different physical phenomena involved in soft condensed matter. (book review)

  6. Mappings on Fuzzy Soft Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athar Kharal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We define the concept of a mapping on classes of fuzzy soft sets and study the properties of fuzzy soft images and fuzzy soft inverse images of fuzzy soft sets, and support them with examples and counterexamples.

  7. Soft Congruence Relations over Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively.

  8. Hydrophilic characteristics of soft rock in deep mines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guo Hongyun Li Bing Zhang Yumei Wang Xinbo Zhang Feng

    2015-01-01

    A series of water absorption tests on dried soft rock have been conducted by the intelligent testing system for water absorption tests in deep soft rock, including tests of water absorption with and without pres- sure...

  9. Soft error mechanisms, modeling and mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Sayil, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to various radiation soft-error mechanisms such as soft delays, radiation induced clock jitter and pulses, and single event (SE) coupling induced effects. In addition to discussing various radiation hardening techniques for combinational logic, the author also describes new mitigation strategies targeting commercial designs. Coverage includes novel soft error mitigation techniques such as the Dynamic Threshold Technique and Soft Error Filtering based on Transmission gate with varied gate and body bias. The discussion also includes modeling of SE crosstalk noise, delay and speed-up effects. Various mitigation strategies to eliminate SE coupling effects are also introduced. Coverage also includes the reliability of low power energy-efficient designs and the impact of leakage power consumption optimizations on soft error robustness. The author presents an analysis of various power optimization techniques, enabling readers to make design choices that reduce static power consumption an...

  10. Trabectedin in Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Petek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue sarcomas are a group of rare tumors derived from mesenchymal tissue, accounting for about 1% of adult cancers. There are over 60 different histological subtypes, each with their own unique biological behavior and response to systemic therapy. The outcome for patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma is poor with few available systemic treatment options. For decades, the mainstay of management has consisted of doxorubicin with or without ifosfamide. Trabectedin is a synthetic agent derived from the Caribbean tunicate, Ecteinascidia turbinata. This drug has a number of potential mechanisms of action, including binding the DNA minor groove, interfering with DNA repair pathways and the cell cycle, as well as interacting with transcription factors. Several phase II trials have shown that trabectedin has activity in anthracycline and alkylating agent-resistant soft tissue sarcoma and suggest use in the second- and third-line setting. More recently, trabectedin has shown similar progression-free survival to doxorubicin in the first-line setting and significant activity in liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma subtypes. Trabectedin has shown a favorable toxicity profile and has been approved in over 70 countries for the treatment of metastatic soft tissue sarcoma. This manuscript will review the development of trabectedin in soft tissue sarcomas.

  11. Biomechanical properties of soft tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yanjun; Xu, Chuanqing; Yang, Jian; Xu, Xiaohu

    2003-06-01

    Viscoelasticity is the primary mechanical property of bio-soft tissues. It has been widely applied in basic research of biological tissues including cornea, lung, heart and blood vessels. Along with the development of tissue engineering research, the evaluation of soft tissue viscoelasticity is becoming more and more important. In this paper, using the Whittaker function, we give an approximate power series of the exponential integral E 1( X) and the parameters C, ⦦1 and ⦦2 of the generalized relaxation function G(t) and generalized creep function J(t). With expanded skin as an example, the relationship between stress relaxation, creep and stress-strain finite deformation are studied.

  12. Soft hair as a soft wig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, Raphael; Porrati, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    We consider large gauge transformations of gravity and electromagnetism in D=4 asymptotically flat spacetime. Already at the classical level, we identify a canonical transformation that decouples the soft variables from the hard dynamics. We find that only the soft dynamics is constrained by BMS or large U(1) charge conservation. Physically this corresponds to the fact that sufficiently long-wavelength photons or gravitons that are added to the in-state will simply pass through the interaction region; they scatter trivially in their own sector. This implies in particular that the large gauge symmetries bear no relevance to the black hole information paradox. We also present the quantum version of soft decoupling. As a consistency check, we show that the apparent mixing of soft and hard modes in the original variables arises entirely from the long range field of the hard charges, which is fixed by gauge invariance and so contains no additional information.

  13. PENGEMBANGAN SOFT SKILL GURU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaenuri Jaenuri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft skill is a skill of person that build relationships with others and self-organizing skills. Teachers as a determinant of the potential development of students is not enough can only teach (transfer of knowledge. Moreover, the teacher as a model for the student must have a good personality and social. So teachers are required to develop continuously the ability of personality (intra personal skills and social skills (inter personal skills. The development of intra personal skills includes: developing the power of consciousness, goals, beliefs, love, concentration, and decisions. The development of interpersonal skills includes: many smiles, appreciative, active listener, active cooperate, mediator, communication ability, humor, empathy, and not easy to complain.

  14. Nanomedicine a soft matter perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Dipanjan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction to soft matters for nanomedicinal applications, with a deeper discussion of the individual modalities for molecular imaging. It includes a general introduction to the opportunities provided by this technology in chemistry, materials, biology and nanomedicine. It is designed and written with the perspective that anyone, with or without previous knowledge of nanotechnology, would benefit.

  15. Soft QCD measurements at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tasevsky, Marek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Results from recent soft QCD measurements by LHC experiments ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, LHCf and TOTEM are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive and identified particle spectra, underlying event and hadronic chains. Results from particle correlations in all three collision systems, namely pp, pPb and PbPb, exhibit unexpected similarities.

  16. Soft QCD Measurements at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tasevsky, Marek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Results of recent soft QCD measurements by LHC experiments ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, LHCf and TOTEM are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive and identified particle spectra, underlying event and particle correlations in all three collision systems: pp, pPb and PbPb.

  17. 4th World Conference on Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasov, Ali; Yager, Ronald; Shahbazova, Shahnaz; Reformat, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This book reports on advanced theories and cutting-edge applications in the field of soft computing. The individual chapters, written by leading researchers, are based on contributions presented during the 4th World Conference on Soft Computing, held May 25-27, 2014, in Berkeley. The book covers a wealth of key topics in soft computing, focusing on both fundamental aspects and applications. The former include fuzzy mathematics, type-2 fuzzy sets, evolutionary-based optimization, aggregation and neural networks, while the latter include soft computing in data analysis, image processing, decision-making, classification, series prediction, economics, control, and modeling. By providing readers with a timely, authoritative view on the field, and by discussing thought-provoking developments and challenges, the book will foster new research directions in the diverse areas of soft computing. .

  18. Concave Soft Sets, Critical Soft Points, and Union-Soft Ideals of Ordered Semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bae Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The notions of union-soft semigroups, union-soft l-ideals, and union-soft r-ideals are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Characterizations of a union-soft semigroup, a union-soft l-ideal, and a union-soft r-ideal are provided. The concepts of union-soft products and union-soft semiprime soft sets are introduced, and their properties related to union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals are investigated. Using the notions of union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals, conditions for an ordered semigroup to be regular are considered. The concepts of concave soft sets and critical soft points are introduced, and their properties are discussed.

  19. Operations on Soft Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modelling, analysis and computing of problems with uncertainty is one of the hottest areas in interdisciplinary research involving applied mathematics, computational intelligence and decision sciences. It is worth noting that uncertainty arises from various domains has very different nature and cannot be captured within a single mathematical framework. Molodtsov’s soft sets provide us a new way of coping with uncertainty from the viewpoint of parameterization. In this paper, we introduce the concepts of soft graphs, vertex-induced soft graphs, edge-induced soft graphs and describe some operations on soft graphs by presenting several examples to demonstrate these new concepts. Finally, we investigate some fundamental properties of soft graphs.

  20. Entirely soft dielectric elastomer robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, E.-F. Markus; Wilson, Katherine E.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2017-04-01

    Multifunctional Dielectric Elastomer (DE) devices are well established as actuators, sensors and energy har- vesters. Since the invention of the Dielectric Elastomer Switch (DES), a piezoresistive electrode that can directly switch charge on and off, it has become possible to expand the wide functionality of DE structures even more. We show the application of fully soft DE subcomponents in biomimetic robotic structures. It is now possible to couple arrays of actuator/switch units together so that they switch charge between them- selves on and off. One can then build DE devices that operate as self-controlled oscillators. With an oscillator one can produce a periodic signal that controls a soft DE robot - a DE device with its own DE nervous system. DESs were fabricated using a special electrode mixture, and imprinting technology at an exact pre-strain. We have demonstrated six orders of magnitude change in conductivity within the DES over 50% strain. The control signal can either be a mechanical deformation from another DE or an electrical input to a connected dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). We have demonstrated a variety of fully soft multifunctional subcomponents that enable the design of autonomous soft robots without conventional electronics. The combination of digital logic structures for basic signal processing, data storage in dielectric elastomer flip-flops and digital and analogue clocks with adjustable frequencies, made of dielectric elastomer oscillators (DEOs), enables fully soft, self-controlled and electronics-free robotic structures. DE robotic structures to date include stiff frames to maintain necessary pre-strains enabling sufficient actuation of DEAs. Here we present a design and production technology for a first robotic structure consisting only of soft silicones and carbon black.

  1. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Claudine

    1999-01-01

    What do colloids, fractals, liquid crystals, and polymers have in common? Nothing at first sight. Yet the distance scales, the energy transfers, the way these objects react to an external field are very similar. For the first time, this book offers an introduction to the physics of these soft materials in one single volume. A variety of experiments and concepts are presented, including the phenomena of capillarity and wetting, fractals, small volumes and large surfaces, colloids, surfactants, giant micelles and fluid membranes, polymers, and liquid crystals. Each chapter is written by experts in the field with the aim of making the book accessible to the widest possible scientific audience: graduate students, lecturers, and research scientists in physics, chemistry, and other disciplines. Nobel Prize winner Pierre-Gilles de Gennes inspired this book and has written a foreword.

  2. Design of a Soft Robot with Multiple Motion Patterns Using Soft Pneumatic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yu; Dong, Wei; Du, Zhijiang

    2017-11-01

    Soft robots are made of soft materials and have good flexibility and infinite degrees of freedom in theory. These properties enable soft robots to work in narrow space and adapt to external environment. In this paper, a 2-DOF soft pneumatic actuator is introduced, with two chambers symmetrically distributed on both sides and a jamming cylinder along the axis. Fibers are used to constrain the expansion of the soft actuator. Experiments are carried out to test the performance of the soft actuator, including bending and elongation characteristics. A soft robot is designed and fabricated by connecting four soft pneumatic actuators to a 3D-printed board. The soft robotic system is then established. The pneumatic circuit is built by pumps and solenoid valves. The control system is based on the control board Arduino Mega 2560. Relay modules are used to control valves and pressure sensors are used to measure pressure in the pneumatic circuit. Experiments are conducted to test the performance of the proposed soft robot.

  3. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  4. Multigait soft robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robert F; Ilievski, Filip; Choi, Wonjae; Morin, Stephen A; Stokes, Adam A; Mazzeo, Aaron D; Chen, Xin; Wang, Michael; Whitesides, George M

    2011-12-20

    This manuscript describes a unique class of locomotive robot: A soft robot, composed exclusively of soft materials (elastomeric polymers), which is inspired by animals (e.g., squid, starfish, worms) that do not have hard internal skeletons. Soft lithography was used to fabricate a pneumatically actuated robot capable of sophisticated locomotion (e.g., fluid movement of limbs and multiple gaits). This robot is quadrupedal; it uses no sensors, only five actuators, and a simple pneumatic valving system that operates at low pressures (robot to navigate a difficult obstacle. This demonstration illustrates an advantage of soft robotics: They are systems in which simple types of actuation produce complex motion.

  5. On defining soft spaces by weak soft neighborhood systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha ÖZTÜRK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we define the concepts of weak soft neighborhood space, soft w^{s}(?,?'-continuous, soft w^{s}-continuous and soft w^{s^{*}}-continuous on weak soft neighborhood spaces. Finally, we introduce their basic properties and some examples.

  6. Medical students' perceptions of their development of 'soft skills' Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is the result of a study on soft skills among two groups of students before and after curriculum reform at the School of Medicine of the University of Pretoria. One of the aims of the reform was to provide more teaching and learning opportunities for the development of soft skills. Soft skills include professional interpersonal ...

  7. "Soft Skills": A Phrase in Search of Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Miriam L.; Anderson, Lorien; Boyden, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Soft skills are a collection of people management skills, important to many professions and job positions, including academic librarianship. Yet the concept of soft skills lacks definition, scope, instrumentation, and systematic education and training. This literature review explores the definition of "soft skills"; contrasts skills with…

  8. SOFT ROBOTICS. A 3D-printed, functionally graded soft robot powered by combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Nicholas W; Tolley, Michael T; Overvelde, Johannes T B; Weaver, James C; Mosadegh, Bobak; Bertoldi, Katia; Whitesides, George M; Wood, Robert J

    2015-07-10

    Roboticists have begun to design biologically inspired robots with soft or partially soft bodies, which have the potential to be more robust and adaptable, and safer for human interaction, than traditional rigid robots. However, key challenges in the design and manufacture of soft robots include the complex fabrication processes and the interfacing of soft and rigid components. We used multimaterial three-dimensional (3D) printing to manufacture a combustion-powered robot whose body transitions from a rigid core to a soft exterior. This stiffness gradient, spanning three orders of magnitude in modulus, enables reliable interfacing between rigid driving components (controller, battery, etc.) and the primarily soft body, and also enhances performance. Powered by the combustion of butane and oxygen, this robot is able to perform untethered jumping. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat them. Some examples include staphylococci ("staph") and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Sometimes there may be more than one type ... seen more frequently than others. For instance, most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by the bacterium ...

  10. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmitted Diseases Shingles Sickle Cell Anemia Sjögren Syndrome Staph Infections and MRSA Stroke Testicular Cancer Thalassemia Thyroid ... used to treat them. Some examples include staphylococci ("staph") and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Sometimes there may be more ...

  11. Possibility Fuzzy Soft Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the concept of possibility fuzzy soft set and its operation and study some of its properties. We give applications of this theory in solving a decision-making problem. We also introduce a similarity measure of two possibility fuzzy soft sets and discuss their application in a medical diagnosis problem.

  12. learning and soft skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2000-01-01

    Learning of soft skills are becoming more and more necessary due to the complexe development of modern companies and their environments. However, there seems to be a 'gap' between intentions and reality regarding need of soft skills and the possiblities to be educated in this subject in particular...

  13. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology...

  14. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2006-01-01

    ’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology...

  15. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology...

  16. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in India: Prevalence & susceptibility pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indian Network for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (INSAR group, India

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is endemic in India and is a dangerous pathogen for hospital acquired infections. This study was conducted in 15 Indian tertiary care centres during a two year period from January 2008 to December 2009 to determine the prevalence of MRSA and susceptibility pattern of S. aureus isolates in India. Methods: All S. aureus isolates obtained during the study period in the participating centres were included in the study. Each centre compiled their data in a predefined template which included data of the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, location of the patient and specimen type. The data in the submitted templates were collated and analysed. Results: A total of 26310 isolates were included in the study. The overall prevalence of methicillin resistance during the study period was 41 per cent. Isolation rates for MRSA from outpatients, ward inpatients and ICU were 28, 42 and 43 per cent, respectively in 2008 and 27, 49 and 47 per cent, respectively in 2009. The majority of S. aureus isolates was obtained from patients with skin and soft tissue infections followed by those suffering from blood stream infections and respiratory infections. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was low in both MSSA (53% and MRSA (21%. MSSA isolates showed a higher susceptibility to gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, erythromycin and clindamycin as compared to MRSA isolates. No isolate was found resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. Interpretation & conclusions: The study showed a high level of MRSA in our country. There is a need to study epidemiology of such infections. Robust antimicrobial stewardship and strengthened infection control measures are required to prevent spread and reduce emergence of resistance.

  17. Soft Pion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Y.

    1968-01-01

    My talk is concerned with a review, not necessarily of the latest theoretical developments, but rather of an old idea which has contributed to recent theoretical activities. By soft pion processes I mean processes in which low energy pions are emitted or absorbed or scattered, just as we use the word soft photon in a similar context. Speaking more quantitatively, we may call a pion soft if its energy is small compared to a natural scale in the reaction. This scale is determined by the particular dynamics of pion interaction, and one may roughly say that a pion is soft if its energy is small compared to the energies of the other individual particles that participate in the reaction. It is important to note at this point that pion is by far the lightest member of all the hadrons, and much of the success of the soft pion formulas depends on this fact.

  18. Evaluating six soft approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Sørensen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

  19. Fuzzy soft connected sets in fuzzy soft topological spaces II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce some different types of fuzzy soft connected components related to the different types of fuzzy soft connectedness and based on an equivalence relation defined on the set of fuzzy soft points of X. We have investigated some very interesting properties for fuzzy soft connected components. We show that the fuzzy soft C5-connected component may be not exists and if it exists, it may not be fuzzy soft closed set. Also, we introduced some very interesting properties for fuzzy soft connected components in discrete fuzzy soft topological spaces which is a departure from the general topology.

  20. Bipolar soft connected, bipolar soft disconnected and bipolar soft compact spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shabir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar soft topological spaces are mathematical expressions to estimate interpretation of data frameworks. Bipolar soft theory considers the core features of data granules. Bipolarity is important to distinguish between positive information which is guaranteed to be possible and negative information which is forbidden or surely false. Connectedness and compactness are the most important fundamental topological properties. These properties highlight the main features of topological spaces and distinguish one topology from another. Taking this into account, we explore the bipolar soft connectedness, bipolar soft disconnectedness and bipolar soft compactness properties for bipolar soft topological spaces. Moreover, we introduce the notion of bipolar soft disjoint sets, bipolar soft separation, and bipolar soft hereditary property and study on bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces. By giving the detailed picture of bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces we investigate bipolar soft compact spaces and derive some results related to this concept.

  1. How Soft are “Soft Skills” in Engineering Educations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Kofoed, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Engineering education communities have long recognized that graduates not only need to poses technical knowledge in their chosen disciplines, but also need to be better educated in areas of communication skills, teamwork and leadership. Several studies mention these so-called “soft” skills...... as increasingly important for future engineers. Such skills include communication, cooperation, creativity, leadership and organization. For many years, the engineering educations at Aalborg University have been working with the Problem Based and Project Organized Learning pedagogical approach. An important part...... transfer theory into practice. In addition to their project, students have to make a “Process Analysis”, which is an evaluation of their experience of the soft skills or process competences. Results show that “Soft Skills” are hard to learn....

  2. New Concepts and Applications in Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, János; Várkonyi-Kóczy, Annamária

    2013-01-01

                  The book provides a sample of research on the innovative theory and applications of soft computing paradigms.             The idea of Soft Computing was initiated in 1981 when Professor Zadeh published his first paper on soft data analysis and constantly evolved ever since. Professor Zadeh defined Soft Computing as the fusion of the fields of fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN) and probabilistic reasoning (PR), with the latter subsuming belief networks, evolutionary computing including DNA computing, chaos theory and parts of learning theory into one multidisciplinary system. As Zadeh said the essence of soft computing is that unlike the traditional, hard computing, soft computing is aimed at an accommodation with the pervasive imprecision of the real world. Thus, the guiding principle of soft computing is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth to achieve tractability, robustness, low solution cost and better rapport with reality. ...

  3. Soft Soil Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-11

    any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-619A Soft Soil Mobility 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...TOP supersedes TOP 02-2-619, Soft Soil Vehicle Mobility, dated 21 May 1970. Marginal notations are not used in this revision to identify changes

  4. Soft Pomeron in Holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ballon-Bayona, Alfonso; Costa, Miguel S; Djurić, Marko

    2016-01-01

    We study the graviton Regge trajectory in Holographic QCD as a model for high energy scattering processes dominated by soft pomeron exchange. This is done by considering spin J fields from the closed string sector that are dual to glueball states of even spin and parity. In particular, we construct a model that governs the analytic continuation of the spin J field equation to the region of real J < 2, which includes the scattering domain of negative Maldelstam variable t. The model leads to approximately linear Regge trajectories and is compatible with the measured values of 1.08 for the intercept and 0.25 GeV$^{-2}$ for the slope of the soft pomeron. The intercept of the secondary pomeron trajectory is in the same region of the subleading trajectories, made of mesons, proposed by Donnachie and Landshoff, and should therefore be taken into account.

  5. Is Streptococcus pyogenes Resistant or Susceptible to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole?

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Asha C.; Lilliebridge, Rachael A; Tong, Steven Y. C.; Baird, Robert W.; Ward, Peter; McDonald, Malcolm I.; Currie, Bart J.; Jonathan R Carapetis

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is commonly believed to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), resulting in reservations about using SXT for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) where S. pyogenes is involved. S. pyogenes' in vitro susceptibility to SXT depends on the medium's thymidine content. Thymidine allows S. pyogenes to bypass the sulfur-mediated inhibition of folate metabolism and, historically, has resulted in apparently reduced susceptibility of S. pyogenes to sulfur antibacte...

  6. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft skills…

  7. On operations of soft sets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sezgin, Aslıhan; Atagün, Akın Osman

    2011-01-01

    ... called soft set theory is free from the difficulties affecting existing methods. In soft set theory, the problem of setting the membership function does not arise, which makes the theory easily applied to many different fields. Works on soft set theory has been progressing rapidly since Maji et al.  [8] introduced several operations of soft set...

  8. Reslts on fuzzy soft functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir TANAY

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of fuzzy soft function is mentioned by Aygünoğlu et al and Kharal et al in their papers (named Introduction to Fuzzy Soft Groups (2009 and Mappings on Fuzzy Soft Classes (2009, respectively. In this paper, some results on the fuzzy soft image and preimage of set theoretic operations of fuzzy soft sets under a fuzzy soft function are studied. Also the notion of fuzzy soft equality is introduced and some related results are given.

  9. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ban

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4 and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg. Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity.

  10. Soft Actuators for Small-Scale Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Lindsey; Petersen, Kirstin; Lum, Guo Zhan; Sitti, Metin

    2017-04-01

    This review comprises a detailed survey of ongoing methodologies for soft actuators, highlighting approaches suitable for nanometer- to centimeter-scale robotic applications. Soft robots present a special design challenge in that their actuation and sensing mechanisms are often highly integrated with the robot body and overall functionality. When less than a centimeter, they belong to an even more special subcategory of robots or devices, in that they often lack on-board power, sensing, computation, and control. Soft, active materials are particularly well suited for this task, with a wide range of stimulants and a number of impressive examples, demonstrating large deformations, high motion complexities, and varied multifunctionality. Recent research includes both the development of new materials and composites, as well as novel implementations leveraging the unique properties of soft materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Fuzzy parametrized fuzzy soft topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Atmaca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researches have contributed a lot towards fuzzification of Soft Set Theory. In this paper, we introduce the topological structure of fuzzyfying soft sets called fuzzy parametrized soft sets. We define the notion of quasi-coincidence for fuzzy parametrized soft sets and investigated basic properties of it. We study the closure, interior, base, continuity and compactness in the content of fuzzy parametrized soft topological spaces.

  12. Exercise and soft tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, L E

    1994-02-01

    Once the almost exclusive domain of the orthopaedic surgeon, sports injuries are now being seen with increasing frequency by other specialists, including rheumatologists. It is therefore important for rheumatologists to be able to diagnose and manage the various musculoskeletal conditions that are associated with physical activity. Soft tissue injuries are a very common cause of morbidity in both competitive and recreational athletes. Most of these conditions are provoked by muscle-tendon overload (or overuse) that is usually the result of excessive training or improper training techniques. However, despite an emerging literature on the natural history of soft tissue overuse syndromes, relatively little is known about the causes, incidence and outcome of many of these injuries. Of the methodologically robust epidemiological studies that have been done, most have focused on habitual distance runners. In this population, it has been reported that the incidence of injury can be as high as 50% or more, and that overtraining and the presence of previous injury are the most significant predictors of future injury. In other popular forms of exercise, such as walking, swimming, cycling, aerobics and racquet sports, injuries are also reported with high frequency but, to date, no prospective studies have examined actual incidences in these populations, and risk factors for injury in these activities remain speculative. Several of the more commonly occurring soft tissue injuries (such as rotator cuff tendinitis, lateral and medial epicondylitis, patellar tendinitis, the iliotibial band friction syndrome, Achilles tendinitis and plantar fasciitis) exemplify the overuse concept and are therefore highlighted in this review. The management of these, and most other, exercise-related soft tissue injuries is directed towards promptly restoring normal function and preventing re-injury.

  13. On Soft Biometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be used...... to discriminate individuals, especially using descriptions that can be perceived using human vision and in surveillance imagery. A further branch of this new field concerns approaches to estimate soft biometrics, either using conventional biometrics approaches or just from images alone. These three strands...... combine to form what is now known as soft biometrics. We survey the achievements that have been made in recognition by and in estimation of these parameters, describing how these approaches can be used and where they might lead to. The approaches lead to a new type of recognition, and one similar...

  14. Mappings on Neutrosophic Soft Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 Smarandache introduced the concept of neutrosophic set which is a mathematical tool for handling problems involving imprecise, indeterminacy and inconsistent data. In 2013 Maji introduced the concept of neutrosophic soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper we define the notion of a mapping on classes where the neutrosophic soft classes are collections of neutrosophic soft set. We also define and study the properties of neutrosophic soft images and neutrosophic soft inverse images of neutrosophic soft sets.

  15. Soft n-Ary Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Prince Williams

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory plays a vital role in solving many complicated problems with inherited uncertainty. An n-ary algebraic systems is a generalization of algebraic structures and it is the most natural way for the further development, deeper understanding of their properties. In this paper, we apply soft set theory to an n-ary algebraic systems and introduce the notions of soft n-ary groups and soft n-ary subgroups. Further, some operations on soft sets are extended to the former. Finally, we provide the characterization of soft n-ary subgroups over an n-ary group (G,f and study their related properties.

  16. Topology of soft cone metric spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Ismet; Simsek, Dagistan; Taskopru, Kemal

    2017-09-01

    In Simsek's paper it was introduced a concept of soft cone metric space via soft elements and some fixed point theorems in soft cone metric space were provided. In this work, we examine topological structures such as open ball, soft neighbourhood and soft open set in soft metric spaces and their some properties, and prove that every soft cone metric space under some condition is a soft topological space according to elementary operations on soft sets.

  17. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  18. Soft Tissue Extramedullary Plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ruiz Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the uncommon case of a subcutaneous fascia-based extramedullary plasmacytoma in the leg, which was confirmed by the pathology report and followed up until its remission. We report the differential diagnosis with other more common soft tissue masses. Imaging findings are nonspecific but are important to determine the tumour extension and to plan the biopsy.

  19. Optomechanical soft metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiangjun; He, Wei; Liu, Yifan; Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tian Jian

    2017-06-01

    We present a new type of optomechanical soft metamaterials, which is different from conventional mechanical metamaterials, in that they are simple isotropic and homogenous materials without resorting to any complex nano/microstructures. This metamaterial is unique in the sense that its responses to uniaxial forcing can be tailored by programmed laser inputs to manifest different nonlinear constitutive behaviors, such as monotonic, S-shape, plateau, and non-monotonic snapping performance. To demonstrate the novel metamaterial, a thin sheet of soft material impinged by two counterpropagating lasers along its thickness direction and stretched by an in-plane tensile mechanical force is considered. A theoretical model is formulated to characterize the resulting optomechanical behavior of the thin sheet by combining the nonlinear elasticity theory of soft materials and the optical radiation stress theory. The optical radiation stresses predicted by the proposed model are validated by simulations based on the method of finite elements. Programmed optomechanical behaviors are subsequently explored using the validated model under different initial sheet thicknesses and different optical inputs, and the first- and second-order tangential stiffness of the metamaterial are used to plot the phase diagram of its nonlinear constitutive behaviors. The proposed optomechanical soft metamaterial shows great potential in biological medicine, microfluidic manipulation, and other fields.

  20. Soft matter's charismatic pioneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Tom

    2012-11-01

    This summer I took a break from lecturing at a graduate training school in Boulder, Colorado, to attend a talk by the soft-condensed-matter physicist David Weitz. His lecture was about colloids, and in the middle of it, he began to reminisce about the field's early days.

  1. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...

  2. Inherited susceptibility and radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    There is continuing concern that some people in the general population may have genetic makeups that place them at particularly high risk for radiation-induced cancer. The existence of such a susceptible subpopulation would have obvious implications for the estimation of risks of radiation exposure. Although it has been long known that familial aggregations of cancer do sometimes occur, recent evidence suggests that a general genetic predisposition to cancer does not exist; most cancers occur sporadically. On the other hand, nearly 10% of the known Mendelian genetic disorders are associated with cancer. A number of these involve a familial predisposition to cancer, and some are characterized by an enhanced susceptibility to the induction of cancer by various physical and chemical carcinogens, including ionizing radiation. Such increased susceptibility will depend on several factors including the frequency of the susceptibility gene in the population and its penetrance, the strength of the predisposition, and the degree to which the cancer incidence in susceptible individuals may be increased by the carcinogen. It is now known that these cancer-predisposing genes may be responsible not only for rare familial cancer syndromes, but also for a proportion of the common cancers. Although the currently known disorders can account for only a small fraction of all cancers, they serve as models for genetic predisposition to carcinogen-induced cancer in the general population. In the present report, the author describes current knowledge of those specific disorders that are associated with an enhanced predisposition to radiation-induced cancer, and discusses how this knowledge may bear on the susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer in the general population and estimates of the risk of radiation exposure.

  3. Bipolar Neutrosophic Soft Expert Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Mehmet; Deli, İrfan; Uluçay, Vakkas

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce concept of bipolar neutrosophic soft expert set and its some operations. Also, we propose score, certainty and accuracy functions to compare the bipolar neutrosophic soft expert sets. We give examples for these concepts. 

  4. Soft skills and dental education

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, M. A. G.; Abu Kasim, N.H.; Naimie, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discus...

  5. Hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazra, Admi; Syafruddin; Lestari, Riri; Catur Wicaksono, Gandung

    2017-09-01

    This paper aims to extend the hesitant fuzzy soft sets to hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets by merging the concept of hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy sets and soft sets. The authors define some operations on hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy sets, such as complement, union and intersection, and obtain related properties. The similar operations are defined on hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets, and also some properties such as assosiative and De Morgan’s laws are obtained.

  6. Possibility Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruah Bashir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft set and its operations are introduced, and a few of their properties are studied. An application of possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets in decision making is investigated. A similarity measure of two possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets has been discussed. An application of this similarity measure in medical diagnosis has been shown.

  7. Multisensory softness perceived compliance from multiple sources of information

    CERN Document Server

    Luca, Massimiliano Di

    2014-01-01

    Offers a unique multidisciplinary overview of how humans interact with soft objects and how multiple sensory signals are used to perceive material properties, with an emphasis on object deformability. The authors describe a range of setups that have been employed to study and exploit sensory signals involved in interactions with compliant objects as well as techniques to simulate and modulate softness - including a psychophysical perspective of the field. Multisensory Softness focuses on the cognitive mechanisms underlying the use of multiple sources of information in softness perception. D

  8. Thin films of soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2007-01-01

    A detailed overview and comprehensive analysis of the main theoretical and experimental advances on free surface thin film and jet flows of soft matter is given. At the theoretical front the book outlines the basic equations and boundary conditions and the derivation of low-dimensional models for the evolution of the free surface. Such models include long-wave expansions and equations of the boundary layer type and are analyzed via linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theories and strongly nonlinear analysis including construction of stationary periodic and solitary wave and similarity solutions. At the experimental front a variety of very recent experimental developments is outlined and the link between theory and experiments is illustrated. Such experiments include spreading drops and bubbles, imbibitions, singularity formation at interfaces and experimental characterization of thin films using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle measurements and analysis of patterns using Minkows...

  9. Soft Skills for Hard Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Ivo; Davidson, Joy; Knoth, Petr; Kuchma, Iryna; Schmidt, Birgit; Rettberg, Najla; Rogrigues, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    Marine and Earth Science graduates will be under increasing pressure in future to delve into research questions of relevance to societal challenges. Even fundamental research focused on basic processes of the environment and universe will in the coming decade need to justify their societal impact. As the Research Excellence Frameworks (REF) for research evaluation shift more and more away from the classical Impact Factor and number of peer-reviewed publications to "societal impact", the question remains whether the current graduates, and future researchers, are sufficiently prepared to deal with this reality. The essential compliment of skills beyond research excellence, rigor and method are traditionally described as "soft skills". This includes how to formulate an argument, how to construct a scientific publication, how to communicate such publications to non-experts, place them in context of societal challenges and relevant policies, how to write a competitive proposal and "market" one's research idea to build a research group around an interesting research topic. Such "soft skills" can produce very measurable and concrete impact for career development, but are rarely provided systematically and coherently by graduate schools in general. The presentation will focus on Open Science as a set of "soft skills", and demonstrate why graduate schools should train Open Science competencies alongside research excellence by default. Open Science is about removing all barriers to research process and outputs, both published and unpublished, and directly supports transparency and reproducibility of the research process. Open Science as a set of news competencies can also foster unexpected collaborations, engage citizen scientists into co-creation of solutions to societal challenges, as well as use concepts of Open Science to transfer new knowledge to the knowledge-based private sector, and help them with formulating more competitive research proposals in future.

  10. Fuzzy logic, neural networks, and soft computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Lofti A.

    1994-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in a cluster of modes of modeling and computation which may be described collectively as soft computing. The distinguishing characteristic of soft computing is that its primary aims are to achieve tractability, robustness, low cost, and high MIQ (machine intelligence quotient) through an exploitation of the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty. Thus, in soft computing what is usually sought is an approximate solution to a precisely formulated problem or, more typically, an approximate solution to an imprecisely formulated problem. A simple case in point is the problem of parking a car. Generally, humans can park a car rather easily because the final position of the car is not specified exactly. If it were specified to within, say, a few millimeters and a fraction of a degree, it would take hours or days of maneuvering and precise measurements of distance and angular position to solve the problem. What this simple example points to is the fact that, in general, high precision carries a high cost. The challenge, then, is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision by devising methods of computation which lead to an acceptable solution at low cost. By its nature, soft computing is much closer to human reasoning than the traditional modes of computation. At this juncture, the major components of soft computing are fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN), and probabilistic reasoning techniques (PR), including genetic algorithms, chaos theory, and part of learning theory. Increasingly, these techniques are used in combination to achieve significant improvement in performance and adaptability. Among the important application areas for soft computing are control systems, expert systems, data compression techniques, image processing, and decision support systems. It may be argued that it is soft computing, rather than the traditional hard computing, that should be viewed as the foundation for artificial

  11. On some nonclassical algebraic properties of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Feng, Feng; Zhang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Interval-valued fuzzy soft sets realize a hybrid soft computing model in a general framework. Both Molodtsov's soft sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets can be seen as special cases of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets. In this study, we first compare four different types of interval-valued fuzzy soft subsets and reveal the relations among them. Then we concentrate on investigating some nonclassical algebraic properties of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets under the soft product operations. We show that some fundamental algebraic properties including the commutative and associative laws do not hold in the conventional sense, but hold in weaker forms characterized in terms of the relation = L . We obtain a number of algebraic inequalities of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets characterized by interval-valued fuzzy soft inclusions. We also establish the weak idempotent law and the weak absorptive law of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets using interval-valued fuzzy soft J-equal relations. It is revealed that the soft product operations ∧ and ∨ of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets do not always have similar algebraic properties. Moreover, we find that only distributive inequalities described by the interval-valued fuzzy soft L-inclusions hold for interval-valued fuzzy soft sets.

  12. On Some Nonclassical Algebraic Properties of Interval-Valued Fuzzy Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interval-valued fuzzy soft sets realize a hybrid soft computing model in a general framework. Both Molodtsov’s soft sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets can be seen as special cases of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets. In this study, we first compare four different types of interval-valued fuzzy soft subsets and reveal the relations among them. Then we concentrate on investigating some nonclassical algebraic properties of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets under the soft product operations. We show that some fundamental algebraic properties including the commutative and associative laws do not hold in the conventional sense, but hold in weaker forms characterized in terms of the relation =L. We obtain a number of algebraic inequalities of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets characterized by interval-valued fuzzy soft inclusions. We also establish the weak idempotent law and the weak absorptive law of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets using interval-valued fuzzy soft J-equal relations. It is revealed that the soft product operations ∧ and ∨ of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets do not always have similar algebraic properties. Moreover, we find that only distributive inequalities described by the interval-valued fuzzy soft L-inclusions hold for interval-valued fuzzy soft sets.

  13. Fracture in Soft Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole

    Fracture is a phenomenon that is generally associated with solids. A key element in fracture theory is the so-called weakest link idea that fracture initiates from the largest pre-existing material imperfection. However, recent work has demonstrated that fracture can also happen in liquids, where...... surface tension will act to suppress such imperfections. Therefore, the weakest link idea does not seem immediately applicable to fracture in liquids. This presentation will review fracture in liquids and argue that fracture in soft liquids is a material property independent of pre-existing imperfections....... The following questions then emerge: What is the material description needed to predict crack initiation, crack speed and crack shape in soft materials and liquids....

  14. Soft Expert Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1999, Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. Many researchers have studied this theory, and they created some models to solve problems in decision making and medical diagnosis, but most of these models deal only with one expert. This causes a problem with the user, especially with those who use questionnaires in their work and studies. In our model, the user can know the opinion of all experts in one model. So, in this paper, we introduce the concept of a soft expert set, which will more effective and useful. We also define its basic operations, namely, complement, union intersection AND, and OR. Finally, we show an application of this concept in decision-making problem.

  15. Holiday fun with soft gluons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Emissions of soft gluons from energetic particles play an important role in collider processes. While the basic physics of soft emissions is simple, it gives rise to a variety of interesting and intricate phenomena (non-global logs, Glauber phases, super-leading logs, factorization breaking). After an introduction, I will review progress in resummation methods such as Soft-Collinear Effective Theory driven by a better understanding of soft emissions. I will also show some new results for computations of soft-gluon effects in gap-between-jets and isolation-cone cross sections.

  16. Reptile Soft Tissue Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Mans, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The surgical approach to reptiles can be challenging. Reptiles have unique physiologic, anatomic, and pathologic differences. This may result in frustrating surgical experiences. However, recent investigations provided novel, less invasive, surgical techniques. The purpose of this review was to describe the technical aspects behind soft tissue surgical techniques that have been used in reptiles, so as to provide a general guideline for veterinarians working with reptiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeck, Marcus Matheus Johannes

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the author studied the diagnostic procedures for susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH), with special emphasis upon refining the biological diagnostic test and improving protocols and guidelines for investigation of MH susceptibility. MH is a pharmacogenetic disease of skeletal

  18. Advances in soft computing, intelligent robotics and control

    CERN Document Server

    Fullér, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Soft computing, intelligent robotics and control are in the core interest of contemporary engineering. Essential characteristics of soft computing methods are the ability to handle vague information, to apply human-like reasoning, their learning capability, and ease of application. Soft computing techniques are widely applied in the control of dynamic systems, including mobile robots. The present volume is a collection of 20 chapters written by respectable experts of the fields, addressing various theoretical and practical aspects in soft computing, intelligent robotics and control. The first part of the book concerns with issues of intelligent robotics, including robust xed point transformation design, experimental verification of the input-output feedback linearization of differentially driven mobile robot and applying kinematic synthesis to micro electro-mechanical systems design. The second part of the book is devoted to fundamental aspects of soft computing. This includes practical aspects of fuzzy rule ...

  19. Enhanced gluten properties in soft kernel durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soft kernel durum wheat is a relatively recent development (Morris et al. 2011 Crop Sci. 51:114). The soft kernel trait exerts profound effects on kernel texture, flour milling including break flour yield, milling energy, and starch damage, and dough water absorption (DWA). With the caveat of reduce...

  20. ON SYSTEMATIZING OF THE EXTRA-ARTICULAR SOFT TISSUE DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    A. B. Zborovskiy

    2002-01-01

    The key questions of medical and social importance of soft tissue rheumatism, including their prevalence, the problems of their nomenclature, classification and unification of diagnostics as well are considered, the new versions of classification of soft tissue rheumatism and diagnostic criteria of primary fibromyalgia syndrome are olTered.

  1. The conceptualisation of "soft skills" among medical students before ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    place more emphasis on soft skills, including professional interpersonal and social skills, communication skills, and professional and ethical attitudes. Methods: Qualitative methods were used to arrive at a descriptive comparison of the conceptualisation of soft skills by final-year medical students of the traditional curriculum ...

