WorldWideScience

Sample records for survivors conversely hemoglobin

  1. Conversations with Holocaust survivor residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Sandra P; LeNavenec, Carole Lynne; Aldiabat, Khaldoun

    2011-03-01

    Traumatic events in one's younger years can have an impact on how an individual copes with later life. One traumatic experience for Jewish individuals was the Holocaust. Some of these people are moving into long-term care facilities. It was within this context that the research question emerged: What are Holocaust survivor residents' perceptions of a life lived as they move into a long-term care facility? For this qualitative study, Holocaust survivors were individually interviewed. Findings emphasize that nursing care needs to ensure that Holocaust survivor residents participate in activities, receive timely health care, and receive recognition of their life experiences. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as rheumatoid arthritis HIGHER THAN NORMAL HEMOGLOBIN High hemoglobin level is most often caused by low oxygen ... and other severe lung disorders Other reasons for high hemoglobin level includes: A rare bone marrow disease that ...

  3. Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-08

    protein that transports oxygen in the body by binding oxygen from the air that is inhaled into the lungs, carrying it throughout the circulatory system ...hemoglobin in the tissues. This classic relationship between hemoglobin structure and function has become a model for the study of cooperative protein systems ...will be 6 required to define precisely the connection between hemoglobin structure and the thermodynamics of 02 binding. Thus, understanding the

  4. Engineering of Nitrosomonas europaea to express Vitreoscilla hemoglobin enhances oxygen uptake and conversion of ammonia to nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Stephanie A; Pagilla, Krishna R; Stark, Benjamin C

    2015-12-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea was transformed with a recombinant plasmid bearing the gene (vgb) encoding the hemoglobin (VHb) from the bacterium Vitreoscilla under control of the N. europaea amoC P1 promoter. Vgb was maintained stably and appeared to be expressed in the transformants at VHb levels of about 0.75 nmol/g wet weight. Expression of VHb in the N. europaea transformants was correlated with an approximately 2 fold increase in oxygen uptake rate by whole cells at oxygen concentrations in the range of 75-100% saturation, but no change in oxygen uptake rate at oxygen concentrations below 25% saturation. VHb expression was also correlated with an increase of as much as about 30% in conversion of ammonia to nitrite by growing cells. The results suggest that engineering of key aerobic wastewater bacteria to express bacterial hemoglobins may be a useful strategy to produce species with enhanced respiratory abilities.

  5. Hemoglobin derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003371.htm Hemoglobin derivatives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemoglobin derivatives are altered forms of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is ...

  6. Hemoglobin (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobin is the most important component of red blood cells. It is composed of a protein called ... exchanged for carbon dioxide. Abnormalities of an individual's hemoglobin value can indicate defects in the normal balance ...

  7. Hemoglobin S

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anand, Usha

    2015-01-01

    ...; The hemoglobin becomes abnormal, Its normal quaternary structure it cannot sustain. [...]that this condition protected them against malaria, Caused by the dreaded plasmodium falciparum it was reported...

  8. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  9. Human hemoglobin genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, G.R.; Adams, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: Introduction; The Human Hemoglobins; The Human Globin Genes; Hemoglobin Synthesis and Globin Gene Expression; The Globin Gene Mutations - A. Mechanisms and Classification; The Globin Gene Mutations - B. Their Phenotypes and Clinical Expression; The Genetics of the Human Globin Gene Loci: Formal Genetics and Gene Linkage; The Geographic Distribution of Globin Gene Variation; Labortory Identification, Screening, Education, and Counseling for Abnormal Hemoglobins and Thalassemias; and Approaches to the Treatment of the Hemoglobin Disorders.

  10. Hemoglobin Variants in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, Raymond A.

    1965-04-22

    Variability among mammalian hemoglobins was observed many years ago (35). The chemical basis for differences among hemoglobins from different species of mammals has been studied by several investigators (5, 11, 18, 48). As well as interspecies differences, hemoglobin variants are frequently found within a species of mammals (2, 3, 7, 16) The inheritance of these intraspecies variants can be studied, and pedigrees indicate that the type of hemoglobin synthesized in an individual is genetically controlled (20). Several of the variant human hemoglobins are f'unctionally deficient (7, 16). Such hemoglobin anomalies are of basic interest to man because of the vital role of hemoglobin for transporting oxygen to all tissues of the body.

  11. Phylogeny of Echinoderm Hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ana B.; Herman, Joseph L.; Elphick, Maurice R.; Kober, Kord M.; Janies, Daniel; Linchangco, Gregorio; Semmens, Dean C.; Bailly, Xavier; Vinogradov, Serge N.; Hoogewijs, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent genomic information has revealed that neuroglobin and cytoglobin are the two principal lineages of vertebrate hemoglobins, with the latter encompassing the familiar myoglobin and α-globin/β-globin tetramer hemoglobin, and several minor groups. In contrast, very little is known about hemoglobins in echinoderms, a phylum of exclusively marine organisms closely related to vertebrates, beyond the presence of coelomic hemoglobins in sea cucumbers and brittle stars. We identified about 50 hemoglobins in sea urchin, starfish and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, and used Bayesian inference to carry out a molecular phylogenetic analysis of their relationship to vertebrate sequences, specifically, to assess the hypothesis that the neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages are also present in echinoderms. Results The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus encodes several hemoglobins, including a unique chimeric 14-domain globin, 2 androglobin isoforms and a unique single androglobin domain protein. Other strongylocentrotid genomes appear to have similar repertoires of globin genes. We carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses of 52 hemoglobins identified in sea urchin, brittle star and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, using different multiple sequence alignment methods coupled with Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. The results demonstrate that there are two major globin lineages in echinoderms, which are related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages. Furthermore, the brittle star and sea cucumber coelomic hemoglobins appear to have evolved independently from the cytoglobin lineage, similar to the evolution of erythroid oxygen binding globins in cyclostomes and vertebrates. Conclusion The presence of echinoderm globins related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages suggests that the split between neuroglobins and cytoglobins occurred in the deuterostome ancestor shared by echinoderms and

  12. Phylogeny of Echinoderm Hemoglobins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Christensen

    Full Text Available Recent genomic information has revealed that neuroglobin and cytoglobin are the two principal lineages of vertebrate hemoglobins, with the latter encompassing the familiar myoglobin and α-globin/β-globin tetramer hemoglobin, and several minor groups. In contrast, very little is known about hemoglobins in echinoderms, a phylum of exclusively marine organisms closely related to vertebrates, beyond the presence of coelomic hemoglobins in sea cucumbers and brittle stars. We identified about 50 hemoglobins in sea urchin, starfish and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, and used Bayesian inference to carry out a molecular phylogenetic analysis of their relationship to vertebrate sequences, specifically, to assess the hypothesis that the neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages are also present in echinoderms.The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus encodes several hemoglobins, including a unique chimeric 14-domain globin, 2 androglobin isoforms and a unique single androglobin domain protein. Other strongylocentrotid genomes appear to have similar repertoires of globin genes. We carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses of 52 hemoglobins identified in sea urchin, brittle star and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, using different multiple sequence alignment methods coupled with Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. The results demonstrate that there are two major globin lineages in echinoderms, which are related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages. Furthermore, the brittle star and sea cucumber coelomic hemoglobins appear to have evolved independently from the cytoglobin lineage, similar to the evolution of erythroid oxygen binding globins in cyclostomes and vertebrates.The presence of echinoderm globins related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages suggests that the split between neuroglobins and cytoglobins occurred in the deuterostome ancestor shared by echinoderms and vertebrates.

  13. Amyloid Fibrils from Hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Nadishka; Kaur, Manmeet; Nair, Smitha; Malmstrom, Jenny; Goldstone, David; Negron, Leonardo; Gerrard, Juliet A; Domigan, Laura J

    2017-04-11

    Amyloid fibrils are a class of insoluble protein nanofibers that are formed via the self-assembly of a wide range of peptides and proteins. They are increasingly exploited for a broad range of applications in bionanotechnology, such as biosensing and drug delivery, as nanowires, hydrogels, and thin films. Amyloid fibrils have been prepared from many proteins, but there has been no definitive characterization of amyloid fibrils from hemoglobin to date. Here, nanofiber formation was carried out under denaturing conditions using solutions of apo-hemoglobin extracted from bovine waste blood. A characteristic amyloid fibril morphology was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), with mean fibril dimensions of approximately 5 nm diameter and up to several microns in length. The thioflavin T assay confirmed the presence of β-sheet structures in apo-hemoglobin fibrils, and X-ray fiber diffraction showed the characteristic amyloid cross-β quaternary structure. Apo-hemoglobin nanofibers demonstrated high stability over a range of temperatures (-20 to 80 °C) and pHs (2-10), and were stable in the presence of organic solvents and trypsin, confirming their potential as nanomaterials with versatile applications. This study conclusively demonstrates the formation of amyloid fibrils from hemoglobin for the first time, and also introduces a cost-effective method for amyloid fibril manufacture using meat industry by-products.

  14. Amyloid Fibrils from Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadishka Jayawardena

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid fibrils are a class of insoluble protein nanofibers that are formed via the self-assembly of a wide range of peptides and proteins. They are increasingly exploited for a broad range of applications in bionanotechnology, such as biosensing and drug delivery, as nanowires, hydrogels, and thin films. Amyloid fibrils have been prepared from many proteins, but there has been no definitive characterization of amyloid fibrils from hemoglobin to date. Here, nanofiber formation was carried out under denaturing conditions using solutions of apo-hemoglobin extracted from bovine waste blood. A characteristic amyloid fibril morphology was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM, with mean fibril dimensions of approximately 5 nm diameter and up to several microns in length. The thioflavin T assay confirmed the presence of β-sheet structures in apo-hemoglobin fibrils, and X-ray fiber diffraction showed the characteristic amyloid cross-β quaternary structure. Apo-hemoglobin nanofibers demonstrated high stability over a range of temperatures (−20 to 80 °C and pHs (2–10, and were stable in the presence of organic solvents and trypsin, confirming their potential as nanomaterials with versatile applications. This study conclusively demonstrates the formation of amyloid fibrils from hemoglobin for the first time, and also introduces a cost-effective method for amyloid fibril manufacture using meat industry by-products.

  15. Desert Survivors!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Jessica; Friedenstab, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a special third-grade classroom unit based on the reality show "Survivor." The goal of this engaging and interactive unit was to teach students about physical and behavioral adaptations that help animals survive in various desert biomes. The activity combines research, argument, and puppet play over one week of…

  16. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  17. Factors associated with conversion of long-term non-progressors to progressors: A prospective study of HIV perinatally infected paediatric survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muttineni Radhakrishna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Survival pattern among children infected with the human immune deficiency virus (HIV follows a bimodel distribution. Some children survive beyond 9 years age and are known as long term survivers (LTS while others had a more rapid course to death during the first few years of life. In the LTS group of children, two sub-populations have emerged, the long term non-progressors (LTNP who have remained asymptomatic over a period of years and those who have survived despite clinical and laboratory evidence of disease progression, the long term progressors (LTP. The aim of the present study was to determine the factors influencing the conversion of LTNPs to LTPs in a group of perinatally HIV infected children who were followed up for five years. Methods : A total of 26 HIV seropositive paediatric patients were monitored from 2006 to 2011 with CD4 cell counts, onset of clinical manifestations, body weight, biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. Statistical analyses, both qualitative and quantitative, were used to determine the degree of conversion of non-progressors to progressors. Results : All 26 (13 female and 13 male perinatally HIV infected children, born during1991-1996 were healthy until 2006. But by 2011, 18 were placed in progressors group with antiretroviral therapy (ART, while six remained in non progressors group and two died. As per the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, AIDS free median survival period (years in LTP group (CD4 count of the cohort was 10΁0.66 (350, P=<0.05. Intercurrent and opportunistic infections (OIs were observed in LTPs only. The incidence of OI in LTPs was higher when compared to general paediatric population. Interpretation & conclusions : Our findings show that CD4 counts and OIs play an important role in influencing the survival chances of perinatally HIV infected children.

  18. Hemoglobin: Modification, Crystallization, Polymerization (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Sergunova; E. A. Manchenko; O. Ye. Gudkova

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the most significant modifications and transformations of a hemoglobin molecule potentially related to developing a strategy of resuscitation and treatment of lifethreatening forms of anemia. Hemoglobin is one of the wellstudied proteins. The paper reviews the history of hemoglobin studies from 1839 untill present. Methodically, the hemoglobin studies included electrophoresis, spectrophotometric method, Xray diffraction method, atomicforce microscopy. ...

  19. High oxygen affinity hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, O

    2017-02-01

    High oxygen affinity hemoglobins are responsible for rare and heterogeneous autosomic dominant genetic diseases. They cause pure erythrocytosis, sometimes accountable for hyperviscosity and thrombosis, or hemolysis. Differential diagnoses must be first ruled out. The diagnosis is based on the identification of a decreased P50, and their possible characterization by cation exchange-high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Finally, genetic studies of the responsible globin chain gene will confirm the mutation. The prognosis mainly relies on the P50 decrease rate and on the hemoglobin cooperativity impairment. Disease management should be personalized, and it should primarily depend on smoking cessation and physical activity. Phlebotomy and platelet aggregation inhibitors' prescriptions can be discussed. There is no contraindication to flights, high-altitude conditions, or pregnancy. Nevertheless, blood donation must be prohibited. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Hemoglobin: Modification, Crystallization, Polymerization (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sergunova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present the most significant modifications and transformations of a hemoglobin molecule potentially related to developing a strategy of resuscitation and treatment of lifethreatening forms of anemia. Hemoglobin is one of the wellstudied proteins. The paper reviews the history of hemoglobin studies from 1839 untill present. Methodically, the hemoglobin studies included electrophoresis, spectrophotometric method, Xray diffraction method, atomicforce microscopy. The basic forms of hemoglobin include oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin. Data on protein crystallization and polymerization are discussed. Many forms of hemoglobin have the ability to form crystals or polymers in vitro, some pathological forms can be modified in vivo. The studies of structural features of various hemoglobin forms represent a contemporary task for fundamental researches.

