WorldWideScience

Sample records for susceptibility ams show

  1. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies of Campanian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The observed AMS parameters like shape factor () (prolate to oblate), value and random distribution of minimum (3) and maximum (1) susceptibility axes are supported for secondary fabrics in Kallankurichchi Formation as a result of post-depositional processes. Based on petrographic studies, it can be established ...

  2. Analogue sandbox experiments, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and paleomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, Bjarne; Koyi, Hemin

    2017-04-01

    In this contribution we present results from AMS measurements on samples from analogue models simulating fold-thrust belts. The models are made of 99 % well sorted beach sand, consisting of quartz and feldspar and 1 % magnetite, by volume. The sand is contained within a model space with initial size of 30 cm width, 60 cm length and 2 cm height. Four models with identical setup were deformed by bulk shortening (compression) ranging from 8 % to 33 %. In each model, three different tectonic domains were studied, representing the state of deformation, analogous to the compression experienced by a mountain belt. The hinterland, closest to the "pushing" side of the model (backstop) accommodate the largest deformation where thrust wedges develop. The foreland, being farthest away from the backstop, remains weakly affected by the compression. A transition zone separates these two end-member domains, where deformation is apparent by layer-parallel shortening and thickening, but thrusting is absent (deformation is accommodated by penetrative strain). With progressive shortening (compression), more of the model is deformed and the hinterland gradually expands. The analyzed AMS closely reflects the deformation in the models, and can be quantitatively used to study the development of model deformation. The initial undeformed fabric is oblate (depositional) and uniform throughout the model, where the k3 axes tightly group as a pole to the bedding/foliation plane. During shortening, the original magnetic fabric becomes gradually overprinted, with a reduction in the degree of anisotropy in the transition zone and development of a triaxial susceptibility ellipsoid. Principal susceptibility axes become more scattered. The degree of anisotropy increases in the hinterland, and the fabric consist of a mix of prolate and oblate susceptibility ellipsoids. The k1 axes obtain a grouping that is parallel to the backstop (i.e., parallel to the strike of the "orogenic wedge"). AMS analysis

  3. Map showing landslide susceptibility in Prince Georges County, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Prince Georges County was identified during a statewide investigation of landslide susceptibility (MF-2048) as the county with the most serious slope-stability problems. This map uses a ranking system ranging from 1 (nil to very low susceptibility) to 4 (moderate to severe susceptibility). Geologic factors and precipitation are major elements in the initiation of landslides in the county. The Potomac Group and the Marlboro Clay are the most slideprone units. This map should enable users to make a rapid, generalized evaluation of the potential for mass movement. Planners, engineers, soil scientists, geologist, university faculty, and elected officials should find it useful in the assessment of slope hazards for county-wide analyses.

  4. Linking Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) to transport direction: The Gavarnie Thrust, Axial Zone, Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcén, Marcos; Casas-Sainz, Antonio; Román-Berdiel, Teresa; Soto, Ruth; Oliva-Urcía, Belén

    2017-04-01

    This work deals with the application of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), structural analysis and microstructural analysis to the study of shear zones. Mylonitized fault rocks have been sampled in the Gavarnie Trust, one of the main structures of the Pyrenean Axial Zone, which was structured as a south-verging antiformal stack during the Alpine Orogeny. In the studied area, the Gavarnie Unit (Silurian-Carboniferous, low grade metasedimentary rocks) overthrust the Millares and Bielsa Units (Permian and Cretaceous cover, Cambro-Ordovician medium grade metamorphic rocks and granitoids), with a minimum horizontal displacement of 12km. Three profiles of the shear zone were studied with the goal of observing changes in the transport direction, the strain distribution and the orientation of the magnetic ellipsoid., One profile is parallel to the basal thrust plane, where the core zone has been identified, and the other two are vertical transects (profiles 1 and 2), perpendicular to the thrust plane. The shear zone, developed into the hangingwall phyllitic Silurian and Devonian units, is at least 30 m wide. The structural analysis reveals that the Silurian rocks are the local detachment level, which becomes thinner and pinchs out completely towards the South, where the detachment level is within the Devonian units (Fourche de la Sede Fm.). In both vertical profiles, the shear zone shows a decrease in the strain from the contact with the Cretaceous limestones at the footwall, towards the upper limit of the shear zone. This is evidenced by the lower development of mylonitic foliations and SCC' structures and the upwards increase of brittle deformation. The transport direction inferred from SC structures (stretching lineations in S and C planes) is constant in all sites, with an average of N190E. AMS data are in perfect agreement with the structural analysis, being the magnetic foliation parallel to the S or C planes of the SC structures. The magnetic

  5. Evolution of fabric in Chitradurga granite (south India) - A study based on microstructure, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and vorticity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Tridib Kumar

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the fabric in massive granite ( 2.6 Ga) from the Chitradurga region (Western Dharwar Craton, south India) is analyzed using microstructure, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) study and kinematic vorticity analysis. The microstructural investigation on the granite shows a progressive textural overprint from magmatic, through high-T to low-T solid-state deformation textures. The mean magnetic foliation in the rocks of the region is dominantly NW-SE striking which have developed during regional D1/D2 deformation on account of NE-SW shortening. The plunge of the magnetic lineation varies from NW to vertical to SE, and interpreted to be a consequence of regional D3 deformation on account of NW-SE to E-W shortening. The vorticity analysis from magnetic fabric in the region reveals that the NW-SE oriented fabric formed under pure shear condition during D1/D2 regional deformation. However, some parts of the region particularly close to the adjacent Chitradurga Shear Zone show that the magnetic fabrics are oblique to the foliation as well as shear zone orientation and inferred to be controlled by simple shearing during D3 regional deformation. The shape preferred orientation (SPO) analysis from oriented thin sections suggest that the shape of the recrystallized quartz grains define the magnetic fabric in Chitradurga granite and the degree of the SPO reduces away from the Chitradurga Shear Zone. It is interpreted that the change in magnetic fabrics in some parts of the granite in the region are dominantly controlled by the late stage sinistral shearing which occurred during the development of Chitradurga Shear Zone. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data of granite from the Chitradurga region (West Dharwar Craton, southern India). Km = Mean susceptibility; Pj = corrected degree of magnetic anisotropy; T = shape parameter. K1 and K3 are the maximum and minimum principal axes of the AMS ellipsoid, respectively. dec = Declination; inc

  6. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) and Sedimentary Fabric Studies of Phreatomagmatic Surge Deposits, Hopi Buttes, Navajo Nation, NE Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, T. T.

    2005-12-01

    The Hopi Buttes volcanic field is a group of late Mio-Pliocene volcanic vents characterized by hydrovolcanic features. The volcanism at the Hopi Buttes produced ~300 maar and diatreme volcanic landforms scattered within an area of 50km in diameter. The maars in the area formed from phreatomagmatic explosions involving the interaction of the rapidly ascending monchiquitic/nephelinitic magmas and liquefied lower Bidahochi sediments, and groundwater. Phreatomagmatic eruptions produce a spectrum of pyroclastic density currents (i.e. "pyroclastic flows" or "pyroclastic surges/hydrovolcanic surges"). The direct products of these violent eruptive events are dilute gravity driven gas charged pyroclastic density currents. Which, over distances gain and/or lose competency due to a decreasing energy budget and/or paleotopographic control. Paleotopographic reconstructions of the Hopi Buttes volcanic field reveal a sub-horizontal playa type environment. This affords the opportunity to study individual surge deposits on the micro- to macroscopic scales to determine the emplacement dynamics of individual eruptive events without the complications of paleotopographic interference. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and sedimentary fabric analysis has been used to examine the micro- to macroscopic fabrics of individual surge deposits at proximal, medial, and distal locations from the eruptive vent. These techniques give insight on the flow and depositional processes of the transient hydrovolcanic surges. Data shows a distinct correlation of microscopic AMS fabric changes to macroscopic sedimentary facies changes. At the proximal-medial interface ~150-200m AMS fabrics turn from chaotic/lack of orientation to a lineated fabric long axis perpendicular to flow direction. This fabric is interpreted to be transitional debulking interface from a highly concentrated rapid depositional flow to a more dilute transient flow, thus allowing the internal sorting and individual particles to

  7. Telling true from false: cannabis users show increased susceptibility to false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, J; Valle, M; Sampedro, F; Rodríguez-Pujadas, A; Martínez-Horta, S; Kulisevsky, J; Rodríguez-Fornells, A

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies on the neurocognitive impact of cannabis use have found working and declarative memory deficits that tend to normalize with abstinence. An unexplored aspect of cognitive function in chronic cannabis users is the ability to distinguish between veridical and illusory memories, a crucial aspect of reality monitoring that relies on adequate memory function and cognitive control. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that abstinent cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to false memories, failing to identify lure stimuli as events that never occurred. In addition to impaired performance, cannabis users display reduced activation in areas associated with memory processing within the lateral and medial temporal lobe (MTL), and in parietal and frontal brain regions involved in attention and performance monitoring. Furthermore, cannabis consumption was inversely correlated with MTL activity, suggesting that the drug is especially detrimental to the episodic aspects of memory. These findings indicate that cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to memory distortions even when abstinent and drug-free, suggesting a long-lasting compromise of memory and cognitive control mechanisms involved in reality monitoring.

  8. The relation between anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and mineral filling of foraminifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzhikova, Anastasia; Grishchenko, Vladimir; Surinsky, Arseny; Tselmovich, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    The comparison of bio- and magnetostratigraphic data in four sections of Jurassic-Cretaceous sediments of Mountain Crimea and Saratov region (Russia) detected the presence of correlation between the AMS parameter T and the amount of foraminifers in rock sample: disk-shaped magnetic particles dominance is connected with high quantity of foraminifers and therefore, cigar-shaped particles signify low foraminifer content. Parameter T (shape parameter) representing the magnetic particle form: T values close to 1 indicate the plain (disc-shaped) form of magnetic particles, T values close to (-1) highlight the prolate (cigar-shaped) form. To understand the nature of this interrelation a few disc-shaped foraminifers were studied using microprobe analysis. The results of this study have shown that inner spaces of foraminifers are completely filled by pyrite, which grains are covered with thin magnetite tape (the thickness of the tape is less than 200 nanometers). We suppose that this magnetite tape provides the main influence to anisotropy's character. In the Maastrichtian of Mountain Crimea the relation between AMS and amount of foraminifers appears to be more significant after the heating of samples in the muffle furnace till 500°C during 1 hour. Primary magnetic texture was nearly chaotic, but after the heating it acquired the view peculiar to rocks containing plain ferromagnetic particles, formed in calm hydrodynamic environment. This event may be explained by transition (at the temperature of 450°C) of non-magnetic pyrite, fulfilling the inner structure of foraminifers, to the high-magnetic magnetite. The relations between petromagnetic parameters and special aspects of micropaleontological complexes involve studies that are more special because they gain much interest and perspectives in the area of sedimentological and paleoecological reconstructions. The finance part of the study was supported by RFBR: Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects №№ 16

  9. Characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of motile aeromonads isolated from freshwater ornamental fish showing signs of septicaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoda, S S S de S; Wijewardana, T G; Arulkanthan, A; Igarashi, Y; Tan, E; Kinoshita, S; Watabe, S; Asakawa, S

    2014-05-13

    A total of 74 phenotypically identified presumptive motile Aeromonas isolates recovered from septicaemic freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka were genetically characterized by sequencing of rpoD and gyrB genes. rpoD/gyrB phylogeny confirmed only 53 isolates as Aeromonas, among which A. veronii was the predominant species (79.2%), followed by A. hydrophila (7.5%), A. caviae (5.7%), A. jandaei (1.9%), A. dhakensis (3.8%) and A. entero pelogenes (1.9%). The aeromonads confirmed by sequencing were further subjected to 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP which substantiated sequencing results for 83% of isolates. Fingerprinting of A. enteropelogenes (n = 42) using ERIC-PCR revealed no dominant clones, and the majority were genetically distinct. All isolates were screened by PCR for 7 virulence determinant genes (aer, act, ast, alt, fla, ser, exu) and 2 integrase encoding genes (intI1, intI2). Each isolate contained ≥3 of the virulence genes tested for, with a heterogeneous distribution. Of the isolates, 77% harboured the intI1 gene, while none had intI2. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed highest resistances towards tetracycline (58.5%) and erythromycin (54.7%). Our results indicate the diverse range of aeromonads that could potentially be associated with motile aeromonad septicaemia in ornamental fish. This is the first isolation of A. dhakensis from a septicaemic ornamental fish since its original description from the same host.

  10. NMR-based metabolomics and breath studies show lipid and protein catabolism during low dose chronic T(1)AM treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, J A; Reiland, H; Butz, D E; Tonelli, M; Porter, W P; Zucchi, R; Scanlan, T S; Chiellini, G; Assadi-Porter, F M

    2013-12-01

    3-Iodothyronamine (T1 AM), an analog of thyroid hormone, is a recently discovered fast-acting endogenous metabolite. Single high-dose treatments of T1 AM have produced rapid short-term effects, including a reduction of body temperature, bradycardia, and hyperglycemia in mice. The effect of daily low doses of T1 AM (10 mg/kg) for 8 days on weight loss and metabolism in spontaneously overweight mice was monitored. The experiments were repeated twice (n = 4). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of plasma and real-time analysis of exhaled (13) CO2 in breath by cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) were used to detect T1 AM-induced lipolysis. CRDS detected increased lipolysis in breath shortly after T1 AM administration that was associated with a significant weight loss but independent of food consumption. NMR spectroscopy revealed alterations in key metabolites in serum: valine, glycine, and 3-hydroxybutyrate, suggesting that the subchronic effects of T1 AM include both lipolysis and protein breakdown. After discontinuation of T1 AM treatment, mice regained only 1.8% of the lost weight in the following 2 weeks, indicating lasting effects of T1 AM on weight maintenance. CRDS in combination with NMR and (13) C-metabolic tracing constitute a powerful method of investigation in obesity studies for identifying in vivo biochemical pathway shifts and unanticipated debilitating side effects. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  11. Contribution of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS to reconstruct flooding characteristics of a 4220 BP tsunami from a thick unconsolidated structureless deposit (Banda Aceh, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Christian Wassmer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns of deciphering tsunami sedimentary records along seashore is to link the emplaced layers with marine high energy events. Based on a combination of morphologic features, sedimentary figures, grain size characteristics, fossils content, microfossils assemblages, geochemical elements, heavy minerals presence; it is, in principle, possible to relate the sedimentary record to a tsunami event. However, experience shows that sometimes, in reason of a lack of any visible sedimentary features, it is hard to decide between a storm and a tsunami origin. To solve this issue, the authors have used the Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS to evidence the sediment fabric. The validity of the method for reconstructing flow direction has been proved when applied on sediments in the aftermath of a tsunami event, for which the behaviour was well documented (2004 IOT. We present herein an application of this method for a 56 cm thick paleo-deposit dated 4220 BP laying under the soil covered by the 2004 IOT, SE of Banda Aceh, North Sumatra. We analysed this homogenous deposit, lacking of any visible structure, using methods of classic sedimentology to confirm the occurrence of a high energy event. We then applied AMS technique that allowed the reconstruction of flow characteristics during sediment emplacement. We show that all the sequence was emplaced by uprush phases and that the local topography played a role on the re-orientation of a part of the uprush flow, creating strong reverse current. This particular behaviour was reported by eyewitnesses during the 2004 IOT event.

  12. Method of Evaluating Hydrogen Embrittlement Susceptibility of Tempered Martensitic Steel Showing Intergranular Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yu; Takai, Kenichi

    2018-02-01

    A stress application method in delayed fracture susceptibility tests was investigated using 1450 MPa class tempered martensitic steel. Its fracture mode under hydrogen charging was mainly intergranular because of its relatively small Si content of 0.21 mass pct. The conditions for consistency in fracture strength between tensile tests and constant load tests (CLTs) were clarified: first, to conduct hydrogen precharging before stress application; and second, to choose a sufficiently low crosshead speed in tensile tests. When hydrogen precharging was not conducted before CLTs, the fracture strength was higher than the values in CLTs with hydrogen charging and in tensile tests. If the crosshead speed was too high, the fracture strength obtained was higher than the values in CLTs. The dependence of the fracture strength on crosshead speed was seen for both notched and smooth bar specimens. These results suggested that plastic deformation, i.e., dislocation motion, was related to intergranular fracture with a tear pattern as well as to quasi-cleavage fracture. In addition, cathodic electrolysis in an alkaline solution containing NaOH should be used as the hydrogen charging method to avoid the effects of corrosion.

  13. Method of Evaluating Hydrogen Embrittlement Susceptibility of Tempered Martensitic Steel Showing Intergranular Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yu; Takai, Kenichi

    2017-12-01

    A stress application method in delayed fracture susceptibility tests was investigated using 1450 MPa class tempered martensitic steel. Its fracture mode under hydrogen charging was mainly intergranular because of its relatively small Si content of 0.21 mass pct. The conditions for consistency in fracture strength between tensile tests and constant load tests (CLTs) were clarified: first, to conduct hydrogen precharging before stress application; and second, to choose a sufficiently low crosshead speed in tensile tests. When hydrogen precharging was not conducted before CLTs, the fracture strength was higher than the values in CLTs with hydrogen charging and in tensile tests. If the crosshead speed was too high, the fracture strength obtained was higher than the values in CLTs. The dependence of the fracture strength on crosshead speed was seen for both notched and smooth bar specimens. These results suggested that plastic deformation, i.e., dislocation motion, was related to intergranular fracture with a tear pattern as well as to quasi-cleavage fracture. In addition, cathodic electrolysis in an alkaline solution containing NaOH should be used as the hydrogen charging method to avoid the effects of corrosion.

  14. Method of Evaluating Delayed Fracture Susceptibility of Tempered Martensitic Steel Showing Quasi-Cleavage Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yu; Takai, Kenichi

    2017-02-01

    The difference in the hydrogen charging methods, immersion in a NH4SCN aqueous solution, and cathodic electrolysis in a NaOH aqueous solution, did not affect the hydrogen state present in the steel, but it did affect the surface state of the specimens through corrosion, causing fracture strength to fluctuate in tensile testes. As for stress application method, the fracture strength at lower crosshead speeds in tensile tests was consistent with that found for hydrogen precharging prior to stress application in CLTs as long as hydrogen charging was conducted by cathodic electrolysis. However, the fracture strength obtained with concurrent hydrogen charging without precharging prior to stress application in CLTs was higher than that with hydrogen precharging prior to stress application in CLTs regardless of the same hydrogen content. In other words, delayed fracture susceptibility was affected by the order of hydrogen charging and stress application for quasi-cleavage fracture associated with local plastic deformation, i.e., dislocation motion. Therefore, by taking into account the cathodic electrolysis in the NaOH solution, the low crosshead speed and the order of hydrogen charging and stress application, the fracture strength in CLTs, and tensile tests coincided with respect to quasi-cleavage fracture even though the stress application methods were different.

  15. Female Nur77-deficient mice show increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Perez-Sieira

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is essential in the regulation of body weight. The key process in fat catabolism and the provision of energy substrate during times of nutrient deprivation or enhanced energy demand is the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the release of fatty acids and glycerol. Nur77 is a member of the NR4A subfamily of nuclear receptors that plays an important metabolic role, modulating hepatic glucose metabolism and lipolysis in muscle. However, its endogenous role on white adipose tissue, as well as the gender dependency of these mechanisms, remains largely unknown. Male and female wild type and Nur77 deficient mice were fed with a high fat diet (45% calories from fat for 4 months. Mice were analyzed in vivo with the indirect calorimetry system, and tissues were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Female, but not male Nur77 deficient mice, gained more weight and fat mass when compared to wild type mice fed with high fat diet, which can be explained by decreased energy expenditure. The lack of Nur77 also led to a decreased pHSL/HSL ratio in white adipose tissue and increased expression of CIDEA in brown adipose tissue of female Nur77 deficient mice. Overall, these findings suggest that Nur77 is an important physiological modulator of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and that there are gender differences in the sensitivity to deletion of the Nur77 signaling. The decreased energy expenditure and the actions of Nur77 on liver, muscle, brown and white adipose tissue contribute to the increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in females lacking Nur77.

  16. Telling true from false: cannabis users show increased susceptibility to false memories

    OpenAIRE

    Riba, J; Valle, M.; Sampedro, F; Rodr?guez-Pujadas, A; Mart?nez-Horta, S; Kulisevsky, J; Rodr?guez-Fornells, A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the neurocognitive impact of cannabis use have found working and declarative memory deficits that tend to normalize with abstinence. An unexplored aspect of cognitive function in chronic cannabis users is the ability to distinguish between veridical and illusory memories, a crucial aspect of reality monitoring that relies on adequate memory function and cognitive control. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that abstinent cannabis users have an increased s...

  17. Correlation between anisotropy of frequency-dependent susceptibility and anisotropy of out-of-phase susceptibility in loess/paleosol sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadima, Martin; Hrouda, Frantisek; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Jezek, Josef

    2016-04-01

    The preferred orientation of magnetic minerals in loess/paleosol sequences is traditionally investigated through the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Recently developed techniques of anisotropy of frequency-dependent susceptibility (fdAMS) and anisotropy of out-of-phase susceptibility (opAMS) can assess the magnetic sub-fabrics of viscous particles on transition between SP and SSD. The width of the particle size interval investigated by the fdAMS is controlled by the operating frequencies used. In case of opAMS, the interval is always narrower than that in fdAMS and depends also on the operating frequency used. To demonstrate our approach we present several loess/paleosol sequences from the Czech Republic where the degrees of AMS, fdAMS, and opAMS are significantly lower in paleosols than in loess horizons. This indicates that the preferred orientation of magnetic particles created during pedogenesis is much weaker than that of the particles deposited during loess deposition. In addition, the degrees of fdAMS and opAMS are much higher than that of AMS. This may indicate strong grain anisotropy of viscous magnetic particles, because the fdAMS and opAMS are primarily controlled by them. The principal directions of AMS, fdAMS, and opAMS are mostly roughly co-axial suggesting more or less identical origins of magnetic sub-fabrics according to grain size. Less frequently, the principal directions of fdAMS or opAMS differ from those of AMS probably indicating post-depositional effects on particular grain-size classes. The fdAMS and opAMS show as powerful tools in the investigation of magnetic sub-fabrics due to different grain-size classes of magnetic minerals.

  18. Is alcohol mixed with energy drinks consumption associated with susceptibility to smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Sharaf, Mesbah F

    2014-04-01

    This paper examines whether adolescent students in Canada who have never smoked but who drink alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) are more susceptible to smoking than those who do not consume AmED. A nationally representative sample of 15,875 never-smoking students in grades 9 to 12 from the 2010-2011 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey is used. The association between AmED and susceptibility to smoking is examined using a logistic regression. About 28% of the never-smoking adolescents in grades 9 to 12 are susceptible to smoking, and 13% report using AmED. Results of the adjusted logistic regression analysis show a statistically significant positive association between consuming AmED and susceptibility to smoking. Never-smoking students who reported using AmED are more susceptible to smoking when compared with those who have not consumed AmED (OR=1.89; 95% CI=1.71-2.10). Similar results are obtained when the analysis is stratified by gender. The consumption of AmED is associated with higher odds of smoking susceptibility among Canadian adolescents. AmED use could be a potential marker for smoking susceptibility among never-smoking adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chimpanzees show a developmental increase in susceptibility to contagious yawning: a test of the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on yawn contagion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elainie Alenkær Madsen

    Full Text Available Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others' emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the 'chameleon effect', targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed.

  20. Chimpanzees show a developmental increase in susceptibility to contagious yawning: a test of the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on yawn contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Elainie Alenkær; Persson, Tomas; Sayehli, Susan; Lenninger, Sara; Sonesson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others' emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother) yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the 'chameleon effect', targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed.

  1. Berufskrankheiten, die Schaffung am Subjekt und politische Arbeit im Talkshow-Format Occupational Hazards, Work on the Subject and Politics in Talk Show Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Marc Hackler

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer Analyse der Sprecherpositionen, die subalternen Frauen in Indien zugestanden wird, formuliert Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak eine Kritik am fehlenden Verantwortungsbewusstsein westlicher Intellektueller. Zugleich entwickelt sie eine anspruchsvolle Vorgabe für die Untersuchung kolonialer Herrschaftspraktiken. Während die Forderung nach Verantwortung allerdings hinter dem eigenen Anspruch zurückbleibt, die institutionellen und historischen Bedingungen akademischer Arbeit zu berücksichtigen, birgt ihre Theorie des unterworfenen Subjektes ein großes Analysepotential. Das Gespräch zwischen Spivak und Judith Butler enttäuscht hingegen die Erwartungen an eine informierte politische Öffentlichkeit.In her analysis of those speaker-positions given to subaltern women in India, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak formulates a critique of the missing sense of responsibility found in western intellectuals. At the same time she develops an ambitious standard for the examination of colonial practices of dominance. While although her call for responsibility lags behind the individual necessity to take into account the institutional and historical requirements of academic work, her theory on the subordinate subject carries great analytical potential. Conversely, the conversation between Spivak and Judith Butler is disappointing and does not live up to the expectations of a politically informed public.

  2. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing the chalcone 3-hydroxylase gene of Cosmos sulphureus show increased levels of 3-hydroxyphloridzin and reduced susceptibility to apple scab and fire blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutabarat, Olly Sanny; Flachowsky, Henryk; Regos, Ionela; Miosic, Silvija; Kaufmann, Christine; Faramarzi, Shadab; Alam, Mohammed Zobayer; Gosch, Christian; Peil, Andreas; Richter, Klaus; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Treutter, Dieter; Stich, Karl; Halbwirth, Heidi

    2016-05-01

    Overexpression of chalcone-3-hydroxylase provokes increased accumulation of 3-hydroxyphloridzin in Malus . Decreased flavonoid concentrations but unchanged flavonoid class composition were observed. The increased 3-hydroxyphlorizin contents correlate well with reduced susceptibility to fire blight and scab. The involvement of dihydrochalcones in the apple defence mechanism against pathogens is discussed but unknown biosynthetic steps in their formation hamper studies on their physiological relevance. The formation of 3-hydroxyphloretin is one of the gaps in the pathway. Polyphenol oxidases and cytochrome P450 dependent enzymes could be involved. Hydroxylation of phloretin in position 3 has high similarity to the B-ring hydroxylation of flavonoids catalysed by the well-known flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H). Using recombinant F3'H and chalcone 3-hydroxylase (CH3H) from Cosmos sulphureus we show that F3'H and CH3H accept phloretin to some extent but higher conversion rates are obtained with CH3H. To test whether CH3H catalyzes the hydroxylation of dihydrochalcones in planta and if this could be of physiological relevance, we created transgenic apple trees harbouring CH3H from C. sulphureus. The three transgenic lines obtained showed lower polyphenol concentrations but no shift between the main polyphenol classes dihydrochalcones, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavan 3-ols. Increase of 3-hydroxyphloridzin within the dihydrochalcones and of epicatechin/catechin within soluble flavan 3-ols were observed. Decreased activity of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and chalcone synthase/chalcone isomerase could partially explain the lower polyphenol concentrations. In comparison to the parent line, the transgenic CH3H-lines showed a lower disease susceptibility to fire blight and apple scab that correlated with the increased 3-hydroxyphlorizin contents.

  3. Combined analysis of 19 common validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene variants shows moderate discriminative value and no evidence of gene-gene interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, T; Grarup, N; Andreasen, C

    2009-01-01

    the area under a ROC curve to estimate the discrimination rate between glucose-tolerant individuals and type 2 diabetes patients based on the 19 variants. We found an area under the ROC curve of 0.60. Two-way gene-gene interaction showed few nominal interaction effects. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Combined...... analysis of the 19 validated variants enables detection of subgroups at substantially increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however, the discrimination between glucose-tolerant and type 2 diabetes individuals is still too inaccurate to achieve clinical value.......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The list of validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants has recently been expanded from three to 19. The variants identified are common and have low penetrance in the general population. The aim of the study is to investigate the combined effect of the 19 variants by applying...

  4. Association of breast cancer risk with genetic variants showing differential allelic expression: Identification of a novel breast cancer susceptibility locus at 4q21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoue, Véronique; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Canisius, Sander; Lemaçon, Audrey; Droit, Arnaud; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Baynes, Caroline; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith S.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Broeks, Annegien; Burwinkel, Barbara; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Couch, Fergus J.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Eriksson, Mikael; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flyger, Henrik; García-Closas, Montserrat; Giles, Graham G.; Goldberg, Mark S.; González-Neira, Anna; Grenaker-Alnæs, Grethe; Guénel, Pascal; Haeberle, Lothar; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamann, Ute; Hallberg, Emily; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hopper, John L.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jones, Michael; Kabisch, Maria; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Marchand, Loic Le; Lindblom, Annika; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Maranian, Mel; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Milne, Roger L.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olswold, Curtis; Peto, Julian; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Rudolph, Anja; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Southey, Melissa C.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Vachon, Celine; Van Den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Wang, Qin; Winqvist, Robert; Investigators, kConFab/AOCS; Zheng, Wei; Benitez, Javier; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Kristensen, Vessela; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Pastinen, Tomi; Nord, Silje; Simard, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    There are significant inter-individual differences in the levels of gene expression. Through modulation of gene expression, cis-acting variants represent an important source of phenotypic variation. Consequently, cis-regulatory SNPs associated with differential allelic expression are functional candidates for further investigation as disease-causing variants. To investigate whether common variants associated with differential allelic expression were involved in breast cancer susceptibility, a list of genes was established on the basis of their involvement in cancer related pathways and/or mechanisms. Thereafter, using data from a genome-wide map of allelic expression associated SNPs, 313 genetic variants were selected and their association with breast cancer risk was then evaluated in 46,451 breast cancer cases and 42,599 controls of European ancestry ascertained from 41 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. The associations were evaluated with overall breast cancer risk and with estrogen receptor negative and positive disease. One novel breast cancer susceptibility locus on 4q21 (rs11099601) was identified (OR = 1.05, P = 5.6x10-6). rs11099601 lies in a 135 kb linkage disequilibrium block containing several genes, including, HELQ, encoding the protein HEL308 a DNA dependant ATPase and DNA Helicase involved in DNA repair, MRPS18C encoding the Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S18C and FAM175A (ABRAXAS), encoding a BRCA1 BRCT domain-interacting protein involved in DNA damage response and double-strand break (DSB) repair. Expression QTL analysis in breast cancer tissue showed rs11099601 to be associated with HELQ (P = 8.28x10-14), MRPS18C (P = 1.94x10-27) and FAM175A (P = 3.83x10-3), explaining about 20%, 14% and 1%, respectively of the variance inexpression of these genes in breast carcinomas. PMID:27792995

  5. Association of breast cancer risk with genetic variants showing differential allelic expression: Identification of a novel breast cancer susceptibility locus at 4q21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Adoue, Véronique; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Canisius, Sander; Lemaçon, Audrey; Droit, Arnaud; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Baynes, Caroline; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith S; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Broeks, Annegien; Burwinkel, Barbara; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Couch, Fergus J; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Eriksson, Mikael; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Flyger, Henrik; García-Closas, Montserrat; Giles, Graham G; Goldberg, Mark S; González-Neira, Anna; Grenaker-Alnæs, Grethe; Guénel, Pascal; Haeberle, Lothar; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamann, Ute; Hallberg, Emily; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Jakubowska, Anna; Jones, Michael; Kabisch, Maria; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindblom, Annika; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Maranian, Mel; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Milne, Roger L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olswold, Curtis; Peto, Julian; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Rudolph, Anja; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Southey, Melissa C; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Vachon, Celine; Van Den Ouweland, Ans M W; Wang, Qin; Winqvist, Robert; Zheng, Wei; Benitez, Javier; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M; Pharoah, Paul D P; Kristensen, Vessela; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F; Pastinen, Tomi; Nord, Silje; Simard, Jacques

    2016-12-06

    There are significant inter-individual differences in the levels of gene expression. Through modulation of gene expression, cis-acting variants represent an important source of phenotypic variation. Consequently, cis-regulatory SNPs associated with differential allelic expression are functional candidates for further investigation as disease-causing variants. To investigate whether common variants associated with differential allelic expression were involved in breast cancer susceptibility, a list of genes was established on the basis of their involvement in cancer related pathways and/or mechanisms. Thereafter, using data from a genome-wide map of allelic expression associated SNPs, 313 genetic variants were selected and their association with breast cancer risk was then evaluated in 46,451 breast cancer cases and 42,599 controls of European ancestry ascertained from 41 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. The associations were evaluated with overall breast cancer risk and with estrogen receptor negative and positive disease. One novel breast cancer susceptibility locus on 4q21 (rs11099601) was identified (OR = 1.05, P = 5.6x10-6). rs11099601 lies in a 135 kb linkage disequilibrium block containing several genes, including, HELQ, encoding the protein HEL308 a DNA dependant ATPase and DNA Helicase involved in DNA repair, MRPS18C encoding the Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S18C and FAM175A (ABRAXAS), encoding a BRCA1 BRCT domain-interacting protein involved in DNA damage response and double-strand break (DSB) repair. Expression QTL analysis in breast cancer tissue showed rs11099601 to be associated with HELQ (P = 8.28x10-14), MRPS18C (P = 1.94x10-27) and FAM175A (P = 3.83x10-3), explaining about 20%, 14% and 1%, respectively of the variance inexpression of these genes in breast carcinomas.

  6. MyD88-, but not Nod1- and/or Nod2-deficient mice, show increased susceptibility to polymicrobial sepsis due to impaired local inflammatory response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Sônego

    Full Text Available Pathogen recognition and triggering of the inflammatory response following infection in mammals depend mainly on Toll-like and Nod-like receptors. Here, we evaluated the role of Nod1, Nod2 and MyD88-dependent signaling in the chemokine production and neutrophil recruitment to the infectious site during sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP in C57Bl/6 mice. We demonstrate that Nod1 and Nod2 are not involved in the release of chemokines and recruitment of neutrophils to the infectious site during CLP-induced septic peritonitis because these events were similar in wild-type, Nod1-, Nod2-, Nod1/Nod2- and Rip2-deficient mice. Consequently, the local and systemic bacterial loads were not altered. Accordingly, neither Nod1 nor Nod2 was involved in the production of the circulating cytokines and in the accumulation of leukocytes in the lungs. By contrast, we showed that MyD88-dependent signaling is crucial for the establishment of the local inflammatory response during CLP-induced sepsis. MyD88-deficient mice were susceptible to sepsis because of an impaired local production of chemokines and defective neutrophil recruitment to the infection site. Altogether, these data show that Nod1, Nod2 and Rip2 are not required for local chemokine production and neutrophil recruitment during CLP-induced sepsis, and they reinforce the importance of MyD88-dependent signaling for initiation of a protective host response.

  7. Produção de prolina e suscetibilidade ao glufosinato de amônio em plantas transgênicas de citrumelo Swingle Proline production by transgenic plants of Swingle citrumelo and susceptibility to glufosinate ammonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Elizabeth Alvarenga Carneiro

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade de plantas transgênicas de citrumelo Swingle com elevada produção de prolina, ao herbicida glufosinato de amônio. As plantas utilizadas apresentavam a inserção do gene mutante da enzima delta1-pirrolina-5-carboxilato sintetase (P5CS, responsável pela biossíntese de prolina. A expressão do gene p5cs em plantas transgênicas causou aumento nas quantidades de prolina em tecidos foliares, em até cinco vezes, quando comparadas às plantas-controle tratadas com 200 µM de glufosinato de amônio. As plantas transgênicas acumularam maior quantidade de NH4+ nas folhas, em relação às plantas não-transgênicas. Os danos causados pelo herbicida foram avaliados in vitro, utilizando-se discos foliares cultivados em meio MS com diferentes concentrações de glufosinato de amônio. Observou-se maior clorose em discos foliares das plantas transgênicas, o que comprova a maior suscetibilidade de plantas de citrumelo Swingle com alta produção de prolina ao herbicida.The objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility to glufosinate ammonium of transgenic plants of Swingle citrumelo with high proline production. The mutant gene of the enzyme delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS, the rate-limiting enzyme in proline biosynthesis, was inserted into Swingle citrumelo plants. The expression of the gene p5cs caused up to 5-fold increase on the proline content in leaf tissues of transgenic plants treated with 200 µM glufosinate ammonium, when compared with control plants. Leaves of transgenic plants accumulated higher amounts of NH4+ than the nontransgenic control. The herbicide toxicity was evaluated using leaf disks cultivated in MS medium, containing different concentrations of glufosinate ammonium. The severity of the chlorosis, observed in leaf disks of transgenic plants, confirmed the higher susceptibility of Swingle citrumelo plants, with high proline production, to this

  8. Biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes produced at 12 °C either in pure culture or in co-culture with Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed reduced susceptibility to sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, António; Machado, Henrique; Brito, Luisa

    2011-03-01

    The biofilm-forming ability of 21 Listeria monocytogenes isolates, previously pulsotyped and corresponding to 16 strains, from different origins was evaluated using the Calgary Biofilm Device, at 37 °C. Biofilms of 4 selected strains were also produced either on pure cultures or on co-cultures with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1), at 12 °C and at 37 °C. For these biofilms, the minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBECs) of 4 commercial dairy sanitizers (1 alkyl amine acetate based--T99, 2 chlorine based--T66 and DD, and 1 phosphoric acid based--BP) were determined. Listeria monocytogenes biofilms grown, either at 37 °C or 12 °C, were able to achieve similar cell densities by using different incubation periods (24 h and 7 d, respectively). In co-culture biofilms, P. aeruginosa was the dominant species, either at 37 °C or at 12 °C, representing 99% of a total biofilm population of 6 to 7 log CFU/peg. Co-culture biofilms were generally less susceptible than L. monocytogenes pure cultures. More interestingly, the biofilms produced at 12 °C were usually less susceptible to the sanitizers than when produced at 37 °C. Single or co-culture biofilms of L. monocytogenes and PAO1, particularly produced at 12 °C, retrieved MBEC values for agents T99 and BP that were, at times, above the maximum in-use recommended concentrations for these agents. The results presented here reinforce the importance of the temperature used for biofilm formation, when susceptibility to sanitizers is being assessed. Since most food plants have cold wet growth niches in production and storage areas, susceptibility testing should be performed on biofilms produced at refrigeration temperatures. Moreover, the efficiency of the sanitizers used in food industries should be performed on mixed culture biofilms, since in field conditions these will predominate. The results presented here highlight the importance of the temperature used for biofilm formation, when susceptibility to

  9. A Pharmacogenetics Study in Mozambican Patients Treated with Nevirapine: Full Resequencing of TRAF3IP2 Gene Shows a Novel Association with SJS/TEN Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Ciccacci

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Steven–Johnson Syndrome (SJS and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN are severe adverse drug reactions, characterized by extensive epidermal detachment and erosions of mucous membrane. SJS/TEN is one of the most serious adverse reactions to Nevirapine (NVP treatment, commonly used in developing countries as first-line treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In the last years TRAF3IP2 gene variants had been described as associated with susceptibility to several diseases such as psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. We hypothesized that this gene, involved in immune response and in NF-κB activation, could also be implicated in the SJS/TEN susceptibility. We performed a full resequencing of TRAF3IP2 gene in a population of patients treated with NVP. Twenty-seven patients with NVP-induced SJS/TEN and 78 controls, all from Mozambique, were enrolled. We identified eight exonic and three intronic already described variants. The case/control association analysis highlighted an association between the rs76228616 SNP in exon 2 and the SJS/TEN susceptibility. In particular, the variant allele (C resulted significantly associated with a higher risk to develop SJS/TEN (p = 0.012 and OR = 3.65 (95% CI 1.33–10.01. A multivariate analysis by logistic regression confirmed its significant contribution (p = 0.027, OR = 4.39 (95% CI 1.19–16.23. In conclusion, our study suggests that a variant in TRAF3IP2 gene could be involved in susceptibility to SJS/TEN.

  10. A pharmacogenetics study in Mozambican patients treated with nevirapine: full resequencing of TRAF3IP2 gene shows a novel association with SJS/TEN susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccacci, Cinzia; Rufini, Sara; Mancinelli, Sandro; Buonomo, Ersilia; Giardina, Emiliano; Scarcella, Paola; Marazzi, Maria C; Novelli, Giuseppe; Palombi, Leonardo; Borgiani, Paola

    2015-03-12

    Steven-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) are severe adverse drug reactions, characterized by extensive epidermal detachment and erosions of mucous membrane. SJS/TEN is one of the most serious adverse reactions to Nevirapine (NVP) treatment, commonly used in developing countries as first-line treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In the last years TRAF3IP2 gene variants had been described as associated with susceptibility to several diseases such as psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. We hypothesized that this gene, involved in immune response and in NF-κB activation, could also be implicated in the SJS/TEN susceptibility. We performed a full resequencing of TRAF3IP2 gene in a population of patients treated with NVP. Twenty-seven patients with NVP-induced SJS/TEN and 78 controls, all from Mozambique, were enrolled. We identified eight exonic and three intronic already described variants. The case/control association analysis highlighted an association between the rs76228616 SNP in exon 2 and the SJS/TEN susceptibility. In particular, the variant allele (C) resulted significantly associated with a higher risk to develop SJS/TEN (p = 0.012 and OR = 3.65 (95% CI 1.33-10.01)). A multivariate analysis by logistic regression confirmed its significant contribution (p = 0.027, OR = 4.39 (95% CI 1.19-16.23)). In conclusion, our study suggests that a variant in TRAF3IP2 gene could be involved in susceptibility to SJS/TEN.

  11. The comparative analysis of anatomical traits of four largefruited hazelnut cultivars showing different susceptibility to filbert aphid (Myzocallis coryli Goetze feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations related to morphological and anatomical traits of leaves of four largefruited hazelnut (Corylus L. cultivars characterised by different susceptibility to filbert aphid (Myzocallis coryli Goetze feeding. The following parameters were measured: the thickness of leaf blade, the number of stomata, the length of secretory and mechanical hairs and their density on the leaf, the thickness of adaxial and abaxial epidermis and the thickness of their external cell walls. Observations of cross sections of the leaves were made in a light microscope and the surface of the adaxial epidermis was analysed in a scanning electron microscope. It was shown that leaves of the cultivars susceptible to M. coryli feeding had the thinnest leaf blade, especially in the main vein, and many more stomata. Besides, the cultivar most resistant to filbert aphid feeding, White Filbert, was marked by the largest height of the adaxial epidermis cells and the strongest striation of the cuticle in abaxial epidermis. On leaves of this cultivar, the number of mechanical hairs was the highest, while the lowest number of them was noted on Wonder from Bollwiller, the most susceptible cultivar.

  12. SOLiD SAGE sequencing shows differential gene expression in jejunal lymph node samples of resistant and susceptible red deer (Cervus elaphus) challenged with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, C G; Griffin, J F T; Scott, I C; O'Brien, R; Stanton, J L; MacLean, P; Brauning, R

    2016-01-01

    This study compared in vivo lymph node gene expression levels between six young red deer that were either relatively resistant (R) or susceptible (S) to paratuberculosis following experimental challenge with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Intestinal lymph nodes were biopsied at 4, 12 and 50 weeks post challenge (pc) and parallel changes in histopathology, immunology and bacterial load monitored. SOLiD SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) next generation sequencing of biopsied lymph node samples generated a total of 373 million transcript tags 26-28bp in length after filtering. A total of 36,632 unique transcripts were identified and 14,325 of these were able to be annotated. The copy number of each transcript was counted, averaged and compared for R and S animals (R-S). P values and False Discovery Rates (FDR) were calculated for each transcript. Genes differentially upregulated ≥2 fold (FDR<0.5) totalled 9, 40 and 32 in R animals (+ values) and 23, 164 and 47 in S animals (- values) at weeks 4, 12, and 50pc, respectively. Transcripts displaying greatest differential expression between R and S animals at each time point were IFIT2 (189 fold) and S100A8 (-32.7 fold) at week 4, LRR1 (52.7 fold), SERPINF2 (-214.6 fold) at week 12 and CEACAM8 (84.6 fold), and STK31 (-129.5 fold) at week 50, respectively. All 9 genes significantly upregulated at week 4 in R animals relate specifically to host defence and all involve Type I interferon stimulated genes. By contrast genes upregulated in S animals at week 4, relate predominantly to inflammation, but also involve adaptive immune responses, mitochondrial function and apoptosis regulation. At week 12, the genes differentially upregulated in R animals are linked predominantly to regulation of adaptive immunity and mucosal immunity, while many of the genes in S animals are associated with pro-inflammatory interleukins involved with innate and adaptive immunity. These correlated with greater lesion severity

  13. Liofilchem(®) Chromatic VRE and vancomycin MIC Test Strip detected glycopeptide resistance in a vanB neonatal Enterococcus faecium isolate showing alternate vancomycin susceptibility and resistance with bioMérieux Vitek2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Vincenzo; Marrollo, Roberta; Coclite, Eleonora; Fusilli, Paola; D'Incecco, Carmine; Fazii, Paolo; Gherardi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    A 1-month old neonate urine sample yielded vanB Enterococcus faecium; nevertheless, the isolate alternatively showed susceptibility and resistance to vancomycin with bioMérieux Vitek2 (cards AST592, AST632, AST586), while glycopeptide resistance was detected by Liofilchem(®) vancomycin MIC Test Strip and disc along with the Chromatic VRE chromogenic medium. This communication emphasizes that, as vanB gene may be heterogeneously expressed within a given Enterococcus population, glycopeptide resistance may be missed when using automated systems for antibiotic susceptibility testing. We suggest therefore that vancomycin in vitro activity be studied on all clinical isolates through agar methods, including use of chromogenic media.

  14. The LLNL AMS facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.L.; Bench, G.S.; Brown, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The AMS facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely measures the isotopes {sup 3}H, {sup 7}Be, {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, {sup 59,63}Ni, and {sup 129}I. During the past two years, over 30,000 research samples have been measured. Of these samples, approximately 30% were for {sup 14}C bioscience tracer studies, 45% were {sup 14}C samples for archaeology and the geosciences, and the other isotopes constitute the remaining 25%. During the past two years at LLNL, a significant amount of work has gone into the development of the Projectile X-ray AMS (PXAMS) technique. PXAMS uses induced characteristic x-rays to discriminate against competing atomic isobars. PXAMS has been most fully developed for {sup 63}Ni but shows promise for the measurement of several other long lived isotopes. During the past year LLNL has also conducted an {sup 129}I interlaboratory comparison exercise. Recent hardware changes at the LLNL AMS facility include the installation and testing of a new thermal emission ion source, a new multianode gas ionization detector for general AMS use, re-alignment of the vacuum tank of the first of the two magnets that make up the high energy spectrometer, and a new cryo-vacuum system for the AMS ion source. In addition, they have begun design studies and carried out tests for a new high-resolution injector and a new beamline for heavy element AMS.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from children with impetigo in China from 2003 to 2007 shows community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to be uncommon and heterogeneous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Kong, F; Zhang, X; Brown, M; Ma, L; Yang, Y

    2009-12-01

    The number of patients with impetigo caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has been increasing. To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. aureus causing impetigo in children in China from 2003 to 2007 and further characterize isolates of CA-MRSA. We examined 984 S. aureus isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials using the agar dilution method. CA-MRSA isolates were analysed for Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) genes, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing was performed. The largest proportion (94.5%) of strains were resistant to penicillin, followed by erythromycin (86.2%) and clindamycin (69.6%). In total 772 of 984 (78.5%) S. aureus strains were multiresistant. The incidence of CA-MRSA was 1.1%, with a high rate of resistance to clindamycin (90.9%) and tetracycline (72.7%), but all were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The susceptibility profiles of MRSA to other antimicrobial agents were similar to those of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). None of the S. aureus strains were resistant to vancomycin and fusidic acid; moreover, only one strain was resistant to mupirocin. Typing of the SCCmec showed that 54.5% were type IV, 18.2% were type V and 9.1% were type VI. All the PVL-positive CA-MRSA carried SCCmec type IV. CA-MRSA is still relatively uncommon and heterogeneous in children in China. Penicillin and erythromycin are no longer appropriate agents. Effective antibiotic agents for patients with impetigo are mupirocin and fusidic acid.

  16. Murine Alveolar Macrophages Are Highly Susceptible to Replication of Coxiella burnetii Phase II In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Talita D.; Cunha, Larissa D.; Ribeiro, Juliana M.; Massis, Liliana M.; Lima-Junior, Djalma S.

    2016-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes Q fever in humans. Q fever is an atypical pneumonia transmitted through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In mammalian lungs, C. burnetii infects and replicates in several cell types, including alveolar macrophages (AMs). The innate immunity and signaling pathways operating during infection are still poorly understood, in part because of the lack of relevant host cell models for infection in vitro. In the study described here, we investigated and characterized the infection of primary murine AMs by C. burnetii phase II in vitro. Our data reveal that AMs show a pronounced M2 polarization and are highly permissive to C. burnetii multiplication in vitro. Murine AMs present an increased susceptibility to infection in comparison to primary bone marrow-derived macrophages. AMs support more than 2 logs of bacterial replication during 12 days of infection in culture, similar to highly susceptible host cells, such as Vero and THP-1 cells. As a proof of principle that AMs are useful for investigation of C. burnetii replication, we performed experiments with AMs from Nos2−/− or Ifng−/− mice. In the absence of gamma interferon and nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2), AMs were significantly more permissive than wild-type cells. In contrast, AMs from Il4−/− mice were more restrictive to C. burnetii replication, supporting the importance of M2 polarization for the permissiveness of AMs to C. burnetii replication. Collectively, our data account for understanding the high susceptibility of alveolar macrophages to bacterial replication and support the use of AMs as a relevant model of C. burnetii growth in primary macrophages. PMID:27297388

  17. The AMS experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) detector will be installed as a particle physics experiment on the International Space Station. It will look for antimatter pockets in space. AMS is a CERN recognised experiment.

  18. “I Am the Wolf: Queering ‘Little Red Riding Hood’ and ‘Snow White and Rose Red’ in the Television Show Once Upon a Time”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Warman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In season one, episode 15 of the television show Once Upon a Time, viewers are given a glimpse into the history of Ruby/Red, the series’ version of Red Riding Hood. The episode reveals that, contrary to most oral and written versions of the ATU 333 tale, Red herself is the wolf: a werewolf who must wear an enchanted red cloak in order to keep from turning into a monster. The episode also features the beginnings of the close friendship between Red and Snow White. The sisterly bond that quickly forms between the two women, combined with the striking images of their respective red and white cloaks, easily calls to mind a less familiar fairy tale not explicitly referenced in the series: “Snow White and Rose Red” (ATU 426. Taking queer readings of this text as starting points, I argue that this allusion complicates the bond between the two women, opening up space for a compelling reading of Red’s werewolf nature as a coded depiction of her then latent but later confirmed bisexuality.

  19. FoAM Kernow Activity Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Amber; Griffiths, David

    2016-01-01

    This review shows selected projects from the FoAM Kernow studio in 2016. FoAM is a network of transdisciplinary labs at the intersection of art, science, nature and everyday life. FoAM’s members are generalists - people who work across disparate fields in an entangled, speculative culture. Research and creative projects at FoAM combine elements of futurecrafting, citizen science, prototyping, experience design and process facilitation to re-imagine possible futures, and artistic experime...

  20. FoAM Kernow Activity Report 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Amber; Weatherill, Aidan; Griffiths, David

    2017-01-01

    This review shows selected projects from the FoAM Kernow studio in 2017. FoAM is a network of transdisciplinary labs at the intersection of art, science, nature and everyday life. FoAM’s members are generalists - people who work across disparate fields in an entangled, speculative culture. Research and creative projects at FoAM combine elements of futurecrafting, citizen science, prototyping, experience design and process facilitation to re-imagine possible futures.

  1. Low energy AMS of americium and curium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christl, Marcus, E-mail: mchristl@ethz.ch [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Dai, Xiongxin [AECL Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario K0J 1J0 (Canada); Lachner, Johannes [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila [AECL Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario K0J 1J0 (Canada); Synal, Hans-Arno [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-07-15

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has evolved over the past years as one of the most sensitive, selective, and robust techniques for actinide analyses. While analyses of U and Pu isotopes have already become routine at the ETH Zurich 0.5 MV AMS system “Tandy”, there is an increasing demand for highly sensitive analyses of the higher actinides such as Am and Cm for bioassay applications and beyond. In order to extend the actinide capabilities of the compact ETH Zurich AMS system and to develop new, more sensitive bioassay routines, a pilot study was carried out. The aim was to investigate and document the performance and the potential background of Am and Cm analyses with low energy AMS. Our results show that {sup 241}Am and Cm isotopes can be determined relative to a {sup 243}Am tracer if samples and AMS standards are prepared identically with regard to the matrix elements, in which the sample is dispersed. In this first test, detection limits for Cm and Am isotopes are all in the sub-femtogram range and even below 100 ag for Cm isotopes. In a systematic background study in the mass range of the Cm isotopes, two formerly unknown metastable triply charged Th molecules were found on amu(244) and amu(248). The presence of such a background is not a principal problem for AMS if the stripper pressure is increased accordingly. Based on our first results, we conclude that ultra-trace analyses of Am and Cm isotopes for bioassay are very well possible with low energy AMS.

  2. Low energy AMS of americium and curium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christl, Marcus; Dai, Xiongxin; Lachner, Johannes; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2014-07-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has evolved over the past years as one of the most sensitive, selective, and robust techniques for actinide analyses. While analyses of U and Pu isotopes have already become routine at the ETH Zurich 0.5 MV AMS system "Tandy", there is an increasing demand for highly sensitive analyses of the higher actinides such as Am and Cm for bioassay applications and beyond. In order to extend the actinide capabilities of the compact ETH Zurich AMS system and to develop new, more sensitive bioassay routines, a pilot study was carried out. The aim was to investigate and document the performance and the potential background of Am and Cm analyses with low energy AMS. Our results show that 241Am and Cm isotopes can be determined relative to a 243Am tracer if samples and AMS standards are prepared identically with regard to the matrix elements, in which the sample is dispersed. In this first test, detection limits for Cm and Am isotopes are all in the sub-femtogram range and even below 100 ag for Cm isotopes. In a systematic background study in the mass range of the Cm isotopes, two formerly unknown metastable triply charged Th molecules were found on amu(244) and amu(248). The presence of such a background is not a principal problem for AMS if the stripper pressure is increased accordingly. Based on our first results, we conclude that ultra-trace analyses of Am and Cm isotopes for bioassay are very well possible with low energy AMS.

  3. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  4. AMS Data Analysis Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchow, Russell L. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-04-20

    This presentation discusses standard techniques and processes used for radiation mapping (RM) via an AMS, Aerial Measurement System. The advantages and shortcomings of standard AMS-based RM are presented, along with some suggested areas for improvement. Issues touched on include what gets counted, data quality, background correction, data processing, altitude correction, isotope extraction, contouring, and time shift.