  2. Categorical Properties of Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates some novel categorical properties of soft sets. By combining categorical theory with soft set theory, a categorical framework of soft set theory is established. It is proved that the category SFun of soft sets and soft functions has equalizers, finite products, pullbacks, and exponential properties. It is worth mentioning that we find that SFun is both a topological construct and Cartesian closed. The category SRel of soft sets and Z-soft set relations is also characterized, which shows the existence of the zero objects, biproducts, additive identities, injective objects, projective objects, injective hulls, and projective covers. Finally, by constructing proper adjoint situations, some intrinsic connections between SFun and SRel are established.

  3. Stretchable and Soft Electronics using Liquid Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Michael D

    2017-07-01

    The use of liquid metals based on gallium for soft and stretchable electronics is discussed. This emerging class of electronics is motivated, in part, by the new opportunities that arise from devices that have mechanical properties similar to those encountered in the human experience, such as skin, tissue, textiles, and clothing. These types of electronics (e.g., wearable or implantable electronics, sensors for soft robotics, e-skin) must operate during deformation. Liquid metals are compelling materials for these applications because, in principle, they are infinitely deformable while retaining metallic conductivity. Liquid metals have been used for stretchable wires and interconnects, reconfigurable antennas, soft sensors, self-healing circuits, and conformal electrodes. In contrast to Hg, liquid metals based on gallium have low toxicity and essentially no vapor pressure and are therefore considered safe to handle. Whereas most liquids bead up to minimize surface energy, the presence of a surface oxide on these metals makes it possible to pattern them into useful shapes using a variety of techniques, including fluidic injection and 3D printing. In addition to forming excellent conductors, these metals can be used actively to form memory devices, sensors, and diodes that are completely built from soft materials. The properties of these materials, their applications within soft and stretchable electronics, and future opportunities and challenges are considered. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Japanese secondary care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yumiko; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Akamatsu, Norihiko; Matsuda, Junichi; Yamaryo, Takeshi; Kawakami, Kenji; Matsuo, Hidenori; Kosai, Kosuke; Uno, Naoki; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is prevalent in Japan, and the Staphylococcus cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type II is common among hospital-acquired MRSA isolates. Information pertaining to MRSA characteristics is limited, including SCCmec types, in primary or secondary care facilities. A total of 128 MRSA isolates (90 skin and soft tissue isolates and 38 blood isolates) were collected at a secondary care facility, Kawatana Medical Center, from 2005 to 2011. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for anti-MRSA antibiotics and molecular testing for SCCmec and virulence genes (tst, sec, etb, lukS/F-PV) were performed. Strains positive for lukS/F-PV were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing and phage open-reading frame typing. SCCmec typing in skin and soft tissue isolates revealed that 65.6% had type IV, 22.2% had type II, 8.9% had type I, and 3.3% had type III. In blood isolates, 50.0% had type IV, 47.4% had type II, and 2.6% had type III. Minimum inhibitory concentrations, MIC(50)/MIC(90), against vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, and arbekacin increased slightly in SCCmec II isolates from skin and soft tissue. MICs against daptomycin were similar between sites of isolation. SCCmec type II isolates possess tst and sec genes at a greater frequently than SCCmec type IV isolates. Four lukS/F-PV-positive isolates were divided into two clonal patterns and USA300 was not included. In conclusion, SCCmec type IV was dominant in blood, skin, and soft tissue isolates in a secondary care facility in Japan. Because antimicrobial susceptibility varies with the SCCmec type, SCCmec typing of clinical isolates should be monitored in primary or secondary care facilities. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Research on simulation of soft foundation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Zhao, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Engineering field is in a closed area, big surcharge ratio of precipitation preloading method is the first time be proposed to apply to soft foundation treatment, and successfully applied in the artificial island foundation treatment, its advantages of efficient and fast were fully played in practice. This paper discusses process of the overload preloading method to apply to soft foundation treatment, include all key technologies of designing, monitoring and evaluated the reinforcement effect. this project can provide reference for future similar engineering construction or modification of the value of limited of specification.

  6. Cellular immunotherapy for soft tissue sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Steven Eric; Fishman, Mayer; Conley, Anthony P.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry; Antonia, Scott; Chiappori, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Soft tissue sarcomas are rare neoplasms, with approximately 9,000 new cases in the United States every year. Unfortunately, there is little progress in the treatment of metastatic soft tissue sarcomas in the past two decades beyond the standard approaches of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Immunotherapy is a modality complementary to conventional therapy,. It is appealing because functional anti-tumor activity could affect both local-regional and systemic disease and act over a prolonged period of time. In this report, we review immunotherapeutic investigative strategies being developed, including several tumor vaccine, antigen vaccine, and dendritic cell vaccine strategies. PMID:22401634

  7. Soft Ultrathin Electronics Innervated Adaptive Fully Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengjun; Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Jin; Kim, Hojin; Rao, Zhoulyu; Li, Yuhang; Chen, Weiqiu; Song, Jizhou; Verduzco, Rafael; Yu, Cunjiang

    2018-02-05

    Soft robots outperform the conventional hard robots on significantly enhanced safety, adaptability, and complex motions. The development of fully soft robots, especially fully from smart soft materials to mimic soft animals, is still nascent. In addition, to date, existing soft robots cannot adapt themselves to the surrounding environment, i.e., sensing and adaptive motion or response, like animals. Here, compliant ultrathin sensing and actuating electronics innervated fully soft robots that can sense the environment and perform soft bodied crawling adaptively, mimicking an inchworm, are reported. The soft robots are constructed with actuators of open-mesh shaped ultrathin deformable heaters, sensors of single-crystal Si optoelectronic photodetectors, and thermally responsive artificial muscle of carbon-black-doped liquid-crystal elastomer (LCE-CB) nanocomposite. The results demonstrate that adaptive crawling locomotion can be realized through the conjugation of sensing and actuation, where the sensors sense the environment and actuators respond correspondingly to control the locomotion autonomously through regulating the deformation of LCE-CB bimorphs and the locomotion of the robots. The strategy of innervating soft sensing and actuating electronics with artificial muscles paves the way for the development of smart autonomous soft robots. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Hybrid soft computing approaches research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Paramartha; Chakraborty, Susanta

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a platform for dealing with the flaws and failings of the soft computing paradigm through different manifestations. The different chapters highlight the necessity of the hybrid soft computing methodology in general with emphasis on several application perspectives in particular. Typical examples include (a) Study of Economic Load Dispatch by Various Hybrid Optimization Techniques, (b) An Application of Color Magnetic Resonance Brain Image Segmentation by ParaOptiMUSIG activation Function, (c) Hybrid Rough-PSO Approach in Remote Sensing Imagery Analysis,  (d) A Study and Analysis of Hybrid Intelligent Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection using Breast Thermograms, and (e) Hybridization of 2D-3D Images for Human Face Recognition. The elaborate findings of the chapters enhance the exhibition of the hybrid soft computing paradigm in the field of intelligent computing.

  9. Deformed soft matter under constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Martin

    In the last few decades, an increasing number of physicists specialized in soft matter, including polymers, have turned their attention to biologically relevant materials. The properties of various molecules and fibres, such as DNA, RNA, proteins, and filaments of all sorts, are studied to better understand their behaviours and functions. Self-assembled biological membranes, or lipid bilayers, are also the focus of much attention as many life processes depend on these. Small lipid bilayers vesicles dubbed liposomes are also frequently used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In this thesis, work is presented on both the elastic properties of polymers and the response of lipid bilayer vesicles to extrusion in narrow-channels. These two areas of research may seem disconnected but they both concern deformed soft materials. The thesis contains four articles: the first presenting a fundamental study of the entropic elasticity of circular chains; the second, a simple universal description of the effect of sequence on the elasticity of linear polymers such as DNA; the third, a model of the symmetric thermophoretic stretch of a nano-confined polymer; the fourth, a model that predicts the final sizes of vesicles obtained by pressure extrusion. These articles are preceded by an extensive introduction that covers all of the essential concepts and theories necessary to understand the work that has been done.

  10. Possibility of soft-matter effects in solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.V. Gomonay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape variation under the action of small external fields is a peculiar feature of soft matter. In the present paper we demonstrate a possibility of the analogous shape variation in the solids that combine the properties of antiferro- and ferromagnetic materials and show strong magnetoelastic coupling. The antiferromagnetic subsystem provides a macroscopic deformation of a sample in the external magnetic field while the ferromagnetic component ensures high susceptibility of the domain structure.

  11. From Soft Sculpture to Soft Robotics: Retracing a Physical Aesthetics of Bio-Morphic Softness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Soft robotics has in the past decade emerged as a growing subfield of technical robotics research, distinguishable by its bio-inspired design strategies, interest in morphological computation, and interdisciplinary combination of insights from engineering, computer science, biology and material...... science. Recently, soft robotics technology has also started to make its way into art, design, and architecture. This paper attempts to think an aesthetics of softness and the life-like through an artistic tradition deeply imbricated with an interrogation of softness and its physical substrates, namely...... and the life-like in these works through readings that draw on concepts from technical soft robotics research and the description of life in physics (via entropy). It is argued, that fractions of soft sculpture anticipate central interests and notions present in contemporary technical soft robotics research....

  12. Topological Structure of Vague Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce vague soft topological spaces which are defined over an initial universe with a fixed set of parameters. The notions of vague soft open sets, vague soft closed sets, vague soft interior, vague soft closure, and vague soft boundary are introduced and their basic properties and relations are investigated. Furthermore, with the help of examples they established that some properties of topological spaces and soft topological spaces do not hold in vague soft topological spaces. Vague soft connectedness and vague soft compactness are also studied.

  13. On Soft β-Open Sets and Soft β-Continuous Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Akdag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the concepts soft β-interior and soft β-closure of a soft set in soft topological spaces. We also study soft β-continuous functions and discuss their relations with soft continuous and other weaker forms of soft continuous functions.

  14. Embodying Soft Wearables Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The value of engaging sensory motor skills in the design and use of smart systems is increasingly recognized. Yet robust and reliable methods for development, reporting and transfer are not fully understood. This workshop investigates the role of embodied design research techniques in the context...... of soft wearables. Throughout, we will experiment with how embodied design research techniques might be shared, developed, and used as direct and unmediated vehicles for their own reporting. Rather than engage in oral presentations, participants will lead each other through a proven embodied method...

  15. Soft skills and dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M A G; Abu Kasim, N H; Naimie, Z

    2013-05-01

    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses the different soft skills, how they are taught and assessed and the issues that need to be addressed in their teaching and assessment. The use of the module by the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya for development of soft skills for institutions of higher learning introduced by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. [Antimicrobial susceptibility cumulative reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut-Blasco, Andrés; Calvo, Jorge; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-10-01

    Cumulative reports on antimicrobial susceptibility tests data are important for selecting empirical treatments, as an educational tool in programs on antimicrobial use, and for establishing breakpoints defining clinical categories. These reports should be based on data validated by clinical microbiologists using diagnostic samples (not surveillance samples). In order to avoid a bias derived from including several isolates obtained from the same patient, it is recommended that, for a defined period, only the first isolate is counted. A minimal number of isolates per species should be presented: a figure of >=30 isolates is statistically acceptable. The report is usually presented in a table format where, for each cell, information on clinically relevant microorganisms-antimicrobial agents is presented. Depending on particular needs, multiple tables showing data related to patients, samples, services or special pathogens can be prepared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling Soft Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kurt

    Soft matter science or soft materials science is a relatively new term for the science of a huge class of rather different materials such as colloids, polymers (of synthetic or biological origin), membranes, complex molecular assemblies, complex fluids, etc. and combinations thereof. While many of these systems are contained in or are even the essential part of everyday products ("simple" plastics such as yoghurt cups, plastic bags, CDs, many car parts; gels and networks such as rubber, many low fat foods, "gummi" bears; colloidal systems such as milk, mayonnaise, paints, almost all cosmetics or body care products, the border lines between the different applications and systems are of course not sharp) or as biological molecules or assemblies (DNA, proteins, membranes and cytoskeleton, etc.) are central to our existence, others are basic ingredients of current and future high tech products (polymers with specific optical or electronic properties, conducting macromolecules, functional materials). Though the motivation is different in life science rather than in materials science biomolecular simulations, the basic structure of the problems faced in the two fields is very similar.

  18. Soft Robotic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Juleon Taylor

    In this thesis a survey on soft robotic actuators is conducted. The actuators are classified into three main categories: Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAM), Electronic Electroactive Polymers (Electric EAP), and Ionic Electroactive Polymers (Ionic EAP). Soft robots can have many degrees and are more compliant than hard robots. This makes them suitable for applications that are difficult for hard robots. For each actuator background history, build materials, how they operate, and modeling are presented. Multiple actuators in each class are reviewed highlighting both their use and their mathematical formulation. In addition to the survey the McKibben actuator was chosen for fabrication and in-depth experimental analysis. Four McKibben actuators were fabricated using mesh sleeve, barbed hose fittings, and different elastic bladders. All were actuated using compressed air. Tensile tests were performed for each actuator to measure the tension force as air pressure increased from 20 to 100 psi in 10 psi increments. To account for material relaxation properties eleven trials for each actuator were run for 2-3 days. In conclusion, the smallest outer diameter elastic bladder was capable of producing the highest force due to the larger gap between the bladder and the sleeve.

  19. MR Histoanatomical Distribution of 290 Soft-tissue Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Tae Yong; Lee, In Sook; Lee, Gee Won; Kim, Jeung Il; Choi, Kyung Un; Kim, Won Taek [Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    This study was designed too identify the MR histoanatomical distribution of soft-tissue tumors. A total of 290 soft-tissue tumors of 281 patients were analyzed by the use of MR imaging and were pathologically confirmed after surgical resection or a biopsy. There were 120 malignant soft-tissue tumors including tumors of an intermediate malignancy and 170 benign tumors. The histoanatomical locations were divided into three types: 'type I' with superficial layer tumors that involved the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue, 'type II' with deep layer tumors that involved the muscle or tendon and 'type III' with soft tissue tumors that involved both the superficial and deep layers. Soft-tissue tumors with more than three cases with a frequency of more than 75% included dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, glomus tumor, angiolipoma, leiomyosarcoma and lymphoma as 'type I' tumors. 'Type II' tumors with more than three cases with a frequency of more than 75% included liposarcoma, fibromatosis, papillary endothelial hyperplasia and rhabdomyosarcoma. 'Type III' tumors with more than three cases with a frequency of more than 50% included neurofibromatosis. The MR histoanatomical distributions of soft tissue tumors are useful in the differential pathological diagnosis when a soft-tissue tumor has a nonspecific MR appearance.

  20. 4th International Conference on Quantitative Logic and Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shui-Li; Wang, San-Min; Li, Yong-Ming

    2017-01-01

    This book is the proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Quantitative Logic and Soft Computing (QLSC2016) held 14-17, October, 2016 in Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, China. It includes 61 papers, of which 5 are plenary talks( 3 abstracts and 2 full length talks). QLSC2016 was the fourth in a series of conferences on Quantitative Logic and Soft Computing. This conference was a major symposium for scientists, engineers and practitioners to present their updated results, ideas, developments and applications in all areas of quantitative logic and soft computing. The book aims to strengthen relations between industry research laboratories and universities in fields such as quantitative logic and soft computing worldwide as follows: (1) Quantitative Logic and Uncertainty Logic; (2) Automata and Quantification of Software; (3) Fuzzy Connectives and Fuzzy Reasoning; (4) Fuzzy Logical Algebras; (5) Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing; (6) Fuzzy Sets Theory and Applications.

  1. Spectator Interactions in Soft-Collinear Effective Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Richard J

    2002-11-08

    Soft-collinear effective theory is generalized to include soft massless quarks in addition to collinear fields. This extension is necessary for the treatment of interactions with the soft spectator quark in a heavy meson. The power counting of the relevant fields and the construction of the effective Lagrangian are discussed at leading order in {Lambda}/m{sub b}. Several novel effects occur in the matching of full-theory amplitudes onto effective-theory operators containing soft light quarks, such as the appearance of an intermediate mass scale and large non-localities of operators on scales of order 1/{Lambda}. Important examples of effective-theory operators with soft light quarks are studied and their renormalization properties explored. The formalism presented here forms the basis for a systematic analysis of factorization and power corrections for any exclusive B-meson decay into light particles.

  2. Printing 3D dielectric elastomer actuators for soft robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Walters, Peter; Stoimenov, Boyko

    2009-03-01

    We present a new approach to the fabrication of soft dielectric elastomer actuators using a 3D printing process. Complete actuators including active membranes and support structures can be 3D printed in one go, resulting in a great improvement in fabrication speed and increases in accuracy and consistency. We describe the fabrication process and present force and displacement results for a double-membrane antagonistic actuator. In this structure controlled prestrain is applied by the simple process of pressing together two printed actuator halves. The development of 3D printable soft actuators will have a large impact on many application areas including engineering, medicine and the emerging field of soft robotics.

  3. A study on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgadas Govind Naik

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in skin and soft tissue infections. Methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA is prevalent in most of the countries wherever it is sought for. MRSA is one of the important pathogens implicated in hospital acquired infection. The main objectives of this study was to find out the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of S.aureus isolates, the prevalence of methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA and nasal carriage rate in healthy hospital staff. Methods:A total of 278 S.aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and 30 anterior nares swabs from healthy hospital staff were screened for S.aureus organisms using standard methods. Results:High resistance was observed against ampicillin, penicillin and tetracycline. High sensitivity was recorded against amikasin, amoxicillin-c and ciprofloxacin. Of the 278 isolates 26 (9% isolates were methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA. 17 % of the hospital staff were positive for nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion:Our study emphasizes the need for continuous monitoring of the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of S.aureus isolates including MRSA for the selection of appropriate therapy. In Eritrea, from the present findings it appears that the spread of MRSA in community and hospital settings is limited.

  4. Interval-Valued Neutrosophic Soft Rough Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Broumi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We first defined interval-valued neutrosophic soft rough sets (IVN-soft rough sets for short which combine interval-valued neutrosophic soft set and rough sets and studied some of its basic properties. This concept is an extension of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft rough sets (IVIF-soft rough sets.

  5. Soft lithography meets self-organization: Some new developments ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Examples include soft solid polymer films and surfaces like cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyacrylamide (PAA) based hydrogels, thermoplastics like polystyrene (PS), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) etc both on planar and curved surfaces. These techniques address two key issues in imprinting:.

  6. Soft isostasy in geomorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Pourkhosravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth subsidence has been one of the important issues jeopardizing environment and there are many studies, which blame shortage of underground water resources for having uplift and subsidence. However, many argue such conclusion and believe that earth subsidence has been studied in the past without considering the changes in the hill over a long period. In this study, we use SAR interferometry study to investigate earth subsidence in dessert areas of Esfahan, Yazd and Ardakan, located in central part of Iran. The results indicate that there are more important issues affecting subsidence such as the uplift in the hills located the desert area. The results of the survey based on SAR interferometry reveals that subsidence occurs with the uplift in the adjacent hills, simultaneously. In other words, tectonic movements and soft isostasy play important role on earth subsidence.

  7. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  8. Soft-collinear supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Elor, Gilly [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Larkoski, Andrew J. [Physics Department, Reed College,Portland, OR 97202 (United States); Center for Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-03-03

    Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with supersymmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective Lagrangian for N=1 SUSY Yang-Mills is constructed and shown to be a complete description for the infrared of this model. For contrast, we also construct the effective Lagrangian for chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model. Only a subset of the infrared divergences are reproduced by the Lagrangian — to account for the complete low energy description requires the inclusion of local operators. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance — given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence between SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions as two-component Weyl spinors, and SCET in light-cone gauge. By expressing SUSY Yang-Mills in “collinear superspace', a slice of superspace derived by integrating out half the fermionic coordinates, the light-cone gauge SUSY SCET theory can be written in terms of superfields. As a byproduct, bootstrapping up to the full theory yields the first algorithmic approach for determining the SUSY Yang-Mills on-shell superspace action. This work paves the way toward discovering the effective theory for the collinear limit of N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills.

  9. Soft tissue sparganosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Kwan Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, In Hwan; Suh, Hyoung Sim [Daelin S. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-15

    Sparganosis is a rare tissue-parasitic infestation caused by a plerocercoid tapeworm larva(sparganum), genus Spirometra. The most common clinical presentation of sparganosis is a palpable subcutaneous mass or masses. Fifteen simple radiographs and 10 ultrasosnograms of 17 patients with operatively verified subcutaneous sparganosis were retrospectively analyzed to find its radiologic characteristics for preoperative diagnosis of sparganosis. The location of the subcutaneous sparganosis were lower extremity, abdominal wall, breast, inguinal region and scrotum in order of frequency. The simple radiographs showed linear or elongated calcification with or without nodular elongated shaped soft tissue mass shadows in 8 patients, soft tissue mass shadow only in 2 patients and lateral abdominal wall thickening in 1 patient. But no specific findings was noted in 4 patients with small abdominal and inguinal masses. We could classify the subcutaneous sparganosis by ultrasound into 2 types: one is long band-like hypoechoic structures, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva and the order is elongated or ovoid hyperechoic nodules, representing granulomas. Long band-like hypoechoic structures within or associated with mixed echoic granulomatous masses were noted in 6 patients and elongated or ovoid hypoechoic mass or masses were noted in 4 patients. In conclusion, sparganosis should be considered when these radiologic findings-irregular linear calcifications on simple radiograph and long band-like hypoechoic structures on ultrasonography, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva are noted in the patients who have subcutaneous palpable mass or masses. And radiologic examination especially ultrasonography is very helpful to diagnose sparganosis.

  10. Soft-collinear supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Timothy; Elor, Gilly; Larkoski, Andrew J.

    2017-03-01

    Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with super-symmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective Lagrangian for N=1 SUSY Yang-Mills is cconstructed and shown to be a complete description for the infrared of this model. For contrast, we also construct the effective Lagrangian for chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model. Only a subset of the infrared divergences are reproduced by the Lagrangian — to account for the complete low energy description requires the inclusion of local operators. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance — given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence be-tween SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions as two-component Weyl spinors, and SCET in light-cone gauge. By expressing SUSY Yang-Mills in "collinear superspace", a slice of superspace derived by integrating out half the fermionic coordinates, the light-cone gauge SUSY SCET theory can be written in terms of superfields. As a byproduct, bootstrapping up to the full theory yields the first algorithmic approach for determining the SUSY Yang-Mills on-shell superspace action. This work paves the way toward discovering the effective theory for the collinear limit of N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills.

  11. Not-so-Soft Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Much recent discussion about the skills needed to secure Britain's economic recovery has focused on skills for employability. However, too often, these fundamental skills are understood in narrow functional or vocational terms. So-called "soft skills", what Penelope Tobin, in her 2008 paper "Soft Skills: the hard facts", terms "traits and…

  12. Ultrasonographic findings of benign soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Sung; Oh, Dong Heon; Jung, Tae Gun; Kim, Yong Kil; Kwon, Jung Hyeok [Dongkang Genernal Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    To clarify the characteristic sonographic features of benign soft tissue tumors and to evaluate the usefulness of sonographic imaging. We retrospectively reviewed ultrasonographic images of 70 cases in 68 patients with histologically proved benign soft tissue tumors. The tumors include 33 lipomas, 11 hemangiomas, 11 lymphangiomas, 7 neurilemmomas, 4 epidermoid cysts, 2 fibromas, 1 mesenchymoma, and 1 myxoma. The sonographic appearances of the lesions were mainly solid in 53 cases(33 lipomas, 8 hemangiomas, 2 lymphangiomas, 7 neurilemmomas, 2 fibromas and 1 mesenchymoma), mainly cystic in 14 cases(1 hemangioma, 8 lymphangiomas, 4 epidermoid cysts, and 1 myxomal), and mixed in 3 cases(2 hemangiomas and 1 lymphangioma). Although an accurate histologic prediction could not be made in most cases, certain patterns appeared to be characteristic of specific tumor types. 26 cases(78%) of lipoma were seen as lentiform, iso- or hyperechoic, solid mass. Hemangioma had variable appearance and characteristic calcifications were seen in 3 cases. Unicameral or multiseptated cystic mass with variable thickness of echogenic septa and solid portion was the characteristic finding of lymhangioma. Neurilemmoma showed lobulated, oval to round , relatively hypoechoic mass or with without internal cystic portion. Sonographic evaluation of benign soft tissue tumors is useful in demonstrating the location, size, extent, and internal characteristic of the mass. A relatively confident diagnosis can made when the characteristic features of the benign soft tissue tumor are present on sonographic imaging.

  13. Molecular diagnostics of soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Julia A; Cushman-Vokoun, Allison M

    2011-05-01

    Soft tissue pathology encompasses a remarkably diverse assortment of benign and malignant soft tissue tumors. Rendering a definitive diagnosis is complicated not only by the large volume of existing histologic subtypes (>100) but also frequently by the presence of overlapping clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical, and/or radiographic features. During the past 3 decades, mesenchymal tumor-specific, cytogenetic and molecular genetic abnormalities have demonstrated an increasingly important, ancillary role in mesenchymal tumor diagnostics. To review molecular diagnostic tools available to the pathologist to further classify specific soft tissue tumor types and recurrent aberrations frequently examined. Advantages and limitations of individual approaches will also be highlighted. Previously published review articles, peer-reviewed research publications, and the extensive cytogenetic and molecular diagnostic experience of the authors to include case files of The University of Nebraska Medical Center. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic assays are used routinely for diagnostic purposes in soft tissue pathology and represent a powerful adjunct to complement conventional microscopy and clinicoradiographic evaluation in the formulation of an accurate diagnosis. Care should be taken, however, to recognize the limitations of these approaches. Ideally, more than one technical approach should be available to a diagnostic laboratory to compensate for the shortcomings of each approach in the assessment of individual specimens.

  14. Nonlinear dynamics of soft fermion excitations in hot QCD plasma I: soft-quark - soft-gluon scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Markov, Yu. A.; Markova, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of the hard thermal loop effective theory we derive a system of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations taking into account the simplest processes of nonlinear interaction of soft fermionic and bosonic QCD plasma excitations: elastic scattering of soft-(anti)quark excitations off soft-gluon and soft-quark excitations, pair production of soft quark-antiquark excitations, annihilation into two soft-gluon excitations. The matrix elements of these processes to leading order in the c...

  15. Soft α-Open Sets and Soft α-Continuous Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Akdag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce soft α-sets on soft topological spaces and study some of their properties. We also investigate the concepts of soft α-continuous and soft α-open functions and discuss their relationships with soft continuous and other weaker forms of soft continuous functions. Also counterexamples are given to show the noncoincidence of these functions.

  16. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH...

  17. Soft-contact-lenses-induced complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvajac Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Soft contact lenses occupy significant place in ophthalmology, both in the correction of refraction anomalies and in the treatment of many eye diseases. The number of patients that wear soft contact lenses for the purpose of correcting ametropia is constantly increasing. Due to the increasing number of wearers, the percentage of complications that can lead to serious eye damage and serious vision loss is also increasing. The aim of this study was to point out the most common complications related to soft contact lens use. Methods. In the period from 1995−2004 this prospective study included 510 patients wearing soft contact lenses for correcting ametropia. None of the patients wore contact lenses before and none suffered from any system or local diseases that could affected the development of eventual complications. The study took seven years with the patients who wore conventional lenses and three years with those who wore replacement contact lenses. All the necessary ophthalmologic examinations were done (visual acuity, refractokeratometry, the quantity of tear film, biomicroscopic examination of anterior eye segment. All the complications were filmed by video camera. Results. Of all the patients, 19 had blepharitis, 73 suffered from “dry eye”, 57 had conjunctival hyperemia, 12 had conjunctivitis, 34 had gigantopapillary conjunctivitis (GPC, 93 had punctiform epitheliopathy, 20 had corneal infiltration, one patient had keratitis, 91 had corneal vascularisation, and 95 patients had corneal deposits. Conclusion. Both the type and frequency of complications related to soft contact lens use in our group of patients, proved to be significant. Some of this complications (keratitis can significantly damage vision and lead to loss of vision and sometimes can require operative treatment.

  18. Topology on Soft Continuous Function Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Yasin Öztürk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of soft sets was initiated by Molodtsov. Then, some operations on soft sets were defined by Maji et al. Later on, the concept of soft topological space was introduced. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the pointwise topology of soft topological spaces. Finally, we investigate the properties of soft mapping spaces and the relationships between some soft mapping spaces.

  19. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the

  20. Soft tissue trauma and scar revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Steven R; Sjogren, Phayvanh P

    2014-11-01

    Numerous techniques and treatments have been described for scar revision, with most studies focusing on the adult population. A comprehensive review of the literature reveals a paucity of references related specifically to scar revision in children. This review describes the available modalities in pediatric facial scar revision. The authors have integrated current practices in soft tissue trauma and scar revision, including closure techniques and materials, topical therapy, steroid injection, cutaneous laser therapy, and tissue expanders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. DNA controlled assembly of soft nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stefan; Simonsen, Adam Cohen; Jakobsen, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    DNA-encoding of solid nanoparticles requires surfacechemistry, which is often tedious and not generally applicable. In the present study non-covalently attached DNA are used to assemble soft nanoparticles (liposomes) in solution. This process displays remarkably sharp thermal transitions from ass...... assembled to disassembled state for which reason this method allows easy and fast detection of polynucleotides (e.g. DNA or RNA), including single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as insertions and deletions....

  2. Coarse-graining polymers as soft colloids

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, A.A.; Bolhuis, P. G.; Finken, R.; Krakoviack, V.; de Meijer, E. J.; Hansen, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    We show how to coarse grain polymers in a good solvent as single particles, interacting with density-independent or density-dependent interactions. These interactions can be between the centres of mass, the mid-points or end-points of the polymers. We also show how to extend these methods to polymers in poor solvents and mixtures of polymers. Treating polymers as soft colloids can greatly speed up the simulation of complex many-polymer systems, including polymer-colloid mixtures.

  3. Advances in Soft Matter Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shaofan

    2012-01-01

    "Advances in Soft Matter Mechanics" is a compilation and selection of recent works in soft matter mechanics by a group of active researchers in the field. The main objectives of this book are first to disseminate the latest developments in soft matter mechanics in the field of applied and computational mechanics, and second to introduce soft matter mechanics as a sub-discipline of soft matter physics. As an important branch of soft matter physics, soft matter mechanics has developed rapidly in recent years. A number of the novel approaches discussed in this book are unique, such as the coarse grained finite element method for modeling colloidal adhesion, entropic elasticity, meshfree simulations of liquid crystal elastomers, simulations of DNA, etc. The book is intended for researchers and graduate students in the field of mechanics, condensed matter physics and biomaterials. Dr. Shaofan Li is a professor of the University of California-Berkeley, U.S.A; Dr. Bohua Sun is a professor of Cape Peninsula Universit...

  4. Experimental soft-matter science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Sidney R.

    2017-04-01

    Soft materials consist of basic units that are significantly larger than an atom but much smaller than the overall dimensions of the sample. The label "soft condensed matter" emphasizes that the large basic building blocks of these materials produce low elastic moduli that govern a material's ability to withstand deformations. Aside from softness, there are many other properties that are also caused by the large size of the constituent building blocks. Soft matter is dissipative, disordered, far from equilibrium, nonlinear, thermal and entropic, slow, observable, gravity affected, patterned, nonlocal, interfacially elastic, memory forming, and active. This is only a partial list of how matter created from large component particles is distinct from "hard matter" composed of constituents at an atomic scale. Issues inherent in soft matter raise problems that are broadly important in diverse areas of science and require multiple modes of attack. For example, far-from-equilibrium behavior is confronted in biology, chemistry, geophysics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics. Similarly, issues dealing with disorder appear broadly throughout many branches of inquiry wherever rugged landscapes are invoked. This article reviews the discussions that occurred during a workshop held on 30-31 January 2016 in which opportunities in soft-matter experiment were surveyed. Soft matter has had an exciting history of discovery and continues to be a fertile ground for future research.

  5. Growing and evolving soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieffel, John; Knox, Davis; Smith, Schuyler; Trimmer, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Completely soft and flexible robots offer to revolutionize fields ranging from search and rescue to endoscopic surgery. One of the outstanding challenges in this burgeoning field is the chicken-and-egg problem of body-brain design: Development of locomotion requires the preexistence of a locomotion-capable body, and development of a location-capable body requires the preexistence of a locomotive gait. This problem is compounded by the high degree of coupling between the material properties of a soft body (such as stiffness or damping coefficients) and the effectiveness of a gait. This article synthesizes four years of research into soft robotics, in particular describing three approaches to the co-discovery of soft robot morphology and control. In the first, muscle placement and firing patterns are coevolved for a fixed body shape with fixed material properties. In the second, the material properties of a simulated soft body coevolve alongside locomotive gaits, with body shape and muscle placement fixed. In the third, a developmental encoding is used to scalably grow elaborate soft body shapes from a small seed structure. Considerations of the simulation time and the challenges of physically implementing soft robots in the real world are discussed.

  6. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  7. Soft Neutrosophic Loops and Their Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly defined objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic loop,soft neutosophic biloop, soft neutrosophic N -loop with the discuission of some of their characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic loop, the so called soft strong neutrosophic loop which is of pure neutrosophic character. This notion also found in all the other corresponding notions of soft neutrosophic thoery. We also given some of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic theory.

  8. Bipolar-value fuzzy soft lie subalgebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiong-wei

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the notions of bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebras are given, some of their properties are studied. Furthermore, we shall define the definition of bipolar-value fuzzy soft homomorphism of bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebras and show that the theorem of bipolar-value fuzzy soft homomorphic pre-image of bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebra, we shall give a counterexample which the image of a bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebra under bipolar-value fuzzy soft homomorphism needs not be bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebra.

  9. 4th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Nagar, Atulya

    2015-01-01

    This two volume book is based on the research papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2014) and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization methods, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and healthcare, data mining, etc. Mainly the emphasis is on Soft Computing and its applications in diverse areas. The prime objective of this book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments in various fields of Science, Engineering and Technology and is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various real-world applications of ‘Soft Computing’.

  10. Soft rot erwiniae: from genes to genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Ian K; Bell, Kenneth S; Holeva, Maria C; Birch, Paul R J

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY The soft rot erwiniae, Erwinia carotovora ssp. atroseptica (Eca), E. carotovora ssp. carotovora (Ecc) and E. chrysanthemi (Ech) are major bacterial pathogens of potato and other crops world-wide. We currently understand much about how these bacteria attack plants and protect themselves against plant defences. However, the processes underlying the establishment of infection, differences in host range and their ability to survive when not causing disease, largely remain a mystery. This review will focus on our current knowledge of pathogenesis in these organisms and discuss how modern genomic approaches, including complete genome sequencing of Eca and Ech, may open the door to a new understanding of the potential subtlety and complexity of soft rot erwiniae and their interactions with plants. The soft rot erwiniae are members of the Enterobacteriaceae, along with other plant pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora and human pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Yersinia spp. Although the genus name Erwinia is most often used to describe the group, an alternative genus name Pectobacterium was recently proposed for the soft rot species. Ech mainly affects crops and other plants in tropical and subtropical regions and has a wide host range that includes potato and the important model host African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha). Ecc affects crops and other plants in subtropical and temperate regions and has probably the widest host range, which also includes potato. Eca, on the other hand, has a host range limited almost exclusively to potato in temperate regions only. Disease symptoms: Soft rot erwiniae cause general tissue maceration, termed soft rot disease, through the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes. Environmental factors such as temperature, low oxygen concentration and free water play an essential role in disease development. On potato, and possibly other plants, disease symptoms may differ, e.g. blackleg disease is associated

  11. Genetic susceptibility of periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Loos, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we explore and summarize the peer-reviewed literature on putative genetic risk factors for susceptibility to aggressive and chronic periodontitis. A comprehensive literature search on the PubMed database was performed using the keywords ‘periodontitis’ or ‘periodontal

  12. Fourie susceptible.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    a number of cultivars exhibited field resistance to halo blight and bacterial brown spot, all cultivars were more or less susceptible to .... Cerillos. Alubia. I. 91. 57. Kranskop. Red speckled sugar. II. 97. 63. OPS-RS1. Red speckled sugar. II. 96. 63. OPS-RS2. Red speckled sugar. I. 100. 61. OPS-RS3. Red speckled sugar. II. 97.

  13. Olaratumab for soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssonneau, Diego; Italiano, Antoine

    2017-08-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare malignant tumors. Unfortunately, the first-line doxorubicin-based treatment has not been improved since the 1970s. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor alpha (PDGFR-α) and its ligands are co-expressed in many types of cancer, including sarcomas. They are involved in stimulating growth and regulating stromal-derived fibroblasts and angiogenesis. PDGFR-α and its ligand may play an important role in tumorigenesis and be a potential target in the treatment of sarcomas. Olaratumab is a fully human IgG1-type anti-PDGFR-α monoclonal antibody with a high affinity and a low 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). Areas covered: The authors review the role of olaratumab in the treatment of STS by focusing on the recent, randomized Phase II JDGD trial that challenged patients with unresectable or metastatic STS with doxorubicin in the presence or absence of olaratumab. This trial showed a great improvement in overall survival (OS), with an increase in survival from 14.7 months to 26.5 months for patients in the experimental arm and showed acceptable toxicity. Expert opinion: Results seem promising. However, it must be qualified, as the study includes several uncertainties. These uncertainties should be addressed by the ongoing Phase 3 JGDJ confirmatory trial, for which the final efficacy analysis is expected by 2019.

  14. Hard evidence on soft skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Kautz, Tim

    2012-08-01

    This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of "cognitive ability" like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life. Achievement tests miss, or perhaps more accurately, do not adequately capture, soft skills-personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. The larger message of this paper is that soft skills predict success in life, that they causally produce that success, and that programs that enhance soft skills have an important place in an effective portfolio of public policies.

  15. Is Streptococcus pyogenes Resistant or Susceptible to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilliebridge, Rachael A.; Tong, Steven Y. C.; Baird, Robert W.; Ward, Peter; McDonald, Malcolm I.; Currie, Bart J.; Carapetis, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is commonly believed to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), resulting in reservations about using SXT for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) where S. pyogenes is involved. S. pyogenes' in vitro susceptibility to SXT depends on the medium's thymidine content. Thymidine allows S. pyogenes to bypass the sulfur-mediated inhibition of folate metabolism and, historically, has resulted in apparently reduced susceptibility of S. pyogenes to sulfur antibacterials. The low thymidine concentration in Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) is now regulated. We explored S. pyogenes susceptibility to SXT on various media. Using two sets of 100 clinical S. pyogenes isolates, we tested for susceptibility using SXT Etests on MHA containing defibrinated horse blood and 20 mg/liter β-NAD (MHF), MHA with sheep blood (MHS), MHA alone, MHA with horse blood (MHBA), and MHA with lysed horse blood (MHLHBA). European Committee on Antibacterial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints defined susceptibility (MIC, ≤1 mg/liter) and resistance (MIC, >2 mg/liter). In study 1, 99% of S. pyogenes isolates were susceptible to SXT on MHA, MHBA, and MHLHBA, with geometric mean MICs of 0.04, 0.04, and 0.05 mg/liter, respectively. In study 2, all 100 S. pyogenes isolates were susceptible to SXT on MHF, MHS, MHA, and MHLHBA with geometric mean MICs of 0.07, 0.16, 0.07, and 0.09 mg/liter, respectively. This study confirms the in vitro susceptibility of S. pyogenes to SXT, providing support for the use of SXT for SSTIs. A clinical trial using SXT for impetigo is ongoing. PMID:23052313

  16. Technology development for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törmä, P. T.; Sipilä, H. J.; Koskinen, T.; Mattila, M.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray spectroscopy instruments lose part of their performance due to the lack of suitable components for soft X-ray region below 1 keV. Therefore, in the analysis of low atomic number elements including lithium, beryllium, boron and carbon instrument sensitivity is often limited. In this work we describe how the performance of the spectroscopy of soft X-rays is significantly improved when all devices integrated in the spectroscopic instrument are suitable for both soft and hard X-rays. This concept is based on utilizing ultra-thin SiN X-ray windows with proven performance not only as a detector window but also as an X-ray source window. By including a soft-X-ray-sensitive silicon drift detector with efficient surface charge collection in this concept the sensitivity and performance of the instrument is significantly increased.