  1. DBA Survivor

    CERN Document Server

    LaRock, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    DBA Survivor is a book to help new DBAs understand more about the world of database administration. More and more people are moving into the DBA profession, and many are looking for a getting-started guide. Blogs are written about how to be an exceptional DBA and what to do in your first 100 days. This book takes a different approach, injecting some humor into helping you understand how to hit the ground running, and most importantly how to survive as a DBA. And it's not just survival that matters. Author Thomas LaRock wants much more for you than mere survival. He wants you to have excellence

  2. Importance of hemoglobin concentration to exercise: acute manipulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, José A L; Lundby, Carsten; Koskolou, Maria

    2006-01-01

    An acute reduction of blood hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), even when the circulating blood volume is maintained, results in lower (.)V(O(2)(max) and endurance performance, due to the reduction of the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Conversely, an increase of [Hb] is associated with enhanced...

  3. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V., E-mail: LHWANG@WUSTL.EDU [Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  4. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Shopping Healthy Drinks for Kids Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1c KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1c ... liver or kidneys) is working. What Is a Hemoglobin A1c Test? A hemoglobin A1c test measures how ...

  5. Hemoglobin C, S-C, and E Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more quickly than others, resulting in chronic anemia. Hemoglobin C disease Hemoglobin C disease occurs mostly in ... are a common complication of hemoglobin C disease. Hemoglobin S-C disease Hemoglobin S-C disease occurs in people ...

  6. Decomposition of hydroxylamine by hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazylinski, D A; Arkowitz, R A; Hollocher, T C

    1987-12-01

    The reaction between hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and human hemoglobin (Hb) at pH 6-8 and the reaction between NH2OH and methemoglobin (Hb+) chiefly at pH 7 were studied under anaerobic conditions at 25 degrees C. In presence of cyanide, which was used to trap Hb+, Hb was oxidized by NH2OH to methemoglobin cyanide with production of about 0.5 mol NH+4/mol of heme oxidized at pH 7. The conversion of Hb to Hb+ was first order in [Hb] (or nearly so) but the pseudo-first-order rate constant was not strictly proportional to [NH2OH]. Thus, the apparent second-order rate constant at pH 7 decreased from about 30 M-1 X s-1 to a limiting value of 11.3 M-1 X s-1 with increasing [NH2OH]. The rate of Hb oxidation was not much affected by cyanide, whereas there was no reaction between NH2OH and carbonmonoxyhemoglobin (HbCO). The pseudo-first-order rate constant for Hb oxidation at 500 microM NH2OH increased from about 0.008 s-1 at pH 6 to 0.02 s-1 at pH 8. The oxidation of Hb by NH2OH terminated prematurely at 75-90% completion at pH 7 and at 30-35% completion at pH 8. Data on the premature termination of reaction fit the titration curve for a group with pK = 7.5-7.7. NH2OH was decomposed by Hb+ to N2, NH+4, and a small amount of N2O in what appears to be a dismutation reaction. Nitrite and hydrazine were not detected, and N2 and NH+4 were produced in nearly equimolar amounts. The dismutation reaction was first order in [Hb+] and [NH2OH] only at low concentrations of reactants and was cleanly inhibited by cyanide. The spectrum of Hb+ remained unchanged during the reaction, except for the gradual formation of some choleglobin-like (green) pigment, whereas in the presence of CO, HbCO was formed. Kinetics are consistent with the view advanced previously by J. S. Colter and J. H. Quastel [1950) Arch. Biochem. 27, 368-389) that the decomposition of NH2OH proceeds by a mechanism involving a Hb/Hb+ cycle (reactions [1] and [2]) in which Hb is oxidized to Hb+ by NH2OH.

  7. Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study of pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene in distributive shock (PHOENIX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Privalle, Christopher T; Singer, Mervyn; Lorente, José A; Boehm, Erwin; Meier-Hellmann, Andreas; Darius, Harald; Ferrer, Ricard; Sirvent, Josep-Maria; Marx, Gernot; DeAngelo, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness and safety of the hemoglobin-based nitric oxide scavenger, pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene, against placebo in patients with vasopressor-dependent distributive shock. Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, open-label study. Sixty-one participating ICUs in six European countries (Austria, Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and United Kingdom). All patients admitted with distributive shock, defined as the presence of at least two systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria, persisting norepinephrine dependence and evidence of organ dysfunction/hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Patients were randomized to receive 0.25 mL/kg/hr pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene (20 mg Hb/kg/hr) or an equal volume of placebo, infused for up to 150 hours, in addition to conventional vasopressor therapy. The study was stopped after interim analysis showed higher mortality in the pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene group and an increased prevalence of adverse events. At this time, 377 patients had been randomized to pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene (n = 183) or placebo (n = 194). Age, gender, type of patient (medical/surgical), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores were similar between groups. Twenty-eight-day mortality rate was 44.3% in the pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene group versus 37.6% in the placebo group (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.85-1.95; p = 0.227). In patients with higher organ dysfunction scores (Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment > 13), mortality rates were significantly higher in the pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene group when compared with those in placebo-treated patients (60.9% vs 39.2%; p = 0.014). Survivors who received pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene had a longer vasopressor-free time (21.3 vs 19.7 d; p = 0.035). In this randomized, controlled phase III trial in patients with vasopressor-dependent distributive shock

  8. Hemoglobin Wayne Trait with Incidental Polycythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambelil, Manju; Nguyen, Nghia; Dasgupta, Amitava; Risin, Semyon; Wahed, Amer

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies, caused by mutations in the globin genes, are one of the most common inherited disorders. Many of the hemoglobin variants can be identified by hemoglobin analysis using conventional electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography; however hemoglobin DNA analysis may be necessary in other cases for confirmation. Here, we report a case of a rare alpha chain hemoglobin variant, hemoglobin Wayne, in a 47-year-old man who presented with secondary polycythemia. Capillary zone electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography revealed a significant amount of a hemoglobin variant, which was further confirmed by hemoglobin DNA sequencing as hemoglobin Wayne. Since the patient was not homozygous for hemoglobin Wayne, which is associated with secondary polycythemia, the laboratory diagnosis in this case was critical in ruling out hemoglobinopathy as the etiology of his polycythemia. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  9. Compound heterozygosity for hemoglobin D and hemoglobin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mizanur Rahman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of compound heterozygous state for hemoglobin (Hb D and HbE who reported to the hospital for fever and incidentally found moderate microcytic hypochromic anemia. Later on they were investigated by capillary hemoglobin electrophoresis. Capillary Hb electrophoresis revealed compound heterozygous state for hemoglobin D and hemoglobin E. On family screening, father of one patient turned out to be HbD trait and mother as HbE trait. Due to unavailability of parents and siblings of other patient, family screening was not possible. Compound or double heterozygous state for HbD and HbE is rare. There are only six published reported cases of such double heterozygous state for HbD and HbE in Southeast Asia. Marriage between third degree relatives, which are more common among Muslims as well as inter caste marriages, common in some states of India have resulted into this compound heterozygous condition. Such double heterozygous case is clinically silent as compared to HbE/beta thalassemia or HbD/beta thalassemia.

  10. Hemoglobin and heme scavenger receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Heme, the functional group of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other hemoproteins, is a highly toxic substance when it appears in the extracellular milieu. To circumvent potential harmful effects of heme from hemoproteins released during physiological or pathological cell damage (such as hemolysis...

  11. Motherhood among Incest Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Tamar

    1995-01-01

    Mothers (n=26) who were incest survivors were compared with 28 mothers with no such history for 7 areas of parenting skills: role-image, objectivity, expectations, rapport, communication, limit-setting, and role-support. Significant differences were found on all seven scales, characterized by a tendency for the incest survivors to be less skillful…

  12. Simple Model of Sickle Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiryayev, Andrey; Li, Xiaofei; Gunton, James

    2006-03-01

    A microscopic model is proposed for the interactions between sickle hemoglobin molecules based on information from the protein data bank. A Monte Carlo simulation of a simplified two patch model is carried out, with the goal of understanding fiber formation. A gradual transition from monomers to one dimensional chains is observed as one varies the density of molecules at fixed temperature, somewhat similar to the transition from monomers to polymer fibers in sickle hemoglobin molecules in solution. An observed competition between chain formation and crystallization for the model is also discussed. The results of the simulation of the equation of state are shown to be in excellent agreement with a theory for a model of globular proteins, for the case of two interacting sites.

  13. Lyophilization of Liposome Encapsulated Hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-16

    CHOL was sourced from EM Sciences. Recombinant Hemoglobin (RHb) was supplied by Somatogen. Sucrose came from EM Science. Lactose was provided by...buffered disaccharide. This took the form of sucrose, lactose , or trehalose. The buffer exchange was achieved using commonly practiced dialysis procedures in...with various excipient mixes. Fills of the 6 ml vials were at 2.5 m each. Formulations were: #1 - NRL formula with 30 mM phosphate, 7.3% saline, and

  14. Pain in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew Rd; Ramirez, Juan D; Farquhar-Smith, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Cancer and its treatment exert a heavy psychological and physical toll. Of the myriad symptoms which result, pain is common, encountered in between 30% and 60% of cancer survivors. Pain in cancer survivors is a major and growing problem, impeding the recovery and rehabilitation of patients who have beaten cancer and negatively impacting on cancer patients' quality of life, work prospects and mental health. Persistent pain in cancer survivors remains challenging to treat successfully. Pain can arise both due to the underlying disease and the various treatments the patient has been subjected to. Chemotherapy causes painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), radiotherapy can produce late effect radiation toxicity and surgery may lead to the development of persistent post-surgical pain syndromes. This review explores a selection of the common causes of persistent pain in cancer survivors, detailing our current understanding of the pathophysiology and outlining both the clinical manifestations of individual pain states and the treatment options available.

  15. Report on results of fourth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in the U. S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzen, Tetsuo (Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan)); Ito, Chikako; Tanaka, Yoshikiyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Inamizu, Tsutomu

    1984-01-01

    Review was made of the fourth medical examination and the actual state of health of the U.S. atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors. The number of survivors registered with the Committee of A-bomb Survivors residing in the U.S. as of the end of June 1983 in 592 (males 154, females 438), of whom 58.8% possess U.S. citizenship. Survivor's health handbooks issued to survivors under the Japanese A-bomb Survivors Medical Treatment Law are possessed by 29.2%, with female holders being about twice as numerous as males. Responses to the health survey questionnaire were received from 306. Complaints of subjective symptoms tended to be higher in the early entrants, and by place of examination, those of Honolulu had the higher rate. Those who underwent health examination numbered 305 (73 males and 232 females). RBC and hemoglobin value were higher in the U.S. survivors than in Hiroshima survivors. No abnormality was observed in 47.5%. The main abnormalities noted were obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and liver disease. Comparison of those who had received examination on two consecutive occasions in 1981 and 1983 and those who were examined for the first time in 1983 showed a decrease in the frequency of obesity and hypertension.

  16. Conversational Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, Helmut; Poth, Annette

    Details of conversational behavior can often not be interpreted until the social interaction, including the rights and obligations of the participants, their intent, the topic, etc., has been defined. This paper presents a model of conversation in which the conversational image a person presents in a given conversational situation is a function of…

  17. The distress thermometer in survivors of gynaecological cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette L.; Hansen, Merete K.; Hansson, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Unrecognised psychological distress among cancer survivors may be identified using short screening tools. We validated the accuracy of the distress thermometer (DT) to detect psychological distress on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) among early stage gynaecological cancer...... survivors and whether the women’s DT and HADS scores were associated with the need of an individualised supportive intervention. Methods: One hundred sixty-five gynaecological cancer survivors answered DT and HADS before randomisation in a trial testing a nurse-led, person-centred intervention using...... supportive conversations. The number of conversations was decided in the woman-nurse dyad based on the woman’s perceived need. Nurses were unaware of the women’s DT and HADS scores. We validated DT’s accuracy for screening using HADS as gold standard and receiver operating characteristic curves. Associations...

  18. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  19. Hemoglobin Variants: Biochemical Properties and Clinical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Christopher S.; Dickson, Claire F.; Gell, David A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples. PMID:23388674

  20. Two-photon excited hemoglobin fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Wei; Li, Dong; Zeng, Yan; Luo, Yi; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2010-01-01

    We discovered that hemoglobin emits high energy Soret fluorescence when two-photon excited by the visible femtosecond light sources. The unique spectral and temporal characteristics of hemoglobin fluorescence were measured by using a time-resolved spectroscopic detection system. The high energy Soret fluorescence of hemoglobin shows the spectral peak at 438 nm with extremely short lifetime. This discovery enables two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy to become a potentially powerful t...

  1. Polyethylene glycol conjugation enhances the nitrite reductase activity of native and cross-linked hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Francine E; Dong, Pengcheng; Kluger, Ronald

    2008-10-07

    Although stabilized hemoglobins have been evaluated as oxygen-carrying replacements for red cells in transfusions, in vivo evaluations have noted that these materials are associated with vasoactivity, a serious complication. Scavenging of endogenous nitric oxide by the deoxyheme sites of the stabilized proteins is one likely source of vasoactivity. Recent reports indicate that modification of cell-free hemoglobin derivatives with multiple chains of polyethylene glycol (PEG) suppresses vasoactivity. Gladwin and co-workers observed that the nitrite reductase activity of hemoglobin serves as a major endogenous source of nitric oxide. If PEG conjugation leads to enhanced nitrite reductase activity, this could compensate for scavenged endogenous nitric oxide. To test this possibility, the rates of conversion of nitrite ion to nitric oxide by altered hemoglobins with and without PEG were measured at 25 degrees C. Fumaryl (alpha99-alpha99) cross-linked hemoglobin reacts with nitrite with a bimolecular rate constant of 0.52 M (-1) s (-1), which is comparable to that associated with native hemoglobin (0.25 M (-1) s (-1)). Addition of PEG chains to the cross-linked hemoglobin at beta-Cys93 (alphaalpha-Hb-PEG5K 2) results in a material that produces nitric oxide much more rapidly ( k = 1.41 M (-1) s (-1)). R-State-stabilized hemoglobins with multiple PEG chains (Hb-PEG5K 2 and Hb-PEG5K 6) react 10 times faster with nitrite to produce nitric oxide than does native hemoglobin ( k = 2.5 and 2.4 M (-1) s (-1), respectively). These results, showing enhanced production of nitric oxide resulting from an increased proportion of the protein residing in the R-state, are consistent with the decrease in vasoactivity associated with PEG conjugation.