  5. AMS ready for launch

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    On 29 April, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) will complete its long expedition to the International Space Station on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The Endeavour is set to lift off from NASA’s Kennedy Space Station at 15:47 EST (21:47 CET).   Samuel Ting, principal investigator for the AMS project, and Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, visit the Kennedy Space Centre before the AMS launch.  Courtesy of NASA and Kennedy Space Center. AMS is a CERN recognised experiment, created by an internal collaboration of 56 institutes. It will be the first large magnetic spectrometer to be used in space, and has been designed to function as an external module on the ISS. AMS will measure cosmic rays without atmospheric interference, allowing researchers on the ground to continue their search for dark matter and antimatter in the Universe. Data collected by AMS will be analysed in CERN’s new AMS Control Centre in Building 946 (due for completion in June 2011). The End...

  6. AMS Prototyping Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the activity around the Asynchronous Message Service (AMS) prototype. An AMS reference implementation has been available since late 2005. It is aimed at supporting message exchange both in on-board environments and over space links. The implementation incoroporates all mandatory elements of the draft recommendation from July 2007: (1) MAMS, AMS, and RAMS protocols. (2) Failover, heartbeats, resync. (3) "Hooks" for security, but no cipher suites included in the distribution. The performance is reviewed, and a Benchmark latency test over VxWorks Message Queues is shown as histograms of a count vs microseconds per 1000-byte message

  7. In vitro resistance of clinical Fusarium species to amphotericin B and voriconazole using the EUCAST antifungal susceptibility method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Salah, Husam; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Hamed, Manal; Theelen, Bart; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Boekhout, Teun; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2016-08-01

    Susceptibility testing using the EUCAST-AFST method against 39 clinical Fusarium strains consecutively collected from local and invasive infections during the last 10years assessed the in vitro activities of amphotericin B (AmB) and triazole antifungal agents. In addition, the susceptibility pattern of 12 reference strains from the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre (CBS) was evaluated. In particular Fusarium petroliphilum and F. solani sensu lato were involved in disseminated infections and known for treatment failure. AmB displayed the lowest MICs followed by voriconazole VRC, posaconazole (POC). Itraconazole (ITC) showed high MIC values, displaying in vitro resistance. Clinical isolates were significantly (P antifungal therapy. Resistant profiles to AmB and VRC, which are the currently recommended agents in the guidelines for treatments, and a late diagnosis may be associated with high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. The present antifungal susceptibility profiles showed that species- and strain-specific differences in antifungal susceptibility exist within Fusarium and that susceptibility testing is important and may improve the prognosis of these infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    2011-01-01

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  9. AMS in Phytonutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueker, S R; Buchholz, B A

    2003-08-26

    As public interest in phytonutrition continues to increase, the result will be an augmented demand for extensive phytochemical research. The fact that foods are inherently phytochemically complex dictates a need to apply scientific techniques, which can detect synergistic interaction among the many active principles and adjuvant substances in the plant, and furthermore, modify the activities of these components. As illustrated by the experiments discussed in this presentation, the advantages of AMS are unique and extensive. These advantages are best summarized by Dr. John Vogel, an originator of biological AMS experimentation: ''AMS brings (at least) three advantages to biochemical tracing: high sensitivity for finding low probability events or for use of physiologic-sized doses; small sample sizes for painless biopsies or highly specific biochemical separations; and reduction of overall radioisotope exposures, inventories, and waste streams.'' AMS opens the door to increased phytochemical tracing in humans to obtain biochemical data concerning human health at dietary relevant levels of exposure. AMS, thus, obviates the need for uncertain extrapolations from animal models, which express marginal relevance to human metabolism. The unparalleled capabilities and benefits of AMS will undoubtedly establish this particular MS technique as an important analytical tool in phytochemical research.

  10. Elements in biological AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. {sup 14}C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth`s biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed.

  11. Multi-nuclide AMS performances at MALT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Chuichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoko (Sunohara); Kato, Kazuhiro; Maejima, Yuji; Miyairi, Yosuke; Wakasa, Sachi; Aze, Takahiro

    2007-06-01

    MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator, The University of Tokyo) is a service and research facility for elemental and isotopic micro-analysis using a tandem accelerator, which was constructed in 1991-1993 and has been in operation since 1994. Since then, AMS, NRA and PIXE systems have been developed and highly refined. The accelerator of MALT is a 5UD Pelletron™ tandem van de Graaf (produced by National Electrostatics Corporation, USA) and maximum 5 MV voltage is available. MALT is equipped with two MC-SNICS ion sources (one of them dedicated for 14C-AMS), a sequential injection system and multi-Faraday cup systems. These equipment are all indispensable for a high precision and high efficiency AMS system. At MALT, high quality AMS of 7Be, 10Be, 14C, 26Al has been available. Recently, a 36Cl-AMS system using a gas-filled magnet was also greatly refined, and a new 129I-AMS system was developed and shows good performance. Now MALT is the only facility with multi-nuclide AMS in the Asian area. Over 40 projects are running at MALT every year. The total accelerator operation time in the 2004 season was 6363 h. In November 2004, the total operation time of the pelletron chain system since the construction of MALT went over 40,000 h without replacement.

  12. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies of Campanian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tions in Dikes of the Koolau Complex, Oahu, determined from magnetic fabric studies; J. Geophys. Res. 93 (B5). 4301–4319. Liu B, Saito Y, Yamazaki T, Abdeldayem A, Oda H,. Hori K and Zhao Q 2001 Paleocurrent analysis for late. Pleistocene–Holocene incised-valley fill of the Yangtze delta, China by using anisotropy of ...

  13. Droit administratif international - amélioration des rapports ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Droit administratif international - amélioration des rapports interinstitutionnels au chapitre de la gouvernance de la réglementation. La recherche portant sur la façon dont les rapports avec les institutions et entre celles-ci sont susceptibles de compromettre la capacité des pays en développement de concrétiser leurs ...

  14. Towards the definition of AMS facies in the deposits of pyroclastic density currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, M.H.; Newkirk, T.T.; Vilas, J.F.; Vazquez, J.A.; Ort, M.H.; Porreca, Massimiliano; Geissman, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) provides a statistically robust technique to characterize the fabrics of deposits of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). AMS fabrics in two types of pyroclastic deposits (small-volume phreatomagmatic currents in the Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Arizona, USA, and large-volume caldera-forming currents, Caviahue Caldera, Neuquén, Argentina) show similar patterns. Near the vent and in areas of high topographical roughness, AMS depositional fabrics are poorly grouped, with weak lineations and foliations. In a densely welded proximal ignimbrite, this fabric is overprinted by a foliation formed as the rock compacted and deformed. Medial deposits have moderate–strong AMS lineations and foliations. The most distal deposits have strong foliations but weak lineations. Based on these facies and existing models for pyroclastic density currents, deposition in the medial areas occurs from the strongly sheared, high-particle-concentration base of a density-stratified current. In proximal areas and where topography mixes this denser base upwards into the current, deposition occurs rapidly from a current with little uniformity to the shear, in which particles fall and collide in a chaotic fashion. Distal deposits are emplaced by a slowing or stalled current so that the dominant particle motion is vertical, leading to weak lineation and strong foliation.

  15. A new salicylate synthase AmS is identified for siderophores biosynthesis in Amycolatopsis methanolica 239(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng; Dai, Shengwang; Shen, Jinzhao; Ren, Biao; Huang, Pei; Wang, Qiushui; Liu, Xueting; Zhang, Buchang; Dai, Huanqin; Zhang, Lixin

    2015-07-01

    Siderophores are important for the growth of bacteria or the applications in treatment of iron overload-associated diseases due to the iron-chelating property. Salicylate synthase played a key role in the biosynthesis of some NRPS-derived siderophores by the providing of an iron coordination moiety as the initial building block. A new salicylate synthase, namely AmS, was identified in the biosynthesis pathway of siderophore amychelin in Amycolatopsis methanolica 239(T), since it shunt chorismate, an integrant precursor, from primary to secondary metabolite flow. The amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that AmS grouped into a new cluster. In vitro assays of AmS revealed its wide temperature tolerance ranged from 0 to 40 °C and narrow pH tolerant ranged from 7.0 to 9.0. AmS was resistant to organic solvents and non-ionic detergents. Moreover, AmS converted chorismate to salicylate with K m of 129.05 μM, k cat of 2.20 min(-1) at optimal conditions, indicating its low substrate specificity and comparable velocity to reported counterparts (Irp9 and MbtI). These properties of AmS may improve the iron-seizing ability of A. methanolica to compete with its neighbors growing in natural environments. Most importantly, serine and cysteine residues were found to be important for the catalytic activity of AmS. This study presented AmS as a new cluster of salicylate synthase and the reaction mechanism and potential applications of salicylate synthase were highlighted as well.

  16. Unraveling the deformational history of faults from AMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvín, Pablo; Casas-Sainz, Antonio; Román-Berdiel, Teresa; Oliva-Urcía, Belén; García-Lasanta, Cristina; Pocoví, Andrés; Gil-Imaz, Andrés; Pueyo-Anchuela, Oscar; Izquierdo-Llavall, Esther; Osácar, Cinta; José Villalaín, Juan; Corrado, Sveva; Invernizzi, Chiara; Aldega, Luca; Caricchi, Chiara; Antolín-Tomás, Borja

    2014-05-01

    The faults chosen for this study belong to the Iberian Chain (Northeastern Iberian Plate) and include two kinematically different kinds of structures (thrusts and strike-slip), with well-developed fault gouges several tens or hundreds of meters thick (Datos Fault System and Daroca Fault) and thinner clayey layers linked to thrust surfaces (Cameros-Demanda Thrust). The Cameros-Demanda Thrust has a relatively simple history of Mesozoic extension and Tertiary inversion. Along the thrust several areas with fault rocks include weakly oriented breccias, deformed conglomerates and clayey fault gouge with S/C structures. The Datos and Daroca faults show a more complex history of movement and are of key importance in the Variscan and Alpine evolution of the Iberian microplate. They show fault rocks with thickness of up to hundreds of meters, consisting of fault gouges, microbreccias and fault breccias with large blocks of stratified Paleozoic and Mesozoic blocks. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) can be an useful tool in order to discriminate the tectonic evolution of such faults, remembering the different behaviors as part of different stages in northern Gondwana (Variscan cycle) and the Iberian microplate (Alpine cycle). Samples for the AMS study were collected from 56 sites, 29 (434 specimens) belonging to three areas of the Cameros-Demanda Thrust, 17 (196 specimens) in the Datos Fault System, and 10 (114 specimens) at the Daroca Fault. AMS results at the Cameros-Demanda Thrust show a main NW-SE magnetic lineation (Matute and Prejano areas), a secondary NE-SW magnetic lineation (Matute area) and a girdle distribution from NE to SW in the Panzares area. These results suggest a main NW movement for the Cameros-Demanda Thrust, consistent with kinematic indicators, but also evidence a NE-directed minor contribution, especially in the easternmost outcrops. Daroca and Datos Faults show a grater variability, both in plunge and azimuth, and magnetic lineation can be

  17. Actinide AMS at DREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khojasteh, Nasrin B.; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Scharf, Andreas; Ziegenruecker, Rene [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); Pavetich, Stefan [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); ANU, Canberra (Australia)

    2016-07-01

    Radionuclides such as {sup 236}U and {sup 239}Pu were introduced into the environment by atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, reactor accidents (Chernobyl, Fukushima), releases from nuclear reprocessing facilities (Sellafield, La Hague), radioactive waste disposal, and accidents with nuclear devices (Palomares, Thule) [1]. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is the most sensitive method to measure these actinides. The DREsden AMS (DREAMS) facility is located at a 6 MV accelerator, which is shared with ion beam analytics and implantation users, preventing major modifications of the accelerator and magnetic analyzers. DREAMS was originally designed for {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 129}I. To modify the system for actinide AMS, a Time-of-Flight (TOF) beamline at the high-energy side has been installed and performance tests are on-going. Ion beam and detector simulations are carried out to design a moveable ionization chamber. Especially, the detector window and anode dimensions have to be optimized. This ionization chamber will act as an energy detector of the system and its installation is planned as closely as possible to the stop detector of the TOF beamline for highest detection efficiency.

  18. Graphene susceptibility in Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Hamze, E-mail: hamze.mousavi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Nano Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We study the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the temperature dependence of the orbital magnetic susceptibility of monolayer graphene. We use the linear response theory and Green's function formalism within the Holstein Hamiltonian model. The results show that the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene sheet have different behaviors in two temperature regions. In the low temperature region, susceptibility increases when the electron-phonon coupling strength increases. On the other hand, the susceptibility reduces with increasing the electron-phonon coupling strength in the high temperature region. - Highlights: Effect of electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene is studied. Linear response theory and Green's function technique in Holstein model are used. Effect of electron-phonon on susceptibility has different behaviors in two temperature regions.

  19. Alzheimer skin fibroblasts show increased susceptibility to free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesco, G; Latorraca, S; Piersanti, P; Piacentini, S; Amaducci, L; Sorbi, S

    1992-11-01

    We have studied the response to toxic oxygen metabolites of fibroblasts derived from skin biopsies of 5 patients with familial (FAD) and 4 with sporadic (AD) Alzheimer's disease compared with those derived from 4 normal controls. Fibroblasts were damaged by the generation of oxygen metabolites during the enzymatic oxidation of acetaldehyde by 50 munits of xanthine-oxidase (Xo). To quantify cell damage we measured lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the culture medium and cell viability in fibroblast cultures. We found a significant increase in LDH activity in the FAD vs. controls and also in the AD vs. controls.

  20. Introduction to the AMS Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Following the pioneering experiments (ATIC, BESS, CREAM, HEAT, PAMELA, …), using a magnetic spectrometer (AMS) on ISS is a unique way to provide precision long term measurements of primordial high energy charged cosmic rays. AMS was installed on the Station in May 2011. Up to now, 60 billion events have been collected. 40 billion events have been partially analysed. AMS is scheduled to be on the Station until at least 2024. By then AMS will have collected close to 200 billion events. The detector properties and the analysis methods will be introduced.

  1. Welding of AM350 and AM355 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. J.; Wroth, R. S.

    1967-01-01

    A series of tests was conducted to establish optimum procedures for TIG welding and heat treating of AM350 and AM355 steel sheet in thicknesses ranging from 0.010 inch to 0.125 inch. Statistical analysis of the test data was performed to determine the anticipated minimum strength of the welded joints.

  2. Plan integral para la internacionalización de talento nacional para la fusión de las Empresas Sponsor Group y Music Show en la nueva Empresa AM&P (Artist Management and Promotion) para la internacionalización del talento nacional.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruales Saltos, Daniel Santiago

    2006-01-01

    El presente trabajo versará sobre la creación de un plan integral para la internacionalización de talento nacional bajo la representación de la compañía AM&P (Artist Managemente & Promotion), el mismo que en su esencia tiene por objetivo guiar a la compañía en dicho proceso de internacionalización y a demás brindar un apoyo incondicional al talento nacional para que este pueda expandir sus fronteras y desarrollarse fuera del territorio nacional. Durante los últimos años, la representación...

  3. SUERC AMS ion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden, C.; Anastasi, P. A. F.; Dougans, A.; Freeman, S. P. H. T.; Kitchen, R.; Klody, G.; Schnabel, C.; Sundquist, M.; Vanner, K.; Xu, S.

    2007-06-01

    In a short time Be, C, Al, Cl, Ca and I accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) have been established on the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC) 5 MV pelletron system at the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC). While summarising the present performance of the system, this report will focus on the details of ion detection, which sample materials are used and the analytical procedures employed for each individual species during routine analysis. All rare isotope detection is with a single flexible detector and ion event analysis system, but switching of analysed species typically requires a detector reconfiguration. Configurations for routine 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca and 129I detection have been established and will be presented here. Notably, there has proven to be sufficient suppression of the isobaric interferences of 36Cl and 41Ca in the 5+ charge state using an argon gas stripper at a terminal voltage of 5.0 MV to allow for routine analysis of these isotopes.

  4. Frauen am Himmel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrud Pfister

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Evelyn Zegenhagen hat ohne Zweifel das am besten recherchierte Buch über die Geschichte des Frauenfliegens und über die Rolle der Pilotinnen in der Geschichte der Luftfahrt zwischen 1918 und 1945 vorgelegt. Mit einem unglaublichen Forschungsaufwand hat sie viele Lücken in der vorliegenden Forschung zu diesem Thema geschlossen und erstmalig Biographien von Segelfliegerinnen und deren Chancen und Probleme aufgearbeitet. Damit gewährt sie Einblicke in einen Bereich der Luftfahrtgeschichte, der neue Perspektiven, nicht nur im Hinblick auf die Beteiligung von Frauen, eröffnet. Umfangreiche Quellenstudien ermöglichten es zudem, die Lebensläufe bisher weitgehend unbekannter Fliegerinnen zu rekonstruieren und bereits bekannte und gut dokumentierte Biographien um neue Facetten zu ergänzen. Zegenhagen hat den Anspruch, die Fliegerei der Frauen im zeitgenössischen Kontext zu betrachten und neben den individuellen Chancen auch die strukturellen Bedingungen zu berücksichtigen, ohne Frage eingelöst.

  5. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in diamagnetic limestones reveals deflection of the strain field near the Dead Sea Fault, northern Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issachar, R.; Levi, T.; Marco, S.; Weinberger, R.

    2015-08-01

    To exploit the potential of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) as a tool to estimate the strain field around major faults, we measured the AMS of calcite-bearing diamagnetic rocks that crop out next to the Dead Sea Fault (DSF) in northern Israel. Through integrated magnetic and geochemical methods we found that the rocks are almost pure calcite rocks and therefore the magnetic fabric is primarily controlled by preferred crystallographic orientation (PCO) with the minimum principal AMS axes (k3) parallel to calcite c-axes. We applied a separation procedure in several samples with high Fe content in order to calculate the AMS anisotropy parameters and compare them to pure diamagnetic rocks. AARM, thermo-susceptibility curves and IRM were used to characterize the magnetic phases. We found that for Fe content below 500 ppm the AMS is mostly controlled by the diamagnetic phase and showed that differences in the degree of anisotropy P' up to 3% (P' = 1.005 to 1.023) and in anisotropy difference Δk (up to ~ 0.25 × 10- 6 SI) in diamagnetic rocks are related to differences of strain magnitudes. The spatial distribution of the magnetic fabrics indicates ~ N-S maximum shortening parallel to the strike of the Hula Western Border fault (HWBF), one of the main strands of the DSF in northern Israel. The anisotropy parameters suggest that the strain magnitudes increase eastward with the proximity to the HWBF. These results suggest that the strain field near the HWBF is locally deflected as a consequence of the DSF activity. In light of the "fault weakness" model and geological setting of the study area, we suggest that the area accommodates dominant transtension during the Pleistocene. The present study demonstrates the useful application of AMS measurements in "iron-free" limestones as recorders of the strain field near plate boundaries.

  6. Fully automated measurement of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility using 3D rotator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Studýnka, J.; Chadima, Martin; Suza, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 629, 26 August (2014), s. 6-13 ISSN 0040-1951 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : AMS * Kappabridge * susceptibility tensor Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.872, year: 2014

  7. Delirium Research: Where Am I?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Delirium Research Where Am I? Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of Contents The overlooked danger of delirium in hospitals In his mid-80s, Jerry (not ...

  8. The new AMS control centre

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    Construction work for the future AMS control room began in November 2010 and should be finished this June. The new building, which will have been completed in record time thanks to the professionalism of the project team, will soon be ready to receive the initial data from the AMS experiment.     Luigi Scibile and Michael Poehler, from the GS department, at the AMS control centre construction site.   The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is due to wing its way towards the International Space Station (ISS) on board the shuttle Discovery in April. Mainly intended for research on antimatter and dark matter, the data collected by AMS will be sent to Houston in the United States and then directly to CERN’s new Building 946. Construction work for the AMS control centre building on the Route Gentner at CERN’s Prévessin site started in November 2010 and must be completed in time to receive the first data from the spectrometer in June. “It normall...

  9. AMS/DOE Fellowship Recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Stephanie [American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-11-21

    The AMS/DOE graduate fellowships were awarded to three students entering their first year of graduate study. The funds allowed each student to take a full course load during their first of year of graduate study which helps each of them to enter the professional, scientific community at an earlier date. Each recipient is academically outstanding, received glowing references of support and demonstrated their strong desire to perform scientific research. As part of the fellowship, each of the students was invited to attend the AMS Annual Meeting where they got to participate in the AMS student conference, attend scientific sessions and visit the exhibition hall. In addition, a student awards luncheon was held where each of the recipients got to meet their sponsor and receive a certificate.

  10. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaraz, J; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Ao, L; Arefev, A; Azzarello, P; Babucci, E; Baldini, L; Basile, M; Barancourt, D; Barão, F; Barbier, G; Barreira, G; Battiston, R; Becker, R; Becker, U; Bellagamba, L; Bene, P; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Biland, A; Bizzaglia, S; Blasko, S; Bölla, G; Boschini, M; Bourquin, Maurice; Brocco, L; Bruni, G; Buénerd, M; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Camps, C; Cannarsa, P; Capell, M; Casadei, D; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cecchi, C; Chang, Y H; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, Z G; Chernoplekov, N A; Tzi Hong Chiueh; Chuang, Y L; Cindolo, F; Commichau, V; Contin, A; Crespo, P; Cristinziani, M; Cunha, J P D; Dai, T S; Deus, J D; Dinu, N; Djambazov, L; Dantone, I; Dong, Z R; Emonet, P; Engelberg, J; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Esposito, G; Extermann, P; Favier, Jean; Fiandrini, E; Fisher, P H; Flügge, G; Fouque, N; Galaktionov, Yu; Gervasi, M; Giusti, P; Grandi, D; Grimm, O; Gu, W Q; Hangarter, K; Hasan, A; Hermel, V; Hofer, H; Huang, M A; Hungerford, W; Ionica, M; Ionica, R; Jongmanns, M; Karlamaa, K; Karpinski, W; Kenney, G; Kenny, J; Kim, W; Klimentov, A; Kossakowski, R; Koutsenko, V F; Kraeber, M; Laborie, G; Laitinen, T; Lamanna, G; Laurenti, G; Lebedev, A; Lee, S C; Levi, G; Levchenko, P M; Liu, C L; Liu, H T; Lopes, I; Lu, G; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luckey, D; Lustermann, W; Maña, C; Margotti, A; Mayet, F; McNeil, R R; Meillon, B; Menichelli, M; Mihul, A; Mourao, A; Mujunen, A; Palmonari, F; Papi, A; Park, I H; Pauluzzi, M; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, E; Pesci, A; Pevsner, A; Pimenta, M; Plyaskin, V; Pozhidaev, V; Postolache, V; Produit, N; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Raupach, F; Ren, D; Ren, Z; Ribordy, M; Richeux, J P; Riihonen, E; Ritakari, J; Röser, U; Roissin, C; Sagdeev, R; Sartorelli, G; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shoutko, V; Shoumilov, E; Siedling, R; Son, D; Song, T; Steuer, M; Sun, G S; Suter, H; Tang, X W; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tornikoski, M; Torsti, J; Ulbricht, J; Urpo, S; Usoskin, I; Valtonen, E; Vandenhirtz, J; Velcea, F; Velikhov, E P; Verlaat, B; Vetlitskii, I; Vezzu, F; Vialle, J P; Viertel, Gert M; Vitè, Davide F; Gunten, H V; Wallraff, W; Wang, B C; Wang, J Z; Wang, Y H; Wiik, K; Williams, C; Wu, S X; Xia, P C; Yan, J L; Yan, L G; Yang, C G; Yang, M; Ye, S W; Yeh, P; Xu, Z Z; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, W Z; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B

    2002-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m sup 2) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS.

  11. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, J.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Ao, L.; Arefiev, A.; Azzarello, P.; Babucci, E.; Baldini, L.; Basile, M.; Barancourt, D.; Barao, F.; Barbier, G.; Barreira, G.; Battiston, R.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bene, P.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Biland, A.; Bizzaglia, S.; Blasko, S.; Boella, G.; Boschini, M.; Bourquin, M.; Brocco, L.; Bruni, G.; Buenerd, M.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Camps, C.; Cannarsa, P.; Capell, M.; Casadei, D.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cecchi, C.; Chang, Y.H.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, Z.G.; Chernoplekov, N.A.; Chiueh, T.H.; Chuang, Y.L.; Cindolo, F.; Commichau, V.; Contin, A. E-mail: contin@bo.infn.it; Crespo, P.; Cristinziani, M.; Cunha, J.P. da; Dai, T.S.; Deus, J.D.; Dinu, N.; Djambazov, L.; DAntone, I.; Dong, Z.R.; Emonet, P.; Engelberg, J.; Eppling, F.J.; Eronen, T.; Esposito, G.; Extermann, P.; Favier, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fisher, P.H.; Fluegge, G.; Fouque, N.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gervasi, M.; Giusti, P.; Grandi, D.; Grimm, O.; Gu, W.Q.; Hangarter, K.; Hasan, A.; Hermel, V.; Hofer, H.; Huang, M.A.; Hungerford, W.; Ionica, M.; Ionica, R.; Jongmanns, M.; Karlamaa, K.; Karpinski, W.; Kenney, G.; Kenny, J.; Kim, W.; Klimentov, A.; Kossakowski, R.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraeber, M.; Laborie, G.; Laitinen, T.; Lamanna, G.; Laurenti, G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, S.C.; Levi, G.; Levtchenko, P.; Liu, C.L.; Liu, H.T.; Lopes, I.; Lu, G.; Lu, Y.S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luckey, D.; Lustermann, W.; Mana, C.; Margotti, A.; Mayet, F.; McNeil, R.R.; Meillon, B.; Menichelli, M.; Mihul, A.; Mourao, A.; Mujunen, A.; Palmonari, F.; Papi, A.; Park, I.H.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, E.; Pesci, A.; Pevsner, A.; Pimenta, M.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Postolache, V.; Produit, N.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rapin, D.; Raupach, F.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Ribordy, M.; Richeux, J.P.; Riihonen, E.; Ritakari, J.; Roeser, U.; Roissin, C.; Sagdeev, R.; Sartorelli, G.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E.S.; Shoutko, V.

    2002-02-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m{sup 2}) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS.

  12. América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Olalla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el sentido intelectualista de la producción literaria modernista de Latinoamérica. Dicho enfoque es revisado en la obra del escritor argentino Manuel Ugarte (1875-1951 El porvenir de América Latina (1910. Nuestra lectura ofrece algunas líneas para la discriminación de las diversas fuentes ideológicas del intelectualismo en el “americanismo literario”. Consideramos en tal sentido la perspectiva historicista con la que Ugarte describe la composición social de América Latina.

  13. The AMS-02 Time of Flight System. Final Design

    CERN Document Server

    Bindi, V.; Casadei, D.; Castellini, G.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Giovacchini, F.; Giusti, P.; Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Martelli, R.; Palmonari, F.; Quadrani, L.; Salvadore, M.; Sbarra, C.; Zichichi, A.

    2003-01-01

    The AMS-02 detector is a superconducting magnetic spectrometer that will operate on the International Space Station. The time of flight (TOF) system of AMS-02 is composed by four scintillator planes with 8, 8, 10, 8 counters each, read at both ends by a total of 144 phototubes. This paper describes the new design, the expected performances, and shows preliminary results of the ion beam test carried on at CERN on October 2002.

  14. AM Envelope. The potential of Additive Manufacturing for facade constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Strauss

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation shows the potential of Additive Manufacturing (AM for the development of building envelopes: AM will change the way of designing facades, how we engineer and produce them. To achieve today’s demands from those future envelopes, we have to find new solutions. New technologies offer one possible way to do so. They open new approaches in designing, producing and processing building construction and facades. Finding the one capable of having big impact is difficult – Additive Manufacturing is one possible answer. The term ‘AM Envelope’ (Additive Manufacturing Envelope describes the transfer of this technology to the building envelope. Additive Fabrication is a building block that aids in developing the building envelope from a mere space enclosure to a dynamic building envelope. First beginnings of AM facade construction show up when dealing with relevant aspects like material consumption, mounting or part’s performance. From those starting points several parts of an existing post-and-beam façade system were optimized, aiming toward the implementation of AM into the production chain. Enhancements on all different levels of production were achieved: storing, producing, mounting and performance. AM offers the opportunity to manufacture facades ‘just in time’. It is no longer necessary to store or produce large numbers of parts in advance. Initial investment for tooling can be avoided, as design improvements can be realized within the dataset of the AM part. AM is based on ‘tool-less’ production, all parts can be further developed with every new generation. Producing tool-less also allows for new shapes and functional parts in small batch sizes – down to batch size one. The parts performance can be re-interpreted based on the demands within the system, not based on the limitations of conventional manufacturing. AM offers new ways of materializing the physical part around its function. It leads toward customized

  15. AM Envelope. The potential of Additive Manufacturing for facade constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Strauss

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation shows the potential of Additive Manufacturing (AM for the development of building envelopes: AM will change the way of designing facades, how we engineer and produce them. To achieve today’s demands from those future envelopes, we have to find new solutions.New technologies offer one possible way to do so. They open new approaches in designing, producing and processing building construction and facades. Finding the one capable of having big impact is difficult – Additive Manufacturing is one possible answer.The term ‘AM Envelope’ (Additive Manufacturing Envelope describes the transfer of this technology to the building envelope. Additive Fabrication is a building block that aids in developing the building envelope from a mere space enclosure to a dynamic building envelope.First beginnings of AM facade construction show up when dealing with relevant aspects like material consumption, mounting or part’s performance.From those starting points several parts of an existing post-and-beam façade system were optimized, aiming toward the implementation of AM into the production chain. Enhancements on all different levels of production were achieved: storing, producing, mounting and performance.AM offers the opportunity to manufacture facades ‘just in time’. It is no longer necessary to store or produce large numbers of parts in advance. Initial investment for tooling can be avoided, as design improvements can be realized within the dataset of the AM part. AM is based on ‘tool-less’ production, all parts can be further developed with every new generation.Producing tool-less also allows for new shapes and functional parts in small batch sizes – down to batch size one. The parts performance can be re-interpreted based on the demands within the system, not based on the limitations of conventional manufacturing. AM offers new ways of materializing the physical part around its function. It leads toward customized and

  16. [Antifungal susceptibility for Candida albicans isolated from AIDS patients with oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis: experience with Etest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Cecilia; González, Patricia; Pereira, Angélica; Pérez, Jorge; Noriega, Luis M; Palavecino, Elizabeth

    2003-05-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) and esophageal candidiasis (EPC) are frequent complications in AIDS patients. The use of Fluconazole, an effective and a low toxicity drug, has been associated to the emergency of secondary resistant strains. For this reason, in vitro antifungal susceptibility tests are necessary to predict a therapeutic failure. Etest is an easy to perform alternative test, that has showed a good agreement with the broth microdilution reference method (NCCLS, document M27-A). To measure the susceptibility of C. albicans isolates from AIDS patients complicated with OPC and EPC to Amphotericin B (AmB) and Fluconazole (Flu) using Etest. Twenty strains from 20 AIDS patients were studied. AmB was tested in RPMI 1640 agar and Flu in Casitone agar. All studied strains showed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) 256 mg/mL) was isolated from a patient previously treated with Flu. In AIDS patients with OPC and EPC, the susceptibility to Flu of the isolates should be screened, to detect resistant strains. Etest is a reliable alternative in these cases, for laboratories that cannot use the reference method.

  17. Am Beginn des Hausbaus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinzel, Moritz

    in the Greater Petra area in Jordan, is analysed, interpreted and reconstructed using archaeological and building archaeological methods. The results of the building archaeological studies will help to understand better also the architecture of other Neolithic sites in the Southern Levant. A particular focus...... of this study is the scientific reconstruction of early Neolithic architecture. The reconstruction covers not only common building principles during the PPN, but also aspects of appearance, structure and construction, as well as space and life concepts. To gain a better understanding of the PPNB architecture......Architectural developments during the Neolithic period show important innovations, e.g., the discovery and use of the right angle and the use of activity floors placed on top of each other. Although these developments influenced our building history and our understanding of architecture in general...

  18. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists AM251 and AM630 activate TRPA1 in sensory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Mayur; Patwardhan, Amol; Salas, Margaux M.; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.; Akopian, Armen N.

    2011-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor antagonists have been utilized extensively in vivo as well as in vitro, but their selectivity has not been fully examined. We investigated activation of sensory neurons by two cannabinoid antagonists – AM251 and AM630. AM251 and AM630 activated trigeminal (TG) sensory neurons in a concentration-dependent fashion (threshold 1 μM). AM251 and AM630 responses are mediated by the TRPA1 channel in a majority (90–95%) of small-to-medium TG sensory neurons. AM630 (1–100 μM), but not AM251, was a significantly more potent agonist in cells co-expressing both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels. We next evaluated AM630 and AM251 effects on TRPV1- and TRPA1-mediated responses in TG neurons. Capsaicin (CAP) effects were inhibited by pre-treatment with AM630, but not AM251. Mustard oil (MO) and WIN55,212-2 (WIN) TRPA1 mediated responses were also inhibited by pre-treatment with AM630, but not AM251 (25uM each). Co-treatment of neurons with WIN and either AM630 or AM251 had opposite effects: AM630 sensitized WIN responses, whereas AM251 inhibited WIN responses. WIN-induced inhibition of CAP responses in sensory neurons was reversed by AM630 pre-treatment and AM251 co-treatment (25μM each), as these conditions inhibit WIN responses. Hindpaw injections of AM630 and AM251 did not produce nocifensive behaviors. However, both compounds modulated CAP-induced thermal hyperalgesia in wild-type mice and rats, but not TRPA1 null-mutant mice. AMs also partially regulate WIN inhibition of CAP-induced thermal hyperalgesia in a TRPA1-dependent fashion. In summary, these findings demonstrate alternative targets for the cannabinoid antagonists, AM251 and AM630, in peripheral antihyperalgesia which involve certain TRP channels. PMID:21645531

  19. Influence of different AM-fungi on the growth, nutrition and forskolin content of Coleus forskohlii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailo, Gracy L; Bagyaraj, Davis J

    2005-07-01

    A glasshouse investigation was conducted to study the effectiveness of 11 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on the medicinal plant Coleusforskohlii. Coleus plants raised in presence of most of the AM fungi in polythene bags showed an increase in plant growth (height, number of branches and biomass), P, and forskolin contents over those grown in the absence of soil inoculation with AM fungi. The extent of growth, P, and forskolin status varied with the AM fungi used. Based on the plant biomass, P uptake and forskolin content per plant, Glomus bagyarajii was found to be the best AM symbiont for inoculating C. forskohlii, the next being Scutellospora calospora.

  20. Annotation Method (AM): SE9_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available base search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary se...arch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are ma...SE9_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary data

  1. Annotation Method (AM): SE27_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE27_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  2. Annotation Method (AM): SE5_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available base search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary se...arch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are ma...SE5_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary data

  3. Annotation Method (AM): SE34_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE34_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  4. Annotation Method (AM): SE17_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE17_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  5. Annotation Method (AM): SE4_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available base search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary se...arch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are ma...SE4_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary data

  6. Annotation Method (AM): SE29_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE29_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  7. Annotation Method (AM): SE10_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE10_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  8. Annotation Method (AM): SE13_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE13_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  9. Annotation Method (AM): SE26_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE26_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  10. Annotation Method (AM): SE28_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE28_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  11. Annotation Method (AM): SE16_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE16_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  12. Annotation Method (AM): SE12_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE12_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  13. Annotation Method (AM): SE15_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE15_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  14. Annotation Method (AM): SE20_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE20_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  15. Annotation Method (AM): SE31_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE31_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  16. Annotation Method (AM): SE33_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE33_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  17. Annotation Method (AM): SE1_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available base search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary se...arch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are ma...SE1_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary data

  18. Annotation Method (AM): SE7_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available base search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary se...arch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are ma...SE7_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary data

  19. Annotation Method (AM): SE2_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available base search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary se...arch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are ma...SE2_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary data

  20. Annotation Method (AM): SE32_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE32_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  1. Annotation Method (AM): SE3_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available base search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary se...arch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are ma...SE3_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary data

  2. Annotation Method (AM): SE14_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE14_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  3. Annotation Method (AM): SE8_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available base search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary se...arch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are ma...SE8_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary data

  4. Annotation Method (AM): SE36_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE36_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  5. Annotation Method (AM): SE6_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available base search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary se...arch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are ma...SE6_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary data

  6. Annotation Method (AM): SE25_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE25_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  7. Annotation Method (AM): SE30_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE30_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  8. Annotation Method (AM): SE35_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE35_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  9. Annotation Method (AM): SE11_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available abase search. Peaks with no hit to these databases are then selected to secondary s...earch using exactMassDB and Pep1000 databases. After the database search processes, each database hits are m...SE11_AM1 PowerGet annotation A1 In annotation process, KEGG, KNApSAcK and LipidMAPS are used for primary dat

  10. Am(VI) Extraction Final Report: FY16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tillotson, Richard Dean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Law, Jack Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report summarizes activities related to hexavalent Am extraction for FY16, in completion of FCR&D Milestone M3FT-16IN030103027. Activities concentrated on three areas of research: 1) centrifugal contactor hot testing, 2) Am(VI) stability studies, and 3) alternative oxidant studies. A brief summary of each task follows. Hot Testing: A new engineering-scale oxidation and solvent extraction test bed was built at Idaho National Laboratory to allow for solvent extraction testing of minor actinide separation concepts. The test bed consists of an oxidation vessel, filtration apparatus, four, 3D printed, 2-cm diameter centrifugal contactors, feed/product vessels, and sample ports. This system replaced the previous 3 stage, 5-cm contactor test bed that was used for the initial testing in FY14. In the FY16 hot test, a feed simulant was spiked with 243Am and 139Ce and treated with 60 g/L sodium bismuthate for two hours to oxidize the Am(III) to Am(VI). This solution was then pumped through a filter and into the four-stage centrifugal contactor setup. The organic phase solvent formulation was 1 M diethylhexylbutyramide (DEHBA)/dodecane. The test showed that Am(VI) was produced by bismuthate oxidation and the residual oxidant was successfully filtered without back pressure buildup. Sixty-four percent of Am was extracted in the contactors using DEHBA. Both Am and Ce were quantitatively stripped by 0.1 M H2O2. Successful demonstration of the utility of small, printable contactors suggests that hot testing of separations concepts can now be conducted more often, since it is cheaper, generates less waste, and entails much less radcon risk than previous testing. Am(VI) stability: A rigorous examination of reagents was conducted to determine if contaminants could interfere with Am oxidation and extraction. An series of DAm measurements showed that bismuthate particle size, water source, acid quality, and DAAP batch or pre-treatment had little effect on extraction efficiency

  11. Electronic structure of Pu-Ce(-Ga) and Pu-Am(-Ga) alloys, stabilized in the {delta} phase; Structure electronique d'alliages Pu-Ce(-Ga) et Pu-Am(-Ga) stabilises en phase {delta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormeval, M

    2001-09-01

    The behaviour of {delta}-plutonium, stable between 319 and 451 deg C, exhibits numerous singularities which are still a mystery for both physicists and metallurgists. This is due to its complex electronic structure, and in particular to the 5f electrons, which are at the edge between localization and delocalization. The stability domain of the {delta} phase can be extended down to room temperature by alloying with so called 'deltagen atoms' such as gallium (Ga), aluminum (A1), cerium (Ce) or americium (Am). The present work deals, one the one hand, with the influence of cerium and americium solutes regarding the localization of the 5f electrons of {delta}-plutonium, in binary Pu-Ce and Pu-Am alloys. On the other hand, the effect of two different deltagen solutes, simultaneously present, on the stability of the {delta} phase has been studied in ternary Pu-Am-Ga and Pu-Ce-Ga alloys. The electronic structure being strongly related to the crystalline organization, characterization methods such as X-Ray diffraction and EXAFS measurements were used together with electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility experiments. These showed that the roles of cerium and americium, supposed to be similar at the beginning of this investigation, are actually very different. Moreover, the additive effect of cerium and gallium, and, americium and gallium, has been demonstrated. Studying plutonium alloys, which are radioactive, also means following their evolution in time. The characteristics of the alloys have then been followed which allowed to detect, in Pu-Ce(-Ga) alloys, a destabilization of the {delta} phase and, to observe, in Pu-Am(-Ga) alloys, the influence of self-irradiation defects on the magnetic response. (author)

  12. WILL I AM visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Noemi Caraban

    2013-01-01

    Will.i.am visited CERN in December 2013, fulfilling a wish he made in a video-link appearance at TEDxCERN earlier that year http://tedxcern.web.cern.ch/video/choral-performance-reach-stars-william. During his visit, he was shown the Antimatter Decelerator, the underground ATLAS experiment cavern and the CERN Control Centre. He also took the opportunity to promote CERN’s beam line for schools competition.

  13. AMS DAYS 2015 - Interview Roberto Battiston

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Roberto Battiston, president of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and deputy spokesperson of the AMS experiments, tells about AMS latest results and the complementarity with the second run of the LHC in the search for dark matter

  14. Tectono-sedimentary analysis using the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility: a study of the terrestrial and freshwater Neogene of the Orava Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łoziński, Maciej; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Wysocka, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The Orava Basin is an intramontane depression filled with presumably fine-grained sediments deposited in river, floodplain, swamp and lake settings. The basin infilling constitutes a crucial record of the neoalpine evolution of the Inner/Outer Carpathian boundary area since the Neogene, when the Jurassic-Paleogene basement became consolidated, uplifted and eroded. The combination of sedimentological and structural studies with anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements provided an effective tool for recognition of terrestrial environments and deformations of the basin infilling. The lithofacies-oriented sampling and statistical approach to the large dataset of AMS specimens were utilized to define 12 AMS facies based on anisotropy degree (P) and shape (T). The AMS facies allowed a distinction of sedimentary facies ambiguous for classical methods, especially floodplain and lacustrine sediments, as well as revealing their various vulnerabilities to tectonic modification of AMS. A spatial analysis of facies showed that tuffites along with lacustrine and swamp deposits were generally restricted to marginal and southern parts of the basin. Significant deformations were noticed at basin margins and within two intrabasinal tectonic zones, which indicated the tectonic activity of the Pieniny Klippen Belt after the Middle Miocene. The large southern area of the basin recorded consistent N-NE trending compression during basin inversion. This regional tectonic rearrangement resulted in a partial removal of the southernmost basin deposits and shaped the basin's present-day extent.

  15. On the reliability of AMS in ilmenite-type granites: an insight from the Marimanha pluton, central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Urcia, B.; Casas, A. M.; Ramón, M. J.; Leiss, B.; Mariani, E.; Román-Berdiel, T.

    2012-04-01

    The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) at room temperature has been used for decades to obtain the petrofabric orientation in granites as a kinematic marker to establish models explaining the emplacement of plutons. To assess the significance of AMS in terms of mineral orientation, we have performed a multidisciplinary study at five sites of an ilmenite-type pluton (Marimanha, central Pyrenees) with significant facies changes. To test the reliability of AMS measurements at room temperature, the following methods were applied: low temperature AMS; image analyses and X-ray texture goniometry (XTG) of biotites; and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to obtain c-axes directions of quartz. The total (para-, ferro- and dia-)magnetic fabric analysed by AMS is compared with the paramagnetic fabric (low-T AMS), mica orientation (with image analyses and XTG) and the diamagnetic fabric (EBSD). Results indicate that weakly oriented paramagnetic minerals can give well-defined magnetic fabrics (AMS at room and low temperatures). Furthermore, the AMS ellipsoid is the result of composite biotite fabrics resulting from both orientation and spatial distribution of crystals, as demonstrated by 2-D mathematical models presented in this study. AMS is the most effective technique for quickly measuring composite fabrics. In addition, the advantage of using AMS analyses is twofold: (1) it is a fast way of analysing standard samples that can give clues for subsequent image/mineral orientation analysis and (2) it is a volume-related method that gives a picture of the rock fabric as a whole.

  16. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeck, Marcus Matheus Johannes

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the author studied the diagnostic procedures for susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH), with special emphasis upon refining the biological diagnostic test and improving protocols and guidelines for investigation of MH susceptibility. MH is a pharmacogenetic disease of skeletal

  17. Cellulolytic potential of probiotic Bacillus Subtilis AMS6 isolated from traditional fermented soybean (Churpi): An in-vitro study with regards to application as an animal feed additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhar, Ajay K; Bashir, Yasir; Saikia, Devabrata; Nath, Dhrubajyoti; Gupta, Kuldeep; Konwar, Bolin K; Kumar, Rahul; Namsa, Nima D; Mandal, Manabendra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the probiotic attributes of Bacillus subtilis AMS6 isolated from fermented soybean (Churpi). This isolate exhibited tolerance to low pH (pH 2.0) and bile salt (0.3%), capability to autoaggregate and coaggregate. AMS6 also showed highest antibacterial activity against the pathogenic indicator strain Salmonella enterica typhimurium (MTCC 1252) and susceptibility towards different antibiotics tested. The isolate was effective in inhibiting the adherence of food borne pathogens to Caco-2 epithelial cell lines, and was also found to be non-hemolytic which further strengthen the candidature of the isolate as a potential probiotic. Further studies revealed B. subtilis AMS6 showed cellulolytic activity (0.54±0.05 filter paper units mL(-1)) at 37°C. The isolate was found to hydrolyze carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper and maize (Zea mays) straw. The maize straw digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy studies. The isolate was able to degrade filter paper within 96h of incubation. A full length cellulase gene of AMS6 was amplified using degenerate primers consisting of 1499 nucleotides. The ORF encoded for a protein of 499 amino acids residues with a predicted molecular mass of 55.04kDa. The amino acids sequence consisted of a glycosyl hydrolase family 5 domain at N-terminal; Glycosyl hydrolase catalytic core and a CBM-3 cellulose binding domain at its C terminal. The study suggests potential probiotic B. subtilis AMS6 as a promising candidate envisaging its application as an animal feed additive for enhanced fiber digestion and gut health of animal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. β -delayed fission of 230Am

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G. L.; Takeyama, M.; Andreyev, A. N.; Andel, B.; Antalic, S.; Catford, W. N.; Ghys, L.; Haba, H.; Heßberger, F. P.; Huang, M.; Kaji, D.; Kalaninova, Z.; Morimoto, K.; Morita, K.; Murakami, M.; Nishio, K.; Orlandi, R.; Smith, A. G.; Tanaka, K.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaki, S.

    2017-10-01

    The exotic decay process of β -delayed fission (β DF ) has been studied in the neutron-deficient isotope 230Am. The 230Am nuclei were produced in the complete fusion reaction 207Pb(27Al,4 n )230Am and separated by using the GARIS gas-filled recoil ion separator. A lower limit for the β DF probability Pβ DF(230Am)>0.30 was deduced, which so far is the highest value among all known β DF nuclei. The systematics of β DF in the region of 230Am will be discussed.

  19. Buffet-Américain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Szende

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Exposition Universelle or World’s Fair held in Paris during 1855 was a catalyst for the creation of numerous related exhibits, attractions, and businesses in the neighborhoods surrounding the exhibition grounds. One of these was an innovative restaurant concept in which consumers could eat or drink while standing, known as a buffet-Américain or American buffet. This article features a reproduction of a vintage advertising poster for one such restaurant, created by the celebrated nineteenth century French commercial artist Jean Alexis Rouchon .

  20. Etiology and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of community-acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Streptomycin showed the highest susceptibility to bacteria isolates while the least susceptibility was observed with augmentin. Rational use of antibiotics with regular antibiotics susceptibility surveillance studies is recommended to maintain high antibiotic therapeutic profile. Keywords: Community-acquired urinary tract ...

  1. Susceptibility Status of Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    susceptible 'Kisumu' strain, both Korle-Bu and Airport populations were highly resistant to DDT and gave resistance levels which were over nine-fold for permethrin and over 2.5-fold for deltamethrin. Both wild and susceptible populations showed full susceptibility to malathion. The S and M forms of A. gambiae s.s. were ...

  2. Susceptibility status of Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    susceptible 'Kisumu' strain, both Korle-Bu and Airport populations were highly resistant to DDT and gave resistance levels which were over nine-fold for permethrin and over 2.5-fold for deltamethrin. Both wild and susceptible populations showed full susceptibility to malathion. The S and M forms of A. gambiae s.s. were ...

  3. Quark number density and susceptibility calculation under one loop ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Somorendro Singh

    2017-05-30

    May 30, 2017 ... Abstract. We calculate quark number density and susceptibility under one-loop correction in the mean- field potential. The calculation shows continuous increase in the number density and susceptibility up to the temperature T = 0.4 GeV. Then the values of number density and susceptibility approach the ...

  4. [Antimicrobial susceptibility cumulative reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut-Blasco, Andrés; Calvo, Jorge; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-10-01

    Cumulative reports on antimicrobial susceptibility tests data are important for selecting empirical treatments, as an educational tool in programs on antimicrobial use, and for establishing breakpoints defining clinical categories. These reports should be based on data validated by clinical microbiologists using diagnostic samples (not surveillance samples). In order to avoid a bias derived from including several isolates obtained from the same patient, it is recommended that, for a defined period, only the first isolate is counted. A minimal number of isolates per species should be presented: a figure of >=30 isolates is statistically acceptable. The report is usually presented in a table format where, for each cell, information on clinically relevant microorganisms-antimicrobial agents is presented. Depending on particular needs, multiple tables showing data related to patients, samples, services or special pathogens can be prepared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies...... are made from digital scans of the original dias slides located in the collection of the Museum of Contemporary Art in Roskilde. In front of the audience entering the space and placed on it’s own stand, is an original 60s style telephone with turning dial. Action begins when the audience lift the phone...... and dial a number. Any number will make the Dias change. All numbers are also assigned to specific sound documents: clips form rare interviews and the complete sound-re-enactment of the Show-Bix piece ‘Omringning’ (‘Surrounding’) in five channels (a quintophonie). This was originally produced...

  6. Actinide measurements by AMS using fluoride matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornett, R.J., E-mail: Jack.Cornett@uottawa.ca [André E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Kazi, Z.H. [André E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Zhao, X.-L. [André E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Chartrand, M.G. [André E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Charles, R.J.; Kieser, W.E. [André E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    Actinides can be measured by alpha spectroscopy (AS), mass spectroscopy or accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). We tested a simple method to separate Pu and Am isotopes from the sample matrix using a single extraction chromatography column. The actinides in the column eluent were then measured by AS or AMS using a fluoride target matrix. Pu and Am were coprecipitated with NdF{sub 3}. The strongest AMS beams of Pu and Am were produced when there was a large excess of fluoride donor atoms in the target and the NdF{sub 3} precipitates were diluted about 6–8 fold with PbF{sub 2}. The measured concentrations of {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am agreed with the concentrations in standards of known activity and with two IAEA certified reference materials. Measurements of {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am made at A.E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory agree, within their statistical uncertainty, with independent measurements made using the IsoTrace AMS system. This work demonstrated that fluoride targets can produce reliable beams of actinide anions and that the measurement of actinides using fluorides agree with published values in certified reference materials.

  7. Nickel remediation by AM-colonized sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Keomany; Charest, Christiane

    2010-08-01

    This greenhouse study aimed to examine the contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization on the uptake of and tolerance to nickel (Ni) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). We hypothesized that AM colonization increases Ni content and tolerance in sunflower grown under varying soil Ni concentrations. The combined effect of AM colonization and soil Ni input on the assimilation of nitrogen, in particular the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS), in sunflower plants was also investigated. A factorial experimental design was performed with sunflower cv. Lemon Queen, with or without the AM fungus, Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, and treated with 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg Ni kg(-1) dry soil (DS). The AM colonization significantly enhanced plant growth and Ni content, especially at the lower soil Ni treatments. Furthermore, the AM plants exposed to the highest soil Ni level of 400 mg Ni kg(-1) DS had a significantly higher shoot Ni extracted percentage than non-AM plants, suggesting that the AM symbiosis contributed to Ni uptake, then its translocation from roots to shoots. The AM colonization also significantly increased the GS activity in roots, this being likely an indicator of an enhanced Ni tolerance. These findings support the hypothesis that AM symbiosis contributes to an enhanced Ni plant uptake and tolerance and should be considered as part of phytoremediation strategies.

  8. Show and Tell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Fredag d. 1 november blev Kunsthal Charlottenborg indtaget af performanceprogrammet Show & Tell med et bredspektret program af danske og internationale kunstnere indenfor performance-, lyd- og installationskunst. Programmet præsenterer værker, der undersøger kroppens stadig mere symbiotiske forhold...... og studienævnet på Performance-design. Show & Tell - Performance program: kl. 16.30-19 Adresse: Kunsthal Charlottenborg, Nyhavn 2, 1051 København K...

  9. In vitro resistance of clinical Fusarium species to amphotericin B and voriconazole using the EUCAST antifungal susceptibility method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Salah, Husam; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Hamed, Manal; Theelen, Bart; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Boekhout, Teun; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    Susceptibility testing using the EUCAST-AFST method against 39 clinical Fusarium strains consecutively collected from local and invasive infections during the last 10years assessed the in vitro activities of amphotericin B (AmB) and triazole antifungal agents. In addition, the susceptibility pattern

  10. Thermoresponsive behaviour of AM sub 2 O sub 8 materials

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, S

    2003-01-01

    This thesis investigates the synthesis and structural characterisation of AM sub 2 O sub 8 phases, many of which show negative thermal expansion (NTE); relevant literature is reviewed in Chapter One. Chapter Two describes the synthesis, structure solution, and mechanistic role of a new family of low-temperature (LT) orthorhombic AM sub 2 O sub 8 polymorphs (A sup I sup V = Zr, Hf; M sup V sup I = Mo, W). These materials are key intermediates in the preparation of cubic AM sub 2 O sub 8 phases from AM sub 2 O sub 7 (OH) sub 2 (H sub 2 O) sub 2. The structure of LT-AM sub 2 O sub 8 has been elucidated by combined laboratory X-ray and neutron powder diffraction. Variable temperature X-ray diffraction (VTXRD) studies have shown LT-AMo sub 2 O sub 8 phases exhibit anisotropic NTE. LT-ZrMo sub 2 O sub 8 has been shown to undergo spontaneous rehydration, allowing preparation of ZrMo sub 2 O sub 7 (OD) sub 2 (D sub 2 O) sub 2 and assignment of D sub 2 O/OD positions within the structure by neutron diffraction. Using ...

  11. X-ray photoelectron spectra structure and chemical bonding in AmO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teterin Yury A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis was done of the X-ray photoelectron spectra structure in the binding energy range of 0 eV to ~35 eV for americium dioxide (AmO2 valence electrons. The binding energies and structure of the core electronic shells (~35 eV-1250 eV, as well as the relativistic discrete variation calculation results for the Am63O216 and AmO8 (D4h cluster reflecting Am close environment in AmO2 were taken into account. The experimental data show that the many-body effects and the multiplet splitting contribute to the spectral structure much less than the effects of formation of the outer (0-~15 eV binding energy and the inner (~15 eV-~35 eV binding energy valence molecular orbitals. The filled Am 5f electronic states were shown to form in the AmO2 valence band. The Am 6p electrons participate in formation of both the inner and the outer valence molecular orbitals (bands. The filled Am 6p3/2 and the O 2s electronic shells were found to make the largest contributions to the formation of the inner valence molecular orbitals. Contributions of electrons from different molecular orbitals to the chemical bond in the AmO8 cluster were evaluated. Composition and sequence order of molecular orbitals in the binding energy range 0-~35 eV in AmO2 were established. The experimental and theoretical data allowed a quantitative scheme of molecular orbitals for AmO2, which is fundamental for both understanding the chemical bond nature in americium dioxide and the interpretation of other X-ray spectra of AmO2.