  17. The Beauty Trap: Chinese Theories of “Soft Power”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Vladimirovna Zhuravleva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are a lot of definitions and conceptions of “soft power” in the world’s scientific literature. The English-language works mainly adopted the term “soft power”, terminology is also varied in Chinese historiography: “ruan shili”, “ruan liliang” and “ruan quanli” (软实力, 软力量and 软权力. A variety of terms is reflected in the variety of interpretations of the system or mechanismof “soft power”, that allows us to conclude that at the moment there is noformed unified vision and approach to its study. The subject of this study is the Russian and foreign theories of “soft power” in relation to China's foreign policy. The author raised a number of tasks, among which are: to determine the place a policy of “soft power” in the foreign policy of China, to analyze the existing interpretation of the concept of “soft power with Chinese characteristics”, as well as trace the development of theories of “soft power”. As a result of the research the author comes to the conclusion that despite the difference in interpretations, there are a lot of common aspects, including the idea of the majority of researchers that the concept is directly related to the influence of the subject to the object, and that the main instruments of “soft power” are humanitarian cooperation, investment, dialogue at the highest level, and others. But the combination of numerous non-military elements within the same term “soft power” doesn’t form a unified, approved concept. Different countries have their own unique system of soft power, and its instruments, key elements and basic principles are not the same. For example, talking about “attractiveness” applied to Chinese soft power, we can conclude, that it is only the tip of the iceberg. This study allows not only to form an idea of the “soft power” through the prism of various scientific researches, but also to identify the key elements of the system

  18. Towards Coordination Preparedness of Soft-Target Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammed Shahadat; Hossain, Liaquat

    In this paper, we introduce a network enabled coordination model to examine the coordination preparedness of soft-target organisations such as common public access areas including transit hubs, schools, parks, and sports areas. It is apparent that little attention is given in recent research focusing on the use of network analysis as a way to explore coordination preparedness for this type of organisation. In this study, we emphasise this type of soft-target organisation and propose a model to examine the coordination preparedness to any disasters by testing hypothesis related to network relationship and coordination preparedness. We analyse the dataset entitled Preparedness of Large Retail Malls to Prevent and Respond to Terrorist Attack, 2004, which contains a total of 120 completed surveys of security directors of retail malls. The following questions form the basis of this study: What do soft-target organisations need to be better prepared to respond to disaster? How does network relationship between soft-target organisation and emergency agencies affect the coordination preparedness of soft-target organisation for disaster recovery? Which degree of centrality measure needs to be followed to measure network variables in order to analyse the coordination preparedness? Result shows that soft-target organisation with high level of network relationship with other emergency agencies are better prepared to disaster response. Using this result, the preparedness of a soft-target organisation might be judged for successfully participation in an actual emergency.

  19. Engineering applications of soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Cortés, Margarita-Arimatea; Rojas, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    This book bridges the gap between Soft Computing techniques and their applications to complex engineering problems. In each chapter we endeavor to explain the basic ideas behind the proposed applications in an accessible format for readers who may not possess a background in some of the fields. Therefore, engineers or practitioners who are not familiar with Soft Computing methods will appreciate that the techniques discussed go beyond simple theoretical tools, since they have been adapted to solve significant problems that commonly arise in such areas. At the same time, the book will show members of the Soft Computing community how engineering problems are now being solved and handled with the help of intelligent approaches. Highlighting new applications and implementations of Soft Computing approaches in various engineering contexts, the book is divided into 12 chapters. Further, it has been structured so that each chapter can be read independently of the others.

  20. Soft peg regimes : sensitivity to crises and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Gedik, Nilgün Şayeste

    2011-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Economics, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2011. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2011. Includes bibliographical references leaves 115-119. In this thesis, soft peg regimes’ sensitivity to crises and performance are investigated after a brief review of exchange rate regimes and their historical evolutions. The currency crisis faced by emerging countries under adaptation of soft peg regimes in the 1990s and in the beginning of 2000s reve...

  1. Stretchable Electronic Platform for Soft and Smart Contact Lens Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vasquez Quintero, Andrés Felipe; Verplancke, Rik; De Smet, Herbert; Vanfleteren, Jan

    2017-01-01

    A stretchable platform with spherical-shaped electronics based on thermo- plastic polyurethane (TPU) is introduced for soft smart contact lenses. The low glass transition temperature of TPU, its relatively low hardness, and its proven biocompatibility (i.e., protection of exterior body wounds) fulfill the essential requirements for eye wearable devices. These requirements include optical transparency, conformal fitting, and flexibility comparable with soft contact lense...

  2. Genetic Susceptibility to Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kovacic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Advances in techniques of molecular genetics have revealed that genetic ground significantly influences susceptibility to atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Besides further investigations of monogenetic diseases, candidate genes, genetic polymorphisms, and susceptibility loci associated with atherosclerotic diseases have been identified in recent years, and their number is rapidly increasing. This paper discusses main genetic investigations fields associated with human atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The paper concludes with a discussion of the directions and implications of future genetic research in arteriosclerosis with an emphasis on prospective prediction from an early age of individuals who are predisposed to develop premature atherosclerosis as well as to facilitate the discovery of novel drug targets.

  3. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan; Salinas, Robert C; Agudelo Higuita, Nelson Ivan

    2015-09-15

    Skin and soft tissue infections result from microbial invasion of the skin and its supporting structures. Management is determined by the severity and location of the infection and by patient comorbidities. Infections can be classified as simple (uncomplicated) or complicated (necrotizing or nonnecrotizing), or as suppurative or nonsuppurative. Most community-acquired infections are caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococcus. Simple infections are usually monomicrobial and present with localized clinical findings. In contrast, complicated infections can be mono- or polymicrobial and may present with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation. Laboratory testing may be required to confirm an uncertain diagnosis, evaluate for deep infections or sepsis, determine the need for inpatient care, and evaluate and treat comorbidities. Initial antimicrobial choice is empiric, and in simple infections should cover Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species. Patients with complicated infections, including suspected necrotizing fasciitis and gangrene, require empiric polymicrobial antibiotic coverage, inpatient treatment, and surgical consultation for debridement. Superficial and small abscesses respond well to drainage and seldom require antibiotics. Immunocompromised patients require early treatment and antimicrobial coverage for possible atypical organisms.

  4. Landslide susceptibility map: from research to application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro; Felicioni, Giulia; Antonini, Guendalina

    2014-05-01

    Susceptibility map is an important and essential tool in environmental planning, to evaluate landslide hazard and risk and for a correct and responsible management of the territory. Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in an area on the basis of local terrain conditions. Can be expressed as the probability that any given region will be affected by landslides, i.e. an estimate of "where" landslides are likely to occur. In this work we present two examples of landslide susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region and for the Perugia Municipality. These two maps were realized following official request from the Regional and Municipal government to the Research Institute for the Hydrogeological Protection (CNR-IRPI). The susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region represents the development of previous agreements focused to prepare: i) a landslide inventory map that was included in the Urban Territorial Planning (PUT) and ii) a series of maps for the Regional Plan for Multi-risk Prevention. The activities carried out for the Umbria Region were focused to define and apply methods and techniques for landslide susceptibility zonation. Susceptibility maps were prepared exploiting a multivariate statistical model (linear discriminant analysis) for the five Civil Protection Alert Zones defined in the regional territory. The five resulting maps were tested and validated using the spatial distribution of recent landslide events that occurred in the region. The susceptibility map for the Perugia Municipality was prepared to be integrated as one of the cartographic product in the Municipal development plan (PRG - Piano Regolatore Generale) as required by the existing legislation. At strategic level, one of the main objectives of the PRG, is to establish a framework of knowledge and legal aspects for the management of geo-hydrological risk. At national level most of the susceptibility maps prepared for the PRG, were and still are obtained

  5. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  6. Generalised Interval-Valued Fuzzy Soft Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the concept of generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft set and its operations and study some of their properties. We give applications of this theory in solving a decision making problem. We also introduce a similarity measure of two generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft sets and discuss its application in a medical diagnosis problem: fuzzy set; soft set; fuzzy soft set; generalised fuzzy soft set; generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft set; interval-valued fuzzy set; interval-valued fuzzy soft set.

  7. Some Properties of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Ersoy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maji et al. introduced the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets, which is an extension of soft sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets. In this paper, we apply the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets to rings. The concept of intuitionistic fuzzy soft rings is introduced and some basic properties of intuitionistic fuzzy soft rings are given. Intersection, union, AND, and OR operations of intuitionistic fuzzy soft rings are defined. Then, the deffinitions of intuitionistic fuzzy soft ideals are proposed and some related results are considered.

  8. Bipolar soft connected, bipolar soft disconnected and bipolar soft compact spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Shabir; Ayreena Bakhtawar

    2017-01-01

    Bipolar soft topological spaces are mathematical expressions to estimate interpretation of data frameworks. Bipolar soft theory considers the core features of data granules. Bipolarity is important to distinguish between positive information which is guaranteed to be possible and negative information which is forbidden or surely false. Connectedness and compactness are the most important fundamental topological properties. These properties highlight the main features of topological s...

  9. Soft solids a primer to the theoretical mechanics of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Freed, Alan D

    2014-01-01

    This textbook presents the physical principles pertinent to the mathematical modeling of soft materials used in engineering practice, including both man-made materials and biological tissues. It is intended for seniors and masters-level graduate students in engineering, physics, or applied mathematics. It will also be a valuable resource for researchers working in mechanics, biomechanics, and other fields where the mechanical response of soft solids is relevant.   Soft Solids: A Primer to the Theoretical Mechanics of Materials is divided into two parts. Part I introduces the basic concepts needed to give both Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of the mechanical response of soft solids. Part II presents two distinct theories of elasticity and their associated theories of viscoelasticity. Seven boundary-value problems are studied over the course of the book, each pertaining to an experiment used to characterize materials. These problems are discussed at the end of each chapter, giving students the opportunit...

  10. Neutrosophic Parameterized Soft Relations and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Deli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of relation on neutrosophic parameterized soft set (NP- soft sets theory. We have studied some related properties and also put forward some propositions on neutrosophic parameterized soft relation with proofs and examples. Finally the notions of symmetric, transitive, reflexive, and equivalence neutrosophic parameterized soft set relations have been established in our work. Finally a decision making method on NP-soft sets is presented.

  11. Soft Manipulators and Grippers: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Josie Hughes; Utku Culha; Fabio Giardina; Fabian Günther; Andre Rosendo; Fumiya Iida

    2016-01-01

    Soft robotics is a growing area of research which utilises the compliance and adaptability of soft structures to develop highly adaptive robotics for soft interactions. One area in which soft robotics has the ability to make significant impact is in the development of soft grippers and manipulators. With an increased requirement for automation, robotics systems are required to perform task in unstructured and not well defined environments; conditions which conventional rigid robotics are no...

  12. Soft Manipulators and Grippers: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Josie; Culha, Utku; Giardina, Fabio; Guenther, Fabian; Rosendo, Andre; Iida, Fumiya

    2016-01-01

    Soft robotics is a growing area of research which utilizes the compliance and adaptability of soft structures to develop highly adaptive robotics for soft interactions. One area in which soft robotics has the ability to make significant impact is in the development of soft grippers and manipulators. With an increased requirement for automation, robotics systems are required to perform task in unstructured and not well defined environments; conditions which conventional rigid robotics are not ...

  13. Immunotherapy for Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenori Uehara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although multimodal therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy have improved clinical outcomes of patients with bone and soft tissue sarcomas, the prognosis of patients has plateaued over these 20 years. Immunotherapies have shown the effectiveness for several types of advanced tumors. Immunotherapies, such as cytokine therapies, vaccinations, and adoptive cell transfers, have also been investigated for bone and soft tissue sarcomas. Cytokine therapies with interleukin-2 or interferons have limited efficacy because of their cytotoxicities. Liposomal muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE, an activator of the innate immune system, has been approved as adjuvant therapeutics in combination with conventional chemotherapy in Europe, which has improved the 5-year overall survival of patients. Vaccinations and transfer of T cells transduced to express chimeric antigen receptors have shown some efficacy for sarcomas. Ipilimumab and nivolumab are monoclonal antibodies designed to inhibit immune checkpoint mechanisms. These antibodies have recently been shown to be effective for patients with melanoma and also investigated for patients with sarcomas. In this review, we provide an overview of various trials of immunotherapies for bone and soft tissue sarcomas, and discuss their potential as adjuvant therapies in combination with conventional therapies.

  14. Soft Computing Applications : Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop Soft Computing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, János; Várkonyi-Kóczy, Annamária; Dombi, Joszef; Jain, Lakhmi

    2013-01-01

                    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 5thInternational Workshop on Soft Computing Applications (SOFA 2012).                                The book covers a broad spectrum of soft computing techniques, theoretical and practical applications employing knowledge and intelligence to find solutions for world industrial, economic and medical problems. The combination of such intelligent systems tools and a large number of applications introduce a need for a synergy of scientific and technological disciplines in order to show the great potential of Soft Computing in all domains.                   The conference papers included in these proceedings, published post conference, were grouped into the following area of research: ·         Soft Computing and Fusion Algorithms in Biometrics, ·         Fuzzy Theory, Control andApplications, ·         Modelling and Control Applications, ·         Steps towa...

  15. Softly broken finite supersymmetric grand unified theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakov, D.I. [Joint Inst. for Nucl. Res., Dubna (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theor. Phys.; Kalmykov, M.Yu. [Joint Inst. for Nucl. Res., Dubna (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theor. Phys.; Kondrashuk, I.N. [Joint Inst. for Nucl. Res., Dubna (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theor. Phys.; Gladyshev, A.V. [Physics Department, Moscow State University, 119 899 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-07-15

    In the context of the standard SUSY GUT scenario, we present a detailed analysis of the softly broken finite supersymmetric grand unified theory. The model, albeit nonminimal, remains very rigid due to the requirement of finiteness. It is based on the SU(5) gauge group and is UV finite to all orders of perturbation theory. It contains three generations of the matter fields together with four pairs of Higgses. The requirement of UV finiteness fixes all the Yukawa couplings at the GUT scale. Imposing the condition of universality on the soft couplings at the Planck scale and then extending the condition of finiteness to them, one gets a completely finite unified theory above M{sub GUT}. This makes the fine-tuning procedure more meaningful and leads to the usual Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model below M{sub GUT}. All the masses of the ordinary particles including Higgses are obtained due to the Higgs mechanism at the electro-weak scale. The hierarchy of quark and lepton masses is related to that of v.e.v.`s of the Higgs fields and is governed by the Higgs mixing matrix in the generation space. Superpartners develop their masses according to the RG equations starting from the soft terms at the Planck scale. The suggestion of complete finiteness and maximal simplicity of the unified theory leads to the connection between the initial values of soft SUSY breaking parameters, namely m{sub 0}{sup 2}=1/3m{sub 1/2}{sup 2}, A{sub t}=A{sub b}=A{sub {tau}}=-m{sub 1/2}, B=-m{sub 1/2}, so that the number of free parameters is less than that of the MSSM. (orig.).

  16. Softly broken finite supersymmetric grand unified theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, D. I.; Kalmykov, M. Yu.; Kondrashuk, I. N.; Gladyshev, A. V.

    1996-02-01

    In the context of the standard SUSY GUT scenario, we present a detailed analysis of the softly broken finite supersymmetric grand unified theory. The model, albeit nonminimal, remains very rigid due to the requirement of finiteness. It is based on the SU(5) gauge group and is UV finite to all orders of perturbation theory. It contains three generations of the matter fields together with four pairs of Higgses. The requirement of UV finiteness fixes all the Yukawa couplings at the GUT scale. Imposing the condition of universality on the soft couplings at the Planck scale and then extending the condition of finiteness to them, one gets a completely finite unified theory above MGUT. This makes the fine-tuning procedure more meaningful and leads to the usual Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model below MGUT. All the masses of the ordinary particles including Higgses are obtained due to the Higgs mechanism at the electro-weak scale. The hierarchy of quark and lepton masses is related to that of v.e.v.'s of the Higgs fields and is governed by the Higgs mixing matrix in the generation space. Superpartners develop their masses according to the RG equations starting from the soft terms at the Planck scale. The suggestion of complete finiteness and maximal simplicity of the unified theory leads to the connection between the initial values of soft SUSY breaking parameters, namely m 02 = {1}/{3}m {1}/{2}2, A t = A b = A τ= -m {1}/{2}, B = -m {1}/{2}, so that the number of free parameters is less than that of the MSSM.

  17. Integrating soft skills in higher education and the EFL classroom: Knowledge beyond language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevdovska Elena Spirovska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of soft skills in the context of higher education and in the context of the foreign language learning classroom. The article aims to define the notion of soft skills and to offer possible ways of grouping soft skills. It also provides ways of including soft skills instruction in the context of higher education. In addition, the article aims to propose models of implementing soft skills in foreign language learning and teaching situations and to suggest teaching procedures and activities which will facilitate the introduction of soft skills in the EFL (English as a foreign language classroom at South East European University. The article also aims to discuss the need of including soft skills in undergraduate studies curricula and to provide arguments in favour of including soft skills. The article will also present participants’ views and perceptions, collected via survey, of the importance and necessity of soft skills for their future careers and workplaces. The conclusion will offer some practical suggestions regarding soft skill inclusion in the EFL classroom.

  18. European surveillance study on antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazier, J; Chmelar, D; Dubreuil, L

    2008-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of microorganisms frequently isolated from local and systemic infections. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical strains isolated in 10 European countries were investigated. After identification of 299 GPAC...... to both agents. The majority of resistant isolates were identified as F. magna and originated from blood, abscesses and soft tissue infections....

  19. The Parameter Reduction of Fuzzy Soft Sets Based on Soft Fuzzy Rough Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy set theory, rough set theory, and soft set theory are three effective mathematical tools for dealing with uncertainties and have many wide applications both in theory and practise. Meng et al. (2011 introduced the notion of soft fuzzy rough sets by combining fuzzy sets, rough sets, and soft sets all together. The aim of this paper is to study the parameter reduction of fuzzy soft sets based on soft fuzzy rough approximation operators. We propose some concepts and conditions for two fuzzy soft sets to generate the same lower soft fuzzy rough approximation operators and the same upper soft fuzzy rough approximation operators. The concept of reduct of a fuzzy soft set is introduced and the procedure to find a reduct for a fuzzy soft set is given. Furthermore, the concept of exclusion of a fuzzy soft set is introduced and the procedure to find an exclusion for a fuzzy soft set is given.

  20. Optimization of a superconducting linear levitation system using a soft ferromagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agramunt-Puig, Sebastia; Del-Valle, Nuria; Navau, Carles, E-mail: carles.navau@uab.cat; Sanchez, Alvaro

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Study of the levitation of a superconducting bar over different magnetic guideways. ► A soft ferromagnet within permanent magnets improves levitation stability. ► We study the best geometry for large levitation force with full stability. -- Abstract: The use of guideways that combine permanent magnets and soft ferromagnetic materials is a common practice in magnetic levitation transport systems (maglevs) with bulk high-temperature superconductors. Theoretical tools to simulate in a realistic way both the behavior of all elements (permanent magnets, soft ferromagnet and superconductor) and their mutual effects are helpful to optimize the designs of real systems. Here we present a systematic study of the levitation of a maglev with translational symmetry consisting of a superconducting bar and a guideway with two identic permanent magnets and a soft ferromagnetic material between them. The system is simulated with a numerical model based on the energy minimization method that allows to analyze the mutual interaction of the superconductor, assumed to be in the critical state, and a soft ferromagnet with infinite susceptibility. Results indicate that introducing a soft ferromagnet within the permanent magnets not only increases the levitation force but also improves the stability. Besides, an estimation of the relative sizes and shapes of the soft ferromagnet, permanent magnets and the superconductor in order to obtain large levitation force with full stability is provided.

  1. Hard evidence on soft skills✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; Kautz, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of “cognitive ability” like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life. Achievement tests miss, or perhaps more accurately, do not adequately capture, soft skills—personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. The larger message of this paper is that soft skills predict success in life, that they causally produce that success, and that programs that enhance soft skills have an important place in an effective portfolio of public policies. PMID:23559694

  2. High performance soft magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the current state-of-the-art in soft magnetic materials and related applications, with particular focus on amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic wires and ribbons and sensor applications. Expert chapters cover preparation, processing, tuning of magnetic properties, modeling, and applications. Cost-effective soft magnetic materials are required in a range of industrial sectors, such as magnetic sensors and actuators, microelectronics, cell phones, security, automobiles, medicine, health monitoring, aerospace, informatics, and electrical engineering. This book presents both fundamentals and applications to enable academic and industry researchers to pursue further developments of these key materials. This highly interdisciplinary volume represents essential reading for researchers in materials science, magnetism, electrodynamics, and modeling who are interested in working with soft magnets. Covers magnetic microwires, sensor applications, amorphous and nanocrystalli...

  3. The electricity sector susceptibility of European countries to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel R.; Olonscheck, Mady; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    Due to the close relationship between electricity consumption, production and temperature, the electricity systems of countries are particularly susceptible to climate change. Based on a number of quantitative influencing factors, we provide a relative index for 21 European countries. This allows relevant stakeholders to identify the main influencing factors that determine the electricity system susceptibility of their country. The index was determined using 14 influencing factors that include those that increase or decrease susceptibility. This includes information on monthly mean temperature, electricity consumption, import, export and production by energy source for the period 2000-2011. Moreover, we consider the results of nine global climate models regarding future temperature changes as well as data on air conditioner prevalence by country. A quantitative relative ranked index describing the susceptibility of each country's electricity system is provided. In both Luxembourg and Greece, which top the list, the inability to meet electricity demand with inland production as well as a heavy reliance on combustible fuel electricity production explain part of the high relative susceptibility. Summer electricity consumption (another influencing factor) is expected to increase in Greece where current relatively warm temperatures, in the context of the countries included in this study, are expected to increase in the future. Comparatively, Norway was the least susceptible country based on our index. Norway is expected to benefit from rising projected temperatures, which will decrease winter electricity consumption and limit susceptibility. Furthermore, Norway's current electricity production exceeds consumption demand and is largely based on hydro, which also decreases susceptibility. The findings of this study enable policy makers, scientists and energy managers to examine the most important influencing factors that increase susceptibility and focus their adaptation

  4. Standard Neutrosophic Soft Theory: Some First Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Cong Cuong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional soft set is a mapping from a parameter set to family of all crisp subsets of a universe. Molodtsov introduced the soft set as a generalized tool for modelling complex systems involving uncertain or not clearly defined objects. In this paper, the notion of neutrosophic soft set is reanalysed. The novel theory is a combination of neutrosophic set theory and soft set theory. The complement, “and”, “or”, intersection and union operations are defined on the neutrosophic soft sets. The neutrosophic soft relations accompanied with their compositions are also defined. The basic properties of the neutrosophic soft sets, neutrosophic soft relations and neutrosophic soft compositions are also discussed.

  5. Soft Pneumatic Actuators for Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Belforte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic artificial muscles are pneumatic devices with practical and various applications as common actuators. They, as human muscles, work in agonistic-antagonistic way, giving a traction force only when supplied by compressed air. The state of the art of soft pneumatic actuators is here analyzed: different models of pneumatic muscles are considered and evolution lines are presented. Then, the use of Pneumatic Muscles (PAM in rehabilitation apparatus is described and the general characteristics required in different applications are considered, analyzing the use of proper soft actuators with various technical properties. Therefore, research activity carried out in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering in the field of soft and textile actuators is presented here. In particular, pneumatic textile muscles useful for active suits design are described. These components are made of a tubular structure, with an inner layer of latex coated with a deformable outer fabric sewn along the edge. In order to increase pneumatic muscles forces and contractions Braided Pneumatic Muscles are studied. In this paper, new prototypes are presented, based on a fabric construction and various kinds of geometry. Pressure-force-deformation tests results are carried out and analyzed. These actuators are useful for rehabilitation applications. In order to reproduce the whole upper limb movements, new kind of soft actuators are studied, based on the same principle of planar membranes deformation. As an example, the bellows muscle model and worm muscle model are developed and described. In both cases, wide deformations are expected. Another issue for soft actuators is the pressure therapy. Some textile sleeve prototypes developed for massage therapy on patients suffering of lymph edema are analyzed. Different types of fabric and assembly techniques have been tested. In general, these Pressure Soft Actuators are useful for upper/lower limbs treatments

  6. Fin Ray Effect Inspired Soft Robotic Gripper: From the RoboSoft Grand Challenge Toward Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney Crooks

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A soft robotic gripper for a Tele-operable In-Home Robotic Assistant (TIHRA for the mobility impaired is presented. This gripper is inspired by the Fin Ray textsuperscript textregistered Effect, which is derived from the physiology of fish fins. The gripper fingers are soft and triangular with hard crossbeams that buckle and deform in to conform around objects. The fingers of the TIHRA were altered from the original Fin Ray textsuperscript textregistered design in order to create a preferred bending direction, resulting in less force required to obtain a good grip on an object. The entire gripper can be 3D printed as part of a soft robotic hand made from hard and soft materials, and the motor-tendon actuation system attaches in a limited number of steps. Testing of the gripper included modeling the fingers and comparing grip strength them to the original Fin Ray textsuperscript textregistered} to verify their optimization. Models show that the TIHRA fingers deform 15 % more than traditional fingers when subjected to the same force. The TIHRA gripper was capable of holding 560 g, approximately 40 % more than the gripper equipped with traditional fingers. This difference was statistically significant (p $ ll$ 0.001. The TIHRA hand was also tested at the 2016 RoboSoft Grand Challenge in Livorno, Italy. The gripper successfully completed some tasks, highlighting its conformability, deformability, and morphology, but performed poorly in others, demonstrating the need to increase the gripper strength to prevent out of plane twisting and bending and to increase the force that the gripper can exert. The gripper was attached to a Baxter robot to demonstrate its ability to interface with existing technology, and other versions of the gripper were designed and manufactured to show the scalability and versatility of the design.

  7. Estimation of bonding nature using diamagnetic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Keisuke; Sato, Toyoto; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2015-05-21

    A chemical bond includes both covalent and ionic characteristics. We develop an experimental method to estimate the degree of each contribution based on magnetic susceptibility measurements, in which Pascal's scheme for Larmor diamagnetism is combined with electronegativity. The applicability to metal hydrides is also shown.

  8. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of various bacterial pathogens including extended spectrum betalactamase (ESBL) producers in Kano, Nigeria. Method: A total of 604 consecutive clinical samples obtained from Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. (AKTH), Kano between January and July 2010 were ...

  9. Caspofungin Etest susceptibility testing of Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Pfaller, Michael A; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or re...

  10. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotics susceptibility tests including, ESBL screening and confirmation, were carried out by disc diffusion technique using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) criteria. Results: Ten different types of bacteria genera were observed from nine different clinical samples. E. coli was the most frequently isolated bacteria ...

  11. Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.

  12. Alcohol increases hypnotic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens-Wheeler, Rebecca; Dienes, Zoltán; Duka, Theodora

    2013-09-01

    One approach to hypnosis suggests that for hypnotic experience to occur frontal lobe activity must be attenuated. For example, cold control theory posits that a lack of awareness of intentions is responsible for the experience of involuntariness and/or the subjective reality of hypnotic suggestions. The mid-dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex and the ACC are candidate regions for such awareness. Alcohol impairs frontal lobe executive function. This study examined whether alcohol affects hypnotisability. We administered 0.8 mg/kg of alcohol or a placebo to 32 medium susceptible participants. They were subsequently hypnotised and given hypnotic suggestions. All participants believed they had received some alcohol. Participants in the alcohol condition were more susceptible to hypnotic suggestions than participants in the placebo condition. Impaired frontal lobe activity facilitates hypnotic responding, which supports theories postulating that attenuation of executive function facilitates hypnotic response, and contradicts theories postulating that hypnotic response involves enhanced inhibitory, attentional or other executive function. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Soft Skill: Its Urgency and Development at Islamic Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sabri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The success of a person in a career work is not only determined by his or her technical capability, but also the non-technical skills which is so called ‘soft-skills’.  It is an attitude which is exemplified among the cognitive and values in the interaction with people around. Several identified falures in the community’s life indicate that many Islamic university graduates suffered from lack of ability to build  harmonious relationship with the environment.  Therefore, it is a high time for this institution to consistently instil some types of soft-skills on the parts of the students.  The current study shares the urgent needs for developing students’ soft-skills for Islamic colleges and universities. The paper ends up with several conclusions while promoting some commitments to be held by the faculty development including: the identification of soft-skills that have already existed in the students’ minds and which need to be developed, the exploration of soft skills attributes for the next 5 years based on the inspiration or opinion of the stake holders and alumnaes, the setting of action plan for academic and non-cademic agendas, acting out the planned activities, as well as the sustainable blue-print of valid soft-skills. Copyright © 2014 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  14. Health Safety of Soft Drinks: Contents, Containers, and Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kregiel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation has been put in place to ensure that soft drinks manufacturers conform to established national and international standards. Consumers trust that the soft drinks they buy are safe and their quality is guaranteed. They also expect to be provided with information that can help them to make informed decisions about the purchase of products and that the information on product labels is not false or misleading. This paper provides a broad overview of available scientific knowledge and cites numerous studies on various aspects of soft drinks and their implications for health safety. Particular attention is given to ingredients, including artificial flavorings, colorings, and preservatives and to the lesser known risks of microbiological and chemical contamination during processing and storage.

  15. A survey on dielectric elastomer actuators for soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guo-Ying; Zhu, Jian; Zhu, Li-Min; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2017-01-23

    Conventional industrial robots with the rigid actuation technology have made great progress for humans in the fields of automation assembly and manufacturing. With an increasing number of robots needing to interact with humans and unstructured environments, there is a need for soft robots capable of sustaining large deformation while inducing little pressure or damage when maneuvering through confined spaces. The emergence of soft robotics offers the prospect of applying soft actuators as artificial muscles in robots, replacing traditional rigid actuators. Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are recognized as one of the most promising soft actuation technologies due to the facts that: i) dielectric elastomers are kind of soft, motion-generating materials that resemble natural muscle of humans in terms of force, strain (displacement per unit length or area) and actuation pressure/density; ii) dielectric elastomers can produce large voltage-induced deformation. In this survey, we first introduce the so-called DEAs emphasizing the key points of working principle, key components and electromechanical modeling approaches. Then, different DEA-driven soft robots, including wearable/humanoid robots, walking/serpentine robots, flying robots and swimming robots, are reviewed. Lastly, we summarize the challenges and opportunities for the further studies in terms of mechanism design, dynamics modeling and autonomous control.

  16. KeraSoft 3 contact lenses in corneal ectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçakhan, Omür O; Bayraktutar, Betül

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and on-eye performance of KeraSoft 3 contact lenses (UltraVision) in ectatic corneal diseases. The charts of patients who were fit with KeraSoft 3 were reviewed. The reason for KeraSoft 3 lens fit, the number of trial lenses required for ideal fit, centration, movement, and stabilization of the contact lens, uncorrected, spectacle-corrected, and contact lens-corrected visual acuities, slitlamp biomicroscopy findings, patient comfort, and daily duration of contact lens wear were evaluated. Seventy eyes of 40 patients were fit with the KeraSoft 3 lens. Indications included rigid gas permeable (RGP) lens intolerance in 41 eyes of 24 patients (58.5%), patients' desire to use soft contact lenses in 26 eyes of 14 patients (37.1%), and proud nebula in 3 eyes of 2 patients (4.4%). The number of trial lenses required for ideal fit was 1.2±0.4 lenses. Eleven patients (20 eyes, 29%) never purchased the contact lens, 15 patients (26 eyes, 37%) discontinued after purchasing, and 14 patients (24 eyes, 34%) continued successfully wearing their lenses. In the latter group, the visual acuity improved significantly (Pcontact lenses as "very good" to "excellent," with a desire to continue wearing them. In refractive correction of corneal ectasia, KeraSoft 3 contact lenses seem to be a good alternative to RGP lenses before more sophisticated lenses such as hybrid or scleral lenses are tried.

  17. Development of a soft untethered robot using artificial muscle actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiawei; Qin, Lei; Lee, Heow Pueh; Zhu, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Soft robots have attracted much interest recently, due to their potential capability to work effectively in unstructured environment. Soft actuators are key components in soft robots. Dielectric elastomer actuators are one class of soft actuators, which can deform in response to voltage. Dielectric elastomer actuators exhibit interesting attributes including large voltage-induced deformation and high energy density. These attributes make dielectric elastomer actuators capable of functioning as artificial muscles for soft robots. It is significant to develop untethered robots, since connecting the cables to external power sources greatly limits the robots' functionalities, especially autonomous movements. In this paper we develop a soft untethered robot based on dielectric elastomer actuators. This robot mainly consists of a deformable robotic body and two paper-based feet. The robotic body is essentially a dielectric elastomer actuator, which can expand or shrink at voltage on or off. In addition, the two feet can achieve adhesion or detachment based on the mechanism of electroadhesion. In general, the entire robotic system can be controlled by electricity or voltage. By optimizing the mechanical design of the robot (the size and weight of electric circuits), we put all these components (such as batteries, voltage amplifiers, control circuits, etc.) onto the robotic feet, and the robot is capable of realizing autonomous movements. Experiments are conducted to study the robot's locomotion. Finite element method is employed to interpret the deformation of dielectric elastomer actuators, and the simulations are qualitatively consistent with the experimental observations.

  18. The Aging Kidney: Increased Susceptibility to Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhui Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Three decades have passed since a series of studies indicated that the aging kidney was characterized by increased susceptibility to nephrotoxic injury. Data from these experimental models is strengthened by clinical data demonstrating that the aging population has an increased incidence and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI. Since then a number of studies have focused on age-dependent alterations in pathways that predispose the kidney to acute insult. This review will focus on the mechanisms that are altered by aging in the kidney that may increase susceptibility to injury, including hemodynamics, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, inflammation and decreased repair.

  19. Soft QGP probes with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Graczykowski, Łukasz Kamil

    2016-01-01

    In heavy-ion collisions at the LHC a hot and dense medium of deconfided partons, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), is created. Its global properties can be characterized by the measurements of particles in the low transverse momentum (or "soft") regime, which represent the majority of created particles. In this report we outline a selection of measurements of the soft probes by the ALICE experiment in pp, p--Pb, and Pb--Pb collisions. The paper focuses on recent flow measurements via angular correlations and femtoscopic studies. The first ever preliminary analysis of $\\mathrm{K}^0_{\\rm S}\\mathrm{K}^{\\pm}$ femtoscopy is also presented.

  20. ``Soft X-ray transient'' outbursts which are not soft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocksopp, C.; Bandyopadhyay, R.M.; Fender, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    We have accumulated multiwavelength (X-ray, optical, radio) lightcurves for the eight black hole X-ray binaries which have been observed to enter a supposed `soft X-ray transient' outburst, but remained in the low/hard state throughout the outburst. Comparison of the lightcurve morphologies,

  1. Paleoredoc and pyritization of soft-bodied fossils in the Ordovician Frankfort Shale of New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, Una C.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Hammarlund, Emma U.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple beds in the Frankfort Shale (Upper Ordovician, New York State), including the original "Beecher's Trilobite Bed," yield fossils with pyritized soft-tissues. A bed-by-bed geochemical and sedimentological analysis was carried out to test previous models of soft-tissue pyritization by inves......Multiple beds in the Frankfort Shale (Upper Ordovician, New York State), including the original "Beecher's Trilobite Bed," yield fossils with pyritized soft-tissues. A bed-by-bed geochemical and sedimentological analysis was carried out to test previous models of soft-tissue pyritization...

  2. Soft Neutrosophic Bi-LA-semigroup and Soft Neutrosophic N-LA-seigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly defined objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic biLA-semigroup,soft neutosophic sub bi-LA-semigroup, soft neutrosophic N -LA-semigroup with the discuission of some of their characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic bi-LAsemigroup, the so called soft strong neutrosophic bi-LAsemigoup which is of pure neutrosophic character. This is also extend to soft neutrosophic strong N-LA-semigroup. We also given some of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic theory.

  3. Soft Neutrosophic Groupoids and Their Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly defined objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic groupoid and their generalization with the discuissionf of some of their characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic groupoid, the so called soft strong neutrosophic goupoid which is of pure neutrosophic character. This notion also found in all the other corresponding notions of soft neutrosophic thoery. We also given some of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic theory.

  4. Morphing soft magnetic composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vinh Quang; Ahmed, Anansa S; Ramanujan, Raju V

    2012-08-08

    Magnet filler-polymer matrix composites (Magpol) are an emerging class of morphing materials. Applications of Magpol can include artificial muscles, drug delivery, adaptive optics and self healing structures. Advantages of Magpol include remote contactless actuation, several actuation modes, high actuation strain and strain rate, self-sensing and quick response. The actuation modes of Magpol, its dynamic properties, work output and transduction characteristics are described. Analogies between Magpol actuation and phase transformations are presented. As an illustration of Magpol actuation, a proof of concept artificial muscle is presented. Current applications and future prospects are described. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Laser induced forward transfer of soft materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla-Papavlu, A.; Dinca, V.; Luculescu, C.; Shaw-Stewart, J.; Nagel, M.; Lippert, T.; Dinescu, M.

    2010-12-01

    A strong research effort is presently aimed at patterning methodologies for obtaining controlled defined micrometric polymeric structures for a wide range of applications, including electronics, optoelectronics, sensors, medicine etc. Lasers have been identified as appropriate tools for processing of different materials, such as ceramics and metals, but also for soft, easily damageable materials (biological compounds and polymers). In this work we study the dynamics of laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) with a gap between the donor and the receiver substrates, which is the basis for possible applications that require multilayer depositions with high spatial resolution.

  6. 22nd International Conference on Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This proceeding book contains a collection of selected accepted papers of the Mendel conference held in Brno, Czech Republic in June 2016. The proceedings book contains three chapters which present recent advances in soft computing including intelligent image processing. The Mendel conference was established in 1995 and is named after the scientist and Augustinian priest Gregor J. Mendel who discovered the famous Laws of Heredity. The main aim of the conference is to create a regular possibility for students, academics and researchers to exchange ideas and novel research methods on a yearly basis.

  7. How Soft Power Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-03

    power is similar to cultural influence. Prominent examples of this view include those of British historian Niall Ferguson and German publicist Josef...Stability (New York: Kluwer Academic, 1999), p. 412; Tricia S. Jones and Ross Brinkert, Conflict Couching: Conflict Management Strategies and Skills for

  8. A genome wide linkage search for breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Paula; McGuffog, Lesley; Easton, Douglas F.; Mann, Graham J.; Pupo, Gulietta M.; Newman, Beth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Szabo, Csilla; Southey, Melissa; Renard, Hélène; Odefrey, Fabrice; Lynch, Henry; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Couch, Fergus; Hopper, John L.; Giles, Graham G.; McCredie, Margaret R. E.; Buys, Saundra; Andrulis, Irene; Senie, Ruby; Goldgar, David E.; Oldenburg, Rogier; Kroeze-Jansema, Karin; Kraan, Jaennelle; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Klijn, Jan G. M.; van Asperen, Christi; van Leeuwen, Inge; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Cornelisse, Cees J.; Devilee, Peter; Baskcomb, Linda; Seal, Sheila; Barfoot, Rita; Mangion, Jon; Hall, Anita; Edkins, Sarah; Rapley, Elizabeth; Wooster, Richard; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Eccles, Diana; Evans, D. Gareth; Futreal, P. Andrew; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Weber, Barbara L.; Rahman, Nazneen; Stratton, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in known breast cancer susceptibility genes account for a minority of the familial aggregation of the disease. To search for further breast cancer susceptibility genes, we performed a combined analysis of four genome-wide linkage screens, which included a total of 149 multiple case breast

  9. Assessing soft skills components in science and technology programs within Malaysian Technical Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Kahirol Mohd Salleh; Nor Lisa Sulaiman; Mimi Mohaffyza Mohamad; Lai Chee Sern

    2017-01-01

    The workforce is a social environment where particular skills are essential in order for workers to perform well, have a competitive edge and succeed in their careers. A soft skill is one of the skills needed in every type of workplace setting. Soft skills include communication skills, collaboration skills, entrepreneurship, and others. Workplace need workers who are competent not only with technical skills but who also have soft skills. There is lack of literature discussion on the ...

  10. Graphene susceptibility in Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Hamze, E-mail: hamze.mousavi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Nano Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We study the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the temperature dependence of the orbital magnetic susceptibility of monolayer graphene. We use the linear response theory and Green's function formalism within the Holstein Hamiltonian model. The results show that the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene sheet have different behaviors in two temperature regions. In the low temperature region, susceptibility increases when the electron-phonon coupling strength increases. On the other hand, the susceptibility reduces with increasing the electron-phonon coupling strength in the high temperature region. - Highlights: Effect of electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene is studied. Linear response theory and Green's function technique in Holstein model are used. Effect of electron-phonon on susceptibility has different behaviors in two temperature regions.

  11. Rotational alignment in soft nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojarov, R. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Yadrena Fizika i Yadrena Energetika)

    1983-12-08

    It is shown that in transitional odd-A nuclei, where the rotation-aligned coupling scheme usually takes place, the low collective angular momentum states of the decoupled band are not completely aligned due to core softness. This is illustrated on the example of La-nuclei.

  12. Electrophoresis of diffuse soft particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duval, J.F.L.; Ohshima, H.