  2. Hemoglobin concentration, total hemoglobin mass and plasma volume in patients: implications for anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, J.M.; Plumb, J. O. M.; Clissold, E.; Kumar, S.; Wakeham, D. J.; Schmidt, W.; Grocott, M. P. W.; Richards, T.; Montgomery, H.

    2017-01-01

    In practice, clinicians generally consider anemia (circulating hemoglobin concentration < 120 g.l-1 in non-pregnant females and < 130 g.l-1 in males) as due to impaired hemoglobin synthesis or increased erythrocyte loss or destruction. Rarely is a rise in plasma volume relative to circulating total hemoglobin mass considered as a cause. But does this matter? We explored this issue in patients, using the optimized carbon-monoxide rebreathing method to measure hemoglobin concentration and there...

  3. Infertility Education: Experiences and Preferences of Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherven, Brooke O; Mertens, Ann; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Williamson, Rebecca; Meacham, Lillian R

    2016-07-01

    The majority of children diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors; however, many will suffer late effects of treatment, including infertility. Educating patients about potential risk for infertility is important, yet little is known regarding when patients would like to hear this information. The purpose of this study was to assess young adult survivors' previous experience in receiving education about their risk for infertility and determine their preferences for infertility education at various time points during and after treatment. Only 36% of survivors report receiving education about risk for infertility at diagnosis, 39% at end of therapy, and 72% in long-term follow-up/survivor clinic visits. Survivors consistently identified their oncologist as a preferred educator at each time point. Although almost all participants identified wanting education at diagnosis, this time point alone may not be sufficient. End of therapy and survivorship may be times this message should be repeated and adapted for the survivor's needs and developmental stage: conversations about the impact of cancer treatment on future fertility should be ongoing. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  4. THE BIOCHEMISTRY OF VITREOSCILLA HEMOGLOBIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Stark

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The hemoglobin (VHb from Vitreoscilla was the first bacterial hemoglobin discovered. Its structure and function have been extensively investigated, and engineering of a wide variety of heterologous organisms to express VHb has been performed to increase their growth and productivity. This strategy has shown promise in applications as far-ranging as the production of antibiotics and petrochemical replacements by microorganisms to increasing stress tolerance in plants. These applications of “VHb technology” have generally been of the “black box” variety, wherein the endpoint studied is an increase in the levels of a certain product or improved growth and survival. Their eventual optimization, however, will require a thorough understanding of the various functions and activities of VHb, and how VHb expression ripples to affect metabolism more generally. Here we review the current knowledge of these topics. VHb's functions all involve oxygen binding (and often delivery in one way or another. Several biochemical and structure-function studies have provided an insight into the molecular details of this binding and delivery. VHb activities are varied. They include supply of oxygen to oxygenases and the respiratory chain, particularly under low oxygen conditions; oxygen sensing and modulation of transcription factor activity; and detoxification of NO, and seem to require interactions of VHb with “partner proteins”. VHb expression affects the levels of ATP and NADH, although not enormously. VHb expression may affect the level of many compounds of intermediary metabolism, and, apparently, alters the levels of expression of many genes. Thus, the metabolic changes in organisms engineered to express VHb are likely to be numerous and complicated.

  5. The Biochemistry of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Benjamin C; Dikshit, Kanak L; Pagilla, Krishna R

    2012-01-01

    The hemoglobin (VHb) from Vitreoscilla was the first bacterial hemoglobin discovered. Its structure and function have been extensively investigated, and engineering of a wide variety of heterologous organisms to express VHb has been performed to increase their growth and productivity. This strategy has shown promise in applications as far-ranging as the production of antibiotics and petrochemical replacements by microorganisms to increasing stress tolerance in plants. These applications of "VHb technology" have generally been of the "black box" variety, wherein the endpoint studied is an increase in the levels of a certain product or improved growth and survival. Their eventual optimization, however, will require a thorough understanding of the various functions and activities of VHb, and how VHb expression ripples to affect metabolism more generally. Here we review the current knowledge of these topics. VHb's functions all involve oxygen binding (and often delivery) in one way or another. Several biochemical and structure-function studies have provided an insight into the molecular details of this binding and delivery. VHb activities are varied. They include supply of oxygen to oxygenases and the respiratory chain, particularly under low oxygen conditions; oxygen sensing and modulation of transcription factor activity; and detoxification of NO, and seem to require interactions of VHb with "partner proteins". VHb expression affects the levels of ATP and NADH, although not enormously. VHb expression may affect the level of many compounds of intermediary metabolism, and, apparently, alters the levels of expression of many genes. Thus, the metabolic changes in organisms engineered to express VHb are likely to be numerous and complicated.

  6. Hemoglobin Values During Pregnancy | Leffler | Nigerian Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that the iron turnover in expectant mothers is up to three times that of an average adult. This is reflected in lower hemoglobin levels. The study showed that hemoglobin levels can be maintained by taking Bio-Strath®, provided that the patients' diet contains adequate fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean ...

  7. Led Astray by Hemoglobin A1c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Chen MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin A1c (A1c is used frequently to diagnose and treat diabetes mellitus. Therefore, it is important be aware of factors that may interfere with the accuracy of A1c measurements. This is a case of a rare hemoglobin variant that falsely elevated a nondiabetic patient’s A1c level and led to a misdiagnosis of diabetes. A 67-year-old male presented to endocrine clinic for further management after he was diagnosed with diabetes based on an elevated A1c of 10.7%, which is approximately equivalent to an average blood glucose of 260 mg/dL. Multiple repeat A1c levels remained >10%, but his home fasting and random glucose monitoring ranged from 92 to 130 mg/dL. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and subsequent genetic analysis diagnosed the patient with hemoglobin Wayne, a rare hemoglobin variant. This variant falsely elevates A1c levels when A1c is measured using cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. When the boronate affinity method was applied instead, the patient’s A1c level was actually 4.7%. Though hemoglobin Wayne is clinically silent, this patient was erroneously diagnosed with diabetes and started on an antiglycemic medication. Due to this misdiagnosis, the patient was at risk of escalation in his “diabetes management” and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it is important that providers are aware of factors that may result in hemoglobin A1c inaccuracy including hemoglobin variants.

  8. Biphasic oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin in bloodstains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf H Bremmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO(2 to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb and hemichrome (HC. The fractions of HbO(2, met-Hb and HC in a bloodstain can be used for age determination of bloodstains. In this study, we further analyze the conversion of HbO(2 to met-Hb and HC, and determine the effect of temperature and humidity on the conversion rates. METHODOLOGY: The fractions of HbO(2, met-Hb and HC in a bloodstain, as determined by quantitative analysis of optical reflectance spectra (450-800 nm, were measured as function of age, temperature and humidity. Additionally, Optical Coherence Tomography around 1300 nm was used to confirm quantitative spectral analysis approach. CONCLUSIONS: The oxidation rate of HbO(2 in bloodstains is biphasic. At first, the oxidation of HbO(2 is rapid, but slows down after a few hours. These oxidation rates are strongly temperature dependent. However, the oxidation of HbO(2 seems to be independent of humidity, whereas the transition of met-Hb into HC strongly depends on humidity. Knowledge of these decay rates is indispensable for translating laboratory results into forensic practice, and to enable bloodstain age determination on the crime scene.

  9. Children of Holocaust Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Shirley Ann

    As a result of the Holocaust, many survivors developed long term psychosocial impairment known as the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by depression, anxiety, hypocondriasis, inability to concentrate or to express anger, nightmares, insomnia, obsessive thoughts, guilt, mistrust, and alienation. The literature in this…

  10. Nadir Hemoglobin Levels after Discontinuation of Epoetin in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Jose A.; Miskulin, Dana C.; Meyer, Klemens B.; Weiner, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: In hemodialysis patients, both hemoglobin variability and targeting normalization of hemoglobin may have adverse consequences. There are few data on epoetin management in patients achieving high hemoglobin levels.

  11. Role of Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring in Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-25

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2015-0002 Role of Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring in Trauma Betty J. Tsuei, MD; Dennis J. Hanseman, PhD...August 2012 – August 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring in Trauma 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-12-2-6B14 5b...measurement of hemoglobin (Hgb) by standard laboratory complete blood count. Point-of-care testing (i.e., iSTAT®) can be a rapid method of evaluating

  12. Methylation of hemoglobin to enhance flocculant performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inexpensive bioflocculant, bovine hemoglobin (Hb), has been covalently modified through methylation of the side chain carboxyl groups of aspartic and glutamic acid residues to improve its flocculation activity. Potentiometric titration of the recovered products showed approximately 28% degree of ...

  13. Heterozygous Hemoglobin Sherwood Forest Causing Polycythemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram M. Raghunathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb Sherwood Forest is a rare high-affinity hemoglobin first described in 1977, arising from an Arg to Thr substitution at codon 104 of the beta chain. This hemoglobin variant has been identified in few individuals and has been associated with a compensatory erythrocytosis in the homozygous state. Prior scarce case reports have noted that heterozygotes for this variant are phenotypically normal. Here we present a patient who was evaluated in our hematology clinic for chronic erythrocytosis and was found to be heterozygous for Hb Sherwood Forest. No other primary or secondary cause of his polycythemia was identified. This is the first described case of heterozygous Hemoglobin Sherwood Forest causing erythrocytosis.

  14. Tangential Flow Filtration of Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guoyong; Harris, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Bovine and human hemoglobin (bHb and hHb, respectively) was purified from bovine and human red blood cells (bRBCs and hRBCs, respectively) via tangential flow filtration (TFF) in four successive stages. TFF is a fast and simple method to purify Hb from RBCs using filtration through hollow fiber (HF) membranes. Most of the Hb was retained in stage III (100 kDa HF membrane) and displayed methemoglobin levels less than 1%, yielding final concentrations of 318 and 300 mg/mL for bHb and hHb, respectively. Purified Hb exhibited much lower endotoxin levels than their respective RBCs. The purity of Hb was initially assessed via SDS-PAGE, and showed tiny impurity bands for the stage III retentate. The oxygen affinity (P50), and cooperativity coefficient (n) were regressed from the measured oxygen-RBC/Hb equilibrium curves of RBCs and purified Hb. These results suggest that TFF yielded oxygen affinities of bHb and hHb that are comparable to values in the literature. LC-MS was used to measure the molecular weight of the alpha (α) and beta (β) globin chains of purified Hb. No impurity peaks were present in the HPLC chromatograms of purified Hb. The mass of the molecular ions corresponding to the α and β globin chains agreed well with the calculated theoretical mass of the α-and β-globin chains. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HPLC grade Hb can be generated via TFF. In general, this method can be more broadly applied to purify Hb from any source of RBCs. This work is significant, since it outlines a simple method for generating Hb for synthesis and/or formulation of Hb-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). PMID:19224583

  15. Low affinity PEGylated hemoglobin from Trematomus bernacchii, a model for hemoglobin-based blood substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Conjugation of human and animal hemoglobins with polyethylene glycol has been widely explored as a means to develop blood substitutes, a novel pharmaceutical class to be used in surgery or emergency medicine. However, PEGylation of human hemoglobin led to products with significantly different oxygen binding properties with respect to the unmodified tetramer and high NO dioxygenase reactivity, known causes of toxicity. These recent findings call for the biotechnological development of stable, low-affinity PEGylated hemoglobins with low NO dioxygenase reactivity. Results To investigate the effects of PEGylation on protein structure and function, we compared the PEGylation products of human hemoglobin and Trematomus bernacchii hemoglobin, a natural variant endowed with a remarkably low oxygen affinity and high tetramer stability. We show that extension arm facilitated PEGylation chemistry based on the reaction of T. bernacchii hemoglobin with 2-iminothiolane and maleimido-functionalyzed polyethylene glycol (MW 5000 Da) leads to a tetraPEGylated product, more homogeneous than the corresponding derivative of human hemoglobin. PEGylated T. bernacchii hemoglobin largely retains the low affinity of the unmodified tetramer, with a p50 50 times higher than PEGylated human hemoglobin. Moreover, it is still sensitive to protons and the allosteric effector ATP, indicating the retention of allosteric regulation. It is also 10-fold less reactive towards nitrogen monoxide than PEGylated human hemoglobin. Conclusions These results indicate that PEGylated hemoglobins, provided that a suitable starting hemoglobin variant is chosen, can cover a wide range of oxygen-binding properties, potentially meeting the functional requirements of blood substitutes in terms of oxygen affinity, tetramer stability and NO dioxygenase reactivity. PMID:22185675

  16. The Microrheology of Sickle Hemoglobin Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharov, Mikhail N.; Aprelev, Alexey; Turner, Matthew S.; Ferrone, Frank A.

    2010-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is a rheological disease, yet no quantitative rheological data exist on microscopic samples at physiological concentrations. We have developed a novel method for measuring the microrheology of sickle hemoglobin gels, based on magnetically driven compression of 5- to 8-μm-thick emulsions containing hemoglobin droplets ∼80 μm in diameter. Using our method, by observing the expansion of the droplet area as the emulsion is compressed, we were able to resolve changes in thickne...