  12. AMS Days: "the results are phenomenal"

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Following the conclusion of the successful AMS Days at CERN (see here), we sat down with leading minds in space science and particle physics to discuss their thoughts on the recent positron-excess results as well as the future of the AMS physics programme.   Samuel Ting, AMS spokesperson: Roberto Battiston, President of the Italian Space Agency (ASI): William H. Gerstenmaier, Human Exploration and Operations Directorate, NASA: Edward C. Stone (Caltech), Voyager 1 and 2 principal investigator:

  13. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication....... More specifically, the article demonstrates how online comments posted on the day of Voice’s 2012 season finale can be grouped into four basic action types: (1) Invitation to consume content, (2) Request for participation, (3) Request for collaboration and (4) Online commenting. These action types...

  14. Um show de cacau

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende, José Francisco; UNIGRANRIO / PPGA; Mello, Simone; UNIGRANRIO

    2016-01-01

    O caso de ensino apresenta a trajetória de Alexandre Tadeu da Costa e da chocolateria Cacau Show. Seu objetivo é levar os estudantes a identificar alternativas e tomar decisões sobre posicionamento para continuidade do desenvolvimento de vantagens competitivas, sustentação de competência logística e possíveis abordagens ao mercado externo. 

  15. Biological AMS at Uppsala University: Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehpour, Mehran, E-mail: mehran.salehpour@angstrom.uu.s [Ion Physics, Angstroem Laboratory, Department of Engineering Sciences, Box 534, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Forsgard, Niklas; Possnert, Goeran [Ion Physics, Angstroem Laboratory, Department of Engineering Sciences, Box 534, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    In January 2007 a new research program was initiated at Uppsala University focusing on the biological applications of AMS. We have used a 5 MV Pelletron Tandem accelerator to study biological samples. With Microdosing applications in mind, a variety of measurements have been performed on human blood, plasma and urine that have been labeled with a {sup 14}C-labeled pharmaceutical drug covering a concentration range, spanning 3 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, by studying small sample amounts and low concentrations, we have demonstrated sensitivity in the hundred zeptomole range for a small pharmaceutical substance in human blood. Another application of interest, based on the enhanced {sup 14}C activity from the cold war bomb-peak, is dating of DNA molecules providing fundamental data for the regenerative medicine and stem cell research community. We show data on a sensitive carrier method for measuring the isotopic ratio of small biological sample in the few mugC range.

  16. Taking in a Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments.

  17. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  18. Influence of humic acid on the Am(III) sorption onto kaolinite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krepelova, A.; Sachs, S.; Bernhard, G. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie

    2011-07-01

    The sorption of americium(III), (Am(III)), onto kaolinite was studied in batch experiments in the absence and presence of humic acid (HA) ([Am(III)]{sub 0} = 1 x 10{sup -6} M, [HA]{sub 0} = 0 or 10 mg/L, I = 0.01 M NaClO{sub 4}, pH = 3-10, p{sub CO{sub 2}} = 10{sup -3.5} atm, solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L)=1 or 4 g/L). The results show that the Am(III) sorption onto kaolinite is influenced by S/L, the presence of HA and the pH value. In the absence of HA, Am(III) exhibits a very strong and almost pH independent sorption onto kaolinite at the S/L ratio of 4 g/L. In the presence of HA, there are small differences in the Am(III) sorption compared to the HA free system. At pH values < 5, HA very slightly enhances the sorption of Am(III). Conversely, at pH values {>=} 5.5, the presence of HA decreases the sorption of Am(III) due to the formation of dissolved Am(III) humate complexes. The decrease of S/L from 4 to 1 g/L has a significant effect on the Am(III) sorption onto kaolinite. A sorption edge occurs at pH 6 and the influence of carbonate on the Am(III) sorption at higher pH values becomes evident. Furthermore, the influence of HA on the Am(III) sorption onto kaolinite is more pronounced. The Am(III) sorption results are compared to literature data and to those of U(VI) sorption onto kaolinite obtained under the same experimental conditions. (orig.)

  19. {sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  20. Semisolid processing characteristics of AM series Mg alloys by rheo-diecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S.; Qian, Ma; Fan, Z.

    2006-03-01

    An investigation has been made into the solidification behavior and microstructural evolution of AM50, AM70, and AM90 alloys during rheo-diecasting, their processibility, and the resulting mechanical properties. It was found that solidification of AM series alloys under intensive melt shearing in the unique twin-screw slurry maker during rheo-diecasting gave rise to numerous spheroidal primary magnesium (Mg) particles that were uniformly present in the microstructure. As a result, the network of the β-Mg17Al12 phase was consistently interrupted by these spheroidal and ductile particles. Such a microstructure reduced the obstacle of deformation and the harmfulness of the β-Mg17Al12 network on ductility, and therefore improved the ductility of rheo-diecast AM alloys. It was shown that, even with 9 wt pct Al, the elongation of rheo-diecast AM90 still achieved (9 ± 1.2) pct. Rheodiecasting thus provides an attractive processing route for upgrading the alloy specification of AM series alloys by increasing the aluminum (Al) content while ensuring ductility. Assessment of the processibility of AM series alloys for semisolid processing showed that high Al content AM series alloys are more suitable for rheo-diecasting than low Al content alloys, because of the lower sensitivity of solid fraction to temperature, the lower liquidus temperature, and the smaller interval between the semisolid processing temperature and the complete solidification temperature.

  1. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R; Jørgensen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time, introdu......Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time......, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes...

  2. Genetic susceptibility of periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Loos, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we explore and summarize the peer-reviewed literature on putative genetic risk factors for susceptibility to aggressive and chronic periodontitis. A comprehensive literature search on the PubMed database was performed using the keywords ‘periodontitis’ or ‘periodontal

  3. Fourie susceptible.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    a number of cultivars exhibited field resistance to halo blight and bacterial brown spot, all cultivars were more or less susceptible to .... Cerillos. Alubia. I. 91. 57. Kranskop. Red speckled sugar. II. 97. 63. OPS-RS1. Red speckled sugar. II. 96. 63. OPS-RS2. Red speckled sugar. I. 100. 61. OPS-RS3. Red speckled sugar. II. 97.

  4. América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Ibarra Cárdenas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La existencia de ciertos rasgos autoritarios que afectan a los derechos de participación política y al cumplimiento de los acuerdos democráticos, ha sido motivo de crisis y colapso de varios gobiernos en América Latina. La importancia de la función judicial radica en que siempre y cuando mantenga la "independencia" y la "imparcialidad" como principios que le caracterizan, puede reforzar la cooperación entre agentes políticos y sociales por medio de: a el desarrollo de una cultura jurídica de respeto y promoción de los derechos, y b un poder judicial que establezca una relación estable entre comportamiento humano y prescripción normativa, es decir, que en la justificación de sus decisiones articule de manera satisfactoria el código de valores socialmente construido, y el marco normativo establecido por la regla de reconocimiento del sistema jurídico.

  5. Frog skin peptides (tigerinin-1R, magainin-AM1, -AM2, CPF-AM1, and PGla-AM1) stimulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) by GLUTag cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, O O; Conlon, J M; Flatt, P R; Abdel-Wahab, Y H A

    2013-02-01

    Skin secretions of several frog species contain host-defense peptides with multiple biological activities including in vitro and in vivo insulin-releasing actions. This study investigates the effects of tigerinin-1R from Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Dicroglossidae) and magainin-AM1, magainin-AM2, caerulein precursor fragment (CPF-AM1) and peptide glycine leucine amide (PGLa-AM1) from Xenopus amieti (Pipidae) on GLP-1 secretion from GLUTag cells. Tigerinin-1R showed the highest potency producing a significant (Ppeptide and 0.3nM for the reduced form. All peptides from X. amieti significantly (Ppeptide stimulated release of the cytosolic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase from GLUTag cells at concentrations up to 3μM indicating that the integrity of the plasma membrane had been preserved. The data indicate that frog skin peptides, by stimulating GLP-1 release as well as direct effects on insulin secretion, show therapeutic potential as agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 47 CFR 73.24 - Broadcast facilities; showing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast facilities; showing required. 73.24 Section 73.24 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.24 Broadcast facilities; showing required. An...

  7. Reversible methylation of m6Am in the 5′ cap controls mRNA stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauer, Jan; Luo, Xiaobing; Blanjoie, Alexandre; Jiao, Xinfu; Grozhik, Anya V.; Patil, Deepak P.; Linder, Bastian; Pickering, Brian F.; Vasseur, Jean-Jacques; Chen, Qiuying; Gross, Steven S.; Elemento, Olivier; Debart, Françoise; Kiledjian, Megerditch; Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2017-01-01

    Internal bases in mRNA can be subjected to modifications that influence the fate of mRNA in cells. One of the most prevalent modified bases is found at the 5′ end of mRNA, at the first encoded nucleotide adjacent to the 7-methylguanosine cap. Here we show that this nucleotide, N6,2′-O-dimethyladenosine (m6Am), is a reversible modification that influences cellular mRNA fate. Using a transcriptome-wide map of m6Am we find that m6Am-initiated transcripts are markedly more stable than mRNAs that begin with other nucleotides. We show that the enhanced stability of m6Am-initiated transcripts is due to resistance to the mRNA-decapping enzyme DCP2. Moreover, we find that m6Am is selectively demethylated by fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO). FTO preferentially demethylates m6Am rather than N6-methyladenosine (m6A), and reduces the stability of m6Am mRNAs. Together, these findings show that the methylation status of m6Am in the 5′ cap is a dynamic and reversible epitranscriptomic modification that determines mRNA stability. PMID:28002401

  8. Influence of Growth Mode and Sucrose on Susceptibility of Streptococcus sanguis to Amine Fluorides and Amine Fluoride-Inorganic Fluoride Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embleton, J. V.; Newman, H. N.; Wilson, M.

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated the susceptibility to amine fluorides (AmFs) of planktonic and biofilm cultures of Streptococcus sanguis grown with and without sucrose. Cultures were incubated with AmFs (250 mg of fluoride liter−1) for 1 min. The susceptibility of biofilms was less than that of the planktonic form and was further decreased by growth in the presence of sucrose. PMID:9726905

  9. Estimating the AmLi Neutron Spectrum from Measured Ring Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinmann-Smith, Robert [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Beddingfield, David H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Enqvist, Andreas [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-10

    These are a set of slides on estimating the AmLi neutron spectrum from measured ring ratios. The IAEA uses an AmLi source in the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL) to verify compliance with nonproliferation treaties. The UNCL requires calibration with known uranium samples. The AmLi spectrum isn’t known well enough to allow simulated calibrations. Alphas lose energy traveling through AmO2 particle of unknown size. Energy reduction below Li threshold enhances O contribution. Unknown Li matrix material affects neutron production and thermalization. There is large variation in spectra from each element. Other topics covered include: applications, physics considerations, current spectra, measurement overview, measurement results - variation between sources, simulations, spectra fitting, other simulations, and conclusions.

  10. Innovative Instructional Tools from the AMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, W. E.; Geer, I. W.; Mills, E. W.; Nugnes, K. A.; Stimach, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Since 1996, the American Meteorological Society (AMS) has been developing online educational materials with dynamic features that engage students and encourage additional exploration of various concepts. Most recently, AMS transitioned its etextbooks to webBooks. Now accessible anywhere with internet access, webBooks can be read with any web browser. Prior versions of AMS etextbooks were difficult to use in a lab setting, however webBooks are much easier to use and no longer a hurdle to learning. Additionally, AMS eInvestigations Manuals, also in webBook format, include labs with innovative features and educational tools. One such example is the AMS Climate at a Glance (CAG) app that draws data from NOAA's Climate at a Glance website. The user selects historical data of a given parameter and the app calculates various statistics revealing whether or not the results are consistent with climate change. These results allow users to distinguish between climate variability and climate change. This can be done for hundreds of locations across the U.S. and on multiple time scales. Another innovative educational tool used in AMS eInvestigations Manuals is the AMS Conceptual Climate Energy Model (CCEM). The CCEM is a computer simulation designed to enable users to track the paths that units of energy might follow as they enter, move through and exit an imaginary system according to simple rules applied to different scenarios. The purpose is to provide insight into the impacts of physical processes that operate in the real world. Finally, AMS educational materials take advantage of Google Earth imagery to reproduce the physical aspects of globes, allowing users to investigate spatial relationships in three dimensions. Google Earth imagery is used to explore tides, ocean bottom bathymetry and El Nino and La Nina. AMS will continue to develop innovative educational materials and tools as technology advances, to attract more students to the Earth sciences.

  11. Current activities at the Seoul National University AMS facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.C. [School of Physics, College of Natural Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jckim@phya.snu.ac.kr; Youn, M. [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.C. [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, C.C. [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Y.M. [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, J. [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, H.R. [National Center for Inter-University Research Facilities, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ashok, M. [School of Physics, College of Natural Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, J.W. [DMRC and School of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.K. [DMRC and School of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Our {sup 14}C AMS activities have attained an annual throughput of ca. 1000 unknowns, however our {sup 10}Be AMS system development has not been completed yet. Meanwhile, we have diversified our research activities to other areas related to {sup 14}C AMS in order to broaden the application of our accelerator and to provide additional support to the local archeological community. An external beam PIXE system has been constructed on our MPS beam-line and obsidians from Paleolithic sites were investigated for provenance studies. The results showed that PIXE measurements of obsidians, when combined with neutron activation analysis, is a very powerful tool for provenance studies. Measurements of the natural radioactivity of the U-series have been carried out, not only for U/Th bone dating, but also as an investigation of a possibility of characterizing paleosols from various Paleolithic sites. The criteria for the validity of {sup 14}C ages derived from soil organics have been obtained. As an example of the successful application of our {sup 14}C AMS facility, the dating of burials at the Tavan Tolgoi site in Mongolia, containing the burials of artifacts from the era of Chinggis Khan, is described.

  12. Genetic Susceptibility to Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kovacic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Advances in techniques of molecular genetics have revealed that genetic ground significantly influences susceptibility to atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Besides further investigations of monogenetic diseases, candidate genes, genetic polymorphisms, and susceptibility loci associated with atherosclerotic diseases have been identified in recent years, and their number is rapidly increasing. This paper discusses main genetic investigations fields associated with human atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The paper concludes with a discussion of the directions and implications of future genetic research in arteriosclerosis with an emphasis on prospective prediction from an early age of individuals who are predisposed to develop premature atherosclerosis as well as to facilitate the discovery of novel drug targets.

  13. POTENTIAL ANXIOGENIC EFFECTS OF CANNABINOID CB1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS/INVERSE AGONISTS IN RATS: COMPARISONS BETWEEN AM4113, AM251, AND THE BENZODIAZEPINE INVERSE AGONIST FG-7142

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sink, KS; Segovia, KN; Sink, J; Randall, PA; Collins, LE; Correa, M; Markus, EJ; Vemuri, VK; Makriyannis, A; Salamone, JD

    2010-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 inverse agonists suppress food-motivated behaviors, but may also induce psychiatric effects such as depression and anxiety. To evaluate behaviors potentially related to anxiety, the present experiments assessed the CB1 inverse agonist AM251 (2.0 – 8.0 mg/kg), the CB1 antagonist AM4113 (3.0 – 12.0 mg/kg), and the benzodiazepine inverse agonist FG-7142 (10.0 – 20.0 mg/kg), using the open field test and the elevated plus maze. Although all three drugs affected open field behavior, these effects were largely due to actions on locomotion. In the elevated plus maze, FG-7142 and AM251 both produced anxiogenic effects. FG-7142 and AM251 also significantly increased c-Fos activity in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens shell. In contrast, AM4113 failed to affect performance in the plus maze, and did not induce c-Fos immunoreactivity. The weak effects of AM4113 are consistent with biochemical data showing that AM4113 induces little or no intrinsic cellular activity. This research may lead to the development of novel appetite suppressants with reduced anxiogenic effects. PMID:20015619

  14. Resident alveolar macrophages are susceptible to and permissive of Coxiella burnetii infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Calverley

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is a zoonotic disease with potentially life-threatening complications in humans. Inhalation of low doses of Coxiella bacteria can result in infection of the host alveolar macrophage (AM. However, it is not known whether a subset of AMs within the heterogeneous population of macrophages in the infected lung is particularly susceptible to infection. We have found that lower doses of both phase I and phase II Nine Mile C. burnetii multiply and are less readily cleared from the lungs of mice compared to higher infectious doses. We have additionally identified AM resident within the lung prior to and shortly following infection, opposed to newly recruited monocytes entering the lung during infection, as being most susceptible to infection. These resident cells remain infected up to twelve days after the onset of infection, serving as a permissive niche for the maintenance of bacterial infection. A subset of infected resident AMs undergo a distinguishing phenotypic change during the progression of infection exhibiting an increase in surface integrin CD11b expression and continued expression of the surface integrin CD11c. The low rate of phase I and II Nine Mile C. burnetii growth in murine lungs may be a direct result of the limited size of the susceptible resident AM cell population.

  15. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data bearing on the transport direction of mid-tertiary regional ignimbrites, Candelaria Hills area, West-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronis, Michael S.; Geissman, John W.

    2009-03-01

    In west-central Nevada, the Oligocene Candelaria pyroclastic sequence reaches a local thickness of up to 1.3 km, in what has been referred to as the Candelaria trough, but more generally the accumulation of ash-flow tuffs and related volcanic rocks is less than 300 m thick. Complete to near complete outcrops are scattered over about 3200 km2 in the Candelaria Hills and surrounding ranges of the Southern Walker Lane structural zone. Three regionally extensive compound cooling units within the overall sequence (25.8 Ma Metallic City, 24.1 Ma Belleville, and 23.7 Ma Candelaria Junction Tuffs) have distinguishing characteristics and are the focus of study. At 106 sites, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data provide an estimate of transport direction of each tuff. Inferred transport directions based on the AMS data are corrected for a modest clockwise, yet variable magnitude, vertical axis rotation that affected these rocks in late Miocene to Pliocene time, as revealed by paleomagnetic studies. The AMS data show a somewhat orderly pattern of magnetic fabrics that we interpret to define unique transport directions for the Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs. The low susceptibility and degree of anisotropy of the Belleville Tuff limits our interpretation from this pyroclastic deposit. The Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs typically show gentle, south-southeast and southeast dipping magnetic fabric imbrication, respectively, and very gently plunging magnetic lineations. These AMS fabric elements indicate the tuffs were transported to the north-northwest and northwest, respectively. The AMS fabric data from the Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs suggest relatively unrestricted flow during emplacement. Evidence across the 3,200 km2 area to support more regionally controlled channelized flow into and/or flow along the east northeast-west southwest axis of the Candelaria trough is lacking. The ignimbrites clearly filled a topographic

  16. Challenge of COPD: Am I at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Challenge of COPD Am I at Risk? Past Issues / Fall 2014 ... or the American Lung Association's COPD information section. COPD Learn More Breathe Better ® Program The COPD Learn ...

  17. Stomach Flu: How Long Am I Contagious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... long am I contagious if I have the stomach flu? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M.D. You can ... more, depending on which virus is causing your stomach flu (gastroenteritis). A number of viruses can cause ...

  18. Site Averaged AMS Data: 1988 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the Portable Automatic Meteorological Station (AMS) data acquired during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Data are in 30-minute time intervals...

  19. AMS prepares for long stay in space

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the successful space qualification tests at the ESA Technology Centre (ESTEC) in Noordwijk in the Netherlands, AMS is now back in the integration hall at CERN Prévessin. The collaboration is replacing the superconducting magnet with a permanent (non-superconducting) one, which will ensure reliable operation of the experiment for the recently planned longer run on board the International Space Station (ISS).   Work is under way at the AMS integration hall at CERN Prévessin. Following a trip to ESTEC in Noordwijk in the Netherlands, where tests confirmed its fitness for launch into space on board the International Space Station (ISS), the AMS experiment is now back at CERN for final modifications. “The collaboration agreed to adopt a modified configuration that, among other things, re-uses the permanent magnet of the AMS-01 prototype that was flown into space in 1998”, says Samuel Ting, Spokesperson of the AMS experiment. Althoug...

  20. AMS DAYs 2015 - Interview William H. Gerstenmaier

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    William H. Gerstenmaier, associate administrator for the Human Exploration and Operations Directorate at NASA, tells about the science aat the International Space Station and the tasks to be performed to make sure the AMS detector, installed on the main

  1. Biosorption of {sup 241}Am by Rhizopus arrihizus: preliminary investigation and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Ning E-mail: 5416507@mail.sc.cninfo.net; Yang Yuanyou; Luo Shunzhong; Zhang Taiming; Jin Jiannan; Liao Jiali; Hua Xifeng

    2002-08-01

    The biosorption of {sup 241}Am from solution by a fungus--Rhizopus Arrihizus (R. arrihizus), and the effect of experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The preliminary results showed that the biosorption of {sup 241}Am by R. arrihizus is very efficient. An average of more than 99% of the total {sup 241}Am was removed by R. arrihizus of 1.3 g/l (dry weight) from {sup 241}Am solutions of 5.6-111 MBq/l (44.3-877.2 {mu}g/l) (C{sub 0}), with adsorption capacities (W) of 4.2-79.4 MBq/g biomass (dry weight) (33.2-627.5 {mu}g/g). The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 h and the optimum pH ranged from 1 to 3. No significant differences in {sup 241}Am biosorption were observed at 10-45 deg. C, or in solutions containing Au{sup 3+} or Ag{sup +}, even 2000 times above {sup 241}Am concentration. The relationship between concentrations and adsorption capacities of {sup 241}Am indicated that the {sup 241}Am biosorption by R. arrihizus obeys the Freundlich adsorption equation.

  2. A VHDL-AMS package for microsystems polychromatic optical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiquerez, Laurent; Ouaaziz, Siomar; Pittet, Patrick; Lu, Guo-Neng

    2004-08-01

    For biomedical microanalysis systems requiring implementation of optical signal generation and detection, we propose a package of VHDL-AMS functions to allow co-simulations of optical path, opto-electronic elements and associated electronics. This package contains a set of functions, which may be used for functional description of parts of microanalysis systems. An overview of simulation techniques shows that VHDL-AMS allows continuous-time simulation of polychromatic optical signals needed by the wavelength shifting nature of fluorescence. Indeed, directivity of optic path is well managed by VHDL-AMS using directional ports. By design, optical signals are easily simulated together with associated command and processing electronic circuits. Inspired by RF simulation techniques, the proposed description of polychromatic optical signals lies on a discretization of spectra. This format allows each optic band to be processed independently by models. The array data structure available in VHDL-AMS provides a compact form to device descriptions and to optical signal connexions. Fluorescence is modelled with absorbance and emission spectra, and optical couplings are described using results of geometric-optic analysis. A "spectral plug-in" has been developed, to be connected to output-power models of LASER-LED reported in the literature. Furthermore, a physical model of the CMOS Buried Double Junction (BDJ) detector has been described. Models of optic and electronic parts include a modulated LASER source, fibre optic, fluorochrom, BDJ detector and Constant Voltage Threshold (CVT) analogue-to-digital signal conversion. The system-level simulations, with Variable-Time Synchronous Detection (VTSD) are performed using the "Advanced-MS" environment. The validity domain of this approach as well as limitations of the available VHDL-AMS simulators (especially in terms of convergence and simulation time) are discussed.

  3. Intervista Roberto Battiston, vice-portavoce AMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2011-01-01

    "L'universo è un'acceleratore di raggi cosmici che non è mai in shut down!"Commento sulla prima fase di funzionamento di AMS, a due mesi dal lancio nello spazio e dall'installazione sulla Stazione Spaziale Internazionale, con un flusso ininterrotto di dati: 100 milioni di trigger alla settimana.(2'19) Rest of video: rushes of the AMS POCC (Payload and Operations Control Centre) at CERN - Prevessin site.

  4. Novel biodegradable poly(gamma-glutamic acid)-amphotericin B complexes show promise as improved amphotericin B formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Tan; Zia, Qamar; Zubair, Swaleha; Stapleton, Paul; Singh, Ruchi; Owais, Mohammad; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana

    2017-07-01

    Commercially available amphotericin B (AmB) formulations are limited by cytotoxicities, lower efficacies, shelf-life related issues and high production costs. In this study, AmB complexes based on poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (PGGA) were prepared and evaluated for their efficacies against AmB-deoxycholate (Fungizone®) and liposomal AmB (AmBisome®). Physical characterizations showed that AmB/PGGA complexes are nanoscopic (20-40 nm) with a negative zeta potential (-45.5 to -51.0 mV), water-soluble, stable in solution (up to 4 weeks, at 4 °C and 25 °C), and have a high drug loading (up to 35% w/w). In vitro, AmB/PGGA complexes exhibited a more favorable cytotoxicity profile than Fungizone® but comparable to AmBisome®, with respect to the hemolytic activity and the modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1ß). In-vivo, AmB/PGGA complexes were significantly more efficacious than both Fungizone® and AmBisome® against experimental murine candidiasis. These results provide strong evidence that AmB/PGGA complexes display better efficacy and safety features than the currently approved AmB products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Human Alveolar Macrophages May Not Be Susceptible to Direct Infection by a Human Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettensohn, David B; Frampton, Mark W; Nichols, Joan E; Roberts, Norbert J

    2016-12-01

    The current studies were undertaken to determine the susceptibility of human alveolar macrophages (AMs) to influenza A virus (IAV) infection in comparison with autologous peripheral blood-derived monocytes-macrophages (PBMs). AMs and PBMs were exposed to IAV in vitro and examined for their ability to bind and internalize IAV, and synthesize viral proteins and RNA. PBMs but not AMs demonstrated binding and internalization of the virus, synthesizing viral proteins and RNA. Exposure of AMs in the presence of a sialidase inhibitor or anti-IAV antibody resulted in viral protein synthesis by the cells. Exposure of AMs to fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled IAV in the presence of anti-fluorescein isothiocyanate antibody also resulted in viral protein synthesis. Thus, human AMs are apparently not susceptible to direct infection by a human IAV but are likely to be infected indirectly in the setting of exposure in the presence of antibody that binds the challenging strain of IAV. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The use of MOX caramel fuel mixed with241Am,242mAm and243Am as burnable absorber actinides for the MTR research reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Ismail; Albarhoum, Mohamad

    2017-07-01

    The MOX (UO 2 &PuO 2 ) caramel fuel mixed with 241 Am, 242m Am and 243 Am as burnable absorber actinides was proposed as a fuel of the MTR-22MW reactor. The MCNP4C code was used to simulate the MTR-22MW reactor and estimate the criticality and the neutronic parameters, and the power peaking factors before and after replacing its original fuel (U 3 O 8 -Al) by the MOX caramel fuel mixed with 241 Am, 242m Am and 243 Am actinides. The obtained results of the criticality, the neutronic parameters, and the power peaking factors for the MOX caramel fuel mixed with 241 Am, 242m Am and 243 Am actinides were compared with the same parameters of the U 3 O 8 -Al original fuel and a maximum difference is -6.18% was found. Additionally, by recycling 2.65% and 2.71% plutonium and 241 Am, 242m Am and 243 Am actinides in the MTR-22MW reactor, the level of 235 U enrichment is reduced from 4.48% to 3% and 2.8%, respectively. This also results in the reduction of the 235 U loading by 32.75% and 37.22% for the 2.65%, the 2.71% plutonium and 241 Am, 242m Am and 243 Am actinides, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Susceptibilities and Spin Gaps of Weakly Coupled Spin Ladders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larochelle, S.

    2004-05-11

    We calculate the uniform and staggered susceptibilities of two-chain spin-1/2 Heisenberg ladders using Monte-Carlo simulations. We show that the gap extracted from the uniform susceptibility and the saturation value of the staggered susceptibility are independent of the sign of the interchain coupling J{perpendicular} in the asymptotic limit |J{perpendicular}|/J {yields} 0. Furthermore, we examine the existence of logarithmic corrections to the linear scaling of the gap with |J{perpendicular}|.

  8. Spontaneous loss of tolerance of autoreative B cell in Act1-deficient AM14 Tg rheumatoid factor (RF) mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltiay, Natalia V.; Lu, Yi; Cullen, Jaime L.; Jørgensen, Trine N.; Shlomchik, Mark J.; Li, Xiaoxia

    2013-01-01

    Self-reactive B cells in BALB/c AM14 transgenic (AM14 Tg) rheumatoid factor (RF) mice are not subject to central or peripheral toleralization. Instead, they remain at a stage of “clonal ignorance”, i.e. they do not proliferate and differentiate into Ab-producing cells. However, the immunoregulatory mechanisms that prevent autoantibody production in these mice remain unclear. In this study, we show that crossing AM14 Tg mice to a mouse strain deficient in Act1, a molecule involved in the regulation of BAFF-R and CD40-signaling in B cells, results in spontaneous activation of AM14 Tg B cells and production of AM14-specific antibodies. Three to five-month old AM14 Tg Act1−/− mice showed significant expansion of AM14 Tg B cells, including a 2–3 fold increase in the spleen and cLNs compared to AM14 Tg Act1+/+ mice. Furthermore, in the presence of endogenous self-Ag (IgHa congenic background), AM14 Tg Act1−/− B cells were spontaneously activated and differentiated into antibody forming cells (AFC). In contrast with previous studies using AM14 Tg MLR.Faslpr mice, we found that a significant number of AM14 Tg cells AM14 Tg Act1−/− mice displayed phenotypic characteristics of GC B cells. Anti-CD40L treatment significantly limited the expansion and activation of AM14 Tg Act1−/− B cells, suggesting that CD40L-mediated signals are required for the retention of these cells. Our results support the important role of Act1 in the regulation of self-reactive B cells and reveal how Act1 functions to prevent the production of autoantibodies. PMID:23904159

  9. Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.

  10. Alcohol increases hypnotic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens-Wheeler, Rebecca; Dienes, Zoltán; Duka, Theodora

    2013-09-01

    One approach to hypnosis suggests that for hypnotic experience to occur frontal lobe activity must be attenuated. For example, cold control theory posits that a lack of awareness of intentions is responsible for the experience of involuntariness and/or the subjective reality of hypnotic suggestions. The mid-dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex and the ACC are candidate regions for such awareness. Alcohol impairs frontal lobe executive function. This study examined whether alcohol affects hypnotisability. We administered 0.8 mg/kg of alcohol or a placebo to 32 medium susceptible participants. They were subsequently hypnotised and given hypnotic suggestions. All participants believed they had received some alcohol. Participants in the alcohol condition were more susceptible to hypnotic suggestions than participants in the placebo condition. Impaired frontal lobe activity facilitates hypnotic responding, which supports theories postulating that attenuation of executive function facilitates hypnotic response, and contradicts theories postulating that hypnotic response involves enhanced inhibitory, attentional or other executive function. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Diagnostic Value of Direct Antibiotic Susceptibility Test for Faster BacterialSusceptibility Reporting in Bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebriarina Hapsari

    2012-12-01

    Methods: Bloods from positive BACTEC bottles which met inclusion and exclusion criteria were put into sterile tubes and centrifuged. The pellets were then used to make 0.5 McFarland bacterial suspensions and directly used for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Interpretations of direct method were compared to standard method to count sensitivity, specificity, sensitive predictive value, resistant predictive value, accuracy, and kappa value. Results: From 58 samples (containing 22 gram negative, 36 gram positive bacteria, there were 309 total antibiotic susceptibility tests. Direct method showed sensitivity, specificity, sensitive predictive value, resistant predictive value, accuracy, and kappa value of 89.3%, 92.9%, 93.8%, 87.8%, 86.4%, and 0.82, respectively. Conclusion: Direct antibiotic susceptibility testing has a good agreement with the standard method so it can aid faster antibiotic susceptibility reporting in bacteraemia (Sains Medika, 4(2:174-181.

  12. Origin of 1/f PM and AM noise in bipolar junction transistor amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, F L; Ferre-Pikal, E S; Jefferts, S R

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of extensive research on phase modulation (PM) and amplitude modulation (AM) noise in linear bipolar junction transistor (BJT) amplifiers. BJT amplifiers exhibit 1/f PM and AM noise about a carrier signal that is much larger than the amplifiers thermal noise at those frequencies in the absence of the carrier signal. Our work shows that the 1/f PM noise of a BJT based amplifier is accompanied by 1/f AM noise which can be higher, lower, or nearly equal, depending on the circuit implementation. The 1/f AM and PM noise in BJTs is primarily the result of 1/f fluctuations in transistor current, transistor capacitance, circuit supply voltages, circuit impedances, and circuit configuration. We discuss the theory and present experimental data in reference to common emitter amplifiers, but the analysis can be applied to other configurations as well. This study provides the functional dependence of 1/f AM and PM noise on transistor parameters, circuit parameters, and signal frequency, thereby laying the groundwork for a comprehensive theory of 1/f AM and PM noise in BJT amplifiers. We show that in many cases the 1/f PM and AM noise can be reduced below the thermal noise of the amplifier.

  13. Magnetic Polarization of the Americium J =0 Ground State in AmFe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, N.; Caciuffo, R.; Wilhelm, F.; Colineau, E.; Eloirdi, R.; Griveau, J.-C.; Rusz, J.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Rogalev, A.; Lander, G. H.

    2015-03-01

    Trivalent americium has a nonmagnetic (J =0 ) ground state arising from the cancellation of the orbital and spin moments. However, magnetism can be induced by a large molecular field if Am3 + is embedded in a ferromagnetic matrix. Using the technique of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, we show that this is the case in AmFe2 . Since ⟨Jz⟩=0 , the spin component is exactly twice as large as the orbital one, the total Am moment is opposite to that of Fe, and the magnetic dipole operator ⟨Tz⟩ can be determined directly; we discuss the progression of the latter across the actinide series.

  14. Using "I Am Moving, I Am Learning" to Increase Quality Instruction in Head Start Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allar, Ishonté; Jones, Emily; Bulger, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Quality teacher-child interactions are characteristic of effective classrooms resulting in benefits for all children, but may be particularly important for children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to explore the perception of Illinois Head Start teachers related to how "I am Moving, I am Learning" (IMIL) could…

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Listeria species isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria species isolated from some ready-to-eat (RTE) foods sold in Kano metropolis, north-western Nigeria was carried out using disc-diffusion method. The results obtained showed that L. monocytogenes was moderately susceptible to all the ...

  16. Reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Salmonella enterica isolates from travelers, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Marianne M; Kotilainen, Pirkko; Huovinen, Pentti; Hurme, Saija; Lukinmaa, Susanna; Webber, Mark A; Piddock, Laura J V; Siitonen, Anja; Hakanen, Antti J

    2009-05-01

    We tested the fluoroquinolone susceptibility of 499 Salmonella enterica isolates collected from travelers returning to Finland during 2003-2007. Among isolates from travelers to Thailand and Malaysia, reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility decreased from 65% to 22% (p = 0.002). All isolates showing nonclassical quinolone resistance were from travelers to these 2 countries.

  17. Topological susceptibility from slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Forcrand, Philippe de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); CERN, Physics Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gerber, Urs [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58040 (Mexico)

    2015-12-14

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility χ{sub t}. In principle it seems straightforward to measure χ{sub t} by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure χ{sub t} even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of χ{sub t}, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear σ-models.

  18. Topological Susceptibility from Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Gerber, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility chi_t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure chi_t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure chi_t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models.

  19. Compact AMS System At Yamagata University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokanai, Fuyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Anshita, Minoru; Izumi, Akihiro; Sakurai, Hirohisa; Saito, Tsugio

    2011-06-01

    A new compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system has been installed in the Kaminoyama research institute at Yamagata University. The AMS system is based on a 0.5 MV Pelletron accelerator developed by National Electrostatics Corp. The performance of the system was investigated using C series samples (C1-C8), standard samples (HOxII), and reagent graphite without any chemical treatment. The precision of 14C measurements for the standard samples is typically higher than 0.3%. The ratio of 14C to 12C is less than 6×10-16 for the reagent graphite. In this paper, we present the performance of the new compact AMS system, as well as of the fully automated 20-reactor graphite lines equipped at the research institute.

  20. Direct coupling of a laser ablation cell to an AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, L., E-mail: wacker@phys.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Muensterer, C. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Laboratory for Inorganic Chemistry, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Hattendorf, B. [Laboratory for Inorganic Chemistry, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Christl, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Guenther, D. [Laboratory for Inorganic Chemistry, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Synal, H.-A. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    In rare cases, cleaned samples can be directly inserted into a negative ion source of an AMS and still meet the requirements for long-term and stable measurements. We present the coupling of a laser ablation system to the gas ion source of an AMS system (MICADAS, ETH Zurich) for direct and continuous CO{sub 2} introduction. Solid carbonate samples like stalagmites or corals are suitable sample materials, which can be ablated and decomposed continuously using a pulsed laser focused onto the surface of a solid sample, which is placed in an airtight ablation cell. CO{sub 2} formed during the ablation of a CaCO{sub 3} sample is continually flushed with He into the gas ion source. The production rate of CO{sub 2} can be adjusted via the laser pulse repetition rate (1-20 Hz), the crater diameter (1-150 {mu}m) and the energy density applied (0.2-3 mJ/pulse) of the laser (frequency quintupled Nd:YAG at 213 nm with 5 ns pulse duration). In our first test, measurements of one sample with known age were replicated within one sigma. Blanks showed 5% contamination of modern carbon of yet unknown origin. In order to develop LA-AMS into a routine sampling tool the ablation cell geometry and settings of the gas ion source have to be further optimized.

  1. Efficient AM Algorithms for Stochastic ML Estimation of DOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihua Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of direction-of-arrival (DOA of signals is a basic and important problem in sensor array signal processing. To solve this problem, many algorithms have been proposed, among which the Stochastic Maximum Likelihood (SML is one of the most concerned algorithms because of its high accuracy of DOA. However, the estimation of SML generally involves the multidimensional nonlinear optimization problem. As a result, its computational complexity is rather high. This paper addresses the issue of reducing computational complexity of SML estimation of DOA based on the Alternating Minimization (AM algorithm. We have the following two contributions. First using transformation of matrix and properties of spatial projection, we propose an efficient AM (EAM algorithm by dividing the SML criterion into two components. One depends on a single variable parameter while the other does not. Second when the array is a uniform linear array, we get the irreducible form of the EAM criterion (IAM using polynomial forms. Simulation results show that both EAM and IAM can reduce the computational complexity of SML estimation greatly, while IAM is the best. Another advantage of IAM is that this algorithm can avoid the numerical instability problem which may happen in AM and EAM algorithms when more than one parameter converges to an identical value.

  2. Seeing what I am doing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2013-01-01

    I argue against the view that an agent’s knowledge of her own current action cannot in any way rely on perception for its justification. Instead, I argue that when it comes to an agent’s knowledge of her own object-oriented intentional action, the agent’s belief about what she is doing is partly...... justified by her perception of the object of action. I proceed by first proposing an account of such actions according to which the agent’s knowledge is partly justified by her perception. I then discuss several of objections to my proposal. The most important objection is that I have only managed to show...... that perception plays an enabling role and not a justificatory role for the agent’s knowledge of her own intentional action...

  3. Measurements of neutron cross section of the {sup 243}Am(n,{gamma}){sup 244}Am reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Hata, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The effective thermal neutron cross section of {sup 243}Am(n,{gamma}){sup 244}Am reaction was measured by the activation method. Highly-purified {sup 243}Am target was irradiated in an aluminum capsule by using a research reactor JRR-3M. The tentative effective thermal neutron cross sections are 3.92 b, and 84.44 b for the production of {sup 244g}Am and {sup 244m}Am, respectively. (author)

  4. A Preliminary Genome-Wide Association Study of Acute Mountain Sickness Susceptibility in a Group of Nepalese Pilgrims Ascending to 4380 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Martin J; Widmer, Nadia; Timulsina, Utsav; Subedi, Ankita; Siwakoti, Ashmita; Pandit, Bidur Prasad; Freeman, Michael G; Carter, Eric A; Manokhina, Irina; Thapa, Ghan Bahadur; Koehle, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    There is significant interindividual variation in acute mountain sickness (AMS) susceptibility in humans. To identify genes related to AMS susceptibility, we used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to simultaneously test associations between genetic variants dispersed throughout the genome and the presence and severity of AMS. DNA samples were collected from subjects who ascended rapidly to Gosainkunda, Nepal (4380 m), as part of the 2005, 2010, and 2012 Janai Purnima festivals. The Lake Louise Score was used to measure AMS severity. The primary analysis was based on 99 male subjects (43 with AMS; 56 without AMS). Genotyping for the GWAS was performed using Infinium Human Core Exome Bead Chips (542,556 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were assayed), and validation genotyping was performed with pyrosequencing in two additional cohorts (n = 101 for each). In total, 270,389 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) passed quality control, and 4 SNPs (one intronic, three nonsynonymous) in the FAM149A gene were associated with AMS severity after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing (p = 1.8E-7); however, in the validation cohorts, FAM149A was not associated with the presence or severity of AMS. No other genes were associated with AMS susceptibility at the genome-wide level. Due to the large influence of environmental factors (i.e., ascent rate and altitude attained) and the difficulties associated with the AMS phenotype (i.e., low repeatability, nonspecific symptoms, potentially independent ailments), we suggest that future studies addressing the variation in the acute human hypoxia response should focus on objective responses to acute hypoxia instead of AMS.

  5. Analysis and Compensation of the AM-AM and AM-PM Distortion for CMOS Cascode Class-E Power Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen An Tsou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and compensation methodology of the AM-AM and AM-PM distortion of cascode class-E power amplifiers are presented. A physical-based model is proposed to illustrate that the nonlinear capacitance and transconductance cause the AM-AM and AM-PM distortion when modulating the supply voltage of the PA. A novel methodology that can reduce the distortion is also proposed. By degenerating common-gate transistor into a resistor, the constant equivalent impedance is obtained so that the AM-AM and AM-PM distortion is compensated. An experimental prototype of 2.6 GHz cascode class-E power amplifier with the AM-AM and AM-PM compensation has been integrated in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology, occupies a total die area of 1.6 mm2. It achieves a drain efficiency of 17.8% and a power-added efficiency of 16.6% while delivering 12 dBm of linear output power and drawing 31 mA from a 1.8 V supply. Finally, a co-simulation result demonstrated that, when the distortion of the PA has been compensated, the EVM is improved from −17 dB to −19 dB with an IEEE802.11a-like signal source.

  6. Cave Cyanobacteria showing antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Lamprinou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cave Cyanobacteria - thriving in an ‘extreme’ environment with interesting species biodiversity - are supposed to be a potential source of bioactive compounds. Lipid extracts from pure cultures of two recently established Cyanobacteria from Greek caves, Toxopsis calypsus and Phormidium melanochroun, were used for antibacterial screening against human pathogenic bacteria (reference and clinical isolates. Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing for both taxa was carried out using the disc-diffusion (Kirby Bauer method, while preliminary data applying the standard broth microdilution method for the determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC are given only for T. calypsus. Antibacterial activity was demonstrated against the Gram-positive clinical and reference bacteria, mostly pronounced in enterococci; no activity was observed against the Gram-negative bacteria. The above screening is the first record of antibacterial activity from lipid extracts of cave Cyanobacteria enhancing the importance of cave microbiota and the necessity for cave conservation.

  7. Acute exposure of mice to high-dose ultrafine carbon black decreases susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Stephen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest that inhalation of carbonaceous particulate matter from biomass combustion increases susceptibility to bacterial pneumonia. In vitro studies report that phagocytosis of carbon black by alveolar macrophages (AM impairs killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We have previously reported high levels of black carbon in AM from biomass smoke-exposed children and adults. We therefore aimed to use a mouse model to test the hypothesis that high levels of carbon loading of AM in vivo increases susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia. Methods Female outbred mice were treated with either intranasal phosphate buffered saline (PBS or ultrafine carbon black (UF-CB in PBS; 500 μg on day 1 and day 4, and then infected with S. pneumoniae strain D39 on day 5. Survival was assessed over 72 h. The effect of UF-CB on AM carbon loading, airway inflammation, and a urinary marker of pulmonary oxidative stress was assessed in uninfected animals. Results Instillation of UF-CB in mice resulted a pattern of AM carbon loading similar to that of biomass-smoke exposed humans. In uninfected animals, UF-CB treated animals had increased urinary 8-oxodG (P = 0.055, and an increased airway neutrophil differential count (P . pneumoniae, whereas morbidity and mortality after infection was reduced in UF-CB treated animals (median survival 48 h vs. 30 h, P . pneumoniae colony forming unit counts, and lower airway levels of keratinocyte-derived chemokine/growth-related oncogene (KC/GRO, and interferon gamma. Conclusion Acute high level loading of AM with ultrafine carbon black particles per se does not increase the susceptibility of mice to pneumococcal infection in vivo.

  8. How I became what I am

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    I am also associated in the editorial activity of sev- eral international journals, and worked as the programme chair of many international conferences. I have not faced gender discrimination in any phase of my education and/or professional career. Wherever I went, I have al- ways been a vocal proponent for women's causes.

  9. AMS gets lift on space shuttle Discovery

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    AMS-02, the CERN-recognized experiment that will seek dark matter, missing matter and antimatter in Space aboard the International Space Station (ISS), has recently got the green light to be part of the STS-134 NASA mission in 2010. Installation of AMS detectors in the Prévessin experiment hall.In a recent press release, NASA announced that the last or last-but-one mission of the Space Shuttle programme would be the one that will deliver AMS, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, to the International Space Station. The Space Shuttle Discovery is due to lift off in July 2010 from Kennedy Space Center and its mission will include the installation of AMS to the exterior of the space station, using both the shuttle and station arms. "It wasn’t easy to get a lift on the Space Shuttle from the Bush administration," says professor Samuel Ting, spokesperson of the experiment, "since during his administration all the funds for space research w...

  10. LDAP: Technologie, Anwendungen (am AWI) und Ausblick

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffenberger, Hans

    2001-01-01

    - LDAP Verzeichnisdienst: Standards, LDAP Schema, ein wenig Geschichte- LDAP als Teil einer IT-Infrastruktur ( Mail, NIS, W2k-ADS )- Anwendungen, insbesondere für Nutzer in der Wissenschaft- Live-Demo AWI Anwendungen- Implementierung am AWI, organisatorische Aspekte- Ausblick: Internet2 Middleware (eduPerson), GRIDs

  11. AMS: From the ISS to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Jordan Juras

    2011-01-01

    The week of 16 May 2011 saw the successful launch and installation of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer aboard the International Space Station. Only 4 minutes after the installation had been completed, cosmic event data started to be recorded and began its long journey from low Earth orbit to the newly constructed Payload Operations and Control Centre located on CERN's Prévessin site.    The AMS Control Room in the newly constructed Building 946 in CERN’s Prévessin site. Unlike the detectors around the LHC ring, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) does not have the luxury of a physical connection to data-processing infrastructure. Instead, cosmic events and data on AMS itself must undergo a lengthy journey before they arrive at the Payload and Operations on the Control Centre (POCC - building 946 Prévessin site) of the AMS collaboration. A joint effort between NASA and CERN makes this transmission possible. “The Space Stat...

  12. Caudillos de América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Laguado

    1966-11-01

    Full Text Available Héroes, caudillos y bandidos asistieron a ese parto lento y doloroso que fue el nacimiento de América. En ocasiones la facies de algunos prototipos se confunden: tras el rostro de un caudillo pueden aparecer los rasgos de un héroe o de un bandido.

  13. Am I at Risk for Gestational Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... higher and higher. This is called high blood sugar or diabetes. Am I at risk for gestational diabetes? Answer ... follow their treatment plans and control their blood sugar levels. Managing Gestational Diabetes: A Patient’s Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy, a ...

  14. The (e− plus e+) Spectrum from AMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We present a measurement of the cosmic ray e+ + e− flux in the range 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV based on the analysis of 10.6 million (e+ + e−) events. The statistics and the resolution of AMS provide a precision measurement of the flux. The flux is smooth and reveals new and distinct information.

  15. A final test for AMS at ESTEC

    CERN Multimedia

    Paola Catapano

    2010-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) left CERN on Friday 12th February on the first leg of its journey to the International Space Station (ISS). The special convoy carrying the experiment arrived at the European Space Agency’s research and technology centre (ESTEC) in the Netherlands at 4.30 pm on Tuesday 16th February. AMS will then fly to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida before lifting off aboard the space shuttle.   Arrival of the AMS detector at ESTEC in the Netherlands (Credit ESA/Jari Makinen) The transportation of an 8.5-tonne load filled with superfluid helium across Europe is no ordinary shipment. The AMS detector was first inserted into a supporting structure, specially built by the collaboration’s mechanical engineers, then surrounded by protective plastic foil, placed in a box and finally carefully loaded onto the special lorry also carrying a diesel generator running a pump to keep the helium at the right temperature (about 2 K). Its initial destination is ES...

  16. Microwave susceptibility experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConaghy, C.

    1984-05-29

    In certain experimental environments, systems can be affected or damaged by microwave pulses. I have conducted tests at LLNL to understand the phenomenology of microwave susceptibility of system components and subsystem components. To date, my experiments have concentrated on bipolar transistors, similar to what might be used in discrete analog circuits, and on CMOS RAM chips, which might be used in a computer memory system. I observed a decrease in failure energies for both the transistor and the integrated curcuit as I shortened the microwave pulse width. An S band (2.86 GHz) transmit/receive (T/R) tube has also been tested both at S band and at X band (8.16 GHz). The S band pulse had limitations in rise-time from zero power, which had an effect on the amount of power that could be transmitted through the T/R tube, as much as 0.7% of the incident power passed through the tube. All tests were conducted in closed-waveguide or coax test-fixtures, in contrast to the anechoic chambers utilized by other experimenters. I have used both S band and X band Klystron generators. For very high power (greater than 1 MW), I used an additional pulse-compression cavity at S band. Other subsystem components such as an X band mixer and an X band T/R tube will be tested in the future. 8 references.

  17. Skin fibroblasts from individuals hemizygous for the familial adenopolyposis susceptibility gene show delayed crisis in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.; Kazim, D.; Kraveka, J.; Pollack, R.E. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Normal human fibroblast cells have not been reported to escape crisis--that is they die after about 24 doublings in culture. The authors have been studying the growth properties of skin fibroblast cells from persons in families with familial adenopolyposis of the colon (FAP). An individual hemizygous at the FAP locus will develop hyperplasia of the colonic epithelium followed by colonic polyps, both at an early age. Polyps themselves still retain a single functional FAP allele. A mutation or deletion in this allele in a polyp is hypothesized to lead to further loss of growth control; thus, a tumor is formed. They found that the in vitro life-span of skin fibroblast cells from FAP individuals and from some asymptomatic children were markedly extended when compared with normal individuals.

  18. Nutrition affects insect susceptibility to Bt toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Carrie A.; Behmer, Spencer T.; Tessnow, Ashley E.; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Pusztai-Carey, Marianne; Sword, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide resistance represents a major challenge to global food production. The spread of resistance alleles is the primary explanation for observations of reduced pesticide efficacy over time, but the potential for gene-by-environment interactions (plasticity) to mediate susceptibility has largely been overlooked. Here we show that nutrition is an environmental factor that affects susceptibility to Bt toxins. Protein and carbohydrates are two key macronutrients for insect herbivores, and the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa zea self-selects and performs best on diets that are protein-biased relative to carbohydrates. Despite this, most Bt bioassays employ carbohydrate-biased rearing diets. This study explored the effect of diet protein-carbohydrate content on H. zea susceptibility to Cry1Ac, a common Bt endotoxin. We detected a 100-fold increase in LC50 for larvae on optimal versus carbohydrate-biased diets, and significant diet-mediated variation in survival and performance when challenged with Cry1Ac. Our results suggest that Bt resistance bioassays that use ecologically- and physiologically-mismatched diets over-estimate susceptibility and under-estimate resistance.

  19. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Klaus R.; Jørgensen, Erik; Droce, Aida; Olesen, Tom; Jensen, Bent B.; Rosenvinge, Flemming S.; Sondergaard, Teis E.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in high demand in health care fields as antimicrobial-resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here, we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope) which, based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effects within 6 min and within 30 min in complex samples from pigs suffering from catheter-associated urinary tract infections. The oCelloScope system provides a fast high-throughput screening method for detecting bacterial susceptibility that might entail an earlier diagnosis and introduction of appropriate targeted therapy and thus combat the threat from multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The oCelloScope system can be employed for a broad range of applications within bacteriology and might present new vistas as a point-of-care instrument in clinical and veterinary settings. PMID:23596243

  20. [Effects of mycorrhizal colonization and medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis inoculated by different foreign AM fungi species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou Nong; Ding, Bo; Feng, Yuan; Qi, Wen-hua; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Xiang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    After 28 foreign species of AM fungi were inoculated in sterilized soil, the effects of the AM mycorrhizal colonization and the medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed by combination of inoculation test in pot at room temperature and instrumental analysis. The results showed that, compared with control group (CK), the inoculation of foreign AM fungi in the soil influenced the spore density, mycorrhizal infection rate, and colonization intensity of AM fungi in root system of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The inoculation of foreign AM fungi enhanced the mycorrhiza viability of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis by increasing the activity of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in intraradical hyphae. The content of single steroid saponin in rhizome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis showed variation after P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was inoculated by different foreign species of AM fungi, which was beneficial for increasing the medicine quality; however, the kinds of steroid saponin showed no difference. In a degree, there was a selectivity of symbiosis between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and foreign AM fungi. And we found that the Claroideoglomus claroideum and Racocetra coralloidea were best foreign AM fungi species for cultivating P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis under field condition.

  1. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  2. The AMS-02 transition radiation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kirn, Th

    2004-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer AMS02 will be equipped with a large transition radiation detector (TRD) to achieve a proton background suppression necessary for dark matter searches. The AMS02 TRD consists of 20 layers of fleece radiator each with Xe/CO//2 proportional wire straw tubes read out by a dedicated low-power data- acquisition system. A space-qualified TRD design will be presented. The performance of a 20-layer prototype was tested at CERN with electron, myon and pion beams up to l00 GeV and with protons up to 250 GeV. The beam-test results will be compared to Geant3 MC predictions. The detector is under construction at RWTH Aachen; the gas system will be built at MIT, slow-control at MIT and INFN Rome and DAQ at TH Karlsruhe. This project is funded by the German Space Agency DLR, the US Department of Energy DOE and NASA.