    2006-01-01

    A theory is presented for the electrophoresis of diffuse soft particles in a steady dc electric field. The particles investigated consist of an uncharged impenetrable core and a charged diffuse polyelectrolytic shell, which is to some extent permeable to ions and solvent molecules. The diffuse

  13. Grounding experiments on soft bottoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sterndorff, M.J.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    To verify a theoretical analysis procedure for calculation of the hull girder response of ships running aground, a series of large-scale ship grounding experiments was performed on an artificial island made of engineered fill. The tests were conducted by running a condemned fishing vessel up...... for grounding on soft bottoms....

  14. Imaging of soft tissue tumors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schepper, A. M. A. de; Vanhoenacker, F; Parizel, P. M; Gielen, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    ... studies. The scientific value of the BSTNR increased with the installation of a peer-review group of pathologists, all of whom shared a large amount of experience in soft tissue tumor pathology. They reviewed the pathological findings of all malignant tumors, all exceptional tumors, and all tumors in which there was a discordance between...

  15. Soft-Collinear Effective Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    I will review the basic principles about Soft-Collinear Effective Theory. I will focus on how it can be used to understand factorization properties and how one can resum large logarithms arising from infrared physics using the renormalization group evolution.

  16. Hard Thinking about Soft Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Guy; Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2016-01-01

    People use various terms to refer to traits and tendencies connected to social-emotional behavior and ways of thinking or approaching problems--from 21st century skills to mindsets to habits of mind. Such traits are also often called soft skills or non-cognitive skills. The authors contend that these latter terms imply that these traits and…

  17. Topological susceptibility from slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Forcrand, Philippe de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); CERN, Physics Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gerber, Urs [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58040 (Mexico)

    2015-12-14

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility χ{sub t}. In principle it seems straightforward to measure χ{sub t} by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure χ{sub t} even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of χ{sub t}, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear σ-models.

  18. Topological Susceptibility from Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Gerber, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility chi_t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure chi_t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure chi_t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models.

  19. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorquinaldol against Microorganisms Responsible for Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: Comparative Evaluation with Gentamicin and Fusidic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bortolin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs are a major therapeutic challenge for clinicians. The emergence of pathogens with decreased susceptibility to available therapies has become an emerging problem often associated with treatment failure. Hence, there is an urgent need for novel broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of chlorquinaldol as an alternative approach to currently used topical antibiotics for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. The activity of chlorquinaldol was investigated against a collection of bacterial isolates responsible for skin infections, including strains resistant to fusidic acid and gentamicin. After determination of MIC and MBC, time-kill experiments were carried out by counting colonies grown after 0, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 h of incubation with concentrations equal to ¼×, ½×, 1×, 2×, and 4× MIC of chlorquinaldol, gentamicin, or fusidic acid. Staphylococci resulted the Gram-positives most sensitive to chlorquinaldol, with MIC-values ranging from 0.016 to 0.5 mg/L. A lower activity was observed against Gram-negative bacteria, with 77% of the isolates being inhibited at concentrations ranging from 128 to 512 mg/L. Generally, in time-kill studies, chlorquinaldol showed a bactericidal activity at the higher concentrations (2×, 4× MIC after 24–48 h of incubation. In conclusion, chlorquinaldol may represent a valuable alternative to conventional topical antibiotics for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections.

  20. Third trimester ultrasound soft-tissue measurements accurately predicts macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruotti, Giuseppe Maria; Saccone, Gabriele; Martinelli, Pasquale

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of sonographic measurements of fetal soft tissue in the prediction of macrosomia. Electronic databases were searched from their inception until September 2015 with no limit for language. We included only studies assessing the accuracy of sonographic measurements of fetal soft tissue in the abdomen or thigh in the prediction of macrosomia  ≥34 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was the accuracy of sonographic measurements of fetal soft tissue in the prediction of macrosomia. We generated the forest plot for the pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence interval (CI). Additionally, summary receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves were plotted and the area under the curve (AUC) was also computed to evaluate the overall performance of the diagnostic test accuracy. Three studies, including 287 singleton gestations, were analyzed. The pooled sensitivity of sonographic measurements of abdominal or thigh fetal soft tissue in the prediction of macrosomia was 80% (95% CI: 66-89%) and the pooled specificity was 95% (95% CI: 91-97%). The AUC for diagnostic accuracy of sonographic measurements of fetal soft tissue in the prediction of macrosomia was 0.92 and suggested high diagnostic accuracy. Third-trimester sonographic measurements of fetal soft tissue after 34 weeks may help to detect macrosomia with a high degree of accuracy. The pooled detection rate was 80%. A standardization of measurements criteria, reproducibility, building reference charts of fetal subcutaneous tissue and large studies to assess the optimal cutoff of fetal adipose thickness are necessary before the introduction of fetal soft-tissue markers in the clinical practice.

  1. Stages of Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tissue Sarcoma Treatment Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Go to Health Professional Version ...

  2. Subleading soft graviton theorem for loop amplitudes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sen, Ashoke

    2017-01-01

    ... or more. We prove the subleading soft graviton theorem in these theories to all orders in perturbation theory for S-matrix elements of arbitrary number of finite energy external states but only one external soft graviton...

  3. Interval Valued Fuzzy Neutrosophic Soft Structure Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Arockiarani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the topological structure of interval valued fuzzy neutrosophic soft sets and obtain some of its properties. We also investigate some operators of interval valued fuzzy neutrosophic soft topological space.

  4. Planar Elongation Measurements on Soft Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2009-01-01

    A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation....

  5. Identification of 12 new susceptibility loci for different histotypes of epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phelan, Catherine M; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Tyrer, Jonathan P

    2017-01-01

    , including 3,887 mutation carriers with EOC. This identified three additional susceptibility loci at 2q13, 8q24.1 and 12q24.31. Integrated analyses of genes and regulatory biofeatures at each locus predicted candidate susceptibility genes, including OBFC1, a new candidate susceptibility gene for low...

  6. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    capabilities and meanings of the body; as well as the qualities and capabilities afforded by smart and programmable elements. Textiles behave in particular ways. They are part of culture. No matter a person’s views on fashion or dress, they will have an intimate relationship with textiles, as they are one...... of the few products worn much of the time, close to the body. When designing wearables a designer must consider a range of requirements that do not typically demand focus when designing products that are not worn, including: a particular sensitivity for material details; an eye for fit and comfort on bodies...

  7. Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization and soft tissue infection among high school football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Aaron; McCord, Gary; Peiffer, Jeffrey; Watkins, Richard R; Parikh, Arpan; Warrington, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections have been documented with increasing frequency in both team and individual sports in recent years. It also seems that the level of MRSA skin and soft tissue infections in the general population has increased. One hundred ninety athletes from 6 local high school football teams were recruited for this prospective observational study to document nasal colonization and the potential role this plays in skin and soft tissue infections in football players and, in particular, MRSA infections. Athletes had nasal swabs done before their season started, and they filled out questionnaires regarding potential risk factors for skin and soft tissue infections. Those enrolled in the study were then observed over the course of the season for skin and soft tissue infections. Those infected had data about their infections collected. One hundred ninety of 386 available student athletes enrolled in the study. Forty-four of the subjects had nasal colonization with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and none were colonized with MRSA. There were 10 skin and soft tissue infections (8 bacterial and 2 fungal) documented over the course of the season. All were treated as outpatients with oral or topical antibiotics, and none were considered serious. Survey data from the preseason questionnaire showed 21% with skin infection, 11% with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and none with MRSA infection during the past year. Three reported a remote history of MRSA infection. We documented an overall skin infection rate of 5.3% among high school football players over a single season. Our results suggest that skin and soft tissue infection may not be widespread among high school athletes in northeast Ohio.

  8. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  9. Soft Power and Smart Power in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    World Politics , 1st ed. (New York: Public Affairs, 2004), x. 2. CSIS Commission on Smart Power: A Smarter, More Secure America (Washington, D.C...4. Ibid. 5. Nye, Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics , xi and 1. 6. Ernest J. Wilson III, "Hard Power, Soft Power, Smart Power," The...548. 25. Nye, Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics , 5. 26. Nye, Public Diplomacy and Soft Power, 95. 27. Nye, Limits of American Power

  10. Applications of Soft Sets in -Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Alshehri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1999, Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty and vagueness. In this paper, we apply the concept of soft sets to K-algebras and investigate some properties of Abelian soft K-algebras. We also introduce the concept of soft intersection K-algebras and investigate some of their properties.

  11. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? (log-in required) Select Page Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Mar 31, 2017 Links updated, ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  12. Gunshot wounds: epidemiology, wound ballistics, and soft-tissue treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Paul J; Najibi, Soheil; Silverton, Craig; Vaidya, Rahul

    2009-01-01

    The extremities are the most common anatomic location for gunshot wounds. Because of the prevalence of gunshot injuries, it is important that orthopaedic surgeons are knowledgeable about caring for them. The most common injuries seen with gunshot wounds are those of the soft tissues. Nonsurgical management of patients who have gunshot wounds with minimal soft-tissue disruption has been successfully accomplished in emergency departments for several years; this includes extremity wounds without nerve, intra-articular, or vascular injury. Stable, nonarticular fractures of an extremity have also been successfully treated with either minimal surgical or nonsurgical methods in the emergency department. Indications for surgical treatment include unstable fractures, intra-articular injuries, a significant soft-tissue injury (especially with skin loss), vascular injury, and/or a large or expanding hematoma.

  13. A plant-inspired robot with soft differential bending capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, A; Mondini, A; Del Dottore, E; Mattoli, V; Beccai, L; Taccola, S; Lucarotti, C; Totaro, M; Mazzolai, B

    2016-12-20

    We present the design and development of a plant-inspired robot, named Plantoid, with sensorized robotic roots. Natural roots have a multi-sensing capability and show a soft bending behaviour to follow or escape from various environmental parameters (i.e., tropisms). Analogously, we implement soft bending capabilities in our robotic roots by designing and integrating soft spring-based actuation (SSBA) systems using helical springs to transmit the motor power in a compliant manner. Each robotic tip integrates four different sensors, including customised flexible touch and innovative humidity sensors together with commercial gravity and temperature sensors. We show how the embedded sensing capabilities together with a root-inspired control algorithm lead to the implementation of tropic behaviours. Future applications for such plant-inspired technologies include soil monitoring and exploration, useful for agriculture and environmental fields.

  14. Subsubleading soft theorems of gravitons and dilatons in the bosonic string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchia, Paolo Di [The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen,Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); NORDITA, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Marotta, Raffaele [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli,Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo ed. 6, via Cintia, 80126, Napoli (Italy); Mojaza, Matin [NORDITA, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-06-09

    Starting from the amplitude with an arbitrary number of massless closed states of the bosonic string, we compute the soft limit when one of the states becomes soft to subsubleading order in the soft momentum expansion, and we show that when the soft state is a graviton or a dilaton, the full string amplitude can be expressed as a soft theorem through subsubleading order. It turns out that there are string corrections to the field theoretical limit in the case of a soft graviton, while for a soft dilaton the string corrections vanish. We then show that the new soft theorems, including the string corrections, can be simply obtained from the exchange diagrams where the soft state is attached to the other external states through the three-point string vertex of three massless states. In the soft-limit, the propagator of the exchanged state is divergent, and at tree-level these are the only divergent contributions to the full amplitude. However, they do not form a gauge invariant subset and must be supplemented with extra non-singular terms. The requirement of gauge invariance then fixes the complete amplitude through subsubleading order in the soft expansion, reproducing exactly what one gets from the explicit calculation in string theory. From this it is seen that the string corrections at subsubleading order arise as a consequence of the three-point amplitude having string corrections in the bosonic string. When specialized to a soft dilaton, it remarkably turns out that the string corrections vanish and that the non-singular piece of the subsubleading term of the dilaton soft theorem is the generator of space-time special conformal transformation.

  15. Hardware for soft computing and soft computing for hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Nedjah, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Single and Multi-Objective Evolutionary Computation (MOEA),  Genetic Algorithms (GAs), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Fuzzy Controllers (FCs), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Ant colony Optimization (ACO) are becoming omnipresent in almost every intelligent system design. Unfortunately, the application of the majority of these techniques is complex and so requires a huge computational effort to yield useful and practical results. Therefore, dedicated hardware for evolutionary, neural and fuzzy computation is a key issue for designers. With the spread of reconfigurable hardware such as FPGAs, digital as well as analog hardware implementations of such computation become cost-effective. The idea behind this book is to offer a variety of hardware designs for soft computing techniques that can be embedded in any final product. Also, to introduce the successful application of soft computing technique to solve many hard problem encountered during the design of embedded hardware designs. Reconfigurable em...

  16. Differential susceptibility to the environment: an evolutionary--neurodevelopmental theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J; Boyce, W Thomas; Belsky, Jay; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2011-02-01

    Two extant evolutionary models, biological sensitivity to context theory (BSCT) and differential susceptibility theory (DST), converge on the hypothesis that some individuals are more susceptible than others to both negative (risk-promoting) and positive (development-enhancing) environmental conditions. These models contrast with the currently dominant perspective on personal vulnerability and environmental risk: diathesis stress/dual risk. We review challenges to this perspective based on emerging theory and data from the evolutionary, developmental, and health sciences. These challenges signify the need for a paradigm shift in conceptualizing Person x Environment interactions in development. In this context we advance an evolutionary--neurodevelopmental theory, based on DST and BSCT, of the role of neurobiological susceptibility to the environment in regulating environmental effects on adaptation, development, and health. We then outline current thinking about neurogenomic and endophenotypic mechanisms that may underpin neurobiological susceptibility, summarize extant empirical research on differential susceptibility, and evaluate the evolutionary bases and implications of BSCT and DST. Finally, we discuss applied issues including methodological and statistical considerations in conducting differential susceptibility research; issues of ecological, cultural, and racial--ethnic variation in neurobiological susceptibility; and implications of differential susceptibility for designing social programs. We conclude that the differential susceptibility paradigm has far-reaching implications for understanding whether and how much child and adult development responds, for better and for worse, to the gamut of species-typical environmental conditions.

  17. Wanted: Soft Skills for Today's Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Barton J.

    2017-01-01

    Educating high school students for both college and career is difficult. Teaching trade skills seems alien to the academic culture. But new research indicates that soft skills are quite important to judgments of employability and that youth learn many soft skills in traditional academic subjects (e.g., literature). A focus on soft skills allows…

  18. Windchill-201 - Custom Soft-Type Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will explain Windchill soft-types-what they are, how they work, and how to construct custom ones, configured specifically for your system. The process and particulars of creating and implementing a WTDocument soft-type will be discussed, and the interaction between soft-types and Windchill objects will be shown.

  19. Subalgebras of BCK/BCI-Algebras Based on Cubic Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Muhiuddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Operations of cubic soft sets including “AND” operation and “OR” operation based on P-orders and R-orders are introduced and some related properties are investigated. An example is presented to show that the R-union of two internal cubic soft sets might not be internal. A sufficient condition is provided, which ensure that the R-union of two internal cubic soft sets is also internal. Moreover, some properties of cubic soft subalgebras of BCK/BCI-algebras based on a given parameter are discussed.

  20. MR imaging of uncommon soft tissue tumors in the foot: a pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Joo; Chun, Kyung Ah; Kim, Jee Young; Sung, Mi Sook; Kim, Ki Tae [The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    The large variety of masses occur in the foot. The foot is a comparatively rare site of soft tissue neoplasms. MRI has greatly improved the ability to detect and delineate soft tissue lesions and is now considered the gold-standard imaging technique in their investigation. Recently, we have encountered rare soft tissue tumors of the foot. The presented cases include benign masses such as granuloma annulare, angiomyoma, neural fibrolipoma, and giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, as well as malignant tumors such as melanoma, synovial sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. We wish to illustrate the MR findings of these uncommon soft tissue mors to aid in their diagnosis.

  1. Applications of Soft Union Sets in the Ring Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Yang

    2013-01-01

    through discussing quotient soft subsets, an approach for constructing quotient soft union rings is made. Finally, isomorphism theorems of λ,μ-soft union rings related to invariant soft sets are discussed.

  2. Soft error rate simulation and initial design considerations of neutron intercepting silicon chip (NISC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Cihangir

    Advances in microelectronics result in sub-micrometer electronic technologies as predicted by Moore's Law, 1965, which states the number of transistors in a given space would double every two years. The most available memory architectures today have submicrometer transistor dimensions. The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), a continuation of Moore's Law, predicts that Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) will have an average half pitch size of 50 nm and Microprocessor Units (MPU) will have an average gate length of 30 nm over the period of 2008-2012. Decreases in the dimensions satisfy the producer and consumer requirements of low power consumption, more data storage for a given space, faster clock speed, and portability of integrated circuits (IC), particularly memories. On the other hand, these properties also lead to a higher susceptibility of IC designs to temperature, magnetic interference, power supply, and environmental noise, and radiation. Radiation can directly or indirectly affect device operation. When a single energetic particle strikes a sensitive node in the micro-electronic device, it can cause a permanent or transient malfunction in the device. This behavior is called a Single Event Effect (SEE). SEEs are mostly transient errors that generate an electric pulse which alters the state of a logic node in the memory device without having a permanent effect on the functionality of the device. This is called a Single Event Upset (SEU) or Soft Error . Contrary to SEU, Single Event Latchup (SEL), Single Event Gate Rapture (SEGR), or Single Event Burnout (SEB) they have permanent effects on the device operation and a system reset or recovery is needed to return to proper operations. The rate at which a device or system encounters soft errors is defined as Soft Error Rate (SER). The semiconductor industry has been struggling with SEEs and is taking necessary measures in order to continue to improve system designs in nano

  3. Optimization of a superconducting linear levitation system using a soft ferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agramunt-Puig, Sebastia; Del-Valle, Nuria; Navau, Carles; Sanchez, Alvaro

    2013-04-01

    The use of guideways that combine permanent magnets and soft ferromagnetic materials is a common practice in magnetic levitation transport systems (maglevs) with bulk high-temperature superconductors. Theoretical tools to simulate in a realistic way both the behavior of all elements (permanent magnets, soft ferromagnet and superconductor) and their mutual effects are helpful to optimize the designs of real systems. Here we present a systematic study of the levitation of a maglev with translational symmetry consisting of a superconducting bar and a guideway with two identic permanent magnets and a soft ferromagnetic material between them. The system is simulated with a numerical model based on the energy minimization method that allows to analyze the mutual interaction of the superconductor, assumed to be in the critical state, and a soft ferromagnet with infinite susceptibility. Results indicate that introducing a soft ferromagnet within the permanent magnets not only increases the levitation force but also improves the stability. Besides, an estimation of the relative sizes and shapes of the soft ferromagnet, permanent magnets and the superconductor in order to obtain large levitation force with full stability is provided.

  4. Listening to Include

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veck, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to make important connections between listening and inclusive education and the refusal to listen and exclusion. Two lines of argument are advanced. First, if educators and learners are to include each other within their educational institutions as unique individuals, then they will need to listen attentively to each other.…

  5. Microwave susceptibility experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConaghy, C.

    1984-05-29

    In certain experimental environments, systems can be affected or damaged by microwave pulses. I have conducted tests at LLNL to understand the phenomenology of microwave susceptibility of system components and subsystem components. To date, my experiments have concentrated on bipolar transistors, similar to what might be used in discrete analog circuits, and on CMOS RAM chips, which might be used in a computer memory system. I observed a decrease in failure energies for both the transistor and the integrated curcuit as I shortened the microwave pulse width. An S band (2.86 GHz) transmit/receive (T/R) tube has also been tested both at S band and at X band (8.16 GHz). The S band pulse had limitations in rise-time from zero power, which had an effect on the amount of power that could be transmitted through the T/R tube, as much as 0.7% of the incident power passed through the tube. All tests were conducted in closed-waveguide or coax test-fixtures, in contrast to the anechoic chambers utilized by other experimenters. I have used both S band and X band Klystron generators. For very high power (greater than 1 MW), I used an additional pulse-compression cavity at S band. Other subsystem components such as an X band mixer and an X band T/R tube will be tested in the future. 8 references.

  6. Soft computing for business intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Rafael; Cobo, Angel; Marx, Jorge; Valdés, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The book Soft Computing for Business Intelligence is the remarkable output of a program based on the idea of joint trans-disciplinary research as supported by the Eureka Iberoamerica Network and the University of Oldenburg. It contains twenty-seven papers allocated to three sections: Soft Computing, Business Intelligence and Knowledge Discovery, and Knowledge Management and Decision Making. Although the contents touch different domains they are similar in so far as they follow the BI principle “Observation and Analysis” while keeping a practical oriented theoretical eye on sound methodologies, like Fuzzy Logic, Compensatory Fuzzy Logic (CFL), Rough Sets and other softcomputing elements. The book tears down the traditional focus on business, and extends Business Intelligence techniques in an impressive way to a broad range of fields like medicine, environment, wind farming, social collaboration and interaction, car sharing and sustainability.

  7. In Defense of Soft Universalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is work in progress, a preliminary attempt to present a position of soft universalism as regards human rights. The position is not seen as a compromise between contradicting perceptions, universalism and relativism, but rather as a better and more correct position. It takes...... human rights is the emerging global society, and human rights law is therefore best understood as (part of) the law of this emerging society. Seen in this way, human rights are an attempt to cope with a (partly) new situation, based on knowledge of human beings and society, a knowledge which has...... improved considerably since the time of the natural rights theories and the enlightenment. As a consequence prevailing international human rights are not the only possible human rights, and soft universalism is therefore partially open as regards the content of human rights, even though non discrimination...

  8. Special relativity from soft gravitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Mark P.; Sandora, McCullen

    2017-10-01

    We study all translationally and rotationally invariant local theories involving massless spin 2 and spin 1 particles that mediate long range forces, allowing for general energy relations and violation of boost invariance. Although gauge invariance is not a priori required to describe non-Lorentz invariant theories, we first establish that locality requires soft gauge invariance. Then by taking the soft graviton limit in scattering amplitudes, we prove that in addition to the usual requirement of universal graviton couplings, the special relativistic energy-momentum relation is also required and must be exact. We contrast this to the case of theories with only spin ≤1 particles, where, although we can still derive charge conservation from locality, special relativity can be easily violated. We provide indications that the entire structure of relativity can be built up from spin 2 in this fashion.

  9. Nanoscale mixing of soft solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Sangwoo; Soto, Haidy E; Lodge, Timothy P; Bates, Frank S

    2011-02-16

    Assessing the state of mixing on the molecular scale in soft solids is challenging. Concentrated solutions of micelles formed by self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers in squalane (C(30)H(62)) adopt a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice, with glassy PS cores. Utilizing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and isotopic labeling ((1)H and (2)H (D) polystyrene blocks) in a contrast-matching solvent (a mixture of squalane and perdeuterated squalane), we demonstrate quantitatively the remarkable fact that a commercial mixer can create completely random mixtures of micelles with either normal, PS(H), or deuterium-labeled, PS(D), cores on a well-defined bcc lattice. The resulting SANS intensity is quantitatively modeled by the form factor of a single spherical core. These results demonstrate both the possibility of achieving complete nanoscale mixing in a soft solid and the use of SANS to quantify the randomness.

  10. Microwave applications of soft ferrites

    CERN Document Server

    Pardavi-Horvath, M P

    2000-01-01

    Signal processing requires broadband, low-loss, low-cost microwave devices (circulators, isolators, phase shifters, absorbers). Soft ferrites (garnets, spinels, hexaferrites), applied in planar microwave devices, are reviewed from the point of view of device requirements. Magnetic properties, specific to operation in high-frequency electromagnetic fields, are discussed. Recent developments in thick film ferrite technology and device design are reviewed. Magnetic losses related to planar shape and inhomogeneous internal fields are analyzed.

  11. Soft Lithography using Nectar Droplets

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Saheli; Chakrabarti, Aditi; Chateauminois, Antoine; Wandersman, Elie; Prevost, Alexis M.; Chaudhury, Manoj K.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of significant advances in replication technologies, methods to produce well-defined three dimensional structures are still at its infancy. Such a limitation would be evident if we were to produce a large array of simple and, especially, compound convex lenses, also guaranteeing that their surfaces would be molecularly smooth. Here, we report a novel method to produce such structures by cloning the 3D shape of nectar drops, found widely in nature, using conventional soft lithography....

  12. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  13. Advance Trends in Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik; Kacprzyk, Janusz; WCSC 2013

    2014-01-01

    This book is the proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Soft Computing (WCSC), which was held in San Antonio, TX, USA, on December 16-18, 2013. It presents start-of-the-art theory and applications of soft computing together with an in-depth discussion of current and future challenges in the field, providing readers with a 360 degree view on soft computing. Topics range from fuzzy sets, to fuzzy logic, fuzzy mathematics, neuro-fuzzy systems, fuzzy control, decision making in fuzzy environments, image processing and many more. The book is dedicated to Lotfi A. Zadeh, a renowned specialist in signal analysis and control systems research who proposed the idea of fuzzy sets, in which an element may have a partial membership, in the early 1960s, followed by the idea of fuzzy logic, in which a statement can be true only to a certain degree, with degrees described by numbers in the interval [0,1]. The performance of fuzzy systems can often be improved with the help of optimization techniques, e.g. evolutionary co...

  14. Evaluation of reproducibility and reliability of 3D soft tissue analysis using 3D stereophotogrammetry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plooij, J.M.; Swennen, G.R.; Rangel, F.A.; Maal, T.J.J.; Schutyser, F.A.C.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Berge, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    In 3D photographs the bony structures are neither available nor palpable, therefore, the bone-related landmarks, such as the soft tissue gonion, need to be redefined. The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility and reliability of 49 soft tissue landmarks, including newly defined

  15. Functional and nutritional characteristics of soft wheat grown in no-till and conventional cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of no-till vs. conventional farming practices were evaluated on soft wheat functional and nutritional characteristics, including kernel physical properties, whole wheat composition, antioxidant activity and end-product quality. Soft white winter wheat cv. ORCF 102 was evaluated over a tw...

  16. Soft X-Ray and Vacuum Ultraviolet Based Spectroscopy of the Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J G

    2011-03-17

    The subjects of discussion included: VUV photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Synchrotron-radiation-based photoelectron spectroscopy, Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, Soft x-ray emission spectroscopy, Inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy, Low energy IPES, Resonant inverse photoelectron spectroscopy.

  17. Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation of a molecular target across species can be used as a line-of-evidence to predict the likelihood of chemical susceptibility. The web-based Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility (SeqAPASS) tool was developed to simplify, streamline, and quantitatively assess protein sequence/structural similarity across taxonomic groups as a means to predict relative intrinsic susceptibility. The intent of the tool is to allow for evaluation of any potential protein target, so it is amenable to variable degrees of protein characterization, depending on available information about the chemical/protein interaction and the molecular target itself. To allow for flexibility in the analysis, a layered strategy was adopted for the tool. The first level of the SeqAPASS analysis compares primary amino acid sequences to a query sequence, calculating a metric for sequence similarity (including detection of candidate orthologs), the second level evaluates sequence similarity within selected domains (e.g., ligand-binding domain, DNA binding domain), and the third level of analysis compares individual amino acid residue positions identified as being of importance for protein conformation and/or ligand binding upon chemical perturbation. Each level of the SeqAPASS analysis provides increasing evidence to apply toward rapid, screening-level assessments of probable cross species susceptibility. Such analyses can support prioritization of chemicals for further ev

  18. Soft robotics: a bioinspired evolution in robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangbae; Laschi, Cecilia; Trimmer, Barry

    2013-05-01

    Animals exploit soft structures to move effectively in complex natural environments. These capabilities have inspired robotic engineers to incorporate soft technologies into their designs. The goal is to endow robots with new, bioinspired capabilities that permit adaptive, flexible interactions with unpredictable environments. Here, we review emerging soft-bodied robotic systems, and in particular recent developments inspired by soft-bodied animals. Incorporating soft technologies can potentially reduce the mechanical and algorithmic complexity involved in robot design. Incorporating soft technologies will also expedite the evolution of robots that can safely interact with humans and natural environments. Finally, soft robotics technology can be combined with tissue engineering to create hybrid systems for medical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Soft Cone Metric Spaces and Some Fixed Point Theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Altıntaş, İsmet; Taşköprü, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to soft cone metric spaces. We define the concept of soft cone metric via soft element, investigate soft converges in soft cone metric spaces and prove some fixed point theorems for contractive mappings on soft cone metric spaces.

  20. Ultrasonographic soft markers of aneuploidy in second trimester fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Khairy Ali

    2012-09-01

    Introduction: Chromosomal abnormalities occur in 0.1–0.2% of live births, and the most common clinically significant aneuploidy among live-born infants is Down’s syndrome (trisomy 21. Soft markers of aneuploidy are nonspecific, often transient, and can be readily detected during the second and third trimester ultrasound. The most commonly studied soft markers of aneuploidy include a thickened nuchal fold, mild fetal pyelectasis, echogenic bowel, echogenic intracardiac focus and choroid plexus cyst. There is a great deal of interest in the ultrasound detection of aneuploidy, as evidenced by the large number of publications in the literature on this topic.

  1. Soft tissue wound healing at teeth, dental implants and the edentulous ridge when using barrier membranes, growth and differentiation factors and soft tissue substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoletti, Fabio; Nunez, Javier; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-04-01

    To review the biological processes of wound healing following periodontal and periimplant plastic surgery when different technologies are used in a) the coverage of root and implant dehiscences, b) the augmentation of keratinized tissue (KT) and c) the augmentation of soft tissue volume. An electronic search from The National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE-PubMed) was performed: English articles with research focus in oral soft tissue regeneration, providing histological outcomes, either from animal experimental studies or human biopsy material were included. Barrier membranes, enamel matrix derivatives, growth factors, allogeneic and xenogeneic soft tissue substitutes have been used in soft tissue regeneration demonstrating different degrees of regeneration. In root coverage, these technologies were able to improve new attachment, although none has shown complete regeneration. In KT augmentation, tissue-engineered allogenic products and xenogeneic collagen matrixes demonstrated integration within the host connective tissue and promotion of keratinization. In soft tissue augmentation and peri-implant plastic surgery there are no histological data currently available. Soft tissue substitutes, growth differentiation factors demonstrated promising histological results in terms of soft tissue regeneration and keratinization, whereas there is a need for further studies to prove their added value in soft tissue augmentation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. On soft singularities at three loops and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, Lance J; Magnea, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We report on further progress in understanding soft singularities of massless gauge theory scattering amplitudes. Recently, a set of equations was derived based on Sudakov factorization, constraining the soft anomalous dimension matrix of multi-leg scattering amplitudes to any loop order, and relating it to the cusp anomalous dimension. The minimal solution to these equations was shown to be a sum over color dipoles. Here we explore potential contributions to the soft anomalous dimension that go beyond the sum-over-dipoles formula. Such contributions are constrained by factorization and invariance under rescaling of parton momenta to be functions of conformally invariant cross ratios. Therefore, they must correlate the color and kinematic degrees of freedom of at least four hard partons, corresponding to gluon webs that connect four eikonal lines, which first appear at three loops. We analyze potential contributions, combining all available constraints, including Bose symmetry, the expected degree of transcen...

  3. Nanostructured Soft Matter Experiment, Theory, Simulation and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Zvelindovsky, Andrei V

    2007-01-01

    This book provides an interdisciplinary overview of a new and broad class of materials under the unifying name Nanostructured Soft Matter. It covers materials ranging from short amphiphilic molecules to block copolymers, proteins, colloids and their composites, microemulsions and bio-inspired systems such as vesicles. The book considers several fundamental questions, including: how self-assembly of various soft materials with internal structure at the nanoscale can be understood, controlled and in future used in the newly emerging field of soft nanotechnology. The book offers readers a view on the subject from different perspectives, combining modern experimental approaches from physical chemistry and physics with various theoretical techniques from physics, mathematics and the most advanced computer modelling. It is the first book of this sort in the field. All chapters are written by leading international experts, bringing together experience from Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, the Netherlands, Russ...

  4. Optical character recognition systems for different languages with soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arindam; Badelia, Pratixa; K Ghosh, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive survey of soft-computing models for optical character recognition systems. The various techniques, including fuzzy and rough sets, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms, are tested using real texts written in different languages, such as English, French, German, Latin, Hindi and Gujrati, which have been extracted by publicly available datasets. The simulation studies, which are reported in details here, show that soft-computing based modeling of OCR systems performs consistently better than traditional models. Mainly intended as state-of-the-art survey for postgraduates and researchers in pattern recognition, optical character recognition and soft computing, this book will be useful for professionals in computer vision and image processing alike, dealing with different issues related to optical character recognition.

  5. Soft fluorescent nanomaterials for biological and biomedical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Shang; Chiu, Daniel T

    2015-07-21

    Soft fluorescent nanomaterials have attracted recent attention as imaging agents for biological applications, because they provide the advantages of good biocompatibility, high brightness, and easy biofunctionalization. Here, we provide a survey of recent developments in fluorescent soft nano-sized biological imaging agents. Various soft fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) (including dye-doped polymer NPs, semiconducting polymer NPs, small-molecule organic NPs, nanogels, micelles, vesicles, and biomaterial-based NPs) are summarized from the perspectives of preparation methods, structure, optical properties, and surface functionalization. Based on both optical and functional properties of the nano-sized imaging agents, their applications are then reviewed in terms of in vitro imaging, in vivo imaging, and cellular-process imaging, by means of specific or nonspecific targeting.

  6. Formal Analysis of Soft Errors using Theorem Proving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiène Tahar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and analysis of soft errors in electronic circuits has traditionally been done using computer simulations. Computer simulations cannot guarantee correctness of analysis because they utilize approximate real number representations and pseudo random numbers in the analysis and thus are not well suited for analyzing safety-critical applications. In this paper, we present a higher-order logic theorem proving based method for modeling and analysis of soft errors in electronic circuits. Our developed infrastructure includes formalized continuous random variable pairs, their Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF properties and independent standard uniform and Gaussian random variables. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach by modeling and analyzing soft errors in commonly used dynamic random access memory sense amplifier circuits.

  7. Soft fluorescent nanomaterials for biological and biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Shang; Chiu, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    Soft fluorescent nanomaterials have attracted recent attention as imaging agents for biological applications, because they provide the advantages of good biocompatibility, high brightness, and easy biofunctionalization. Here, we provide a survey of recent developments in fluorescent soft nano-sized biological imaging agents. Various soft fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) (including dye-doped polymer NPs, semiconducting polymer NPs, small-molecule organic NPs, nanogels, micelles, vesicles, and biomaterial-based NPs) are summarized from the perspectives of preparation method, structure, optical property, and surface functionalization. Based on both optical and functional properties of the nano-sized imaging agents, their applications are then reviewed in terms of in vitro imaging, in vivo imaging, and cellular-process imaging, by means of specific or nonspecific targeting. PMID:25531691

  8. Asymmetric Bellow Flexible Pneumatic Actuator for Miniature Robotic Soft Gripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesha Udupa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the soft gripping devices is increasing day-by-day in medical robotics especially when safe, gentle motions and soft touch are necessary. In this paper, a novel asymmetric bellow flexible pneumatic actuator (AFPA has been designed and fabricated to construct a miniaturised soft gripper that could be used to grip small objects. The model of AFPA is designed using solid works and its bending motion is simulated in Abaqus software for optimisation and compared with experimental results. The actuator is fabricated using compression molding process that includes micromachining of the molds. Experiments conducted show the bending characteristics of the actuator at different pressures. The actuator shows excellent bending performance and the eccentricity in its design supports increased bending or curling motion up to a certain extent compared to normal bellows without eccentricity. The effects of profile shape and eccentricity on the actuator performance are analysed and the results are presented.

  9. Self-assembly of ABA triblock copolymers under soft confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yuping; An, Jian; Zhu, Yutian

    2015-05-01

    Using Monte Carlo method, the self-assembly of ABA triblock copolymers under soft confinement is investigated in this study. The soft confinement is achieved by a poor solvent environment for the polymer, which makes the polymer aggregate into a droplet. Various effects, including the block length ratio, the solvent quality for the blocks B, and the incompatibility between blocks A and B, on the micellar structures induced by soft confinement are examined. By increasing the solvent quality of B blocks, the micellar structure transforms from stacked lamella to bud-like structure, and then to onion-like structure for A5B8A5 triblock copolymers, while the inner micellar structure changes from spherical phase to various cylindrical phase, such as inner single helix, double helixes, stacked rings and cage-like structures, for A7B4A7 triblock copolymers. Moreover, the formation pathways of some typical aggregates are examined to illustrate their growth mechanisms.

  10. 5th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Deep, Kusum; Bansal, Jagdish; Nagar, Atulya; Das, Kedar

    2016-01-01

    This two volume book is based on the research papers presented at the 5th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2015) and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization methods, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and health care, data mining, etc. Mainly the emphasis is on Soft Computing and its applications in diverse areas. The prime objective of this book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments in various fields of Science, Engineering and Technology and is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various real-world applications of ‘Soft Computing’.

  11. Blood pool images of soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Seiichi; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi; Manabe, Jun; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Shimoji, Takashi; Oyamada, Hiyoshimaru (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital)

    1994-07-01

    From January 1986 through August 1992, three-phase bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) or Tc-99m hydroxy methylene diphosphonate (HMDP) was performed on consecutive 152 patients with pathologically proven soft tissue tumors. The ability of blood pool scintigraphy to delineate tumors was examined in evaluable 149 patients. According to tumor histology, it showed hot spots in 28/29 for malignant fibrous histiocytoma, 16/16 for liposarcoma, 8/8 for periosteal sarcoma, 42/43 for other sarcomas, 10/11 for neurilemoma, 12/14 for desmoid, 1/4 for myxoma, 5/5 for pigmented villonodullar synovitis or giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, 7/7 for angiomas, and 9/12 for other benign tumors. Malignant tumors were shown as hot spots in 98% (94/96) and the entire tumors, including benign ones, in 93% (138/149). Blood pool scintigraphy was inferior in detecting mucous tumors and small nodules. It could not differentiate between degeneration or necrosis and cytoma that were detectable on MRI. Blood pool scintigraphy was superior in determining the outcome of preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. In conclusion, blood pool scintigraphy is an essential preoperative method for providing useful information on soft tissue tumors. (N.K.).

  12. Drop impact on spherical soft surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Simeng; Bertola, Volfango

    2017-08-01

    The impact of water drops on spherical soft surfaces is investigated experimentally through high-speed imaging. The effect of a convex compliant surface on the dynamics of impacting drops is relevant to various applications, such as 3D ink-jet printing, where drops of fresh material impact on partially cured soft substrates with arbitrary shape. Several quantities which characterize the morphology of impacting drops are measured through image-processing, including the maximum and minimum spreading angles, length of the wetted curve, and dynamic contact angle. In particular, the dynamic contact angle is measured using a novel digital image-processing scheme based on a goniometric mask, which does not require edge fitting. It is shown that the surface with a higher curvature enhances the retraction of the spreading drop; this effect may be due to the difference of energy dissipation induced by the curvature of the surface. In addition, the impact parameters (elastic modulus, diameter ratio, and Weber number) are observed to significantly affect the dynamic contact angle during impact. A quantitative estimation of the deformation energy shows that it is significantly smaller than viscous dissipation.

  13. Professional Presence and Soft Skills: A Role for Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermis, George; Kermis, Marguerite

    2010-01-01

    Current economic conditions have changed the dynamics of all employment, including accounting, which traditionally has had a supply shortfall. CPA firms are beginning to lay off experienced people for the first time in ten years, while still hiring new staff accountants. The AICPA Vision 2011 Project has added soft skills to the list of core…

  14. Description of soft sediment deformational structure of the Campano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These soft sediment deformational structures includes: simple internal cusps, which occur wide spread across a single bed or intermittently across several beds, and slump structures that are represented by complex recumbent folds and concave upwards structures. These structures are proxy to syn-depositional energy ...

  15. Preparation of tools for lithographically controlled wetting and soft lithography

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Massmiliano Cavallini, Denis Gentili, Pierpaolo Greco, Francesco Valle & Fabio Biscarini ### Abstract This protocol provides the instructions for designing and fabricating stamping tools with features ranging from nanometer to micrometer scale, including the fabrication using commercial tools such as compact disks or digital video disks. In particular the reported procedures are oriented towards the tools fabrication for lithographically controlled wetting and soft lithograph...

  16. Soft QCD measurements at LHC arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Tasevsky, Marek

    Results from recent soft QCD measurements by LHC experiments ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, LHCf and TOTEM are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive and identified particle spectra, underlying event and hadronic chains. Results from particle correlations in all three collision systems, namely pp, pPb and PbPb, exhibit unexpected similarities.