  17. High affinity hemoglobin and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jeffrey; Hobson, Douglas; Ponnampalam, Arjuna

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the midbrain. Oxidative damage in this region has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Human neurons have been discovered to contain hemoglobin, with an increased concentration seen in the neurons of the SN. High affinity hemoglobin is a clinical entity resulting from mutations that create a functional increase in the binding of hemoglobin to oxygen and an inability to efficiently unload it to tissues. This can result in a number of metabolic compensatory changes, including an elevation in circulating hemoglobin and an increase in the molecule 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). Population based studies have revealed that patients with PD have elevated hemoglobin as well as 2,3-DPG levels. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that the oxidative damage seen in PD is related to an underlying high affinity hemoglobin subtype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Survivors on Cancer: the portrayal of survivors in print news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromm, Elizabeth Edsall; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Singer, Rachel Friedman

    2007-12-01

    This study examines the types of news stories that include comments by everyday cancer survivors and the messages or information these individuals provide. Even though these non-celebrity survivors increasingly serve on the front lines of cancer prevention and advocacy efforts and often engage with media, the role they play in the media discourse on cancer has not been a focus of research. We conducted a thematic content analysis of print news articles of non-celebrity cancer survivors in 15 leading national daily newspapers for four consecutive months starting in June 2005 to identify the issues or events that included a survivor perspective and the messages or information conveyed by the everyday survivors. Journalists included survivor commentary primarily when covering cancer fundraising events and when focusing on individual survivorship stories. In overall news coverage involving survivors, breast and prostate cancers received the greatest attention, followed by blood and lung cancers. Survivors spoke mainly about the diagnosis experience and life post-cancer. Our analysis of survivors' comments revealed that discussions of the diagnosis experience often convey fear and a lack of confidence in cancer screening practices, while cancer is portrayed as a positive life event. While evidence of a positive and hopeful portrayal of survivorship is an encouraging finding for continued efforts to decrease stigma associated with a cancer diagnosis and for the public understanding of the disease, it is important to consider potential negative implications of an idealized and restricted media discourse on survivorship. The increasing size and capacity of the survivor community offers opportunities for the cancer advocacy community to consider how news media portrayal of cancer and survivorship may contribute in both positive and potentially detrimental ways to public understanding of this disease, its survivors and life after cancer.

  19. 21 CFR 864.5620 - Automated hemoglobin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated hemoglobin system. 864.5620 Section 864....5620 Automated hemoglobin system. (a) Identification. An automated hemoglobin system is a fully... hemoglobin content of human blood. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [45 FR 60601, Sept...

  20. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abnormal hemoglobin assay. 864.7415 Section 864... hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the reagents... hemoglobin types. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [45 FR 60618, Sept. 12, 1980] ...

  1. 21 CFR 864.7470 - Glycosylated hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glycosylated hemoglobin assay. 864.7470 Section... Glycosylated hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A glycosylated hemoglobin assay is a device used to measure the glycosylated hemoglobins (A1a, A1b, and A1c) in a patient's blood by a column chromatographic...

  2. INFRARED SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF SOME FLAVONOIDS WITH HEMOGLOBIN

    OpenAIRE

    S. Bakkialakshmi; Jayoti Roy

    2017-01-01

    Infrared spectra of some flavonoids Rutin & Hesperidin were recorded. Infrared spectra of hemoglobin and hemoglobin with Rutin & with Hesperidin were also recorded. The spectral data of the complexes (Hemoglobin-Rutin and Hemoglobin-Hesperidin) were interpreted as indicating the near position valency band of the carbonyl group in relation to its position in Rutin and Hesperidin.

  3. Molecular Mechanism of AHSP-Mediated Stabilization of Alpha-Hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng,L.; Gell, D.; Zhou, S.; Gu, L.; Kong, Y.; Li, J.; Hu, M.; Yan, N.; Lee, C.; et al.

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobin A (HbA), the oxygen delivery system in humans, comprises two alpha and two beta subunits. Free alpha-hemoglobin (alphaHb) is unstable, and its precipitation contributes to the pathophysiology of beta thalassemia. In erythrocytes, the alpha-hemoglobin stabilizing protein (AHSP) binds alphaHb and inhibits its precipitation. The crystal structure of AHSP bound to Fe(II)-alphaHb reveals that AHSP specifically recognizes the G and H helices of alphaHb through a hydrophobic interface that largely recapitulates the alpha1-beta1 interface of hemoglobin. The AHSP-alphaHb interactions are extensive but suboptimal, explaining why beta-hemoglobin can competitively displace AHSP to form HbA. Remarkably, the Fe(II)-heme group in AHSP bound alphaHb is coordinated by the distal but not the proximal histidine. Importantly, binding to AHSP facilitates the conversion of oxy-alphaHb to a deoxygenated, oxidized [Fe(III)], nonreactive form in which all six coordinate positions are occupied. These observations reveal the molecular mechanisms by which AHSP stabilizes free alphaHb.

  4. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  5. Who are the cancer survivors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovaldt, Hanna Birkbak; Suppli, N P; Olsen, M H

    2015-01-01

    Background: No nationwide studies on social position and prevalence of comorbidity among cancer survivors exist. Methods: We performed a nationwide prevalence study defining persons diagnosed with cancer 1943-2010 and alive on the census date 1 January 2011 as cancer survivors. Comorbidity was co...

  6. Convergent evolution of hemoglobin switching in jawed and jawless vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Kim; Stuhlmann, Friederike; Docker, Margaret F; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    During development, humans and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) express distinct hemoglobin genes, resulting in different hemoglobin tetramers. Embryonic and fetal hemoglobin have higher oxygen affinities than the adult hemoglobin, sustaining the oxygen demand of the developing organism. Little is known about the expression of hemoglobins during development of jawless vertebrates (Agnatha). We identified three hemoglobin switches in the life cycle of the sea lamprey. Three hemoglobin genes are specifically expressed in the embryo, four genes in the filter feeding larva (ammocoete), and nine genes correspond to the adult hemoglobin chains. During the development from the parasitic to the reproductive adult, the composition of hemoglobin changes again, with a massive increase of chain aHb1. A single hemoglobin chain is expressed constitutively in all stages. We further showed the differential expression of other globin genes: Myoglobin 1 is most highly expressed in the reproductive adult, myoglobin 2 expression peaks in the larva. Globin X1 is restricted to the embryo; globin X2 was only found in the reproductive adult. Cytoglobin is expressed at low levels throughout the life cycle. Because the hemoglobins of jawed and jawless vertebrates evolved independently from a common globin ancestor, hemoglobin switching must also have evolved convergently in these taxa. Notably, the ontogeny of sea lamprey hemoglobins essentially recapitulates their phylogeny, with the embryonic hemoglobins emerging first, followed by the evolution of larval and adult hemoglobins.

  7. Brain tumor survivors speak out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Green, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    Although progress has been made in the treatment of childhood brain tumors,work remains to understand the complexities of disease, treatment, and contextual factors that underlie individual differences in outcome. A combination of both an idiographic approach (incorporating observations made by adult survivors of childhood brain tumors) and a nomothetic approach (reviewing the literature for brain tumor survivors as well as childhood cancer survivors) is presented. Six areas of concern are reviewed from both an idiographic and nomothetic perspective, including social/emotional adjustment, insurance, neurocognitive late effects, sexuality and relationships, employment, and where survivors accessed information about their disease and treatment and possible late effects. Guidelines to assist health care professionals working with childhood brain tumor survivors are offered with the goal of improving psychosocial and neurocognitive outcomes in this population.

  8. Direct Conversion of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R

    1964-01-01

    Topics include: direct versus dynamic energy conversion; laws governing energy conversion; thermoelectricity; thermionic conversion; magnetohydrodynamic conversion; chemical batteries; the fuel cell; solar cells; nuclear batteries; and advanced concepts including ferroelectric conversion and thermomagnetic conversion.

  9. Evolution of Hemoglobin and Its Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, Ross C.

    2012-01-01

    Insights into the evolution of hemoglobins and their genes are an abundant source of ideas regarding hemoglobin function and regulation of globin gene expression. This article presents the multiple genes and gene families encoding human globins, summarizes major events in the evolution of the hemoglobin gene clusters, and discusses how these studies provide insights into regulation of globin genes. Although the genes in and around the α-like globin gene complex are relatively stable, the β-like globin gene clusters are more dynamic, showing evidence of transposition to a new locus and frequent lineage-specific expansions and deletions. The cis-regulatory modules controlling levels and timing of gene expression are a mix of conserved and lineage-specific DNA, perhaps reflecting evolutionary constraint on core regulatory functions shared broadly in mammals and adaptive fine-tuning in different orders of mammals. PMID:23209182

  10. Holocaust Child Survivors and Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the…

  11. Nitrosyl hemoglobins: EPR above 80 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wajnberg, E.; Bemski, G.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Alves, O.C.

    1995-03-01

    The EPR spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin and myoglobin in different conditions (native, denatured and lyophilized), as well as of hematin-NO were obtained in the temperature range of 80 K-280 K. There is a substantial and reversible.decrease of the areas of the EPR spectra of all the hemoglobin samples above 150 K. The interpretation of the results implies the existence of two conformational states in thermal equilibrium only one of which is EPR detectable. Thermodynamical parameters are determined for the hexa and penta-coordinated cases. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs.

  12. Constraints on mutational pathways of hemoglobin evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Amit; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    amino acid substitutions that occurred during an evolutionary reduction in hemoglobin (Hb)-O2 affinity in nightjars (nocturnal birds in the family Caprimulgidae).We selected nightjar Hbs for experimental study because ancestral sequence reconstructions indicated that the evolved reduction in Hb-O2...

  13. Hemoglobin: A Nitric-Oxide Dioxygenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Gardner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the hemoglobin superfamily efficiently catalyze nitric-oxide dioxygenation, and when paired with native electron donors, function as NO dioxygenases (NODs. Indeed, the NOD function has emerged as a more common and ancient function than the well-known role in O2 transport-storage. Novel hemoglobins possessing a NOD function continue to be discovered in diverse life forms. Unique hemoglobin structures evolved, in part, for catalysis with different electron donors. The mechanism of NOD catalysis by representative single domain hemoglobins and multidomain flavohemoglobin occurs through a multistep mechanism involving O2 migration to the heme pocket, O2 binding-reduction, NO migration, radical-radical coupling, O-atom rearrangement, nitrate release, and heme iron re-reduction. Unraveling the physiological functions of multiple NODs with varying expression in organisms and the complexity of NO as both a poison and signaling molecule remain grand challenges for the NO field. NOD knockout organisms and cells expressing recombinant NODs are helping to advance our understanding of NO actions in microbial infection, plant senescence, cancer, mitochondrial function, iron metabolism, and tissue O2 homeostasis. NOD inhibitors are being pursued for therapeutic applications as antibiotics and antitumor agents. Transgenic NOD-expressing plants, fish, algae, and microbes are being developed for agriculture, aquaculture, and industry.

  14. (Jacq) Benth (Mimosaceae) root: Hemoglobin polymerization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: All the solvent-partitioned fractions of C. portoricensis showed a high percentage inhibition of hemoglobin polymerization at 5 mg/mL with the ethyl acetate fraction showing the highest percentage inhibition of 98.97 ± 1.62 % The pooled chromatographic fraction C3 containing two compounds (Rf value: 0.71, 0.83); ...

  15. Relationships between hemoglobin A and spot glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-12

    May 12, 2011 ... Background: Glycosylated hemoglobin, HbA1c is the most acceptable measure of chronic glycemia. It is not widely available and/or affordable in Nigeria. The mean of the monthly fasting plasma glucose (MFPG) of the preceding. 3 months is often used as surrogate for assessing chronic glycemia.

  16. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  17. Rheological Variations among Nigerians with Different Hemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some Hemorheological determinants such as whole blood viscosity (WBV) and plasma viscosity (PV) and Plasma Fibrinogen Concentration (PFC) were measured with standard methods. We recorded a relatively unchanged whole blood viscosities in subjects with various hemoglobin genotypes (AA, AS and SS; P>0.05, ...

  18. Insulin-induced lipid binding to hemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomasevic, N; Klappe, K; Hoekstra, D; Niketic, [No Value; Nikolic, M.

    2003-01-01

    Under hypoglycemic conditions, concomitant hyperinsulinism causes an apparent modification of hemoglobin (Hb) which is manifested by its a aggregation (Niketic et al.. Clin. Chim. Acia 197 (1991) 47). In the present work the causes and mechanisms underlying this Hb modification were Studied.

  19. The microrheology of sickle hemoglobin gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Mikhail N; Aprelev, Alexey; Turner, Matthew S; Ferrone, Frank A

    2010-08-09

    Sickle cell disease is a rheological disease, yet no quantitative rheological data exist on microscopic samples at physiological concentrations. We have developed a novel method for measuring the microrheology of sickle hemoglobin gels, based on magnetically driven compression of 5- to 8-microm-thick emulsions containing hemoglobin droplets approximately 80 microm in diameter. Using our method, by observing the expansion of the droplet area as the emulsion is compressed, we were able to resolve changes in thickness of a few nanometers with temporal resolution of milliseconds. Gels were formed at various initial concentrations and temperatures and with different internal domain structure. All behaved as Hookean springs with Young's modulus from 300 to 1500 kPa for gels with polymerized hemoglobin concentration from 6 g/dl to 12 g/dl. For uniform, multidomain gels, Young's modulus mainly depended on the terminal concentration of the gel rather than the conditions of formation. A simple model reproduced the quadratic dependence of the Young's modulus on the concentration of polymerized hemoglobin. Partially desaturated samples also displayed quadratic concentration dependence but with a smaller proportionality coefficient, as did samples that were desaturated in steps; such samples were significantly less rigid than gels formed all at once. The magnitude of the Young's modulus provides quantitative support for the dominant models of sickle pathophysiology. 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Trematode hemoglobins show exceptionally high oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiger, L; Rashid, A K; Griffon, N; Haque, M; Moens, L; Gibson, Q H; Poyart, C; Marden, M C

    1998-08-01

    Ligand binding studies were made with hemoglobin (Hb) isolated from trematode species Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc), Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), Explanatum explanatum (Ee), parasitic worms of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, and Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Ih) parasitic in the catfish Wallago attu. The kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding show very fast association rates. Whereas oxygen can be displaced on a millisecond time scale from human Hb at 25 degrees C, the dissociation of oxygen from trematode Hb may require a few seconds to over 20 s (for Hb Pe). Carbon monoxide dissociation is faster, however, than for other monomeric hemoglobins or myoglobins. Trematode hemoglobins also show a reduced rate of autoxidation; the oxy form is not readily oxidized by potassium ferricyanide, indicating that only the deoxy form reacts rapidly with this oxidizing agent. Unlike most vertebrate Hbs, the trematodes have a tyrosine residue at position E7 instead of the usual distal histidine. As for Hb Ascaris, which also displays a high oxygen affinity, the trematodes have a tyrosine in position B10; two H-bonds to the oxygen molecule are thought to be responsible for the very high oxygen affinity. The trematode hemoglobins display a combination of high association rates and very low dissociation rates, resulting in some of the highest oxygen affinities ever observed.