  3. América Latina marginada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Drago

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La renovación en los países comunistas atrae la atención, el comercio, las inversiones y la ayuda de Estados Unidos, Japón y Europa Occidental. En una primera etapa, ello incidirá negativamente en las relaciones de ese continente con América Latina, es creciente y está en pleno proceso acelerado, la marginación del comercio exterior de la Comunidad Europea. Las inversiones directas no presentan perspectivas. Asegura que a esto se suma la invasión a Panamá, que fue interpretada como que las potencias llegaron a acuerdos en Malta para el reparto del mundo.Con la perestroika la situación de América Latina desmejoró notablemente.

  4. Cambio 16 en América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel De Pablos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El proyecto de Cambio 16 América es ambicioso. Actualmente la empresa avanza en sus negociaciones con grupos locales para ediciones nacionales especiales. El mercado integrado para la prensa gráfica en América Latina es una realidad en gestación. Quien no espera su consolidación y opta por comenzar la seducción del emergente lector continental es el editor del Grupo 16. Su apuesta parece estar dando resultados rápidos. Cambio 16 jugó un importante papel en la política española hacia la democracia tanto en la dictadura franquista como en la transición hacia a la democracia y el cambio. EL Semanario Cambio 16 publica lo que los medios nacionales no saben, no quieren o no pueden divulgar.

  5. pso.ATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isolates vere made using standard methods, Antibiotic susceptibility tests against commonly prescribed ... Acute otitis media is rapid with short .... sensitivity tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests: The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of major Gram positive and negative bacterial isolates obtained from clinical specimens.

  6. Cytomolecular discrimination of the Am chromosomes of Triticum monococcum and the A chromosomes of Triticum aestivum using microsatellite DNA repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megyeri, Mária; Mikó, Péter; Farkas, András; Molnár-Láng, Márta; Molnár, István

    2017-02-01

    The cytomolecular discrimination of the Am- and A-genome chromosomes facilitates the selection of wheat-Triticum monococcum introgression lines. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with the commonly used DNA probes Afa family, 18S rDNA and pSc119.2 showed that the more complex hybridisation pattern obtained in T. monococcum relative to bread wheat made it possible to differentiate the Am and A chromosomes within homoeologous groups 1, 4 and 5. In order to provide additional chromosomal landmarks to discriminate the Am and A chromosomes, the microsatellite repeats (GAA)n, (CAG)n, (CAC)n, (AAC)n, (AGG)n and (ACT)n were tested as FISH probes. These showed that T. monococcum chromosomes have fewer, generally weaker, simple sequence repeat (SSR) signals than the A-genome chromosomes of hexaploid wheat. A differential hybridisation pattern was observed on 6Am and 6A chromosomes with all the SSR probes tested except for the (ACT)n probe. The 2Am and 2A chromosomes were differentiated by the signals given by the (GAA)n, (CAG)n and (AAC)n repeats, while only (GAA)n discriminated the chromosomes 3Am and 3A. Chromosomes 7Am and 7A could be differentiated by the lack of (GAA)n and (AGG)n signals on 7A. As potential landmarks for identifying the Am chromosomes, SSR repeats will facilitate the introgression of T. monococcum chromatin into wheat.

  7. I am remix your web identity

    CERN Document Server

    Sordi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    I Am: Remix Your Web Identity explores methods of designing and developing a personal website with RSS feeds that aggregate blog posts along with posts on social networks, such as Flickr, YouTube, Goodreads, Last.fm, and Delicious, in order to regain control and ownership (as well as authorship) of one's identity in one consistent and customized location. The book provides a short overview of the evolution of digital identity and the transformation of personal websites from Geocities to blogs...

  8. Histologische und immunohistochemische Untersuchung am menschlichen Rhabdosphinkter

    OpenAIRE

    Holliger S; Kappeler A; Schaffner T

    2001-01-01

    Ziel: Es bestehen zunehmend Hinweise, daß dem Rhabdosphinkter eine zentrale Rolle im Rahmen des Kontinenzmechanismus, insbesondere nach radikaler Prostatektomie, zukommt. Gleichzeitig besteht jedoch unverändert Unklarheit über dessen genaue anatomische Ausdehnung und die Art der Muskelfasern, weshalb die vorliegende Studie, unter spezieller Berücksichtigung der Anatomie und Muskelfaserzusammensetzung, durchgeführt wurde. Material und Methode: Der Rhabdosphinkter am Autopsiepräparat von 10 ...

  9. AMS with light nuclei at small accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Enachescu, M.

    2017-06-01

    AMS applications with lighter nuclei are presented. It will be shown how Carbon-14, Boron-10, Beryllium-10, and Tritium-3 can be used to provide valuable information in forensic science, environmental physics, nuclear pollution, in material science and for diagnose of the plasma confinement in fusion reactors. Small accelerators are reliable, efficient and possess the highest ion beam transmissions that confer high precision in measurements.

  10. New art in América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Ariza

    1958-10-01

    Full Text Available Con este título, Arte nuevo en América, ha aparecido el libro más completo que se ha publicado sobre la pintura moderna de los Estados Unidos. Editado por John I. H. Baur, director del Museo Whitney, y escrito por el propio Baur y otros cuatro directores de museos y galerías americanos, incluye además biografías y textos escritos por los propios pintores.

  11. Recent results from the AMS-02 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecchi Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The AMS-02 detector is a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer operating onboard the International Space Station since May 2011. The main goals of the detector are the search for antimatter and dark matter in space, as well as the measurement of cosmic ray composition and flux. Precise measurements of cosmic ray positrons and electrons are presented in this document, based on 41×109 events collected during the first 30 months of operations.

  12. Hypnotic susceptibility and dream characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamore, N; Barrett, D

    1989-11-01

    This study examined the relationship of hypnotic susceptibility to a variety of dream characteristics and types of dream content. A Dream Questionnaire was constructed synthesizing Gibson's dream inventory and Hilgard's theoretical conceptions of hypnosis. Employing the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the Field Inventory for evaluating hypnotic response, several dream dimensions correlated significantly with hypnotizability. For subjects as a whole, the strongest correlates were the frequency of dreams which they believed to be precognitive and out-of-body dreams. Ability to dream on a chosen topic also correlated significantly with hypnotic susceptibility for both genders. For females only, there was a negative correlation of hypnotic susceptibility to flying dreams. Absorption correlated positively with dream recall, ability to dream on a chosen topic, reports of conflict resolution in dreams, creative ideas occurring in dreams, amount of color in dreams, pleasantness of dreams, bizarreness of dreams, flying dreams and precognitive dreams.

  13. Towards an antiproton measurement with AMS-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachlechner, Andreas [RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    AMS-02 is a high-precision multi-purpose particle detector. It has been onboard the International Space Station since May 2011. The antiproton measurement is an important part of the AMS-02 physics program. An excess above the expected spectrum due to interactions of cosmic rays with the interstellar matter can hint at exotic sources like dark matter annihilation. The antiproton-to-proton ratio and the antiproton flux itself may also improve the understanding of the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. Due to the very small abundance of antiprotons in the cosmic radiation of about 10{sup -5} compared to protons a very precise particle identification is crucial. The main backgrounds are other singly charged particles like protons, electrons, and pions produced within the detector material itself. At lower energies the time-of-flight system and the ring-imaging Cherenkov detector separate light particles from protons. The electromagnetic calorimeter and the transition radiation detector redundantly suppress the electron background. The reconstruction of the charge sign by the magnetic spectrometer is limited by its resolution and has to be taken into account carefully. The methods to identify antiprotons in the cosmic-ray measurement of AMS-02 in different energy regions will be presented. The ways to handle the uncertainties to the antiproton-to-proton ratio considering the various challenges will be discussed.

  14. Production Management System for AMS Computing Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choutko, V.; Demakov, O.; Egorov, A.; Eline, A.; Shan, B. S.; Shi, R.

    2017-10-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer [1] (AMS) has collected over 95 billion cosmic ray events since it was installed on the International Space Station (ISS) on May 19, 2011. To cope with enormous flux of events, AMS uses 12 computing centers in Europe, Asia and North America, which have different hardware and software configurations. The centers are participating in data reconstruction, Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation [2]/Data and MC production/as well as in physics analysis. Data production management system has been developed to facilitate data and MC production tasks in AMS computing centers, including job acquiring, submitting, monitoring, transferring, and accounting. It was designed to be modularized, light-weighted, and easy-to-be-deployed. The system is based on Deterministic Finite Automaton [3] model, and implemented by script languages, Python and Perl, and the built-in sqlite3 database on Linux operating systems. Different batch management systems, file system storage, and transferring protocols are supported. The details of the integration with Open Science Grid are presented as well.

  15. Plutonium measurements on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, Elena [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Avda. Thomas Alva Edison 7, Isla de la Cartuja, 41092 Seville (Spain)], E-mail: elechacal@alum.us.es; Enamorado, Santiago Miguel [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Avda. Thomas Alva Edison 7, Isla de la Cartuja, 41092 Seville (Spain); Garcia-Leon, Manuel [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Avda. Reina Mercedes, s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain); Suter, Martin; Wacker, Lukas [Institute of Particle Physics, ETH-Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    Plutonium isotopes have been recently added to the list of radionuclides that can be measured with the new generation of compact AMS facilities. In this paper we present first experimental results concerning the development of the plutonium AMS technique at 680 kV on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) in Sevilla, Spain. This is the first compact AMS machine designed and manufactured by High Voltage Engineering Europa. As we demonstrate, the obtained backgrounds for {sup 239,240}Pu, of about 10{sup 6} atoms, and the {sup 239}Pu/{sup 238}U mass suppression factor, in the range of 10{sup -9}, compare to the ones achieved on other AMS facilities. With the measurement of reference materials provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA-375, IAEA-Soil-6, IAEA-381) and samples already studied on the 600 kV compact ETH/PSI AMS system at Zuerich, we show that the CNA system can be perfectly used for the routine measurement of plutonium isotopes at environmental levels.

  16. Ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huhn, S.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel (ed.); Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2012), s. 197-204 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:EU FP7(XE) HEALTH-F4-2007-200767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * molecular epidemiology * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.500, year: 2012

  17. Talk shows, fascinación o rechazo

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Acevedo Rojas

    2015-01-01

    Infidelidades, odio, violencia, alcoholismo, mentira y traiciones, entre otras debilidades humanas, han pasado a formar parte de las programaciones de televisión en América Latina, durante la década de los 90 a través de los programas de Talk Shows. Cristina, El Padre Alberto, Laura en América, Mary Tere, entre los más vistos. Da cuenta de lo que hay detrás de estos programas; por qué se muestra la vida íntima; por qué se los dirige a sectores socioeconómicos bajos; por qué los excesos y degr...

  18. Talk shows, fascinación o rechazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Acevedo Rojas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infidelidades, odio, violencia, alcoholismo, mentira y traiciones, entre otras debilidades humanas, han pasado a formar parte de las programaciones de televisión en América Latina, durante la década de los 90 a través de los programas de Talk Shows. Cristina, El Padre Alberto, Laura en América, Mary Tere, entre los más vistos. Da cuenta de lo que hay detrás de estos programas; por qué se muestra la vida íntima; por qué se los dirige a sectores socioeconómicos bajos; por qué los excesos y degradación humana. Será que esta televisión basura está al servicio del poder.

  19. Think Big: Leadership Projects for AMS and Montessori Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    2014-01-01

    The American Montessori Society's (AMS) 2014 Living Legacy recipient, John Chattin-McNichols, delivered the keynote address at the Annual Conference in Dallas, TX, on March 27, 2014, In his speech, he described three overall highlights of AMS: (1) AMS is now a world-leading organization; (2) It must become a learning organization; and (3)…

  20. 47 CFR 73.44 - AM transmission system emission limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AM transmission system emission limitations. 73... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.44 AM transmission system emission limitations... and suitable swept-frequency RF spectrum analyzer using a peak hold duration of 10 minutes, no video...

  1. 47 CFR 73.49 - AM transmission system fencing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AM transmission system fencing requirements. 73.49 Section 73.49 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.49 AM transmission system fencing requirements...

  2. Interview Roberto Battiston, AMS Deputy Spokesperson, English version

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2011-01-01

    "The Universe is providing cosmic rays all the time". Roberto Battiston, deputy spokesperson of the AMS experiment (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) comments on the uninterrupted flow of high energy cosmic rays (several billion events per week) AMS is detecting since launch and deployment on the International Space Station (ISS). Rushes of the AMS POCC (Payload and Operations Control Centre) in CERN- Prevessin follow.

  3. Quantitative susceptibility mapping of small objects using volume constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Saifeng; Neelavalli, Jaladhar; Cheng, Yu-Chung N; Tang, Jin; Mark Haacke, E

    2013-03-01

    Microbleeds have been implicated to play a role in many neurovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The diameter of each microbleed has been used previously as a possible quantitative measure for grading microbleeds. We propose that magnetic susceptibility provides a new quantitative measure of extravasated blood. Recently, a Fourier-based method has been used that allows susceptibility quantification from phase images for any arbitrarily shaped structures. However, when very small objects, such as microbleeds, are considered, the accuracy of this susceptibility mapping method still remains to be evaluated. In this article, air bubbles and glass beads are taken as microbleed surrogates to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of the susceptibility mapping method. We show that when an object occupies only a few voxels, an estimate of the true volume of the object is necessary for accurate susceptibility quantification. Remnant errors in the quantified susceptibilities and their sources are evaluated. We show that quantifying magnetic moment, rather than the susceptibility of these small structures, may be a better and more robust alternative. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Antibiotics susceptibility of Streptococcus and Enterococcus: data of Onerba network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachée, A; Varon, E; Jouy, E; Meunier, D

    2009-05-01

    This work was aimed to analyze trends in susceptibility to antibiotics among the main species of beta-hemolytic streptococci involved in community-acquired infections in human (Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus agalactiae), or in animals (Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus uberis) and also among the main enterocci species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Data were recorded since 1996 through the Onerba networks. S. pyogenes, as the other beta-hemolytic streptococci studied remained fully susceptible to beta-lactam antibiotics. However, susceptibility to macrolides is clearly decreasing in S. pyogenes. In 2002, only 62 to 65% of the strains according to the network considered, were susceptible to erythromycin. A similar trend was observed for S. agalactiae with only 75% of erythromycin susceptibility in 2002, and for both species isolated from animals S. suis and S. uberis, with respectively 35 and 76% of strains susceptible to erythromycin. In enterococci, susceptibility to beta-lactams remained stable between 2000 and 2004. Indeed, the susceptibility to aminopenicillins remained high in E. faecalis (about 98%), whereas the proportion of E. faecium isolates susceptible to these antibiotics were lower than 60%. From 1999 to 2004, various studies conducted in French hospitals showed that the vancomycin resistance among enterococci accounted for less than 2%. However, the recent emergence of glycopeptide resistant enterococci clusters in French hospitals is a matter of concern and emphasizes the need for an ongoing surveillance. Such trend in macrolide resistance among S. pyogenes or S. agalactiae should consequently lead to propose other alternatives in case of beta-lactam allergy, and for pharyngitis, to rethink the place of the culture for susceptibility testing.

  5. Virtual AM Stereo and Surround Sound to setup AM/FM Radio Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvakumaran Vadivelmurugan

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of virtual surround sound and stereo to AM radio has been proposed in this study. This technology can be further applied to aid the construction of an AM radio theatre. Adding to the advantages of AM, the lower bandwidth, higher range and simpler circuitry, AM can now offer excellent sound effect with the post-transmission process. The motivation for the introduction of virtual surround sound is the poor quality of AM sound. In this study, the response by human ear has been thoroughly investigated and the methodology to create virtual surround sound has been developed. The elements essential to setup audio theatre such as the components of audio chain, multiple unit audio speaker, inner section of the ear, psychological effect of different ranges of frequency and radio theatre design have been extensively studied on the basis of Helmholtz audition theory. The vital changes include the different frequency division multiplexing of message at the transmitting end, three phases of the process, resulting in the vertical and horizontal digital connection, espresso program and the 3x12 speaker design theatre.

  6. Entanglement susceptibility: area laws and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Paolo; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo

    2013-04-01

    Generic quantum states in the Hilbert space of a many-body system are nearly maximally entangled whereas low-energy physical states are not; the so-called area laws for quantum entanglement are widespread. In this paper we introduce the novel concept of entanglement susceptibility by expanding the 2-Rényi entropy in the boundary couplings. We show how this concept leads to the emergence of area laws for bi-partite quantum entanglement in systems ruled by local gapped Hamiltonians. Entanglement susceptibility also captures quantitatively which violations one should expect when the system becomes gapless. We also discuss an exact series expansion of the 2-Rényi entanglement entropy in terms of connected correlation functions of a boundary term. This is obtained by identifying Rényi entropy with ground state fidelity in a doubled and twisted theory.

  7. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients Referring to Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynab Golshani; Ali Mohammad Ahadi; Ali Sharifzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this article as: Golshani Z, Ahadi AM, Sharifzadeh A. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients Referring to Hospitals. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(2):48-53. Abstract: Background & Aims of the Study: The aim of this study was to detect and survey the antibiotic resistance pattern of Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa isolated from patients in Isfahan (located in central Iran) hospitals. Materials & Methods : A Total of 50 clinical isola...

  8. Dynamics of Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus (AmFV) Infections in Honey Bees and Relationships with Other Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Ulrike; Forsgren, Eva; Charrière, Jean-Daniel; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-05-22

    Apis mellifera filamentous virus (AmFV) is a large double stranded DNA virus of honey bees, but its relationship with other parasites and prevalence are poorly known. We analyzed individual honey bees from three colonies at different times post emergence in order to monitor the dynamics of the AmFV gut colonization under natural conditions. Prevalence and loads of microsporidia and trypanosomes were also recorded, as well as five common honey bee RNA viruses. The results show that a high proportion of bees get infected with AmFV during the first week post-emergence (75%) and that AmFV DNA levels remained constant. A similar pattern was observed for microsporidia while trypanosomes seem to require more time to colonize the gut. No significant associations between these three infections were found, but significant positive correlations were observed between AmFV and RNA viruses. In parallel, the prevalence of AmFV in France and Sweden was assessed from pooled honey bee workers. The data indicate that AmFV is almost ubiquitous, and does not seem to follow seasonal patterns, although higher viral loads were significantly detected in spring. A high prevalence of AmFV was also found in winter bees, without obvious impact on overwintering of the colonies.

  9. Dynamics of Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus (AmFV Infections in Honey Bees and Relationships with Other Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Hartmann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera filamentous virus (AmFV is a large double stranded DNA virus of honey bees, but its relationship with other parasites and prevalence are poorly known. We analyzed individual honey bees from three colonies at different times post emergence in order to monitor the dynamics of the AmFV gut colonization under natural conditions. Prevalence and loads of microsporidia and trypanosomes were also recorded, as well as five common honey bee RNA viruses. The results show that a high proportion of bees get infected with AmFV during the first week post-emergence (75% and that AmFV DNA levels remained constant. A similar pattern was observed for microsporidia while trypanosomes seem to require more time to colonize the gut. No significant associations between these three infections were found, but significant positive correlations were observed between AmFV and RNA viruses. In parallel, the prevalence of AmFV in France and Sweden was assessed from pooled honey bee workers. The data indicate that AmFV is almost ubiquitous, and does not seem to follow seasonal patterns, although higher viral loads were significantly detected in spring. A high prevalence of AmFV was also found in winter bees, without obvious impact on overwintering of the colonies.

  10. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  11. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  12. Evaluation of MA Recycling Concept with High Am-Containing MOX (Am-MOX) Fuel and Development of Its Fuel Fabrication Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kenya; Ishii, Tetsuya; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Asaga, Takeo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, O-arai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 311-1393 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    In order to realize recycling of MAs (minor actinides) generated from LWRs at an early stage of introductory period of FBR, we proposed the heterogeneous MA recycle concept, based on high Am-MOX as the target fuel, which was expected to provide economical competitiveness and be technically (1)(2). In this paper, an economical evaluation made from the viewpoint of reduction of the amount of high level vitrified waste by MA separation from high level radioactive waste and development of the high Am-MOX fabrication process are shown. [Cost estimation for vitrified waste management] The evaluation of waste management cost reduction by MA recycling was carried out. The construction costs of the facilities for the waste storage and vitrification were estimated from the cost data of reference facilities (3) by comparison of the waste treating scale. Also the transport and disposal costs based on the number of waste containers and the unit costs (3) were estimated. The estimation results showed that a 37% cost reduction for construction of the facilities and a 41% cost reduction for waste disposal could be possible because of the decreased number of waste containers by MA recycling. [Development of high Am-MOX fuel fabrication process] To mitigate undesirable irradiation behavior of high Am-MOX fuel due to inner surface corrosion of cladding dominated by the oxygen-to-metal ratio of the oxide fuel, small particles of uranium metal should be dispersed in the Am-MOX fuel. Also, to improve thermal conductivity of the fuel, particles of a metal with high conductivity should be dispersed in Am-MOX. The innovative fabrication process, which includes a pelletizing step for Am-MOX including U and Mo particles using a hot-press apparatus and a granulating step for Am-MOX powder to prevent high level radioactive dust generation, has been developed.A preliminary hot-press test using UO{sub 2} powder was done to determine the pelletizing process conditions. The test results showed

  13. ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY OF POTENTIALLY PROBIOTIC LACTOBACILLUS STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Han

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of 29 Lactobacilli to 13 antibiotics was assayed by paper disc diffusion method. Plasmids and gastrointestinal tolerance were detected. The relationship between plasmids andantibiotic resistance was discussed. The results showed that all of the strains were resistant to bacitracin, polymyxin B, kanamycin, and nalidixic acid. Many strains were relatively sensitive tochloramphenicol and tetracycline. Six strains contained plasmids and showed good gastrointestinal tolerance. β-lactam resistance gene blr was found in the plasmid of L. plantarum CICC 23180by PCR. The study will be helpful to promote the safety evaluation and development of potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

  14. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ban

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4 and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg. Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity.

  15. How to convert biological carbon into graphite for AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getachew, G; Kim, S; Burri, B J; Kelly, P B; Haack, K W; Ognibene, T J; Buchholz, B A; Vogel, J S; Modrow, J; Clifford, A J

    2006-07-27

    Isotope tracer studies, particularly radiocarbon measurements, play a key role in biological, nutritional, and environmental research. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is now the most sensitive detection method for radiocarbon, but AMS is not widely used in kinetic studies of humans. Part of the reason is the expense, but costs would decrease if AMS were used more widely. One component in the cost is sample preparation for AMS. Biological and environmental samples are commonly reduced to graphite before they are analyzed by AMS. Improvements and mechanization of this multi-step procedure is slowed by a lack of organized educational materials for AMS sample preparation that would allow new investigators to work with the technique without a substantial outlay of time and effort. We present a detailed sample preparation protocol for graphitizing biological samples for AMS and include examples of nutrition studies that have used this procedure.

  16. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  17. New data acquisition system for AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfenninger, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A new data acquisition system based on a VME front-end computer, a Sun workstation and a PC has been installed. It is used for the acquisition of mainly AMS data, their graphical display, and storage of the data in a Oracle database. The measurement of magazines of 25 sample each is fully automated. Several data parameters such as transmission are regularly checked. In case of problems the operator is informed by optical and/or acoustical signals. Screens are updated automatically after every measurement cycle. (author) 1 fig.

  18. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...... of the scale's reliability, factor structure, and validity on the basis of analyzing data from independent samples of exhibitors at the international trade shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne); and it concludes with a discussion of potential managerial applications and implications for future research. New...

  19. Difference in Striga-susceptibility is reflected in strigolactone secretion profile, but not in compatibility and host preference in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in two maize cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Kaori; Arakawa, Ryota; Ishimoto, Keiko; Kim, Hyun Il; Kisugi, Takaya; Xie, Xiaonan; Nomura, Takahito; Kanampiu, Fred; Yokota, Takao; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2015-05-01

    Strigolactones released from plant roots trigger both seed germination of parasitic weeds such as Striga spp. and hyphal branching of the symbionts arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Generally, strigolactone composition in exudates is quantitatively and qualitatively different among plants, which may be involved in susceptibility and host specificity in the parasite-plant interactions. We hypothesized that difference in strigolactone composition would have a significant impact on compatibility and host specificity/preference in AM symbiosis. Strigolactones in root exudates of Striga-susceptible (Pioneer 3253) and -resistant (KST 94) maize (Zea mays) cultivars were characterized by LC-MS/MS combined with germination assay using Striga hermonthica seeds. Levels of colonization and community compositions of AM fungi in the two cultivars were investigated in field and glasshouse experiments. 5-Deoxystrigol was exuded exclusively by the susceptible cultivar, while the resistant cultivar mainly exuded sorgomol. Despite the distinctive difference in strigolactone composition, the levels of AM colonization and the community compositions were not different between the cultivars. The present study demonstrated that the difference in strigolactone composition has no appreciable impact on AM symbiosis, at least in the two maize cultivars, and further suggests that the traits involved in Striga-resistance are not necessarily accompanied by reduction in compatibility to AM fungi. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. An AMS study of magma transport and emplacement mechanisms in mafic dykes from the Etendeka Province, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Miriam; Trumbull, Robert B.; Kontny, Agnes; Greiling, Reinhard O.

    2017-10-01

    The Henties Bay Outjo dyke swarm (HOD) in NW Namibia is part of the early Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province. The dykes are dominantly doleritic, compositionally equivalent to the erupted lava series and thus the HOD provides a look at the feeder systems of a flood basalt province. The subvertical dykes mostly strike NE-SW and minor NW-SE, parallel or perpendicular to the Damara Belt in which they intruded. We present a magnetic fabric study using the anisotropies of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM) with the aim to derive magma flow directions and better constrain emplacement mechanisms within the dyke swarm. Magnetic susceptibility and its anisotropy in the dykes is mainly controlled by distribution anisotropy of titanomagnetite that mimics the flow-oriented silicate fabric. The anisotropy is low in most samples, supporting a magmatic origin. In 66 of 110 investigated samples the AMS fabric is ;normal;, with the κmax axis (inferred flow orientation) within the dyke plane. Most samples yielded vertical to subvertical flow orientations regardless of location near or distant from the former rifted margin. The ;anomalous; magnetic fabrics, where κmax is inclined to the dyke plane, are attributed to two mechanisms. One is the single-domain effect of titanomagnetite, which was found by unequal orientations of AMS and AARM fabrics. The other case anomalous fabric is rotation of the AMS axes by shear within the magma, producing symmetric imbrication of AMS fabric on opposite dyke walls; or more commonly, asymmetric magnetic fabrics, which we relate to tectonic shear at the dyke walls during emplacement. Field support for syn-emplacement shear is given by dyke segmentation geometries including locally curved segment tips, en-echelon arrangements and left/right-stepping displacements. Regionally, syn-emplacement shear is consistent with the observed reactivation during Gondwana breakup of

  1. It's About Time: Interpreting AMS Antimatter Data in Terms of Cosmic Ray Propagation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    If cosmic ray positrons come from a secondary origin, then their production spectrum is correlated with the production spectrum of other secondary particles such as boron and antiprotons through scattering cross sections measured in the laboratory. This allows to define a first-principle upper bound on the positron flux at the Earth, independent of propagation model assumptions. Using currently available B/C and antiproton/proton data, we show that the positron flux reported by AMS is consistent with the bound and saturates it at high energies. This coincidence is a compelling indication for a secondary source. We explain how improved AMS measurements of the high energy boron, antiproton, and secondary radioactive nuclei fluxes can corroborate or falsify the secondary source hypothesis. Assuming that the positrons are secondary, we show that AMS data imply a propagation time in the Galaxy of order 1Myr or less for cosmic rays with magnetic rigidity > 300 GV. This corresponds to an average traversed interstel...

  2. Evaluating AM1/d-CB1 for Chemical Glycobiology QM/MM Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Krishna K; Naidoo, Kevin J

    2014-10-14

    The newly parametrized AM1/d-CB1 is evaluated for its performance in modeling monosaccharide structure, carbohydrate ring pucker, amino acid proton transfer, DNA base pair interactions, carbohydrate-aromatic π interactions, and phosphates that are prominent in glycosyltransferases. The accuracy of the method in these computations is compared to a comprehensive range of NDDO methods commonly used to study glycan structure and reactivity in chemical biology. AM1/d-CB1 shows significant improvement over existing NDDO type methods in the computation of five and six membered carbohydrate ring pucker free energy surfaces. Moreover, the computation of carbohydrate amino acid interactions commonly present in catalytic domains and binding sites are improved over existing NDDO methods. AM1/d-CB1 shows slight improvement for carbohydrate-aromatic π interactions compared to a commonly used NDDO method (AM1). The method is applied to a glycosyltransferase reaction, where it is the only NDDO method able to achieve an optimized reaction profile. Moreover, a comparison of the geometry optimized computations of the reaction scheme give a transition state energy barrier that best compares with DFT (MPW1K). Overall, AM1/d-CB1 is shown to significantly improve on existing NDDO methods in modeling chemical glycobiological events.

  3. Inherited susceptibility and radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    There is continuing concern that some people in the general population may have genetic makeups that place them at particularly high risk for radiation-induced cancer. The existence of such a susceptible subpopulation would have obvious implications for the estimation of risks of radiation exposure. Although it has been long known that familial aggregations of cancer do sometimes occur, recent evidence suggests that a general genetic predisposition to cancer does not exist; most cancers occur sporadically. On the other hand, nearly 10% of the known Mendelian genetic disorders are associated with cancer. A number of these involve a familial predisposition to cancer, and some are characterized by an enhanced susceptibility to the induction of cancer by various physical and chemical carcinogens, including ionizing radiation. Such increased susceptibility will depend on several factors including the frequency of the susceptibility gene in the population and its penetrance, the strength of the predisposition, and the degree to which the cancer incidence in susceptible individuals may be increased by the carcinogen. It is now known that these cancer-predisposing genes may be responsible not only for rare familial cancer syndromes, but also for a proportion of the common cancers. Although the currently known disorders can account for only a small fraction of all cancers, they serve as models for genetic predisposition to carcinogen-induced cancer in the general population. In the present report, the author describes current knowledge of those specific disorders that are associated with an enhanced predisposition to radiation-induced cancer, and discusses how this knowledge may bear on the susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer in the general population and estimates of the risk of radiation exposure.

  4. O modelo AM1 na previsão de frequências vibracionais The vibration frequencies predicted by the AM1 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Silva Ramos

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyse vibrational frequencies of 168 compounds with the AM1 model concerning its experimentally observed gaseous frequencies. Stretching of CH, NH, OH and CO bonds, its related bending frequencies, and the CC frame movements are the studied vibrations. The results show problems with the AM1 vibrational splittings. Often symmetric stretching frequencies, like in CH3, CH2 and NH3, appear switched with the corresponding antisymmetrical ones. Among the studied vibrations many stretchings are overestimated, while bendings oscillate around experimental values. Fluorine stretchings, NN, OO, CH, double and triples CC bonds and cyclic hydrocarbon breathing modes are always overestimated while torsions, umbrella modes and OH/SH stretching are, in average, underestimated. Graphical analysis show that compounds with the lowest molecular masses are the ones with the largest difference to the experimental values. From our results it is not possible to fit confortably the calculated frequencies by a simple linear relationship of the type, n(obs=a*n(AM1. Better aggreement is obtained when different curves are adjusted for the stretching and bending modes, and when a complete linear function is used. Among our studies the best obtained statistical results are for CH, NH and OH. The conclusions obtained in this work will improve the AM1 calculated frequencies leading to accurate results for these properties.

  5. pitting corrosion susceptibility pitting corrosion susceptibility of aisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Abstract. The susceptibility of austenitic (AISI 301) stainless steel to pitting corrosion was evaluated in sodium chloride. (NaCl) solutions ... AISI 301 steel suffers from pitting corrosion in all the investigated solutions. AISI 301 steel suffers from ..... [1] Ijeomah, M.N.C. Elements of Corrosion and Protection. Theory, Auto Century ...

  6. Magnetic Susceptability Measurements in Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jason; Mallory, Kendall; Seim, Ryan

    2000-04-01

    A new undergraduate research facility in magnetic susceptability measurements on superconductors is being developed at the University of Northern Colorado. Initial data measurements of the magnetic susceptability of various superconductors will be presented. These measurements were obtained with a liquid helium/nitrogen dewar that was reassembled for use in this project. The cryostat consists of two separate dewars, the first of which contains liquid nitrogen, the second, liquid helium. The liquid nitrogen dewar is used to keep the helium bath from evaporating off too quickly. Data on the evaporation rates of the two liquids will also be presented.

  7. Changes of AM fungal abundance along environmental gradients in the arid and semi-arid grasslands of northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Hu

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi are ubiquitous symbionts of higher plants in terrestrial ecosystems, while the occurrence of the AM symbiosis is influenced by a complex set of abiotic and biotic factors. To reveal the regional distribution pattern of AM fungi as driven by multiple environmental factors, and to understand the ecological importance of AM fungi in natural ecosystems, we conducted a field investigation on AM fungal abundance along environmental gradients in the arid and semi-arid grasslands of northern China. In addition to plant parameters recorded in situ, soil samples were collected, and soil chemo-physical and biological parameters were measured in the lab. Statistical analyses were performed to reveal the relative contribution of climatic, edaphic and vegetation factors to AM fungal abundance, especially for extraradical hyphal length density (HLD in the soil. The results indicated that HLD were positively correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT, soil clay content and soil pH, but negatively correlated with both soil organic carbon (SOC and soil available N. The multiple regressions and structural equation model showed that MAT was the key positive contributor and soil fertility was the key negative contributor to HLD. Furthermore, both the intraradical AM colonization (IMC and relative abundance of AM fungi, which was quantified by real-time PCR assay, tended to decrease along the increasing SOC content. With regard to the obvious negative correlation between MAT and SOC in the research area, the positive correlation between MAT and HLD implied that AM fungi could potentially mitigate soil carbon losses especially in infertile soils under global warming. However, direct evidence from long-term experiments is still expected to support the AM fungal contribution to soil carbon pools.

  8. AMS of the Minor Plutonium Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steier, P.; Hrnecek, E.; Priller, A.; Quinto, F.; Srncik, M.; Wallner, A.; Wallner, G.; Winkler, S.

    2013-01-01

    VERA, the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, is especially equipped for the measurement of actinides, and performs a growing number of measurements on environmental samples. While AMS is not the optimum method for each particular plutonium isotope, the possibility to measure 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu and 244Pu on the same AMS sputter target is a great simplification. We have obtained a first result on the global fallout value of 244Pu/239Pu = (5.7 ± 1.0) × 10−5 based on soil samples from Salzburg prefecture, Austria. Furthermore, we suggest using the 242Pu/240Pu ratio as an estimate of the initial 241Pu/239Pu ratio, which allows dating of the time of irradiation based solely on Pu isotopes. We have checked the validity of this estimate using literature data, simulations, and environmental samples from soil from the Salzburg prefecture (Austria), from the shut down Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant (Sessa Aurunca, Italy) and from the Irish Sea near the Sellafield nuclear facility. The maximum deviation of the estimated dates from the expected ages is 6 years, while relative dating of material from the same source seems to be possible with a precision of less than 2 years. Additional information carried by the minor plutonium isotopes may allow further improvements of the precision of the method. PMID:23565016

  9. AMS of the Minor Plutonium Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steier, P.; Hrnecek, E.; Priller, A.; Quinto, F.; Srncik, M.; Wallner, A.; Wallner, G.; Winkler, S.

    2013-01-01

    VERA, the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, is especially equipped for the measurement of actinides, and performs a growing number of measurements on environmental samples. While AMS is not the optimum method for each particular plutonium isotope, the possibility to measure 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu and 244Pu on the same AMS sputter target is a great simplification. We have obtained a first result on the global fallout value of 244Pu/239Pu = (5.7 ± 1.0) × 10-5 based on soil samples from Salzburg prefecture, Austria. Furthermore, we suggest using the 242Pu/240Pu ratio as an estimate of the initial 241Pu/239Pu ratio, which allows dating of the time of irradiation based solely on Pu isotopes. We have checked the validity of this estimate using literature data, simulations, and environmental samples from soil from the Salzburg prefecture (Austria), from the shut down Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant (Sessa Aurunca, Italy) and from the Irish Sea near the Sellafield nuclear facility. The maximum deviation of the estimated dates from the expected ages is 6 years, while relative dating of material from the same source seems to be possible with a precision of less than 2 years. Additional information carried by the minor plutonium isotopes may allow further improvements of the precision of the method.

  10. [Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) on Tolerance of Cattail to Cd Stress in Aquatic Environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Peng-cheng; Li, Hang; Wang, Shu-guang

    2016-02-15

    Hygrophytes are planted more and more in landscaping and greening in many cities, but they often encounter threat from environmental pollution. Arbuscular mycorrhiza ( AM ) have been confirmed to enhance the tolerance of terrestrial plants to environmental pollution in many previous studies, but it is unclear how they affect hygrophytes. In the present study, a hydroponic culture experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of AM fungi (Glomus etunicatum) inoculation on the tolerance of cattail (Typha latifolia) to different concentrations Cd2+ (0, 2.5, 5.0 mg x L(-1)). The aim was to provide reference for evaluating whether mycorrhizal technology can be used to enhance the tolerance of hygrophytes to environmental pollution. The results showed that symbiotic association was well established between AM fungi and cattail roots, and the mycorrhizal colonization rates (MCR) were beyond 30%. However, MCR presented downward trend one month after mycorrhizal cattails were transported to solution, and the maximal decrease was 25.5% (P < 0.05). AM increased pigment concentrations and peroxidase (POD) activity in cattail leaves, and also increased roots radial oxygen loss. However, AM only produced significant effect on increase of fresh weight in 5 mg x L(-1) Cd2+ solution. Although plant growth was inhibited by 5 mg x L(-1) Cd2+ and MCR was lower, AM increased Cd uptake of cattail at the two Cd2+ levels, and the maximal increments were 40.24% and 56.52% in aboveground and underground parts, respectively. This study indicates that AM has potential to enhance the tolerance of hygrophytes to environmental pollution and might be used to remedy heavy metal pollution.

  11. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  12. Study of the {sup 241}Am in fresh water. Application to Rh e ecosystem; Etude des transferts de L'{sup 241}Am en eau douce. Application a l'ecosysteme rhodanien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veran, M.P.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Baudin, J.P. [CEA Cadarache, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1999-07-01

    The {sup 241}Am transfers are quantified in the heart of a model ecosystem, representative of the aquatic medium downstream the site of Marcoule. The dominating phenomenon of adsorption governs the distribution of Am in the ecosystem. The capacities of bioaccumulation are more important for the primary producers, the zooplankton and the filter molluscs. The results show the key role of the benthic fauna able to mobilize {sup 241}Am fixed on the sediment and the importance of the feeding to explain the contamination of the omnivorous fishes. The dreissensia can be used as bio indicator of radio contamination by transuranium elements. (N.C.)

  13. The Antirrhinum AmDEL gene enhances flavonoids accumulation and salt and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feibing; Zhu, Hong; Kong, Weili; Peng, Rihe; Liu, Qingchang; Yao, Quanhong

    2016-07-01

    A basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor gene from Antirrhinum, AmDEL , increases flavonoids accumulation and enhances salt and drought tolerance via up-regulating flavonoid biosynthesis, proline biosynthesis and ROS scavenging genes in transgenic Arabidopsis. In plants, transcriptional regulation is the most important tools for increasing flavonoid biosynthesis. The AmDEL gene, as a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene from Antirrhinum, has been shown to increase flavonoids accumulation in tomato. However, its role in tolerance to abiotic stresses has not yet been investigated. In this study, the codon-optimized AmDEL gene was chemically synthesized. Subcellular localization analysis in onion epidermal cells indicated that AmDEL protein was localized to the nucleus. Expression analysis in yeast showed that the full length of AmDEL exhibited transcriptional activation. Overexpression of AmDEL significantly increased flavonoids accumulation and enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that overexpression of AmDEL resulted in the up-regulation of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, proline biosynthesis and ROS scavenging under salt and drought stresses. Meanwhile, Western blot and enzymatic analyses showed that the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chalcone isomerase, dihydroflavonol reductase, pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were also increased. Further components analyses indicated that the significant increase of proline and relative water content and the significant reduction of H2O2 and malonaldehyde content were observed under salt and drought stresses. In addition, the rates of electrolyte leakage and water loss were reduced in transgenic plants. These findings imply functions of AmDEL in accumulation of flavonoids and tolerance to salt and drought stresses. The AmDEL gene has the potential to be used to increase

  14. 30 CFR 285.107 - How do I show that I am qualified to be a lessee or grant holder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER... include: (1) Descriptions of international or domestic experience with renewable energy projects or other types of electric-energy-related projects; and (2) Information establishing access to sufficient capital...

  15. Precise measurements of diamagnetic susceptibility of benzophenone and paraffin by using a magnetic levitation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K; Mogi, I; Awaji, S; Watanabe, K [High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials, Institute of Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: kohki@imr.tohoku.ac.jp

    2009-03-01

    Measurements for temperature dependence of diamagnetic susceptibility were performed under the magnetic levitation condition. The magnetic susceptibility of a single crystal of benzophenone showed monotonous decrease toward to the melting point with increasing temperature. The minimum change of the susceptibility was detected by 1.4 x 10{sup -12} m{sup 3}/kg. On the contrary, slight increase was observed below the melting point in the case of paraffin. The susceptibility of a paraffin melt was found to be smaller than that of the solid state. It was demonstrated that the magnetic levitation enables sensitive and contactless measurements of the diamagnetic susceptibility across the melting point.

  16. Invitro antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species to liposomal amphotericin B, determined using CLSI broth microdilution, and amphotericin B deoxycholate, measured using the Etest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovero, Grazia; De Giglio, Osvalda; Rutigliano, Serafina; Diella, Giusy; Caggiano, Giuseppina; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2017-03-01

    The antifungal susceptibilities of 598 isolates of Candida spp. (bloodstream and other sterile sites) to liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) versus amphotericin B (AmB) were determined. MICs were calculated using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution (M27-A3) method for L-AmB and the Etest method for AmB. The MIC50/MIC90 (µg ml-1) values for L-AmB broth microdilution and AmB Etest were 0.25/1 and 0.19/0.5, respectively. The overall essential agreement (±2 dilutions) was 91.5 %, ranging from 37.5 % (Candida lusitaniae) to 100 % (Candida glabrata and Candida krusei). Categorical agreement between the two methods was categorized based on a previously published breakpoint (susceptible/resistant MIC cut-off of 1 µg ml-1). The overall categorical agreement at the 48 h reading was 97.3 %, ranging from 72.7 % (C. krusei) to 100 % (Candida albicans). Major and very major discrepancies occurred in 2.3 and 0.3 %, respectively. Spearman's ρ was 0.48 (PCandida spp. to L-AmB and thus to support its use in antifungal treatment.

  17. Local magnetic susceptibility in rare-earth compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Obu, K

    2003-01-01

    The element specific magnetic susceptibilities of some rare-earth compounds are estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism at rare-earth M sub 4 sub , sub 5 absorption edges. The temperature dependences of the rare-earth 4f local magnetic susceptibilities in dense Kondo materials, CeNi, CeSn sub 3 and CeRu sub 4 Sb sub 1 sub 2 , are remarkably different from those of the bulk magnetic susceptibilities measured by a conventional magnetometer, although the 4f electron is regarded to mainly hold the magnetic moment in these compounds. In contrast, the rare-earth 4f local magnetic susceptibility of ferromagnetic NdFe sub 4 P sub 1 sub 2 shows almost as similar behavior as the bulk one.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Nicole Nari; Kresken, Michael; Körber-Irrgang, Barbara; Göttig, Stephan; Wichelhaus, Cornelia; Wichelhaus, Thomas A

    2014-07-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has become an increasing public health problem. Hence, surveillance of resistance development is of crucial importance to implement adequate treatment guidelines. Data on the spread of antibiotic resistance among gonococcal isolates in Germany, however, is scarce. In a resistance surveillance study conducted by the Paul Ehrlich Society for Chemotherapy between October 2010 and December 2011, 23 laboratories all over Germany were requested to send N. gonorrhoeae isolates to the study laboratory in Frankfurt am Main. Species verification was performed biochemically using ApiNH and with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Etest method. For molecular epidemiological analysis, N. gonorrhoeae strains were genotyped by means of N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing. A total of 213 consecutive gonococcal isolates were analyzed in this nationwide study. Applying EUCAST breakpoints, high resistance rates were found for ciprofloxacin (74%) and tetracycline (41%). Penicillin non-susceptibility was detected in 80% of isolates. The rate of azithromycin resistance was 6%, while all strains were susceptible to spectinomycin, cefixime, and ceftriaxone. Molecular typing of gonococcal isolates revealed a great heterogeneity of 99 different sequence types (ST), but ST1407 predominated (n=39). This is the first comprehensive German multi-centre surveillance study on antibiotic susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of N. gonorrhoeae with implications for antibiotic choice for treatment of gonorrhoea. The World Health Organization supports the concept that an efficacious treatment of gonorrhoea results in at least 95% of infections being cured. Accordingly, as spectinomycin is not available on the German market, only the third generation cephalosporins cefixime and ceftriaxone are regarded as valuable drugs

  19. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  20. [Am]Mn(H2POO)3: A New Family of Hybrid Perovskites Based on the Hypophosphite Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Shaker, Sammy; Brivio, Federico; Murugavel, Ramaswamy; Bristowe, Paul D; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2017-11-15

    A family of five hybrid ABX3 perovskites has been synthesized using hypophosphite (H2POO)(-) as the X-site ion. These compounds adopt the general formula [Am]Mn(H2POO)3, where Am = guanidinium (GUA), formamidinium (FA), imidazolium, triazolium, and dabconium. We explore the diverse structural and phase transition behavior of these materials through single-crystal diffraction measurements and demonstrate contrasting magnetism in two of the phases, Am = GUA and FA, that arises from structural distortions. The results show that hypophosphite perovskites offer a promising platform for generating new functional materials.

  1. Immunogenetics and genetic susceptibility in the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Anup K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available vAutoimmune hepatitis is a progressive liver disease. Its pathogenesis is unclear, but needs a ‘trigger’ to initiate the disease in a genetically susceptible person. The susceptibility is partly related to MHCII class genes, and more so with human leukocyte antigen (HLA. Several mechanisms have been proposed which, however, cannot fully explain the immunologic findings in autoimmune hepatitis. The susceptibility to any autoimmune disease is determined by several factors where genetic and immunological alterations, along with, environmental factor are active. MHCII antigens as a marker for AIH, or a predictor of treatment response and prognosis has been investigated. Since MHCII antigens show significant ethnic heterogeneity, mutations in MHCII may merely act as only precursors of the surface markers of immune cells, which can be of significance, because the changes in HLA and MHC are missing in certain populations. One such marker is the CTLA-4 (CD152 gene mutation, reported in the phenotypes representing susceptibility to AIH. Other candidate genes of cytokines, TNF, TGF-beta1 etc, have also been investigated but with unvalidated results. Paediatric AIH show differences in genetic susceptibility. Genetic susceptibility or resistance to AIH may be associated with polypeptides in DRB1 with certain amino-acid sequences. Understanding which genes are implicated in genesis and/or disease progression will obviously help to identify key pathways in AIH and provide better insights into its pathogenesis. But studies to identify responsible genes are complex because of the complex trait of AIH.

  2. Topological susceptibility from the overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    The chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing of Ginsparg-Wilson fermionic actions constrains the renormalization of the lattice operators; in particular, the topological susceptibility does not require any renormalization, when using a fermionic estimator to define the topological charge. Theref...

  3. Multiple phase transitions of the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model on complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mata, Angélica S

    2014-01-01

    We show that the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic dynamics running on the top of networks with a power law degree distribution can exhibit multiple phase transitions. Three main transitions involving different mechanisms responsible by sustaining the epidemics are identified: A short-term epidemics concentrated around the most connected vertex; a long-term (asymptotically stable) localized epidemics with a vanishing threshold; and an endemic phase occurring at a finite threshold. The different transitions are suited through different mean-field approaches. We finally show that the multiple transitions are due to the activations of different domains of the network that are observed in rapid (singular) variations of both stationary density of infected vertices and the participation ratio against the infection rate.

  4. Impact of FM-AM conversion on smoothing by spectral dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninckx, Denis; Coïc, Hervé; Leblanc, Adrien; Chatagnier, Aurore; Bourgeade, Antoine; d'Humières, Emmanuel; Loiseau, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    In order to set the shape of the focal spot, high power lasers for inertial confinement fusion have a phase plate at the end of the chain. This produces hot spots that can be avoided by the use of optical smoothing. Smoothing consists either in reducing the number of high-energy hot spots by splitting the focal spot energy on two orthogonal states of polarization or in moving the speckle pattern sufficiently fast so that the focal spot seems more homogeneous over time. In the latter case, the spectrum is broadened by a temporal phase modulation and dispersed with a grating. However, because of propagation impairments (filtering functions, chromatic dispersion, frequency conversion,...), part of the frequency modulation is converted into detrimental amplitude modulation. This is called FM-AM conversion. Its impact on smoothing performance is considered here. Three main parameters may be affected: power fluctuations of the focal spot, size of the speckle hot spots (autocorrelation function) and dynamic of the evolution of the spatial contrast of the focal spot versus time. We show that depending on the features of the FM-AM conversion (frequency content of AM, type of filtering function) either one or more of these parameters may be affected. As a matter of fact, a low frequency AM induces power fluctuations while higher frequency AM induces variation of the autocorrelation function. Moreover, as opposed to an amplitude-filtering function, chromatic dispersion will not change the power spectral density of the pulse and thus the dynamic of the contrast.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Saskatchewan, Canada: utility of NG-MAST in predicting antimicrobial susceptibility regionally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Sidharath D; Levett, Paul N; Horsman, Gregory B; Dillon, Jo-Anne R

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the molecular epidemiology of isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from Saskatchewan, Canada, using Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), and to assess associations between antimicrobial susceptibility (AMS) and specific strain types (STs). 320 consecutive gonococcal isolates, collected between 2003 and 2008, were typed by NG-MAST. STs were grouped if one of their alleles was common and the other differed by ≤1% in DNA sequence. AMS was determined by agar dilution (CLSI) to seven antibiotics. N gonorrhoeae isolates were resolved into 82 individual NG-MAST STs and 18 NG-MAST ST groups with groups 25, 3655, 921, 3654, 3657 and 3656 comprising 53.4% (171/320) of the isolates. N gonorrhoeae isolates susceptible to all the tested antimicrobials were significantly (pgonorrhoeae AMS and NG-MAST STs were identified and may be useful in predicting AMS regionally. Because STs in different countries vary considerably, the use of NG-MAST for the prediction of AMS globally requires further study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Led spectral and power characteristics under hybrid PWM/AM dimming strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2010-01-01

    In order to dim LEDs the pulse width modulation (PWM) or amplitude modulation (AM) dimming scheme is typically used. Previous studies show that these dimming schemes can have opposite effects on diodes peak wavelength shift. An experimental study was conducted to test the behavior of InGaN diodes...... and phosphor-converted white diodes under hybrid PWM/AM modulation. Feed forward control schemes that provide stable peak wavelength position during dimming and the ability to compensate the thermally induced color shifts and the decrease of the luminous flux are investigated....

  7. Relationship of AM to PM noise in selected RF oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L M; Nelson, C W; Walls, F L

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the amplitude modulation (AM) and phase modulation (PM) noise in a number of 5 MHz and 100 MHz oscillators to provide a basis for developing models of the origin of AM noise. To adequately characterize the AM noise in high performance quartz oscillators, we found it necessary to use two-channel cross-correlation AM detection. In the quartz oscillators studied, the power spectral density (PSD) of the f(-1) and f(0) regions of AM noise is closely related to that of the PM noise. The major difference between different oscillators of the same design depends on the flicker noise performance of the resonator. We therefore propose that the f(-1) and f(0) regions of AM and PM noise arise from the same physical processes, probably originating in the sustaining amplifier.

  8. Efficacy of single serum cortisol reading obtained between 9 AM and 10 AM as an index of adrenal function in children treated with glucocorticoids or synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masahiro; Shibata, Nao; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2016-07-01

    To find a simple method to screen for iatrogenic childhood adrenal insufficiency, we retrospectively examined the results of CRH stimulation tests performed 212 times on 111 subjects (68 males; age at commencement of initial treatment ranged 0.0-19.8 yr; median age, 5.8 yr). Before the commencement of this study, 97 subjects had been treated with glucocorticoids and 14 subjects with West syndrome had been treated with synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone. Duration of the primary treatment ranged from 15 to 2150 days. CRH stimulation tests were conducted between 09:00 AM and 10:00 AM and peak cortisol values less than 15 µg/dL were considered indicative of adrenal insufficiency. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the optimal basal serum cortisol cut-off values when screening for adrenal suppression ranged from 5.35 to 5.80 µg/dL depending on the primary disease. All subjects having a serum cortisol value of less than 2.3 µg/dL had insufficient adrenal function while all subjects having greater than 11 µg/dL had intact adrenal function. We concluded that single serum cortisol values obtained between 09:00 AM and 10:00 AM had the potential to serve as an index of adrenal function in children treated with glucocorticoids or synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone.

  9. Impact and Energy Dissipation Characteristics of Squeeze and Die Cast Magnesium Alloy AM60

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCecco, Sante; Hu, Henry; Altenhof, William

    High-pressure die cast (HPDC) magnesium alloy AM60 is recognized for its versatility in the manufacturing of weight sensitive components of relatively thin cross section. To further expand practical applications of the alloy, squeeze casting has been proposed to allow for thicker castings. In this study, AM60 alloy specimens of 10mm thickness were squeeze cast using a hydraulic press with an applied pressure of 60 MPa. Fracture energies, following a Charpy Impact Testing protocol, of the squeeze cast specimens were characterized in comparison with the HPDC counterparts using both experimental and numerical techniques. The experimental results show the squeeze cast alloy absorbing approximately 46.2% more energy during impact than its HPDC counterpart. Scanning electron microscopy fractography reveals the favourable quasi-cleavage fracture mode of the squeeze cast alloy AM60, relative to the decohesive rupture fracture mode present in the die cast alloy.

  10. Honey bee thermal/chemical sensor, AmHsTRPA, reveals neofunctionalization and loss of transient receptor potential channel genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Keigo; Sokabe, Takaaki; Tominaga, Makoto; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2010-09-15

    Insects are relatively small heterothermic animals, thus they are highly susceptible to changes in ambient temperature. However, a group of honey bees is able to maintain the brood nest temperature between 32°C and 36°C by either cooling or heating the nest. Nevertheless, how honey bees sense the ambient temperature is not known. We identified a honey bee Hymenoptera-specific transient receptor potential A (HsTRPA) channel (AmHsTRPA), which is activated by heat with an apparent threshold temperature of 34°C and insect antifeedants such as camphor in vitro. AmHsTRPA is expressed in the antennal flagellum, and ablation of the antennal flagella and injection of AmHsTRPA inhibitors impair warmth avoidance of honey bees. Gustatory responses of honey bees to sucrose are suppressed by noxious heat and insect antifeedants, but are relieved in the presence of AmHsTRPA inhibitors. These results suggest that AmHsTRPA may function as a thermal/chemical sensor in vivo. As shown previously, Hymenoptera has lost the ancient chemical sensor TRPA1; however, AmHsTRPA is able to complement the function of Drosophila melanogaster TRPA1. These results demonstrate that HsTRPA, originally arisen by the duplication of Water witch, has acquired thermal- and chemical-responsive properties, which has resulted in the loss of ancient TRPA1. Thus, this is an example of neofunctionalization of the duplicated ion channel gene followed by the loss of the functionally equivalent ancient gene.