  17. Self-Assembly of Magnetic Colloids in Soft Confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, P.

    2016-01-01

    The central theme in this thesis is the effect of the soft confinements consisting of molecular microtubes and fluid interfaces, on the self-assembly of colloids. We have specially focused on the synthesis of magnetic colloids and the magnetic responses of self-assembled structures including

  18. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... people regard as a prerequisite for participating in local community politics. Based on a fieldwork in two villages of Panchthar district in eastern Nepal, this article explores how these changes strengthen or weaken women’s political agency and how this is reflected in their participation in community...

  19. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  20. SoftAR: visually manipulating haptic softness perception in spatial augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punpongsanon, Parinya; Iwai, Daisuke; Sato, Kosuke

    2015-11-01

    We present SoftAR, a novel spatial augmented reality (AR) technique based on a pseudo-haptics mechanism that visually manipulates the sense of softness perceived by a user pushing a soft physical object. Considering the limitations of projection-based approaches that change only the surface appearance of a physical object, we propose two projection visual effects, i.e., surface deformation effect (SDE) and body appearance effect (BAE), on the basis of the observations of humans pushing physical objects. The SDE visualizes a two-dimensional deformation of the object surface with a controlled softness parameter, and BAE changes the color of the pushing hand. Through psychophysical experiments, we confirm that the SDE can manipulate softness perception such that the participant perceives significantly greater softness than the actual softness. Furthermore, fBAE, in which BAE is applied only for the finger area, significantly enhances manipulation of the perception of softness. We create a computational model that estimates perceived softness when SDE+fBAE is applied. We construct a prototype SoftAR system in which two application frameworks are implemented. The softness adjustment allows a user to adjust the softness parameter of a physical object, and the softness transfer allows the user to replace the softness with that of another object.

  1. Pinning Susceptibility Near the Jamming Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashed, Samer; Graves, Amy; Goodrich, Carl; Padgett, Elliot; Liu, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    The study of jamming in the presence of pinned obstacles is of both practical and theoretical interest. In simulations of soft, bidisperse disks and spheres, we pin a small fraction, nf of particles prior to the equilibration process. The presence of pinned particles is known to lower the critical packing fraction, ϕJ, for jamming. Further, around this threshold there is a peak in a quantity which we have termed the ``pinning susceptibility'': χP =limnf --> 0∂PJ(ϕ/,nf) ∂nf . In the thermodynamic limit, we have posited that χP ~| Δϕ | -γP . Finite-size scaling calculations, involving careful fits of PJ to logistic sigmoidal functions, yield a value for the critical exponent, γP. This new exponent is proposed to be independent of inter-particle potential. Its dependence on dimensionality (2 vs. 3 dimensions) will be discussed. Acknowledgement is made to the Donors of the Petroleum Research Fund administered by the American Chemical Society, NSF grant DMR-1062638 and DOE grant DE-FG02-05ER46199.

  2. Susceptibility profiles of Nocardia isolates based on current taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaberg, Robert; Fisher, Mark A; Hanson, Kimberley E

    2014-01-01

    The genus Nocardia has undergone rapid taxonomic expansion in recent years, and an increasing number of species are recognized as human pathogens. Many established species have predictable antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, but sufficient information is often not available for recently described organisms. Additionally, the effectiveness of sulfonamides as first-line drugs for Nocardia has recently been questioned. This led us to review antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for a large number of molecularly identified clinical isolates. Susceptibility results were available for 1,299 isolates representing 39 different species or complexes, including 11 that were newly described, during a 6-year study period. All tested isolates were susceptible to linezolid. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was rare (2%) except among Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis (31%) strains and strains of the N. transvalensis complex (19%). Imipenem susceptibility varied for N. cyriacigeorgica and N. farcinica, as did ceftriaxone susceptibility of the N. nova complex. Resistance to more than one of the most commonly used drugs (amikacin, ceftriaxone, TMP-SMX, and imipenem) was highest for N. pseudobrasiliensis (100%), N. transvalensis complex (83%), N. farcinica (68%), N. puris (57%), N. brasiliensis (51%), N. aobensis (50%), and N. amikacinitolerans (43%). Thus, while antimicrobial resistance can often be predicted, susceptibility testing should still be considered when combination therapy is warranted, for less well characterized species or those with variable susceptibility profiles, and for patients with TMP-SMX intolerance.

  3. Designing Leadership and Soft Skills in Educational Games: The e-Leadership and Soft Skills Educational Games Design Model (ELESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Sara; Routledge, Helen

    2013-01-01

    While the field of leadership studies includes a large corpus of literature and studies, the literature and scientific research in the field of e-leadership and soft skills used in learning game environments are at present small in scale. Towards contributing to this newly emerging field of literature and study, this research paper presents a new…

  4. pso.ATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isolates vere made using standard methods, Antibiotic susceptibility tests against commonly prescribed ... Acute otitis media is rapid with short .... sensitivity tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests: The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of major Gram positive and negative bacterial isolates obtained from clinical specimens.

  5. On Weak and Strong Forms of Fuzzy Soft Open Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabir Hussain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and examined some basic properties of fuzzy soft α-open (closed sets in fuzzy soft topological spaces. Fuzzy soft pre-open (closed sets are also defined and discussed. We also initiate and explore fuzzy soft neighborhood at fuzzy soft point. Some properties of fuzzy soft neighborhood system, fuzzy soft basic neighborhood and fuzzy soft neighborhood (nbd base at fuzzy soft point are studied. Moreover, we define and study fuzzy soft regular open (closed sets. We analyze the relationship between these notions by providing examples and counter examples.

  6. Genetic susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alison P

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. However, it has the poorest prognosis of any major tumor type, with a 5-yr survival rate of approximately 5%. Cigarette smoking, increased body mass index, heavy alcohol consumption, and a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus have all been demonstrated to increase risk of pancreatic cancer. A family history of pancreatic cancer has also been associated with increased risk suggesting inherited genetic factors also play an important role, with approximately 5-10% of pancreatic cancer patients reporting family history of pancreatic cancer. While the genetic basis for the majority of the familial clustering of pancreatic cancer remains unclear, several important pancreatic cancer genes have been identified. These consist of high penetrance genes including BRCA2 or PALB2, to more common genetic variation associated with a modest increase risk of pancreatic cancer such as genetic variation at the ABO blood group locus. Recent advances in genotyping and genetic sequencing have accelerated the rate at which novel pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes have been identified with several genes identified within the past few years. This review addresses our current understanding of the familial aggregation of pancreatic cancer, established pancreatic cancer susceptablity genes and how this knowledge informs risk assessment and screening for high-risk families. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Genetic Susceptibility to Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alison P.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. However, it has the poorest prognosis of any major tumor type, with a 5-yr survival rate of approximately 5%. Cigarette smoking, increased body mass index, heavy alcohol consumption, and a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus have all been demonstrated to increase risk of pancreatic cancer. A family history of pancreatic cancer has also been associated with increased risk suggesting inherited genetic factors also play an important role, with approximately 5–10% of pancreatic cancer patients reporting family history of pancreatic cancer. While the genetic basis for the majority of the familial clustering of pancreatic cancer remains unclear, several important pancreatic cancer genes have been identified. These consist of high penetrance genes including BRCA2 or PALB2, to more common genetic variation associated with a modest increase risk of pancreatic cancer such as genetic variation at the ABO blood group locus. Recent advances in genotyping and genetic sequencing have accelerated the rate at which novel pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes have been identified with several genes identified within the past few years. This review addresses our current understanding of the familial aggregation of pancreatic cancer, established pancreatic cancer susceptablity genes and how this knowledge informs risk assessment and screening for high-risk families. PMID:22162228

  8. Hypnotic susceptibility and dream characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamore, N; Barrett, D

    1989-11-01

    This study examined the relationship of hypnotic susceptibility to a variety of dream characteristics and types of dream content. A Dream Questionnaire was constructed synthesizing Gibson's dream inventory and Hilgard's theoretical conceptions of hypnosis. Employing the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the Field Inventory for evaluating hypnotic response, several dream dimensions correlated significantly with hypnotizability. For subjects as a whole, the strongest correlates were the frequency of dreams which they believed to be precognitive and out-of-body dreams. Ability to dream on a chosen topic also correlated significantly with hypnotic susceptibility for both genders. For females only, there was a negative correlation of hypnotic susceptibility to flying dreams. Absorption correlated positively with dream recall, ability to dream on a chosen topic, reports of conflict resolution in dreams, creative ideas occurring in dreams, amount of color in dreams, pleasantness of dreams, bizarreness of dreams, flying dreams and precognitive dreams.

  9. An Innovative Approach to Evaluate the Morphological Patterns of Soft Palate in Oral Submucous Fibrosis Patients: A Digital Cephalometric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chintamaneni Raja Lakshmi; Dharmavaram Ayesha Thabusum; Sujana Mulk Bhavana

    2016-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic insidious disease affecting mucosa and submucosa of oral cavity and soft palate. The present study aimed to evaluate the morphology of soft palate in normal individuals and OSMF patients using lateral cephalometry and to compare and correlate these variants of soft palate with different stages of OSMF. 100 subjects were included in the study, who were divided into two groups. Group I included 50 subjects with clinical diagnosis of OSMF and Group II ...

  10. Ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huhn, S.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel (ed.); Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2012), s. 197-204 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:EU FP7(XE) HEALTH-F4-2007-200767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * molecular epidemiology * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.500, year: 2012

  11. Low Cost Soft Magnets for Giant Magnetoimpedance-based Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Michael

    Over several decades, soft magnets have been studied for various applications ranging from memory devices, sensing devices, power transformers, inductors, etc. The types of soft magnets studied include amorphous, crystalline, and also nanocomposites. Both metals and oxides (ferrites) are prevalent among soft magnetic materials. Various soft magnets with wide range of properties have been developed using different synthesis techniques such as melt spinning, in-water rotating wheel, and planar flow casting. Progress has also been made on processing and post-synthesis treatments (e.g. field annealing, strain annealing, etc.) to tailor soft magnetic properties for different applications. In particular, the ability to induce significant transverse magnetic anisotropy in ribbons contributes to forcing switching of the magnetization by rotational processes. The elimination of switching by domain wall motion leads to the reduction of anomalous eddy current losses at high frequencies. In Chapter 2, background theories and research motivation relevant to this work are discussed. This chapter explains the synthesis, post-synthesis treatment, and properties of soft magnets. This chapter also details further the Giant Magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect and its applications. Emphasis is placed on GMI-based sensing technologies for oil/gas exploration and other types of deep drilling. Following this, Chapter 3 explicitly states the primary goals of this research work. The next chapter of the thesis discusses about the first theme of this work; GMI effect in soft magnets. GMI-based sensors are attractive due to their high sensitivity and simple operation. Previous work has shown how structures and properties (e.g. permeability, anisotropy, etc) influence the GMI ratio in soft magnets. However, one area that has not been thoroughly explored is the GMI measurement at high temperature and its influence on the performance of high temperature magnetic sensors. This work explores this

  12. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rachik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

  13. Renormalizations in softly broken SUSY gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeev, L. V.; Kazakov, D. I.; Kondrashuk, I. N.

    1998-01-01

    The supergraph technique for calculations in supersymmetric gauge theories where supersymmetry is broken in a "soft" way (without introducing quadratic divergencies) is reviewed. By introducing an external spurion field the set of Feynman rules is formulated and explicit connections between the UV counterterms of a softly broken and rigid SUSY theories are found. It is shown that the renormalization constants of softly broken SUSY gauge theory also become external superfields depending on the spurion field. Their explicit form repeats that of the constants of a rigid theory with the redefinition of the couplings. The method allows us to reproduce all known results on the renormalization of soft couplings and masses in a softly broken theory. As an example the renormalization group functions for soft couplings and masses in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model up to the three-loop level are calculated.

  14. Renormalizations in softly broken SUSY gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdeev, L.V.; Kazakov, D.I.; Kondrashuk, I.N. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    1998-01-19

    The supergraph technique for calculations in supersymmetric gauge theories where supersymmetry is broken in a ``soft`` way (without introducing quadratic divergencies) is reviewed. By introducing an external spurion field the set of Feynman rules is formulated and explicit connections between the UV counterterms of a softly broken and rigid SUSY theories are found. It is shown that the renormalization constants of softly broken SUSY gauge theory also become external superfields depending on the spurion field. Their explicit form repeats that of the constants of a rigid theory with the redefinition of the couplings. The method allows us to reproduce all known results on the renormalization of soft couplings and masses in a softly broken theory. As an example the renormalization group functions for soft couplings and masses in the minimal supersymmetric standard model up to the three-loop level are calculated. (orig.). 16 refs.

  15. Nasal Soft-Tissue Triangle Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2016-08-01

    The soft-tissue triangle is one of the least areas attended to in rhinoplasty. Any postoperative retraction, notching, or asymmetries of soft triangles can seriously affect the rhinoplasty outcome. A good understanding of the risk factors predisposing to soft triangle deformities is necessary to prevent such problems. The commonest risk factors in our study were the wide vertical domal angle between the lateral and intermediate crura, and the increased length of intermediate crus. Two types of soft triangle grafts were described to prevent and treat soft triangle deformities. The used soft triangle grafts resulted in an excellent long-term aesthetic and functional improvement. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Soft-Rt: software for IMRT simulations based on MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira F, T. C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Campos, T., E-mail: tcff01@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is an advanced treatment technique, widely used in external radiotherapy. This paper presents the Soft-Rt which allows the simulation of an entire IMRT treatment protocol. The Soft-Rt performs a full three-dimensional rendering of a set of patient images, including the definitions of region of interest with organs in risk, and the target tumor volume and margins (PTV). Thus, a more accurate analysis and planning can be performed, taking into account the features and orientation of the radiation beams. The exposed tissues as well as the amount of absorbed dose is depicted in healthy and/or cancerous tissues. As conclusion, Soft-Rt can predict dose on the PTV accurately, preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. Soft-Rt is coupled with SISCODES code. The SISCODES code is firstly applied to segment the set of CT or MRI patient images in distinct tissues pointing out its respective density and chemical compositions. Later, the voxel model is export to the Soft-Rt IMRT planning module in which a full treatment planning is created. All geometrical parameters are sent to the general purpose Monte Carlo transport code - MCNP - to simulate the interaction of each incident beam towards to the PTV avoiding organs in risk. The normalized dose results are exported to the Soft-Rt out-module, in which the three-dimensional model visualization is shown in a transparent glass procedure adopting gray scale for the dependence on the mass density of the correlated tissue; while, a color scale to depict dose values in a superimpose protocol. (Author)

  17. Beyond metrics? Utilizing 'soft intelligence' for healthcare quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graham P; McKee, Lorna; Dixon-Woods, Mary

    2015-10-01

    Formal metrics for monitoring the quality and safety of healthcare have a valuable role, but may not, by themselves, yield full insight into the range of fallibilities in organizations. 'Soft intelligence' is usefully understood as the processes and behaviours associated with seeking and interpreting soft data-of the kind that evade easy capture, straightforward classification and simple quantification-to produce forms of knowledge that can provide the basis for intervention. With the aim of examining current and potential practice in relation to soft intelligence, we conducted and analysed 107 in-depth qualitative interviews with senior leaders, including managers and clinicians, involved in healthcare quality and safety in the English National Health Service. We found that participants were in little doubt about the value of softer forms of data, especially for their role in revealing troubling issues that might be obscured by conventional metrics. Their struggles lay in how to access softer data and turn them into a useful form of knowing. Some of the dominant approaches they used risked replicating the limitations of hard, quantitative data. They relied on processes of aggregation and triangulation that prioritised reliability, or on instrumental use of soft data to animate the metrics. The unpredictable, untameable, spontaneous quality of soft data could be lost in efforts to systematize their collection and interpretation to render them more tractable. A more challenging but potentially rewarding approach involved processes and behaviours aimed at disrupting taken-for-granted assumptions about quality, safety, and organizational performance. This approach, which explicitly values the seeking out and the hearing of multiple voices, is consistent with conceptual frameworks of organizational sensemaking and dialogical understandings of knowledge. Using soft intelligence this way can be challenging and discomfiting, but may offer a critical defence against the

  18. Soft Pneumatic Actuator Fascicles for High Force and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Matthew A; Sadeghi, Hamed; Florez, Juan Manuel; Paik, Jamie

    2017-03-01

    Soft pneumatic actuators (SPAs) are found in mobile robots, assistive wearable devices, and rehabilitative technologies. While soft actuators have been one of the most crucial elements of technology leading the development of the soft robotics field, they fall short of force output and bandwidth requirements for many tasks. In addition, other general problems remain open, including robustness, controllability, and repeatability. The SPA-pack architecture presented here aims to satisfy these standards of reliability crucial to the field of soft robotics, while also improving the basic performance capabilities of SPAs by borrowing advantages leveraged ubiquitously in biology; namely, the structured parallel arrangement of lower power actuators to form the basis of a larger and more powerful actuator module. An SPA-pack module consisting of a number of smaller SPAs will be studied using an analytical model and physical prototype. Experimental measurements show an SPA pack to generate over 112 N linear force, while the model indicates the benefit of parallel actuator grouping over a geometrically equivalent single SPA scale as an increasing function of the number of individual actuators in the group. For a module of four actuators, a 23% increase in force production over a volumetrically equivalent single SPA is predicted and validated, while further gains appear possible up to 50%. These findings affirm the advantage of utilizing a fascicle structure for high-performance soft robotic applications over existing monolithic SPA designs. An example of high-performance soft robotic platform will be presented to demonstrate the capability of SPA-pack modules in a complete and functional system.

  19. Soft Classes and Soft Rough Classes with Applications in Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Karaaslan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rough set was defined by Pawlak in 1982. Concept of soft set was proposed as a mathematical tool to cope with uncertainty and vagueness by Molodtsov in 1999. Soft sets were combined with rough sets by Feng et al. in 2011. Feng et al. investigated relationships between a subset of initial universe of soft set and a soft set. Feng et al. defined the upper and lower approximations of a subset of initial universe over a soft set. In this study, we firstly define concept of soft class and soft class operations such as union, intersection, and complement. Then we give some properties of soft class operations. Based on definition and operations of soft classes, we define lower and upper approximations of a soft set. Subsequently, we introduce concept of soft rough class and investigate some properties of soft rough classes. Moreover, we give a novel decision making method based on soft class and present an example related to novel method.

  20. Sintered soft magnetic materials. Properties and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, J. A.; Calero, J. A.; Dougan, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    A comparison is presented of the characteristics and production requirements of a variety of materials used to produce sintered soft magnetic parts. These include pure iron, phosphorous-iron, silicon-iron, nickel-iron, and cobalt-iron, together with new coated materials based on encapsulated iron powders. In these bonded materials an organic and/or inorganic insulator is used to coat the metallic powder particles giving a magnetic composite. The suitability of the different materials for use in both direct and alternating current applications is reviewed, and examples are provided of their application in both the automotive and other sectors. The results of a comparative study of motors using stators and rotors based on both conventional laminated materials and the insulated iron powders are presented, in which the new materials show advantages of reduced hysteresis losses at high frequencies, and isotropy of magnetic properties. Nevertheless, the applications of these materials in electrical motors requires the modification of existing designs.

  1. Soft computing methods for geoidal height transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyilmaz, O.; Özlüdemir, M. T.; Ayan, T.; Çelik, R. N.

    2009-07-01

    Soft computing techniques, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches, have enabled researchers to create precise models for use in many scientific and engineering applications. Applications that can be employed in geodetic studies include the estimation of earth rotation parameters and the determination of mean sea level changes. Another important field of geodesy in which these computing techniques can be applied is geoidal height transformation. We report here our use of a conventional polynomial model, the Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy (or in some publications, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy) Inference System (ANFIS), an ANN and a modified ANN approach to approximate geoid heights. These approximation models have been tested on a number of test points. The results obtained through the transformation processes from ellipsoidal heights into local levelling heights have also been compared.

  2. Soft Thermal Sensor with Mechanical Adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Qi, Dianpeng; Liu, Zhiyuan; Chandran, Bevita K; Wang, Ting; Yu, Jiancan; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-11-01

    A soft thermal sensor with mechanical adaptability is fabricated by the combination of single-wall carbon nanotubes with carboxyl groups and self-healing polymers. This study demonstrates that this soft sensor has excellent thermal response and mechanical adaptability. It shows tremendous promise for improving the service life of soft artificial-intelligence robots and protecting thermally sensitive electronics from the risk of damage by high temperature. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Soft Interval-Valued Neutrosophic Rough Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Broumi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we first defined soft interval-valued neutrosophic rough sets(SIVN- rough sets for short which combines interval valued neutrosophic soft set and rough sets and studied some of its basic properties. This concept is an extension of soft interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy rough sets( SIVIF- rough sets. Finally an illustrative example is given to verify the developped algorithm and to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

  4. Soldering sheets using soft solders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Brožek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains strength tests results of joints soldered using lead and leadless soft solders. For tests lead solders types Pb60Sn40 and Sn60Pb40 and leadless soft solders types Sn95.5Ag3.8Cu0.7 and Sn96Ag4 were used. As basic materials steel sheet, zinc-coated steel sheet, copper sheet and brass sheet 100 x 20 x 1 mm was the test samples size. Always two sheets were cleaned and jointed together. For heating the propane-butane + air flame was used. Then the tested assemblies were loaded using the universal tensile-strength testing machine till to failure. At the tests the force needed for assemblies failure and failure type (in soldered joint, in basic material were recorded. From measured data the solder strength was calculated. From the experiment results it follows that from the point of view of the soldered joints strength as well of the solder strength relatively small differences were found. At the same time it is evident that the joint strength and solder strength depend on soldered material type and on soldered joint lapping length. On the basis of carried out experiments it can be stated that the substitution of lead solders by leadless solders is possible without risk of soldered joints strength decrease.

  5. Water demand forecasting: review of soft computing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalehkhondabi, Iman; Ardjmand, Ehsan; Young, William A; Weckman, Gary R

    2017-07-01

    Demand forecasting plays a vital role in resource management for governments and private companies. Considering the scarcity of water and its inherent constraints, demand management and forecasting in this domain are critically important. Several soft computing techniques have been developed over the last few decades for water demand forecasting. This study focuses on soft computing methods of water consumption forecasting published between 2005 and 2015. These methods include artificial neural networks (ANNs), fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy models, support vector machines, metaheuristics, and system dynamics. Furthermore, it was discussed that while in short-term forecasting, ANNs have been superior in many cases, but it is still very difficult to pick a single method as the overall best. According to the literature, various methods and their hybrids are applied to water demand forecasting. However, it seems soft computing has a lot more to contribute to water demand forecasting. These contribution areas include, but are not limited, to various ANN architectures, unsupervised methods, deep learning, various metaheuristics, and ensemble methods. Moreover, it is found that soft computing methods are mainly used for short-term demand forecasting.

  6. Stretchable Materials for Robust Soft Actuators towards Assistive Wearable Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Gunjan; Besuchet, Nicolas; Audergon, Basile; Paik, Jamie

    2016-09-01

    Soft actuators made from elastomeric active materials can find widespread potential implementation in a variety of applications ranging from assistive wearable technologies targeted at biomedical rehabilitation or assistance with activities of daily living, bioinspired and biomimetic systems, to gripping and manipulating fragile objects, and adaptable locomotion. In this manuscript, we propose a novel two-component soft actuator design and design tool that produces actuators targeted towards these applications with enhanced mechanical performance and manufacturability. Our numerical models developed using the finite element method can predict the actuator behavior at large mechanical strains to allow efficient design iterations for system optimization. Based on two distinctive actuator prototypes’ (linear and bending actuators) experimental results that include free displacement and blocked-forces, we have validated the efficacy of the numerical models. The presented extensive investigation of mechanical performance for soft actuators with varying geometric parameters demonstrates the practical application of the design tool, and the robustness of the actuator hardware design, towards diverse soft robotic systems for a wide set of assistive wearable technologies, including replicating the motion of several parts of the human body.

  7. Distributed Wind Soft Costs: A Beginning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Tony; Forsyth,Trudy; Preus, Robert; Christol, Corrie; Orrell, Alice; Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-06-14

    Tony Jimenez presented this overview of distributed wind soft costs at the 2016 Small Wind Conference in Stevens Point, Wisconsin, on June 14, 2016. Soft costs are any non-hardware project costs, such as costs related to permitting fees, installer/developer profit, taxes, transaction costs, permitting, installation, indirect corporate costs, installation labor, and supply chain costs. This presentation provides an overview of soft costs, a distributed wind project taxonomy (of which soft costs are a subset), an alpha data set project demographics, data summary, and future work in this area.

  8. Soft Manipulators and Grippers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Hughes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft robotics is a growing area of research which utilises the compliance and adaptability of soft structures to develop highly adaptive robotics for soft interactions. One area in which soft robotics has the ability to make significant impact is in the development of soft grippers and manipulators. With an increased requirement for automation, robotics systems are required to perform task in unstructured and not well defined environments; conditions which conventional rigid robotics are not best suited. This requires a paradigm shift in the methods and materials used to develop robots such that they can adapt to and work safely in human environments. One solution to this is soft robotics, which enables soft interactions with the surroundings whilst maintaining the ability to apply significant force. This review paper assess the current materials and methods, actuation methods and sensors which are used in the development of soft manipulators. The achievements and shortcomings of recent technology in these key areas are evaluated, and this paper concludes with a discussion on the potential impacts of soft manipulators on industry and society.

  9. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks in association to restrained, external and emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfhag, K; Tynelius, P; Rasmussen, F

    2007-06-08

    We studied sugar-sweetened soft drinks and light soft drinks in their associations to psychological constructs of eating behavior and demographic data for adults and children. Soft drink intakes were assessed by consumption of soft drinks in number of days the last week, and eating behavior was measured by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ). The sample included 3265 men and women, and their 12-year old children, originating from Swedish national databases. Associations to younger age and lower education in adults were in particular apparent for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks was further associated to less restrained and more external eating in adults. In contrast, light soft drinks were associated with higher BMI, more restrained eating and also more emotional eating in adults. For the children these associations were generally weaker. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks are consumed by persons with a lower education, who furthermore are less prone to attempt to restrict their calorie intake, and by some of those who are sensitive to external stimuli of foods. Light soft drinks are rather chosen by the more heavy persons who try to restrict their energy intake perhaps in order to control the body weight, and more unexpectedly, by adults who eat for comfort. Being more sensitive to an external stimulus of food such as taste seems to imply proneness to consume sugar-sweetened soft drinks instead of the light versions. Light soft drinks may be perceived as an adequate substitute in the use of foods for comfort, meaning the sweet taste may be sufficient for this purpose.

  10. Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demuth Donald R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacterial function of leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes, T cells and B cells, providing a mechanistic explanation for increased infection risk. Further epidemiological, clinical and mechanistic research into this important area is warranted.

  11. Ac susceptibility study of CaCl2 doped copper–zinc ferrite system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polycrystalline soft ferrites, Zn x Cu 1 – x Fe2O4 ( = 0.30, 0.50, 0.70, 0.80 and 0.90), doped with controlled amount of calcium chloride (CaCl2) were prepared by standard ceramic route and studied for a.c. susceptibility. X-ray diffraction studies of the compositions reveal formation of single-phase cubic spinel. The values of ...

  12. Soft-switching PWM full-bridge converters topologies, control, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, Xinbo

    2014-01-01

    Soft-switching PWM full-bridge converters have been widely used in medium-to-high power dc-dc conversions for topological simplicity, easy control and high efficiency. Early works on soft-switching PWM full-bridge converter by many researchers included various topologies and modulation strategies.  However, these works were scattered, and the relationship among these topologies and modulation strategies had not been revealed. This book intends to describe systematically the soft-switching techniques for pulse-width modulation (PWM) full-bridge converters, including the topologies, control and

  13. [Evaluation of optical performance of soft contact lenses in myopic correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcoll, Marcelo Weslley; Alves, Mílton Ruiz; Barreto, Jackson; Yamane, Iris de Souza; Bechara, Samir; Mukai, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the optical performance of eyes fitted with two different soft contact lenses: Acuvue 2 (Vistacon J&J Vision Care Inc., USA) and World Vision Disposable Asférica Wave Front (World Vision Ophthalmic, Brazil). An interventional prospective clinical trial studied a sample of 40 myopic patients (-0.75D to -4.50D, with or without astigmatism up to -0.75D). Each patient had one eye randomized to visual performance evaluation including high and low contrast visual acuities, wavefront analysis and contrast sensitivity. The Nidek OPD Scan detected a residual refraction (hypercorrection) for both contact lenses. High contrast visual acuity was significantly higher for World Vision soft contact lenses. Low contrast visual acuity was similar for both soft contact lenses. Contrast sensitivity improved significantly at 1.5; 3; 6 e 18 spatial frequencies for both soft contact lenses, but no difference was found between them. Regarding wavefront analysis, no difference was found between both soft contact lenses. There were not significantly differences in the Strehl indices and MTF for both soft contact lenses. World Vision Disposable Asférica Wave Front soft contact lenses had a better performance regarding high contrast visual acuity. However, low contrast visual acuity, wavefront analysis and contrast sensitivity were similar for both soft contact lenses.

  14. SoftSearch: integration of multiple sequence features to identify breakpoints of structural variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven N Hart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Structural variation (SV represents a significant, yet poorly understood contribution to an individual's genetic makeup. Advanced next-generation sequencing technologies are widely used to discover such variations, but there is no single detection tool that is considered a community standard. In an attempt to fulfil this need, we developed an algorithm, SoftSearch, for discovering structural variant breakpoints in Illumina paired-end next-generation sequencing data. SoftSearch combines multiple strategies for detecting SV including split-read, discordant read-pair, and unmated pairs. Co-localized split-reads and discordant read pairs are used to refine the breakpoints. RESULTS: We developed and validated SoftSearch using real and synthetic datasets. SoftSearch's key features are 1 not requiring secondary (or exhaustive primary alignment, 2 portability into established sequencing workflows, and 3 is applicable to any DNA-sequencing experiment (e.g. whole genome, exome, custom capture, etc.. SoftSearch identifies breakpoints from a small number of soft-clipped bases from split reads and a few discordant read-pairs which on their own would not be sufficient to make an SV call. CONCLUSIONS: We show that SoftSearch can identify more true SVs by combining multiple sequence features. SoftSearch was able to call clinically relevant SVs in the BRCA2 gene not reported by other tools while offering significantly improved overall performance.

  15. Using soft tissue graft to prevent mid-facial mucosal recession following immediate implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yung-Ting; Shieh, Chia-Huang; Wang, Horn-Lay

    2012-07-01

    With advances in dental technology, the placement of immediate implants has progressively gained popularity. However, a common complication that surfaced was mid-facial mucosal recession, which impaired esthetic outcomes. The use of soft tissue grafts has thus been introduced to manage and prevent this undesirable result. To date, no guidelines have been put forward for clinicians to identify the indications for a soft tissue graft during immediate implant placement. Therefore, this manuscript aimed to propose a decision-making model to prevent mid-facial mucosal recession following immediate implant placement. An electronic search of the PubMed database for literature published in English on the occurrence and management of soft tissue alterations following immediate implant placement was performed. Several factors, including implant position, buccal plate thickness, tissue thickness and width of keratinized mucosa, were found to influence the need for soft tissue grafting during immediate implant placement. For sockets with at least 2 mm of buccal plate thickness, a soft tissue graft was recommended for immediate implants placed at the incisal position. For sockets with less than 2 mm of buccal plate thickness, immediate implant placement in combination with bone or soft tissue augmentation was necessary. This was especially critical in scenarios with thin tissue biotypes or inadequate width of keratinized mucosa. Soft tissue grafts can maintain soft tissue stability following immediate implant placement.

  16. Comparison of three standardized disc susceptibility testing methods for colistin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thean Yen; Ng, Lily Siew Yong

    2006-10-01

    With increasing antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, the use of the polymyxins has increased in recent years. Antibiotic disc susceptibility testing remains the most widely used method in clinical laboratories, but there is very little data on the accuracy of disc testing methods for colistin. In this study, the accuracy of three standardized methods of disc susceptibility testing for colistin was compared with agar dilution. A total of 228 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae were included in the study. Isolates were tested by agar dilution for susceptibility to colistin, and results were compared with those obtained by three disc susceptibility testing methods (product insert based on CLSI methodology, British BSAC and French SFM). Colistin displayed good activity against Acinetobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli (MIC(90) 2 mg/L) but was less active against P. aeruginosa (MIC(90) 4 mg/L) and Enterobacter spp. (MIC(90) >or= 128 mg/L). Totally, 81%, 79% and 89% of colistin-resistant isolates were falsely reported as susceptible when tested by the product insert, BSAC and SFM testing methods, respectively. There were no false-resistant results. Disc susceptibility testing methods are unreliable at detecting colistin resistance. Dilution methods should be the method of choice for susceptibility testing of colistin.

  17. Cyclic Soft Groups and Their Applications on Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacı Aktaş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In crisp environment the notions of order of group and cyclic group are well known due to many applications. In this paper, we introduce order of the soft groups, power of the soft sets, power of the soft groups, and cyclic soft group on a group. We also investigate the relationship between cyclic soft groups and classical groups.

  18. Local dynamic mechanical analysis for heterogeneous soft matter using ferrule-top indentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, H.; Kurniawan, N.A.; Koenderink, G.H.; Iannuzzi, D.

    2016-01-01

    There is a strong demand for nanoindentation methods to probe the heterogeneous viscoelastic properties of soft tissues. Important applications include diagnosis of early onset diseases such as arthritis and investigations into cellular mechanoresponse in tissue. Quantification of tissue mechanics

  19. Pazopanib in advanced vascular sarcomas: an EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (STBSG) retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollar, A.; Jones, R.L.; Stacchiotti, S.; Gelderblom, H.; Guida, M.; Grignani, G.; Steeghs, N.; Safwat, A.; Katz, D.; Duffaud, F.; Sleijfer, S.; Graaf, W.T. van der; Touati, N.; Litiere, S.; Marreaud, S.; Gronchi, A.; Kasper, B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pazopanib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of patients with selective subtypes of advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) who have previously received standard chemotherapy including anthracyclines. Data on the efficacy in vascular sarcomas are limited.

  20. Portrayals of branded soft drinks in popular American movies: a content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Robert A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines the portrayals of soft drinks in popular American movies as a potential vehicle for global marketing and an indicator of covert product placement. Methods We conducted a content analysis of America's top-ten grossing films from 1991 through 2000 that included portrayals of beverages (95 movies total. Coding reliabilities were assessed with Cohen's kappa, and exceeded 0.80. If there was at least one instance of branding for a beverage, the film was considered having branded beverages. Fisher's exact test was used to determine if soft drink portrayals were related to audience rating or genre. Data on the amount of time soft drinks appeared onscreen was log transformed to satisfy the assumption of normality, and analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA model. McNemar's test of agreement was used to test whether branded soft drinks are as likely to appear or to be actor-endorsed compared to other branded beverages. Results Rating was not associated with portrayals of branded soft drinks, but comedies were most likely to include a branded soft drink (p = 0.0136. Branded soft drinks appeared more commonly than other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0001, branded beer (p = 0.0004, and other branded alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0006. Actors consumed branded soft drinks in five times the number of movies compared to their consumption of other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0126. About half the revenue from the films with portrayals of branded soft drinks come from film sales outside the U.S. Conclusion The frequent appearance of branded soft drinks provides indirect evidence that product placement is a common practice for American-produced films shown in the U.S. and other countries.

  1. Portrayals of branded soft drinks in popular American movies: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Diana; Townsend, Marilyn; Bell, Robert A; Watnik, Mitchell

    2006-03-09

    This study examines the portrayals of soft drinks in popular American movies as a potential vehicle for global marketing and an indicator of covert product placement. We conducted a content analysis of America's top-ten grossing films from 1991 through 2000 that included portrayals of beverages (95 movies total). Coding reliabilities were assessed with Cohen's kappa, and exceeded 0.80. If there was at least one instance of branding for a beverage, the film was considered having branded beverages. Fisher's exact test was used to determine if soft drink portrayals were related to audience rating or genre. Data on the amount of time soft drinks appeared onscreen was log transformed to satisfy the assumption of normality, and analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA model. McNemar's test of agreement was used to test whether branded soft drinks are as likely to appear or to be actor-endorsed compared to other branded beverages. Rating was not associated with portrayals of branded soft drinks, but comedies were most likely to include a branded soft drink (p = 0.0136). Branded soft drinks appeared more commonly than other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0001), branded beer (p = 0.0004), and other branded alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0006). Actors consumed branded soft drinks in five times the number of movies compared to their consumption of other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0126). About half the revenue from the films with portrayals of branded soft drinks come from film sales outside the U.S. The frequent appearance of branded soft drinks provides indirect evidence that product placement is a common practice for American-produced films shown in the U.S. and other countries.

  2. Rehabilitative Soft Exoskeleton for Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Juan Manuel; Shah, Manan; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Wurth, Sophie; Baud, Laetitia; Von Zitzewitz, Joachim; van den Brand, Rubia; Micera, Silvestro; Courtine, Gregoire; Paik, Jamie

    2017-02-01

    Robotic exoskeletons provide programmable, consistent and controllable active therapeutic assistance to patients with neurological disorders. Here we introduce a prototype and preliminary experimental evaluation of a rehabilitative gait exoskeleton that enables compliant yet effective manipulation of the fragile limbs of rats. To assist the displacements of the lower limbs without impeding natural gait movements, we designed and fabricated soft pneumatic actuators (SPAs). The exoskeleton integrates two customizable SPAs that are attached to a limb. This configuration enables a 1 N force load, a range of motion exceeding 80 mm in the major axis, and speed of actuation reaching two gait cycles/s. Preliminary experiments in rats with spinal cord injury validated the basic features of the exoskeleton. We propose strategies to improve the performance of the robot and discuss the potential of SPAs for the design of other wearable interfaces.

  3. Soft x-ray excitonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulet, A.; Bertrand, J. B.; Klostermann, T.; Guggenmos, A.; Karpowicz, N.; Goulielmakis, E.

    2017-09-01

    The dynamic response of excitons in solids is central to modern condensed-phase physics, material sciences, and photonic technologies. However, study and control have hitherto been limited to photon energies lower than the fundamental band gap. Here we report application of attosecond soft x-ray and attosecond optical pulses to study the dynamics of core-excitons at the L2,3 edge of Si in silicon dioxide (SiO2). This attosecond x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (AXANES) technique enables direct probing of the excitons’ quasiparticle character, tracking of their subfemtosecond relaxation, the measurement of excitonic polarizability, and observation of dark core-excitonic states. Direct measurement and control of core-excitons in solids lay the foundation of x-ray excitonics.

  4. Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.L.; Gielen, J.L.; Delrue, F.; De Schepper, A.M.A. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium); Salgado, R. [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium)

    2004-08-01

    A soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst located in the right gluteus medius of a 21-year-old man is reported. On conventional radiography, the lesion demonstrated a spherically trabeculated mass with a calcific rim. On CT scan, it showed a well-organized peripheral calcification resembling a myositis ossificans. On MRI, it presented as a multilocular, cystic lesion with fluid-fluid levels. The lesion had no solid components except for intralesional septa. Although findings on imaging and histology were identical to those described in classical aneurysmal bone cyst, diagnosis was delayed because of lack of knowledge of this entity and its resemblance to the more familiar post-traumatic heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans). (orig.)

  5. Why mercury prefers soft ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, Demian M [ORNL; Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Summers, Anne [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Miller, S [University of California, San Francisco; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Defining the factors that determine the relative affinities of different ligands for the mercuric ion, Hg2+, is critical to understanding its speciation, transformation, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Here, we use quantum chemistry to dissect the relative binding free energies for a series of inorganic anion complexes of Hg2+. Comparison of Hg2+ ligand interactions in the gaseous and aqueous phases shows that differences in interactions with a few, local water molecules led to a clear periodic trend within the chalcogenide and halide groups and resulted in the well-known experimentally observed preference of Hg2+ for soft ligands such as thiols. Our approach establishes a basis for understanding Hg speciation in the biosphere.

  6. Tuning sound with soft dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortot, Eliana; Shmuel, Gal

    2017-04-01

    Soft dielectric tubes undergo large deformations when subjected to radial voltage. Using the theory of nonlinear electroelasticity, we investigate how voltage-controlled deformations of these tubes in an array alter acoustic wave propagation through it. We show that the propagation is annihilated across a certain audible frequency range, referred to as a sonic band gap. We carry out a numerical study, to find that the band gap depends nonlinearly on the voltage, owing to geometrical and material nonlinearities. By analyzing different mechanical constraints, we demonstrate that snap-through instabilities resulting from these nonlinearities can be harnessed to achieve sharp transitions in the gap width. Our conclusions hint at a new strategy to adaptively filter sound using a simple control parameter—an applied voltage.