  1. Hemoglobin D-Punjab: origin, distribution and laboratory diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane de Souza Torres

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses hemoglobin D-Punjab, also known as hemoglobin D-Los Angeles, one of the most common hemoglobin variants worldwide. It is derived from a point mutation in the beta-globin gene (HBB: c.364G>C; rs33946267 prevalent in the Punjab region, North-western Indian. Hemoglobin D-Punjab can be inherited in heterozygosis with hemoglobin A causing no clinical or hematological alterations, or in homozygosis, the rarest form of inheritance, a condition that is commonly not related to clinical symptomatology. Moreover, this variant can exist in association with other hemoglobinopathies, such as thalassemias; the most noticeable clinical alterations occur when hemoglobin D-Punjab is associated to hemoglobin S. The clinical manifestations of this association can be similar to homozygosis for hemoglobin S. Although hemoglobin D-Punjab is a common variant globally with clinical importance especially in cases of double heterozygosis, hemoglobin S/D-Punjab is still understudied. In Brazil, for example, hemoglobin D-Punjab is the third most common hemoglobin variant. Thus, this paper summarizes information about the origin, geographic distribution, characterization and occurrence of hemoglobin D-Punjab haplotypes to try to improve our knowledge of this variant. Moreover, a list of the main techniques used in its identification is provided emphasizing the importance of complementary molecular analysis for accurate diagnosis.

  2. Kadar Hemoglobin dan Kecerdasan Intelektual Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Kusmiyati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kualitas sumber daya manusia dipengaruhi oleh inteligensi anak. Skor kecerdasan intelektual yang tidak menetap pada usia tertentu dapat berubah karena faktor genetik, gizi, dan lingkungan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui hubungan kadar hemoglobin dengan kecerdasan intelektual anak. Penelitian observasional dengan desain potong lintang ini dilakukan pada populasi siswa kelas VI Sekolah Dasar Negeri Giwangan Yogyakarta, tahun 2013. Penarikan sampel dilakukan dengan metode simple random sampling terhadap 37 sampel siswa. Instrumen untuk mengukur kecerdasan intelektual dengan Cultural Fair Intelligence Quotient Test yang dirancang untuk meminimalkan pengaruh kultural dengan memperhatikan prosedur evaluasi, instruksi, konten isi, dan respons peserta. Tes dilakukan oleh Biro Psikologi Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Yogyakarta, kadar hemoglobin diukur menggunakan Portable Hemoglobin Digital Analyzer Easy Touch secara digital.Variabel luar indeks massa tubuh diukur langsung menggunakan parameter tinggi badan dan berat badan. Analisis menggunakan uji regresi linier. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan indeks massa tubuh tidak berhubungan dengan kecerdasan intelektual (nilai p = 0,052. Anemia berhubungan cukup dengan kecerdasan anak (r = 0,491 dan berpola positif, semakin tinggi kadar hemoglobin semakin tinggi kecerdasan intelektual anak. Nilai koefisien determinasi 0,241 menerangkan bahwa 24,1% variasi anemia cukup baik untuk menjelaskan variabel kecerdasan intelektual. Ada hubungan antara kadar hemoglobin dengan kecerdasan intelektual (nilai p = 0,002. Quality of human resources is influenced by the child’s intelligent. Intelligence Quotient (IQ score will not settle at a certain age and can change due to genetic factors, nutrition, and the environment. The objective is known relationship of anemia with IQ to child. Method of observational study with cross sectional design. Population are students of class VI elementary school of Giwangan Yogyakarta in

  3. Ageing Holocaust survivors in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paratz, Elizabeth D; Katz, Benny

    2011-02-21

    In recent years, a phenomenon of "late effects of the Holocaust" has emerged, with impacts on the psychological and physical health of ageing Holocaust survivors. As Holocaust survivors age, they may experience heightened anxiety around normal processes of ageing, worsened post-traumatic stress disorder with cognitive decline, and fear of the medical system. Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiometabolic disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, cancer, and sequelae of Nazi medical experiments. From existing medical literature on this topic, practical principles of management are derived to create a framework for sensitive medical management of Holocaust survivors in Australia. The issues discussed are also relevant to the wider geriatric refugee or prisoner-of-war experience.

  4. A person-centered intervention targeting the psychosocial needs of gynecological cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette Linnet; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Hansson, Eva Helena

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of a person-centered intervention consisting of two to four nurse-led conversations using guided self-determination tailored to gynecologic cancer (GSD-GYN-C) on gynecological cancer survivors' quality of life (QOL), impact of cancer, distress, anxiety......, depression, self-esteem, and self-reported ability to monitor and respond to symptoms of recurrence. METHODS: We randomly assigned 165 gynecological cancer survivors to usual care (UC) plus GSD-GYN-C or UC alone. Self-reported QOL-cancer survivor (QOL-CS) total score and subscale scores on physical...... and control groups after baseline adjustment. CONCLUSION: We observed higher physical well-being 9 months after randomization in the GSD-GYN-C group, as compared to women receiving usual care. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: The results suggest that the person-centered intervention GSD-GYN-C may improve...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7500 - Whole blood hemoglobin assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hemoglobin content of whole blood for the detection of anemia. This generic device category does not include automated hemoglobin systems. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [45 FR 60622, Sept. 12...

  6. 21 CFR 864.7440 - Electrophoretic hemoglobin analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hemoglobin types as an aid in the diagnosis of anemia or erythrocytosis (increased total red cell mass) due to a hemoglobin abnormality. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [45 FR 60620, Sept...

  7. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcilene Rezende; Sendin, Shimene Mascarenhas; Araujo, Isabela Couto de Oliveira; Pimentel, Fernanda Silva; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2013-01-01

    To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. β(S) allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI) were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. THE FOLLOWING ALPHA CHAIN VARIANTS WERE FOUND: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5) Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13) Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2) Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5) Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  8. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilene Rezende Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. METHODS: βS allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. RESULTS: The following alpha chain variants were found: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5 Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13 Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2 Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5 Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. CONCLUSION: Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  9. Conversational sensemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  10. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  11. Sexual minority cancer survivors' satisfaction with care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M; Kamen, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Satisfaction with care is important to cancer survivors' health outcomes. Satisfaction with care is not equal for all cancer survivors, and sexual minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) cancer survivors may experience poor satisfaction with care. Data were drawn from the 2010 LIVESTRONG national survey. The final sample included 207 sexual minority cancer survivors and 4,899 heterosexual cancer survivors. Satisfaction with care was compared by sexual orientation, and a Poisson regression model was computed to test the associations between sexual orientation and satisfaction with care, controlling for other relevant variables. Sexual minority cancer survivors had lower satisfaction with care than did heterosexual cancer survivors (B = -0.12, SE = 0.04, Wald χ(2) = 9.25, pSexual minorities experience poorer satisfaction with care compared to heterosexual cancer survivors. Satisfaction with care is especially relevant to cancer survivorship in light of the cancer-related health disparities reported among sexual minority cancer survivors.

  12. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's Solution...

  13. Truncated hemoglobins in actinorhizal nodules of Datisca glomerata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawlowski, K.; Jacobsen, K.R.; Alloisio, N.; Denison, R.F.; Klein, M.; Tjepkema, J.D.; Winzer, T.; Sirrenberg, A.; Guan, C.; Berry, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Three types of hemoglobins exist in higher plants, symbiotic, non-symbiotic, and truncated hemoglobins. Symbiotic (class II) hemoglobins play a role in oxygen supply to intracellular nitrogen-fixing symbionts in legume root nodules, and in one case ( Parasponia Sp.), a non-symbiotic (class I)

  14. Lyophilized bovine hemoglobin as a possible reference material for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives in human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, BHA; Buursma, A; Ernst, RAJ; Maas, AHJ; Zijlstra, WG

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the suitability of a lyophilized bovine hemoglobin (LBH) preparation containing various fractions of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and methemoglobin (MetHb) for quality assessment in multicomponent analysis (MCA) of hemoglobin derivatives. It was demonstrated that

  15. Hemoglobin A1c values are affected by hemoglobin level and gender in non‐anemic Koreans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bae, Ji Cheol; Suh, Sunghwan; Jin, Sang‐Man; Kim, Se Won; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Min, Yong‐Ki; Lee, Myung‐Shik; Lee, Moon Kyu; Jeon, Won Seon; Lee, Won Young; Kim, Kwang‐Won

    2014-01-01

    ... and hemoglobin glycation could influence HbA1c values independent of glycemia . Thus, the relationship between mean glycemia and the HbA1c value might not be the same in all people . The HbA1c result is calculated as the ratio of glycated hemoglobin to total hemoglobin , suggesting that the hemoglobin level could affect HbA1c test results independently o...

  16. Universal metastability of sickle hemoglobin polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Weijun

    Sickle hemoglobin (HbS) is a natural mutation of the normal hemoglobin (HbA) found in the red blood cells of human body. Polymerization of HbS occurs when the concentration of deoxyHbS exceeds a well-defined solubility, which is the underlying cause of the Sickle Cell Disease. It has long been assumed that thermodynamic equilibrium is reached when polymerization comes to an end. However, in this thesis we demonstrate that in confined volume as well as in bulk solution, HbS polymerization terminates prematurely, leaving the solution in a metastable state. A newly developed Reservoir method as well as modulated excitation method were adopted for the study. This discovery of universal metastability gives us new insights into understanding the mechanism of sickle cell disease.

  17. Facile Interfacial Electron Transfer of Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhai Fan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We herein describe a method of depositing hemoglobin (Hb and sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN on GC electrodes that facilitate interfacial protein electron transfer. Well-defined, reproducible, chemically reversible peaks of Hb and SPAN can be obtained in our experiments. We also observed enhanced peroxidase activity of Hb in SPAN films. These results clearly showed that SPAN worked as molecular wires and effectively exchanged electrons between Hb and electrodes.Mediated by Conjugated Polymers

  18. Facile Interfacial Electron Transfer of Hemoglobin

    OpenAIRE

    Chunhai Fan; Shiping Song; Haiping Wu; Lihua Wang; Xiaofang Hu; Runguang Sun; Bo Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: We herein describe a method of depositing hemoglobin (Hb) and sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN) on GC electrodes that facilitate interfacial protein electron transfer. Well-defined, reproducible, chemically reversible peaks of Hb and SPAN can be obtained in our experiments. We also observed enhanced peroxidase activity of Hb in SPAN films. These results clearly showed that SPAN worked as molecular wires and effectively exchanged electrons between Hb and electrodes.Mediated by Conjugated...

  19. Trematode Hemoglobins Show Exceptionally High Oxygen Affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Kiger, Laurent; Rashid, Aftab K.; Griffon, Nathalie; Haque, Masoodul; Moens, Luc; Gibson, Quentin H.; Poyart, Claude; Marden, Michael C.

    1998-01-01

    Ligand binding studies were made with hemoglobin (Hb) isolated from trematode species Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc), Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), Explanatum explanatum (Ee), parasitic worms of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, and Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Ih) parasitic in the catfish Wallago attu. The kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding show very fast association rates. Whereas oxygen can be displaced on a millisecond time scale from human Hb at 25 degrees C, the dissociation of ox...

  20. Molecular Stability and Function of Mouse Hemoglobins(Biochemistry)

    OpenAIRE

    Kou, Uchida; Michael P., Reilly; Toshio, Asakura; Division of Hematology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    The hemoglobin types of mouse strains can be distinguished according to patterns observed on cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The two common mouse hemoglobin patterns are single and diffuse. The differences in the patterns result from differences in the β-globin chains of the hemoglobin molecules. Mice with the single hemoglobin pattern have one β-globin type identified as β-single (Hbb^s), whereas mice with the diffuse hemoglobin pattern have two different β-globin types identified as β-ma...

  1. Converse Piezoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springborg, Michael; Kirtman, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Piezoelectricity results from a coupling between responses to mechanical and electric perturbations and leads to changes in the polarization due to strain or stress or, alternatively, the occurrence of strain as a function of an applied external, electrostatic field (i.e., converse piezoelectricity). Theoretical studies of those properties for extended systems require accordingly that their dipole moment or polarization can be calculated. However, whereas the definition of the operator for the dipole moment for any finite system is trivial, it is only within the last 2 decades that the expressions for the equivalent operator in the independent-particle approximation for the infinite and periodic system have been presented. Here, we demonstrate that the so called branch dependence of the polarization for the infinite, periodic system is related to physical observables in contrast to what often is assumed. This is related to the finding that converse piezoelectric properties depend both on the surfaces of the samples of interest even for samples with size well above the thermodynamic limit. However, we shall demonstrate that these properties can be calculated without explicitly taking the surfaces into account. Both the foundations and results for real system shall be presented.

  2. Thiamine inhibits formation of dityrosine, a specific marker of oxidative injury, in reactions catalyzed by oxoferryl forms of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepuro, A I; Adamchuk, R I; Oparin, A Yu; Stepuro, I I

    2008-09-01

    Effects of thiamine and its derivatives on inhibition of dityrosine formation were studied in reactions catalyzed by oxoferryl forms of hemoglobin. At high thiamine concentrations, a complete inhibition of dityrosine formation was observed due to interaction of tyrosyl radicals with thiamine tricyclic and thiol forms. In neutral and alkaline media, tyrosyl radicals oxidized thiamine to thiochrome, oxodihydrothiochrome, and thiamine disulfide. In the absence of tyrosine, oxoferryl forms of hemoglobin manifested peroxidase activity towards thiamine and its phosphate esters by inducing their oxidation to disulfide compounds, thiochrome, oxodihydrothiochrome, and their phosphate esters, respectively, in neutral media. Thiamine and its phosphate esters were oxidized by both oxoferryl forms of hemoglobin, viz., +*Hb(IV=O) (compound I with an additional radical on the globin) and Hb(IV=O) (compound II). Putative mechanisms of thiamine conversions under oxidative stress and the protective role of hydrophobic thiamine metabolites are discussed.