  11. Neutron transmission and capture of 241Am

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sage C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A set of neutron transmission and capture experiments based on the Time Of Flight (TOF technique, were performed in order to determine the 241Am capture cross section in the energy range from 0.01 eV to 1 keV. The GELINA facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM served as the neutron source. A pair of C6D6 liquid scintillators was used to register the prompt gamma rays emerging from the americium sample, while a Li-glass detector was used in the transmission setup. Results from the capture and transmission data acquired are consistent with each other, but appear to be inconsistent with the evaluated data files. Resonance parameters have been derived for the data up to the energy of 100 eV.

  12. civilizatorio de América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ocampo López

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene por objeto el estudio de las ideas del educador y antropólogo brasileño Dr. Darcy Ribeiro, teniendo en cuenta su experiencia de gran trascendencia como primer Rector de la Universidad de Brasilia. Sus experiencias en la educación superior lo llevaron a plantear reformas educativas universitarias para el Brasil, Uruguay y Venezuela, con base en las nuevas tendencias. Desde su teoría del proceso civilizatorio analiza la situación de los pueblos de América Latina a través de su etnología e historia, para explicar lo que ocurre con los países en subdesarrollo o en proceso de desarrollo. Esta gran teoría lo lleva a interpretar el problema de las Universidades latinoamericanas, su crisis permanente y sus anhelos por realizar una reforma universitaria, de acuerdo con los tiempos actuales.

  13. Performances of the AMS-02 electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Cervelli, F; Lomtadze, T A; Venanzoni, G; Falchini, E; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Paoletti, R; Pilo, F; Turini, N; Valle, G D; Coignet, G; Girard, L; Goy, C; Kossakowski, R; Lees-Rosier, S; Vialle, J P; Chen, G; Chen, H; Liu, Z; Lu, Y; Yu, Z; Zhuang, H L

    2002-01-01

    A full-scale prototype of the e.m. calorimeter for the AMS-02 experiment was tested at CERN in October 2001 using 100 GeV pion and electron beams with energy ranging from 3 to 100 GeV. The detector, a lead-scintillating fiber sampling calorimeter about 17 radiation lengths deep, is read out by an array of multianode photomultipliers. The calorimeter's high granularity allows to image the longitudinal and lateral showers development, a key issue to provide high electron /hadron discrimination. From the test beam data, linearity and energy resolution were measured as well as the effective sampling thickness. The latter was extracted from the data by fitting the longitudinal e.m. shower profiles at different energies. (9 refs).

  14. The AMS-02 experiment on the ISS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casaus, Jorge, E-mail: jorge.casaus@ciemat.e [Dpto. Investigacion Basica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-06-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) on the International Space Station (ISS) is a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer aiming for high precision studies of cosmic rays in space. The experiment will address fundamental questions regarding primary antimatter and dark matter contents of the universe. In addition, the precise measurements of cosmic rays in a wide energy range will result in a greatly improved understanding of the cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy. The detector is now in its final assembly stage at CERN (Geneva) and it will be shipped to KSC (Florida) for integration with the space shuttle Discovery before the end of 2009. The STS-134 mission, currently scheduled for launch in September 2010 will transport the experiment to the ISS where it will operate for a period of 3 to 5 years.

  15. The AMS detector heads for the International Space Station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2011-01-01

    The AMS particle detector will take off on 29 April 2011 at 21.47 CEST onboard the very last mission of the space Shuttle Endeavour. AMS, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, will then be installed on the International Space Station from where it will explore the Universe for a period of over 10 years. AMS will address some of the most exciting mysteries of modern physics, looking for antimatter and dark matter in space, phenomena that have remained elusive up to now.

  16. 41 CFR 102-39.85 - What information am I required to report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... your libraries). The report must include: (1) A list by Federal Supply Classification Group of property... proceeds. (2) A list by Federal Supply Classification Group of property exchanged under this part showing... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information am I...

  17. AM to PM noise conversion in a cross-coupled quadrature harmonic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Torsten; Krozer, Viktor; Vidkjær, Jens

    2006-01-01

    We derive the dynamic equations governing the cross-coupled quadrature oscillator, perturbed by noise, leading to an expression for the close-in phase noise. The theory shows that a nonlinear coupling transconductance results in AM-PM noise conversion close to the carrier, which increases...... with the coupling strength. A simple linear time-domain model is employed to illustrate the results...

  18. Latest AMS Results: The Positron Fraction and the p-bar/p Ratio

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    A precision measurement by AMS of the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays is presented. The results show that at 275±32 GeV the positron fraction no longer increases with energy. The current status of the anti-proton analysis is also presented.

  19. AmI in good care? Developing design principles for ambient intelligent domotics for elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulendijk, Michiel; van de Wijngaert, Lidwien; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Leenstra, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    The combination of ambient intelligence (AmI) and domotics has the potential to respond to elderly people's desire to live independent from extensive forms of care. Their slow adoption of technological aids shows reluctance, though. This article investigates their motivations to adopt ambient

  20. Improved MOX fuel calculations using new Pu-239, Am-241 and Pu-240 evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Schillebeeckx P.; Leal L.; De Saint Jean C.; Vidal J.F.; Peneliau Y.; Blaise P.; Leconte P.; Bernard D.; Bouland O.; Noguere G.; Kopecky S.; Lampoudis C.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies based on the JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library show a systematic overestimation of the critical keff for core configurations of MOX fuel assemblies. The present work investigates possible improvements of the C/E results by using new evaluations for Am-241, Pu-239 and Pu-240.

  1. Improved MOX fuel calculations using new Pu-239, Am-241 and Pu-240 evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguere, G.; Bouland, O.; Bernard, D.; Leconte, P.; Blaise, P.; Peneliau, Y.; Vidal, J. F.; De Saint Jean, C.; Leal, L.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Kopecky, S.; Lampoudis, C.

    2013-03-01

    Several studies based on the JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library show a systematic overestimation of the critical keff for core configurations of MOX fuel assemblies. The present work investigates possible improvements of the C/E results by using new evaluations for Am-241, Pu-239 and Pu-240.

  2. Improved MOX fuel calculations using new Pu-239, Am-241 and Pu-240 evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schillebeeckx P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies based on the JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library show a systematic overestimation of the critical keff for core configurations of MOX fuel assemblies. The present work investigates possible improvements of the C/E results by using new evaluations for Am-241, Pu-239 and Pu-240.

  3. Pulse forming in an AM mode-locking hybrid TEA-CO2 laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnie, R.J.M.; van Goor, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    We performed an experimental study on the pulse forming mechanism in an AM mode-locked hybrid TEA-CO2 laser by means of “injection mode-locking”. The results show that bandwidth limited pulses will only be reached within a small - critical - range of parameters. Furthermore, under some stringent

  4. 2016 AMS Mario J. Molina Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Renyi [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-29

    A named symposium to honor Dr. Mario J. Molina was held 10–14 January 2016, as part of the 96th American Meteorological Society (AMS) Annual Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana. Dr. Molina first demonstrated that industrially produced chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) decompose in the stratosphere and release chlorine atoms, leading to catalytic ozone destruction. His research in stratospheric chemistry was instrumental to the establishment of the 1987 United Nations Montreal Protocol to ban ozone-depleting substances worldwide. Dr. Molina’s contributions to preserving the planet Earth not only save the atmospheric ozone layer, but also protect the climate by reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. He was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his pioneering research in understanding the stratospheric ozone loss mechanism. In 2013, President Barack Obama announced Dr. Molina as a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. The 2016 AMS Molina Symposium honored Dr. Molina’s distinguished contributions to research related to atmospheric chemistry. The symposium contained an integrated theme related to atmospheric chemistry, climate, and policy. Dr. Molina delivered a keynote speech at the Symposium. The conference included invited keynote speeches and invited and contributed oral and poster sessions, and a banquet was held on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The symposium covered all aspects of atmospheric chemistry, with topics including (1) Stratospheric chemistry, (2) Tropospheric chemistry, (3) Aerosol nucleation, growth, and transformation, (4) Aerosol properties, (5) Megacity air pollution, and (6) Atmospheric chemistry laboratory, field, and modeling studies. This DOE project supported 14 scientists, including graduate students, post docs, junior research scientists, and non-tenured assistant professors to attend this symposium.

  5. constitucional en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mario García Laguardia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El tema de los derechos humanos en América Latina ocupa un lugar primordial desde el proceso mismo de conquista y colonización, con aportaciones esenciales de algunos juristas y teólogos de la época, como Vitoria. Estas primeras reflexiones al respecto serán fundamentalmente de carácter moral, aunque algunas encontrarán proyección en documentos legislativos que entrarán en conflicto con un entramado de intereses de todo tipo en contra de su eficacia. Ahí podemos encontrar ya la raíz de lo que ha sido una constante del constitucionalismo latinoamericano desde sus orígenes: el nominalismo programático, en virtud del cual la gran mayoría de los textos constitucionales encuentran su fundamento no sólo en la limitación del poder de los gobernantes, sino también como expresión de un programa de gobierno con un fuerte contenido democrático y social. Precisamente por ello, y aunque la inmensa mayoría de los regímenes constitucionales en América Latina ha sido objeto de frecuentes interrupciones por regímenes autoritarios hasta las últimas décadas del siglo XX, las Constituciones vigentes en cada momento, con mayor o menor fuerza normativa, han desempeñado y siguen desempeñando un papel de importancia excepcional como factores de gobernabilidad y de legitimidad del sistema democrático.

  6. Effect of Am-80, A Novel Retinoid Derivative, On Contact Hypersensitivity Caused by Repeated Applications of Hapten in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Niwa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Some retinoids show an anti-inflammatory action through regulation of transcription of various genes. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of 4-((5,6,7,8- tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthyl carbamoyl benzoic acid (Am-80, a synthetic retinoid, on mouse contact hypersensitivity provoked by repeated applications of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB to the ear was investigated. Five-fold applications of DNFB on ears once per week elicited severe contact dermatitis with marked infiltration of inflammatory cells and elevation of anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP-IgE antibody in the serum. The Am-80 significantly inhibited ear swelling in a dose-dependent manner. In the histopathologic study, infiltration of inflammatory cells was clearly decreased by Am-80. However, Am-80 did not affect the production of DNP-specific IgE antibody both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The effects of Am-80 on the transcriptional level of cytokines, interferon (IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-1 and IL-4 in cervical lymph nodes were investigated. Marked elevation of mRNA for all cytokines was observed and Am-80 potently inhibited the expression of IFN-γ mRNA, but not IL-1 and IL-4 mRNA. These findings indicated that Am-80 may inhibit the contact dermatitis at the post-sensitization phase by inhibiting IFN-γ production at the transcriptional level in mice.

  7. Results of Am isotopic ratio analysis in irradiated MOX fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Shin-ichi; Osaka, Masahiko; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki; Konno, Koichi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Kajitani, Mikio

    1997-04-01

    For analysis of a small quantity of americium, it is necessary to separate from curium which has similar chemical property. As a chemical separation method for americium and curium, the oxidation of americium with pentavalent bismuth and subsequent co-precipitation of trivalent curium with BIP O{sub 4} were applied to analyze americium in irradiated MOX fuels which contained about 30wt% plutonium and 0.9wt% {sup 241}Am before irradiation and were irradiated up to 26.2GWd/t in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. The purpose of this study is to measure isotopic ratio of americium and to evaluate the change of isotopic ratio with irradiation. Following results are obtained in this study. (1) The isotopic ratio of americium ({sup 241}Am, {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am) can be analyzed in the MOX fuels by isolating americium. The isotopic ratio of {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am increases up to 0.62at% and 0.82at% at maximum burnup, respectively, (2) The results of isotopic analysis indicates that the contents of {sup 241}Am decreases, whereas {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243}Am increase linearly with increasing burnup. (author)

  8. Antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Mónica; Martínez, Claudia; Aguerre, Lorena; Rocca, María Florencia; Cipolla, Lucía; Callejo, Raquel

    2016-02-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a food-borne disease that mainly affects pregnant women, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients. The primary treatment of choice of listeriosis is the combination of ampicillin or penicillin G, with an aminoglycoside, classically gentamicin. The second-choice therapy for patients allergic to β-lactams is the combination of trimethoprim with a sulfonamide (such as co-trimoxazole). The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains isolated from human infections and food during the last two decades in Argentina. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 antimicrobial agents was determined for a set of 250 strains of L. monocytogenes isolated in Argentina during the period 1992-2012. Food-borne and human isolates were included in this study. The antibiotics tested were ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin G, tetracycline and rifampicin. Breakpoints for penicillin G, ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were those given in the CLSI for L. monocytogenes. CLSI criteria for staphylococci were applied to the other antimicrobial agents tested. Strains were serotyped by PCR, and confirmed by an agglutination method. Strains recovered from human listeriosis patients showed a prevalence of serotype 4b (71%), with the remaining 29% corresponding to serotype 1/2b. Serotypes among food isolates were distributed as 62% serotype 1/2b and 38% serotype 4b. All antimicrobial agents showed good activity. The strains of L. monocytogenes isolated in Argentina over a period of 20 years remain susceptible to antimicrobial agents, and that susceptibility pattern has not changed during this period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Show Me My Health Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Politi PhD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since the Affordable Care Act was passed, more than 12 million individuals have enrolled in the health insurance marketplace. Without support, many struggle to make an informed plan choice that meets their health and financial needs. Methods: We designed and evaluated a decision aid, Show Me My Health Plans (SMHP, that provides education, preference assessment, and an annual out-of-pocket cost calculator with plan recommendations produced by a tailored, risk-adjusted algorithm incorporating age, gender, and health status. We evaluated whether SMHP compared to HealthCare.gov improved health insurance decision quality and the match between plan choice, needs, and preferences among 328 Missourians enrolling in the marketplace. Results: Participants who used SMHP had higher health insurance knowledge (LS-Mean = 78 vs. 62; P < 0.001, decision self-efficacy (LS-Mean = 83 vs. 75; P < 0.002, confidence in their choice (LS-Mean = 3.5 vs. 2.9; P < 0.001, and improved health insurance literacy (odds ratio = 2.52, P < 0.001 compared to participants using HealthCare.gov . Those using SMHP were 10.3 times more likely to select a silver- or gold-tier plan (P < 0.0001. Discussion: SMHP can improve health insurance decision quality and the odds that consumers select an insurance plan with coverage likely needed to meet their health needs. This study represents a unique context through which to apply principles of decision support to improve health insurance choices.

  10. Susceptibility to peer pressure and attachment to friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotar-Rihtarić Martina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of attachment to friends in the explanation of adolescents’ susceptibility to peer pressure was explored, regarding the way these two constructs are measured. In Study 1, 475 high school students (194 boys and 281 girls were given Susceptibility to Peer Pressure Questionnaire, and their attachment to friends was measured with Modified Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory and Relationship Scales Questionnaire. One month later, 80 boys and 80 girls participated in Study 2, where they completed the same Susceptibility to Peer Pressure Questionnaire in a chat-room simulation, convinced that they can see other students’ answers and that their own answers could be seen by others. When susceptibility to peer pressure was measured by self-report questionnaire, the level of avoidance proved to be a significant predictor for boys, while the level of anxiety and the model of others were significant predictors for girls. When susceptibility to peer pressure was measured experimentally, the results showed that attachment dimensions predict only girls’ susceptibility and that the only significant predictor is their model of others.

  11. Estimation of the Population Susceptibility Against Measles in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibolenová, Jana; Chladná, Zuzana; Švihrová, Viera; Baška, Tibor; Waczulíková, Iveta; Hudečková, Henrieta

    2017-03-01

    In Slovakia, thanks to a highly effective vaccination programme, no domestic cases of measles have been reported since 1999. However, there are several outbreaks of measles currently hitting some countries in Europe. Difficulties in reaching the goal of measles elimination make it necessary to monitor the status of the population susceptibility to prevent similar outbreaks in the future. We hypothesize that immunity wanes overtime, which can substantially impact the population susceptibility. This work introduces a model that estimates a proportion of individuals susceptible to measles in the Slovak population in 2015. Our analysis is based on an age-cohort model that incorporates waning immunity, vaccination schedule and changes in demographic structure. The inputs of the model are data on the vaccination coverage, last seroprevalence survey in 2002 and age structure of the population. In a short-term horizon, waning immunity does not affect the estimated proportion of the susceptible population. However, in a long-term horizon, the antibody titers can fall below the level of protection, which would result in a substantial transfer of initially immune individuals to the compartment of the susceptible ones. Incorporating of waning immunity in the cohort model has indicated that the most susceptible cohorts are not-vaccinated youngest children and cohorts born between 1969 and 1986. Applying the model to the current situation shows that people aged 30-45 years and unvaccinated infants represent the most susceptible groups. Model partially replaces missing seroprevalence survey, but, because the parameters of model and phenomenon of waning immunity are not exactly known, we suggest reintroducing the regular national serosurveys in order to empirically determine the level of susceptibility for measles in Slovakia.

  12. Reducing Susceptibility to Courtesy Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachleda, Catherine L; El Menzhi, Leila

    2017-04-19

    In light of the chronic shortage of health professionals willing to care for HIV/AIDS patients, and rising epidemics in many Muslim countries, this qualitative study examined susceptibility and resistance to courtesy stigma as experienced by nurses, doctors, and social workers in Morocco. Forty-nine in-depth interviews provided rich insights into the process of courtesy stigma and how it is managed, within the context of interactions with Islam, interactions within the workplace (patients, other health professionals), and interactions outside the workplace (the general public, friends, and family). Theoretically, the findings extend understanding of courtesy stigma and the dirty work literature. The findings also offer practical suggestions for the development of culturally appropriate strategies to reduce susceptibility to courtesy stigmatization. This study represents the first to explore courtesy stigma as a process experienced by health professionals providing HIV/AIDS care in an Islamic country.

  13. Biosorption of Am-241 and Cs-137 by radioactive liquid waste by coffee husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi; Bellini, Maria Helena; Marumo, Julio Takehiro, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, has stored many types of radioactive liquid wastes, including liquid scintillators, mixed wastes from chemical analysis and spent decontamination solutions. These wastes need special attention, because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to manage. Biosorption using biomass of vegetable using agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metals ions by low cost biossorbents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of the coffee husk to remove Am-241 and Cs-137 from radioactive liquid waste. The coffee husk was tested in two forms, treated and untreated. The chemical treatment of the coffee husk was performed with HNO{sub 3} and NaOH diluted solutions. The results showed that the coffee husk did not showed significant differences in behavior and capacity for biosorption for Am-241 and Cs-137 over time. Coffee husk showed low biosorption capacity for Cs-137, removing only 7.2 {+-} 1.0% in 4 hours of contact time. For Am-241, the maximum biosorption was 57,5 {+-} 0.6% in 1 hours. These results suggest that coffee husk in untreated form can be used in the treatment of radioactive waste liquid containing Am-241. (author)

  14. Measurements of delayed neutron emission from Np-237, Am-241, and Am-243

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.H.; Parish, T.A. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Raman, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Isotopes of transuranic elements are produced as a result of successive radiative capture reactions in the fuel of a nuclear reactor. Typically, these transuranic isotopes decay through long chains, have long half lives and dominate the long term toxicity of the spent reactor fuel. One of the options for waste management is to remove the transuranic from spent fuel by chemical processing, to load them into new special fuel elements, and to transmute them by neutron induced fission into shorter-lived fission fragments. Previous studies have shown the feasibility of actinide transmutation in either Light Water Reactors or Liquid Metal Fast Reactors. Due to the anticipated high transuranic loadings in the fuel of actinide burner reactors, the neutronic properties of the transuranic isotopes will have a significant effect on the operational and safety characteristics of such reactors. Experiments to determine delayed neutron group yields and decay constants for Np-237, Am-241, and Am-243 have been designed and carried out. The experiments were conducted at Texas A&M University TRIGA reactor using a very fast pneumatic transfer system.

  15. Antimycotics susceptibility testing of dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are moulds that produce infections of the skin, hair and nails of humans and animals. The most common forms among these infections are onychomycosis and tinea pedis affecting 20% of world population. These infections are usually chronic. The treatment of dermatophytoses tends to be prolonged partly because available treatments are not very effective. Antifungal drug consumption and public health expenditure are high worldwide, as well as in Serbia. For adequate therapy, it is necessary to prove infection by isolation of dermatophytes and to test the antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Susceptibility testing is important for the resistance monitoring, epidemiological research and to compare in vitro activities of new antifungal agents. The diffusion and dilution methods of susceptibility tests are used, and technical issues of importance for the proper performance and interpretation of test results are published in the document E.DEF 9.1 (EUCAST and M38-A2 (CLSI. The aim of our paper is to promptly inform the public about technical achievements in this area, as well as the new organization of laboratory for medical mycology in our country. The formation of laboratory networks coordinated by the National Reference Laboratory for the cause of mycosis need to enable interlaboratory studies and further standardization of methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes, reproducibility of tests and clinical correlation monitoring (MIK values and clinical outcome of dermatophytosis. The importance of the new organization is expected efficient improvement in the dermatophytosis therapy at home, better quality of patient's life and the reduction of the cost of treatment.

  16. Strong ties promote the epidemic prevalence in susceptible-infected-susceptible spreading dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Ai-Xiang; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Understanding spreading dynamics will benefit society as a whole in better preventing and controlling diseases, as well as facilitating the socially responsible information while depressing destructive rumors. In network-based spreading dynamics, edges with different weights may play far different roles: a friend from afar usually brings novel stories, and an intimate relationship is highly risky for a flu epidemic. In this article, we propose a weighted susceptible-infected-susceptible model on complex networks, where the weight of an edge is defined by the topological proximity of the two associated nodes. Each infected individual is allowed to select limited number of neighbors to contact, and a tunable parameter is introduced to control the preference to contact through high-weight or low-weight edges. Experimental results on six real networks show that the epidemic prevalence can be largely promoted when strong ties are favored in the spreading process. By comparing with two statistical null models respe...

  17. The nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of the cytochrome cL gene of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, a novel class of c-type cytochrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Nunn, D N; Anthony, C

    1988-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of the cytochrome cL of Methylobacterium extorquens (Pseudomonas AM1; Methylobacterium AM1) shows that this cytochrome c is completely different, except for its haem-binding site, from all other cytochromes.

  18. In Vitro Susceptibility Test of Different Clinical Isolates against Ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hakim Masood

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because of the prevailing penicillin resistance in microorganisms, broad spectrum cephalosporins are used empirically specially in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the susceptibility pattern of different gram positive and gram negative pathogens against third generation cephalosporin-ceftriaxone to explore the existing effectiveness of this antibiotic.Methods: 180 clinical isolates of different gram positive and gram negative pathogens including P.mirabilis, S. typhi P.aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and Klebsiella were collected from blood and urine samples of in-patients. 30 isolates of all species were tested against each of six brands of ceftriaxone using in vitro sensitivity tests by disc diffusion method (NCCLS criteria. The susceptibility limit was ≥21 mm zone of inhibition, while moderately susceptible was considered at 20-14 mm, and those isolates which showed >13 mm or no zone of inhibition were resistant to this antibacterial drug.Results: Ceftriaxone was found most effective against S. aureus. While 96.1% of the isolates showed susceptibility towards ceftriaxone, followed by E. coli (95%, P. aeruginosa (92.7%, K. pneumonia (89.4% and S. typhi (87.2%. P. mirabilis showed lowest susceptibility amongst all the test organisms (83.8%.Conclusion: Ceftriaxone can be used as a drug of choice in infections caused by S. aureus, E. coli, P. aurigenosa, K. pneumonia and S. typhi. However, it should be used with other antimicrobial agents in order to increase its effectiveness against P. mirabilis.

  19. Antibiotic susceptibility of Atopobium vaginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschraegen Gerda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that a recently described anaerobic bacterium, Atopobium vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV. Thus far the four isolates of this fastidious micro-organism were found to be highly resistant to metronidazole and susceptible for clindamycin, two antibiotics preferred for the treatment of BV. Methods Nine strains of Atopobium vaginae, four strains of Gardnerella vaginalis, two strains of Lactobacillus iners and one strain each of Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii were tested against 15 antimicrobial agents using the Etest. Results All nine strains of A. vaginae were highly resistant to nalidixic acid and colistin while being inhibited by low concentrations of clindamycin (range: G. vaginalis strains were also susceptible for clindamycin ( 256 μg/ml but susceptible to clindamycin (0.023 – 0.125 μg/ml. Conclusion Clindamycin has higher activity against G. vaginalis and A. vaginae than metronidazole, but not all A. vaginae isolates are metronidazole resistant, as seemed to be a straightforward conclusion from previous studies on a more limited number of strains.

  20. Influence of the angle between cleavage and bedding on the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and the degree of phyllosilicate preferred orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debacker, T. N.; Sintubin, M.

    2003-04-01

    Due to the common scarcity of strain markers and the often fine-grained lithologies, performing strain analyses in slate belts may be difficult. As an alternative, one may use methods such as phyllosilicate preferred orientation (X-ray pole figure goniometry) and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). However, a large number of factors influence the results of these analytical methods. One of the factors is the angle between cleavage and bedding. The study area is the Brabant Massif, a single-phase deformed, low-grade slate belt in N-Belgium consisting of a steep Cambrian core surrounded by Ordovician-Silurian sequences. In the southern part of the Cambrian core, the transition between steeply plunging folds, considered typical for the steep core, and gently plunging folds, considered characteristic for the peripheral Ordovician-Silurian sequences, occurs in homogeneous mudstones of the Lower Cambrian Oisquercq Formation. In these deposits mica and chlorite show a similar degree of preferred orientation. Mica is always aligned along the cleavage, whereas chlorite is aligned along the bedding. Clear intersection pole figure patterns characterise samples with large cleavage/bedding angles, whereas flattening fabrics only become apparent for samples with small cleavage/bedding angles. For both mica and chlorite, the degree of preferred orientation is higher for samples with small cleavage/bedding angles. The magnetic fabric shows prolate susceptibility ellipsoids for samples with large cleavage/bedding angles and oblate susceptibility ellipsoids for samples with small cleavage/bedding angles (cf. Housen et al., 1993). The short axis of the susceptibility ellipsoid is generally oriented perpendicular to bedding, occasionally perpendicular to cleavage or with an intermediate orientation. The long axis of the susceptibility ellipsoid is always parallel to the cleavage/bedding intersection. The shape parameter T shows an almost linear relationship with respect to

  1. Astragalus membranaceus (AM) enhances growth performance and antioxidant stress profiles in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabd, Hiam; Wang, Han-Ping; Shaheen, Adel; Yao, Hong; Abbass, Amany

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the potential effects of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) on the growth performance and antioxidative stress response in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to challenging cold water temperature conditions. In this regard, fish with an average weight of 43 ± 1 g were divided into four groups and fed daily with an AM-free diet (control), and 1.5, 3, and 4.5 % (w/w) AM-incorporated diets for an 8-week period. Oxidative stress response, biochemical, and growth parameters were measured, and subgroups of fish were exposed to the outside challenging cold pond water temperature (1.6-9.9 °C) with an average of 7.0 ± 0.1 °C beyond the optimal temperature. The results showed that incorporating AM in the diet significantly improved growth performance parameters (body mass gain, specific growth rate, length, condition factor, and feed conversion ratio) and biochemicals (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine transaminase activities, and glucose and cortisol concentrations). In addition, markedly up-regulated superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities were observed in AM-treated fish groups over the control. Conclusively, feeding AM diets significantly increased (P stress profiles throughout the entire experiment, and this increase was much more pronounced at 8 weeks after the water temperature began to rise, which can be related to the nature of Bluegill fish as it is known to be a warm water fish. These findings are considered to be of great importance for sustainable aquaculture.

  2. Precision and reproducibility in AMS radiocarbon measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkis, M.A.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.E.; Lawson, E. M.; Smith, A.M.; Tuniz, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is a technique by which rare radioisotopes such as {sup 14}C can be measured at environmental levels with high efficiency. Instead of detecting radioactivity, which is very weak for long-lived environmental radioisotopes, atoms are counted directly. The sample is placed in an ion source, from which a negative ion beam of the atoms of interest is extracted, mass analysed, and injected into a tandem accelerator. After stripping to positive charge states in the accelerator HV terminal, the ions are further accelerated, analysed with magnetic and electrostatic devices and counted in a detector. An isotopic ratio is derived from the number of radioisotope atoms counted in a given time and the beam current of a stable isotope of the same element, measured after the accelerator. For radiocarbon, {sup 14}C/{sup 13}C ratios are usually measured, and the ratio of an unknown sample is compared to that of a standard. The achievable precision for such ratio measurements is limited primarily by {sup 14}C counting statistics and also by a variety of factors related to accelerator and ion source stability. At the ANTARES AMS facility at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories we are currently able to measure {sup 14}C with 0.5% precision. In the two years since becoming operational, more than 1000 {sup 14}C samples have been measured. Recent improvements in precision for {sup 14}C have been achieved with the commissioning of a 59 sample ion source. The measurement system, from sample changing to data acquisition, is under common computer control. These developments have allowed a new regime of automated multi-sample processing which has impacted both on the system throughput and the measurement precision. We have developed data evaluation methods at ANTARES which cross-check the self-consistency of the statistical analysis of our data. Rigorous data evaluation is invaluable in assessing the true reproducibility of the measurement system and aids in

  3. Measurements of temperature dependence of 'localized susceptibility'

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Ishii, H; Takayama, Y; Obu, K; Muro, T; Saitoh, Y; Matsuda, T D; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of some rare-earth compounds is estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of rare-earth 3d-4f absorption spectra. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility obtained by the MCD measurement is remarkably different from the bulk susceptibility in most samples, which is attributed to the strong site selectivity of the core MCD measurement.

  4. Magnetic susceptibility as a biosignature in stromatolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryshyn, Victoria A.; Corsetti, Frank A.; Frantz, Carie M.; Lund, Steve P.; Berelson, William M.

    2016-03-01

    results. The results of these experiments suggest that magnetic susceptibility shows promise as a new biosignature in the study of putative microbialites.

  5. Taxonomy and antifungal susceptibility of clinically important Rasamsonia species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, J.; Giraud, S.; Meijer, M.

    2013-01-01

    reported clinical isolates from animal or human patients. Susceptibility tests showed that the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the four members of the R. argillacea complex are similar, and caspofungin showed significant activity in vitro, followed by amphotericin B and posaconazole. Voriconazole...

  6. Facilitatory effect of AM281 on recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialuk, Izabela; Winnicka, Maria Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    Our approach was to determine the influence of a single systemic administration of AM281, synthetic cannabinoid structurally similar to SR141716A, on recognition memory in rats. To assess the influence of AM281 on acquisition of information the compound was given intraperitoneally once, at the doses of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0mg/kg, 15min before learning trial (T1) and in order to evaluate its influence on consolidation process AM281 was given at indicated doses, immediately after T1 trial in an object recognition test. Since cannabinoids may alter motor function and affect anxiety, the influence of AM281 on psychomotor activity and anxiety was evaluated in an open-field and elevated plus maze test, respectively. Administration of AM281 at the doses: 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg significantly improved acquisition of information, while 0.1 and 0.5mg/kg of AM281 significantly facilitated consolidation process. Not only did AM281 not affect locomotor and exploratory activity, but also anxiety. This is the first evidence that AM281 exerts facilitatory effect on recognition memory in rats. This effect seems to be memory specific because no alterations in animals' psychomotor activity and anxiety were observed. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Challenges of Enterprise Wide AM for Air Force Sustainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    of the network AM printers ; this critical challenge is being ad- dressed through the AMIP. For example, machine-to-ma- chine variations will be...enterprise ap- proach and allow for a repository of fully validated, qualified AM designs, ensuring every 3D printed part meets or ex- ceeds original

  8. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) for Extraterrestrial Study of Antimatter, Matter and Missing Matter on the International Space Station

    CERN Multimedia

    Lee, M W; Lipari, P; Berdugo perez, J F; Borgia, B; Battarbee, M C; Valente, V; Bartoloni, A

    2002-01-01

    % RE1\\\\ \\\\ AMS is the first magnetic particle physics spectrometer to be installed on the International Space Station. With a superconducting magnetic spectrometer, AMS will provide accurate measurements of electrons, positrons, protons, antiprotons and various nuclei up to TeV region. NASA has scheduled to install this detector on the International Space Station in May 2003. The first flight of AMS was done with a permanent magnet and this prototype detector has provided accurate information on the limit of the existence of antihelium. It also showed that proton and electron -positron spectra exhibited a complicated behavior in the near earth orbit. The construction of AMS is being carried out in Switzerland, Germany, Italy, France, Finland, Spain, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Taiwan, China and the United States. NASA provides the use of the space shuttle and the space station, as well as mission management.

  9. [Effects of inoculating AM fungi on physiological characters and nutritional components of Astragalus membranaceus under different N application levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xue-li; Liu, Ti; Zhao, Li-li

    2009-09-01

    A pot culture with unsterilized soil as growth substrate showed that AM fungi had significant effects on the growth of Astragalus membranaceus (Fabaceae) under different N application levels. Inoculation with AM fungi promoted the AM infection of A. membranaceus roots, but high N application level suppressed the infection. Inoculating AM fungi increased the growth rate, soluble protein and sugar contents, and SOD, POD and CAT activities of A. membranaceus. Under 50 and 100 mg x kg(-1) of N application, new bands of POD isozyme occurred in inoculated plants, and the contents of flavonoid, N, and P in A. membranaceus also had definite increase. The best inoculation effect was observed under the N application level of 50-100 mg N x kg(-1) soil.

  10. Mechanical properties determination of AM components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzugan, J.; Sibr, M.; Konopík, P.; Procházka, R.; Rund, M.

    2017-02-01

    Characterisation of engineering materials and components is a crucial part for design and save service life utilization. Due to components processing technologies and exploitation conditions local properties can significantly vary from location to location over larger components as well as over small material volumes with gradual material changes such as welds, coatings or additively manufactured parts. The current paper is dealing with local properties characterisation for additively manufacture (AM) components by micro tensile test (M-TT). Components produced by additive manufacturing techniques yield properties variation in dependence of the considered location within the component regarding to direction in relation to deposition process. Properties vary over the thickness, length, angle or contacts with the supporting structures necessary for a successful components production by additive manufacturing techniques. The properties differences are mainly related to varying heating/reheating and cooling conditions at various locations of usually very complex parts produced mainly by these technologies. The standard testing procedures fail to characterize such local properties of complex shaped objects due to large size requirements on specimens. Therefore, new techniques have to be established for such detailed local characterizations. Results of miniaturized tensile tests application for local properties and orientations are shown here.

  11. The Ohrberg solar village; Solarsiedlung am Ohrberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanoli, K.; Christoffers, D.; Rockendorf, G. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH Hameln/Emmerthal (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany). Abt. Systemtechnik von Solarenergieanlagen; Kranz, R. [Elektrizitaetswerke Wesertal GmbH, Hameln (Germany). Abt. Energieberatung/Energiekonzepte

    1998-02-01

    As an officially approved regional project of the EXPO 2000, the Ohrberg Solar Village will demonstrate an integrated energy concept - combining customer information and counseling, modern energy technologies and energy services rendered by utilities - which reduces the consumption of conventional energy ressources and the CO{sub 2}-emissions. The local utility Wesertal GmbH will equip the 82 low-energy solar houses of the village with reliable, cost-effective and innovative energy technologies and will provide energy services on the basis of a user-friendly contract. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Solarsiedlung am Ohrberg demonstriert als registriertes Regionalprojekt der EXPO 2000, wie ein integriertes Energiekonzept - bestehend aus umfassender Energieberatung, Einsatz moderner Energietechnologien und einem Nutz-Energie-Dienstleistungsangebot der Energieversorger - einen substantiellen Beitrag zur Ressourcenschonung und zur Reduzierung der klimarelevanten Umweltbelastung leisten kann. Das regionale Energieversorgungsunternehmen Wesertal GmbH wird innovative, erprobte, kostenguenstige, rationelle und regenerative Energieversorgungstechniken in den 82 solaren Niedrigenergiehaeusern dieser Siedlung installieren und die Waermeversorgung im Rahmen eines Waermedienstleistungskonzeptes uebernehmen. (orig.)

  12. Actinides AMS at CIRCE in Caserta (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, M.; Gialanella, L.; Rogalla, D.; Petraglia, A.; Guan, Y.; De Cesare, N.; D'Onofrio, A.; Quinto, F.; Roca, V.; Sabbarese, C.; Terrasi, F.

    2010-04-01

    The operation of Nuclear Power Plants and atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons performed in the past, together with production, transport and reprocessing of nuclear fuel, lead to the release into the environment of a wide range of radioactive nuclides, such as uranium, plutonium, fission and activation products. These nuclides are present in the environment at ultra trace levels. Their detection requires sensitive techniques like AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry). In order to perform isotopic ratio measurements of the longer-lived actinides, e.g., of 236U relative to the primary 238U and various Pu isotopes relative to 239Pu, an upgrade of the CIRCE accelerator (Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage) in Caserta, Italy, is underway. In this paper we report on the results of simulations aiming to define the best ion optics and to understand the origin of possible measurement background. The design of a high resolution TOF- E (Time of Flight-Energy) detector system is described, which will be used to identify the rare isotopes among interfering background signals.

  13. Who Am I? Writing to Find Myself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen McNichol

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Developmental creative writing and the related areas of expressive writing and therapeutic writing have only recently arisen as significant areas of study; however, although recent research has determined that writing is good for your health, just expressing oneself on the page isn’t enough to promote personal development. In this paper, I set out to answer the question – how is personal development achieved in the context of therapeutic writing? In order to answer this question, I consider many definitions of personal development and writing as outlined by experts in the associated fields of expressive writing, therapeutic writing and developmental creative writing, and I also review concepts of the self as I consider a related question – who am I? Through an in-depth analysis of my own personal writing about my sister’s mental illness, I conclude that writing for the purposes of personal development requires a conscious self-reflexive effort, with the goal of developing a deeper understanding of self, so as to promote positive change in the way that one perceives one’s own life.

  14. macrosociales en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Martínez Pizarro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Luego de una década de intenso crecimiento de las remesas, cuya magnitud relativa es insoslayable en varios países, se evalúan sus posibles impactos macrosociales a nivel nacional en países de América Latina. Se presenta una breve alusión teórica al fenómeno de las remesas y se sintetizan las inquietudes que rodean a este fenómeno en la región: la estimación de su volumen, los costos de transferencia y las posibilidades para generar externalidades productivas en las áreas de recepción de estos recursos. Además, se pone atención en las asociaciones de migrantes que envían remesas colectivamente. Después se examinan sus impactos macrosociales contrastados con información empírica disponible sobre la pobreza, la distribución del ingreso y el gasto social en países seleccionados. Al hablar de “migración”, “remesas” y “desarrollo” conviene examinar científicamente esas relaciones con el bienestar y no únicamente emplear una visión optimista en función de su aumento y la magnitud absoluta y relativa que han alcanzado

  15. Susceptibility of Some Stone and Pome Fruit Rootstocks to Crown Gall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rhouma

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of different fruit rootstocks to crown gall disease was investigated in greenhouse and field experiments with numerous strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens over three years. Plants were inoculated in the roots and shoots for pot experiments. Field experiments were performed in a naturally contaminated nursery plot. The genotypes Prunus dulcis and P. persica showed a high level of susceptibility to A. tumefaciens. Among the stone rootstocks, bitter almond was highly susceptible in all experiments. Apricot and Cadaman rootstocks displayed low susceptibility but larger galls, showing that there was no relation between rootstock susceptibility and gall size. Among pome rootstocks, quince BA29 was resistant to the disease, while MM106 was susceptible in potted trials; however, in the field essays, pome rootstocks did not become galled, possibly because the strains had selected for and adapted to stone rootstocks.

  16. Resource for the Development of Biomedical Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turteltaub, K. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bench, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buchholz, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Enright, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kulp, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McCartt, A. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Malfatti, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ognibene, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Loots, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stewart, B. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-08

    The NIH Research Resource for Biomedical AMS was originally funded at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1999 to develop and apply the technology of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in broad- based biomedical research. The Resource’s niche is to fill needs for ultra high sensitivity quantitation when isotope-labeled agents are used. The Research Resource’s Technology Research and Development (TR&D) efforts will focus on the needs of the biomedical research community in the context of seven Driving Biomedical Projects (DBPs) that will drive the Center’s technical capabilities through three core TR&Ds. We will expand our present capabilities by developing a fully integrated HPLC AMS to increase our capabilities for metabolic measurements, we will develop methods to understand cellular processes and we will develop and validate methods for the application of AMS in human studies, which is a growing area of demand by collaborators and service users. In addition, we will continue to support new and ongoing collaborative and service projects that require the capabilities of the Resource. The Center will continue to train researchers in the use of the AMS capabilities being developed, and the results of all efforts will be widely disseminated to advance progress in biomedical research. Towards these goals, our specific aims are to:1.) Increase the value and information content of AMS measurements by combining molecular speciation with quantitation of defined macromolecular isolates. Specifically, develop and validate methods for macromolecule labeling, characterization and quantitation.2.) Develop and validate methods and strategies to enable AMS to become more broadly used in human studies. Specifically, demonstrate robust methods for conducting pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics studies in humans and model systems.3.) Increase the accessibility of AMS to the Biomedical research community and the throughput of AMS through direct coupling to separatory

  17. Resource for the Development of Biomedical Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerteltaub, K. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bench, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buchholz, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Enright, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kulp, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Loots, G. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McCartt, A. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Malfatti, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ognibene, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stewart, B. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-21

    The NIH Research Resource for Biomedical AMS was originally funded at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1999 to develop and apply the technology of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in broad- based biomedical research. The Resource’s niche is to fill needs for ultra high sensitivity quantitation when isotope-labeled agents are used. The Research Resource’s Technology Research and Development (TR&D) efforts will focus on the needs of the biomedical research community in the context of seven Driving Biomedical Projects (DBPs) that will drive the Center’s technical capabilities through three core TR&Ds. We will expand our present capabilities by developing a fully integrated HPLC AMS to increase our capabilities for metabolic measurements, we will develop methods to understand cellular processes and we will develop and validate methods for the application of AMS in human studies, which is a growing area of demand by collaborators and service users. In addition, we will continue to support new and ongoing collaborative and service projects that require the capabilities of the Resource. The Center will continue to train researchers in the use of the AMS capabilities being developed, and the results of all efforts will be widely disseminated to advance progress in biomedical research. Towards these goals, our specific aims are to:1.) Increase the value and information content of AMS measurements by combining molecular speciation with quantitation of defined macromolecular isolates. Specifically, develop and validate methods for macromolecule labeling, characterization and quantitation.2.) Develop and validate methods and strategies to enable AMS to become more broadly used in human studies. Specifically, demonstrate robust methods for conducting pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics studies in humans and model systems.3.) Increase the accessibility of AMS to the Biomedical research community and the throughput of AMS through direct coupling to separatory

  18. Iron mapping using the temperature dependency of the magnetic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkl, Christoph; Langkammer, Christian; Krenn, Heinz; Goessler, Walter; Ernst, Christina; Haybaeck, Johannes; Stollberger, Rudolf; Fazekas, Franz; Ropele, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    The assessment of iron content in brain white matter (WM) is of high importance for studying neurodegenerative diseases. While R2 * mapping and quantitative susceptibility mapping is suitable for iron mapping in gray matter, iron mapping in WM still remains an unsolved problem. We propose a new approach for iron mapping, independent of diamagnetic contributions of myelin by assessing the temperature dependency of the paramagnetic susceptibility. We used unfixed human brain slices for relaxometry and calculated R2 ' as a measure for microscopic susceptibility variations at several temperatures (4°C-37°C) at 3 Tesla. The temperature coefficient of R2 ' (TcR2p) was calculated by linear regression and related to the iron concentration found by subsequent superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In line with SQUID measurements, R2 ' mapping showed a linear temperature dependency of the bulk susceptibility with the highest slope in gray matter. Even in WM, TcR2p yielded a high linear correlation with the absolute iron concentration. According to Curie's law, only paramagnetic matter exhibits a temperature dependency while the diamagnetism shows no effect. We have demonstrated that the temperature coefficient (TcR2p) can be used as a measure of the paramagnetic susceptibility despite of an unknown diamagnetic background. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Antifungal susceptibility testing of yeast isolated from corneal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascaro Vera Lucia Degaspare Monte

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report the antifungal susceptibility profile of yeast isolates obtained from cases of keratitis. METHODS: Susceptibility testing of 15 yeast strains isolated from corneal infections to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole was performed using the NCCLS broth microdilution assay. RESULTS: Most episodes of eye infections were caused by Candida albicans. The antifungal drugs tested showed the following minimal inhibitory concentration values against yeast isolates: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml for amphotericin B; 0.125->64.0 mg/ml for fluconazole; 0.015-1.0 mg/ml for itraconazole and 0.015-0.125 mg/ml for ketoconazole. Despite the fact that all Candida isolates were judged to be susceptible to azoles, one isolate showed a minimal inhibitory concentration value significantly higher than a 90% minimal inhibitory concentration of all tested isolates. Rhodotorula rubra was resistant to fluconazole and itraconazole. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that most yeast isolates from corneal infections are usually susceptible to amphotericin B and azoles, they exhibit a wide range of minimal inhibitory concentration values for antifungal drugs. The identification of strains at species level and their susceptibility pattern to antifungal drugs should be considered before determining the concentration to be used in topical antifungal formulations in order to optimize therapeutic response in eye infections.

  20. Effects of noise reduction on AM perception for hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, D Timothy; Kalluri, Sridhar; Strelcyk, Olaf; Sheft, Stanley; Miermont, Franck; Coez, Arnaud; Bizaguet, Eric; Lorenzi, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Noise reduction (NR) systems are commonplace in modern digital hearing aids. Though not improving speech intelligibility, NR helps the hearing-aid user in terms of lowering noise annoyance, reducing cognitive load and improving ease of listening. Previous psychophysical work has shown that NR does in fact improve the ability of normal-hearing (NH) listeners to discriminate the slow amplitude-modulation (AM) cues representative of those found in speech. The goal of this study was to assess whether this improvement of AM discrimination with NR can also be observed for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. AM discrimination was measured at two audio frequencies of 500 Hz and 2 kHz in a background noise with a signal-to-noise ratio of 12 dB. Discrimination was measured for ten HI and ten NH listeners with and without NR processing. The HI listeners had a moderate sensorineural hearing loss of about 50 dB HL at 2 kHz and normal hearing (≤ 20 dB HL) at 500 Hz. The results showed that most of the HI listeners tended to benefit from NR at 500 Hz but not at 2 kHz. However, statistical analyses showed that HI listeners did not benefit significantly from NR at any frequency region. In comparison, the NH listeners showed a significant benefit from NR at both frequencies. For each condition, the fidelity of AM transmission was quantified by a computational model of early auditory processing. The parameters of the model were adjusted separately for the two groups (NH and HI) of listeners. The AM discrimination performance of the HI group (with and without NR) was best captured by a model simulating the loss of the fast-acting amplitude compression applied by the normal cochlea. This suggests that the lack of benefit from NR for HI listeners results from loudness recruitment.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgässner, C; Schmitt, S; Borgström, A; Wittenbrink, M M

    2016-06-01

    Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic diarrheal disease in pigs worldwide. So far, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of B. hyodysenteriae in Switzerland have not been investigated. Therefore, a panel of 30 porcine B. hyodysenteriae isolates were tested against 6 antimicrobial agents by using the VetMIC Brachy panel, a broth microdilution test. Tiamulin and valnemulin showed high antimicrobial activity inhibiting all isolates at low concentrations. The susceptibility testing of doxycycline revealed values from ≤0.25 μg/ ml (47%) to 2 μg/ml (10%). The MIC values of lincomycin ranged between ≤0.5 μg/ml (30%) and 32 μg/ml (43%). For tylosin, 57% of the isolates could not be inhibited at the highest concentration of ≥128 μg/ml. The MIC values for tylvalosin were between ≤0.25 μg/ml (10%) and 8 μg/ml (20%). These findings reveal Switzerland's favourable situation compared to other European countries. Above all, tiamulin and valnemulin are still effective antimicrobial agents and can be further used for the treatment of SD.

  2. Hyperglycemia Increases Susceptibility to Ischemic Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lévigne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients are at risk for spontaneous foot ulcers, chronic wounds, infections, and tissue necrosis. Current theories suggest that the development and progression of diabetic foot ulcers are mainly caused by arteriosclerosis and peripheral neuropathy. Tissue necrosis plays a primordial role in the progression of diabetic foot ulcers but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hyperglycemia per se on the susceptibility of ischemic tissue to necrosis, using a critical ischemic hind limb animal model. We inflicted the same degree of ischemia in both euglycemic and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats by resecting the external iliac, the femoral, and the saphenous arteries. Postoperative laser Doppler flowmetry of the ischemic feet showed the same degree of reduction in skin perfusion in both hyperglycemic and euglycemic animals. Nevertheless, we found a significantly higher rate of limb necrosis in hyperglycemic rats compared to euglycemic rats (71% versus 29%, resp.. In this study, we revealed that hyperglycemia per se increases the susceptibility to limb necrosis in ischemic conditions. Our results may help to better understand the physiopathology of progressive diabetic wounds and underline the importance of strict glycemic control in patients with critical limb ischemia.

  3. Recording of Miocene regional stress under dry climate at the edge of a Carboniferous doleritic dyke in Brittany (France). Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and palaeomagnetic evidenceFossilisation des contraintes régionales miocènes sous climat aride en bordure d'un filon doléritique carbonifère en Bretagne. Apport de l'anisotropie de susceptibilité magnétique et du paléomagnétisme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïfa, Tahar; Lefort, Jean-Pierre

    2000-01-01

    Study of the north-south Dinantian St Malo dyke swarm shows a weaker magnetic susceptibility on the dyke borders. This lower magnetic susceptibility can be interpreted either as the result of a rapid cooling of the magma at the contact with the host rock or of subsequent weathering. An AMS and palaeomagnetic study carried out on 72 specimens distributed along a cross-section in the Saint-Briac doleritic dyke show a central and two bordering zones. The central zone is characterized by high magnetic susceptibility values and a vertical Kmax. The borders show lower magnetic susceptibility values and a shallow Kmax. Rock magnetic study evidenced primary multidomain magnetite in the centre (oblate + prolate) and secondary pseudo-monodomain to monodomain magnetite associated with maghemite in the borders (oblate). A secondary magnetization component of Lower Miocene age ( D = 5.3°, I = 60.0°, α95 = 4.2°) has been recognized. It can be attributed to weathering associated with a low temperature fluid circulation under reducing conditions. Secondary minerals such as magnetite and maghemite crystallized in an extensional regime in association with other mineral fibers (epitaxio growth). The computed ENE-WSW Kmax, compatible with this extension, resulted from a WNW-ESE Miocene regional stress on the dyke.

  4. América y Apocalipsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Prosperi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo estudia las razones que han vinculado la exploración y conquista de América o 'Nuevo Mundo' con las profecías cristianas de naturaleza apocalíptica y/o milenarista en torno a un 'Fin del Mundo'. En el siglo XVI el horizonte de la Europa cristiana estaba dominado por el requerimiento de un profundo cambio y por el anhelo de volver a la forma eclesial apostólica de los inicios. El descubrimiento de tierras y nuevos pueblos replanteó la cuestión del sentido de la historia y fortaleció la espera del fin que había sido la característica fundamental del cristianismo en sus orígenes. La acción misionera de los primeros franciscanos enviados a México unía la expectativa del fin con la necesidad de completar la predicación del Evangelio para así abreviar el tiempo final señalado por el Apocalipsis. En el mismo período, convicciones similares motivaban a los protagonistas de los movimientos de Reforma de la Iglesia. Las noticias sobre la difusión del cristianismo en América y los conflictos religiosos en Europa estimularon en muchos ambientes las especulaciones milenaristas vinculadas a la esperanza de una sociedad justa y de un mundo unido por intervención divina. Sueño político y religioso al mismo tiempo. Analizando diversos casos y testimonios, el artículo muestra que en esto residiría la originalidad de la experiencia italiana y también española del siglo de la ReformaThe article reviews the reasons which have linked the explorations and conquest of America, 'the New World', and the apocalyptic or millenarian Christian prophesises concerning the end of the world. In the XVI c. the Christian Europe was eager of deep changes, and a longing to return to the original apostolic ecclesiastical form. The discovery of new lands and peoples set questions on the sense of history and strengthened the expectations for the coming of the Last Days, which had been a fundamental feature of Christianity from its origins. The

  5. Histologische und immunohistochemische Untersuchung am menschlichen Rhabdosphinkter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holliger S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ziel: Es bestehen zunehmend Hinweise, daß dem Rhabdosphinkter eine zentrale Rolle im Rahmen des Kontinenzmechanismus, insbesondere nach radikaler Prostatektomie, zukommt. Gleichzeitig besteht jedoch unverändert Unklarheit über dessen genaue anatomische Ausdehnung und die Art der Muskelfasern, weshalb die vorliegende Studie, unter spezieller Berücksichtigung der Anatomie und Muskelfaserzusammensetzung, durchgeführt wurde. Material und Methode: Der Rhabdosphinkter am Autopsiepräparat von 10 Foeten (3 weiblich, 7 männlich und 5 männlichen Erwachsenen sowie 15 Prostatektomiepräparaten bei Patienten mit Prostatakarzinom wurden konventionell mittels Masson-Trichrom und Hematoxylin-Eosin sowie immunohistochemisch mittels Antikörper gegen die langsamen und schnellen quergestreiften Muskelfasern untersucht. Ergebnisse: Im menschlichen foetalen Rhabdosphinkter beträgt das Verhältnis von schnellen zu langsamen quergestreiften Muskelfasern 2 zu 1 zu Gunsten der schnellen quergestreiften Muskelfasern. Beim Erwachsenen hingegen kommt es zu einer Umkehr dieses Verhältnisses zu Gunsten der langsamen Muskelfasern in einem Verhältnis von 1 zu 4. Der männliche Rhabdosphinkter weist einen charakteristischen Hauptbestandteil im Bereich der Pars membranacea der Harnröhre mit einer dorsalen Muskellücke gegen die Denonvillier'sche Faszie hin auf. Er verdünnt sich gegen rostral und infiltriert die Prostata in 3 bis 4 klar unterscheidbaren Muskelfaserbündeln, die im Bereich des vorderen Blasenhalses enden. Diskussion: Nach der Geburt kommt es beim Menschen zur Ausbildung eines kontinenten Sphinktermechanismus unter zunehmender neuronaler Kontrolle durch das zentrale Nervensystem. Das anatomische Korrelat im unteren Harntrakt stellt die veränderte Muskelfaserzusammensetzung der quergestreiften Muskelfasern des Rhabdosphinkters dar.