  7. Morphogenesis of Growing Soft Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervaux, Julien; Ben Amar, Martine

    2008-08-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to a noteworthy property of some soft tissues: their ability to grow. Many attempts have been made to model this behavior in biology, chemistry, and physics. Using the theory of finite elasticity, Rodriguez has postulated a multiplicative decomposition of the geometric deformation gradient into a growth-induced part and an elastic one needed to ensure compatibility of the body. In order to fully explore the consequences of this hypothesis, the equations describing thin elastic objects under finite growth are derived. Under appropriate scaling assumptions for the growth rates, the proposed model is of the Föppl von Kármán type. As an illustration, the circumferential growth of a free hyperelastic disk is studied.

  8. Multiscale mechanical modeling of soft biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2008-10-01

    Soft biological tissues include both native and artificial tissues. In the human body, tissues like the articular cartilage, arterial wall, and heart valve leaflets are examples of structures composed of an underlying network of collagen fibers, cells, proteins and molecules. Artificial tissues are less complex than native tissues and mainly consist of a fiber polymer network with the intent of replacing lost or damaged tissue. Understanding of the mechanical function of these materials is essential for many clinical treatments (e.g. arterial clamping, angioplasty), diseases (e.g. arteriosclerosis) and tissue engineering applications (e.g. engineered blood vessels or heart valves). This thesis presents the derivation and application of a multiscale methodology to describe the macroscopic mechanical function of soft biological tissues incorporating directly their structural architecture. The model, which is based on volume averaging theory, accounts for structural parameters such as the network volume fraction and orientation, the realignment of the fibers in response to strain, the interactions among the fibers and the interactions between the fibers and the interstitial fluid in order to predict the overall tissue behavior. Therefore, instead of using a constitutive equation to relate strain to stress, the tissue microstructure is modeled within a representative volume element (RVE) and the macroscopic response at any point in the tissue is determined by solving a micromechanics problem in the RVE. The model was applied successfully to acellular collagen gels, native blood vessels, and electrospun polyurethane scaffolds and provided accurate predictions for permeability calculations in isotropic and oriented fiber networks. The agreement of model predictions with experimentally determined mechanical properties provided insights into the mechanics of tissues and tissue constructs, while discrepancies revealed limitations of the model framework.

  9. Multidrug‑resistant acinetobacter infection and their susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antibiotic‑resistant Acinetobacter nosocomial infection is a leading problem. It acts as an opportunistic pathogen to cause a wide spectrum of infection including nosocomial pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infection, conjunctivitis, burn wound infection and ...

  10. Soft segmented inchworm robot with dielectric elastomer muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Andrew T.; Hinitt, Andrew D.; Wang, Pengchuan

    2014-03-01

    Robotic devices typically utilize rigid components in order to produce precise and robust operation. Rigidity becomes a significant impediment, however, when navigating confined or constricted environments e.g. search-and-rescue, industrial pipe inspection. In such cases adaptively conformable soft structures become optimal. Dielectric elastomers (DEs) are well suited for developing such soft robots since they are inherently compliant and can produce large musclelike actuation strains. In this paper, a soft segmented inchworm robot is presented that utilizes pneumatically-coupled DE membranes to produce inchworm-like locomotion. The robot is constructed from repeated body segments, each with a simple control architecture, so that the total length can be readily adapted by adding or removing segments. Each segment consists of a soft inflatable shell (internal pressure in range of 1.0-15.9 mBar) and a pair of antagonistic DE membranes (VHB 4905). Experimental testing of a single body segment is presented and the relationship between drive voltage, pneumatic pressure and active displacement is characterized. This demonstrates that pneumatic coupling of DE membranes induces complex non-linear electro-mechanical behaviour as drive voltage and pneumatic pressure are altered. Locomotion of a two-segment inchworm robot prototype with a passive length of 80 mm is presented. Artificial setae are included on the body shell to generate anisotropic friction for locomotion. A maximum locomotion speed of 4.1 mm/s was recorded at a drive frequency of 1.5 Hz, which compares favourably to biological counterparts. Future development of the soft inchworm robot are discussed including reflexive low-level control of individual segments.

  11. Embracing "Soft Skill" Diversity in the Workplace (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T.

    2010-12-01

    Embracing "Soft Skill" Diversity in the Workplace Terri Thomas, Sr. Director Global Customer Support ShoreTel INRODUCTION Truly successful diversity programs go beyond gender, age, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation and spiritual practice. They include diversity of thought, style, leadership and communication styles, the so called “soft skills”. The increasing need for global workforces is stronger than ever and high performance teams have fully embraced, successfully harnessed and put into practice robust diversity programs than include a “soft skill” focus. Managing diversity presents significant organizational challenges, and is not an easy task, particularly in organizations that are heavily weighted with highly technical professionals such as engineers, accountants etc.. The focus of this presentation is on leveraging the “Soft Skills” diversity in technical work environments to create high performance and highly productive teams. WHY DIVERSITY and WHY NOW? Due to increasing changes in the U.S. population, in order to stay competitive, companies need to focus on diversity and look for ways to become inclusive organizations because diversity has the potential of yielding greater productivity and competitive advantages . Managing and valuing diversity is a key component of effective people management, which can improve workplace productivity (Black Enterprise, 2001). Changing demographics, from organizational restructuring, women in the workplace, equal opportunity legislation and other legal issues, are forcing organizations to become more aggressive in implementing robust diversity practices. However, YOU do not need to wait for your organization to introduce a formal “Diversity” program. There are steps you can take to introduce diversity into your own workgroups. There is no “one single answer” to solve this issue, however this discussion will provide thought provoking ideas, examples of success and failure and a starting point for you

  12. Spectrum and potency of ceftaroline against leading pathogens causing community-acquired respiratory tract and skin and soft tissue infections in Latin America, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Flamm

    Full Text Available Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, is a cephalosporin with in vitro bactericidal activity against Gram-positive organisms, including methicillinsusceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus, β-haemolytic and viridans group streptococci, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as common Gram-negative organisms. In this study a total of 986 isolates collected in 2010 from patients in 15 medical centers in five Latin American countries from the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation Program were identified as community-acquired respiratory tract or skin and soft tissue infection pathogens. Ceftaroline was the most potent agent tested against S. pneumoniae with a MIC90 value (0.12 µg/mL that was eight-fold lower than ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, and linezolid. Its spectrum of coverage (100.0% susceptible was similar to tigecycline, linezolid, levofloxacin and vancomycin. Against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, ceftaroline was the most active agent tested. The activity of ceftaroline against S. aureus (including MRSA was similar to that of vancomycin and tetracycline (MIC90,1 µg/mL and linezolid (MIC90,2 Jg/mL. The 1-haemolytic streptococci exhibited 100.0% susceptibility to ceftaroline. Ceftaroline activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Enterobacter spp. was similar to that of ceftriaxone and ceftazidime. These parenteral cephalosporin agents have potent activity against non-extended-spectrum These parenteral cephalosporin agents have potent activity against non-extended-spectrum-lactamase-phenotype strains, but are not active against extended-spectrum β-lactamase-phenotype strains. These results confirm the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against pathogens common in communityacquired respiratory tract and skin and soft tissue infection in Latin America, and suggest that ceftaroline fosamil could be an important therapeutic option for these infections.

  13. Order and chaos in soft condensed matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pensions, surfactant gels and polymeric systems are just a few examples [1]. Soft matter is middle ground between two extremes: the fluid state, where thermal fluctuations are very important, and the solid state. However diverse these sys- tems are, they share certain common features: (i) The constituents that make up soft ...

  14. [Radiotherapy of adult soft tissue sarcoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Péchoux, C; Moureau-Zabotto, L; Llacer, C; Ducassou, A; Sargos, P; Sunyach, M P; Thariat, J

    2016-09-01

    Incidence of soft tissue sarcoma is low and requires multidisciplinary treatment in specialized centers. The objective of this paper is to report the state of the art regarding indications and treatment techniques of main soft tissue sarcoma localisations. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Order and chaos in soft condensed matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 67; Issue 1. Order and chaos in soft condensed matter. A K Sood Rajesh Ganapathy. Volume 67 Issue ... Soft matter, like colloidal suspensions and surfactant gels, exhibit strong response to modest external perturbations. This paper reviews our recent experiments on ...

  16. Novelty Search for Soft Robotic Space Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Methenitis (Georgios); D. Hennes; D. Izzo; A. Visser

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe use of soft robots in future space exploration is still a far-fetched idea, but an attractive one. Soft robots are inherently compliant mechanisms that are well suited for locomotion on rough terrain as often faced in extra-planetary environments. Depending on the particular

  17. THE SODIUM PREVALENCE IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS SOLD IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fernanda Nunes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbonated soft drinks intake has changed the children eating habits. This factor may be directly associated with arterial hypertension due the high consumption of sodium present in foods and drinks industrialized. This study was to compare sodium levels between two different types of carbonated soft drinks, carbonated sugar drinks and diet drinks to define what type of drink has the lowest sodium content and alerting healthcare professionals about the presence of sodium in industrialized beverages. The study included labels of carbonated soft drinks n = 33 – sugar drinks (n = 21 or diet drinks (n = 12 – of five different flavors.All carbonated soft drinks evaluated have sodium in its composition. However, the sodium presence in carbonated sugar drinks was significantly lower when compared with carbonated diet drinks (69.05 ± 16.55 vs. 145.30 ± 47.36mg Na/l, respectively.Studies to identify children's eating habits related with increased consumption of foods and drinks manufactured are needed to identify, reduce and prevent high blood pressure.

  18. Soft coral Sarcophyton (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Octocorallia) species diversity and chemotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aratake, Satoe; Tomura, Tomohiko; Saitoh, Seikoh; Yokokura, Ryouma; Kawanishi, Yuichi; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Reimer, James Davis; Tanaka, Junichi; Maekawa, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Research on the soft coral genus Sarcophyton extends over a wide range of fields, including marine natural products and the isolation of a number of cembranoid diterpenes. However, it is still unknown how soft corals produce this diverse array of metabolites, and the relationship between soft coral diversity and cembranoid diterpene production is not clear. In order to understand this relationship, we examined Sarcophyton specimens from Okinawa, Japan, by utilizing three methods: morphological examination of sclerites, chemotype identification, and phylogenetic examination of both Sarcophyton (utilizing mitochondrial protein-coding genes MutS homolog: msh1) and their endosymbiotic Symbiodinium spp. (utilizing nuclear internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA: ITS- rDNA). Chemotypes, molecular phylogenetic clades, and sclerites of Sarcophyton trocheliophorum specimens formed a clear and distinct group, but the relationships between chemotypes, molecular phylogenetic clade types and sclerites of the most common species, Sarcophyton glaucum, was not clear. S. glaucum was divided into four clades. A characteristic chemotype was observed within one phylogenetic clade of S. glaucum. Identities of symbiotic algae Symbiodinium spp. had no apparent relation to chemotypes of Sarcophyton spp. This study demonstrates that the complex results observed for S. glaucum are due to the incomplete and complex taxonomy of this species group. Our novel method of identification should help contribute to classification and taxonomic reassessment of this diverse soft coral genus.

  19. Fat-containing soft-tissue masses in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheybani, Elizabeth F. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Eutsler, Eric P. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Navarro, Oscar M. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    The diagnosis of soft-tissue masses in children can be difficult because of the frequently nonspecific clinical and imaging characteristics of these lesions. However key findings on imaging can aid in diagnosis. The identification of macroscopic fat within a soft-tissue mass narrows the differential diagnosis considerably and suggests a high likelihood of a benign etiology in children. Fat can be difficult to detect with sonography because of the variable appearance of fat using this modality. Fat is easier to recognize using MRI, particularly with the aid of fat-suppression techniques. Although a large portion of fat-containing masses in children are adipocytic tumors, a variety of other tumors and mass-like conditions that contain fat should be considered by the radiologist confronted with a fat-containing mass in a child. In this article we review the sonographic and MRI findings in the most relevant fat-containing soft-tissue masses in the pediatric age group, including adipocytic tumors (lipoma, angiolipoma, lipomatosis, lipoblastoma, lipomatosis of nerve, and liposarcoma); fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumors (fibrous hamartoma of infancy and lipofibromatosis); vascular anomalies (involuting hemangioma, intramuscular capillary hemangioma, phosphate and tensin homologue (PTEN) hamartoma of soft tissue, fibro-adipose vascular anomaly), and other miscellaneous entities, such as fat necrosis and epigastric hernia. (orig.)

  20. Soft coral Sarcophyton (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Octocorallia species diversity and chemotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoe Aratake

    Full Text Available Research on the soft coral genus Sarcophyton extends over a wide range of fields, including marine natural products and the isolation of a number of cembranoid diterpenes. However, it is still unknown how soft corals produce this diverse array of metabolites, and the relationship between soft coral diversity and cembranoid diterpene production is not clear. In order to understand this relationship, we examined Sarcophyton specimens from Okinawa, Japan, by utilizing three methods: morphological examination of sclerites, chemotype identification, and phylogenetic examination of both Sarcophyton (utilizing mitochondrial protein-coding genes MutS homolog: msh1 and their endosymbiotic Symbiodinium spp. (utilizing nuclear internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA: ITS- rDNA. Chemotypes, molecular phylogenetic clades, and sclerites of Sarcophyton trocheliophorum specimens formed a clear and distinct group, but the relationships between chemotypes, molecular phylogenetic clade types and sclerites of the most common species, Sarcophyton glaucum, was not clear. S. glaucum was divided into four clades. A characteristic chemotype was observed within one phylogenetic clade of S. glaucum. Identities of symbiotic algae Symbiodinium spp. had no apparent relation to chemotypes of Sarcophyton spp. This study demonstrates that the complex results observed for S. glaucum are due to the incomplete and complex taxonomy of this species group. Our novel method of identification should help contribute to classification and taxonomic reassessment of this diverse soft coral genus.

  1. pitting corrosion susceptibility pitting corrosion susceptibility of aisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Abstract. The susceptibility of austenitic (AISI 301) stainless steel to pitting corrosion was evaluated in sodium chloride. (NaCl) solutions ... AISI 301 steel suffers from pitting corrosion in all the investigated solutions. AISI 301 steel suffers from ..... [1] Ijeomah, M.N.C. Elements of Corrosion and Protection. Theory, Auto Century ...

  2. Magnetic Susceptability Measurements in Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jason; Mallory, Kendall; Seim, Ryan

    2000-04-01

    A new undergraduate research facility in magnetic susceptability measurements on superconductors is being developed at the University of Northern Colorado. Initial data measurements of the magnetic susceptability of various superconductors will be presented. These measurements were obtained with a liquid helium/nitrogen dewar that was reassembled for use in this project. The cryostat consists of two separate dewars, the first of which contains liquid nitrogen, the second, liquid helium. The liquid nitrogen dewar is used to keep the helium bath from evaporating off too quickly. Data on the evaporation rates of the two liquids will also be presented.

  3. Soft computing techniques in engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Baojiang

    2014-01-01

    The Soft Computing techniques, which are based on the information processing of biological systems are now massively used in the area of pattern recognition, making prediction & planning, as well as acting on the environment. Ideally speaking, soft computing is not a subject of homogeneous concepts and techniques; rather, it is an amalgamation of distinct methods that confirms to its guiding principle. At present, the main aim of soft computing is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty to achieve tractability, robustness and low solutions cost. The principal constituents of soft computing techniques are probabilistic reasoning, fuzzy logic, neuro-computing, genetic algorithms, belief networks, chaotic systems, as well as learning theory. This book covers contributions from various authors to demonstrate the use of soft computing techniques in various applications of engineering.  

  4. From Soft Walls to Infrared Branes

    CERN Document Server

    von Gersdorff, Gero

    2010-01-01

    Five dimensional warped spaces with soft walls are generalizations of the standard Randall-Sundrum compactifications, where instead of an infrared brane one has a curvature singularity (with vanishing warp factor) at finite proper distance in the bulk. We project the physics near the singularity onto a hypersurface located a small distance away from it in the bulk. This results in a completely equivalent description of the soft wall in terms of an effective infrared brane, hiding any singular point. We perform explicitly this calculation for two classes of soft wall backgrounds used in the literature. The procedure has several advantages. It separates in a clean way the physics of the soft wall from the physics of the five dimensional bulk, facilitating a more direct comparison with standard two-brane warped compactifications. Moreover, consistent soft walls show a sort of universal behavior near the singularity which is reflected in the effective brane Lagrangian. Thirdly, for many purposes, a good approxima...

  5. Soft Space Planning in Cities unbound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    This paper analyses contemporary experiments of building governance capacity in new soft spaces in Denmark through processes of spatial strategy-making. The paper argues that new soft spaces are emerging in Danish spatial planning, which set out to promote more effective forms of strategic spatial...... planning, and how their obsession with promoting economic development at the expense of wider planning responsibilities support contemporary neoliberal transformations of strategic spatial planning....... planning. The Danish case of soft space planning demonstrates how Danish soft spaces at subnational scales fail to fill in the gaps between formal planning structures and provide the glue that binds formal scales of planning together as promised in the soft space literature. This raises a number...

  6. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections in a general hospital: patient characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility, and treatment outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Samonis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is acquiring increasing importance as a nosocomial pathogen. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the characteristics and outcome of patients with any type of S. maltophilia infection at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece, between 1/2005-12/2010. S. maltophilia antimicrobial susceptibility was tested with the agar dilution method. Prognostic factors for all-cause in-hospital mortality were assessed with multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients (median age: 70.5 years; 64.7% males with S. maltophilia infection, not related to cystic fibrosis, were included. The 68 patients were hospitalized in medical (29.4%, surgical (26.5%, hematology/oncology departments (23.5%, or the intensive care units (ICU; 20.6%. The most frequent infection types were respiratory tract (54.4%, bloodstream (16.2%, skin/soft tissue (10.3%, and intra-abdominal (8.8% infection. The S. maltophilia-associated infection was polymicrobial in 33.8% of the cases. In vitro susceptibility was higher to colistin (91.2%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and netilmicin (85.3% each, and ciprofloxacin (82.4%. The empirical and the targeted treatment regimens were microbiologically appropriate for 47.3% and 63.6% of the 55 patients with data available, respectively. Most patients received targeted therapy with a combination of agents other than trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The crude mortality and the mortality and the S. maltophilia infection-related mortality were 14.7% and 4.4%, respectively. ICU hospitalization was the only independent prognostic factor for mortality. CONCLUSION: S. maltophilia infection in a general hospital can be associated with a good prognosis, except for the patients hospitalized in the ICU. Combination reigmens with fluoroquinolones, colistin, or tigecycline could be alternative treatment options to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

  7. Expanding the scope of environmental risk assessment to better include differential vulnerability and susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joel; Bellinger, David; Glass, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    The central paradigm of the Environmental Protection Agency is risk assessment. We examined how differential responses across population groups could be better integrated into the environmental risk assessment process, providing tools to achieve greater equity in health status in addition to risk reduction. Such integration was difficult with paradigms like reference dose and was easier with consideration of dose-response curves, which incorporated nontrivial effects observed at low doses for common exposures. We identified 6 assumptions implicit in standard chemical risk assessments that should changed: (1) risk independence, (2) risk averaging, (3) risk nontransferability, (4) risk synchrony, (5) risk accumulation and chaining, and (6) quantification of numbers of persons above certain thresholds or limit values sufficient to characterize risk.

  8. Isolated and soft-switched power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Adams, Donald Joe

    2002-01-01

    An isolated and soft-switched power converter is used for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion. The power converter includes two resonant tank circuits coupled back-to-back through an isolation transformer. Each resonant tank circuit includes a pair of resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, a pair of tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and a pair of switching devices with anti-parallel clamping diodes coupled in series as resonant switches and clamping devices for the resonant leg. The power converter is well suited for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion applications in which high-voltage isolation, DC to DC voltage boost, bidirectional power flow, and a minimal number of conventional switching components are important design objectives. For example, the power converter is especially well suited to electric vehicle applications and load-side electric generation and storage systems, and other applications in which these objectives are important. The power converter may be used for many different applications, including electric vehicles, hybrid combustion/electric vehicles, fuel-cell powered vehicles with low-voltage starting, remote power sources utilizing low-voltage DC power sources, such as photovoltaics and others, electric power backup systems, and load-side electric storage and generation systems.

  9. Role of Soft Computing Approaches in HealthCare Domain: A Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Shalini; Malik, Sanjay Kumar; Kumar, Yugal

    2016-12-01

    In the present era, soft computing approaches play a vital role in solving the different kinds of problems and provide promising solutions. Due to popularity of soft computing approaches, these approaches have also been applied in healthcare data for effectively diagnosing the diseases and obtaining better results in comparison to traditional approaches. Soft computing approaches have the ability to adapt itself according to problem domain. Another aspect is a good balance between exploration and exploitation processes. These aspects make soft computing approaches more powerful, reliable and efficient. The above mentioned characteristics make the soft computing approaches more suitable and competent for health care data. The first objective of this review paper is to identify the various soft computing approaches which are used for diagnosing and predicting the diseases. Second objective is to identify various diseases for which these approaches are applied. Third objective is to categories the soft computing approaches for clinical support system. In literature, it is found that large number of soft computing approaches have been applied for effectively diagnosing and predicting the diseases from healthcare data. Some of these are particle swarm optimization, genetic algorithm, artificial neural network, support vector machine etc. A detailed discussion on these approaches are presented in literature section. This work summarizes various soft computing approaches used in healthcare domain in last one decade. These approaches are categorized in five different categories based on the methodology, these are classification model based system, expert system, fuzzy and neuro fuzzy system, rule based system and case based system. Lot of techniques are discussed in above mentioned categories and all discussed techniques are summarized in the form of tables also. This work also focuses on accuracy rate of soft computing technique and tabular information is provided for

  10. The hard X-ray perspective on the soft X-ray excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Ranjan V.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Lohfink, Anne M.; Zoghbi, Abderahmen [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Fabian, Andrew C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Gallo, Luigi C. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary' s University, 923 Robie Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 (Canada); Walton, Dominic, E-mail: ranjan@astro.umd.edu [Cahill Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    The X-ray spectra of many active galactic nuclei exhibit a 'soft excess' below 1 keV, whose physical origin remains unclear. Diverse models have been suggested to account for it, including ionized reflection of X-rays from the inner part of the accretion disk, ionized winds/absorbers, and Comptonization. The ionized reflection model suggests a natural link between the prominence of the soft excess and the Compton reflection hump strength above 10 keV, but it has not been clear what hard X-ray signatures, if any, are expected from the other soft X-ray candidate models. Additionally, it has not been possible up until recently to obtain high-quality simultaneous measurements of both soft and hard X-ray emission necessary to distinguish these models but upcoming joint XMM-NuSTAR programs provide precisely this opportunity. In this paper, we present an extensive analysis of simulations of XMM-NuSTAR observations, using two candidate soft excess models as inputs, to determine whether such campaigns can disambiguate between them by using hard and soft X-ray observations in tandem. The simulated spectra are fit with the simplest 'observer's model' of a blackbody and neutral reflection to characterize the strength of the soft and hard excesses. A plot of the strength of the hard excess against the soft excess strength provides a diagnostic plot which allows the soft excess production mechanism to be determined in individual sources and samples using current state-of-the-art and next generation hard X-ray enabled observatories. This approach can be straightforwardly extended to other candidate models for the soft excess.

  11. Topological susceptibility from the overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    The chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing of Ginsparg-Wilson fermionic actions constrains the renormalization of the lattice operators; in particular, the topological susceptibility does not require any renormalization, when using a fermionic estimator to define the topological charge. Theref...

  12. CT-Based Assessment of Relative Soft-Tissue Alteration in Different Types of Ancient Mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydler, Christina; Öhrström, Lena; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Woitek, Ulrich; Rühli, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Mummification leads to alteration of soft-tissue morphology. No research has focused specifically on differences in soft-tissue shrinkage depending on mummification type. This study evaluated whether soft-tissue alteration is dependent on type of mummification. A total of 17 human mummies have been investigated by computed tomography (CT). Samples included artificially embalmed ancient Egyptian mummies, naturally mummified South American corpses, ice mummies (including the Iceman, South Tyrol Museum of Archeology, Bolzano, Italy, ca. 3,300 BC), bog bodies and a desiccated mummy of possibly Asian provenance. The acquired data were compared to four contemporary bodies. The extent of soft-tissue shrinkage was evaluated using CT data. Shrinkage was defined as soft-tissue relative to area of bone (in number of voxels). Measurements were taken at 13 anatomically defined locations. Ice mummies show the highest degree of preservation. This finding is most likely explained due to frozen water within tissues. All other types of mummies show significantly (at P Mummification type strongly affects the degree of soft-tissue alteration, surprisingly mostly independent of overall historical age. These results highlight the unique morphological impact of taphonomy on soft-tissue preservation and are of particular interest in tissue research as well as in forensics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Assessing soft skills components in science and technology programs within Malaysian Technical Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahirol Mohd Salleh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The workforce is a social environment where particular skills are essential in order for workers to perform well, have a competitive edge and succeed in their careers. A soft skill is one of the skills needed in every type of workplace setting. Soft skills include communication skills, collaboration skills, entrepreneurship, and others. Workplace need workers who are competent not only with technical skills but who also have soft skills. There is lack of literature discussion on the perceptions of needed soft skills in the workplace. Therefore, this study aimed to close the gap in the literature concerning the perceptions of instructors and students in the area of soft skills especially in communication skills, collaboration skills, and entrepreneurship at the workplace. This study aims to decrease the divide in soft skills differences among instructors and students in higher learning institutions so that students have the opportunity to excel in their learning process. This study employs quantitative method specifically using survey as an instrument. The findings shows soft skills including communication, collaboration, and entrepreneurship skills are one of the aspects stressed by the students and instructors at higher learning institutions to ensure that graduates will be employable and competent in order to contribute to the nation development.

  14. Hydraulic Soft Yaw System for Multi MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren

    energy and an increase in the loading of the wind turbine structure and components. This dissertation examines the hypothesis that there are advantages of basing a yaw system on hydraulic components instead of normal electrical components. This is done through a state of the art analysis followed...... in the wind turbine yaw system along with minor reductions in the blades and main shaft. Optimization of the damping and stiffness of the hydraulic soft yaw system have been conducted and an optimum found for load reduction. Linear control algorithms for control of damping pressure peaks have been developed...... and tested in simulations with success. To verify the results of the new hydraulic soft yaw concept a novel friction model for including coulomb in the yaw system is developed and implemented in the FAST aeroelastic code from NREL in order to include friction phenomena. A cosimulation interface between...

  15. The JET multi-camera soft X-ray diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B.; Blackler, K.; Dillon, S.F.; Edwards, A.W.; Gill, R.D.; Lyadina, E.; Mulligan, W.; Staunton-Lambert, S.A.B.; Thompson, D.G.; Wilson, D.J. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    A new soft X-ray detector system has been constructed for the pumped divertor phase of JET which incorporates a number of enhancements over the previous system in both hardware and data acquisition. The hardware improvements include: six independent views of the plasma at one toroidal location (as opposed to two in the old system), spatial resolution improved from 7 cm to 3 cm, frequency response increased from 30 khz to 100 khz and improved toroidal mode resolution. These enhancements will allow the study of MHD activity in finer detail. The tomographic reconstruction of soft X-ray emissivities will be improved to include Fourier terms up to cos(5{theta}) compared with only cos(2{theta}) before. Through the implementation of a fast central acquisition and trigger system, data from a range of diagnostics will be available at high bandwidth to allow processing of plasma phenomena of far greater complexity than was possible before. (authors). 2 refs., 5 figs.

  16. The Soft Triangle: An Often Neglected Area in Rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayabasoglu, Gurkan; Nacar, Alpen

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to focus on one of the lesser mentioned topics in discussions of aesthetic nose operations, the soft triangle. In addition to outlining the characteristics of the area, the various complications specific to the soft triangle are discussed along with methods and techniques utilized by the authors to avoid such complications. One hundred twenty-seven of 841 (15 %) patients who were assessed both preoperatively and intraoperatively for the presence of an anatomical issue of the soft triangle were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups according to their anatomical features that were identified intraoperatively. The preoperative and postoperative photographs of all patients were compared to assess the effects of the respective soft triangle grafts on both nostril length and the nostril/lobule harmony. The average follow-up time of the patients was 27 months (6-60). Postoperative notching (of various degrees) was found in six (6/127) total patients: one (1/31) patient in the first group, two (2/24) patients in the second group, and three (3/72) patients in the third group. Neglecting the soft triangle area might yield grim results in terms of cosmetic and functional aspects. To avoid these problems, incisions should be planned purposefully, and patients who have anatomically weak support should be identified so that additional precautions should be taken for these cases. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  17. Advances in data representation for hard/soft information fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimland, Jeffrey C.; Coughlin, Dan; Hall, David L.; Graham, Jacob L.

    2012-06-01

    Information fusion is becoming increasingly human-centric. While past systems typically relegated humans to the role of analyzing a finished fusion product, current systems are exploring the role of humans as integral elements in a modular and extensible distributed framework where many tasks can be accomplished by either human or machine performers. For example, "participatory sensing" campaigns give humans the role of "soft sensors" by uploading their direct observations or as "soft sensor platforms" by using mobile devices to record human-annotated, GPS-encoded high quality photographs, video, or audio. Additionally, the role of "human-in-the-loop", in which individuals or teams using advanced human computer interface (HCI) tools such as stereoscopic 3D visualization, haptic interfaces, or aural "sonification" interfaces can help to effectively engage the innate human capability to perform pattern matching, anomaly identification, and semantic-based contextual reasoning to interpret an evolving situation. The Pennsylvania State University is participating in a Multi-disciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) program funded by the U.S. Army Research Office to investigate fusion of hard and soft data in counterinsurgency (COIN) situations. In addition to the importance of this research for Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB), many of the same challenges and techniques apply to health and medical informatics, crisis management, crowd-sourced "citizen science", and monitoring environmental concerns. One of the key challenges that we have encountered is the development of data formats, protocols, and methodologies to establish an information architecture and framework for the effective capture, representation, transmission, and storage of the vastly heterogeneous data and accompanying metadata -- including capabilities and characteristics of human observers, uncertainty of human observations, "soft" contextual data, and information pedigree

  18. Robust Soft Textile Transfer Case for Contaminated Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-28

    requirements. Silicone and other materials options exist, including thermoplastic urethane. [0039] After molding , the open end of the bladder 14 is...air leakage during operation, the soft transfer case has a molded elastomeric bladder containable within the outer circular woven preform. The fabric...liquid crystal polymer). [0037] The bladder 14 is molded by using an elastomeric material in a pouch-shaped form having a single open end and is

  19. Soft-leadership competencies for today's healthcare finance executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Mark

    2015-05-01

    With the healthcare industry changing rapidly, organizations seek finance leaders who have skills that go beyond traditional expertise in revenue and expenses. These additional competencies fall under the heading of soft-leadership skills and include the ability to be strategy-oriented, agile, passionate, inspirational, influential, communicative, dependable, driven, integrative, and engaged. Networking, participation in a mentoring program, and continuing education provide avenues for finance leaders to develop these sorts of skills.

  20. A new paradigm of knowledge engineering by soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Liya

    2001-01-01

    Soft computing (SC) consists of several computing paradigms, including neural networks, fuzzy set theory, approximate reasoning, and derivative-free optimization methods such as genetic algorithms. The integration of those constituent methodologies forms the core of SC. In addition, the synergy allows SC to incorporate human knowledge effectively, deal with imprecision and uncertainty, and learn to adapt to unknown or changing environments for better performance. Together with other modern technologies, SC and its applications exert unprecedented influence on intelligent systems that mimic hum

  1. Needle steering and motion planning in soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaio, Simon P; Salcudean, S E

    2005-06-01

    In this work, needle insertion into deformable tissue is formulated as a trajectory planning and control problem. A new concept of needle steering has been developed and a needle manipulation Jacobian defined using numerical needle insertion models that include needle deflection and soft tissue deformation. This concept is used in conjunction with a potential-field-based path planning technique to demonstrate needle tip placement and obstacle avoidance. Results from open loop insertion experiments are provided.

  2. Recent advances in the computational chemistry of soft porous crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraux, Guillaume; Coudert, François-Xavier

    2017-06-29

    Here we highlight recent progress in the field of computational chemistry of nanoporous materials, focusing on methods and studies that address the extraordinary dynamic nature of these systems: the high flexibility of their frameworks, the large-scale structural changes upon external physical or chemical stimulation, and the presence of defects and disorder. The wide variety of behavior demonstrated in soft porous crystals, including the topical class of metal-organic frameworks, opens new challenges for computational chemistry methods at all scales.

  3. Wilms tumor arising in extracoelomic paravertebral soft tissues.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulligan, Linda

    2012-02-01

    Extrarenal Wilms tumor (ERWT) is a well-established entity which most commonly arises within the genitourinary tract, including intracoelomic paranephric soft tissue. Rarely, ERWT arises within teratoma, and it tends to occur predominantly in distinct settings, such as females with spinal defects and males with testicular teratomas. We report a unique ERWT arising within an extracoelomic teratoma of the paraspinal musculature, thereby expanding the range of reported locations for this unusual tumor.

  4. Soft tissue tumors of the pelvis: Technical and histological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, John T; van Houdt, Winan

    2017-12-19

    In this review, we first address the anatomic and technical considerations in the resection of pelvic soft tissue tumors, including the challenges unique to these tumors, such as the narrow anatomic confines of the bony pelvis, the often locally aggressive nature of these tumors, as well as the major functional deficits that may result from their resection. We then review the optimal, multidisciplinary, histology-driven treatment approach to pelvic tumors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Nonspecificity of Chronic Soft Tissue Pain Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldon Tunks

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent (or chronic pain occurs with a prevalence of about 10% in the adult population, and chronic soft tissue pain is especially problematic. Criteria for diagnosis of these soft tissue pain disorders appear to suffer from specificity problems, even though they appear to be sensitive in distinguishing normal from soft tissue pain sufferers. A few decades ago the term 'neuraesthenia' was used as a diagnosis in individuals who now would probably be diagnosed as suffering from fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and anxiety disorders with fatigue. Soft tissue pain provokes skepticism, especially among third-party payers, and controversy among clinicians. Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated sex differences in the prevalence of widespread pain and multiple tender points, which are distributed variably throughout the adult population and tend to be correlated with subjective symptoms. Although there is a tendency for these syndromes to persist, follow-up studies show that they tend to vary in extent and sometimes show remissions over longer follow-up, casting doubt about the distinctions between chronic diffuse pains and localized chronic soft tissue pains. Because both accidents and soft tissue pains are relatively prevalent problems, the possibility of chance coincidence of accident and chronic soft tissue pain in an individual creates the need to be cautious in attributing these syndromes to specific accidents in medicolegal situations. At the same time, the available evidence does not support a generally dismissive attitude towards these patients.

  6. On the exactness of soft theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Andrea L.; Huang, Yu-tin; Li, Zhizhong; Wen, Congkao

    2017-12-01

    Soft behaviours of S-matrix for massless theories reflect the underlying symmetry principle that enforces its masslessness. As an expansion in soft momenta, sub-leading soft theorems can arise either due to (I) unique structure of the fundamental vertex or (II) presence of enhanced broken-symmetries. While the former is expected to be modified by infrared or ultraviolet divergences, the latter should remain exact to all orders in perturbation theory. Using current algebra, we clarify such distinction for spontaneously broken (super) Poincaré and (super) conformal symmetry. We compute the UV divergences of DBI, conformal DBI, and A-V theory to verify the exactness of type (II) soft theorems, while type (I) are shown to be broken and the soft-modifying higher-dimensional operators are identified. As further evidence for the exactness of type (II) soft theorems, we consider the α' expansion of both super and bosonic open strings amplitudes, and verify the validity of the translation symmetry breaking soft-theorems up to O({α}^' 6}) . Thus the massless S-matrix of string theory "knows" about the presence of D-branes.

  7. Soft tissue imaging with photon counting spectroscopic CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M

    2015-03-21

    The purpose of this work was experimental investigation of photon counting spectroscopic CT (PCS-CT) imaging of anatomical soft tissue with clinically relevant size. The imaging experiments were performed using a spectroscopic CT system based on CdZnTe photon counting detector with two rows of pixels, 256 pixels in each row, 1  ×  1 mm(2) pixel size, and 25.6 cm detector length. The detector could split the x-ray energy spectrum to 5 regions (energy bins), and acquire 5 multi-energy (spectroscopic) CT images in a single CT scan. A sample of round shaped anatomical soft tissue of 14 cm diameter including lean and fat was used for imaging. To avoid the negative effect of anatomical noise on quantitative analysis, a spectroscopic CT phantom with tissue equivalent solid materials was used. The images were acquired at 60, 90, and 120 kVp tube voltages, and spectroscopic image series were acquired with 3 and 5 energy bins. Spectroscopic CT numbers were introduced and used to evaluate an energy selective image series. The anatomical soft tissue with 14 cm diameter was visualized with good quality and without substantial artifacts by the photon counting spectroscopic CT system. The effects of the energy bin crosstalk on spectroscopic CT numbers were quantified and analyzed. The single and double slice PCS-CT images were acquired and compared. Several new findings were observed, including the effect of soft tissue non-uniformity on image artifacts, unique status of highest energy bin, and material dependent visualization in spectroscopic image series. Fat-lean decomposition was performed using dual energy subtraction and threshold segmentation methods, and compared. Using K-edge filtered x-rays improved fat-lean decomposition as compared to conventional x-rays. Several new and important aspects of the PCS-CT were investigated. These include imaging soft tissue with clinically relevant size, single- and double-slice PCS-CT imaging, using spectroscopic CT

  8. Soft tissue imaging with photon counting spectroscopic CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this work was experimental investigation of photon counting spectroscopic CT (PCS-CT) imaging of anatomical soft tissue with clinically relevant size. The imaging experiments were performed using a spectroscopic CT system based on CdZnTe photon counting detector with two rows of pixels, 256 pixels in each row, 1  ×  1 mm2 pixel size, and 25.6 cm detector length. The detector could split the x-ray energy spectrum to 5 regions (energy bins), and acquire 5 multi-energy (spectroscopic) CT images in a single CT scan. A sample of round shaped anatomical soft tissue of 14 cm diameter including lean and fat was used for imaging. To avoid the negative effect of anatomical noise on quantitative analysis, a spectroscopic CT phantom with tissue equivalent solid materials was used. The images were acquired at 60, 90, and 120 kVp tube voltages, and spectroscopic image series were acquired with 3 and 5 energy bins. Spectroscopic CT numbers were introduced and used to evaluate an energy selective image series. The anatomical soft tissue with 14 cm diameter was visualized with good quality and without substantial artifacts by the photon counting spectroscopic CT system. The effects of the energy bin crosstalk on spectroscopic CT numbers were quantified and analyzed. The single and double slice PCS-CT images were acquired and compared. Several new findings were observed, including the effect of soft tissue non-uniformity on image artifacts, unique status of highest energy bin, and material dependent visualization in spectroscopic image series. Fat-lean decomposition was performed using dual energy subtraction and threshold segmentation methods, and compared. Using K-edge filtered x-rays improved fat-lean decomposition as compared to conventional x-rays. Several new and important aspects of the PCS-CT were investigated. These include imaging soft tissue with clinically relevant size, single- and double-slice PCS-CT imaging, using spectroscopic CT

  9. Energy efficiency of mobile soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Langquan; Zhu, Liangliang; Yang, Zhe; Liu, Yilun; Chen, Xi

    2017-11-15

    The performance of mobile soft robots is usually characterized by their locomotion/velocity efficiency, whereas the energy efficiency is a more intrinsic and fundamental criterion for the performance evaluation of independent or integrated soft robots. In this work, a general framework is established to evaluate the energy efficiency of mobile soft robots by considering the efficiency of the energy source, actuator and locomotion, and some insights for improving the efficiency of soft robotic systems are presented. Proposed as the ratio of the desired locomotion kinetic energy to the input mechanical energy, the energy efficiency of locomotion is found to play a critical role in determining the overall energy efficiency of soft robots. Four key factors related to the locomotion energy efficiency are identified, that is, the locomotion modes, material properties, geometric sizes, and actuation states. It is found that the energy efficiency of most mobile soft robots reported in the literature is surprisingly low (mostly below 0.1%), due to the inefficient mechanical energy that essentially does not contribute to the desired locomotion. A comparison of the locomotion energy efficiency for several representative locomotion modes in the literature is presented, showing a descending ranking as: jumping ≫ fish-like swimming > snake-like slithering > rolling > rising/turning over > inchworm-like inching > quadruped gait > earthworm-like squirming. Besides, considering the same locomotion mode, soft robots with lower stiffness, higher density and larger size tend to have higher locomotion energy efficiency. Moreover, a periodic pulse actuation instead of a continuous actuation mode may significantly reduce the input mechanical energy, thus improving the locomotion energy efficiency, especially when the pulse actuation matches the resonant states of the soft robots. The results presented herein indicate a large and necessary space for improving the locomotion energy

  10. Imaging endosomes and autophagosomes in whole mammalian cells using correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-soft X-ray microscopy (cryo-CLXM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Elizabeth M H; Razi, Minoo; Weston, Anne; Guttmann, Peter; Werner, Stephan; Henzler, Katja; Schneider, Gerd; Tooze, Sharon A; Collinson, Lucy M

    2014-08-01

    Cryo-soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) is a powerful imaging technique that can extract ultrastructural information from whole, unstained mammalian cells as close to the living state as possible. Subcellular organelles including the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria have been identified by morphology alone, due to the similarity in contrast to transmission electron micrographs. In this study, we used cryo-SXT to image endosomes and autophagosomes, organelles that are particularly susceptible to chemical fixation artefacts during sample preparation for electron microscopy. We used two approaches to identify these compartments. For early and recycling endosomes, which are accessible to externally-loaded markers, we used an anti-transferrin receptor antibody conjugated to 10nm gold particles. For autophagosomes, which are not accessible to externally-applied markers, we developed a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-SXT workflow (cryo-CLXM) to localise GFP-LC3 and RFP-Atg9. We used a stand-alone cryo-fluorescence stage in the home laboratory to localise the cloned fluorophores, followed by cryo-soft X-ray tomography at the synchrotron to analyse cellular ultrastructure. We mapped the 3D ultrastructure of the endocytic and autophagic structures, and discovered clusters of omegasomes arising from 'hotspots' on the ER. Thus, immunogold markers and cryo-CLXM can be used to analyse cellular processes that are inaccessible using other imaging modalities. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Imaging endosomes and autophagosomes in whole mammalian cells using correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-soft X-ray microscopy (cryo-CLXM)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Elizabeth M.H.; Razi, Minoo; Weston, Anne; Guttmann, Peter; Werner, Stephan; Henzler, Katja; Schneider, Gerd; Tooze, Sharon A.; Collinson, Lucy M.