  3. Enhancement of S-nitrosylation in glycosylated hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón, J; Peiró, C; Cercas, E; Llergo, J L; Sánchez-Ferrer, C F

    2000-04-29

    In this study, we report a novel differential nitric oxide interaction with nonglycosylated and glycosylated hemoglobin. After in vitro incubation of hemoglobin with S-nitroso N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP), S-nitrosoglutathione, or S-nitrosocysteine, S-nitrosylation was significantly higher in human glycosylated hemoglobin purified from diabetic subjects compared to nondiabetic controls. Inversely, spontaneous decomposition was significantly lower for S-nitrosohemoglobin obtained from glycosylated hemoglobin. Bidimensional isoelectric focusing of hemoglobins incubated in vitro with SNAP also revealed a greater interaction of nitric oxide with glycosylated hemoglobin. In addition, a significantly higher level of S-nitrosohemoglobin was found in erythrocyte lysates from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats compared to control rats. We suggest that highly glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic subjects may favor S-nitrosylation, which may in turn impair vascular function, and participate in diabetic microangiopathy. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. Design of recombinant hemoglobins for use in transfusion fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronticelli, Clara; Koehler, Raymond C

    2009-04-01

    Molecular biology has been applied to the development of hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) proteins that can be expressed in bacteria or yeast. The transformation of the hemoglobin molecule into an HBOC requires a variety of modifications for rendering the acellular molecule of hemoglobin physiologically acceptable when transfused in circulation. Hemoglobins with different oxygen affinities can be obtained by introducing mutations at the heme pocket, the site of oxygen binding, or by introducing surface mutations that stabilize the hemoglobin molecule in the low-oxygen-affinity state. Modification of the size of the heme pocket is also used to hinder nitric oxide depletion and associated vasoconstriction. Introduction of cysteine residues on the hemoglobin surface allows formation of intermolecular bonds and formation of polymeric HBOCs. These polymers of recombinant hemoglobin have the characteristics of molecular size, molecular stability, and oxygen delivery to hypoxic tissue suitable for an HBOC.

  5. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Study Findings Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview Dr. Greg Armstrong, ... Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer .) The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study ( CCSS ), funded by the National ...

  6. Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI press release about the launch of the Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors (ROCS) study, which will look at factors affecting cancer progression, recurrence, mortality, and quality of life among African-American cancer survivors.

  7. Secondhand Smoke Still Plagues Some Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166834.html Secondhand Smoke Still Plagues Some Cancer Survivors Study found they ... number of nonsmoking cancer survivors exposed to secondhand smoke is down significantly in the United States, but ...

  8. Carp hemoglobin. II. The alkaline Bohr effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, J C; Mayo, K H

    1980-10-25

    The Bohr effect of carp hemoglobin has been determined by differential titration, by direct acid-base titration, and by calculation from precise oxygen equilibrium data over a wide pH variation. The results for the hemolysate and the two major components are essentially identical. At pH 6.9 in the vicinity of maximum cooperativity and maximum Bohr effect, the protein releases 3.7 protons in the absence of added ions. This Bohr curve above pH 7 is not changed by the presence of 0.05 M 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2',2"-nitrilotriethanol (bis-Tris) buffer, but is changed below the pK of the bis-Tris amine, giving a maximum of 4.3 protons at pH 6.65. In 0.1 M phosphate, the maximum is increased to 6.1 protons and is shifted to pH 7.25. Addition of 1.4 mM P6-inositol lowers the magnitude of the Bohr effect and shifts its maximum to an even higher pH. At the limit of high pH (9.02), without buffer or in bis-Tris, there is a net uptake of about 0.5 proton upon oxygenation. The average heat of ionization of the Bohr groups is 5500 +/- 800 cal. Even though chloride ion has a pronounced effect on the oxygenation properties of carp hemoglobin, it has a small influence on the Bohr effect up to 0.5 M NaCl. In 5 M NaCl, the magnitude of the Bohr effect is reduced by approximately 30%., Acid base titrations give three to four oxygen-linked groups for carp hemoglobin in water; this is increased to about six groups in 2.5 M NaCl. The results suggest that carp hemoglobin is functionally versatile and may provide one way to regulate its CO2 transport via heterotropic allosteric interactions. In phosphate buffer at the pH value where carp hemoglobin is strongly cooperative, the proton release is linear with respect to ligand saturation. Lowering the cooperativity by either an increase or decrease in pH results in nonlinear relationships.

  9. Stroke survivors' experiences of rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peoples, Hanne; Satink, Ton; Steultjens, Esther

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim was to obtain the best available knowledge on stroke survivors' experiences of rehabilitation. The increase in demands for accountability in health care and acknowledgement of the importance of client participation in health decisions calls for systematic ways of integrating...... survivors' experiences of rehabilitation in a clinical setting. Data analysis entailed extracting, editing, grouping, and abstracting findings. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included. One theme, "Power and Empowerment" and six subcategories were identified: 1) Coping with a new situation, 2) Informational...... needs, 3) Physical and non-physical needs, 4) Being personally valued and treated with respect, 5) Collaboration with health care professionals and 6) Assuming responsibility and seizing control. DISCUSSION: The synthesis showed that stroke survivors' experiences of rehabilitation reflected individual...

  10. Cancer survivors' experience of time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dorte M.; Elverdam, Beth

    2007-01-01

    survivors over time to explore how perceptions and experiences change. METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out in 2002-2004 with a purposive sample of adults who had experienced various forms of cancer. Data collection included 9 weeks of participant observation at a Cancer Rehabilitation Centre...... and ethnographic interviews with 23 informants. Ten men and 13 women were interviewed twice: 2 weeks after their stay and 18 months later. FINDINGS: Data were analysed from a culture-analytical perspective. Three main themes regarding the survivors' handling and perception of time were found: (1) cancer disrupts......AIM: This paper reports a study to explore how cancer survivors talk about, experience and manage time in everyday life. BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in specific physical and psychosocial aspects of life after cancer diagnosis and treatment, but hardly any research follows cancer...

  11. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  12. Evaluation of Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring in Surgical Critical Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tim; Yang, Ting; Kim, Joseph B; Romig, Mark C; Sapirstein, Adam; Winters, Bradford D

    2016-06-01

    To assess the clinical utility of noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring based on pulse cooximetry in the ICU setting. A total of 358 surgical patients from a large urban, academic hospital had the noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring pulse cooximeter placed at admission to the ICU. Core and stat laboratory hemoglobin measurements were taken at the discretion of the clinicians, who were blinded to noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring values. There was a poor correlation between the 2,465 time-matched noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring and laboratory hemoglobin measurements (r = 0.29). Bland-Altman analysis showed a positive bias of 1.0 g/dL and limits of agreement of -2.5 to 4.6 g/dL. Accuracy was best at laboratory values of 10.5-14.5 g/dL and least at laboratory values of 6.5-8 g/dL. At hemoglobin values that would ordinarily identify a patient as requiring a transfusion (monitoring consistently overestimated the patient's true hemoglobin. When sequential laboratory values declined below 8 g/dL (n = 102) and 7 g/dL (n = 13), the sensitivity and specificity of noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring at identifying these events were 27% and 7%, respectively. At a threshold of 8 g/dL, continuous noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring values reached the threshold before the labs in 45 of 102 instances (44%) and at 7 g/dL, noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring did so in three of 13 instances (23%). Noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring minus laboratory hemoglobin differences showed an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.47 within individual patients. Longer length of stay and higher All Patient Refined Diagnostic-Related Groups severity of illness were associated with poor noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring accuracy. Although noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring technology holds promise, it is not yet an acceptable substitute for laboratory hemoglobin measurements. Noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring performs most poorly in the lower hemoglobin ranges that include commonly used

  13. A new hemoglobin gene from soybean: a role for hemoglobin in all plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, C R; Jensen, E O; LLewellyn, D J

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a new hemoglobin gene from soybean. It is expressed in cotyledons, stems of seedlings, roots, young leaves, and in some cells in the nodules that are associated with the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium symbiont. This contrasts with the expression of the leghemoglobins, which...... are active only in the infected cells of the nodules. The deduced protein sequence of the new gene shows only 58% similarity to one of the soybean leghemoglobins, but 85-87% similarity to hemoglobins from the nonlegumes Parasponia, Casuarina, and barley. The pattern of expression and the gene sequence...

  14. Rehabilitation interventions for cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Johansen, Christoffer

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Today more and more people survive cancer. Cancer survivors need help to recover both from the cancer and the treatment. Rehabilitative interventions have been set up to meet their needs. However, there are studies that report no major effects following careful, targeted intervention...... parameters in rehabilitation courses for cancer survivors in Denmark. METHODS: The study was based on an ethnographic fieldwork with participant observation at nine week-long courses, on in-depth interviews and on written sources. Fieldwork is well-suited for studying interventions in context, such as social...

  15. Placental weight in pregnancies with high or low hemoglobin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sandra; Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Haavaldsen, Camilla; Eskild, Anne

    2016-11-01

    To study the associations of maternal hemoglobin concentrations with placental weight and placental to birthweight ratio. In this retrospective cohort study, we included all singleton pregnancies during the years 1998-2013 at a large public hospital in Norway (n=57062). We compared mean placental weight and placental to birthweight ratio according to maternal hemoglobin concentrations: 13.5g/dl. The associations of maternal hemoglobin concentrations with placental weight and placental to birthweight ratio were estimated by linear regression analyses, and adjustments were made for gestational age at birth, preeclampsia, parity, maternal age, diabetes, body mass index, smoking, offspring sex and year of birth. In pregnancies with maternal hemoglobin concentrations hemoglobin concentrations 9-13.5g/dl and 655.5g (SD 147.7g) for hemoglobin concentrations >13.5g/dl (ANOVA, phemoglobin concentrations hemoglobin concentrations 9-13.5g/dl (0.193 (SD 0.040)) and >13.5g/dl (0.193 (SD 0.043)). Adjustments for our study factors did not alter the estimates notably. Placental weight decreased with increasing maternal hemoglobin concentrations. The high placental to birthweight ratio with low maternal hemoglobin concentrations suggests differences in placental growth relative to fetal growth across maternal hemoglobin concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Adjuvant Therapy in Cancer Survivors on Endothelial Function and Skeletal Muscle Deoxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederer, Austin K; Didier, Kaylin D; Reiter, Landon K; Brown, Michael; Hardy, Rachel; Caldwell, Jacob; Black, Christopher D; Larson, Rebecca D; Ade, Carl J

    2016-01-01

    The cardiotoxic effects of adjuvant cancer treatments (i.e., chemotherapy and radiation treatment) have been well documented, but the effects on peripheral cardiovascular function are still unclear. We hypothesized that cancer survivors i) would have decreased resting endothelial function; and ii) altered muscle deoxygenation response during moderate intensity cycling exercise compared to cancer-free controls. A total of 8 cancer survivors (~70 months post-treatment) and 9 healthy controls completed a brachial artery FMD test, an index of endothelial-dependent dilation, followed by an incremental exercise test up to the ventilatory threshold (VT) on a cycle ergometer during which pulmonary V̇O2 and changes in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived microvascular tissue oxygenation (TOI), total hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]total), and muscle deoxygenation ([HHb] ≈ fractional O2 extraction) were measured. There were no significant differences in age, height, weight, and resting blood pressure between cancer survivors and control participants. Brachial artery FMD was similar between groups (P = 0.98). During exercise at the VT, TOI was similar between groups, but [Hb]total and [HHb] were significantly decreased in cancer survivors compared to controls (P muscle microvascular function was observed during moderate intensity cycling exercise. These data suggest that adjuvant cancer therapies have an effect on the integrated relationship between O2 extraction, V̇O2 and O2 delivery during exercise.

  17. Survivor care for pediatric cancer survivors: a continuously evolving discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Elizabeth O; Meacham, Lillian R

    2015-07-01

    This article summarizes recent findings regarding the prevalence of chronic health conditions, cardiovascular and pulmonary late effects, and second malignancies in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), and examines facilitators and barriers to survivor care. The estimated cumulative prevalence for a serious chronic disease in CCSs is 80% by age 45. The crude prevalence for cardiac conditions is 56.4% and for pulmonary dysfunction is 65.2%. Research in cardio-oncology is focused on better methods of predicting risk for cardiac dysfunction, and better methods of detection and interventions to prevent cardiac late effects. Pulmonary late effects, recognized to be a significant cause of late mortality, were detected by surveillance tests in more than 50% of CCSs but are often subclinical. Rates of subsequent malignant neoplasm continue to increase as the population ages. All of these factors make it clear that life-long surveillance is required and models of care should consider risk for late effects and socioeconomic and patient-specific factors. It is becoming clear that there is no age after which the occurrence of late effects plateaus and surveillance can be reduced. Survivors should be empowered to advocate for their survivor care and options for follow-up should be tailored to their needs.

  18. Predictors of hemoglobin in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that blood donors are at increased risk of iron deficiency and subsequent development of iron deficiency anemia. We aimed to investigate the effect of factors influencing hemoglobin (Hb) levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Initiated in 2010, the Danish Blood Donor Study...... for the prediction of Hb. RESULTS: The strongest predictors of Hb and risk of low Hb were low ferritin (iron supplementation (yes/no). No dietary factors were found to be consistently significant in multivariable models predicting Hb levels, risk of having low Hb, or risk of a decrease...

  19. Health Behaviors of Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Ford

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic increase in the number of childhood cancer survivors living to an old age due to improved cancer treatments. However, these survivors are at risk of numerous late effects as a result of their cancer therapy. Engaging in protective health behaviors and limiting health damaging behaviors are vitally important for these survivors given their increased risks. We reviewed the literature on childhood cancer survivors’ health behaviors by searching for published data and conference proceedings. We examine the prevalence of a variety of health behaviors among childhood cancer survivors, identify significant risk factors, and describe health behavior interventions for survivors.

  20. Communication dilemmas in the context of cancer: survivors' and partners' strategies for communicating throughout survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura E

    2014-12-01

    More people are now living longer beyond cancer treatment and are facing the complexities associated with survivorship. Communicating amid a cancer experience, for example, can be difficult for couples, and survivors must face these challenges for extended periods of time. The current study employed a communication perspective to explore couples' conversations throughout cancer survivorship. In-depth interviews with 35 cancer survivors and 25 partners yielded insight into the specific communicative challenges couples face after completing cancer treatment. The data highlight cancer's lingering uncertainties and are discussed in terms of the dyadic challenges inherent in couples' communicative efforts.