  6. en América del Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mercado Celis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las brechas tecnológicas entre países y regiones son la pieza clave en la diferenciación económica y en las tasas de crecimiento resultantes. Los países y regiones menos desarrollados pueden fomentar competencias tecnológicas con estrategias diferentes. El mejor momento para que este tipo de países ingrese en la competencia por el control tecnológico es cuando las tecnologías y los conocimientos relacionados con ellas están en una etapa inicial, a lo que se le conoce como ventana de oportunidad tecnológica y locacional. En este artículo, se argumenta que la ventana de oportunidad de la biotecnología aún está abierta, y que México todavía puede entrar en la competencia mundial por su desarrollo. No obstante lo anterior, se documenta que Canadá y Estados Unidos están generando ventajas absolutas con rapidez, por lo que las ventanas de oportunidad en algunas áreas pronto estarán "cerradas". Se presentan las regiones que dominan la creación de aplicaciones comerciales en biotecnología en la región de América del Norte. En particular, se subraya el papel destacado que algunas ciudades canadienses están jugando en el desarrollo de esta industria, pese a la competencia estadounidense.

  7. CASO AlbAm S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Goulart Serra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os analistas financeiros da AlbAm, uma empresa do setor de autopeças, devem avaliar duas opções de aquisições (Cardblue e Garciadores. O objetivo do caso é servir de oportunidade para os alunos vivenciarem uma decisão de investimentos por meio do lucro econômico. Uma análise superficial certamente levará a decisão equivocada. Levando-se todos os aspectos do caso em consideração, chegar-se-á a uma solução que pode surpreender alguns alunos, uma vez que a empresa melhor gerida não será a melhor oportunidade de investimento. Também se pode aproveitar o caso para discutir a superficialidade da adoção do EBITDA como métrica de gestão comparativamente a uma métrica de valor agregado (lucro econômico - a melhor solução também não é aquela que gera o maior aumento em EBITDA. O caso pode ser usado em disciplinas de finanças (finanças corporativas ou avaliação de empresas em cursos de graduação, pós-graduação ou especialização. Todas as empresas e pessoas relatadas neste caso são fictícias.

  8. Frauen am Himmel Women in the Sky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrud Pfister

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Evelyn Zegenhagen hat ohne Zweifel das am besten recherchierte Buch über die Geschichte des Frauenfliegens und über die Rolle der Pilotinnen in der Geschichte der Luftfahrt zwischen 1918 und 1945 vorgelegt. Mit einem unglaublichen Forschungsaufwand hat sie viele Lücken in der vorliegenden Forschung zu diesem Thema geschlossen und erstmalig Biographien von Segelfliegerinnen und deren Chancen und Probleme aufgearbeitet. Damit gewährt sie Einblicke in einen Bereich der Luftfahrtgeschichte, der neue Perspektiven, nicht nur im Hinblick auf die Beteiligung von Frauen, eröffnet. Umfangreiche Quellenstudien ermöglichten es zudem, die Lebensläufe bisher weitgehend unbekannter Fliegerinnen zu rekonstruieren und bereits bekannte und gut dokumentierte Biographien um neue Facetten zu ergänzen. Zegenhagen hat den Anspruch, die Fliegerei der Frauen im zeitgenössischen Kontext zu betrachten und neben den individuellen Chancen auch die strukturellen Bedingungen zu berücksichtigen, ohne Frage eingelöst.Without a doubt, Evelyn Zegenhagen has presented the best-researched book published on the history of female flight and on the role of female pilots in aviation history between 1918 and 1945. This amazing achievement of research has closed many gaps in current research on the subject. The author has also processed, for the very first time, the biographies of female gliders and the chances and problems they encountered. She thus delivers insight into and opens up new perspectives on the subject of aviation history, not only in relation to female participation. Her comprehensive study of the sources also reconstructs the lives of unknown female pilots and adds new dimensions to those biographies that have already been well documented. Zegenhagen has definitely fulfilled her wish to view the flight of women in a contemporary context and to account for the structural conditions in conjunction with the individual possibilities for women.

  9. Discerning Subvolcanic Deformation and Magma Emplacement Geometries: The utility of Combined Paleomagnetic and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronis, M. S.; Van Wyk de Vries, B.; Lindline, J.; Rapprich, V.

    2012-12-01

    Here we report paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data from three monogenic volcanic centers. Our data reveal that monogenic magma feeder systems are far more complex in terms of the evolution of the magma plumbing system, subvolcanic deformation, and the intrinsic and extrinsic controls on the final magma source geometry, outer cinder cone morphology, and eruptive dynamics. We hypothesize that these various factors collectively orchestrate the development of monogenic volcanic constructs and their associated subvolcanic magma feeder systems. Paleomagnetic and AMS data from the 1) Lemptégy Volcano, France, 2) Trosky Volcano, Czech Republic, and 3) Cienega Volcano, USA indicate that monogenic volcanoes, although commonly perceived as simple evolve in a complex manner. The question we pose here is what governs the evolution of the volcanic construct and the magma feeder system? As we show, the regional tectonics, and hence the regional stress/strain field, do not have a strong control on the upper emplacement geometries and magma flow path even if feeder dykes do follow the trend. We argue that the dynamics of the magma flow once it nears the eruptive edifice remains poorly understood, thus producing a large gap in our current knowledge on active volcanic evolution. Combining detailed paleomagnetic, AMS, and structural studies as well as basic field mapping provide the needed data to constrain the evolution of these systems. We suggest that shallow magmatic systems beneath monogenetic volcanoes, and likely other shallow magma systems (e.g., laccoliths), and even large edifices, are not strongly controlled by the local and regional stress fields and bear little on the growth of the shallow magma feeder systems (<1km). The simple external structure of monogenetic volcanoes hides a rather complex magmatic plumbing system that dynamically evolves during the life of the volcano. As we show, the well-exposed roots of these volcanoes reveal that

  10. AM(VI) partitioning studies. FY14 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, Bruce J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The use of higher oxidation states of americium in partitioning from the lanthanides is under continued investigation by the sigma team. This is based on the hypothesis that Am(VI) can be produced and remain stable in irradiated first cycle raffinate solution long enough to perform solvent extraction for separations. The stability of Am(VI) to autoreduction was measured using millimolar americium concentrations in a 1-cm cell with a Cary 6000 UV/Vis spectrophotometer for data acquisition. At millimolar americium concentrations, Am(VI) is stable enough against its own autoreduction for separations purposes. A second major accomplishment during FY14 was the hot test. Americium oxidation and extraction was performed using a centrifugal contactor-based test bed consisting of an extraction stage and two stripping stages. Sixty-three percent americium extraction was obtained in one extraction stage, in agreement with batch contacts. Promising electrochemical oxidation results have also been obtained, using terpyridine ligand derivatized electrodes for binding of Am(III). Approximately 50 % of the Am(III) was oxidized to Am(V) over the course of 1 hour. It is believed that this is the first demonstration of the electrolytic oxidation of americium in a non-complexing solution. Finally, an initial investigation of Am(VI) extraction using diethylhexylbutyramide (DEHBA) was performed.

  11. Measurement of the 241Am and the 243Am Neutron Capture Cross Sections at the n_TOF Facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Mendoza, E; Guerrero, C; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Korschinek, G; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Massimi, C; Meaze, M; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondelaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Pignatari, M; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T J; Žugec, P

    2014-01-01

    The capture cross sections of Am-241 and Am-243 were measured at the n\\_TOF facility at CERN in the epithermal energy range with a BaF2 Total Absorption Calorimeter. A preliminary analysis of the Am-241 and a complete analysis of the Am-243 measurement, including the data reduction and the resonance analysis, have been performed.

  12. Measurement of the 241Am and the 243Am Neutron Capture Cross Sections at the n_TOF Facility at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Guerrero, C.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Duran, I.; Dressler, R.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Korschinek, G.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L. S.; Losito, R.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Massimi, C.; Meaze, M.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondelaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Pignatari, M.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sarmento, R.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T. J.; Žugec, P.

    2014-05-01

    The capture cross sections of 241Am and 243Am were measured at the n_TOF facility at CERN in the epithermal energy range with a BaF2 Total Absorption Calorimeter. A preliminary analysis of the 241Am and a complete analysis of the 243Am measurement, including the data reduction and the resonance analysis, have been performed.

  13. The signaling pathways underlying starvation-induced upregulation of α-mannosidase Ams1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umekawa, Midori; Ujihara, Masato; Makishima, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Shohei; Takematsu, Hiromu; Wakayama, Mamoru

    2016-06-01

    Cells have evolved the mechanisms to survive nutritional shortages in the environment. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, α-mannosidase Ams1 is known to play a role in catabolism of N-linked free oligosaccharides in the cytosol. Although, this enzyme is also known to be transported selectively from the cytosol to the vacuoles by autophagy, the physiological significance of this transport has not been clarified. To elucidate the regulatory mechanism of the activity of Ams1, we assessed the enzymatic activity of the cell free extract of the wild-type and various gene disruptants under different nutritional conditions. In addition, the regulation of Ams1 at both transcription and post-translation was examined. The activity of Ams1 was significantly increased upon the depletion of glucose in the medium. Interestingly, the activity of the enzyme was also stimulated by nitrogen starvation. Our data showed that the activity of Ams1 is regulated by the stress responsive transcriptional factors Msn2/4 through the protein kinase A and the target of rapamycin complex 1 pathways. In addition, Ams1 is post-translationally activated by Pep4-dependent processing in the vacuoles. Yeast cells monitor extracellular nutrients to regulate mannoside catabolism via the cellular signaling pathway. This study revealed that intracellular Ams1 activity is exquisitely upregulated in response to nutrient starvation by induced expression as well as by Pep4-dependent enhanced activity in the vacuoles. The signaling molecules responsible for regulation of Ams1 were also clarified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. From the History of Islamic Studies: A.-M. Schimmel and Phenomenological Approach to Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarina Tat’iana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses key works of the well-known classic of Islamic studies A.-M. Schimmel and demonstrates that in her legacy the methodology of classical phenomenology of religion has found its fresh application to the study of Islam. The article focuses on essential points of A.-M. Schimmel’s biography that had infl uenced her academic career, and then analyses her phenomenological approach showing how she builds a system of description of Islam by means of systematising religious phenomena that proceeds from external forms (material objects to the centre of religion, God. Phenomenological analysis of Islam provides a base for comprehensive understanding and description of religious phenomena, starting from the perception of stone, holiday, clothes, myth in minds of ordinary Muslims. Schimmel’s phenomenological approach to Islam takes into account the specifi city of lived religion prior to the emergence of this trend. A.-M. Schimmel’s legacy therefore fits in the context of contemporary religious studies. The second part of the article examines the influence of leading scholars in phenomenology of religion (Mircea Eliade, Gerardus van der Leeuw, Friedrich Heiler on A.-M. Schimmel. It is concluded that the positive reception of her work among scholars of Islam and among Muslims themselves suggests that the language of the phenomenological description is the language of religious dialogue.

  15. Critical modulation frequency based on detection of AM versus FM tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorer, E

    1986-04-01

    The ratios between the modulation index (eta) for just noticeable FM of a sinusoidally modulated pure tone and the degree of modulation (m) for just noticeable AM at the same carrier and the same modulation frequency were measured at carrier frequencies of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz. Signal levels were 20 dB SL and 50 dB SPL or 80 dB SPL. At low modulation frequencies, for example, 8 Hz, AM and FM elicit very different auditory sensations (i.e., a fluctuation in loudness or pitch, respectively). In this case, eta and m show different values for just noticeable modulation. Since both stimuli have almost equal amplitude spectra if eta equals m (m less than 0.3), the difference in detection thresholds reflects differences in the phase relation between carrier and sidebands in AM and FM. With increasing modulation frequency, the eta-m ratio decreases and reaches unity at a modulation frequency called the "critical modulation frequency" (CMF). At modulation frequencies above the CMF, the same modulation thresholds are obtained for AM and FM. Therefore, it can be concluded that the difference in phase between the two types of stimuli is not perceived in this range. At center frequencies below 1 kHz, where phase errors caused by headphones and ear canal presumably are small, the CMF is useful in estimating critical bandwidth.

  16. Temperature-induced labelling of Fluo-3 AM selectively yields brighter nucleus in adherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guixian; Pan, Leiting; Li, Cunbo; Hu, Fen; Shi, Xuechen; Lee, Imshik; Drevenšek-Olenik, Irena; Zhang, Xinzheng; Xu, Jingjun

    2014-01-17

    Fluo-3 is widely used to study cell calcium. Two traditional approaches: (1) direct injection and (2) Fluo-3 acetoxymethyl ester (AM) loading, often bring conflicting results in cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca(2+)]c) and nuclear calcium ([Ca(2+)]n) imaging. AM loading usually yields a darker nucleus than in cytoplasm, while direct injection always induces a brighter nucleus which is more responsive to [Ca(2+)]n detection. In this work, we detailedly investigated the effects of loading and de-esterification temperatures on the fluorescence intensity of Fluo-3 in response to [Ca(2+)]n and [Ca(2+)]c in adherent cells, including osteoblast, HeLa and BV2 cells. Interestingly, it showed that fluorescence intensity of nucleus in osteoblast cells was about two times larger than that of cytoplasm when cells were loaded with Fluo-3 AM at 4 °C and allowed a subsequent step for de-esterification at 20 °C. Brighter nuclei were also acquired in HeLa and BV2 cells using the same experimental condition. Furthermore, loading time and adhesion quality of cells had effect on fluorescence intensity. Taken together, cold loading and room temperature de-esterification treatment of Fluo-3 AM selectively yielded brighter nucleus in adherent cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies: Dynamic, College-Level Geoscience Courses Emphasizing Current Earth System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Moran, J. M.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Blair, B. A.; Hopkins, E. J.; Kiley, T. P.; Ruwe, E. E.

    2008-12-01

    AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies are introductory college-level courses developed by the American Meteorological Society, with NSF and NOAA support, for local offering at undergraduate institutions nationwide. The courses place students in a dynamic and highly motivational educational environment where they investigate the atmosphere and world ocean using real-world and real-time environmental data. Over 360 colleges throughout the United States have offered these courses in course environments ranging from traditional lecture/laboratory to completely online. AMS Diversity Projects aim to increase undergraduate student access to the geosciences through implementation of the courses at minority-serving institutions and training programs for MSI faculty. The AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies course packages consist of a hard-cover, 15-chapter textbook, Investigations Manual with 30 lab-style activities, and course website containing weekly current weather and ocean investigations. Course instructors receive access to a faculty website and CD containing answer keys and course management system-compatible files, which allow full integration to a college's e-learning environment. The unique aspect of the courses is the focus on current Earth system data through weekly Current Weather Studies and Current Ocean Studies investigations written in real time and posted to the course website, as well as weekly news files and a daily weather summary for AMS Weather Studies. Students therefore study meteorology or oceanography as it happens, which creates a dynamic learning environment where student relate their experiences and observations to the course, and actively discuss the science with their instructor and classmates. With NSF support, AMS has held expenses-paid course implementation workshops for minority-serving institution faculty planning to offer AMS Weather Studies or AMS Ocean Studies. From May 2002-2007, AMS conducted week-long weather workshops

  18. Patterns of antibiotics susceptibility of isolates and plasmid analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. aureus showed percentage susceptibility of 50-100% and Staphylococcus epidermidis (50-100%) for cloxacillin and augmentin, and less than 60% for amoxacillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, cotrimoxazole, gentamicin and chloramphenicol. Multi drug resistance (MDR) of S. aureus strains to at least three classes of the ...

  19. Susceptibility Of Mosquito Larvae To Conventional Insecticides In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The susceptibility of 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus to dieldrin, dichlovos and cypermethrin were evaluated in laboratory. Larval mortality was assessed 24 hour afterexposure. The result showed that the LD50 values for Aedes aegypti exposed to dieldrin, dichlovos and cypermethrin were 0.48 ...

  20. 62 original article in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    This study shows that S. aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens and healthy students in Umuahia are highly resistant to common antibiotics. This may not be ... Key words: Staphylococcus aureus, antimicrobial resistance, disc agar diffusion, antibiotic susceptibility ... healthcare facilities and in the community (4).

  1. Topological susceptibility in lattice QCD and perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, M.; Testa, M.; Rossi, G.C.; Yoshida, K.

    1984-12-27

    We consider the definition of topological susceptibility suggested by the anomalous Usub(A)(1) Ward identity in lattice QCD with Wilson fermions and show that, in the limit of zero renormalized quark mass, its perturbative expansion is zero to all orders. This definition is thus suitable for Monte Carlo simulations. (orig.).

  2. Topological susceptibility in lattice QCD and perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, M.; Testa, M. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy)); Rossi, G.C. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Yoshida, K. (Salerno Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy))

    1984-12-27

    We consider the definition of topological susceptibility suggested by the anomalous Usub(A)(1) Ward identity in lattice QCD with Wilson fermions and show that, in the limit of zero renormalized quark mass, its perturbative expansion is zero to all orders. This definition is thus suitable for Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Reduced Multidrug Susceptibility Profile Is a Common Feature of Opportunistic Fusarium Species: Fusarium Multi-Drug Resistant Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J.

    2017-01-01

    The resistance among various opportunistic Fusarium species to different antifungal agents has emerged as a cause of public health problems worldwide. Considering the significance of multi-drug resistant (MDR), this paper emphasizes the problems associated with MDR and the need to understand its clinical significance to combat microbial infections. The search platform PubMed/MEDLINE and a review of 32 cases revealed a common multidrug-resistant profile exists, and clinically relevant members of Fusarium are intrinsically resistant to most currently used antifungals. Dissemination occurs in patients with prolonged neutropenia, immune deficiency, and especially hematological malignancies. Amphotericin B displayed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrarions (MICs) followed by voriconazole, and posaconazole. Itraconazole and fluconazole showed high MIC values, displaying in vitro resistance. Echinocandins showed the highest MIC values. Seven out of ten (70%) patients with neutropenia died, including those with fungemia that progressed to skin lesions. Clinical Fusarium isolates displayed a common MDR profile and high MIC values for the most available antifungal agents with species- and strain-specific differences in antifungal susceptibility. Species identification of Fusarium infections is important. While the use of natamycin resulted in a favorable outcome in keratitis, AmB and VRC are the most used agents for the treatment of fusariosis in clinical settings.

  4. Reduced Multidrug Susceptibility Profile Is a Common Feature of Opportunistic Fusarium Species: Fusarium Multi-Drug Resistant Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad J. Taj-Aldeen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The resistance among various opportunistic Fusarium species to different antifungal agents has emerged as a cause of public health problems worldwide. Considering the significance of multi-drug resistant (MDR, this paper emphasizes the problems associated with MDR and the need to understand its clinical significance to combat microbial infections. The search platform PubMed/MEDLINE and a review of 32 cases revealed a common multidrug-resistant profile exists, and clinically relevant members of Fusarium are intrinsically resistant to most currently used antifungals. Dissemination occurs in patients with prolonged neutropenia, immune deficiency, and especially hematological malignancies. Amphotericin B displayed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrarions (MICs followed by voriconazole, and posaconazole. Itraconazole and fluconazole showed high MIC values, displaying in vitro resistance. Echinocandins showed the highest MIC values. Seven out of ten (70% patients with neutropenia died, including those with fungemia that progressed to skin lesions. Clinical Fusarium isolates displayed a common MDR profile and high MIC values for the most available antifungal agents with species- and strain-specific differences in antifungal susceptibility. Species identification of Fusarium infections is important. While the use of natamycin resulted in a favorable outcome in keratitis, AmB and VRC are the most used agents for the treatment of fusariosis in clinical settings.

  5. AM2 Brickwork Pattern Evaluation with Refurbished Matting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    operations. Therefore, previous design versions of AM2 that have not been produced since the 1960s, such as two-piece (i.e., two 1-ft-wide welded ...1.5 in. and fabricated from a single 6061-T6 aluminum alloy extrusion with end connectors welded to the 2-ft ends to form a complete panel. The core...surface friction . Pertinent properties of AM2 mat are shown in Table 4. All AM2 mat used for testing, including new Mod 5 and refurbished matting

  6. Magnetic susceptibility of molecular carbon: nanotubes and fullerite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.P.; Haddon, R.C.; Zhou, O.; Fleming, R.M.; Zhang, J.; McClure, S.M.; Smalley, R.E. (AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Elemental carbon can be synthesized in a variety of geometrical forms, from three-dimensional extended structures (diamond) to finite molecules (C[sub 60] fullerite). Results are presented here on the magnetic susceptibility of the least well-understood members of this family, nanotubes and C[sub 60] fullerite. (1) Nanotubes represent the cylindrical form of carbon, intermediate between graphite and fullerite. They are found to have significantly larger orientation-averaged susceptibility, on a per carbon basis, than any other form of elemental carbon. This susceptibility implies an average band structure among nanotubes similar to that of graphite. (2) High-resolution magnetic susceptibility data on C[sub 60] fullerite near the molecular orientational-ordering transition at 259 K show a sharp jump corresponding to 2.5 centimeter-gram-second parts per million per mole of C[sub 60]. This jump directly demonstrates the effect of an intermolecular cooperative transition on an intramolecular electronic property, where the susceptibility jump may be ascribed to a change in the shape of the molecule due to lattice forces.

  7. Nanotoxicity Overview: Nano-Threat to Susceptible Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing applications of nanomaterials and nanotechnology, potential danger of nanoparticle exposure has become a critical issue. However, recent nanotoxicity studies have mainly focused on the health risks to healthy adult population. The nanotoxicity effects on susceptible populations (such as pregnant, neonate, diseased, and aged populations have been overlooked. Due to the alterations in physiological structures and functions in susceptible populations, they often suffer more damage from the same exposure. Thus, it is urgent to understand the effects of nanoparticle exposure on these populations. In order to fill this gap, the potential effects of nanoparticles to pregnant females, neonate, diseased, and aged population, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed in this article. Investigations show that responses from susceptible population to nanoparticle exposure are often more severe. Reduced protection mechanism, compromised immunity, and impaired self-repair ability in these susceptible populations may contribute to the aggravated toxicity effects. This review will help minimize adverse effects of nanoparticles to susceptible population in future nanotechnology applications.

  8. Development of the Lund AMS system and the evaluation of a new AMS detection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebert, A.

    1995-09-01

    This thesis is based on work at the Lund Pelletron accelerator facility in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the Lund Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) system. To obtain high accuracy, all measurements are performed relative to a standard of known activity. Charge state distributions have been obtained for a number of isotopes: {sup 9}Be, {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 19}F, {sup 27}Al, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 48}Ti and {sup 58}Ni order to improve the transmission through the system and to reduce the isotopic fractionation in the measurements. For carbon, charge states distributions were obtained both under foil and gas stripping. The pressure profile of the Lund Pelletron system has been calculated, both under foil and gas stripping, to make possible to perform transmission calculations for a carbon beam. These results were used to design a new terminal stripper of the accelerator system. A new ion source has, during the last few years, been constructed providing a multiple sample wheel, enabling more accurate relative measurements and also providing more efficient measurements, due to a higher beam current. A new detection technique suitable for AMS measurements on heavier radionuclides, such as {sup 36}Cl,{sup 44}Ti and {sup 59}Ni, has been evaluated and detection limits for {sup 59}Ni have been derived. 59 refs, 13 figs.

  9. In Vitro Antibiotic Susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmana, Murad; Lebron, Carlos I.; Taslim, Djufri; Tjaniadi, Periska; Subekti, Decy; Wasfy, Momtaz O.; Campbell, James R.; Oyofo, Buhari A.

    2001-01-01

    Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined for 122 Neisseria gonorrheae isolates obtained from 400 sex workers in Jakarta, Indonesia, and susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, and spectinomycin were found. All isolates were resistant to tetracycline. A number of the isolates demonstrated decreased susceptibilities to erythromycin (MIC ≥ 1.0 μg/ml), thiamphenicol (MIC ≥ 1.0 μg/ml), kanamycin (MIC ≥ 16.0 μg/ml), penicillin (MIC ≥ 2.0 μg/ml), gentamicin (MIC ≥ 16.0 μg/ml), and norfloxacin (MIC = 0.5 μg/ml). These data showed that certain antibiotics previously used in the treatment of gonorrhea are no longer effective. PMID:11120999

  10. Toluene exposure increases aminophylline-induced seizure susceptibility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ming-Huan; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2003-12-01

    The effects of toluene on the sensitivity to seizures induced by aminophylline were investigated. Mice were pretreated with an ip injection of corn oil or toluene (100-500 mg/kg) followed by a timed intravenous infusion of aminophylline at various time intervals to assess the seizure thresholds and lethal doses. Toluene increased seizure susceptibility to aminophylline in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Toluene-induced enhancement of seizure susceptibility to aminophylline occurred as early as 30 min and persisted for at least 3 days after a single administration of toluene (500 mg/kg). Treatment of benzaldehyde, one of toluene's metabolites, also showed an increase in the susceptibility to aminophylline. The enhancing effect was also observed in caffeine-induced seizures 1 h, but not 1 day after toluene treatment. These results suggest that individuals with toluene exposure may increase the risk for convulsive and even lethal complications associated with the therapeutic use of aminophylline.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus species isolated from clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin-Faublée, Véronique; Tardy, Florence; Bouveron, Clarisse; Carret, Gérard

    2002-03-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for 50 Streptococcus uberis, 42 S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae and eight S. agalactiae strains isolated from cow mastitis. Only 27% of the strains were susceptible to all antimicrobial compounds tested. Resistance to tetracycline was most frequent (particularly for S. dysgalactiae strains), then macrolide and/or lincomycin resistance. High level resistance to streptomycin and kanamycin was detected. All S. dysgalactiae and S. agalactiae strains were susceptible to beta-lactams but 44% of the S. uberis strains showed an elevated penicillin G MIC. All strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol and rifampicin.

  12. Evaluation of SLE Susceptibility Genes in Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineros, Julio E; Chua, Kek Heng; Sun, Celi; Lian, Lay Hoong; Motghare, Prasenjeet; Kim-Howard, Xana; Nath, Swapan K

    2014-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disease with strong genetic and environmental components. Our objective was to replicate 25 recently identified SLE susceptibility genes in two distinct populations (Chinese (CH) and Malays (MA)) from Malaysia. We genotyped 347 SLE cases and 356 controls (CH and MA) using the ImmunoChip array and performed an admixture corrected case-control association analysis. Associated genes were grouped into five immune-related pathways. While CH were largely homogenous, MA had three ancestry components (average 82.3% Asian, 14.5% European, and 3.2% African). Ancestry proportions were significantly different between cases and controls in MA. We identified 22 genes with at least one associated SNP (P SLE genes are also associated in the major ethnicities of Malaysia. However, these novel SNPs showed stronger association in these Asian populations than with the SNPs reported in previous studies.

  13. Investigar desde América Latina y sobre América Latina, lo que nombra el nombre

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Clemencia Valencia González

    2016-01-01

    La georreferencia denominada América Latina, su historia y los desafíos derivados de su configuración y re-configuración, de su encubrimiento, más que descubrimiento (Dussel, 1994), plantea desafíos para las ciencias sociales y para los científicos sociales tanto en lo teórico como en lo metodológico, a partir de cuestionar la territorialización de los resultados y de los trayectos seguidos en el trabajo con el conocimiento, sea que se investigue desde América Latina o sobre América Latina....

  14. Horizontal Branch stars as AmFm/HgMn stars

    OpenAIRE

    Michaud, G.; Richer, J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent observations and models for horizontal branch stars are briefly described and compared to models for AmFm stars. The limitations of those models are emphasized by a comparison to observations and models for HgMn stars.

  15. Photon interaction studies using 241Am γ-rays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rays from a 241Am source. These include attenuation studies as well as photoelectric absorption studies in various samples. The attenuation studies have been made using leaf and wood samples, samples like sand, sugar etc., which ...

  16. A new AMS facility in Caserta/Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrasi, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi, 43 Caserta (Italy)]. E-mail: filippo.terrasi@unina2.it; Rogalla, D. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi, 43 Caserta (Italy); De Cesare, N. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi, 43 Caserta (Italy); D' Onofrio, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi, 43 Caserta (Italy); Lubritto, C. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi, 43 Caserta (Italy); Marzaioli, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi, 43 Caserta (Italy); Passariello, I. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi, 43 Caserta (Italy); Rubino, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi, 43 Caserta (Italy); Sabbarese, C. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi, 43 Caserta (Italy); Casa, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi, 43 Caserta (Italy); Palmieri, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi, 43 Caserta (Italy); Gialanella, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, C.U.M.S. Angelo, ed G, Via Cintia, Naples (Italy); Imbriani, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, C.U.M.S. Angelo, ed G, Via Cintia, Naples (Italy); Roca, V. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, C.U.M.S. Angelo, ed G, Via Cintia, Naples (Italy); Romano, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, C.U.M.S. Angelo, ed G, Via Cintia, Naples (Italy); Sundquist, M. [National Electrostatics Corporation, Middleton, WI (United States); Loger, R. [National Electrostatics Corporation, Middleton, WI (United States)

    2007-06-15

    A new AMS system has been installed at Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage (CIRCE) in Caserta/Italy. It was built by National Electrostatics Corp. Middleton, WI/USA, and arrived at CIRCE in the middle of January 2005; the installation and the acceptance tests were completed at the end of February 2005. At first, the system is intended for Radiocarbon AMS; for future Al and Be AMS only minor upgrades are needed and the magnets are designed to bend heavy isotopes like Uranium. Concerning Radiocarbon AMS, the first measurements of unknown samples, prepared in the internal preparation laboratory, already yielded results of high precision and {sup 14}C dating is in full swing.

  17. Conjunctivitis Caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates with Reduced Cephalosporin Susceptibility and Multidrug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yutaka; Maruyama, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sakane, Yuri; Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    We report two cases of conjunctivitis caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae with reduced cephalosporin susceptibility. Patients showed no response to cefmenoxime eye drops and intravenous ceftriaxone administration. The patients' condition improved after the addition of oral minocycline. The isolates contained the mosaic penA for reduction of β-lactam susceptibility. PMID:24025911

  18. Effect of BiTek agar on lysostaphin susceptibility of staphylococci.

    OpenAIRE

    Langlois, B E; Dawson, K.; Akers, K

    1990-01-01

    Staphylococci which were considered to be lysostaphin susceptible on P agar containing Bacto-Agar showed different degrees of resistance to lysostaphin when tested on P agar made with BiTek agar. As a result, lysostaphin-susceptible strains were misidentified as lysostaphin-resistant strains.

  19. Wave Vector Dependent Susceptibility at T>Tc in a Dipolar Ising Ferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Holmes, L. M:; Guggenheim, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    The wave-vector-dependent susceptibility of LiTbF4 has been investigated by means of neutron scattering. The observations show a singularity of the susceptibility near wave vector Q=0 which is characteristic of the dipolar Coulomb interaction and good agreement with theory is obtained...

  20. Genetic susceptibility to environmental toxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The toxicological challenges to the chemical industry have in recent years been greatly affected by the rapid innovation and development of analytical, molecular and genetic technologies. ECETOC recognises the importance of developing the technical and intellectual skill bases in academia...... and industrial based laboratories to meet the rapid development of the science base of toxicology. As the technology to determine genetic susceptibility develops, so scientist will be able to describe altered gene expression provoked by chemicals long before they are able to offer valid interpretations...... of their meaning. A potential for inadvertently raising concerns over the effect of chemicals in experimental animals or man, or even the intentional misrepresentation of results to suggest chemicals are “playing” with our genes is enormous. History has shown that some individuals and groups in society are willing...

  1. Histoplasmosis en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Negroni

    2011-03-01

    Es un hongo genéticamente heterogéneo; se han determinado 13 cariotipos y, según algunos autores, las disparidades genéticas observadas entre las cepas de los Estados Unidos y las de América Latina, podrían ser responsables de las diferencias detectadas en las manifestaciones clínicas de esta micosis en ambas regiones endémicas. La fuente de infección es la tierra rica en desechos orgánicos, y los seres humanos y otros animales se infectan por inhalación de las microconidias en la forma de micelios. La mayoría de las infecciones son asintomáticas o presentan manifestaciones respiratorias leves que curan espontáneamente. Las formas clínicas graves se producen por inhalación masiva de esporas en la infección primaria o por fallas en los mecanismos locales o generales de la inmunidad. La histoplasmosis es una infección fúngica de distribución geográfica amplia, que afecta a más de 60 países; sin embargo, su incidencia es más alta en América. Las áreas endémicas son las zonas de clima templado, subtropical o tropical húmedo, próximas a cursos de agua dulce. Los suelos suelen contener deyecciones de pájaros negros, como los estorninos, de aves de corral y de murciélagos. Estos lugares facilitan el desarrollo masivo de micelios de H. capsulatum y dan origen a los llamados "focos epidémicos". En ellos se producen infecciones masivas y brotes cuando varias personas o animales se exponen simultáneamente a esta fuente de infección. Estos brotes se producen por el ingreso a grutas, la limpieza de gallineros, la utilización de heces de aves como fertilizantes o por la remoción de tierra durante la ejecución de obras públicas, en lugares contaminados, etc. Las áreas donde se ha registrado el mayor número de casos clínicos se sitúan a lo largo de los valles de los ríos Ohio, Mississippi y Missouri en Norteamérica, en diversas zonas de México y del istmo centroamericano y en las cuencas de los ríos Orinoco, Magdalena, Amazonas, San

  2. Interaction of Pu and Am with bone mineral in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Lindhorst, P.S.; Hanlon, L.L

    1998-07-01

    Soluble forms of actinides such as Pu or Am that reach the blood deposit in significant quantity on bone surfaces and remain attached in the absence of bone remodelling. Removal of Pu or Am bone deposits with chelating agents such as diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is ineffective, and the search for better therapeutic approaches is hampered by a lack of understanding of the mechanisms by which transuranic elements bind to constituents of bone. Hypothesising that transuranics primarily bind with mineralised bone surfaces, specifically to bone hydroxyphosphates, an in vitro model comprising synthetic Ca hydroxyapatite (HAP) and other Ca phosphates, buffered at pH 7.2, was used to study the affinity of Pu and Am binding, and the effect of DTPA on binding to bone mineral. Samples containing 10 mg of bone mineral were equilibrated for 24 h in 0.1 M HEPES buffer and the pH adjusted to 7.2 {+-} 0.1. Either {sup 238}Pu-citrate or {sup 241}Am-citrate was added, and the suspension was sampled sequentially to determine the fractions of mineral-bound and unbound actinide using a centrifugal ultrafiltration system. From these experiments, it was determined that adding Na{sub 3}ZnDTPA at physiologically relevant concentrations to suspensions in which Pu or Am were allowed to bind resulted in little or no removal of Pu, but a slight concentration- and time-dependent removal of Am from the bone mineral (maximum of 10% ultrafilterable in 24 h). In contrast, by using Na{sub 5}DTPA, about 40% of the Pu and 60% of the Am were ultrafilterable at 48 h of incubation, suggesting that prior complexation of DTPA with Zn{sup +2} prevented complexation with mineral-bound actinide. This has been attributed to steric hindrance. When Pu-DTPA or Am-DTPA was mixed with bone mineral, 40% of the Pu was dissociated from the DTPA and bound to the bone mineral; with Am, no dissociation was observed. These data indicate that the relative stability of binding of Am-DTPA was significantly

  3. N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide–amphotericin B (HPMA–AmB) copolymer conjugates as antileishmanial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Salvatore; Seifert, Karin; Gilbert, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem in many parts of the world, caused by various species of Leishmania. Amastigotes are the clinically relevant form of the parasite in the human host and reside in the parasitophorous vacuole within macrophages. Polymer–drug conjugates have been used for lysosomotropic drug delivery and have already shown potential in anticancer and antileishmanial chemotherapy. We synthesised N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide–amphotericin B (HPMA–AmB) copolymer conjugates in which the AmB was attached to the polymer through a degradable GlyPheLeuGly linker. Antileishmanial activity was assessed in vitro against intracellular amastigotes in host macrophages [murine peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEMs), murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and differentiated THP-1 cells]. The most potent copolymers had 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of 0.03 μg/mL AmB equivalent against Leishmania donovani amastigotes in PEMs and BMMs and an EC50 of 0.57 μg/mL AmB equivalent against L. donovani in THP-1 cells. This activity was comparable with free AmB (EC50 = 0.03–0.07 μg/mL against L. donovani in PEMs and BMMs and 0.24–0.42 μg/mL against amastigotes in THP-1 cells) and Fungizone® (EC50 = 0.04–0.07 μg/mL against amastigotes in PEMs). Conjugates also showed potent in vivo activity with ca. 50% inhibition of parasite burden at 1 mg/kg body weight. PMID:19097763

  4. AMS experiment takes off for Kennedy Space Center August 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2010-01-01

    Geneva, 18 August 2010. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), an experiment that will search for antimatter and dark matter in space, leaves CERN next Tuesday on the next leg of its journey to the International Space Station. The AMS detector is being transported from CERN to Geneva International Airport in preparation for its planned departure from Switzerland on 26 August, when it will be flown to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida on board a US Air Force Galaxy transport aircraft.

  5. Steven Hawking to visit Texas A&M in spring

    CERN Multimedia

    Xavier, D

    2002-01-01

    Stephen Hawking will visit Texas A&M University from Feb. 24 to March 21 2003 to participate in the inaugural meeting of the George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics. This institute will bring several of the world's top physicists to A&M for a month-long exploration of the latest ideas on topics ranging from superstrings to M-theory and supergravity (1/2 page).

  6. Accuracy of magnetic resonance based susceptibility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdevig, Hannah E.; Russek, Stephen E.; Carnicka, Slavka; Stupic, Karl F.; Keenan, Kathryn E.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map the magnetic susceptibility of tissue to identify cerebral microbleeds associated with traumatic brain injury and pathological iron deposits associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Accurate measurements of susceptibility are important for determining oxygen and iron content in blood vessels and brain tissue for use in noninvasive clinical diagnosis and treatment assessments. Induced magnetic fields with amplitude on the order of 100 nT, can be detected using MRI phase images. The induced field distributions can then be inverted to obtain quantitative susceptibility maps. The focus of this research was to determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements using simple phantom geometries and to compare the susceptibility measurements with magnetometry measurements where SI-traceable standards are available. The susceptibilities of paramagnetic salt solutions in cylindrical containers were measured as a function of orientation relative to the static MRI field. The observed induced fields as a function of orientation of the cylinder were in good agreement with simple models. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry using NIST-traceable standards. MRI can accurately measure relative magnetic susceptibilities while SQUID magnetometry measures absolute magnetic susceptibility. Given the accuracy of moment measurements of tissue mimicking samples, and the need to look at small differences in tissue properties, the use of existing NIST standard reference materials to calibrate MRI reference structures is problematic and better reference materials are required.

  7. Proteochemometric modeling of HIV protease susceptibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lapins, Maris; Eklund, Martin; Spjuth, Ola; Prusis, Peteris; Wikberg, Jarl E S

    2008-01-01

    .... Therefore, we used proteochemometrics to model the susceptibility of HIV to protease inhibitors in current use, utilizing descriptions of the physico-chemical properties of mutated HIV proteases...

  8. Comparative proteomics reveals a role for seed storage protein AmA1 in cellular growth, development, and nutrient accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Lalit; Narula, Kanika; Basu, Swaraj; Shekhar, Shubhendu; Ghosh, Sudip; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra

    2013-11-01

    Seed storage proteins are known to be utilized as carbon and nitrogen source for growing seedlings and thus are considered as potential candidates for nutritional improvement. However, their precise function remains unknown. We have earlier shown that ectopic expression of a seed storage protein, AmA1, leads to increase in protein besides high tuber yield in potato. To elucidate the AmA1-regulated molecular mechanism affecting increased protein synthesis, reserve accumulation, and enhanced growth, a comparative proteomics approach has been applied to tuber life-cycle between wild-type and AmA1 potato. The differential display of proteomes revealed 150 AmA1-responsive protein spots (ARPs) that change their intensities more than 2.5-fold. The LC-ESI-MS/MS analyses led to the identification of 80 ARPs presumably associated with cell differentiation, regulating diverse functions, viz., protein biogenesis and storage, bioenergy and metabolism, and cell signaling. Metabolome study indicated up-regulation of amino acids paralleling the proteomics analysis. To validate this, we focused our attention on anatomical study that showed differences in cell size in the cortex, premedullary zone and pith of the tuber, coinciding with AmA1 expression and localization. Further, we interrogated the proteome data using one-way analysis of variance, cluster, and partial correlation analysis that identified two significant protein modules and six small correlation groups centered around isoforms of cysteine protease inhibitor, actin, heat shock cognate protein 83 and 14-3-3, pointing toward AmA1-regulated overlapping processes of protein enhancement and cell growth perhaps through a common mechanism of function. A model network was constructed using the protein data sets, which aim to show how target proteins might work in coordinated fashion and attribute to increased protein synthesis and storage reserve accumulation in AmA1 tubers on one hand and organ development on the other.

  9. Anisotropies of anhysteretic remanence and magnetic susceptibility of marly clays from Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sagnotti

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Marly clays from an Upper Pliocene unit at Valle Ricca (Rorne were investigated for their Anisotropy of Anhysteretic Remanence (AAR and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS. The study of AAR was accomplished for the first time in ltaly, developing a suitable laboratory technique and adapting a standard statistical procedure. The comparison between anhysteretic remanence and magnetic susceptibility anisotropies discriminates the fabric of the ferromagnetic fraction from that of the paramagnetic matrix of the rock. The separation of fabric components was applied to distinguish subsequent geological processes that affected the total rock fabric. The results indicate that the clayey units are particularly suitable for the empirical investigation of fabric to strain relationship in weakly deformed rocks.

  10. El terrorismo global y América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco ROJAS ARAVENA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Los atentados del 11-S subrayan que las respuestas a las nuevas amenazas requieren de la integración de políticas de Estado en cursos de acción efectivos. Por ello, este trabajo analiza, por un lado, los factores que dificultan el que América Latina participe en el diseño y formulación de las nuevas reglas del sistema internacional. Y, por otro lado, propone un nuevo concepto de seguridad basado en una perspectiva holística que relacione de manera efectiva los componentes de «seguridad internacional, seguridad estatal y seguridad humana».ABSTRACT: The September 11 attacks showed that the importance of the responses to new threats requires integration of the policies of the State for effective action. Therefore, this paper analyzes, on one side, the factors that complicate Latin America’s participation in the design and formulation of the new international system rules. And, on the other side, it proposes a new concept of security based on a holistic perspective that effectively relates the components of international security, state security, and human security.

  11. Identification and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species isolated from the urine of patients in a university hospital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Moreira Espíndola Lima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify Candida spp. isolated from candiduria episodes at a tertiary hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil, and to determine their susceptibility profiles to antifungal compounds. From May 2011 to April 2012, Candida spp. isolated from 106 adult patients with candiduria admitted to the University Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul were evaluated. Both, species identification and susceptibility testing with fluconazole-FLC, voriconazole-VRC, and amphotericin B-AmB were carried out using the Vitek 2. To discriminate species of the C. parapsilosis complex, a RAPD-PCR technique using the RPO2 primer was performed. From the total of 106 isolates, 42 (39.6% C. albicans and 64 (60.4% Candida non-albicans (CNA - 33 C. tropicalis, 18 C. glabrata, 5 C. krusei, 4 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 2 C. kefyr, 1 C. lusitaniae, and 1 C. guilliermondii were identified. All isolates were susceptible to AmB and VRC, whereas all C. glabrata isolates presented either resistance (5.6% or dose-dependent susceptibility (94.4% to FLC. The study of Candida spp. and their resistance profiles may help in tailoring more efficient therapeutic strategies for candiduria.

  12. LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 6, appendix G: GSFC HDT-AM inventory tape (GHIT-AM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The data format specifications of the Goddard HDT inventory tapes (GHITS), which accompany shipments of archival digital multispectral scanner image data (HDT-AM tapes), are defined. The GHIT is a nine-track, 1600-BPI tape which conforms to the ANSI standard and serves as an inventory and description of the image data included in the shipment. The archival MSS tapes (HDT-AMs) contain radiometrically corrected but geometrically uncorrected image data plus certain ancillary data necessary to perform the geometric corrections.

  13. Applying the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility technique to the study of the tectonic evolution of the West Spitsbergen Fold-and-Thrust Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dudzisz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the use of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS method to determine the orientation of the principal tectonic strain directions developed during the formation of the West Spitsbergen Fold-and-Thrust Belt (WSFTB. The AMS measurements and extensive rock-magnetic studies of the Lower Triassic rocks reported here were focused on the recognition of the magnetic fabric, the identification of ferromagnetic minerals and an estimation of the influence of ferro- and paramagnetic minerals on magnetic susceptibility. At most sites, the paramagnetic minerals controlled the magnetic susceptibility, and at only one site the impact of ferromagnetic minerals was higher. The AMS technique documented the presence of different types of magnetic fabrics within the sampled sites. At two sites, a normal (Kmin perpendicular to the bedding magnetic fabric of sedimentary origin was detected. This was associated with a good clustering of the maximum AMS axes imposed by tectonic strain. The Kmax magnetic lineation directions obtained here parallel the general NNW–SSE trend of the WSFTB fold axial traces and thrust fronts. The two other investigated sites possessed mixed and inverted fabrics, the latter of which appear to reflect the presence of iron-bearing carbonates.

  14. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping using Structural Feature based Collaborative Reconstruction (SFCR) in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Congbo; Chen, Zhong; van Zijl, Peter C.M.

    2017-01-01

    The reconstruction of MR quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) from local phase measurements is an ill posed inverse problem and different regularization strategies incorporating a priori information extracted from magnitude and phase images have been proposed. However, the anatomy observed in magnitude and phase images does not always coincide spatially with that in susceptibility maps, which could give erroneous estimation in the reconstructed susceptibility map. In this paper, we develop a structural feature based collaborative reconstruction (SFCR) method for QSM including both magnitude and susceptibility based information. The SFCR algorithm is composed of two consecutive steps corresponding to complementary reconstruction models, each with a structural feature based l1 norm constraint and a voxel fidelity based l2 norm constraint, which allows both the structure edges and tiny features to be recovered, whereas the noise and artifacts could be reduced. In the M-step, the initial susceptibility map is reconstructed by employing a k-space based compressed sensing model incorporating magnitude prior. In the S-step, the susceptibility map is fitted in spatial domain using weighted constraints derived from the initial susceptibility map from the M-step. Simulations and in vivo human experiments at 7T MRI show that the SFCR method provides high quality susceptibility maps with improved RMSE and MSSIM. Finally, the susceptibility values of deep gray matter are analyzed in multiple head positions, with the supine position most approximate to the gold standard COSMOS result. PMID:27019480

  15. A comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for Staphylococcus aureus in organic and conventional dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikofsky, Linda L; Barlow, John W; Santisteban, Carlos; Schukken, Ynte H

    2003-01-01

    Selective pressure from antimicrobial use, mutations, or acquisition of foreign resistance determinants mediate antimicrobial resistance. If antimicrobial use is the major selective pressure encouraging the development of resistance, then reduced use should result in decreased resistance. We compared antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from milk samples from 22 organic (nonantibiotic using) dairy herds to isolates from 16 conventional dairy herds. Susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion, and zone diameters were recorded in millimeters for 144 isolates from organic farms and 117 isolates from conventional farms and were also classified as susceptible or not-susceptible (intermediate and resistant categories combined). Strength of association between high or low use and proportion susceptible was evaluated by Chi-square analysis and differences in mean zone diameter for isolates from organic farms versus isolates from conventional farms were compared by analysis of variance. Analysis was done for each antimicrobial and deemed significant at p organic and conventional herds for seven of the nine antibiotics studied. Herds that were certified organic had S. aureus isolates that were more susceptible to antimicrobials. Overall, S. aureus isolates from both organic and conventional herds showed good susceptibility to most commonly used bovine mastitis antimicrobials; however, isolates from organic herds were significantly more susceptible. Longitudinal studies of herds undergoing the transition to organic farming would help elucidate the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance and the potential return of antimicrobial susceptibility.

  16. A catalytic role of XoxF1 as La3+-dependent methanol dehydrogenase in Methylobacterium extorquens strain AM1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Nakagawa

    Full Text Available In the methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens strain AM1, MxaF, a Ca(2+-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (MDH, is the main enzyme catalyzing methanol oxidation during growth on methanol. The genome of strain AM1 contains another MDH gene homologue, xoxF1, whose function in methanol metabolism has remained unclear. In this work, we show that XoxF1 also functions as an MDH and is La(3+-dependent. Despite the absence of Ca(2+ in the medium strain AM1 was able to grow on methanol in the presence of La(3+. Addition of La(3+ increased MDH activity but the addition had no effect on mxaF or xoxF1 expression level. We purified MDH from strain AM1 grown on methanol in the presence of La(3+, and its N-terminal amino acid sequence corresponded to that of XoxF1. The enzyme contained La(3+ as a cofactor. The ΔmxaF mutant strain could not grow on methanol in the presence of Ca(2+, but was able to grow after supplementation with La(3+. Taken together, these results show that XoxF1 participates in methanol metabolism as a La(3+-dependent MDH in strain AM1.

  17. Spatial prediction of ground subsidence susceptibility using an artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Saro; Park, Inhye; Choi, Jong-Kuk

    2012-02-01

    Ground subsidence in abandoned underground coal mine areas can result in loss of life and property. We analyzed ground subsidence susceptibility (GSS) around abandoned coal mines in Jeong-am, Gangwon-do, South Korea, using artificial neural network (ANN) and geographic information system approaches. Spatial data of subsidence area, topography, and geology, as well as various ground-engineering data, were collected and used to create a raster database of relevant factors for a GSS map. Eight major factors causing ground subsidence were extracted from the existing ground subsidence area: slope, depth of coal mine, distance from pit, groundwater depth, rock-mass rating, distance from fault, geology, and land use. Areas of ground subsidence were randomly divided into a training set to analyze GSS using the ANN and a test set to validate the predicted GSS map. Weights of each factor's relative importance were determined by the back-propagation training algorithms and applied to the input factor. The GSS was then calculated using the weights, and GSS maps were created. The process was repeated ten times to check the stability of analysis model using a different training data set. The map was validated using area-under-the-curve analysis with the ground subsidence areas that had not been used to train the model. The validation showed prediction accuracies between 94.84 and 95.98%, representing overall satisfactory agreement. Among the input factors, "distance from fault" had the highest average weight (i.e., 1.5477), indicating that this factor was most important. The generated maps can be used to estimate hazards to people, property, and existing infrastructure, such as the transportation network, and as part of land-use and infrastructure planning.

  18. Sorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) on attapulgite. Effect of pH, ionic strength and fulvic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Q.H.; Wu, W.S. [Radiochemistry Lab., School of Nuclear Science and Tech., Lanzhou Univ., GS (China); State Key Lab. of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou Univ., GS (China); Zhang, M.L.; Zhang, Y.Y.; Ding, K.F.; Yang, Z.Q. [Radiochemistry Lab., School of Nuclear Science and Tech., Lanzhou Univ., GS (China)

    2010-07-01

    Sorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) on attapulgite were studied as a function of pH, ionic strength, the liquid-to-solid ratio (V/m), and Eu(III) and Am(III) concentrations under ambient conditions using batch technique. The sorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) was quickly and {proportional_to} 4 hours were enough to achieve the sorption equilibrium. The K' values were 6.57 x 10{sup 6} g mg{sup -1} h{sup -1} for Eu(III) and 6.67 x 106 g mg{sup -1} h{sup -1} for Am(III), respectively; and q{sub e} values were 4.46 x 10{sup -7} mg/g for Eu(III) and 1.0 x 10{sup -6} mg/g for Am(III), respectively. Sorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) on attapulgite were strongly affected by pH values, and weakly dependent on ionic strength. Sorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) were mainly dominated by surface complexation. although ion exchange also contributed to Eu(III) and Am(III) sorption. In the presence of fulvic acid (FA), the sorption edge of Eu(III) and Am(III) was obviously shifted to lower pH. The results showed that the sorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) to attapulgite was enhanced significantly in the range of pH 0.5 to 6. (orig.)

  19. Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier Abel

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is

  20. Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galina-Pantoja, L.; Siggens, K.; Schriek, van M.G.M.; Heuven, H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify pig chromosomal regions associated with susceptibility to salmonellosis. Genomic DNA from pig reference populations with differences in susceptibility to Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis as quantified by spleen and liver bacterial colonization at day 7

  1. Crystal morphology change by magnetic susceptibility force

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuki, Aiko; Aibara, Shigeo; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi

    2006-01-01

    We found a change in morphology when lysozyme crystals were grown in a magnetic field. The phenomenon was caused by the magnetic force derived from the magnetic susceptibility gradient. We propose that this force should be called the “magnetic susceptibility force".

  2. Flow dynamics of dacite lava flow - AMS, microstructure and porosity case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Závada, Prokop; Kusbach, Vladimír; Machek, Matěj; Staněk, Martin; Špičák, Aleš

    2017-04-01

    Pyroclastic flows derived from flow frontal collapse of highly viscous "block lavas" formed by andesite or dacite belong to the most serious volcano-related hazards for surrounding populations. The threat results from abrupt transition of lava flow from ductile flow to gravitational failure of the front, which exposes their overpressurized interior and triggers devastating pyroclastic flows. The goal of the study is to quantify the microfabrics and dynamic porosity in a lava flow to constrain the cavitation process (development and coalescence of dynamic porosity). Pleistocene dacite flow body situated on the slope of Middle Sister Volcano (OR, USA) was studied by means of field-based structural analysis, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), microstructural analysis and mercury injection porosimetry (MIP). The 500 m exposure of the flow is associated with a vertical feeding dyke at the beginning of the flow, 40 m upslope. The flow shows occasional layers, 5-15 cm thick, marked by evenly spaced and up to 10 cm long, lenticular to sigmoidal cracks often developed in the vicinity of the clasts/phenocrysts. These cracks frequently dip against the slope of the flow and show 15-50° difference with the layering. At the feeding dyke, highly oblate magnetic fabric shows subvertical foliations with horizontal lineations oriented parallel to the dyke walls. Middle part of the flow revealed highly prolate fabrics with subhorizontal magnetic foliations and lineations parallel to the flow direction. At the downslope limit of the flow, magnetic foliations are perpendicular to the flow direction. The dynamic porosity was studied in detail on larger sample from the central part of the flow. The sample contains three layers with different density of porosity and average crack length. All the cracks were oriented about 45° to the layer boundaries and alignment of the groundmass crystals. MIP data revealed total connected porosities between 11 and 15 %. Throat

  3. Assessing landslide susceptibility by applying fuzzy sets, possibility evidence-based theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibsen Chivatá Cárdenas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A landslide susceptibility model was developed for the city of Manizales, Colombia; landslides have been the city’s main environmental problem. Fuzzy sets and possibility and evidence-based theories were used to construct the mo-del due to the set of circumstances and uncertainty involved in the modelling; uncertainty particularly concerned the lack of representative data and the need for systematically coordinating subjective information. Susceptibility and the uncertainty were estimated via data processing; the model contained data concerning mass vulnerability and uncer-tainty. Output data was expressed on a map defined by linguistic categories or uncertain labels as having low, me-dium, high and very high susceptibility; this was considered appropriate for representing susceptibility. A fuzzy spec-trum was developed for classifying susceptibility levels according to perception and expert opinion. The model sho-wed levels of susceptibility in the study area, ranging from low to high susceptibility (medium susceptibility being mo-re frequent. This article shows the details concerning systematic data processing by presenting theories and tools regarding uncertainty. The concept of fuzzy parameters is introduced; this is useful in modelling phenomena regar-ding uncertainty, complexity and nonlinear performance, showing that susceptibility modelling can be feasible. The paper also shows the great convenience of incorporating uncertainty into modelling and decision-making. However, quantifying susceptibility is not suitable when modelling identified uncertainty because incorporating model output information cannot be reduced into exact or real numerical quantities when the nature of the variables is particularly uncertain. The latter concept is applicable to risk assessment.