    2014-01-01

    Cryo-soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) is a powerful imaging technique that can extract ultrastructural information from whole, unstained mammalian cells as close to the living state as possible. Subcellular organelles including the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria have been identified by morphology alone, due to the similarity in contrast to transmission electron micrographs. In this study, we used cryo-SXT to image endosomes and autophagosomes, organelles that are particularly susceptible to chemical fixation artefacts during sample preparation for electron microscopy. We used two approaches to identify these compartments. For early and recycling endosomes, which are accessible to externally-loaded markers, we used an anti-transferrin receptor antibody conjugated to 10 nm gold particles. For autophagosomes, which are not accessible to externally-applied markers, we developed a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-SXT workflow (cryo-CLXM) to localise GFP-LC3 and RFP-Atg9. We used a stand-alone cryo-fluorescence stage in the home laboratory to localise the cloned fluorophores, followed by cryo-soft X-ray tomography at the synchrotron to analyse cellular ultrastructure. We mapped the 3D ultrastructure of the endocytic and autophagic structures, and discovered clusters of omegasomes arising from ‘hotspots’ on the ER. Thus, immunogold markers and cryo-CLXM can be used to analyse cellular processes that are inaccessible using other imaging modalities. PMID:24238600

  12. Therapy-refractory Panton Valentine Leukocidin-positive community-acquired methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus sepsis with progressive metastatic soft tissue infection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schefold Joerg C

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of fulminant multiple organ failure including the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS, haemodynamic, and renal failure due to community-acquired methicillin-sensitive Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL positive spa-type 284 (ST121 Staphylococcus aureus septic shock. The patient's first clinical symptom was necrotizing pneumonia. Despite organism-sensitive triple antibiotic therapy with linezolid, imipenem and clindamycin from the first day of treatment, progressive abscess formation in multiple skeletal muscles was observed. As a result, repeated surgical interventions became necessary. Due to progressive soft tissue infection, the anti-microbial therapy was changed to a combination of clindamycin and daptomycin. Continued surgical and antimicrobial therapy finally led to a stabilisation of the patients' condition. The clinical course of our patient underlines the existence of a "PVL-syndrome" which is independent of in vitro Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility. The PVL-syndrome should not only be considered in patients with soft tissue or bone infection, but also in patients with pneumonia. Such a condition, which may easily be mistaken for uncomplicated pneumonia, should be treated early, aggressively and over a long period of time in order to avoid relapsing infection.

  13. Soft tissue balancing in total shoulder replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Maike; Hoy, Gregory

    2014-03-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty is now capable of recreating near anatomic reproduction of native bony shoulder anatomy, but the function and longevity of anatomic shoulder replacement is dependent on a competent soft tissue envelope and adequate motoring of all musculo-tendinous units about the shoulder. Balancing the soft tissues requires understanding of the anatomy and pathology, as well as technical skills. The advent of reverse shoulder biomechanics has brought with it special requirements of understanding of the soft tissue elements still left in the shoulder despite major rotator cuff deficiency.

  14. Soft switched DC-DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, K.; Kavitha, K. V. N.; Saravanan, K.

    2017-11-01

    A soft switched single switch isolated dc-dc conveys proposed in this paper. This converter works on the principle of zero current switching (zcs) and zero voltage switching (zvs). The circuit comprises lossless snubber with low rating. The switch works on zcs during turn on and zvs during turnoff. The diodes are based on zcs turn on and turnoff conditions. This paper presents the concept of soft switching and its applications to dc-dc converter. The losses due to soft switching and hard switching are compared.

  15. Design, fabrication and control of soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Daniela; Tolley, Michael T

    2015-05-28

    Conventionally, engineers have employed rigid materials to fabricate precise, predictable robotic systems, which are easily modelled as rigid members connected at discrete joints. Natural systems, however, often match or exceed the performance of robotic systems with deformable bodies. Cephalopods, for example, achieve amazing feats of manipulation and locomotion without a skeleton; even vertebrates such as humans achieve dynamic gaits by storing elastic energy in their compliant bones and soft tissues. Inspired by nature, engineers have begun to explore the design and control of soft-bodied robots composed of compliant materials. This Review discusses recent developments in the emerging field of soft robotics.

  16. Practical applications of soft computing in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Soft computing has been presented not only with the theoretical developments but also with a large variety of realistic applications to consumer products and industrial systems. Application of soft computing has provided the opportunity to integrate human-like vagueness and real-life uncertainty into an otherwise hard computer program. This book highlights some of the recent developments in practical applications of soft computing in engineering problems. All the chapters have been sophisticatedly designed and revised by international experts to achieve wide but in-depth coverage. Contents: Au

  17. Two QTL characterized for soft scald and soggy breakdown in apple (Malus × domestica) through pedigree-based analysis of a large population of interconnected families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, Nicholas P.; Weg, van de Eric; Tillman, John; Tong, Cindy B.S.; Silverstein, Kevin A.T.; Luby, James J.

    2018-01-01

    Soft scald and soggy breakdown are important postharvest physiological disorders of apple (Malus × domestica). ‘Honeycrisp’ and some of its offspring are particularly susceptible to developing these disorders. The purpose of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with high

  18. Aquifer susceptibility in Virginia, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, David L.; Harlow, George E.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Health, sampled water from 171 wells and springs across the Commonwealth of Virginia between 1998 and 2000 as part of the Virginia Aquifer Susceptibility study. Most of the sites sampled are public water supplies that are part of the comprehensive Source Water Assessment Program for the Commonwealth. The fundamental premise of the study was that the identification of young waters (less than 50 years) by multiple environmental tracers could be used as a guide for classifying aquifers in terms of susceptibility to contamination from near-surface sources. Environmental tracers, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), tritium (3H), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He), and carbon isotopes (14C and d13C) were used to determine the age of water discharging from wells and springs. Concentrations of CFCs greater than 5 picograms per kilogram and 3H concentrations greater than 0.6 tritium unit were used as thresholds to indicate that parts of the aquifer sampled have a component of young water and are, therefore, susceptible to near-surface contamination. Concentrations of CFCs exceeded the susceptibility threshold in 22 percent of the wells and in one spring sampled in the Coastal Plain regional aquifer systems. About 74 percent of the samples from wells with the top of the first water zone less than 100 feet below land surface exceeded the threshold values, and water supplies developed in the upper 100 feet of the Coastal Plain are considered to be susceptible to contamination from near-surface sources. The maximum depth to the top of the screened interval for wells that contained CFCs was less than 150 feet. Wells completed in the deep confined aquifers in the Coastal Plain generally contain water older than 1,000 years, as indicated by carbon-14 dating, and are not considered to be susceptible to contamination under natural conditions. All of the water samples from wells

  19. A quest for therapeutic antigens in bone and soft tissue sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torigoe Toshihiko

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past three decades, there have been remarkable advances in the treatment of bone and soft tissue sarcomas. These include the introduction of adjuvant chemotherapy, establishment of guidelines for adequate surgical margins, and the development of post-excision reconstruction. There have also been advances in the field of immunotherapy against bone and soft tissue sarcomas, which, unfortunately, have received less attention. However, lack of progress in chemotherapy-based treatments for bone and soft tissue sarcomas has reignited interest in immunotherapeutic approaches. Here we summarize current progress in the immunotherapy of bone and soft tissue sarcomas including the strategies utilized to identify tumor-associated antigens, and the design of clinical trials.

  20. In vitro susceptibilities of Brucella melitensis isolates to eleven antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukaides Feidias

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is an endemic disease present in many countries worldwide, but it is rare in Europe and North America. Nevertheless brucella is included in the bacteria potentially used for bioterrorism. The aim of this study was the investigation of the antibiotic susceptibility profile of brucella isolates from areas of the eastern Mediterranean where it has been endemic. Methods The susceptibilities of 74 Brucella melitensis isolates derived from clinical samples (57 and animal products (17 were tested in vitro. The strains originate from Crete (59, Cyprus (10, and Syria (5. MICs of tetracycline, rifampicin, streptomycin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and erythromycin were detected by E-test method. The NCCLS criteria for slow growing bacteria were considered to interpret the results. Results All the isolates were susceptible to tetracycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and levofloxacin. Two isolates presented reduced susceptibility to rifampicin (MIC value: 1.5 mg/l and eight to SXT (MIC values: 0.75–1.5 mg/l. Erythromycin had the highest (4 mg/l MIC90value and both norfloxacin and erythromycin the highest (1.5 mg/l MIC50 value. Conclusion Brucella isolates remain susceptible in vitro to most antibiotics used for treatment of brucellosis. The establishment of a standardized antibiotic susceptibility method for Brucella spp would be useful for resistance determination in these bacteria and possible evaluation of bioterorism risks.

  1. Risk Factors for Varicella Susceptibility Among Refugees to Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadieux, Geneviève; Redditt, Vanessa; Graziano, Daniela; Rashid, Meb

    2017-02-01

    Several outbreaks of varicella have occurred among refugees. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of varicella susceptibility among refugees, and identify risk factors for varicella susceptibility. All refugees rostered at Crossroads Clinic in Toronto, Canada in 2011-2014 were included in our study. Varicella serology was assessed at the initial visit. Refugees' age, sex, education, time since arrival, and climate and population density of birth country were abstracted from the chart. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for varicella susceptibility. 1063 refugees were rostered at Crossroads Clinic during the study; 7.9 % (95 % CI 6.1, 9.7) were susceptible to varicella. Tropical climate (OR 3.20, 95 % CI 1.53, 6.69) and younger age (OR per year of age 0.92, 95 % CI 0.88-0.96) were associated with increased varicella susceptibility. These risk factors for varicella susceptibility should be taken into account to maximize the cost-effectiveness of varicella prevention strategies among refugees.

  2. Imaging endosomes and autophagosomes in whole mammalian cells using correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-soft X-ray microscopy (cryo-CLXM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, Elizabeth M.H. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Razi, Minoo [Secretory Pathways Laboratory, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, London WC2A 3LY (United Kingdom); Weston, Anne [Electron Microscopy Unit, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, London WC2A 3LY (United Kingdom); Guttmann, Peter; Werner, Stephan; Henzler, Katja; Schneider, Gerd [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institute for Soft Matter and Functional Materials, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Tooze, Sharon A. [Secretory Pathways Laboratory, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, London WC2A 3LY (United Kingdom); Collinson, Lucy M., E-mail: lucy.collinson@cancer.org.uk [Electron Microscopy Unit, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, London WC2A 3LY (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Cryo-soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) is a powerful imaging technique that can extract ultrastructural information from whole, unstained mammalian cells as close to the living state as possible. Subcellular organelles including the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria have been identified by morphology alone, due to the similarity in contrast to transmission electron micrographs. In this study, we used cryo-SXT to image endosomes and autophagosomes, organelles that are particularly susceptible to chemical fixation artefacts during sample preparation for electron microscopy. We used two approaches to identify these compartments. For early and recycling endosomes, which are accessible to externally-loaded markers, we used an anti-transferrin receptor antibody conjugated to 10 nm gold particles. For autophagosomes, which are not accessible to externally-applied markers, we developed a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-SXT workflow (cryo-CLXM) to localise GFP-LC3 and RFP-Atg9. We used a stand-alone cryo-fluorescence stage in the home laboratory to localise the cloned fluorophores, followed by cryo-soft X-ray tomography at the synchrotron to analyse cellular ultrastructure. We mapped the 3D ultrastructure of the endocytic and autophagic structures, and discovered clusters of omegasomes arising from ‘hotspots’ on the ER. Thus, immunogold markers and cryo-CLXM can be used to analyse cellular processes that are inaccessible using other imaging modalities. - Highlights: • We image whole, unstained mammalian cells using cryo-soft X-ray tomography. • Endosomes are identified using a gold marker for the transferrin receptor. • A new workflow for correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-SXT is used to locate early autophagosomes. • Interactions between endosomes, endoplasmic reticulum and forming autophagosomes are mapped in 3D. • Multiple omegasomes are shown to form at ‘hotspots’ on the endoplasmic reticulum.

  3. LArSoft: toolkit for simulation, reconstruction and analysis of liquid argon TPC neutrino detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, E. L.; Petrillo, G.

    2017-10-01

    LArSoft is a set of detector-independent software tools for the simulation, reconstruction and analysis of data from liquid argon (LAr) neutrino experiments The common features of LAr time projection chambers (TPCs) enable sharing of algorithm code across detectors of very different size and configuration. LArSoft is currently used in production simulation and reconstruction by the ArgoNeuT, DUNE, LArlAT, MicroBooNE, and SBND experiments. The software suite offers a wide selection of algorithms and utilities, including those for associated photo-detectors and the handling of auxiliary detectors outside the TPCs. Available algorithms cover the full range of simulation and reconstruction, from raw waveforms to high-level reconstructed objects, event topologies and classification. The common code within LArSoft is contributed by adopting experiments, which also provide detector-specific geometry descriptions, and code for the treatment of electronic signals. LArSoft is also a collaboration of experiments, Fermilab and associated software projects which cooperate in setting requirements, priorities, and schedules. In this talk, we outline the general architecture of the software and the interaction with external libraries and detector-specific code. We also describe the dynamics of LArSoft software development between the contributing experiments, the projects supporting the software infrastructure LArSoft relies on, and the core LArSoft support project.

  4. Centrifugal forming and mechanical properties of silicone-based elastomers for soft robotic actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Parth

    This thesis describes the centrifugal forming and resulting mechanical properties of silicone-based elastomers for the manufacture of soft robotic actuators. This process is effective at removing bubbles that get entrapped within 3D-printed, enclosed molds. Conventional methods for rapid prototyping of soft robotic actuators to remove entrapped bubbles typically involve degassing under vacuum, with open-faced molds that limit the layout of formed parts to raised 2D geometries. As the functionality and complexity of soft robots increase, there is a need to mold complete 3D structures with controlled thicknesses or curvatures on multiples surfaces. In addition, characterization of the mechanical properties of common elastomers for these soft robots has lagged the development of new designs. As such, relationships between resulting material properties and processing parameters are virtually non-existent. One of the goals of this thesis is to provide guidelines and physical insights to relate the design, processing conditions, and resulting properties of soft robotic components to each other. Centrifugal forming with accelerations on the order of 100 g's is capable of forming bubble-free, true 3D components for soft robotic actuators, and resulting demonstrations in this work include an aquatic locomotor, soft gripper, and an actuator that straightens when pressurized. Finally, this work shows that the measured mechanical properties of 3D geometries fabricated within enclosed molds through centrifugal forming possess comparable mechanical properties to vacuumed materials formed from open-faced molds with raised 2D features.

  5. Morphometric correlation between facial soft-tissue profile shape and skeletal pattern in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halazonetis, Demetrios J

    2007-10-01

    Prediction of soft-tissue outline shape from skeletal remains is useful in forensics and archaeology. The inverse problem, the assessment of underlying skeletal relationships from the external appearance, is pertinent in orthodontics. The purposes of this study were to assess the correlation between craniofacial shape and shape of the soft-tissue profile outline and to determine the extent to which it might be possible to predict the latter from the former. Lateral cephalograms from 170 consecutive orthodontic patients were used, and 17 skeletal, 2 dental, and 22 soft-tissue landmarks were digitized and processed by using Procrustes superimposition and principal component analysis. The principal components of the skeletal and soft-tissue shapes were entered into the correlation analysis. Significant correlations were found between the skeletal and the soft-tissue components. The use of 7 anterior skeletal landmarks (not including the nasal bone) resulted in a predictive power (coefficient of determination) of 38% of the variability of soft-tissue shape. This increased to almost 50% by adding nasal and incisor points but showed only a slight further improvement by incorporating posterior skeletal landmarks. Anterior skeletal and dental landmarks can be used to predict soft-tissue profile shape with a 50% power in children and adolescents.

  6. An integrated design and fabrication strategy for entirely soft, autonomous robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Michael; Truby, Ryan L; Fitzgerald, Daniel J; Mosadegh, Bobak; Whitesides, George M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Wood, Robert J

    2016-08-25

    Soft robots possess many attributes that are difficult, if not impossible, to achieve with conventional robots composed of rigid materials. Yet, despite recent advances, soft robots must still be tethered to hard robotic control systems and power sources. New strategies for creating completely soft robots, including soft analogues of these crucial components, are needed to realize their full potential. Here we report the untethered operation of a robot composed solely of soft materials. The robot is controlled with microfluidic logic that autonomously regulates fluid flow and, hence, catalytic decomposition of an on-board monopropellant fuel supply. Gas generated from the fuel decomposition inflates fluidic networks downstream of the reaction sites, resulting in actuation. The body and microfluidic logic of the robot are fabricated using moulding and soft lithography, respectively, and the pneumatic actuator networks, on-board fuel reservoirs and catalytic reaction chambers needed for movement are patterned within the body via a multi-material, embedded 3D printing technique. The fluidic and elastomeric architectures required for function span several orders of magnitude from the microscale to the macroscale. Our integrated design and rapid fabrication approach enables the programmable assembly of multiple materials within this architecture, laying the foundation for completely soft, autonomous robots.

  7. Reconstruction of the Soft Palate In Oral Cancer to Repair an Operative Defect with Speech Aid Prosthesis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Hsiang Wang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A soft palate defect may result from surgical resection, and its consequences could include hypernasal speech and nasal regurgitation of food and liquids. A speech aid prosthesis fabricated for patients can improve nasal emission during speech, and assist in preventing nasal regurgitation of food. This article presents a case of the reconstruction of a soft palate defect by prosthetic obturation.

  8. Reducing Susceptibility to Courtesy Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachleda, Catherine L; El Menzhi, Leila

    2017-04-19

    In light of the chronic shortage of health professionals willing to care for HIV/AIDS patients, and rising epidemics in many Muslim countries, this qualitative study examined susceptibility and resistance to courtesy stigma as experienced by nurses, doctors, and social workers in Morocco. Forty-nine in-depth interviews provided rich insights into the process of courtesy stigma and how it is managed, within the context of interactions with Islam, interactions within the workplace (patients, other health professionals), and interactions outside the workplace (the general public, friends, and family). Theoretically, the findings extend understanding of courtesy stigma and the dirty work literature. The findings also offer practical suggestions for the development of culturally appropriate strategies to reduce susceptibility to courtesy stigmatization. This study represents the first to explore courtesy stigma as a process experienced by health professionals providing HIV/AIDS care in an Islamic country.

  9. Dimensional soft tissue changes following soft tissue grafting in conjunction with implant placement or around present dental implants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poskevicius, Lukas; Sidlauskas, Antanas; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Juodzbalys, Gintaras

    2017-01-01

    To systematically review changes in mucosal soft tissue thickness and keratinised mucosa width after soft tissue grafting around dental implants. An electronic literature search was conducted of the MEDLINE database published between 2009 and 2014. Sequential screenings at the title, abstract, and full-text levels were performed. Clinical human studies in the English language that had reported changes in soft tissue thickness or keratinised mucosa width after soft tissue grafting at implant placement or around a present implant at 6-month follow-up or longer were included. The search resulted in fourteen articles meeting the inclusion criteria: Six of them reported connective tissue grafting around present dental implants, compared to eight at the time of implant placement. Better long-term soft tissue thickness outcomes were reported for soft tissue augmentation around dental implants (0.8-1.4 mm), compared with augmentation at implant placement (-0.25-1.43 mm). Both techniques were effective in increasing keratinised tissue width: at implant placement (2.5 mm) or around present dental implants (2.33-2.57 mm). The present systematic review discovered that connective tissue grafts enhanced keratinised mucosa width and soft tissue thickness for an observation period of up to 48 months. However, some shrinkage may occur, resulting in decreases in soft tissue, mostly for the first three months. Further investigations using accurate evaluation methods need to be done to evaluate the appropriate time for grafting. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Solving the Dynamic Correlation Problem of the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible Model on Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Chao-Ran; Chen, Michael Z Q; Holme, Petter; Guan, Jian-Yue

    2016-01-01

    The Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible model is a canonical model for emerging disease outbreaks. Such outbreaks are naturally modeled as taking place on networks. A theoretical challenge in network epidemiology is the dynamic correlations coming from that if one node is occupied, or infected (for disease spreading models), then its neighbors are likely to be occupied. By combining two theoretical approaches---the heterogeneous mean-field theory and the effective degree method---we are able to include these correlations in an analytical solution of the SIS model. We derive accurate expressions for the average prevalence (fraction of infected) and epidemic threshold. We also discuss how to generalize the approach to a larger class of stochastic population models.

  11. TECH TOOLS FOR ASSESSING THE "SOFT" SKILLS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cathy Swan

    2014-01-01

    ...: Mastering Soft Skills for Workplace Success." After gathering enough evidence, each student evaluates the feedback, searches for patterns used to develop specific writing goals, submits plans for achieving those goals, and writes reflections...

  12. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  13. Novel experimentally observed phenomena in soft matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    derived from the Greek verb ρϵιν ... The 'complexity' of soft matter arises from the elaborate organization of the supramolecular ...... [127] IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) Compendium of Chemical. Terminology 66, 583 ...

  14. Nonlinear Properties of Soft Glass Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Henrik

    This thesis builds around the investigation into using soft glass materials for midinfrared and THz applications. Soft glasses is a term that cov ers a wide range of chemical compositions where many are yet to be fully investigated. The work in this thesis is separated in two parts, the mid......-infrared applications and the THz applications. In the mid-infrared, it is investigated whether soft glasses are a suitable candidate for supercontinuum generation (SCG). A few commercially available fluoride fibers are tested for their zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW), a key property when determining the possibility...... of SCG in a fiber. A group of soft glasses, namely the chalcogenides, are known to display two photon absorption (TPA) which could potentially limit the SCG when this is initiated within the frequency range where this nonlinear process occur. An analytic model is presented to estimate the soliton self...

  15. Prediction of embankment settlement over soft soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this project was to review and verify the current design procedures used by TxDOT : to estimate the total and rate of consolidation settlement in embankments constructed on soft soils. Methods : to improve the settlement predictions ...

  16. 'WARA' A WEST AFRICAN SOFT CHEESE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babalobi

    2011-12-07

    1]. However, soft cheese produced by local processors has high microbial load and pathogenic isolates because of the unhygienic methods of processing and lack of standards in the processing techniques. Adegoke et al.

  17. Soft QCD in ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Mariani, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the Soft QCD latest measurements will be shown. The results from both the experiments ATLAS and CMS will be compared to each other and the agreement between data and Monte Carlo models will be discussed.

  18. A Recipe for Soft Fluidic Elastomer Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Andrew D.; Katzschmann, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This work provides approaches to designing and fabricating soft fluidic elastomer robots. That is, three viable actuator morphologies composed entirely from soft silicone rubber are explored, and these morphologies are differentiated by their internal channel structure, namely, ribbed, cylindrical, and pleated. Additionally, three distinct casting-based fabrication processes are explored: lamination-based casting, retractable-pin-based casting, and lost-wax-based casting. Furthermore, two ways of fabricating a multiple DOF robot are explored: casting the complete robot as a whole and casting single degree of freedom (DOF) segments with subsequent concatenation. We experimentally validate each soft actuator morphology and fabrication process by creating multiple physical soft robot prototypes. PMID:27625913

  19. Expedient Road Construction Over Soft Soils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santoni, Rosa

    2001-01-01

    This report describes field experiments conducted using a combination of crushed limestone, wood chips, sand, geosynthetics, fiberglass mats, plastic mats, and wood mats for expedient road construction over soft soils...

  20. Subleading soft graviton theorem for loop amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2017-11-01

    Superstring field theory gives expressions for heterotic and type II string loop amplitudes that are free from ultraviolet and infrared divergences when the number of non-compact space-time dimensions is five or more. We prove the subleading soft graviton theorem in these theories to all orders in perturbation theory for S-matrix elements of arbitrary number of finite energy external states but only one external soft graviton. We also prove the leading soft graviton theorem for arbitrary number of finite energy external states and arbitrary number of soft gravitons. Since our analysis is based on general properties of one particle irreducible effective action, the results are valid in any theory of quantum gravity that gives finite result for the S-matrix order by order in perturbation theory without violating general coordinate invariance.

  1. Myxoid soft-tissue neoplasms: comprehensive update of the taxonomy and MRI features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheti, Akshay D; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Rosenthal, Michael H; Howard, Stephanie A; Shinagare, Atul B; Ramaiya, Nikhil H; Jagannathan, Jyothi P

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to review the classification, clinical presentation, and histopathologic and MRI features of myxoid soft-tissue neoplasms. CONCLUSION. MRI is the modality of choice for characterization of myxoid soft-tissue tumors. A combination of imaging features (including certain characteristic signs), clinical features, and patient demographics can help the radiologist in coming to a specific diagnosis or in narrowing down the differential diagnoses.

  2. Soft Skills and Software Development: A Reflection from the Software Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Faheem; Capretz, Luiz Fernando; Bouktif, Salah; Campbell, Piers

    2015-01-01

    We review the literature relating to soft skills and the software engineering and information systems domain before describing a study based on 650 job advertisements posted on well-known recruitment sites from a range of geographical locations including, North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. The study makes use of nine defined soft skills to assess the level of demand for each of these skills related to individual job roles within the software industry. This work reports some of the vit...

  3. Antimycotics susceptibility testing of dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are moulds that produce infections of the skin, hair and nails of humans and animals. The most common forms among these infections are onychomycosis and tinea pedis affecting 20% of world population. These infections are usually chronic. The treatment of dermatophytoses tends to be prolonged partly because available treatments are not very effective. Antifungal drug consumption and public health expenditure are high worldwide, as well as in Serbia. For adequate therapy, it is necessary to prove infection by isolation of dermatophytes and to test the antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Susceptibility testing is important for the resistance monitoring, epidemiological research and to compare in vitro activities of new antifungal agents. The diffusion and dilution methods of susceptibility tests are used, and technical issues of importance for the proper performance and interpretation of test results are published in the document E.DEF 9.1 (EUCAST and M38-A2 (CLSI. The aim of our paper is to promptly inform the public about technical achievements in this area, as well as the new organization of laboratory for medical mycology in our country. The formation of laboratory networks coordinated by the National Reference Laboratory for the cause of mycosis need to enable interlaboratory studies and further standardization of methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes, reproducibility of tests and clinical correlation monitoring (MIK values and clinical outcome of dermatophytosis. The importance of the new organization is expected efficient improvement in the dermatophytosis therapy at home, better quality of patient's life and the reduction of the cost of treatment.

  4. Antibiotic susceptibility of Atopobium vaginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschraegen Gerda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that a recently described anaerobic bacterium, Atopobium vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV. Thus far the four isolates of this fastidious micro-organism were found to be highly resistant to metronidazole and susceptible for clindamycin, two antibiotics preferred for the treatment of BV. Methods Nine strains of Atopobium vaginae, four strains of Gardnerella vaginalis, two strains of Lactobacillus iners and one strain each of Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii were tested against 15 antimicrobial agents using the Etest. Results All nine strains of A. vaginae were highly resistant to nalidixic acid and colistin while being inhibited by low concentrations of clindamycin (range: G. vaginalis strains were also susceptible for clindamycin ( 256 μg/ml but susceptible to clindamycin (0.023 – 0.125 μg/ml. Conclusion Clindamycin has higher activity against G. vaginalis and A. vaginae than metronidazole, but not all A. vaginae isolates are metronidazole resistant, as seemed to be a straightforward conclusion from previous studies on a more limited number of strains.

  5. Reconstruction of the nasal soft triangle subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Fadi C; Lee, Michael R; Sinno, Sammy; Thornton, James F

    2013-05-01

    Of all nine subunits, the soft triangle is perhaps the most challenging to recreate. The complexity of soft triangle reconstruction resides in its proximity to such important structures as the nasal tip, nasal ala, and distal columella. If the soft triangle is not properly reconstructed, problems with nasal function and aesthetics often arise. Anatomical asymmetries in the lower third and abnormal shadowing can occur following insufficient restoration. A retrospective review was completed of all patients undergoing reconstruction of the nasal soft triangle subunit at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, Texas, from 1995 to 2010. Defects with only external skin intact were classified as type I. Defects involving both skin and underlying soft tissue with intact mucosa were classified as type II. Finally, transmural defects with violated mucosa were classified as type III. Surgical outcomes were graded on a scale of I to IV. Grades given were based on the complexity of the existing defect and restoration of the soft triangle, with higher grades given when adjacent structures were not distorted. Of the 14 cases reviewed, two (14 percent) were type I defects, nine (64 percent) were type II defects, and three (21 percent) were type III defects. Three patients (21 percent) required revision with subsequent resurfacing and two (14 percent) required resurfacing alone. All but one patient (93 percent) had a grade of 2.0 or better, with the one patient opting not to undergo revision. The authors believe their method of soft triangle reconstruction using the proposed algorithm is an easy approach to soft triangle reconstruction that will yield consistent surgical and clinical success from aesthetic and functional perspectives. Furthermore, the authors were able to achieve excellent aesthetic outcomes without compromise or facing any structural complications. Therapeutic, IV.

  6. Extramedullary Plasmacytoma of Soft Tissues and Gingiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Kaur Kaler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP is a rare plasma cell neoplasm of soft tissue without bone marrow involvement or other systemic characteristics of multiple myeloma. It accounts for 3% of all plasma cell tumors. Multiple extramedullary plasmacytoma is defined when there is more than one extramedullary tumor of clonal plasma cells and such presentation has not been described earlier. We report such rare case of multiple extramedullary plasmacytoma involving multiple soft tissues in chest, abdomen, mandible, maxilla, and gingiva.

  7. When soft planning and hard planning meet

    OpenAIRE

    Purkarthofer, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The EU contributes to the creation of soft spaces, differing from administrative entities, while at the same time, it acts as a driver of soft planning, focusing– both for strategic and legal reasons – on coordination, cooperation and mutual learning, rather than ‘hard’, regulatory planning. The article claims further that instead of depicting the connections between the EU and its member states, research should pay increased attention to the encounter of European and domestic planning within...

  8. Hospitals: Soft Target for Terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cauwer, Harald; Somville, Francis; Sabbe, Marc; Mortelmans, Luc J

    2017-02-01

    . De Cauwer H , Somville F , Sabbe M , Mortelmans LJ . Hospitals: soft target for terrorism? Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(1):94-100.

  9. Third International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Deep, Kusum; Nagar, Atulya; Bansal, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    The present book is based on the research papers presented in the 3rd International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2013), held as a part of the golden jubilee celebrations of the Saharanpur Campus of IIT Roorkee, at the Noida Campus of Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India. This book is divided into two volumes and covers a variety of topics including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and health care, data mining etc. Particular emphasis is laid on soft computing and its application to diverse fields. The prime objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems, which are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed ...

  10. Second International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Nagar, Atulya; Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Ray, Kanad; Gupta, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    The present book is based on the research papers presented in the International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2012), held at JK Lakshmipat University, Jaipur, India. This book provides the latest developments in the area of soft computing and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modeling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, data mining, etc. The objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems that are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various fields of Science and Technology.

  11. Thermal Degradation Kinetics of Sugarcane Bagasse and Soft Wood Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson M. Mohomane

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The properties of untreated sugar cane bagasse (SCB and soft wood (SW and their respective celluloses were investigated. The celluloses indicated improved crystallinity index values and decreased concentration of lignin and hemicellulose compared to their untreated counterparts. Three degradation models, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (OFW, and Kissinger (KGR methods were employed to determine apparent activation energy values. Generally, the thermal degradation processes of both sugarcane bagasse and soft wood included dehydration, degradation of hemicellulose and cellulose, whereas the lignin degraded from the degradation temperature of hemicellulose to the end of the cellulose. The apparent activation energy values obtained from the OFW and KAS models vary with the degree of conversion, and showed similar trends. The activation energies obtained by KGR were relatively lower than those obtained from the KAS and OFW methods.

  12. Architectures of soft robotic locomotion enabled by simple mechanical principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liangliang; Cao, Yunteng; Liu, Yilun; Yang, Zhe; Chen, Xi

    In nature, a variety of limbless locomotion patterns flourish from the small or basic life form (Escherichia coli, the amoeba, etc.) to the large or intelligent creatures (e.g., slugs, starfishes, earthworms, octopuses, jellyfishes, and snakes). Many bioinspired soft robots based on locomotion have been developed in the past decades. In this work, based on the kinematics and dynamics of two representative locomotion modes (i.e., worm-like crawling and snake-like slithering), we propose a broad set of innovative designs for soft mobile robots through simple mechanical principles. Inspired by and go beyond existing biological systems, these designs include 1-D (dimensional), 2-D, and 3-D robotic locomotion patterns enabled by simple actuation of continuous beams. We report herein over 20 locomotion modes achieving various locomotion functions, including crawling, rising, running, creeping, squirming, slithering, swimming, jumping, turning, turning over, helix rolling, wheeling, etc. Some of them are able to reach high speed, high efficiency, and overcome obstacles. All these locomotion strategies and functions can be integrated into a simple beam model. The proposed simple and robust models are adaptive for severe and complex environments. These elegant designs for diverse robotic locomotion patterns are expected to underpin future deployments of soft robots and to inspire series of advanced designs.

  13. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  14. Spin waves in the soft layer of exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Zheng-min; Ge, Su-qin; Wang, Xi-guang; Li, Zhi-xiong; Xia, Qing-lin; Wang, Dao-wei; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: guogh@mail.csu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Tang, Wei [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zeng, Zhong-ming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2016-05-15

    The magnetic dynamical properties of the soft layer in exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers have been investigated numerically using a one-dimensional atomic chain model. The frequencies and spatial profiles of spin wave eigenmodes are calculated during the magnetization reversal process of the soft layer. The spin wave modes exhibit a spatially modulated amplitude, which is especially evident for high-order modes. A dynamic pinning effect of surface magnetic moment is observed. The spin wave eigenfrequency decreases linearly with the increase of the magnetic field in the uniformly magnetized state and increases nonlinearly with field when spiral magnetization configuration is formed in the soft layer.

  15. Spin waves in the soft layer of exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-min Xiong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic dynamical properties of the soft layer in exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers have been investigated numerically using a one-dimensional atomic chain model. The frequencies and spatial profiles of spin wave eigenmodes are calculated during the magnetization reversal process of the soft layer. The spin wave modes exhibit a spatially modulated amplitude, which is especially evident for high-order modes. A dynamic pinning effect of surface magnetic moment is observed. The spin wave eigenfrequency decreases linearly with the increase of the magnetic field in the uniformly magnetized state and increases nonlinearly with field when spiral magnetization configuration is formed in the soft layer.

  16. Antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Mónica; Martínez, Claudia; Aguerre, Lorena; Rocca, María Florencia; Cipolla, Lucía; Callejo, Raquel

    2016-02-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a food-borne disease that mainly affects pregnant women, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients. The primary treatment of choice of listeriosis is the combination of ampicillin or penicillin G, with an aminoglycoside, classically gentamicin. The second-choice therapy for patients allergic to β-lactams is the combination of trimethoprim with a sulfonamide (such as co-trimoxazole). The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains isolated from human infections and food during the last two decades in Argentina. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 antimicrobial agents was determined for a set of 250 strains of L. monocytogenes isolated in Argentina during the period 1992-2012. Food-borne and human isolates were included in this study. The antibiotics tested were ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin G, tetracycline and rifampicin. Breakpoints for penicillin G, ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were those given in the CLSI for L. monocytogenes. CLSI criteria for staphylococci were applied to the other antimicrobial agents tested. Strains were serotyped by PCR, and confirmed by an agglutination method. Strains recovered from human listeriosis patients showed a prevalence of serotype 4b (71%), with the remaining 29% corresponding to serotype 1/2b. Serotypes among food isolates were distributed as 62% serotype 1/2b and 38% serotype 4b. All antimicrobial agents showed good activity. The strains of L. monocytogenes isolated in Argentina over a period of 20 years remain susceptible to antimicrobial agents, and that susceptibility pattern has not changed during this period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Controversies In The Surgical Management Of Shoulder Instability: Associated Soft Tissue Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Santos Moros; Lafuente, José Luis Ávila; Ibán, Miguel Angel Ruiz; Heredia, Jorge Diaz

    2017-01-01

    The glenohumeral joint is a ball-and-socket joint that is inherently unstable and thus, susceptible to dislocation. The traditional and most common anatomic finding is the Bankart lesion (anterior-inferior capsule labral complex avulsion), but there is a wide variety of anatomic alterations that can cause shoulder instability or may be present as a concomitant injury or in combination, including bone loss (glenoid or humeral head), complex capsule-labral tears, rotator cuff tears, Kim´s lesions (injuries to the posterior-inferior labrum) and rotator interval pathology. A review of articles related to shoulder anatomy and soft tissue procedures that are performed during shoulder instability arthroscopic management was conducted by querying the Pubmed database and conclusions and controversies regarding this injury were exposed. Due to the complex anatomy of the shoulder and the large range of movement of this joint, a wide variety of anatomic injuries and conditions can lead to shoulder instability, specially present in young population. Recognizing and treating all of them including Bankart repair, capsule-labral plicatures, SLAP repair, circumferential approach to pan-labral lesions, rotator interval closure, rotator cuff injuries and HAGL lesion repair is crucial to achieve the goal of a stable, full range of movement and not painful joint. Physicians must be familiarized with all the lesions involved in shoulder instability, and should be able to recognize and subsequently treat them to achieve the goal of a stable non-painful shoulder. Unrecognized or not treated lesions may result in recurrence of instability episodes and pain while overuse of some of the techniques previously described can lead to stiffness, thus the importance of an accurate diagnosis and treatment when facing a shoulder instability.

  18. Measurements of temperature dependence of 'localized susceptibility'

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Ishii, H; Takayama, Y; Obu, K; Muro, T; Saitoh, Y; Matsuda, T D; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of some rare-earth compounds is estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of rare-earth 3d-4f absorption spectra. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility obtained by the MCD measurement is remarkably different from the bulk susceptibility in most samples, which is attributed to the strong site selectivity of the core MCD measurement.

  19. Biomimetic soft robots with artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabo, Yoshihiro; Mukai, Toshiharu; Asaka, Kinji

    2004-02-01

    An artificial muscle is an ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) which is made out of a high polymer gel film whose surface is plated with gold. Our goal is to realize bio-inspired soft robots, for example, a snake-like swimming robot or multi-degree-of-freedom (DOF) micro-robot manipulator. To realize a snake-like or a multi-DOF bending motion, we cut electrodes on the surface of the actuator in order to control each segment individually. We have developed a variety of motions from this patterned actuator including a snake-like motion. We have also proposed kinematic modeling of the manipulator which simply describes various multi-DOF motions of the artificial muscle. This model is applied to visual feedback control of the manipulator system using a Jacobian control method. For the feedback control, we have developed a visual sensing system using a 1ms high-speed vision system which has a fast enough response to capture the fast actuator motion. We have also made the device swim freely forward and backward by finding the optimal voltage, phase and frequency. In this report, we show some results from simulations of the proposed manipulator control method and experimental results from visual sensing of the bending motion and snake-like swimming of the actuator.