  1. Psychosexual functioning of childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, E M; van Dulmen-den Broeder, E; Kaspers, G J L; van Dam, E W C M; Braam, K I; Huisman, J

    2008-05-01

    The objective of the study is to explore psychosexual functioning and its relationship with quality of life in survivors of cancer in childhood. Sixty childhood cancer survivors completed two questionnaires: psychosexual and social functioning questionnaire and MOS-SF-36. Psychosexual problems were frequent. About 20% of the survivors felt a limitation in their sexual life due to their illness. Older survivors (> or =25 years) had significantly less experience with sexual intercourse than their age-matched peers in the Dutch population (p = 0.010). Survivors treated in adolescence had a delay in achieving psychosexual milestones compared with those treated in childhood: dating (ppsychosexual problems compared with survivors without these problems. In this cohort of childhood cancer survivors, psychosexual problems were frequent. Treatment in adolescence is a risk factor for a delay in psychosexual development. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Separation of myoglobin and hemoglobin in isolated perfused pig heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Robert; Hiller, Michael; Trinks, Tobias; Kessler, Manfred D.

    2001-10-01

    For the quantitative determination of hemoglobin concentration in heart muscle it is important to distinguish between myoglobin and hemoglobin, two dyes with very similar optical absorption properties. With an isolated perfused pig heart model and EMPHO II SSK we measured tissue spectra in the visible range before and after adding erythrocytes to the perfusate. By calculating light intensity differences we were able to show spatial hemoglobin distribution in heart muscle.

  3. A review of variant hemoglobins interfering with hemoglobin A1c measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Randie R; Roberts, William L

    2009-05-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is used routinely to monitor long-term glycemic control in people with diabetes mellitus, as HbA1c is related directly to risks for diabetic complications. The accuracy of HbA1c methods can be affected adversely by the presence of hemoglobin (Hb) variants or elevated levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF). The effect of each variant or elevated HbF must be examined with each specific method. The most common Hb variants worldwide are HbS, HbE, HbC, and HbD. All of these Hb variants have single amino acid substitutions in the Hb beta chain. HbF is the major hemoglobin during intrauterine life; by the end of the first year, HbF falls to values close to adult levels of approximately 1%. However, elevated HbF levels can occur in certain pathologic conditions or with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin. In a series of publications over the past several years, the effects of these four most common Hb variants and elevated HbF have been described. There are clinically significant interferences with some methods for each of these variants. A summary is given showing which methods are affected by the presence of the heterozygous variants S, E, C, and D and elevated HbF. Methods are divided by type (immunoassay, ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, boronate affinity, other) with an indication of whether the result is artificially increased or decreased by the presence of a Hb variant. Laboratorians should be aware of the limitations of their method with respect to these interferences. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. Hemoglobin concentration in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harusato, Ichiko; Fukui, Michiaki; Tanaka, Muhei; Shiraishi, Emi; Senmaru, Takafumi; Sakabe, Kazumi; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto

    2010-06-01

    Anemia is a common but often overlooked complication of diabetes. We investigated the relationship between hemoglobin concentration and various factors as well as markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hemoglobin concentration was measured in 319 men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We evaluated the relationship between hemoglobin concentration and various factors including age, body mass index, and glycemic control, as well as between hemoglobin concentration and pulse wave velocity or ankle-brachial index (n = 209) and between hemoglobin concentration and carotid intima-media thickness or plaque score (n = 125). Mean hemoglobin concentration was 14.2 +/- 0.80 g/dL. Body mass index (r = 0.340, P identified age (beta = -0.222, P = .0019), body mass index (beta = 0.145, P = .0432), systolic blood pressure (beta = 0.214, P = .0015), total cholesterol concentration (beta = 0.170, P = .0077), and serum creatinine concentration (beta = -0.181, P = .0045) as independent determinants of hemoglobin concentration. No significant association was observed between hemoglobin concentration and serum erythropoietin concentration (r = -0.079, P = .2980). Negative correlations were found between hemoglobin concentration and pulse wave velocity (r = -0.289, P subclinical markers of atherosclerosis in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A2 assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (hereditary hemolytic anemias characterized by decreased synthesis of one or more types of hemoglobin polypeptide chains). (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [45 FR 60617, Sept. 12, 1980] ...

  6. Survivor-Victim Status, Attachment, and Sudden Death Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mark D.; Greenwald, Jason Y.

    1991-01-01

    Examined significance of survivor-victim relationship in understanding grief following sudden death bereavement by suicide or accident. Results showed that survivor-victim attachment was more important than survivor status (parent versus sibling/child) in explaining grief reactions. Compared to accident survivors, suicide survivors experienced…

  7. hgpB, a Gene Encoding a Second Haemophilus influenzae Hemoglobin- and Hemoglobin-Haptoglobin-Binding Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Zhen; Jin, Hongfan; Morton, Daniel J.; Stull, Terrence L.

    1998-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae requires heme for growth and can utilize both hemoglobin and hemoglobin-haptoglobin as heme sources. We previously identified a hemoglobin- and hemoglobin-haptoglobin-binding protein, HgpA, in H. influenzae HI689. Mutation of hgpA did not affect binding or utilization of either heme source. The hgpA mutant exhibited loss of a 120-kDa protein and increased expression of a 115-kDa protein. These data suggested that at least one other gene product is involved in binding of...

  8. Psychosocial Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jennifer S.; Chou, Joanne F.; Sklar, Charles A.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Novetsky Friedman, Danielle; McCabe, Mary; Robison, Leslie L.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Li, Yuelin; Marr, Brian P.; Abramson, David H.; Dunkel, Ira J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Survival rates for individuals diagnosed with retinoblastoma (RB) exceed 95% in the United States; however, little is known about the long-term psychosocial outcomes of these survivors. Patients and Methods Adult RB survivors, diagnosed from 1932 to 1994 and treated in New York, completed a comprehensive questionnaire adapted from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), by mail or telephone. Psychosocial outcomes included psychological distress, anxiety, depression, somatization, fear of cancer recurrence, satisfaction with facial appearance, post-traumatic growth, and post-traumatic stress symptoms; noncancer CCSS siblings served as a comparison group. Results A total of 470 RB survivors (53.6% with bilateral RB; 52.1% female) and 2,820 CCSS siblings were 43.3 (standard deviation [SD], 11) years and 33.2 (SD, 8.4) years old at the time of study, respectively. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, RB survivors did not have significantly higher rates of depression, somatization, distress, or anxiety compared with CCSS siblings. Although RB survivors were more likely to report post-traumatic stress symptoms of avoidance and/or hyperarousal (both P < .01), only five (1.1%) of 470 met criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Among survivors, having a chronic medical condition did not increase the likelihood of psychological problems. Bilateral RB survivors were more likely than unilateral RB survivors to experience fears of cancer recurrence (P < .01) and worry about their children being diagnosed with RB (P < .01). However, bilateral RB survivors were no more likely to report depression, anxiety, or somatic complaints than unilateral survivors. Conclusion Most RB survivors do not have poorer psychosocial functioning compared with a noncancer sample. In addition, bilateral and unilateral RB survivors seem similar with respect to their psychological symptoms. PMID:26417002

  9. A linear relationship between serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein and hemoglobin in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Behzad; Fazli, Muhammad Reza; Misaeid, Muhammad Ali Ghazi; Heidari, Parham; Hakimi, Niloofar; Zeraati, Abbas Ali

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory process in hemodialysis patients involves hematopoiesis. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) as a marker of inflammation with hemoglobin in patients under hemodialysis. Patients under maintenance hemodialysis for more than 3 months were studied. Serum high-sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) was measured by immunoturbidimetric method and hemoglobin High serum hs-CRP (> 5 mg/l) was found in 42 (57.5 %) and anemia in 32 (43.8 %) patients. High CRP was significantly associated with anemia OR = 20.8 (95 % CI 5.35-81, p = 0.001). After adjustment for age, dialysis duration, blood indices and serum albumin, the odds of anemia in the high CRP group remained at a significant level of 16.7 (95 % CI 3.7-75, p = 0.001). Hemoglobin levels conversely correlated with serum hs-CRP (r = -0.607, r (2) = 0.36, p = 0.001). In linear regression analysis for each 1 mg/l increase in serum hs-CRP, hemoglobin value increased by 12.4 % (p = 0.002). Serum iron at cutoff level of 54 µg/dl discriminated patients with and without iron deficiency anemia with sensitivity of 93.3 %, specificity of 84 % and accuracy of 90 % (AUC ± SE = 0.901 ± 0.04 (95 % CI, 0.805-0.998, p = 0.001). These findings indicate that in hemodialysis patients, the inflammatory process alters hemoglobin level in converse correlation with CRP concentration with a linear relationship pattern. Serum iron high accuracy.

  10. Combinatorics of giant hexagonal bilayer hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanin, L G; Vinogradov, S N

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses combinatorial and probabilistic models allowing to characterize various aspects of spacial symmetry and structural heterogeneity of the giant hexagonal bilayer hemoglobins (HBL Hb). Linker-dodecamer configurations of HBL are described for two and four linker types (occurring in the two most studied HBL Hb of Arenicola and Lumbricus, respectively), and the most probable configurations are found. It is shown that, for HBL with marked dodecamers, the number of 'normal-marked' pairs of dodecamers in homological position follows a binomial distribution. The group of symmetries of the dodecamer substructure of HBL is identified with the dihedral group D6. Under natural symmetry assumptions, the total dipole moment of the dodecamer substructure of HBL is shown to be zero. Biological implications of the mathematical findings are discussed.

  11. Rare hemoglobin variants in Tunisian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorai, A; Moumni, I; Mosbahi, I; Douzi, K; Chaouachi, D; Guemira, F; Abbes, S

    2015-04-01

    During the last 30 years, many studies concerning hemoglobinopathies were realized among Tunisians. More than twenty different thalassemic alleles were detected on the β-globin gene, and less are affecting the α-globin genes. Unusual hemoglobin (Hb) variants other than Hb S, Hb C, and Hb O-arab, which are the most frequent variants in Tunisia, were also detected. Eight Tunisian subjects were studied at phenotypic and molecular levels. Hematological indices and hemoglobin (Hb) pattern were performed by alkaline electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing (IEF),and the Hb fractions were quantitated by cation exchange HPLC. On genomic level, coding regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by a sequencing of the purified PCR products using the dye terminator method. Seven uncommon Hb variants were detected and described for the first time among Tunisians. HbA2-Tunis [δ46(CD5), Gly → Glu, GGG → GAG] is the newly described δ-chain variant in our laboratory, and some other variants (Hb Constant Spring, G San Jose, and Hb J-Bangkok) are very uncommon in the Mediterranean region. We present here an updated review of the Hb variants detected among Tunisians. Twenty-one rare Hb variants were detected affecting the α1-, α2-, δ-, γ-, and β-globin genes, leading in some cases to a severe phenotype especially when the stability is completely altered. The ethnical history of Tunisia could explain this important variability of the observed rare Hb variants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Study of methyl bromide reactivity with human and mouse hemoglobin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study has been carried out on in-vitro reactivity of human and mouse hemoglobin spectrophotometrically at physiological pH, using different protein to reagent ratios. Hemoglobin side chains were modified with different concentrations of methyl bromide on agro-soil fumigant. To ascertain if the site of alkylation was the ...

  13. Truncated hemoglobins in actinorhizal nodules of Datisca glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, K; Jacobsen, K R; Alloisio, N; Ford Denison, R; Klein, M; Tjepkema, J D; Winzer, T; Sirrenberg, A; Guan, C; Berry, A M

    2007-11-01

    Three types of hemoglobins exist in higher plants, symbiotic, non-symbiotic, and truncated hemoglobins. Symbiotic (class II) hemoglobins play a role in oxygen supply to intracellular nitrogen-fixing symbionts in legume root nodules, and in one case ( Parasponia Sp.), a non-symbiotic (class I) hemoglobin has been recruited for this function. Here we report the induction of a host gene, dgtrHB1, encoding a truncated hemoglobin in Frankia-induced nodules of the actinorhizal plant Datisca glomerata. Induction takes place specifically in cells infected by the microsymbiont, prior to the onset of bacterial nitrogen fixation. A bacterial gene (Frankia trHBO) encoding a truncated hemoglobin with O (2)-binding kinetics suitable for the facilitation of O (2) diffusion ( ) is also expressed in symbiosis. Nodule oximetry confirms the presence of a molecule that binds oxygen reversibly in D. glomerata nodules, but indicates a low overall hemoglobin concentration suggesting a local function. Frankia trHbO is likely to be responsible for this activity. The function of the D. glomerata truncated hemoglobin is unknown; a possible role in nitric oxide detoxification is suggested.

  14. Determinants of hemoglobin level in adolescence students at Gaza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Hemoglobin (Hb) level could be affected by different interfering factors that include nutritional, socio-demographical, economical, and habitual determinant factors. The present study was designed to identify possible factors that could affect the hemoglobin level in adolescence students (14-22 years) at Gaza Strip, ...

  15. Fetal hemoglobin during infancy and in sickle cell adults | Edoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fetal hemoglobin has been implicated in the modulation of sickle cell crisis though it is functional during infancy. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the waning time of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and its persistence in later life. Method: Ninety infants aged 0-12 months, admitted at hospital, were ...

  16. Biphasic Oxidation of Oxy-Hemoglobin in Bloodstains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, R.H.; de Bruin, D.M.; de Joode, M.; Buma, W.J.; van Leeuwen, T.G.; Aalders, M.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb) and hemichrome (HC). The fractions

  17. Molecular evolution of hemoglobins of Antarctic fishes (Notothenioidei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, W.T.; Beintema, J.J; D Avino, R.; Tamburrini, M.; di Prisco, G.

    1997-01-01

    Amino acid sequences of alpha- and beta-chains of human hemoglobin and of hemoglobins of coelacanth and 24 teleost fish species, including 11 antarctic and two temperate Notothenioidei, were analyzed using maximum parsimony. Trees were derived for the alpha- and beta-chains separately and for

  18. Symbiotic and nonsymbiotic hemoglobin genes of Casuarina glauca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen-Lyon, K; Jensen, Erik Østergaard; Jørgensen, Jan-Elo

    1995-01-01

    Casuarina glauca has a gene encoding hemoglobin (cashb-nonsym). This gene is expressed in a number of plant tissues. Casuarina also has a second family of hemoglobin genes (cashb-sym) expressed at a high level in the nodules that Casuarina forms in a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the actinomycete...