  4. Genetic susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alison P

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. However, it has the poorest prognosis of any major tumor type, with a 5-yr survival rate of approximately 5%. Cigarette smoking, increased body mass index, heavy alcohol consumption, and a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus have all been demonstrated to increase risk of pancreatic cancer. A family history of pancreatic cancer has also been associated with increased risk suggesting inherited genetic factors also play an important role, with approximately 5-10% of pancreatic cancer patients reporting family history of pancreatic cancer. While the genetic basis for the majority of the familial clustering of pancreatic cancer remains unclear, several important pancreatic cancer genes have been identified. These consist of high penetrance genes including BRCA2 or PALB2, to more common genetic variation associated with a modest increase risk of pancreatic cancer such as genetic variation at the ABO blood group locus. Recent advances in genotyping and genetic sequencing have accelerated the rate at which novel pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes have been identified with several genes identified within the past few years. This review addresses our current understanding of the familial aggregation of pancreatic cancer, established pancreatic cancer susceptablity genes and how this knowledge informs risk assessment and screening for high-risk families. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Genetic Susceptibility to Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alison P.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. However, it has the poorest prognosis of any major tumor type, with a 5-yr survival rate of approximately 5%. Cigarette smoking, increased body mass index, heavy alcohol consumption, and a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus have all been demonstrated to increase risk of pancreatic cancer. A family history of pancreatic cancer has also been associated with increased risk suggesting inherited genetic factors also play an important role, with approximately 5–10% of pancreatic cancer patients reporting family history of pancreatic cancer. While the genetic basis for the majority of the familial clustering of pancreatic cancer remains unclear, several important pancreatic cancer genes have been identified. These consist of high penetrance genes including BRCA2 or PALB2, to more common genetic variation associated with a modest increase risk of pancreatic cancer such as genetic variation at the ABO blood group locus. Recent advances in genotyping and genetic sequencing have accelerated the rate at which novel pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes have been identified with several genes identified within the past few years. This review addresses our current understanding of the familial aggregation of pancreatic cancer, established pancreatic cancer susceptablity genes and how this knowledge informs risk assessment and screening for high-risk families. PMID:22162228

  6. Fidelity susceptibility in the quantum Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo-Bo; Lv, Xiao-Chen

    2018-01-01

    Quantum criticality usually occurs in many-body systems. Recently it was shown that the quantum Rabi model, which describes a two-level atom coupled to a single model cavity field, presents quantum phase transitions from a normal phase to a superradiate phase when the ratio between the frequency of the two-level atom and the frequency of the cavity field extends to infinity. In this work, we study quantum phase transitions in the quantum Rabi model from the fidelity susceptibility perspective. We found that the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility present universal finite-size scaling behaviors near the quantum critical point of the Rabi model if the ratio between frequency of the two-level atom and frequency of the cavity field is finite. From the finite-size scaling analysis of the fidelity susceptibility, we found that the adiabatic dimension of the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility of fourth order in the Rabi model are 4 /3 and 2, respectively. Meanwhile, the correlation length critical exponent and the dynamical critical exponent in the quantum critical point of the Rabi model are found to be 3 /2 and 1 /3 , respectively. Since the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility are the moments of the quantum noise spectrum which are directly measurable by experiments in linear response regime, the scaling behavior of the fidelity susceptibility in the Rabi model could be tested experimentally. The simple structure of the quantum Rabi model paves the way for experimentally observing the universal scaling behavior of the fidelity susceptibility at a quantum phase transition.

  7. Influence of organic fertilization on the sorption mechanisms of {sup 241} Am in tropical soils; A influencia da adubacao organica nos mecanismos de sorcao do {sup 241} Am em solos tropicais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Tatiane Rocha

    2009-07-01

    In this work the mechanisms involved in the sorption of {sup 241}Am were investigated depending on the physicochemical properties of some Brazilian soils and on alterations promoted by organic amendment. This experimental study was conducted in a controlled area, where pots containing different kinds of soils (histisol, ferralsol and nitisol), with different organic amendment doses (without amendment; 2 kg m{sup -2} and 4 kg m{sup -2}) were artificially contaminated by radioactive solution water, which contained {sup 241}Am. Migration studies, distribution (or partition) coefficient (KJ), bioavailability and organic matter were carried out in these soils, with ar without organic amendment. In order to evaluate the effective bioavailability of radionuclides, radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was cultivated in these pots, and later the concentration of {sup 241}Am in radish's roots was measured. The main results show that {sup 241}Am tends to be strongly attached to organic matter and that organic amendment in tropical soils minimizes the radionuclide studied desorption. Also, distribution (or partition) coefficient values for {sup 241}Am were generated and these values are smaller than those ones determined for soils from temperate zones. Physical and chemical fractioning of organic matter were carried out. (author)

  8. Measurement of 3He/4He ratio in cosmic rays with the AMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong Zhao Hua; Chen Gang; Chen He Sheng; Lü Yu Sheng; Tang, Xiaowei; Yang Chang Gen; Yang Min; Zhuang, Honglin

    2003-01-01

    The cosmic-ray 3He/4He ratios from 0.09 to 1.2 GeV per nucleon are measured by Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) at its precursor mission on broad the space shuttle Discovery during flight STS-91 in June 1998. Taking unique advantage of AMS data collected from large region covering the earth equator, we also studied the magnetic latitude effect on the ratios. Our analysis shows that the relative abundances of 3He and 4He in cosmic rays depend weakly on the magnetic latitude, and given present uncertainties, the observed isotopic compositions are generally consistent with the predictions of the standard propagation model of cosmic rays.

  9. Antiproton identification below threshold with the AMS-02 RICH detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-Yuan; Delgado Mendez, Carlos Jose; Giovacchini, Francesca; Haino, Sadakazu; Hoffman, Julia

    2017-05-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02), which is installed on the International Space Station (ISS), has been collecting data successfully since May 2011. The main goals of AMS-02 are the search for cosmic anti-matter, dark matter and the precise measurement of the relative abundance of elements and isotopes in galactic cosmic rays. In order to identify particle properties, AMS-02 includes several specialized sub-detectors. Among these, the AMS-02 Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH) is designed to provide a very precise measurement of the velocity and electric charge of particles. We describe a method to reject the dominant electron background in antiproton identification with the use of the AMS-02 RICH detector as a veto for rigidities below 3 GV. A ray tracing integration method is used to maximize the statistics of p¯ with the lowest possible e- background, providing 4 times rejection power gain for e- background with respect to only 3% of p¯ signal efficiency loss. By using the collected cosmic-ray data, e- contamination can be well suppressed within 3% with β ≈ 1, while keeping 76% efficiency for p¯ below the threshold. Supported by China Scholarship Council (CSC) under Grant No.201306380027.

  10. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mudassar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows are questionable in the field of research signifying diverse cultural contexts. A large number of people are habitual to watch these shows, which may probably come out with negative behavioural outcomes. Especially the children who are at their behavioural developmental phase; are more susceptible to adopt negative behavioural leanings. In this research effort, introduction and detail of TV crime shows in Pakistan are provided, the literature concerning “media as risk factor“ in children development is discussed, and relevant theories inferences are deliberated.it was found that media has powerful role in behaviour formulating of children and violence media portrayal (TV crime shows may appear with grave concerns. Previous scientific literature was reviewed to find and discuss the problem in hand. In the research effort, the literature review provides research propositions to explore further dimensions to TV crime shows’ effects and possible negative or positive behavioural outcomes in children behaviour.

  11. Differential biocide susceptibility of the multiple genotypes of Mycobacterium immunogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, Suresh B; Khan, Izhar U H; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2008-03-01

    The non-tuberculous mycobacterium Mycobacterium immunogenum colonizes industrial metalworking fluids (MWFs) presumably due to its relative resistance to the currently practiced biocides and has been implicated in occupational respiratory hazards, particularly hypersensitivity pneumonitis. With an aim to understand its inherent biocide susceptibility profile and survival potential in MWF, five different genotypes of this organism, including a reference genotype (700506) and four novel test genotypes (MJY-3, MJY-4, MJY-10 and MJY-12) isolated in our recent study from diverse MWF operations were evaluated. For this, two commercial biocide formulations, Grotan (Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine) and Kathon (5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one) currently practiced for the control of microorganisms, including mycobacteria, in MWF operations were tested. Effect of the fluid matrix on the biocide susceptibility was investigated for the synthetic (S) and semi-synthetic (SS) MWF matrices. In general, the minimum inhibitory concentration values were higher for the HCHO-releasing biocide Grotan than the isothiazolone biocide Kathon. All genotypes (except the reference genotype) showed lower susceptibility in SS as compared to S fluid matrix for Grotan. However, in case of Kathon, a greater susceptibility was observed in SS fluid for majority of the test genotypes (MJY-3, 4 and 10). The test genotypes were more resistant than the reference genotype to either biocide in both fluid types. Furthermore, the individual genotypes showed differential biocidal susceptibility, with MJY-10 being the most resistant. These observations emphasize the importance of using the resistant genotypes of M. immunogenum as the test strains for formulation or development and evaluation of existing and novel biocides, for industrial applications.

  12. 33 CFR 103.405 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Security (AMS) Assessment. 103.405 Section 103.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Security (AMS) Assessment § 103.405 Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Assessment. (a) The AMS...) Consequence and vulnerability assessment for each target/scenario combination; and (4) A determination of the...

  13. Dedekind σ-complete vector lattice of b-AM-compact operators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We give several equivalent conditions characterizing the case when Krb-AM(E,F) is Dedekind σ-complete. Moreover, we describe the case when the space of all regular b-AM-compact operators from E to F is complete under the b-AM-norm. Keywords: Banach lattices, b-AM-compact operator, discrete space ...

  14. Susceptibility of Freesia to hydrogen fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolting, H.G.

    1973-01-01

    Freesia's are very sensitive to hydrogen-fluoride. If they are exposed for a long period to concentrations between 0.5 and 0.9 part per billion several cultivars may show a severe damage. Differences in susceptibility between the varieties appear to exist. Some varieties that were heavily injured by HF had almost no flowers and a much lower yield of corns. After fumigation during a long period with very low concentrations of HF, besides the damage characteristic for HF (necrotic leaf tips and margins) there appeared oblong brown spots and stripes between the veins, which mimic the symptoms caused by the third freesia virus, also called bladnecrose. Some of the cultivars show this effect rather generally, in others it occurs only in a few plants. It could be demonstrated with the cultivars Rose Marie and Royal Blue that the sensitivity for HF increases by the presence of bladnecrose. This points to a synergistic action of hydrogen fluoride and the bladnecrose virus.

  15. Increased LDL susceptibility to oxidation accelerates future carotid artery atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoki Toshinari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We analyzed the causal relationship between LDL susceptibility to oxidation and the development of new carotid artery atherosclerosis over a period of 5 years. We previously described the determinants related to a risk of cardiovascular changes determined in a Japanese population participating in the Niigata Study, which is an ongoing epidemiological investigation of the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Methods We selected 394 individuals (169 males and 225 females who underwent a second carotid artery ultrasonographic examination in 2001 - 2002 for the present study. The susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was determined as the photometric absorbance and electrophoretic mobility of samples that had been collected in 1996 - 1997. The measurements were compared with ultrasonographic findings obtained in 2001 - 2002. Results The multivariate-adjusted model showed that age (odds ratio (OR, 1.034; 95% confidence interval (95%CI, 1.010 - 1.059, HbA1c (OR, 1.477; 95%CI, 0.980 - 2.225, and photometric O/N (OR, 2.012; 95%CI, 1.000 - 4.051 were significant variables that could independently predict the risk of new carotid artery atherosclerosis. Conclusion The susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was a significant parameter that could predict new carotid artery atherosclerosis over a 5-year period, and higher susceptibility was associated with a higher incidence of new carotid artery atherosclerosis.

  16. Properties and susceptibility of papaya (Carica papaya L. in postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Marin Darias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The papaya (Carica papaya L. is an important crop due to its nutritious and medical properties and flavor. Therefore, an investigation was carried out for evaluating physical and chemical properties, as well as parameters of Post harvest fruit susceptibility. A sample fruit of Red Maradol variety was selected. The analyses were carried out in the laboratories of the Faculty of Chemistry – Pharmacy and in the Center for the study of Applied Chemistry, both located in the Central University "Marta Abreu" of Las Villas. The physical properties, weight of the sample, polar and equatorial diameter, and density, were determined. The chemical properties, total regular acidity, pH and total soluble solids (0Brix, were analyzed. The parameters of susceptibility, diameter and depth of the impacts, area and volume of bruise and the fruit susceptibility to the impacts, were also evaluated. Among the main reached results, stand out that the changes in the physical properties were not decisive in the postharvest. The chemical properties analyzed as total regular acidity, pH, and total soluble solids showed significant changes at postharvest phase. Finally, the parameters of susceptibility were increased in a significant way starting from the 6 days of postharvest.

  17. Smoking tobacco in Costa Rica: susceptibility, consumption and dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fonseca-Chaves

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify factors associated with susceptibility, tobacco use and addiction in young people from 13 to 15 years of age, to determine conditions of risk and identify possible correlates to the development of public policies on smoking in Costa Rica. Materials and methods. Information available from the four rounds of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS Costa Rica was used. It was based on a sample size of 11 540 youngsters from public and private schools. Indicators of interest and logistic regression models for smoking, susceptibility and addiction were estimated. Results. The prevalence of current consumption shows a significant decrease over the 14 years of the study (17.3% in 1999 and 5.0% in 2013 and, to a lesser intensity, in the index of smoking susceptibility (19.3% in 1999 and 12.4% in 2013. The proportion of young people with addiction has shown a significant increase in the same period. Conclusions. The conditions that explained the significant reduction in smoking prevalence and less susceptibility must be maintained and deepened to achieve full compliance of the MPower measures.

  18. Soil susceptibility to compaction under use conditions in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mazurana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The degree of soil compaction is intensified by its inadequate management, compaction being variable depending on soil type since even under identical management conditions, different types have different abilities to withstand load. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility to compaction of different classes of soils under no-tillage (NT croping system compared to the original condition. Thus, i soils with the same source material have distinct resistance to compression with increased NT adoption time; ii the most sensitive indicators of this change are the ratios mass:volume and volume:volume and; iii there is a relationship between resistance and compaction susceptibility with the amount and type of oxide. Soil samples were collected in areas under NT and under natural condition in order to assess the impact imposed by the NT on the attributes density and porosity, precompression stress and compressibility index and relate them to the oxide type of, and content in, the soils under study. The results show that the density and macroporosity were those most affected by the NT agricultural use, regardless of soil type, that is, its dynamic is related more to soil use and less to mineralogical characteristics. The soil resistance and compaction susceptibility were higher in soil developed in basalt, followed by those developed in sandstone and granite. Both the organic matter content and type and concentration of iron oxides were related to the soil resistance and susceptibility to compaction.

  19. Magnetic susceptibility of tektites and some other glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senftle, F.E.; Thorpe, A.

    1959-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility at several magnetic field strengths of about thirty tektites from various localities have been measured. The susceptibility ranges from 2 ?? 10-6 to about 7.9 ?? 10-6 e.m.u./g. Tektites from a given locality have similar susceptibilities. The intensity of magnetization of all the tektites measured is zero or very small. For comparison, the same measurements have been made on about thirty obsidians. The magnetic susceptibilities cover approximately the same range, but the intensity of magnetization of the impurity was found to be much higher. By heating the obsidians to 1450??C the intensity of magnetization was reduced to zero. From the above data, it is shown that the tektites must have been heated well above 1400??C, and that essentially all the iron is in solution. On the other hand, the evidence shows that obsidians have not been heated much above this temperature, and that there is a significant amount of undissolved iron in the glass, probably as magnetite. Further, if tektites are extraterrestrial, they probably entered the earth's atmosphere as a glass. ?? 1959.

  20. Prevalence and bacterial susceptibility of hospital acquired urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Neto José Anastácio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Urinary tract infection is the most common nosocomially acquired infection. It is important to know the etiology and antibiotic susceptibility infectious agents to guide the initial empirical treatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacterial strains and their antibiotic susceptibility in nosocomially acquired urinary tract infection in a university hospital between January and June 2003. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 188 patients with positive urine culture (= 10(5 colony-forming units/mL following a period of 48 hours after admission. RESULTS: Half of patients were male. Mean age was 50.26 ± 22.7 (SD, range 3 months to 88 years. Gram-negative bacteria were the agent in approximately 80% of cases. The most common pathogens were E. coli (26%, Klebsiella sp. (15%, P. aeruginosa (15% and Enterococcus sp. (11%. The overall bacteria susceptibility showed that the pathogens were more sensible to imipenem (83%, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides; and were highly resistant to ampicillin (27% and cefalothin (30%. It is important to note the low susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (42% and norfloxacin (43%. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that if one can not wait the results of urine culture, the best choices to begin empiric treatment are imipenem, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides. Cefalothin and ampicillin are quite ineffective to treat these infections.

  1. Look at Me - I am Flying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josiassen, Alexander; Assaf, George

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the impact of social visibility of consumption on tourists’ purchase decision making. We focus on two important purchase decisions leading up to the time of departure: the choice of destination and the choice of an airline to get to the he results show that when individual...

  2. I am like a lion to Ephraim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The article gives examples from the Old Testament of the lion as image of God and shows how this image is part of various stories about lions, shepherds and sheep. It is discussed whether Yahweh was ever worshipped in the image of an animal and it is argued that the combination of anthropomorphic...

  3. Preparation of a multi-isotope plutonium AMS standard and preliminary results of a first inter-lab comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmann, B.-A.; Dunai, T.J. [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, Greinstr. 4-6, 50939 Cologne (Germany); Dewald, A.; Heinze, S.; Feuerstein, C. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Str. 77, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Strub, E. [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Str. 45, 50674 Cologne (Germany); Fifield, L.K.; Froehlich, M.B.; Tims, S.G.; Wallner, A. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics & Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Christl, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    The motivation of this work is to establish a new multi-isotope plutonium standard for isotopic ratio measurements with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), since stocks of existing solutions are declining. To this end, certified reference materials (CRMs) of each of the individual isotopes {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 244}Pu were obtained from JRC IRMM (Joint Research Center Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements). These certified reference materials (IRMM-081a, IRMM-083, IRMM-043 and IRMM-042a) were diluted with nitric acid and mixed to obtain a stock standard solution with an isotopic ratio of approximately 1.0:1.0:1.0:0.1 ({sup 239}Pu:{sup 240}Pu:{sup 242}Pu:{sup 244}Pu). From this stock solution, samples were prepared for measurement of the plutonium isotopic composition by AMS. These samples have been measured in a round-robin exercise between the AMS facilities at CologneAMS, at the ANU Canberra and ETH Zurich to verify the isotopic ratio and to demonstrate the reproducibility of the measurements. The results show good agreement both between the different AMS measurements and with the gravimetrically determined nominal ratios.

  4. Measurement of {sup 236}U on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, E. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía), Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Christl, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto Stern Weg 5, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Fifield, L.K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present the first comprehensive analysis of the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA, Seville, Spain) for {sup 236}U studies in environmental samples. In the last years, this radionuclide has become key in the AMS community, due to the very demanding {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U abundance sensitivities required for general applications. As we demonstrate, the AMS system at the CNA is able to achieve sensitivity for the {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U ratio of about 3 × 10{sup −11} despite its compact design. The use of “{sup 239}Pu”/{sup 238}U ratio as a proxy for “{sup 236}U”/{sup 235}U background correction is proposed and tested with natural samples that were also studied on the 600 kV Tandy AMS system at the ETH Zürich. This correction is significant in the CNA case, due to the low mass resolving power of the low-energy spectrometer and to the lack of a third filter on the high-energy side. With the measurement of reference solutions supplied by the Institute for Reference Materials and Methods (IRMM-075), and reference natural matrixes provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA-Soil-6, IAEA-375; 384; 386 and IAEA-RGU), we show that the 1 MV AMS system at the CNA can be routinely used for determinations of anthropogenic {sup 236}U at environmental levels.

  5. Application of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility to large-scale fault kinematics: an evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Antonio M.; Roman-Berdiel, Teresa; Marcén, Marcos; Oliva-Urcia, Belen; Soto, Ruth; Garcia-Lasanta, Cristina; Calvin, Pablo; Pocovi, Andres; Gil-Imaz, Andres; Pueyo-Anchuela, Oscar; Izquierdo-Llavall, Esther; Vernet, Eva; Santolaria, Pablo; Osacar, Cinta; Santanach, Pere; Corrado, Sveva; Invernizzi, Chiara; Aldega, Luca; Caricchi, Chiara; Villalain, Juan Jose

    2017-04-01

    Major discontinuities in the Earth's crust are expressed by faults that often cut across its whole thickness favoring, for example, the emplacement of magmas of mantelic origin. These long-lived faults are common in intra-plate environments and show multi-episodic activity that spans for hundred of million years and constitute first-order controls on plate evolution, favoring basin formation and inversion, rotations and the accommodation of deformation in large segments of plates. Since the post-Paleozoic evolution of these large-scale faults has taken place (and can only be observed) at shallow crustal levels, the accurate determination of fault kinematics is hampered by scarcely developed fault rocks, lack of classical structural indicators and the brittle deformation accompanying fault zones. These drawbacks are also found when thick clayey or evaporite levels, with or without diapiric movements, are the main detachment levels that facilitate large displacements in the upper crust. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) provides a useful tool for the analysis of fault zones lacking fully developed kinematic indicators. However, its meaning in terms of deformational fabrics must be carefully checked by means of outcrop and thin section analysis in order to establish the relationship between the orientation of magnetic ellipsoid axes and the transport directions, as well as the representativity of scalar parameters regarding deformation mechanisms. Timing of faulting, P-T conditions and magnetic mineralogy are also major constraints for the interpretation of magnetic fabrics and therefore, separating ferro- and para-magnetic fabric components may be necessary in complex cases. AMS results indicate that the magnetic lineation can be parallel (when projected onto the shear plane) or perpendicular (i.e. parallel to the intersection lineation) to the transport direction depending mainly on the degree of shear deformation. Changes between the two end-members can

  6. BAPTA-AM decreases cellular pH, inhibits acidocalcisome acidification and autophagy in amino acid-starved T. brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Jun; Tan, Kevin S W; He, Cynthia Y

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the role of Ca2+ signaling in starvation-induced autophagy in Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis, we used cell-permeant Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM and cell impermeant chelator EGTA, and examined the potential involvement of several intracellular Ca2+ signaling pathways in T. brucei autophagy. The results showed an unexpected effect of BAPTA-AM in decreasing cellular pH and inhibiting acidocalcisome acidification in starved cells. The implication of these results in the role of Ca2+ signaling and cellular/organellar pH in T. brucei autophagy is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating genetic susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in African Americans using admixture mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, D D; Allen, A S; Du, G-J; Ruffin, F; Adams, C; Thaden, J T; Maskarinec, S A; Souli, M; Guo, S; Dykxhoorn, D M; Scott, W K; Fowler, V G

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is significantly higher in African American (AA) than in European-descended populations. We used admixture mapping (AM) to test the hypothesis that genomic variations with different frequencies in European and African ancestral genomes influence susceptibility to SAB in AAs. A total of 565 adult AAs (390 cases with SAB; 175 age-matched controls) were genotyped for AM analysis. A case-only admixture score and a mixed χ2(1df) score (MIX) to jointly evaluate both single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and admixture association (P<5.00e-08) were computed using MIXSCORE. In addition, a permutation scheme was implemented to derive multiplicity adjusted P-values (genome-wide 0.05 significance threshold: P<9.46e-05). After empirical multiplicity adjustment, one region on chromosome 6 (52 SNPs, P=4.56e-05) in the HLA class II region was found to exhibit a genome-wide statistically significant increase in European ancestry. This region encodes genes involved in HLA-mediated immune response and these results provide additional evidence for genetic variation influencing HLA-mediated immunity, modulating susceptibility to SAB.

  8. Unravelling mycorrhiza-induced wheat susceptibility to the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amma L.; Wellham, Peter A. D.; Aradottir, Gudbjorg I.; Gange, Alan C.

    2017-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are root symbionts that can increase or decrease aphid growth rates and reproduction, but the reason by which this happens is unknown. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of this interaction, we examined the effect of AM fungi on the English Grain aphid (Sitobion avenae) development, reproduction, attraction, settlement and feeding behaviour on two naturally susceptible varieties Triticum aestivum (L.) variety Solstice and T. monococcum MDR037, and two naturally resistant lines, T. monococcum MDR045 and MDR049. Mycorrhizal colonisation increased the attractiveness of T. aestivum var. Solstice to aphids, but there was no effect on aphid development on this variety. Using the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) technique, we found that mycorrhizal colonisation increased aphid phloem feeding on T. monococcum MDR037 and MDR045, colonisation also increased growth rate and reproductive success of S. avenae on these varieties. Mycorrhizas increased vascular bundle size, demonstrating that these fungi can influence plant anatomy. We discuss if and how this could be related to an enhanced success rate in phloem feeding in two varieties. Overall, we present and discuss how mycorrhizal fungi can affect the feeding behaviour of S. avenae in wheat, inducing susceptibility in a resistant variety.

  9. AMS and controversies in history The Spanish conquest of Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Zoppi, U; Jacobsen, G; Laurencich-Minelli, L; Lawson, E M; Sarkisian, G; Tuniz, C

    2000-01-01

    The quest for understanding the past often contains a subjective component. Legends, myths, traditions and personal beliefs can unconsciously influence the interpretation of the scientific outcomes or, in the worst instances, even lead to forgery. Fortunately, an increasing number of scientific tools are available nowadays and can be combined to discredit such detriments and offer more reliable foundations for an objective analysis. Radiocarbon dating by AMS is a relatively non-invasive method and is particularly useful when valuable historical artefacts are involved. In this paper, we will present controversial cases where AMS is playing an important role in understanding the past. In particular, we will discuss the use of AMS to authenticate historical documents revealing a new version of the conquest of Peru by Pizarro in the early 1530s.

  10. AmBe Waste Minimization Activities Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent D. Abney; Zita V. Svitra; Michael R. Cisneros

    1999-05-01

    The CST-11 objective for the Radioactive Source Recovery Project is to evaluate a nitric acid-based flowsheet and alternatives for dissolution, separation, and recovery of americium from AmBe neutron source materials returned from private and governmental institutions. Specific tasks performed during FY97 and FY98 included the experimental investigation of material dissolution rate and efficiency as a function of time and temperature for nitric acid as compared to hydrochloric acid. Alkaline dissolution reaction conditions using sodium hydroxide and ammonium bifluoride were also investigated. In both the acidic and alkaline dissolution conditions, the objective was to effect an initial separation of the americium from the beryllium or vice versa. The process solution and remaining solids should also be amenable to further processing and purification schemes. This work was performed on actual AmBe neutron source material in order to demonstrate the feasibility of {sup 241}Am purification from dismantled neutron sources.

  11. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of gallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, T.

    1960-01-01

    The bulk magnetic susceptibilities of single gallium crystals and polycrystalline gallium spheres were measured at 25??C. The following anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibilities were found: a axis (-0.119??0. 001)??10-6 emu/g, b axis (-0.416??0.002)??10 -6 emu/g, and c axis (-0.229??0.001) emu/g. The susceptibility of the polycrystalline spheres, assumed to be the average value for the bulk susceptibility of gallium, was (-0.257??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at 25??C, and (-0.299??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at -196??C. The susceptibility of liquid gallium was (0.0031??0.001) ??10-6 emu/g at 30??C and 100??C. Rotational diagrams of the susceptibilities in the three orthogonal planes of the unit cell were not sinusoidal. The anisotropy in the single crystals was presumably caused by the partial overlap of Brillouin zone boundaries by the Fermi-energy surface. The large change in susceptibility associated with the change in state was attributed to the absence of effective mass influence in the liquid state. ?? 1960 The American Institute of Physics.

  12. Effects of exposure to quaternary-ammonium-based biocides on antimicrobial susceptibility and tolerance to physical stresses in bacteria from organic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadea, Rebeca; Fernández Fuentes, Miguel Ángel; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio; Ortega, Elena

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, a collection of 76 biocide-sensitive bacterial strains isolated from organically produced food were adapted by repeated exposure to increasing concentrations of the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) benzalkonium chloride (BC) and hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HDP). The sensitivity of both wildtype strains and their corresponding QAC-adapted strains to other biocides and to antibiotics was studied. QAC tolerance increased in 88.2% of strains for BC and in 30.3% of strains for HDP, with increases in minimum inhibitory concentrations between 2 and over 100 fold. Adaptive resistance was stable after 20 subcultures in biocide-free medium for 7 and 5 of the BC- and HDP-adapted strains, respectively. Adaptation to BC and HDP also reduced the susceptibility to other biocides, mainly hexachlorophene (CF), didecyldimethylammonium bromide (AB), triclosan (TC) and chlorhexidine (CH). BC-adapted strains showed increased antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (AM) followed by sulfamethoxazol (SXT) and cefotaxime (CTX), and some showed increased sensitivity to ceftazidime (CAZ), CTX, AM and STX. Changes in antibiotic resistance in HDP-adapted strains were more heterogeneous and strain-dependent. Main efflux pump genes detected in QAC-adapted strains were acrB, sugE, norC, qacE and qacH, as well as antibiotic resistance genes aac(6_)-Ie-aph(2_)-Ia, aph(2_)-Ic, ant(4_)-Ia, lsa, mrsA/B, ereA, ermB and cat. Membrane anisotropy experiments revealed that QAC adaptation induced an increase in membrane rigidity in the case of BC, while response to HDP was more heterogeneous and strain-dependent. Growth capacity was significantly higher in some QAC-adapted strains and strain-dependent changes in heat tolerance were also detected in QAC-adapted strains. Gastric acid or bile resistances do not seem to be influenced by QAC adaptation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The ACAT inhibitor VULM1457 significantly reduced production and secretion of adrenomedullin (AM) and down-regulated AM receptors on human hepatoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drímal, J; Fáberová, V; Schmidtová, L; Bednáriková, M; Drímal, J; Drímal, D

    2005-12-01

    Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an important enzyme in the pathways of cholesterol esterification. It has been shown that new ACAT inhibitor 1-(2,6-diisopropyl-phenyl)-3-[4-(4'-nitrophenylthio)phenyl] urea (VULM1457) significantly reduced atherogenic activity in animal experimental atherosclerosis. Proliferative hormone adrenomedullin (AM) has been shown to be released in response to hypoxia, however, its role in cellular protection has remained elusive. The effect of increased local production of AM in cells and resultant down-regulation of AM receptors has not been investigated yet. We hypothesized that increased expression of AM in hypoxic cells was the result of excessive AM production with resultant AM receptor down-regulation, surface-membrane protein degradation and that the new specific ACAT inhibitor would reduce AM induction in hypoxia and thus proliferation of cells. In order to investigate specific cellular AM signaling and protection induced by VULM1457, we characterized specific surface-membrane [125I]AM receptors expressed on cells, evaluated AM secretion (RIA assays), AM mRNA expression in cultured cells (RT-PCR analysis) and proliferation (incorporation of [3H]thymidine) in control, hypoxic and metabolically stressed human hepatoblastoma cell lines exposed to gradually increasing concentrations of VULM1457. The new ACAT inhibitor VULM1457 in concentration 0.03 and 0.1 micromol/l significantly down-regulated specific AM receptors on HepG2 cells, reduced AM secretion of HepG2 cells exposed to hypoxia. These results suggest that VULM1457, as new member of ACAT family of inhibitors could negatively regulate cell proliferation induced by AM, which may correlate with down-regulation of membrane-bound AM receptors on HepG2 cells, and moreover, with the induction and expression of AM in hypoxia.

  14. Impact of wastewater application on magnetic susceptibility in Terric Histosol soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Zofia; Alekseev, Andrey; Skic, Kamil; Brzezińska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we attempted to analyse the changes in magnetic susceptibility in Terric Histosol soil irrigated with municipal wastewater in a period of four years. Effects of different plants (poplar and willow), wastewater doses, depths, as well as the concentration of the elements and the total carbon content were tested. The study showed that systematic wastewater irrigation diminished magnetic susceptibility values in the top layer of soil. However, statistical analysis revealed that both doses of wastewater and growing plants did not have a significant impact on the magnetic susceptibility of obtained results. Magnetic susceptibility decreased significantly with the depth, in accordance with higher total carbon and lower content of magnetic particles. High correlation coefficients were found between magnetic susceptibility and Zn, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO content, whereas no correlation was observed for Cr, as well as for Pb.

  15. Vaccine effects on heterogeneity in susceptibility and implications for population health management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langwig, Kate E.; Wargo, Andrew R.; Jones, Darbi R.; Viss, Jessie R.; Rutan, Barbara J.; Egan, Nicholas A.; Sá-Guimarães, Pedro; Min Sun Kim,; Kurath, Gael; Gomes, M. Gabriela M.; Lipsitch, Marc; Bansal, Shweta; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneity in host susceptibility is a key determinant of infectious disease dynamics but is rarely accounted for in assessment of disease control measures. Understanding how susceptibility is distributed in populations, and how control measures change this distribution, is integral to predicting the course of epidemics with and without interventions. Using multiple experimental and modeling approaches, we show that rainbow trout have relatively homogeneous susceptibility to infection with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and that vaccination increases heterogeneity in susceptibility in a nearly all-or-nothing fashion. In a simple transmission model with an R0 of 2, the highly heterogeneous vaccine protection would cause a 35 percentage-point reduction in outbreak size over an intervention inducing homogenous protection at the same mean level. More broadly, these findings provide validation of methodology that can help to reduce biases in predictions of vaccine impact in natural settings and provide insight into how vaccination shapes population susceptibility.

  16. Entropy, specific heat, susceptibility, and Rushbrooke inequality in percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M. K.; Alam, D.; Jitu, Z. I.; Rahman, M. M.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate percolation, a probabilistic model for continuous phase transition, on square and weighted planar stochastic lattices. In its thermal counterpart, entropy is minimally low where order parameter (OP) is maximally high and vice versa. In addition, specific heat, OP, and susceptibility exhibit power law when approaching the critical point and the corresponding critical exponents α ,β ,γ respectably obey the Rushbrooke inequality (RI) α +2 β +γ ≥2 . Their analogs in percolation, however, remain elusive. We define entropy and specific heat and redefine susceptibility for percolation and show that they behave exactly in the same way as their thermal counterpart. We also show that RI holds for both the lattices albeit they belong to different universality classes.

  17. Charge determination of nuclei with the AMS-02 silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Alpat, B; Azzarello, P; Battiston, R; Bene, P; Bertucci, B; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Blasko, S; Bourquin, M; Bouvier, P; Burger, W J; Capell, M; Cecchi, C; Chang, Y H; Cortina, E; Dinu, N; Esposito, G; Fiandrini, E; Haas, D; Hakobyan, H; Ionica, M; Ionica, R; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V F; Lebedev, A; Lechanoine-Leluc, C; Lin, C H; Masciocchi, F; Menichelli, M; Natale, S; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pauluzzi, M; Perrin, E; Pohl, M; Rapin, D; Richeux, J P; Wallraff, W; Willenbrock, M; Zuccon, P

    2005-01-01

    The silicon tracker of the AMS-02 detector measures the trajectory in three dimensions of electrons, protons and nuclei to high precision in a dipole magnetic field and thus measures their rigidity (momentum over charge) and the sign of their charge. In addition, it measures the specific energy loss of charged particles to determine the charge magnitude. Ladders from the AMS-02 tracker have been exposed to ion beams at CERN and GSI to study their response to nuclei from helium up to the iron group. The longest ladder, 72 multiplied by 496mm2, verified in the tests contains 12 sensors. Good charge resolution is observed up to iron.

  18. AMS of {sup 14}C at low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, M.; Huber, R.; Jacob, S. [ETHZ, Zurich (Switzerland); Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    At the ETH/PSI AMS facility {sup 14}C test measurements have been performed at low terminal voltages of 0.5 and 1 MV in order to study the feasibility of AMS with very small accelerators. These experiments have demonstrated that interfering molecules ({sup 13}CH and {sup 12}CH{sub 2}) in charge states 1{sup +} and 2{sup +} can be destroyed in an adequate Ar gas stripper. These new results imply the feasibility of a new generation of very small accelerator systems for {sup 14}C. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  19. Analysis of Movie I am not Stupid 2: Parenting Style

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana,

    2015-01-01

    This paper, through Singaporean movie I am not Stupid 2, analyzes the relation between parenting and childrens growth process and also the action of parents should do to offer children for having a good growth process. Research was done based on Baumrind theory about parenting analysis to what kind of parenting that the parents of the movie I am not Stupid 2 offer to their children. Research used literature study to summarize, arrange, and analyze of Diana Baumrind as basis of the research. T...

  20. Albedo particle rejection with the RICH study prototype of AMS

    CERN Document Server

    Thuillier, T; Buénerd, M; Gallin-Martel, L; Ohlsson-Malek, F

    2001-01-01

    An experimental test has been performed on the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) study prototype of AMS, with cosmic ray particles on the ground, to evaluate the counter performance for Albedo particle rejection. The test was made with two radiators : Sodium Fluoride crystal (NaF, n approx 1.33) and Silica Aerogel (n=1.035). The experimental results are shown and can be consistently accounted for on the basis of random events generated from PMT background counting by means of a simple model, used to estimate the Albedo rejection performance of the future AMS RICH.

  1. AMS of heavy radionuclides at ANTARES: status and plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.M.; Fink, D.; Hotchkis, M.A.C.; Lawson, E.M.; Tuniz, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Long-lived radioisotopes are produced in the environment by cosmic ray interactions, natural radioactivity and through the use of nuclear technologies. Detection of trace amounts of anthropogenic isotopes by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a means of monitoring the safe operation of nuclear facilities and the presence of nuclear activities, however for heavy isotopes such measurements are difficult. This paper discusses the approach taken at ANTARES in developing AMS measurement capability for the actinides and summarises the current status of the project. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  2. The Basis for Developing Samarium AMS for Fuel Cycle Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A; Biegalski, S R; Whitney, S M; Tumey, S J; Weaver, C J

    2008-10-13

    Modeling of nuclear reactor fuel burnup indicates that the production of samarium isotopes can vary significantly with reactor type and fuel cycle. The isotopic concentrations of {sup 146}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, and {sup 151}Sm are potential signatures of fuel reprocessing, if analytical techniques can overcome the inherent challenges of lanthanide chemistry, isobaric interferences, and mass/charge interferences. We review the current limitations in measurement of the target samarium isotopes and describe potential approaches for developing Sm-AMS. AMS sample form and preparation chemistry will be discussed as well as possible spectrometer operating conditions.

  3. Artificial Muscle (AM) Cilia Array for Underwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-15

    create custom-shaped AM structures, including cilia-like structures. Specifically, a custom 3D printer was created that utilizes custom-made Nafion...filament for 3D printing of custom-shaped AM structures. The feature resolution of the 3D printer is approximately 100 11m and various nozzle diameters...can be incorporated. The 3D printer can be used to create small-dimeter cilia-like IPMC structures as well as other macro-sized structures. Various

  4. On the abundance of Europium. [in Ap and Am stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoog, M. R.; Cowley, C. R.; Adelman, S. J.

    1974-01-01

    The inclusion of the effects of hyperfine splitting can significantly lower the abundance estimate of Eu from singly ionized lines which lie on the flat portion of the curve of growth. In the 21 cool Ap stars studied by Adelman and the five Am stars studied by Smith, the Eu abundance was reduced by 0.4 dex on the average. In individual cases, the reductions were as great as 0.9 dex. This makes the Eu abundance comparable to that of its neighboring rare earths Sm and Gd in the Ap stars and less than Sm and Gd in the Am stars, but still substantially overabundant with respect to solar values.

  5. AMS Climate Studies: Improving climate literacy through undergraduate education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Moran, J. M.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Blair, B. A.; Hopkins, E. J.; Kiley, T. P., Jr.; Ruwe, E. E.

    2009-12-01

    In working to promote scientific literacy among the public, the American Meteorological Society (AMS) has produced a suite of introductory college-level courses that engage students by investigating relevant topics in Earth science, and utilizing the most current, real-world environmental data. The newest of these courses, AMS Climate Studies, is a turnkey package which will be licensed by individual colleges for local offering in online, blended, or traditional lecture/lab settings. The course will place students in a dynamic learning environment where they will investigate Earth’s climate system using real-world data. This will allow the course to keep a strong focus on the science, while still addressing many of the societal impacts that draw the attention of today’s students. In this way, the course will serve as a great primer in preparing students to become responsible, scientifically-literate participants in discussions of climate science and climate change. Developed with major support from NASA, AMS Climate Studies will encourage students to investigate the atmosphere and world ocean as components of a larger Earth system. More than 500 colleges and universities throughout the United States have already offered AMS Weather Studies and AMS Ocean Studies, after which AMS Climate Studies will be modeled. The learning system will consist of a fully-integrated set of printed and online learning materials focused around a brand new, hardcover 15-chapter textbook, Climate Studies: Introduction to Climate Science and an Investigations Manual with 30 lab-style activities that will emphasize the use of authentic science data. The package will also include a course website providing weekly Current Climate Studies activities along with access to environmental data streams, including an impressive suite of NASA and NOAA images and products. The development and testing of AMS Climate Studies is currently nearing completion. A number of college and university

  6. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  7. The novel cannabinoid CB1 receptor neutral antagonist AM4113 suppresses food intake and food-reinforced behavior but does not induce signs of nausea in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sink, Kelly S; McLaughlin, Peter J; Wood, Jodi Anne T; Brown, Cara; Fan, Pusheng; Vemuri, V Kiran; Peng, Yan; Pang, Yan; Olszewska, Teresa; Olzewska, Teresa; Thakur, Ganesh A; Makriyannis, Alex; Parker, Linda A; Salamone, John D

    2008-03-01

    Drugs that interfere with cannabinoid CB1 transmission suppress various food-motivated behaviors, and it has been suggested that such drugs could be useful as appetite suppressants. Biochemical studies indicate that most of these drugs assessed thus far have been CB1 inverse agonists, and although they have been shown to suppress food intake, they also appear to induce nausea and malaise. The present studies were undertaken to characterize the behavioral effects of AM4113, which is a CB1 neutral antagonist, and to examine whether this drug can reduce food-reinforced behaviors and feeding on diets with varying macronutrient compositions. Biochemical data demonstrated that AM4113 binds to CB1 receptors, but does not show inverse agonist properties (ie no effects on cyclic-AMP production). In tests of spontaneous locomotion and analgesia, AM4113 reversed the effects of the CB1 agonist AM411. AM4113 suppressed food-reinforced operant responding with rats responding on fixed ratio (FR) 1 and 5 schedules of reinforcement in a dose-dependent manner, and also suppressed feeding on high-fat, high-carbohydrate, and lab chow diets. However, in the same dose range that suppressed feeding, AM4113 did not induce conditioned gaping, which is a sign of nausea and food-related malaise in rats. These results suggest that AM4113 may decrease appetite by blocking endogenous cannabinoid tone, and that this drug may be less associated with nausea than CB1 inverse agonists.

  8. The alpha-tubulin gene AmTuba1: a marker for rapid mycelial growth in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkka, Mika T; Schrey, Silvia; Nehls, Uwe

    2006-05-01

    The apical extension of hyphae is of central importance for extensive spread of fungal mycelium in forest soils and for effective ectomycorrhiza development. Since the tubulin cytoskeleton is known to be important for fungal tip growth, we have investigated the expression of an alpha-tubulin gene from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Amanita muscaria (AmTuba1). The phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences revealed the existence of two subgroups of alpha-tubulins in homobasidiomycetes, clearly distinguishable by defined amino acids. AmTuba1 belongs to subgroup1. The AmTuba1 transcript level is related to mycelial growth rate. Growth induction of carbohydrate starved (non-growing) hyphae resulted in an enhanced AmTuba1 expression as soon as hyphal growth started, reaching a maximum at highest mycelial growth rate. Bacterium-induced hyphal elongation also leads to increased AmTuba1 transcript levels. In mature A. muscaria/P. abies ectomycorrhizas, where fungal hyphae are highly branched, and slowly growing, AmTuba1 expression were even lower than in carbohydrate-starved mycelium, indicating a further down-regulation of gene expression in symbiosis. In conclusion, our analyses show that the AmTuba1 gene can be used as a marker for active apical extension in fly agaric, and that alpha-tubulin proteins are promising tools for the classification of fungi.

  9. Am I Halfway? Life Lived = Expected Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Zarulli, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    life expectancy at that age. This relationship in stable population models between life lived and life left has captured the attention of mathematical demographers since Lotka. Our paper aims to contribute to the halfway-age debate by showing its time trends under mortality models and with current data......“Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita, Mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, Ché la diritta via era smarrita. [In the middle of the journey of our life, I came to myself in a dark wood, for the straight way was lost.]” (Dante 1308-1320) We have reached halfway in life when our age equals our remaining...

  10. Genetic selection for coping style predicts stressor susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Veenema, AH; Meijer, OC; de Kloet, ER; Koolhaas, JM

    2003-01-01

    Genetically selected aggressive (SAL) and nonaggressive (LAL) male wild house-mice which show distinctly different coping styles, also display a differential regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis after exposure to an acute stressor. To test the hypothesis that coping style predicts stressor susceptibility, the present study examined line differences in response to a chronic stressor. Chronic psychosocial stress was evoked using two paradigms. In the first paradigm, a SAL or LA...

  11. Multifractal magnetic susceptibility distribution models of hydrothermally altered rocks in the Needle Creek Igneous Center of the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Gettings

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic susceptibility was measured for 700 samples of drill core from thirteen drill holes in the porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit of the Stinkingwater mining district in the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming. The magnetic susceptibility measurements, chemical analyses, and alteration class provided a database for study of magnetic susceptibility in these altered rocks. The distribution of the magnetic susceptibilities for all samples is multi-modal, with overlapping peaked distributions for samples in the propylitic and phyllic alteration class, a tail of higher susceptibilities for potassic alteration, and an approximately uniform distribution over a narrow range at the highest susceptibilities for unaltered rocks. Samples from all alteration and mineralization classes show susceptibilities across a wide range of values. Samples with secondary (supergene alteration due to oxidation or enrichment show lower susceptibilities than primary (hypogene alteration rock. Observed magnetic susceptibility variations and the monolithological character of the host rock suggest that the variations are due to varying degrees of alteration of blocks of rock between fractures that conducted hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of rock from the fractures inward progressively reduces the bulk magnetic susceptibility of the rock. The model introduced in this paper consists of a simulation of the fracture pattern and a simulation of the alteration of the rock between fractures. A multifractal model generated from multiplicative cascades with unequal ratios produces distributions statistically similar to the observed distributions. The reduction in susceptibility in the altered rocks was modelled as a diffusion process operating on the fracture distribution support. The average magnetic susceptibility was then computed for each block. For the purpose of comparing the model results with observation, the simulated magnetic susceptibilities were then averaged over the same

  12. [Multicenter Prospective Observational Study of Fungal Keratitis--Identification and Susceptibility Test of Fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunada, Atsuko; Asari, Seishi; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Ohashi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Shimomura, Yoshikazu; Fukuda, Masahiko; Sotozono, Chie; Hatano, Hiroshi; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Araki-Sasaki, Kaoru; Hoshi, Saichi; Yaguchi, Takashi; Makimura, Koichi; Yokokura, Shunji; Mochizuki, Kiyofumi; Monden, Yu; Nejima, Ryohei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the causative fungi of fungal keratitis in Japan and their drug susceptibility. Identification and antifungal susceptibility test for 8 drugs (micafungin, amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, miconazole and pimaricin) were performed using isolated fungi from patients with fungal keratitis treated at 27 facilities in Japan between November 1, 2011 and October 31, 2013. Fungal strains were detected in 72 (50.7%) out of 142 samples. The major isolates were Fusarium spp. (18), Candida parapsilosis (12), C. albicans (11) and Alternaria spp. (6), in all, fungi of 31 species were identified by gene analysis. In the yeast-like fungi, susceptibility rates were evident for more than 80% in voriconazole, pimaricin, flucytosine, micafungin, amphotericin B and fluconazole. In filamentous fungi, the susceptibility rate was less than 50% except for PMR (90%). Fusarium spp., which were susceptible to amphotericin B and pimaricin, showed lower susceptibility rates compared with other genera. Although various genera and species of fungi cause fungal keratitis, the obtained drug susceptibility data in this study demonstrates the different susceptibility patterns among the major isolates (Fusarium spp., C. parapsilosis, C. albicans and other groups). This is important evidence useful for fungal keratitis treatment.

  13. 50 W Resonant SMPS with coreless transformer for AM radio application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakhost, Pezhman; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Resonant converters are attractive in some applications, because of their soft-switching behaviour. The very low switching losses make them superior compared to traditional hard-switching converters. The present paper considers a 50 W resonant SMPS with coreless transformer for AM radio applicati......Resonant converters are attractive in some applications, because of their soft-switching behaviour. The very low switching losses make them superior compared to traditional hard-switching converters. The present paper considers a 50 W resonant SMPS with coreless transformer for AM radio...... applications above the AM band (1.7 MHz), to avoid switching disturbances and radio signal interferences, where a half-bridge LLC/LLCC resonant converter topology is designed and realized together with a resonant gate driver. In this connection it should be mentioned that this paper deals with an unknown area......, since the authors could not find any papers published, regarding coreless transformer for above-mentioned applications. The entire converter is simulated using PSpice. A comparison between simulated and realized system has been made, which showed an excellent agreement of the system with only few...

  14. {sup 241}Am in vivo measurements with the GSF low level incorporation monitor; {sup 241}Am Messungen am Low-Level-Inkorporationsmonitor der GSF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucheida, D.; Schuetz, R.; Wahl, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Koenig, K. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene

    1998-12-31

    In the GSF low level incorporation monitor for {gamma}- and {beta}-ray measurements, {sup 241}Am in vivo examinations were made on a person using HPGe detectors in calvarial and frontal position on the head. To reconstruct the activity several phantoms of the BfS and U.S. Transuranium Registry where used for head calibration. The derived efficiency is different for positions of the detectors on the same phantom as well as for the position of the detectors on different phantoms concerning the phantom morphology and the activity distribution and preparation. The current situation in relative and absolute calibration is discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit dem sich im Aufbau befindlichen Inkorporationsmonitor der GSF sind erste {gamma}-spektroskopische Messungen des radioaktiven Isotops {sup 241}Am an einem Probanden mit Germaniumdetektoren in calvarialer und frontaler Schaedelposition durchgefuehrt worden. Zu deren Bewertung wurden an je einem Phantom des BfS und der U.S. Transuranium Registry detaillierte Kalibrationsuntersuchungen durchgefuehrt. Die daraus abgeleiteten Effizienzen zur Berechnung der Aktivitaet sind sowohl eine Funktion der Messpositionen am jeweiligen Phantom als auch eine Funktion der Phantommorphologie und der Aktivitaetsverteilung sowie deren Praeparation und werden in dieser Arbeit diskutiert. Bewertet wird der derzeitige Stand der relativen und absoluten Kalibrierung. (orig.)

  15. Multifractal model of magnetic susceptibility distributions in some igneous rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Gettings

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of in-situ magnetic susceptibility were compiled from mainly Precambrian crystalline basement rocks beneath the Colorado Plateau and ranges in Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico. The susceptibility meter used measures about 30 cm3 of rock and measures variations in the modal distribution of magnetic minerals that form a minor component volumetrically in these coarsely crystalline granitic to granodioritic rocks. Recent measurements include 50–150 measurements on each outcrop, and show that the distribution of magnetic susceptibilities is highly variable, multimodal and strongly non-Gaussian. Although the distribution of magnetic susceptibility is well known to be multifractal, the small number of data points at an outcrop precludes calculation of the multifractal spectrum by conventional methods. Instead, a brute force approach was adopted using multiplicative cascade models to fit the outcrop scale variability of magnetic minerals. Model segment proportion and length parameters resulted in 26 676 models to span parameter space. Distributions at each outcrop were normalized to unity magnetic susceptibility and added to compare all data for a rock body accounting for variations in petrology and alteration. Once the best-fitting model was found, the equation relating the segment proportion and length parameters was solved numerically to yield the multifractal spectrum estimate. For the best fits, the relative density (the proportion divided by the segment length of one segment tends to be dominant and the other two densities are smaller and nearly equal. No other consistent relationships between the best fit parameters were identified. The multifractal spectrum estimates appear to distinguish between metamorphic gneiss sites and sites on plutons, even if the plutons have been metamorphosed. In particular, rocks that have undergone multiple tectonic events tend to have a larger range of scaling exponents.

  16. Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility Mapping in Tropical Areas - Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidzik, K.; Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Regmi, N. R.; Leshchinsky, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Landslides are one of the common catastrophic phenomena in the world. In regions of humid-warm tropical climate they are triggered by extreme storms causing loss of life and economic devastation. In this study we mapped susceptibility to landslides in the tropical mountains of Guerrero (South Mexico) based on the inventory of landslide features triggered by the hurricane Manuel of September 2013. Landslide inventory was produced using interpretation of satellite images and automatic identification of landslides employing the Contour Connection Method (CCM). A map of susceptibility to landslides was developed by computing probability of landslide occurrence from statistical relationships of existing landslides using LiDAR elevation model and derived landslide-causing factors using a logistic regression method. Landslide inventory includes 419 features produced by the hurricane Manuel on the area of 22 km2, and > 1,000 older features, suggesting high landslide activity in this area. Most landslides in the region are small, but some large slides exist, such as the catastrophic landslide in La Pintada that caused 71 fatalities and destroyed a large part of the village. Our results indicate that the distance to streams, human activity, presence or absence of dense vegetation and orientation of slopes (on some areas) strongly influence the spatial distribution of landslides. Results showed high susceptibility zones encompass 30% of the study area and occur mostly along topographic convergence. Applied approach identified most of the landslides within the high susceptibility zone and suggested that it is a valid applicable method to map areas susceptible to landslides in southern Mexico but also on other humid-warm tropical regions.