  20. Cobimaximal lepton mixing from soft symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimus, W.; Lavoura, L.

    2017-11-01

    Cobimaximal lepton mixing, i.e.θ23 = 45 ° and δ = ± 90 ° in the lepton mixing matrix V, arises as a consequence of SV =V* P, where S is the permutation matrix that interchanges the second and third rows of V and P is a diagonal matrix of phase factors. We prove that any such V may be written in the form V = URP, where U is any predefined unitary matrix satisfying SU =U*, R is an orthogonal, i.e. real, matrix, and P is a diagonal matrix satisfying P2 = P. Using this theorem, we demonstrate the equivalence of two ways of constructing models for cobimaximal mixing-one way that uses a standard CP symmetry and a different way that uses a CP symmetry including μ-τ interchange. We also present two simple seesaw models to illustrate this equivalence; those models have, in addition to the CP symmetry, flavour symmetries broken softly by the Majorana mass terms of the right-handed neutrino singlets. Since each of the two models needs four scalar doublets, we investigate how to accommodate the Standard Model Higgs particle in them.

  1. Nonlinear flow response of soft hair beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, José; Comtet, Jean; de Langre, Emmanuel; Hosoi, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    We are `hairy' on the inside: beds of passive fibres anchored to a surface and immersed in fluids are prevalent in many biological systems, including intestines, tongues, and blood vessels. These hairs are soft enough to deform in response to stresses from fluid flows. Yet fluid stresses are in turn affected by hair deformation, leading to a coupled elastoviscous problem that is poorly understood. Here we investigate a biomimetic model system of elastomer hair beds subject to shear-driven Stokes flows. We characterize this system with a theoretical model that accounts for the large-deformation flow response of hair beds. Hair bending results in a drag-reducing nonlinearity because the hair tip lowers towards the base, widening the gap through which fluid flows. When hairs are cantilevered at an angle subnormal to the surface, flow against the grain bends hairs away from the base, narrowing the gap. The flow response of angled hair beds is axially asymmetric and amounts to a rectification nonlinearity. We identify an elastoviscous parameter that controls nonlinear behaviour. Our study raises the hypothesis that biological hairy surfaces function to reduce fluid drag. Furthermore, angled hairs may be incorporated in the design of integrated microfluidic components, such as diodes and pumps.

  2. Multiple Soft Fault Diagnosis of Bjt Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusiewicz Michał

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with multiple soft fault diagnosis of nonlinear analog circuits comprising bipolar transistors characterized by the Ebers-Moll model. Resistances of the circuit and beta forward factor of a transistor are considered as potentially faulty parameters. The proposed diagnostic method exploits a strongly nonlinear set of algebraic type equations, which may possess multiple solutions, and is capable of finding different sets of the parameters values which meet the diagnostic test. The equations are written on the basis of node analysis and include DC voltages measured at accessible nodes, as well as some measured currents. The unknown variables are node voltages and the parameters which are considered as potentially faulty. The number of these parameters is larger than the number of the accessible nodes. To solve the set of equations the block relaxation method is used with different assignments of the variables to the blocks. Next, the solutions are corrected using the Newton-Raphson algorithm. As a result, one or more sets of the parameters values which satisfy the diagnostic test are obtained. The proposed approach is illustrated with a numerical example.

  3. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goran G. Jankes; Olga Cvetkovic; Nebojsa M. Milovanovic; Marko Ercegovaci Ercegovac; Miroljub Adzic; Mirjana Stamenic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield), forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N{sub 2}) at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900{sup o}C) and retention times (3-28 s) were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900{sup o}C). The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300{sup o}C). Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900{sup o}C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenospheres, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed. 20 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankes Goran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield, forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N2 at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900°C and retention times (3-28 s were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900°C. The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300°C. Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900°C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenosferes, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed.

  5. Cobimaximal lepton mixing from soft symmetry breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Grimus

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobimaximal lepton mixing, i.e. θ23=45° and δ=±90° in the lepton mixing matrix V, arises as a consequence of SV=V⁎P, where S is the permutation matrix that interchanges the second and third rows of V and P is a diagonal matrix of phase factors. We prove that any such V may be written in the form V=URP, where U is any predefined unitary matrix satisfying SU=U⁎, R is an orthogonal, i.e. real, matrix, and P is a diagonal matrix satisfying P2=P. Using this theorem, we demonstrate the equivalence of two ways of constructing models for cobimaximal mixing—one way that uses a standard CP symmetry and a different way that uses a CP symmetry including μ–τ interchange. We also present two simple seesaw models to illustrate this equivalence; those models have, in addition to the CP symmetry, flavour symmetries broken softly by the Majorana mass terms of the right-handed neutrino singlets. Since each of the two models needs four scalar doublets, we investigate how to accommodate the Standard Model Higgs particle in them.

  6. Effective Strategies and Activities for Developing Soft Skills, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczynski, Carol; Green, Diana J.

    2012-01-01

    Employers seek employees who possess soft skills. Employees who do not have excellent soft skills may not experience success in obtaining and sustaining employment. McEwen's (2010) framework for skill-building--introduce, explain, practice, and reinforce--was used to describe activities for enhancing soft skills. Assessment of soft skills…

  7. Effective Strategies and Activities for Developing Soft Skills, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Diana J.; Blaszczynski, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Employers seek employees who possess soft skills. Employees who do not have excellent soft skills may not experience success in obtaining and sustaining employment. McEwen's (2010) framework for skill-building--introduce, explain, practice, and reinforce--was used to describe activities for enhancing soft skills. Soft skills building activities…

  8. On Topological Structures of Fuzzy Parametrized Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Atmaca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the topological structure of fuzzy parametrized soft sets and fuzzy parametrized soft mappings. We define the notion of quasi-coincidence for fuzzy parametrized soft sets and investigated its basic properties. We study the closure, interior, base, continuity, and compactness and properties of these concepts in fuzzy parametrized soft topological spaces.

  9. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yaqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Teaching and Research Section of Maths and Physics, Guangzhou Commanding Academy of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Guangzhou, 510440 (China); Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Yanpeng, E-mail: ypzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  10. Predisposition testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzone, K A

    1997-05-01

    To provide an overview of breast cancer predisposition syndromes and the breast and Ovarian cancer susceptibility genes identified to date. To describe the clinical implications of genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility. Published research and educational manuscripts, books, conference proceedings, and personal experiences. Nurses must become knowledgeable of predisposition genetic testing for inherited breast cancer risk including: understanding of the gene being analyzed and associated cancer risks, indications for testing, the limitations of the test, the management options for mutation carriers, risks and benefits of testing, and the long-term psychosocial sequelae. Predisposition testing for alterations in breast cancer susceptibility genes is rapidly moving into the general oncology and primary care community where nurses will play a major role in the provision of genetic services. The role of nursing in cancer genetics includes practice and education, nursing research, and policy initiatives.

  11. Radiation-sensitive genetically susceptible pediatric sub-populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A. [National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Major advances in pediatric cancer treatment have resulted in substantial improvements in survival. However, concern has emerged about the late effects of cancer therapy, especially radiation-related second cancers. Studies of childhood cancer patients with inherited cancer syndromes can provide insights into the interaction between radiation and genetic susceptibility to multiple cancers. Children with retinoblastoma (Rb), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) are at substantial risk of developing radiation-related second and third cancers. A radiation dose-response for bone and soft-tissue sarcomas has been observed in hereditary Rb patients, with many of these cancers occurring in the radiation field. Studies of NF1 patients irradiated for optic pathway gliomas have reported increased risks of developing another cancer associated with radiotherapy. High relative risks for second and third cancers were observed for a cohort of 200 LFS family members, especially children, possibly related to radiotherapy. Children with NBCCS are very sensitive to radiation and develop multiple basal cell cancers in irradiated areas. Clinicians following these patients should be aware of their increased genetic susceptibility to multiple primary malignancies enhanced by sensitivity to ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  12. Sinkhole susceptibility in carbonate rocks of the Apulian karst (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Antonio; Fazio, Nunzio L.; Fiore, Antonio; Lollino, Piernicola; Luisi, Michele; Miccoli, Maria N.; Pagliarulo, Rosa; Parise, Mario; Perrotti, Michele; Pisano, Luca; Spalluto, Luigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna

    2016-04-01

    Apulia region, the foreland of the southern Italian Apennines, is made up of a 6-7 km-thick succession of Mesozoic shallow-water limestones and dolostones, locally covered by thin and discontinuous Tertiary and Quaternary carbonate and clastic deposits. Due to their long subaerial exposure, the Mesozoic carbonate bedrock recorded the development in the subsurface of a dense network of karst cavities, mostly controlled by tectonic discontinuities. As a result, a strong susceptibility to natural sinkholes has to be recorded in Apulia. In addition, the possibility of occurrence of other problems related to the high number of man-made cavities has to be added in the region. A great variety of different typologies of artificial cavities (mostly excavated in the Plio-Pleistocene soft calcarenites) is actually present, including underground quarries, worship sites, oil mills, civilian settlements, etc. Overall, 2200 natural and 1200 artificial cavities, respectively, have been so far surveyed in Apulia. Following the urban development in the last century in Apulia, many of these cavities lie nowadays below densely populated neighborhoods, roads or communication routes. These conditions are at the origin of the main geomorphological hazard for the human society in Apulia, which requires a careful evaluation, aimed at protecting and safeguarding the human life, and at providing the necessary information for a correct land use planning and management. The importance of the sinkhole hazard is further testified by the worrying increase in the number of events during the last 5-6 years. In response to these situations, joint research activities were started by the Institute of Research for Hydrological Protection of the National Research Council (CNR-IRPI) and the Basin Authority of Apulia, aimed at several goals, that include (but are not limited to) the collection of information on natural and anthropogenic sinkholes in Apulia, the implementation of numerical analyses for

  13. Relative Frequency, Characteristics, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., Chromobacterium violaceum, and Shewanella spp. in the Northern Territory of Australia, 2000–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Gary N.; Hennessy, Jann; Baird, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio, Aeromonas, Chromobacterium violaceum, and Shewanella (VACS) are water-associated Gram-negative organisms that can cause a variety of infections. The frequency, patient characteristics, and antimicrobial susceptibilities for 468 isolates from 442 patients from the Northern Territory were reviewed. Aeromonas spp. (312 of 468; 67%) were most commonly isolated followed by Vibrio spp. (71 of 468; 15%), Shewanella spp. (61 of 468; 13%), and C. violaceum (24 of 468; 5%). A strong male predominance was found (male to female ratio of 2.3:1). Skin and soft tissue isolations (373 of 468; 80%) from lower limb infections (222 of 371; 60%) were the most common clinical manifestation. The episodes were usually polymicrobial (281 of 468; 60%). Coisolates included Staphylococcus aureus (137 of 468; 29%), β-hemolytic streptococci (74 of 468; 16%), enterobacteriaceae (111 of 468; 24%), non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (35 of 468; 7%), and other VACS organisms (37 of 468; 8%). Antimicrobial resistance of VACS organisms to ciprofloxacin (0–4%), cefepime (0–3%), and gentamicin (0–0.8%) and Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Shewanella to cotrimoxazole (0–3%) was rarely shown. For water-associated lower limb skin and soft tissue infections in the tropics, clinicians should consider empirical antimicrobial therapy with agents active against S. aureus and VACS organisms. PMID:25548380

  14. A landslide susceptibility map of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckx, Jente; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Duchateau, Rica; Poesen, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Studies on landslide risks and fatalities indicate that landslides are a global threat to humans, infrastructure and the environment, certainly in Africa. Nonetheless our understanding of the spatial patterns of landslides and rockfalls on this continent is very limited. Also in global landslide susceptibility maps, Africa is mostly underrepresented in the inventories used to construct these maps. As a result, predicted landslide susceptibilities remain subject to very large uncertainties. This research aims to produce a first continent-wide landslide susceptibility map for Africa, calibrated with a well-distributed landslide dataset. As a first step, we compiled all available landslide inventories for Africa. This data was supplemented by additional landslide mapping with Google Earth in underrepresented regions. This way, we compiled 60 landslide inventories from the literature (ca. 11000 landslides) and an additional 6500 landslides through mapping in Google Earth (including 1500 rockfalls). Various environmental variables such as slope, lithology, soil characteristics, land use, precipitation and seismic activity, were investigated for their significance in explaining the observed spatial patterns of landslides. To account for potential mapping biases in our dataset, we used Monte Carlo simulations that selected different subsets of mapped landslides, tested the significance of the considered environmental variables and evaluated the performance of the fitted multiple logistic regression model against another subset of mapped landslides. Based on these analyses, we constructed two landslide susceptibility maps for Africa: one for all landslide types and one excluding rockfalls. In both maps, topography, lithology and seismic activity were the most significant variables. The latter factor may be surprising, given the overall limited degree of seismicity in Africa. However, its significance indicates that frequent seismic events may serve as in important

  15. Bioinspired locomotion and grasping in water: the soft eight-arm OCTOPUS robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianchetti, M; Calisti, M; Margheri, L; Kuba, M; Laschi, C

    2015-05-13

    The octopus is an interesting model for the development of soft robotics, due to its high deformability, dexterity and rich behavioural repertoire. To investigate the principles of octopus dexterity, we designed an eight-arm soft robot and evaluated its performance with focused experiments. The OCTOPUS robot presented here is a completely soft robot, which integrates eight arms extending in radial direction and a central body which contains the main processing units. The front arms are mainly used for elongation and grasping, while the others are mainly used for locomotion. The robotic octopus works in water and its buoyancy is close to neutral. The experimental results show that the octopus-inspired robot can walk in water using the same strategy as the animal model, with good performance over different surfaces, including walking through physical constraints. It can grasp objects of different sizes and shapes, thanks to its soft arm materials and conical shape.

  16. Soft particle analysis of electrokinetics of biological cells and their model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Kimiko; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we review the applications of a novel theory (Ohshima 2009 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 10 063001) to the analysis of electrokinetic data for various soft particles, that is, particles covered with an ion-permeable surface layer of polyelectrolytes. Soft particles discussed in this review include various biological cells and hydrogel-coated particles as a model of biological cells. Cellular transformations increase the concentration of sialic acid of glycoproteins and are associated with blocked biosynthesis of glycolipids and aberrant expression of the developmentally programmed biosynthetic pathway. The change in shape or biological function of cells may affect their surface properties and can be detected by electrokinetic measurements. The experimental results were analyzed with Ohshima's electrokinetic formula for soft particles and soft surfaces. As a model system, hydrogel surfaces that mimic biological surfaces were also prepared and their surface properties were studied.

  17. A new soft x-ray pulse height analysis array in the HL-2A tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y P; Liu, Yi; Yang, J W; Song, X Y; Liao, M; Li, X; Yuan, G L; Yang, Q W; Duan, X R; Pan, C H

    2009-12-01

    A new soft x-ray pulse height analysis (PHA) array including nine independent subsystems, on basis of a nonconventional software multichannel analysis system and a silicon drift detector (SDD) linear array consisting of nine high performance SDD detectors, has been developed in the HL-2A tokamak. The use of SDD has greatly improved the measurement accuracy and the spatiotemporal resolutions of the soft x-ray PHA system. Since the ratio of peak to background counts obtained from the SDD PHA system is very high, p/b > or = 3000, the soft x-ray spectra measured by the SDD PHA system can approximatively be regarded as electron velocity distribution. The electron velocity distribution can be well derived in the pure ohmic and auxiliary heating discharges. The performance of the new soft x-ray PHA array and the first experimental results with some discussions are presented.

  18. Soft particle analysis of electrokinetics of biological cells and their model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, Kimiko; Ohshima, Hiroyuki, E-mail: makino@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: ohshima@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    In this article, we review the applications of a novel theory (Ohshima 2009 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 10 063001) to the analysis of electrokinetic data for various soft particles, that is, particles covered with an ion-permeable surface layer of polyelectrolytes. Soft particles discussed in this review include various biological cells and hydrogel-coated particles as a model of biological cells. Cellular transformations increase the concentration of sialic acid of glycoproteins and are associated with blocked biosynthesis of glycolipids and aberrant expression of the developmentally programmed biosynthetic pathway. The change in shape or biological function of cells may affect their surface properties and can be detected by electrokinetic measurements. The experimental results were analyzed with Ohshima's electrokinetic formula for soft particles and soft surfaces. As a model system, hydrogel surfaces that mimic biological surfaces were also prepared and their surface properties were studied. (topical review)

  19. Soft particle analysis of electrokinetics of biological cells and their model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Kimiko; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we review the applications of a novel theory (Ohshima 2009 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater.10 063001) to the analysis of electrokinetic data for various soft particles, that is, particles covered with an ion-permeable surface layer of polyelectrolytes. Soft particles discussed in this review include various biological cells and hydrogel-coated particles as a model of biological cells. Cellular transformations increase the concentration of sialic acid of glycoproteins and are associated with blocked biosynthesis of glycolipids and aberrant expression of the developmentally programmed biosynthetic pathway. The change in shape or biological function of cells may affect their surface properties and can be detected by electrokinetic measurements. The experimental results were analyzed with Ohshima's electrokinetic formula for soft particles and soft surfaces. As a model system, hydrogel surfaces that mimic biological surfaces were also prepared and their surface properties were studied.

  20. Soft particle analysis of electrokinetics of biological cells and their model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiko Makino and Hiroyuki Ohshima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the applications of a novel theory (Ohshima 2009 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 10 063001 to the analysis of electrokinetic data for various soft particles, that is, particles covered with an ion-permeable surface layer of polyelectrolytes. Soft particles discussed in this review include various biological cells and hydrogel-coated particles as a model of biological cells. Cellular transformations increase the concentration of sialic acid of glycoproteins and are associated with blocked biosynthesis of glycolipids and aberrant expression of the developmentally programmed biosynthetic pathway. The change in shape or biological function of cells may affect their surface properties and can be detected by electrokinetic measurements. The experimental results were analyzed with Ohshima's electrokinetic formula for soft particles and soft surfaces. As a model system, hydrogel surfaces that mimic biological surfaces were also prepared and their surface properties were studied.

  1. Intake of Sweets, Snacks and Soft Drinks Predicts Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    significantly lowered their intakes of added sugars and saturated fat and increased their protein intake by ~1% of total energy compared to controls. Of these dietary variables only intakes of added sugar appeared to be related to GWG, while no association was observed for saturated fat or protein. Further...... analyses revealed that foods that contributed to intake of added sugars, including sweets, snacks, cakes, and soft drinks were strongly associated with weight gain, with women consuming sweets ≥2/day having 5.4 kg (95% CI 2.1-8.7) greater weight gain than those with a low (... for soft drinks were more conflicting, as women with high weight gain tended to favour artificially sweetened soft drinks. CONCLUSION: In our sample of obese pregnant women, craving for sweets, snacks, and soft drinks strongly predicts GWG. Emphasis on reducing intakes of these foods may be more relevant...

  2. Genetic Susceptibility to Vitiligo: GWAS Approaches for Identifying Vitiligo Susceptibility Genes and Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changbing; Gao, Jing; Sheng, Yujun; Dou, Jinfa; Zhou, Fusheng; Zheng, Xiaodong; Ko, Randy; Tang, Xianfa; Zhu, Caihong; Yin, Xianyong; Sun, Liangdan; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component, characterized by areas of depigmented skin resulting from loss of epidermal melanocytes. Genetic factors are known to play key roles in vitiligo through discoveries in association studies and family studies. Previously, vitiligo susceptibility genes were mainly revealed through linkage analysis and candidate gene studies. Recently, our understanding of the genetic basis of vitiligo has been rapidly advancing through genome-wide association study (GWAS). More than 40 robust susceptible loci have been identified and confirmed to be associated with vitiligo by using GWAS. Most of these associated genes participate in important pathways involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Many susceptible loci with unknown functions in the pathogenesis of vitiligo have also been identified, indicating that additional molecular mechanisms may contribute to the risk of developing vitiligo. In this review, we summarize the key loci that are of genome-wide significance, which have been shown to influence vitiligo risk. These genetic loci may help build the foundation for genetic diagnosis and personalize treatment for patients with vitiligo in the future. However, substantial additional studies, including gene-targeted and functional studies, are required to confirm the causality of the genetic variants and their biological relevance in the development of vitiligo. PMID:26870082

  3. Lactobacillus species: taxonomic complexity and controversial susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M

    2015-05-15

    The genus Lactobacillus is a taxonomically complex and is composed of over 170 species that cannot be easily differentiated phenotypically and often require molecular identification. Although they are part of the normal human gastrointestinal and vaginal flora, they can also be occasional human pathogens. They are extensively used in a variety of commercial products including probiotics. Their antimicrobial susceptibilities are poorly defined in part because of their taxonomic complexity and are compounded by the different methods recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute and International Dairy Foundation. Their use as probiotics for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection is prevalent among consumers worldwide but raises the question of will the use of any concurrent antibiotic effect their ability to survive. Lactobacillus species are generally acid resistant and are able to survive ingestion. They are generally resistant to metronidazole, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin with L. acidophilus being susceptible to penicillin and vancomycin, whereas L. rhamnosus and L. casei are resistant to metronidazole and vancomycin. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Measuring Nematic Susceptibilities from the Elastoresistivity Tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A. T.; Shapiro, M. C.; Hlobil, Patrick; Maharaj, Akash; Chu, Jiun-Haw; Fisher, Ian

    The elastoresistivity tensor mijkl relates changes in resistivity to the strain on a material. As a fourth-rank tensor, it contains considerably more information about the material than the simpler (second-rank) resistivity tensor; in particular, certain elastoresistivity coefficients can be related to thermodynamic susceptibilities and serve as a direct probe of symmetry breaking at a phase transition. The aim of this talk is twofold. First, we enumerate how symmetry both constrains the structure of the elastoresistivity tensor into an easy-to-understand form and connects tensor elements to thermodynamic susceptibilities. In the process, we generalize previous studies of elastoresistivity to include the effects of magnetic field. Second, we describe an approach to measuring quantities in the elastoresistivity tensor with a novel transverse measurement, which is immune to relative strain offsets. These techniques are then applied to BaFe2As2 in a proof of principle measurement. This work is supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, under Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  5. Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Vibrio cholerae isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D Shrestha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cholera is one of the most common diarrhoeal diseases in Nepal. Etiological agent of cholera is Vibrio cholerae which removes essential body fluids, salts and vital nutrients, which are necessary for life causing dehydration and malnutrition. Emerging antimicrobial resistant is common. The aim of the present study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of cholera patients in Nepal. METHODS: All the laboratory works were conducted in the bacteriology section of National Public Health Laboratory, Teku from March to September 2005. During this period a total of 340 stool samples from diarrhoeal patients were collected and processed according to the standard laboratory methods. Each patient suffering from diarrhoea was directly interviewed for his or her clinical history during sample collection. RESULTS: A total of 340 stool samples were processed and studied from both sex including all ages of patients. Among the processed sample 53 Vibrio cholerae cases were found. All isolated Vibrio cholerae O1 were El Tor, Inaba. All isolated (100% Vibrio cholerae O1 were sensitive to Ampicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin and Tetracycline whereas all were resistant to Nalidixic acid and Cotrimoxazole. Only 15.1% cases were sensitive to Furazolidone whereas 84.9% were resistant. CONCLUSION: All V. cholerae strains isolated in this study were found resistant to Multi Drug Resistant (resistant to at least two antibiotics of different group. Ampicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin and Tetracycline were found still more potent antibiotics against Vibrio cholerae isolated during the study. Keywords: antibiotics, susceptibility, Vibrio cholera.

  6. New diagnostic modalities in soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S

    1999-01-01

    Molecular and cytogenetic analysis of soft tissue sarcoma has provided a vast amount of new genetic information over the past 10 years. Recent advances in genetic technology, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and positional cloning techniques have greatly increased the rate of new discoveries and soon may bring cytogenetic and molecular analysis to standard pathology laboratories. Karotypic analysis of soft tissue tumors have demonstrated specific cytogenetic aberrations which have proved to be extremely useful diagnostically and have solidified and improved soft tissue tumor classification systems. Objective and reproducible prognostication in soft tissue sarcoma remains problematic. Presently, the grade and size of the sarcoma are the most important factors used to estimate risk of relapse and overall survival. Assigning a pathologic grade to an individual sarcoma as a means of predicting clinical behavior is often difficult with a 40% discordance rate even between expert sarcoma pathologists. There is mounting evidence that the composition of membrane phospholipid in tumor tissue is an important indicator of a tumor's cellularity, proliferative capacity, and differentiation state. However, there is a lack of information on the biochemical determinants of sarcoma proliferation and differentiation. To address these problems, novel quantitative ex vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods have been applied to determine the biochemical changes in tissue lipid for soft tissue sarcoma. The biochemical changes in tissue lipid have been found to correlate with sarcoma cellularity, growth rate, and differentiation. Continued prospective NMR analysis of tissue lipid biochemistry in soft tissue tumors will permit the development of a clinically relevant biochemical system of prognostic determinants for soft tissue sarcoma in the future.

  7. Zur Dialektik von Soft Skills und fachlicher Kompetenz

    OpenAIRE

    Jendrowiak, Hans-Werner

    2010-01-01

    [Der Autor stellt folgende Thesen zur Dialektik von Soft Skills und fachlicher Bildung auf:] 1. Soft Skills sind normale Bildungskategorien und Teil einer Allgemeinen Bildung. […] 2. Soft Skills sind als personalgebundene Kriterien auch immer schon Gegenstand bildungstheoretischer Debatten. […] 3. Soft Skills ist eine trendorientierte Bezeichnung für Bildung. […] 4. Soft Skills sind Ausdruck von Vorstellungen, Ideen und Theorien (Schulkultur, Unternehmenskultur, Unternehmensphilosophie). 5. S...

  8. Soft Approximations and Uni-Int Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athar Kharal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Notions of core, support, and inversion of a soft set have been defined and studied. Soft approximations are soft sets developed through core and support and are used for granulating the soft space. Membership structure of a soft set has been probed in and many interesting properties are presented. We present a new conjecture to solve an optimum choice problem. Our Example 31 presents a case where the new conjecture solves the problem correctly.

  9. The Role of Soft Power in China’s Foreign Policy in the 21th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beston Husen Arif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of soft power has recently become more integrated in China’s diplomatic strategy and foreign policy. China’s utilization of hard power only is insufficient if it wishes to be an active player on the international stage. It also needs to employ soft power to stimulate its influences and leadership in world politics. This study focuses on the argument that soft power can play a significant role in shaping China’s charm image among other countries. It also discusses that China’s aspiration to be a more powerful state in the region depends on its ability to put more efforts into its soft power tactics. To this end, China has employed various tools of soft power’s sources including Chinese culture, language, arts, aids, trades and investments to promote its influences abroad. China’s interest in using soft power comes from its demanding national interests. These national interests include trying to secure a peaceful environment for its economic growth, to accommodate for its increasing energy needs, and also to minimise the influence of other powers, particularly the United States.

  10. Soft texture of atlantic salmon fillets is associated with glycogen accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob S Torgersen

    Full Text Available Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. with soft fillets are not suited for manufacturing high quality products. Therefore fillets with insufficient firmness are downgraded, leading to severe economic losses to the farming and processing industries. In the current study, morphological characteristics of salmon fillets ranging from soft to hard were analysed. Different microscopic techniques were applied, including novel methods in this field of research: morphometric image analysis, periodic acid Schiff staining, immunofluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared microscopy. The results showed that the myocytes of soft muscle had detached cells with mitochondrial dysfunctions, large glycogen aggregates and enlarged inter cellular areas, void of extracellular matrix proteins, including lower amounts of sulfated glycoproteins. Myofibre-myofibre detachment and disappearance of the endomysium in soft muscles coincided with deterioration of important connective tissue constituents such as Collagen type I (Col I, Perlecan and Aggrecan. In summary our investigations show for the first time an association between soft flesh of Atlantic salmon and massive intracellular glycogen accumulation coinciding with degenerated mitochondria, myocyte detachment and altered extracellular matrix protein distribution. The results are important for further understanding the etiology of soft salmon.

  11. On Soft Sngularities at Three Loops and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC; Gardi, Einan; /Edinburgh U.; Magnea, Lorenzo; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin

    2009-12-11

    We report on further progress in understanding soft singularities of massless gauge theory scattering amplitudes. Recently, a set of equations was derived based on Sudakov factorization, constraining the soft anomalous dimension matrix of multi-leg scattering amplitudes to any loop order, and relating it to the cusp anomalous dimension. The minimal solution to these equations was shown to be a sum over color dipoles. Here we explore potential contributions to the soft anomalous dimension that go beyond the sum-over-dipoles formula. Such contributions are constrained by factorization and invariance under rescaling of parton momenta to be functions of conformally invariant cross ratios. Therefore, they must correlate the color and kinematic degrees of freedom of at least four hard partons, corresponding to gluon webs that connect four eikonal lines, which first appear at three loops. We analyze potential contributions, combining all available constraints, including Bose symmetry, the expected degree of transcendentality, and the singularity structure in the limit where two hard partons become collinear. We find that if the kinematic dependence is solely through products of logarithms of cross ratios, then at three loops there is a unique function that is consistent with all available constraints. If polylogarithms are allowed to appear as well, then at least two additional structures are consistent with the available constraints.

  12. Soft currencies, cash economies, new monies: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Jane I

    2012-02-14

    Current variation in the forms of money challenges economic anthropologists and historians to review theory and comparative findings on multiple currency systems. There are four main sections to the paper devoted to (i) the present continuum of hard to soft currencies as an instance of multiplicity, including discussion of different combinations of the classic four functions of money, especially the relationship between store of value and medium of exchange; (ii) the logic of anthropological inquiry into multiple currency economies; (iii) the case of the monies of Atlantic Africa, applying the analytics of exchange rates as conversions to African transactions; and (iv) the return to economic life in a present day Nigerian economy lived in soft currency and cash. The paper identifies five findings that suggest foci for future research. (i) The widespread occurrence of conversions, which bring together ranking principles within transactions. (ii) Several types of positional ranking ranging from simple stepwise ordinal scales to iconic ordinality that creates a parabolic curve of value. (iii) Fictional units of account that serve to mediate both the memorization of nonreductive transactions and their nature as conversions. (iv) The importance of the temporal reach of what constitutes wealth: over the short run, the life span, intergenerational succession, and in (legal) perpetuity (as for corporate and sovereign debts and specified assets). (v) The social niches in which these qualities are brought together in transactional regimes. In conclusion, the paper returns to the exchange function of cash, soft currencies, and new money forms.

  13. From adhesion to wetting of a soft particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Thomas; Benzaquen, Michael; Raphael, Elie

    2014-03-01

    Since the seminal works of Hertz, Johnson, Kendall, and Roberts (JKR), and Derjaguin, Muller, and Toporov (DMT), the contact of adhesive elastic solids has been widely studied. This area of research is of tremendous importance: the range of applications now spreads from biology to engineering, as shown by the recent developments on latex particles, biological cells or micro-patterned substrates, to name a few. Using a thermodynamical approach [Salez et al., Soft Matter 9 10699 (2013)], we calculate the adhesion-induced deformation of a spherical elastic particle placed on a rigid substrate, under zero external load, and including an ingredient of importance in soft matter: the interfacial tension of the cap. First, we limit the study to small deformation. In contrast with previous works, we obtain an expression for the free energy that precisely contains the JKR and Young-Dupré asymptotic regimes, and which establishes a continuous bridge between them. Then, we consider the large deformation case, which is relevant for future comparison with numerical simulations and experiments on very soft materials. Using a fruitful analogy with fracture mechanics, we derive the free energy of the problem and thus obtain the equilibrium state for any given choice of physical parameters.

  14. [Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo, Almudena; Moreno, Antonio; Salas, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections are often seen in clinical practice, yet their microbiological diagnosis is among the most complex of laboratory tasks. The diagnosis of a skin and a soft tissue infection is generally based on clinical criteria and not microbiological results. A microbiological diagnosis is reserved for cases in which the etiology of infection is required, e.g., when the infection is particularly severe, when less common microorganisms are suspected as the causative agent (e.g. in immunocompromised patients), when response to antimicrobial treatment is poor, or when a longstanding wound does not heal within a reasonable period of time. We report the indications, sampling and processing techniques, and interpretation criteria for various culture types, including quantitative cultures from biopsy or tissue specimens and semiquantitative and qualitative cultures performed on all types of samples. For non-invasive samples taken from open wounds, application of the Q index to Gram stains is a cost-effective way to standardize sample quality assessment and interpretation of the pathogenic involvement of the different microorganisms isolated from cultures. All these issues are covered in the SEIMC microbiological procedure number 22: Diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos (Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues) (2nd ed., 2006, www.seimc.org/protocolos/microbiologia).

  15. Soft currencies, cash economies, new monies: Past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Jane I.

    2012-01-01

    Current variation in the forms of money challenges economic anthropologists and historians to review theory and comparative findings on multiple currency systems. There are four main sections to the paper devoted to (i) the present continuum of hard to soft currencies as an instance of multiplicity, including discussion of different combinations of the classic four functions of money, especially the relationship between store of value and medium of exchange; (ii) the logic of anthropological inquiry into multiple currency economies; (iii) the case of the monies of Atlantic Africa, applying the analytics of exchange rates as conversions to African transactions; and (iv) the return to economic life in a present day Nigerian economy lived in soft currency and cash. The paper identifies five findings that suggest foci for future research. (i) The widespread occurrence of conversions, which bring together ranking principles within transactions. (ii) Several types of positional ranking ranging from simple stepwise ordinal scales to iconic ordinality that creates a parabolic curve of value. (iii) Fictional units of account that serve to mediate both the memorization of nonreductive transactions and their nature as conversions. (iv) The importance of the temporal reach of what constitutes wealth: over the short run, the life span, intergenerational succession, and in (legal) perpetuity (as for corporate and sovereign debts and specified assets). (v) The social niches in which these qualities are brought together in transactional regimes. In conclusion, the paper returns to the exchange function of cash, soft currencies, and new money forms. PMID:22308423

  16. Inventory of experiences from national/regional dietary monitoring surveys using EPIC-Soft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, I; Casagrande, C; Nicolas, G; Geelen, A; Crispim, S P; De Keyzer, W; Freisling, H; De Henauw, S; De Maeyer, M; Krems, C; Amiano, P; de Boer, E J; Ocké, M C; de Vries, J H; Slimani, N

    2011-07-01

    The EPIC-Soft 24-h recall (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) has been used in several regional/national dietary monitoring surveys. The main objective of the study was to present and discuss design, settings, logistics, data management and quality controls of dietary monitoring surveys that used EPIC-Soft for the collection of food consumption data. Within European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL), a questionnaire including questions on current/past EPIC-Soft experiences and requirements for the future was developed and sent to all institutes that used EPIC-Soft in their food consumption survey(s) (five surveys in four different countries). EPIC-Soft was used in the national food consumption survey in Belgium (≥ 15-97 years), Germany (14-80 years), the Netherlands (19-30 years and 2-6 years) and Spain (regional only; 4-18 years). Participation rates in these surveys were 46% (Belgium), 42% (Germany), 42% (Dutch survey in adults), 79% (Dutch survey in children) and 77% (Basque survey). Two 24-HDRs were collected by conducting face-to-face interviews in Belgium and Spain, and through telephone interviews in Germany and the Netherlands. Except the Netherlands (19-30 years), where the study was conducted only in autumn, in all other countries the study was conducted throughout the four seasons, including all days of the week. Interviews were conducted by dietitians, except in Germany and Spain. Mean EPIC-Soft interview time was 20-34 min. The dropout rate between the first and second interviews was low (surveys. EPIC-Soft has been used in different study settings and populations for nutritional exposure assessments. To guarantee the comparability of data across countries, recommendations for the design of future pan-European dietary monitoring surveys using EPIC-Soft should be drawn.

  17. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Soft Scales (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of soft scales (Hemiptera:Coccidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare soft scale specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, speci...

  18. Biofabricated soft network composites for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Onur; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Meinert, Christoph; D'Angella, Davide; Baldwin, Jeremy G; Bray, Laura J; Wellard, R Mark; Kollmannsberger, Stefan; Rank, Ernst; Werner, Carsten; Klein, Travis J; Catelas, Isabelle; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2017-05-12

    Articular cartilage from a material science point of view is a soft network composite that plays a critical role in load-bearing joints during dynamic loading. Its composite structure, consisting of a collagen fiber network and a hydrated proteoglycan matrix, gives rise to the complex mechanical properties of the tissue including viscoelasticity and stress relaxation. Melt electrospinning writing allows the design and fabrication of medical grade polycaprolactone (mPCL) fibrous networks for the reinforcement of soft hydrogel matrices for cartilage tissue engineering. However, these fiber-reinforced constructs underperformed under dynamic and prolonged loading conditions, suggesting that more targeted design approaches and material selection are required to fully exploit the potential of fibers as reinforcing agents for cartilage tissue engineering. In the present study, we emulated the proteoglycan matrix of articular cartilage by using highly negatively charged star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol)/heparin hydrogel (sPEG/Hep) as the soft matrix. These soft hydrogels combined with mPCL melt electrospun fibrous networks exhibited mechanical anisotropy, nonlinearity, viscoelasticity and morphology analogous to those of their native counterpart, and provided a suitable microenvironment for in vitro human chondrocyte culture and neocartilage formation. In addition, a numerical model using the p-version of the finite element method (p-FEM) was developed in order to gain further insights into the deformation mechanisms of the constructs in silico, as well as to predict compressive moduli. To our knowledge, this is the first study presenting cartilage tissue-engineered constructs that capture the overall transient, equilibrium and dynamic biomechanical properties of human articular cartilage.

  19. EVALUATION OF MANDIBULAR HARD AND SOFT TISSUES IN CLEFT PATIENTS*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl ARAS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular hard and soft tissue measurements of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate patients with non-cleft individuals. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised of lateral cephalograms of 45 subjects. Sample included 15 non-cleft (NC, 15 unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP and 15 bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP cases whose age were between 15 to 17. 1 angular 13 linear measurements were carried out using Arnett and Gunson soft tissue cephalometric analysis and 4 angular measurements were calculated with Steiner Analysis. Results: Mandibular incisor inclinations relative to the occlusal plane (Md1-Md OP were significantly greater and mandibular incisor projections (Md1-TVL were significantly retrusive in cleft subjects (p<0.05. Projection values pertaining to lower lip anterior (LLA-TVL, soft tissue B point (B’-TVL, and soft tissue pogonion (Pog’-TVL were significantly deficient as well in cleft patients (p<0.05. Sagittal position of the maxilla (SNA (p<0.001 and intermaxillary relation of the jaws (ANB were significantly deficient in UCLP subjects (p<0.05 and BCLP individuals (p<0.01. LLA-TVL and B’-TVL correlated with SNB in cleft patients (p<0.05. Conclusion: Decreased lower lip and chin projection values suggest that mandibular region of cleft patients should be taken into account in forming the treatment plan to improve the esthetic outcome of orthodontic and plastic surgery interventions.

  20. Characterisation of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from soft and semi-soft cheeses sampled in a region of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicdalia A. Acciari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 47 Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated in a survey of cheeses sampled from retail outlets were characterised. Five cheeses (Gorgonzola, Taleggio, Asiago, Crescenza and Brie were chosen from the most popular soft and semi-soft cheeses consumed in Italy and most commonly contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The serotype and antibiotic resistance pattern were determined for each strain and their macrorestriction profile was analysed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The main serotypes detected were 1/2a (76.6% and 1/2c (21.3%. Serotype 1/2b was found in only one sample. A total of 97.9% of strains were resistant to oxacillin (OX, 80.9% to lincomycin (L and 78.7% to clindamycin (CC. Of these strains, 17% were found to be resistant to two antibiotics (OX-CC or OX-L while 70.2% were resistant to three antibiotics (OX-CC-L. No strains were susceptible to all the compounds tested. A combined analysis of the macrorestriction profiles AscI and ApaI identified eleven pulsotypes divided into three clusters. Two pulsotypes predominated, accounting for 57.4% and 21.3% of the isolated strains. Analysis of the PFGE profiles did not reveal any correlation between pulsotype and type of cheese, producer or retail outlet. A temporal analysis revealed that one pulsotype was persistent throughout the study period, with the exception of August and September, in which time a different pulsotype was detected. This variability suggests the influence of factors affecting the dynamics of the contamination of these products. Large-scale studies could help clarify this phenomenon.