  17. Investigar desde América Latina y sobre América Latina, lo que nombra el nombre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Clemencia Valencia González

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La georreferencia denominada América Latina, su historia y los desafíos derivados de su configuración y re-configuración, de su encubrimiento, más que descubrimiento (Dussel, 1994, plantea desafíos para las ciencias sociales y para los científicos sociales tanto en lo teórico como en lo metodológico, a partir de cuestionar la territorialización de los resultados y de los trayectos seguidos en el trabajo con el conocimiento, sea que se investigue desde América Latina o sobre América Latina.

  18. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactamase (ESBL) producing gram-negative uropathogens in Sokoto, Nigeria. ... Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined using the modified Kirby Bauer method. Confirmation of ESBL phenotype was performed by Double-Disc Synergy Test ...

  19. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended spectrum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JAMILU

    ABSTRACT. The emergence of resistant strains of urogenital extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing ... antimicrobial susceptibility test using CLSI recommended, WHO modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. ... Keywords: Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamases, Prevalence, Gram-negative urogenital isolates,.

  20. antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of salmonella species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Empirical treatment for enteric fevers should, therefore, be discouraged while quinolones, cefepime, carbapenem, azithromycin and third generation cephalosporins be given preference. KEY WORDS: Susceptibility, Antimicrobial, Salmonella species, Enteric fever. INTRODUCTION. In the 21st century, enteric fever in the.

  1. Human genetic susceptibility to Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, T.S.; Johnson, M.D.; Scott, W.K.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W. van der; Perfect, J.R.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Infections with Candida spp. have different manifestations in humans, ranging from mucosal to bloodstream and deep-seated disseminated infections. Immunocompromised patients have increased susceptibility to these types of infections, due to reduced capacity to elicit effective innate or adaptive

  2. Evaluation of SLE Susceptibility Genes in Malaysians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E. Molineros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE is a clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disease with strong genetic and environmental components. Our objective was to replicate 25 recently identified SLE susceptibility genes in two distinct populations (Chinese (CH and Malays (MA from Malaysia. We genotyped 347 SLE cases and 356 controls (CH and MA using the ImmunoChip array and performed an admixture corrected case-control association analysis. Associated genes were grouped into five immune-related pathways. While CH were largely homogenous, MA had three ancestry components (average 82.3% Asian, 14.5% European, and 3.2% African. Ancestry proportions were significantly different between cases and controls in MA. We identified 22 genes with at least one associated SNP (P<0.05. The strongest signal was at HLA-DRA (PMeta=9.96×10-9; PCH=6.57×10-8, PMA=6.73×10-3; the strongest non-HLA signal occurred at STAT4 (PMeta=1.67×10-7; PCH=2.88×10-6, PMA=2.99×10-3. Most of these genes were associated with B- and T-cell function and signaling pathways. Our exploratory study using high-density fine-mapping suggests that most of the established SLE genes are also associated in the major ethnicities of Malaysia. However, these novel SNPs showed stronger association in these Asian populations than with the SNPs reported in previous studies.

  3. Dermatophyte susceptibility varies towards antimicrobial textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Timo R; Mucha, Helmut; Hoefer, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are a widespread problem worldwide. Textiles in contact with infected skin can serve as a carrier for fungus propagation. Hitherto, it is unknown, whether antifungal textiles could contribute in controlling dermatophytes e.g. by disrupting the chain of infection. Testing of antimicrobial fabrics for their antifungal activities therefore is a fundamental prerequisite to assess the putative clinical relevance of textiles for dermatophyte prevention. Fabrics finished with either didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), poly-hexamethylenbiguanide, copper and two silver chloride concentrations were tested for their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. To prove dermatophyte susceptibility towards the textiles, swatches were subjected to DIN EN 14199 (Trichophyton sp.) or DIN EN ISO 20743 (C. albicans) respectively. In addition, samples were embedded, and semi-thin sections were analysed microscopically. While all samples showed a clear inhibition of C. albicans, activity against Trichophyton sp. varied significantly: For example, DDAC completely inhibited T. rubrum growth, whereas T. mentagrophytes growth remained unaffected even in direct contact to the fibres. The results favour to add T. mentagrophytes as a test organism in textile dermatophyte efficacy tests. Microscopic analysis of swatches allowed detailed evaluation of additional parameters like mycelium thickness, density and hyphae penetration depth into the fabric. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Landslide susceptibility map: from research to application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro; Felicioni, Giulia; Antonini, Guendalina

    2014-05-01

    Susceptibility map is an important and essential tool in environmental planning, to evaluate landslide hazard and risk and for a correct and responsible management of the territory. Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in an area on the basis of local terrain conditions. Can be expressed as the probability that any given region will be affected by landslides, i.e. an estimate of "where" landslides are likely to occur. In this work we present two examples of landslide susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region and for the Perugia Municipality. These two maps were realized following official request from the Regional and Municipal government to the Research Institute for the Hydrogeological Protection (CNR-IRPI). The susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region represents the development of previous agreements focused to prepare: i) a landslide inventory map that was included in the Urban Territorial Planning (PUT) and ii) a series of maps for the Regional Plan for Multi-risk Prevention. The activities carried out for the Umbria Region were focused to define and apply methods and techniques for landslide susceptibility zonation. Susceptibility maps were prepared exploiting a multivariate statistical model (linear discriminant analysis) for the five Civil Protection Alert Zones defined in the regional territory. The five resulting maps were tested and validated using the spatial distribution of recent landslide events that occurred in the region. The susceptibility map for the Perugia Municipality was prepared to be integrated as one of the cartographic product in the Municipal development plan (PRG - Piano Regolatore Generale) as required by the existing legislation. At strategic level, one of the main objectives of the PRG, is to establish a framework of knowledge and legal aspects for the management of geo-hydrological risk. At national level most of the susceptibility maps prepared for the PRG, were and still are obtained

  5. Rheological Study on ATBS-AM Copolymer-Surfactant System in High-Temperature and High-Salinity Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahzad Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies were conducted to evaluate the rheological properties of surfactant-polymer (SP system. This SP system consists of a copolymer of acrylamide (AM and acrylamido tertiary butyl sulfonate (ATBS and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS surfactant. Effects of surfactant concentration, temperature, polymer concentration, and salinity on rheological properties of SP system were investigated by means of oscillation and shear measurements. Comparison with classical partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM was made. For the same temperature range, the viscosity drop for HPAM was about four times higher than the viscosity drop for ATBS-AM copolymer. In deionized water, viscosity of both polymers and SP systems was very high as compared to viscosity in saline water. Viscosity reduction of ATBS-AM copolymer was higher for salts having divalent cations. The SP system showed precipitation in presence of divalent cations. It worked well with monovalent cations even at relatively high salinities. The addition of 0.1% surfactant to the polymer resulted in a 60% decrease in the viscosity. Some interfacial rheological experiments were also carried out to investigate the behaviors on the interface between SP solutions and oil. Addition of 0.1% surfactant showed a 65% decrease in G′ at SP solution-oil interface. SP system consisting of ATBS-AM and SDS showed better performance at high temperature compared to HPAM-SDS system. Due to precipitation, the SP system should be restricted to environment having low divalent cations.

  6. Show me the action and I will show you the commons!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Finidori

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available What I am proposing here is not quite a more precise definition of the nature of the commons, related boundaries and access rights. Rather, starting from existing definitions, I address the topic from the perspective of experience: how commons are created or emerge from a process that intimately associates people and the participatory and mindful ways in which they produce, manage or care for their shared resources or assets. I also outline how the essential principles of a commons logic could help amplify the action of other sustainability and social change initiatives in a way that can be geared towards growing the commons as a whole.

  7. Azasordarins: Susceptibility of Fluconazole-Susceptible and Fluconazole-Resistant Clinical Isolates of Candida spp. to GW 471558

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Mellado, Emilia; Díaz-Guerra, Teresa M.; Monzón, Araceli; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L.

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of the azasordarin GW 471558 was compared with those of amphotericin B, flucytosine, itraconazole, and ketoconazole against 177 clinical isolates of Candida spp. GW 471558 showed potent activity against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida tropicalis, even against isolates with decreased susceptibility to azoles. Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida guilliermondii are resistant to GW 471558 in vitro (MICs, >128 μg/ml).

  8. Contamination on AMS Sample Targets by Modern Carbon is Inevitable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Dipayan; Been, Henk A.; Aerts-Bijma, Anita Th.; Meijer, Harro A.J.

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements of the radiocarbon content in very old samples are often challenging and carry large relative uncertainties due to possible contaminations acquired during the preparation and storage steps. In case of such old samples, the natural surrounding levels

  9. Revisitando a Conquista Espiritual da América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Ênio José da Costa Brito

    2016-01-01

    RESENHA:DOMEZI, Maria Cecilia. Deus em guerra e pacto na América Latina colonial. São Paulo: Idéias & Letras, 2015.A autora revisita a Conquista Espiritual sob a ótica da luta dos deuses no continente Latino Americana.

  10. On a low intensity 241Am Compton spectrometer for measurement ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Am γ-ray Compton spectrometer is presented. The planar spectrometer is based on a small disc source with the shortest geometry. Measurement of the momentum density of polycrystalline Al is used to evaluate the performance of the new design. The measured profile is in good agreement with the existing theoretical data ...

  11. A new BPM-TOF system for CologneAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascovici, Gheorghe; Dewald, Alfred; Heinze, Stefan; Schiffer, Markus; Feuerstein, Mark [CologneAMS, Universitaet Koeln (Germany); Pfeiffer, Michael; Jolie, Jan; Zell, Karl Oskar [IKP, Universitaet Koeln (Germany); Blanckenburg, Friedhelm von [GFZ, Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    At the center for accelerator mass spectrometry (CologneAMS) a complex beam detector consisting of a high resolution Beam Profile Monitor (BPM) and a Time of Flight (TOF) spectrometer with tracking capabilities was designed especially for the needs of the Cologne AMS facility. The complex beam detector assembly is designed to match the beam specifications of the 6MV Tandetron AMS setup and its DAQ system, which is presently in the commissioning phase at the IKP of the University of Cologne. The BPM-TOF system will have a reconfigurable structure, namely: either a very fast TOF subsystem with a small active area or a more complex BPM -TOF detector with beam tracking capabilities and with a large active area. The systems aims for background suppression in case of the spectrometry of heavy ions, e.g. U, Cm, Pu, Am etc. and could also be used as an additional filter e.g., for the isobar {sup 36}S in case of the spectrometry of {sup 36}Cl.

  12. AM Envelope : Potentials of Additive Manufacturing for facade construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strauss, H.; Knaack, U.

    2012-01-01

    Not only in the medical, aviation and automotive industry, the Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes are being looked upon as increasingly important production processes. But also the construction industiy is realizing more and more the chances and opportunities, that open up with these technologies

  13. AMS 3.0: prediction of post-translational modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plewczynski Dariusz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present here the recent update of AMS algorithm for identification of post-translational modification (PTM sites in proteins based only on sequence information, using artificial neural network (ANN method. The query protein sequence is dissected into overlapping short sequence segments. Ten different physicochemical features describe each amino acid; therefore nine residues long segment is represented as a point in a 90 dimensional space. The database of sequence segments with confirmed by experiments post-translational modification sites are used for training a set of ANNs. Results The efficiency of the classification for each type of modification and the prediction power of the method is estimated here using recall (sensitivity, precision values, the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and leave-one-out tests (LOOCV. The significant differences in the performance for differently optimized neural networks are observed, yet the AMS 3.0 tool integrates those heterogeneous classification schemes into the single consensus scheme, and it is able to boost the precision and recall values independent of a PTM type in comparison with the currently available state-of-the art methods. Conclusions The standalone version of AMS 3.0 presents an efficient way to indentify post-translational modifications for whole proteomes. The training datasets, precompiled binaries for AMS 3.0 tool and the source code are available at http://code.google.com/p/automotifserver under the Apache 2.0 license scheme.

  14. 78 FR 69629 - Revitalization of the AM Radio Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... comment as to the potential adverse effects, if any, of MDCL control technology implementation on other AM... technologies have reported significant savings on electrical power costs and few, if any, perceptible effects on station coverage area and audio quality. Based on the absence of either reported negative effects...

  15. Identification of genes controlling development of arbuscules in AM symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most vascular flowering plants have the capacity to form mutualistic symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. These associations develop in the roots where the fungus delivers phosphate to the root cortical cells and receives carbon from its plant host. During the symbiosis, the fungus prol...

  16. Why Am I Learning Evolution? Pointers towards Enacted Scientific Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Clas

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores affordances in teaching evolution, especially those in which evolution is made relevant to and argued for in a grade 9 biology classroom, thus giving potential answers to the pupils' legitimate question,"'why am I learning evolution?" The aim of the paper is methodological in the sense that it explores whether the…

  17. Current status of the AMS program at the TANDAR Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Niello, J.; Alvarez, D.E.; Liberman, R.G. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The status of the AMS program at the TANDAR laboratory is briefly overviewed and recent improvements on the tandem accelerator are summarized. {sup 36} Cl measurements have been extensively performed and studies with nickel beams have been started. Their results are presented and evaluated in the context of future activities. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs.; marti at tandar.cnea.edu.ar

  18. Gobernanza ambiental en América Latina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, F.; Hogenboom, B.; Baud, M.

    2015-01-01

    En términos de recursos naturales América Latina es la región más rica del mundo. Las múltiples finalidades de la naturaleza -subsistencia para las comunidades, ingresos para los Estados, commodities para las compañías, y biodiversidad para los conservacionistas- han convertido la gobernanza

  19. O surto rearmamentista na América do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Eloi Martins Senhoras

    2010-01-01

    O presente artigo objetiva analisar o processo
    de crescente rearmamento presente na América do Sul
    tomando como referência uma visão internacionalista
    fenômeno que se desdobra na região.

  20. CRM - Grundlagen und Realisierung am Beispiel einer Standardanwendung

    OpenAIRE

    Weinmann, Dieter

    2002-01-01

    Bearbeitung der Grundlagen zu Datenbanken, DataWarehouse und CRM, sowohl hardware- als auch software-seitig. Beschreibung der Implementierung eines Siebel-Systems auf einer Oracle 8i-Datenbank nahe am Standard. Darauffolgender Vergleich von Siebel 2000 mit mySAP.com CRM

  1. Draft genome sequence of Actinomyces succiniciruminis strain Am4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; Hornung, Bastian; Ravikumar Varadarajan, Adithi; Plugge, Wendy; Plugge, Caroline M.

    2017-01-01

    Actinomyces succiniciruminis strain Am4T, isolated from cow rumen fluid, can metabolize a range of substrates including complex carbohydrates to organic acids. Here, we report a 3.33-Mbp draft genome of Actinomyces succiniciruminis.

  2. Le champignon arbusculaire Glomus aggregatum améliore la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le champignon arbusculaire Glomus aggregatum améliore la nutrition minérale de Acacia seyal soumis au stress salin progressif. ... However, many studies have shown the efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to promote plant growth subjected to salt stress. An experiment was carried out in a greenhouse for 36 ...

  3. Gasto Social en América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Gerardo Molina

    2003-01-01

    El presente trabajo ofrece un panorama de la evolución del gasto público social en América Latina; el contexto del nivel de los gastos sociales a través de su comparación entre países y regiones; y las relaciones del gasto con los resultados sociales.

  4. Extended biofilm susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus bovine mastitis isolates: evidence for association between genetic makeup and biofilm susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, M B; van Osch, M H J; Lam, T J G M; Vernooij, J C M; Gaastra, W; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent causes of bovine mastitis. The antimicrobial treatment of this disease is currently based on antimicrobial susceptibility tests according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standards. However, various authors have shown a discrepancy between the results of this standard susceptibility test and the actual cure rate of the applied antimicrobial treatment. Increasing evidence suggests that in vivo biofilm formation by Staph. aureus, which is not assessed in the antimicrobial susceptibility tests, is associated with this problem, resulting in disappointing cure rates, especially for infections of longer duration. Previous data obtained with a limited number of strains showed that the extended biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility (EBS) assay reveals differences between strains, which cannot be derived from a standard susceptibility test or from a 24-h biofilm susceptibility test. The objective of this study was to test a collection of Staph. aureus bovine mastitis strains in the EBS assay and to model the effect of antimicrobial exposure, duration of antimicrobial exposure, and genotype profile of the strains on antimicrobial susceptibility. With the results from a previous study with the same collection of strains, the effect of genotype represented by accessory gene regulator gene (agr-type), the presence of insertional sequence 257 (IS257), intercellular adhesion (ica), and the β-lactamase (blaZ) gene were entered as explanatory factors in a logistic regression model. The agr locus of Staph. aureus controls the expression of most of the virulence factors, represses the transcription of several cell wall-associated proteins, and activates several exoproteins during the post-exponential phase. The IS257 gene has been related to biofilm formation in vitro and was found earlier in 50% of the agr-type 2 strains. The ica gene cluster encodes for the production of an extracellular polysaccharide adhesin, termed

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients Referring to Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Golshani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Golshani Z, Ahadi AM, Sharifzadeh A. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients Referring to Hospitals. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(2:48-53. Abstract: Background & Aims of the Study: The aim of this study was to detect and survey the antibiotic resistance pattern of Pseudomonas (P. aeruginosa isolated from patients in Isfahan (located in central Iran hospitals. Materials & Methods : A Total of 50 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from urine, wound, trachea, ear swab, and pus, and then were confirmed by standard tests. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Susceptibility data were compared by chi-square test using SPSS version 15. Results: Among the isolated strains, resistance to oxacillin was seen in 100%, ceftriaxone in 76%, amikacin in 70%, ceftazidime in 68%, cefepime in 68%, tobramycin in 62%, gentamicin in 60%, ciprofloxacin in 58%, and imipenem in 58% of the isolates. Conclusions: Comparison of the results showed that, patterns of antibiotic resistance are different from one hospital to another in various areas. Therefore, it is suggested that such studies should be performed in different hospitals. Also, prescribing correct medications is essential to prevent further increases in resistant bacteria. References: 1. Pagani L, Mantengoli E, Migliavacca R, Nucleo E, Pollini S, Spalla M, et al. Multifocal Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Producing the PER-1 Extended- Spectrum β-Lactamase in Northern Italy. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42(6:2523–9. 2. Ling TKW, Xiong J, Yu Y, Lee CC, Ye H, Hawkey PM, et al. Multicenter Antimicrobial Susceptibility Survey of Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolated from Patients with Community-Acquired Infections in the People's Republic of China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006;50(1:374–8. 3. Gupta V, Datta P, Agnihotri N, Chander J. Comparative in vitro Activities of Seven

  6. Diagnostic Value of Direct Antibiotic Susceptibility Test for Faster BacterialSusceptibility Reporting in Bacteremia

    OpenAIRE

    Rebriarina Hapsari; Vincentia Rizke Ciptaningtyas; Masfiyah Masfiyah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid and accurate information on susceptibility of bacteria causing bacteraemia is very helpful in sepsis management. Blood culture is the gold standard for bacteraemia diagnosis. Standard antibiotic susceptibility testing needs at least three days for completion while direct method can give the result a day earlier. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of direct antibiotic susceptibility testing in blood culture. Methods: Bloods from positive BACTEC b...

  7. Susceptibility to hypoxia and breathing control changes after short-term cold exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila T. Kovtun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Hypoxia is the reduction of oxygen availability due to external or internal causes. There is large individual variability of response to hypoxia. Objective . The aim of this study was to define individual and typological features in susceptibility to hypoxia, its interrelation with hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses (HVR and HCVR, respectively and their changes after cold acclimation. Design . Twenty-four healthy men were tested. HVR and HCVR were measured by the rebreathing method during hypoxic and hypercapnic tests, respectively. These tests were carried out in thermoneutral conditions before and after cold exposures (nude, at 13°C, 2 h daily, for 10 days. Susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2 was determined as haemoglobin saturation slope during hypoxic test. Results . It was found that HVR and HCVR significantly increased and susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2 tended to decrease after cold acclimation. According to sSaO2 results before cold exposures, the group was divided into 3: Group 1 – with high susceptibility to hypoxia, Group 2 – medium and Group 3 – low susceptibility. Analysis of variances (MANOVA shows the key role of susceptibility to hypoxia and cold exposures and their interrelation. Posterior analysis (Fisher LSD showed significant difference in susceptibility to hypoxia between the groups prior to cold acclimation, while HVR and HCVR did not differ between the groups. After cold acclimation, susceptibility to hypoxia was not significantly different between the groups, while HCVR significantly increased in Groups 1 and 3, HVR significantly increased in Group 3 and HCVR, HVR did not change in Group 2. Conclusions . Short-term cold exposures caused an increase in functional reserves and improved oxygen supply of tissues in Group 1. Cold exposure hypoxia has caused energy loss in Group 3. Group 2 showed the most appropriate energy conservation reaction mode to cold exposures. No relation was found between

  8. Susceptibility to hypoxia and breathing control changes after short-term cold exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtun, Lyudmila T; Voevoda, Mikhail I

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia is the reduction of oxygen availability due to external or internal causes. There is large individual variability of response to hypoxia. The aim of this study was to define individual and typological features in susceptibility to hypoxia, its interrelation with hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses (HVR and HCVR, respectively) and their changes after cold acclimation. Twenty-four healthy men were tested. HVR and HCVR were measured by the rebreathing method during hypoxic and hypercapnic tests, respectively. These tests were carried out in thermoneutral conditions before and after cold exposures (nude, at 13°C, 2 h daily, for 10 days). Susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2) was determined as haemoglobin saturation slope during hypoxic test. It was found that HVR and HCVR significantly increased and susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2) tended to decrease after cold acclimation. According to sSaO2 results before cold exposures, the group was divided into 3: Group 1--with high susceptibility to hypoxia, Group 2--medium and Group 3--low susceptibility. Analysis of variances (MANOVA) shows the key role of susceptibility to hypoxia and cold exposures and their interrelation. Posterior analysis (Fisher LSD) showed significant difference in susceptibility to hypoxia between the groups prior to cold acclimation, while HVR and HCVR did not differ between the groups. After cold acclimation, susceptibility to hypoxia was not significantly different between the groups, while HCVR significantly increased in Groups 1 and 3, HVR significantly increased in Group 3 and HCVR, HVR did not change in Group 2. Short-term cold exposures caused an increase in functional reserves and improved oxygen supply of tissues in Group 1. Cold exposure hypoxia has caused energy loss in Group 3. Group 2 showed the most appropriate energy conservation reaction mode to cold exposures. No relation was found between the thermoregulation and the susceptibility to hypoxia.

  9. AM-2201 Inhibits Multiple Cytochrome P450 and Uridine 5′-Diphospho-Glucuronosyltransferase Enzyme Activities in Human Liver Microsomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hyun Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AM-2201 is a synthetic cannabinoid that acts as a potent agonist at cannabinoid receptors and its abuse has increased. However, there are no reports of the inhibitory effect of AM-2201 on human cytochrome P450 (CYP or uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT enzymes. We evaluated the inhibitory effect of AM-2201 on the activities of eight major human CYPs (1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 and six major human UGTs (1A1, 1A3, 1A4, 1A6, 1A9, and 2B7 enzymes in pooled human liver microsomes using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry to investigate drug interaction potentials of AM-2201. AM-2201 potently inhibited CYP2C9-catalyzed diclofenac 4′-hydroxylation, CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1′-hydroxylation, UGT1A3-catalyzed chenodeoxycholic acid 24-acyl-glucuronidation, and UGT2B7-catalyzed naloxone 3-glucuronidation with IC50 values of 3.9, 4.0, 4.3, and 10.0 μM, respectively, and showed mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8-catalyzed amodiaquine N-deethylation with a Ki value of 2.1 μM. It negligibly inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, and UGT1A9 activities at 50 μM in human liver microsomes. These in vitro results indicate that AM-2201 needs to be examined for potential pharmacokinetic drug interactions in vivo due to its potent inhibition of CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, UGT1A3, and UGT2B7 enzyme activities.

  10. AmO2 Analysis for Analytical Method Testing and Assessment: Analysis Support for AmO2 Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Kevin John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bland, Galey Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fulwyler, James Brent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garduno, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Keller, Russell C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Klundt, Dylan James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lujan, Elmer J. W [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mark, Zoe Francoise Elise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mathew, Kattathu Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ortega, Laura Claire [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ottenfeld, Chelsea Faith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porterfield, Donivan R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rearick, Michael Sean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rim, Jung Ho [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schake, Ann Rene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schappert, Michael Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stanley, Floyd E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thomas, Mariam R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wylie, Ernest Miller II [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Xu, Ning [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-08

    Americium oxide samples will be measured for various analytes to support AmO2 production. The key analytes that are currently requested by the Am production customer at LANL include total Am content, Am isotopics, Pu assay, Pu isotopics, and trace element content including 237Np content. Multiple analytical methods will be utilized depending on the sensitivity, accuracy and precision needs of the Am matrix. Traceability to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will be achieved, where applicable, by running NIST traceable quality control materials. This given that there are no suitable AmO2 reference materials currently available for requested analytes. The primary objective is to demonstrate the suitability of actinide analytical chemistry methods to support AmO2 production operations.

  11. Toluene promotes lid 2 interfacial activation of cold active solvent tolerant lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AMS8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacob, Norhayati; Mohamad Ali, Mohd Shukuri; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul; Leow, Adam Thean Chor

    2016-07-01

    The utilization of cold active lipases in organic solvents proves an excellent approach for chiral synthesis and modification of fats and oil due to the inherent flexibility of lipases under low water conditions. In order to verify whether this lipase can function as a valuable synthetic catalyst, the mechanism concerning activation of the lid and interacting solvent residues in the presence of organic solvent must be well understood. A new alkaline cold-adapted lipase, AMS8, from Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied for its structural adaptation and flexibility prior to its exposure to non-polar, polar aprotic and protic solvents. Solvents such as ethanol, toluene, DMSO and 2-propanol showed to have good interactions with active sites. Asparagine (Asn) and tyrosine (Tyr) were key residues attracted to solvents because they could form hydrogen bonds. Unlike in other solvents, Phe-18, Tyr-236 and Tyr-318 were predicted to have aromatic-aromatic side-chain interactions with toluene. Non-polar solvent also was found to possess highest energy binding compared to polar solvents. Due to this circumstance, the interaction of toluene and AMS8 lipase was primarily based on hydrophobicity and molecular recognition. The molecular dynamic simulation showed that lid 2 (residues 148-167) was very flexible in toluene and Ca(2+). As a result, lid 2 moves away from the catalytic areas, leaving an opening for better substrate accessibility which promotes protein activation. Only a single lid (lid 2) showed the movement following interactions with toluene, although AMS8 lipase displayed double lids. The secondary conformation of AMS8 lipase that was affected by toluene observed a reduction of helical strands and increased coil structure. Overall, this work shows that cold active lipase, AMS8 exhibits distinguish interfacial activation and stability in the presence of polar and non-polar solvents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Late Cenozoic magnetostratigraphy and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of the Baiyanghe section from the Hoxtolgay Basin: Implications for the uplift of the West Junggar Mt Range, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Keke; Ji, Junliang; Wang, Guocan; Zhang, Kexin; Tang, Zihua

    2017-05-01

    To better constrain the tectonic evolution of Central Asia under the influence of the India-Asia collision, we performed combined magnetostratigraphy and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) analysis of the Baiyanghe section on the northern margin of the Hoxtolgay Basin (West Junggar Mt Range, northwestern China). The observed magnetostratigraphy shows a total of 14 pairs of normal and reversed geomagnetic polarity zones in the well-exposed ∼360 m thick section. In tandem with two ESR dating results, these zones can be reliably correlated with the geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) from C3An.2r to C1n, and yield an age ranging from ∼7.0 Ma to ∼0.2 Ma. The long hiatus between the Mesozoic and the late Cenozoic, corresponding to the age of the basal conglomerates, suggests that uplift of the West Junggar Mt Range was initiated at least at ∼7.0 Ma ago. Furthermore, the onset of massive conglomerate deposits, as well as marked increases in sedimentation rate, k, T and Pj of AMS, occurred at ∼3.6 Ma. These notable changes are coeval with the peak deformation in Central Asia. Considering the depositional diachroneity of the Xiyu conglomerates and the predominantly dry climate in Central Asia since at least the late Cenozoic, we suggest that accelerated uplift of the West Junggar Mt Range at ∼3.6 Ma should be the main factor controlling these multiple changes within the Baiyanghe section. Another marked increase in conglomerate content, sedimentation rate and κ occurred at ∼1.1 Ma. The cause of this event deserves further investigation in the future.

  13. Effects of pre- and post-transplant inoculation with commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi on pelargonium (Pelargonium hortorum and its microorganism community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Csima

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rooted cuttings of geranium were grown with and without a slow release fertilizer and inoculated or not with a commercial inoculum containing AM fungi. After six weeks plants were transplanted into larger containers and one-half of the plants were inoculated with AM. Inoculation increased pelargonium growth along with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium concentrations in shoot than caused a slight decrease in shoot growth and enhanced N concentration. Colony forming units of total fungi and bacteria in the rhizosphere were not influenced by AM;  although RFLP profiles of DNA isolated from bacteria living in rhizosphere showed a more diverse community in AM-inoculated than non-inoculated plants at low nutrient supply. Our results suggest that mycorrhizal inoculation not only has an effect on plant growth and uptake of elements but it also influences directly or indirectly the bacterial community of the rhizosphere.

  14. Ureolytic Biomineralization Reduces Proteus mirabilis Biofilm Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobao; Lu, Nanxi; Brady, Hannah R; Packman, Aaron I

    2016-05-01

    Ureolytic biomineralization induced by urease-producing bacteria, particularly Proteus mirabilis, is responsible for the formation of urinary tract calculi and the encrustation of indwelling urinary catheters. Such microbial biofilms are challenging to eradicate and contribute to the persistence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, but the mechanisms responsible for this recalcitrance remain obscure. In this study, we characterized the susceptibility of wild-type (ure+) and urease-negative (ure-) P. mirabilis biofilms to killing by ciprofloxacin. Ure+ biofilms produced fine biomineral precipitates that were homogeneously distributed within the biofilm biomass in artificial urine, while ure- biofilms did not produce biomineral deposits under identical growth conditions. Following exposure to ciprofloxacin, ure+ biofilms showed greater survival (less killing) than ure- biofilms, indicating that biomineralization protected biofilm-resident cells against the antimicrobial. To evaluate the mechanism responsible for this recalcitrance, we observed and quantified the transport of Cy5-conjugated ciprofloxacin into the biofilm by video confocal microscopy. These observations revealed that the reduced susceptibility of ure+ biofilms resulted from hindered delivery of ciprofloxacin into biomineralized regions of the biofilm. Further, biomineralization enhanced retention of viable cells on the surface following antimicrobial exposure. These findings together show that ureolytic biomineralization induced by P. mirabilis metabolism strongly regulates antimicrobial susceptibility by reducing internal solute transport and increasing biofilm stability. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Suppressive oligodeoxynucleotides reduce lung cancer susceptibility in mice with silicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Christian; Kinjo, Takeshi; Alvord, W Gregory; Klinman, Dennis M

    2014-05-01

    Silicosis is an inflammatory lung disease induced by the inhalation of silica-containing dust particles. There is conflicting data on whether patients with silicosis are more susceptible to lung cancer induced by cigarette smoke. To examine this issue experimentally, a model was developed in which one of the most abundant and potent carcinogens present in cigarette smoke [4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)] was administered to mice at the peak of silica-induced pulmonary inflammation. Results show that the incidence of lung tumors in silicotic mice treated with NNK was significantly increased compared with mice exposed to silica or NNK alone. Synthetic oligonucleotides (ODN) containing repetitive TTAGGG motifs can block pathologic inflammation. We therefore examined whether treatment with these suppressive (Sup) ODN could block silica-induced pulmonary inflammation and thereby reduce susceptibility to lung cancer. Results show that Sup (but not control) ODN inhibit pulmonary fibrosis and other inflammatory manifestations of chronic silicosis. Of greater import, Sup ODN reduced lung tumor incidence and multiplicity in silicotic mice exposed to NNK. These findings establish an experimental model for examining the role of silicotic inflammation in cancer susceptibility and demonstrate that Sup ODN represent a novel therapy for chronic silicosis.

  16. Susceptibility of various cell lines to Neospora caninum tachyzoites cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khordadmehr, M.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a coccidian protozoan parasite which is a major cause of bovine abortions and neonatal mortality in cattle, sheep, goat and horse. Occasionally, cultured cells are used for isolation and multiplication of the agent in vitro with several purposes. In this study the tachyzoite yields of N. caninum were compared in various cell cultures as the host cell lines. Among the cell cultures tested, two presented good susceptibility to the agent: cell lines Vero and MA-104. SW742 and TLI (in vitro suspension culture of lymphoid cells infected with Theileria lestoquardi showed moderate sensitivity. No viable tachyzoite were detected in the culture of MDCK and McCoy cell lines. These results demonstrate that MA-104 and SW742 cells present adequate susceptibility to N. caninum compared to Vero cells, which have been largely used to multiply the parasite in vitro. Moreover, these have easy manipulation, fast multiplication and relatively low nutritional requirements. In addition, the result of this study showed that TLI cell line as a suspension cell culture is susceptible to Nc-1 tachyzoites infection and could be used as an alternative host cell line for tachyzoites culture in vitro studies.

  17. Biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Roy, Somenath

    2011-06-01

    To observe the biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated Staphylococcus aureus (S. auerus) strains against some conventional and traditional antibiotics. Thirty post operative pathogenic isolated S. aureus strains were used in this study. Bacterial culture was done in Mueller-Hinton broth at 37 °C. Characters of these strains were determined by traditional biochemical tests such as hydrolysis test of gelatin, urea, galactose, starch and protein, and fermentation of lactose and sucrose. Antibiotic susceptibility were carried out by minimum inhibitory concentration test, minium bactericidal concentration test, disc agar diffusion test and brain heart infusion oxacillin screening agar. From this study, it was observed that 100% S. aureus isolates showed positive results in gelatin, urea and galactose hydrolysis test, 50% isolates were positive in starch hydrolysis test, 35% in protein hydrolysis test, 100% isolates in lactose fermenting test, but no isolate was positive in sucrose fermenting test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing suggested that 20% of isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. These findings show that all these isolates have gelatin, urea, galactose hydrolysis and lactose fermenting activity. 20% of these isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin.

  18. Genetic susceptibility, evolution and the kuru epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Simon; Whitfield, Jerome; Poulter, Mark; Shah, Paresh; Uphill, James; Beck, Jonathan; Campbell, Tracy; Al-Dujaily, Huda; Hummerich, Holger; Alpers, Michael P; Collinge, John

    2008-11-27

    The acquired prion disease kuru was restricted to the Fore and neighbouring linguistic groups of the Papua New Guinea highlands and largely affected children and adult women. Oral history documents the onset of the epidemic in the early twentieth century, followed by a peak in the mid-twentieth century and subsequently a well-documented decline in frequency. In the context of these strong associations (gender, region and time), we have considered the genetic factors associated with susceptibility and resistance to kuru. Heterozygosity at codon 129 of the human prion protein gene (PRNP) is known to confer relative resistance to both sporadic and acquired prion diseases. In kuru, heterozygosity is associated with older patients and longer incubation times. Elderly survivors of the kuru epidemic, who had multiple exposures at mortuary feasts, are predominantly PRNP codon 129 heterozygotes and this group show marked Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium. The deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is most marked in elderly women, but is also significant in a slightly younger cohort of men, consistent with their exposure to kuru as boys. Young Fore and the elderly from populations with no history of kuru show Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. An increasing cline in 129V allele frequency centres on the kuru region, consistent with the effect of selection in elevating the frequency of resistant genotypes in the exposed population. The genetic data are thus strikingly correlated with exposure. Considering the strong coding sequence conservation of primate prion protein genes, the number of global coding polymorphisms in man is surprising. By intronic resequencing in a European population, we have shown that haplotype diversity at PRNP comprises two major and divergent clades associated with 129M and 129V. Kuru may have imposed the strongest episode of recent human balancing selection, which may not have been an isolated episode in human history.

  19. Antibiotic susceptibilities of genetically characterized Streptococcus milleri group strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, M; Wanahita, A; Shuhatovich, Y; Goldsmith, E A; Clarridge, J E; Musher, D M

    2001-05-01

    Previous studies of the antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus milleri group organisms have distinguished among species by using phenotypic techniques. Using 44 isolates that were speciated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we studied the MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations of penicillin, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, and clindamycin for Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus constellatus, and Streptococcus anginosus. None of the organisms was resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics, although a few isolates were intermediately resistant; one strain of S. anginosus was tolerant to ampicillin, and another was tolerant to ceftriaxone. Six isolates were resistant to clindamycin, with representation from each of the three species. Relatively small differences in antibiotic susceptibilities among species of the S. milleri group show that speciation is unlikely to be important in selecting an antibiotic to treat infection caused by one of these isolates.

  20. Susceptibility to Stress Corrosion Cracking of 254SMO SS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Micheli Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC of solubilized and sensitized 254SMO SS was studied in sodium chloride, and sodium fluoride solutions at 80 °C and sulfuric acid solutions in presence of sodium chloride at 25 °C. The influence of salt concentration, pH values and the addition of thiosulfate was examined. The susceptibility to SCC was evaluated by Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT, at 1.5 x 10-6 s-1 strain rate. The behavior of 254SMO was compared to those of AISI 316L SS and Hastelloy C276. 254SMO showed an excellent resistance to SCC in all conditions, except in the more acidic solutions (pH <= 1 where, in the sensitized conditions, intergranular stress corrosion cracking occurred.

  1. Toxicogenetics: In Search of Host Susceptibility to Environmental Toxicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelareh eAlam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals, various pesticide and herbicides are implicated as risk factors for human health. Paraquat, maneb, and rotenone, carbamate and organophospherous insecticides are examples of toxicants for which acute and chronic exposure are associated with multiple neurological disorders including Parkinson’s disease (PD. Nevertheless, the role of pesticide exposure in neurodegenerative diseases is not clear-cut, as there are inconsistencies in both the epidemiological and preclinical research. The aim of this short review is to show that the inconsistencies are related to individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of neurotoxicants, individual differences that can be traced to the genetic constitution of the individuals and animals studies, i.e., host-based susceptibility.

  2. Topological susceptibility from the twisted mass Dirac operator spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Garcia-Ramos, Elena [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2013-12-15

    We present results of our computation of the topological susceptibility with N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}= +1+1 flavours of maximally twisted mass fermions, using the method of spectral projectors. We perform a detailed study of the quark mass dependence and discretization effects. We make an attempt to confront our data with chiral perturbation theory and extract the chiral condensate from the quark mass dependence of the topological susceptibility. We compare the value with the results of our direct computation from the slope of the mode number. We emphasize the role of autocorrelations and the necessity of long Monte Carlo runs to obtain results with good precision. We also show our results for the spectral projector computation of the ratio of renormalization constants Z{sub P}/Z{sub S}.

  3. Susceptibility to declarative memory interference is pronounced in primary insomnia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Griessenberger

    Full Text Available Sleep has been shown to stabilize memory traces and to protect against competing interference in both the procedural and declarative memory domain. Here, we focused on an interference learning paradigm by testing patients with primary insomnia (N = 27 and healthy control subjects (N = 21. In two separate experimental nights with full polysomnography it was revealed that after morning interference procedural memory performance (using a finger tapping task was not impaired in insomnia patients while declarative memory (word pair association was decreased following interference. More specifically, we demonstrate robust associations of central sleep spindles (in N3 with motor memory susceptibility to interference as well as (cortically more widespread fast spindle associations with declarative memory susceptibility. In general the results suggest that insufficient sleep quality does not necessarily show up in worse overnight consolidation in insomnia but may only become evident (in the declarative memory domain when interference is imposed.

  4. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model for viral marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Siti Suhaila; Akil, Ku Azlina Ku; Chulan, Majdah; Sharif, Noorzila

    2017-11-01

    Viral marketing is a marketing strategy utilizes social media to spread information about a product or services provided. It is the most powerful way to share information in a short amount of time. The objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic of viral marketing within a time duration in the point of view of mathematics. This study used the epidemiological model known as Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR). The model consists of a system of three differential equations with three state variables namely susceptible (S), infected (I) and recovered (R). It considers a case of SIR model with demography. Numerical experiments have been performed. The results show that viral marketing reaches its peak within two days. The online messages shared will become higher if the initial number of the infected individual has been increased.

  5. A Novel Technique for Performing PID Susceptibility Screening during the Solar Cell Fabrication Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jaewon; Dahal, Som; Dauksher, Bill; Bowden, Stuart; Tamizhmani, Govindasamy; Hacke, Peter

    2016-11-21

    Various characterization techniques have historically been developed in order to screen potential induced degradation (PID)-susceptible cells, but those techniques require final solar cells. We present a new characterization technique for screening PID-susceptible cells during the cell fabrication process. Illuminated Lock-In Thermography (ILIT) was used to image PID shunting of the cell without metallization and clearly showed PID-affected areas. PID-susceptible cells can be screened by ILIT, and the sample structure can advantageously be simplified as long as the sample has the silicon nitride antireflection coating and an aluminum back surface field.

  6. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in India: Prevalence & susceptibility pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indian Network for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (INSAR group, India

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is endemic in India and is a dangerous pathogen for hospital acquired infections. This study was conducted in 15 Indian tertiary care centres during a two year period from January 2008 to December 2009 to determine the prevalence of MRSA and susceptibility pattern of S. aureus isolates in India. Methods: All S. aureus isolates obtained during the study period in the participating centres were included in the study. Each centre compiled their data in a predefined template which included data of the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, location of the patient and specimen type. The data in the submitted templates were collated and analysed. Results: A total of 26310 isolates were included in the study. The overall prevalence of methicillin resistance during the study period was 41 per cent. Isolation rates for MRSA from outpatients, ward inpatients and ICU were 28, 42 and 43 per cent, respectively in 2008 and 27, 49 and 47 per cent, respectively in 2009. The majority of S. aureus isolates was obtained from patients with skin and soft tissue infections followed by those suffering from blood stream infections and respiratory infections. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was low in both MSSA (53% and MRSA (21%. MSSA isolates showed a higher susceptibility to gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, erythromycin and clindamycin as compared to MRSA isolates. No isolate was found resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. Interpretation & conclusions: The study showed a high level of MRSA in our country. There is a need to study epidemiology of such infections. Robust antimicrobial stewardship and strengthened infection control measures are required to prevent spread and reduce emergence of resistance.

  7. Long term patient satisfaction and quality of life with AMS700CX inflatable penile prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vitarelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Penile prosthesis implantation is the solution of choice in patients who have failed or present contraindication to the use of all conservative treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED. Overall, satisfaction rates are high, with more than 80% of patients and partners fully satisfied with cosmetic and functional result of surgery. Chronic postoperative pain, penile shortening, soft or hyposensitive glans, pencil like penis syndrome and difficulty to cycle the device represent the most common causes of patient’s dissatisfaction. Satisfaction rates are better assessed with the use of validated questionnaires such as the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF and the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS The aim of our study was to analyze the long-term mechanical reliability of the AMS 700CX/CXM inflatable penile prosthesis and the patient’s satisfaction rate using IIEF and EDITS questionaire as standard reference. Materials and methods: A retrospective case notes review of all patients who have undergone implantation of a three pieces inflatable penile prosthesis AMS 700 CX and CXR between October 1997 and December 2010. Overall, 80 patients have undergone implantation of 3 pieces inflatable penile prosthesis AMS 700 CX InhibiZone. Patients have been administered the IIEF-5 and EDITS questionnaires in combination with a non validated 9 domain questionnaire that assesses penile rigidity, sensation, orgasmic function, frequency of intercourse, impact of surgery on the quality of life, satisfaction rate. Results: Overall 10 years survival estimate according to the Kaplan Meier method of AMS 700 CX touch pump and AMS 700 CX momentary squeeze pump are respectively 77.6% and 82.5%. The median postoperative IIEF5 and EDITS score were respectively 21.46 and 73.11, which show a high level of satisfaction. 59 patients (90.8% were able to cycle the device and were engaging in penetrative sexual intercourse

  8. Corrosion Performance of Friction Stir Linear Lap Welded AM60B Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, J. R.; Birbilis, N.; McNally, E. M.; Glover, C. F.; Zhang, X.; McDermid, J. R.; Williams, G.

    2017-11-01

    A corrosion investigation of friction stir linear lap welded AM60B joints used to fabricate an Mg alloy-intensive automotive front end sub-assembly was performed. The stir zone exhibited a slightly refined grain size and significant break-up and re-distribution of the divorced Mg17Al12 (β-phase) relative to the base material. Exposures in NaCl (aq) environments revealed that the stir zone was more susceptible to localized corrosion than the base material. Scanning vibrating electrode technique measurements revealed differential galvanic activity across the joint. Anodic activity was confined to the stir zone surface and involved initiation and lateral propagation of localized filaments. Cathodic activity was initially confined to the base material surface, but was rapidly modified to include the cathodically-activated corrosion products in the filament wake. Site-specific surface analyses revealed that the corrosion observed across the welded joint was likely linked to variations in Al distribution across the surface film/metal interface.

  9. Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Ivan I; Whitlow, Christopher T; Zamora, Carlos

    2018-02-01

    Although susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) studies have suggested an increased number of microhemorrhages in concussion, most show no significant differences compared with controls. There have been mixed results on using SWI to predict neurologic outcomes. Drawbacks include inability to time microhemorrhages and difficulty in attributing them to the concussion. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in concussion can identify metabolic abnormalities, with many studies showing correlations with clinical outcome. Applications in individual patients are impeded by conflicting data and lack of consensus on an optimal protocol. Therefore, currently MRS has most utility in group-level comparisons designed to reveal the pathophysiology of concussion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Spectroscopic AC susceptibility imaging (sASI) of magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficko, Bradley W., E-mail: Bradley.W.Ficko@Dartmouth.edu; Nadar, Priyanka M.; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2015-02-01

    This study demonstrates a method for alternating current (AC) susceptibility imaging (ASI) of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) using low cost instrumentation. The ASI method uses AC magnetic susceptibility measurements to create tomographic images using an array of drive coils, compensation coils and fluxgate magnetometers. Using a spectroscopic approach in conjunction with ASI, a series of tomographic images can be created for each frequency measurement set and is termed sASI. The advantage of sASI is that mNPs can be simultaneously characterized and imaged in a biological medium. System calibration was performed by fitting the in-phase and out-of-phase susceptibility measurements of an mNP sample with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm to a Brownian relaxation model (R{sup 2}=0.96). Samples of mNPs with core diameters of 10 and 40 nm and a sample of 100 nm hydrodynamic diameter were prepared in 0.5 ml tubes. Three mNP samples were arranged in a randomized array and then scanned using sASI with six frequencies between 425 and 925 Hz. The sASI scans showed the location and quantity of the mNP samples (R{sup 2}=0.97). Biological compatibility of the sASI method was demonstrated by scanning mNPs that were injected into a pork sausage. The mNP response in the biological medium was found to correlate with a calibration sample (R{sup 2}=0.97, p<0.001). These results demonstrate the concept of ASI and advantages of sASI. - Highlights: • Development of an AC susceptibility imaging model. • Comparison of AC susceptibility imaging (ASI) and susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI). • Demonstration of ASI and spectroscopic ASI (sASI) using three different magnetic nanoparticle types. • SASI scan separation of three different magnetic nanoparticles samples using 5 spectroscopic frequencies. • Demonstration of biological feasibility of sASI.

  11. Forgiveness and Repentance: The Experience of Jean Améry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Rueda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Jacques Derrida has suggested that forgiveness be understood as the unforgivable: in order for forgiveness to be pure, its object must be the unforgivable. Furthermore, he states that no conditions should be imposed on granting forgiveness. The article seeks to show that this purity has to be forgone since the offender has to repent and ask for forgiveness, in order for a victim to forgive. The article also examines the monstrous as the object of forgiveness, using the case of Jean Améry as an example.

  12. AMS-02: Cosmic electron and positron (e− + e+ spectrum up to 1 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazo J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The AMS-02 spectrometer, on the ISS since 2011, performs highly accurate measurements of cosmic rays up to the TeV region. We review the analysis of the cosmic (e+ + e− flux in the energy range between 0.5 GeV and 1 TeV, based on 10.6 million (e+ + e− events. The high statistics and detector energy resolution allow for a study of the spectral shape of unprecedented quality, thus improving our understanding of the production, acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays. The resulting energy spectrum does not show prominent features.

  13. Adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta A. Schriber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment encountered (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth. Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts – be they positive or negative – such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. Ultimately, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes.

  14. Adolescent Neurobiological Susceptibility to Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriber, Roberta A.; Guyer, Amanda E.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment they encounter (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth). Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped in part by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts – be they positive or negative – such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. As such, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes. PMID:26773514

  15. Bacteriocin Production in Vancomycin-Resistant and Vancomycin-Susceptible Enterococcus Isolates of Different Origins

    OpenAIRE

    del Campo, Rosa; Tenorio, Carmen; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino; Rubio, Carmen; Gómez-Lus, Rafael; Baquero, Fernando; Torres, Carmen

    2001-01-01

    Bacteriocin production was determined for 218 Enterococcus isolates (Enterococcus faecalis [93] and E. faecium [125]) obtained from different origins (human clinical samples [87], human fecal samples [78], sewage [28], and chicken samples [25]) and showing different vancomycin susceptibility patterns (vancomycin resistant, all of them vanA positive [56], and vancomycin susceptible [162]). All enterococcal isolates were randomly selected except for the vancomycin-resistant ones. A total of 33 ...

  16. Mediation and modification of genetic susceptibility to obesity by eating behaviors.

    OpenAIRE

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Clifton, Emma; Day, Felix Ranulf; Clément, Karine; Brage, Soren; Forouhi, Nita Gandhi; Griffin, Simon James; Koudou, Yves Akoli; Pelloux, Véronique; Wareham, Nicholas John; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara; Ong, Ken

    2017-01-01

    $\\textbf{}$Background: Many genetic variants show highly robust associations with body mass index (BMI). However, the mechanisms through which genetic susceptibility to obesity operates are not well understood. Potentially modifiable mechanisms, including eating behaviors, are of particular interest to public health. $\\textbf{Objective:}$ Here we explore whether eating behaviors mediate or modify genetic susceptibility to obesity. $\\textbf{Design:}$ Genetic risk scores for BMI (BMI-GR...

  17. "Look at what I am saying": Multimodal science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzer-Ardenghi, Lilian

    Language constitutes the dominant representational mode in science teaching, and lectures are still the most prevalent of the teaching methods in school science. In this dissertation, I investigate lectures from a multimodal and communicative perspective to better understand how teaching as a cultural-historical and social activity unfolds; that is, I am concerned with teaching as a communicative event, where a variety of signs (or semiotic resources), expressed in diverse modalities (or modes of communication) are produced and reproduced while the teacher articulates very specific conceptual meanings for the students. Within a trans-disciplinary approach that merges theoretical and methodical frameworks of social and cultural studies of human activity and interaction, communicative and gestures studies, linguistics, semiotics, pragmatics, and studies on teaching and learning science, I investigate teaching as a communicative, dynamic, multimodal, and social activity. My research questions include: What are the resources produced and reproduced in the classroom when the teacher is lecturing? How do these resources interact with each other? What meanings do they carry and how are these associated to achieve the coherence necessary to accomplish the communication of complex and abstract scientific concepts, not only within one lecture, but also within an entire unit of the curricula encompassing various lectures? My results show that, when lecturing, the communication of scientific concepts occur along trajectories driven by the dialectical relation among the various semiotic resources a lecturer makes available that together constitute a unit---the idea. Speech, gestures, and other nonverbal resources are but one-sided expressions of a higher order communicative meaning unit. The iterable nature of the signs produced and reproduced during science lectures permits, supports, and encourages the repetition, variation, and translation of ideas, themes, and languages and

  18. A América Latina na imprensa brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucio Ary Dillon Soares

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Estudos internacionais apontaram historicamente a tendência a uma desigualdade no fluxo internacional de informações sobre os diferentes países; alguns destes chegaram a afirmar que estas diferenças de tratamento seriam uma extensão do imperialismo ao mundo das comunicações. De outro lado, estudos estruturais têm explicado o fluxo internacional de informações primeiro a partir do conceito de distância e posteriormente de linkage, ou seja, a vinculação entre o que se publica sobre determinado país e o interesse neste por parte da população do país que publica a notícia. Este artigo procura enfrentar estas dimensões com base em estudo que avalia a presença de notícias sobre a América Latina em três importantes jornais brasileiros: Correio Braziliense, Jornal do Brasil e Folha de São Paulo no período de 1990 a 1994. Os resultados da pesquisa indicaram a alta estabilidade dos temas e dos países noticiados em jornais diferentes, o que se deve a uma hierarquia estável entre os países.International studies show the presence of a historical tendency to an asymmetrical flow of information about different countries, and some of those studies consider this treatment as an extension of imperialism to the communication arena. On the other hand, strucutural studies explain the intenational flow of information based firstly on the concept of distance and, on the second place, on the concept of linkage, understood as the link between what one publishes about one country and the interest on it of the population of the country that publishes the information. This article deals with these dimensions based on the evaluation of the news about Latin America in three important Brazilian newspapers: Correio Braziliense, Jornal do Brasil e Folha de São Paulo from 1990 to 1994. The results indicated a high stability of issues and countries in the different newspapers, due to the a stable hierarchy among countries.

  19. Susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemics on the complete graph and the star graph : Exact analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cator, E.A.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2013-01-01

    Since mean-field approximations for susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemics do not always predict the correct scaling of the epidemic threshold of the SIS metastable regime, we propose two novel approaches: (a) an ?-SIS generalized model and (b) a modified SIS model that prevents the

  20. Gender difference in acquired seizure susceptibility in adult rats after early complex febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yun-Jian; Xu, Zheng-Hao; Feng, Bo; Xu, Ceng-Lin; Zhao, Hua-Wei; Wu, Deng-Chang; Hu, Wei-Wei; Chen, Zhong

    2014-12-01

    Gender differences are involved in many neurological disorders including epilepsy. However, little is known about the effect of gender difference on the risk of epilepsy in adults with a specific early pathological state such as complex febrile seizures (FSs) in infancy. Here we used a well-established complex FS model in rats and showed that: (1) the susceptibility to seizures induced by hyperthermia, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), and maximal electroshock (MES) was similar in male and female rat pups, while males were more susceptible to PTZ- and MES-induced seizures than age-matched females in normal adult rats; (2) adult rats with complex FSs in infancy acquired higher seizure susceptibility than normal rats; importantly, female FS rats were more susceptible to PTZ and MES than male FS rats; and (3) the protein expression of interleukin-1β, an inflammatory factor associated with seizure susceptibility, was higher in adult FS females than in males, which may reflect a gender-difference phenomenon of seizure susceptibility. Our results provide direct evidence that the acquired seizure susceptibility after complex FSs is gender-dependent.