  19. Polymerization of binary mixtures of hemoglobin S and carbamylated hemoglobin S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, C Y; Asakura, T; Adachi, K

    1984-01-10

    To study the mode of interaction between hemoglobin (Hb) S and carbamylated Hb S, the kinetics of polymerization of various mixtures of deoxy-Hb S and NH2 termini carbamylated Hb S in concentrated phosphate buffer was determined. These mixtures were found to polymerize with a clear demonstration of a delay time as does each hemoglobin in its pure form. Both the delay and the polymerization times were prolonged as the fraction of carbamylated Hb S was increased. Electrophoretic analysis of the polymer fraction showed that the amount of carbamylated Hb S increased linearly in the polymer phase with increases in the fraction of carbamylated Hb S in the starting mixture. The ratio of Hb S to carbamylated Hb S in the polymer phase was slightly higher than that in the initial solution mixture, suggesting that Hb S polymerizes more easily than carbamylated Hb S. To examine the role of hybrid hemoglobin in the binary mixtures of carbamylated Hb S and Hb S, we compared the rate of polymerization under which hybrid formation may be prevented or allowed to take place. It was found that the rate of polymerization for the mixtures of carbamylated Hb S and Hb S mixed in the oxy state did not differ from that mixed in the deoxy state. In addition, polymerization occurred even when the critical concentration of each component in the mixture was lower than that of either pure Hb S or pure carbamylated Hb S. These results suggest that all hemoglobin species can participate in the nucleation and polymerization steps of mixtures of carbamylated Hb S and Hb S.

  20. INTRINSIC REGULATION OF HEMOGLOBIN EXPRESSION BY VARIABLE SUBUNIT INTERFACE STRENGTHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, James M.; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Padovan, Julio C.; Chait, Brian T.; Manning, Lois R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The expression of the six types of human hemoglobin subunits over time is currently considered to be regulated mainly by transcription factors that bind to upstream control regions of the gene (the “extrinsic” component of regulation). Here we describe how subunit pairing and further assembly to tetramers in the liganded state is influenced by the affinity of subunits for one another (the “intrinsic” component of regulation). The adult hemoglobin dimers have the strongest subunit interfaces and the embryonic hemoglobins are the weakest with fetal hemoglobins of intermediate strength, corresponding to the temporal order of their expression. These variable subunit binding strengths and the attenuating effects of acetylation contribute to the differences with which these hemoglobin types form functional O2-binding tetramers consistent with gene switching. PMID:22129306

  1. GLYCATED HEMOGLOBIN AND FRUCTOSAMINE IN DOGS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olair Carlos Beltrame

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM commonly occurs in dogs, and the laboratorial confirmation is carried out by glycemia test. The diagnosis and monitoring in humans is made by glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine concentrations. The objective of this study was to diagnose DM in 19 dogs, by evaluating seric glucose, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine concentrations. Six dogs with DM and treated with insulin were assisted during a twelve-month period, by means of the same blood analysis, until the death (three dogs or glycemic control (three dogs. Glucose, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine increased in all dogs with DM, and dogs that did not survive presented higher glycated hemoglobin and seric glucose values than those that survived at the last evaluation. The results showed the importance of evaluating glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine in dogs with DM to diagnose and control treatment effectiveness.

  2. Managing chronic pain in survivors of torture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, Kirstine; Williams, Amanda C de C

    2015-01-01

    and welfare problems; persistent pain in the musculoskeletal system is one of the most common. There is little specific evidence on pain in survivors of torture; the guidelines on interdisciplinary specialist management are applicable. Most of the literature on refugee survivors of torture has an exclusive...... focus on psychological disorders, with particularly poor understanding of pain problems. This article summarizes the current status of assessment and treatment of pain problems in the torture survivor....

  3. Propofol Enhances Hemoglobin-Induced Cytotoxicity in Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Cui, Guiyun; Li, Wenlu; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Xiaoying; Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Jian; Xiang, Shuanglin; Xie, Zhongcong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND It has been increasingly suggested that propofol protects against hypoxic-/ischemic-induced neuronal injury. As evidenced by hemorrhage-induced stroke, hemorrhage into the brain may also cause brain damage. Whether propofol protects against hemorrhage-induced brain damage remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of propofol on hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity in cultured mouse cortical neurons. METHODS Neurons were prepared from the cortex of embryonic 15-day-old mice. Hemoglobin was used to induce cytotoxicity in the neurons. The neurons were then treated with propofol for 4 hours. Cytotoxicity was determined by lactate dehydrogenase release assay. Caspase-3 activation was examined by Western blot analysis. Finally, the free radical scavenger U83836E was used to examine the potential involvement of oxidative stress in propofol’s effects on hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity. RESULTS We found that treatment with hemoglobin induced cytotoxicity in the neurons. Propofol enhanced hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity. Specifically, there was a significant difference in the amount of lactate dehydrogenase release between hemoglobin plus saline (19.84% ± 5.38%) and hemoglobin plus propofol (35.79% ± 4.41%) in mouse cortical neurons (P = 0.00058, Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney U test, n = 8 in the control group or the treatment group). U83836E did not attenuate the enhancing effects of propofol on hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity in the neurons, and propofol did not significantly affect caspase-3 activation induced by hemoglobin. These data suggested that caspase-3 activation and oxidative stress might not be the underlying mechanisms by which propofol enhanced hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, these data suggested that the neuroprotective effects of propofol would be dependent on the condition of the brain injury, which will need to be confirmed in future studies. CONCLUSIONS These results from our current proof-of-concept study should

  4. Effect of Multiple Mutations in the Hemoglobin- and Hemoglobin-Haptoglobin-Binding Proteins, HgpA, HgpB, and HgpC, of Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Daniel J.; Whitby, Paul W.; Jin, Hongfan; Ren, Zhen; Stull, Terrence L.

    1999-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae requires heme for growth and can utilize hemoglobin and hemoglobin-haptoglobin as heme sources. We previously identified two hemoglobin- and hemoglobin-haptoglobin-binding proteins, HgpA and HgpB, in H. influenzae HI689. Insertional mutation of hgpA and hgpB, either singly or together, did not abrogate the ability to utilize or bind either hemoglobin or the hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. A hemoglobin affinity purification method was used to isolate a protein of approxi...

  5. Diffusion coefficients of oxygen and hemoglobin as obtained simultaneously from photometric determination of the oxygenation of layers of hemoglobin solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, J. A.; Kreuzer, F.; van Wely, F. K.

    1980-01-01

    The oxygenation of layers of deoxygenated hemoglobin solutions after a sudden exposure to a gas containing oxygen at a partial pressure P1 has been studied by a photometric method. Layer thicknesses varied between 50 and 250 micron, hemoglobin concentrations between 0.1 and 0.34kg/l, and oxygen

  6. Physical sequelae and depressive symptoms in gynecologic cancer survivors: meaning in life as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, Laura E; Fowler, Jeffrey; Maxwell, G Larry; Andersen, Barbara L

    2008-06-01

    Continuing symptoms and poor health following cancer treatments may alter meaning in life for cancer survivors. Gynecologic cancer survivors are particularly troubled with physical sequelae. In addition, for the most common sites of disease, such as breast and gynecologic cancers, the prevalence of depression is also high. This study tests meaning in life as a mechanism for the relationship between physical symptoms and depressive symptoms. Gynecologic cancer survivors (N = 260) participated. Measures of physical sequelae (nurse rated symptoms/signs, patient-reported gynecologic symptoms), meaning in life (harmony, life purpose, spirituality, and conversely, confusion and loss), and depressive symptoms were obtained at the time of a routine clinical follow-up visit 2-10 years following the completion of treatment. Latent variables were defined, and structural equation modeling tested a mediator model. Analyses support partial mediation. That is, survivors with more physical sequelae also reported lower levels of meaning in life, which was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. Gynecologic cancer patients have been neglected in psychosocial research, and findings highlight the importance of existential issues in their lives. While many adjust well, those with persistent physical functioning deficits may experience depressive symptoms. By appreciating the role of meaning in their experience, we may help survivors foster their own growth and perspectives important for their future.

  7. Performance care practices in complementary and alternative medicine by Thai breast cancer survivors: an ethnonursing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanchai, Ausanee; Armer, Jane M; Stewart, Bob R

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how Thai breast cancer survivors perform care practices in complementary and alternative medicine to promote their health and well-being. Research was conducted using an ethnonursing method. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 17 Thai breast cancer survivors in Thailand. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using the ethnonursing analysis method. The findings showed Thai breast cancer survivors started their care practices in complementary and alternative medicine immediately following a diagnosis of breast cancer. They sought out and gathered alternative medicine information from several sources, such as the people around them, media resources, books, magazines, or newspapers. After gathering information, Thai breast cancer survivors would try out various types of complementary medicines rather than use only one type because of information from other people and their own evaluation. The findings of this study indicate the need for a conversation about complementary medicine use between healthcare providers and Thai breast cancer survivors as an on-going process throughout the cancer trajectory to ensure that safe and holistic care is provided. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Hemoglobin and red blood cells catalyze atom transfer radical polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tilana B; Spulber, Mariana; Kocik, Marzena K; Seidi, Farzad; Charan, Himanshu; Rother, Martin; Sigg, Severin J; Renggli, Kasper; Kali, Gergely; Bruns, Nico

    2013-08-12

    Hemoglobin (Hb) is a promiscuous protein that not only transports oxygen, but also catalyzes several biotransformations. A novel in vitro catalytic activity of Hb is described. Bovine Hb and human erythrocytes were found to display ATRPase activity, i.e., they catalyzed the polymerization of vinyl monomers under conditions typical for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm), poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGA), and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) were polymerized using organobromine initiators and the reducing agent ascorbic acid in acidic aqueous solution. In order to avoid chain transfer from polymer radicals to Hb's cysteine residues, the accessible cysteines were blocked by a reaction with a maleimide. The formation of polymers with bromine chain ends, relatively low polydispersity indices (PDI), first order kinetics and an increase in the molecular weight of poly(PEGA) and poly(PEGMA) upon conversion indicate that control of the polymerization by Hb occurred via reversible atom transfer between the protein and the growing polymer chain. For poly(PEGA) and poly(PEGMA), the reactions proceeded with a good to moderate degree of control. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and time-resolved ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy revealed that the protein was stable during polymerization, and only underwent minor conformational changes. As Hb and erythrocytes are readily available, environmentally friendly, and nontoxic, their ATRPase activity is a useful tool for synthetic polymer chemistry. Moreover, this novel activity enhances the understanding of Hb's redox chemistry in the presence of organobromine compounds.

  9. Histopathologic Study Following Administration of Liposome-Encapsulated Hemoglobin in the Normovolemic Rat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudolph, Alan

    1995-01-01

    ... bovine hemoglobin in the normovolemic rat. We have also examined the administration of the liposome vehicle, tetrameric bovine hemoglobin, and liposome encapsulated bovine hemoglobin that had been lyophilized with 300 mM trehalose...

  10. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin genes involves

  11. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Ruth B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon

  12. Functional differentiation in trematode hemoglobin isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, A K; Weber, R E

    1999-03-01

    The Hbs and the major electrophoretic Hb components (isoHbs) were isolated from three species of the trematodes, Explanatum explanatum (Ee), Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc) and Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), that parasitise the common Indian water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. The Hbs are monomeric and resemble the so-called nonfunctional mutant hemoglobins that have Tyr at B10 or E7 positions (replacing Leu and the His residues, respectively). However, they are capable of binding with O2 and CO. O2 equilibrium studies of trematode Hb isoforms reveal extremely high O2 affinities, with half-saturation O2 tension (P50) values up to 800 times lower than those of human hemoglobins. This correlates with Tyr residues at B10 and at the distal position (E7) that decrease the O2 dissociation rate by contributing hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) to the bound O2. These substitutions also increase the O2 association rates either due to orientation of E7-Tyr towards the solvent and/or by sterically hindering the entry of water molecules into the heme pocket. The latter may account for the low rate of autoxidation of trematode Hbs. The Hbs and their isoforms from different species exhibited pronounced variation in O2 affinity, which may relate to subtle differences in the structure of the heme pocket. The O2 affinities of the composite (unfractionated) Hbs were intermediate to those of the individual Hb isoform. The P50 values of Hbs here obtained by direct O2 equilibrium measurements differed from those calculated from kinetic data already published [Kiger, L., Rashid, A. K., Griffon, N., Haque, M., Moens, L.,Gibson, Q. H., Poyart, C., & Marden, M. C. (1998). Biophys. J. 75, 990-998.] Intermediate state(s) due to slow reorientation of E7-Tyr may account for this difference. Some Hb isoforms showed slight (either normal or reverse) Bohr effects. The hyperbolic O2 equilibrium curve, Hill coefficient (n) values near unity accord with a monomeric nature of trematode Hbs. In marked contrast to

  13. [Beta globin haplotypes in hemoglobin S carriers in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Claudia Liliana; Morales, Olga Lucía; Echeverri, Sandra Johanna; Isaza, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The hemoglobin S (HbS) mutation is accompanied by other mutations in the region of chromosome 11 known as "beta globin cluster". The pattern of combination of these polymorphisms giving rise to the haplotypes that co-inherit the HbS mutation, are called haplotypes bs, and are of great epidemiological and clinical significance. The frequencies of major haplotypes associated with S beta-globin gene was determined in Colombian patients heterozygous for hemoglobin S. As part of the national neonatal screening program at Clínica Colsanitas, located in major cities of Colombia, nearly 1,200 children from different areas of the country were examined for hemoglobinopathies. The sickle cell trait was identified as the most common. S beta-globin gene haplotypes were determined by PCR and restriction enzymes in 33 children with AS hemoglobin electrophoretic patterns (carrier state). In addition, electrophoretic patterns of hemoglobin, fetal hemoglobin levels and hematologic parameters of each individual were identified. The most frequent haplotypes in Colombia were the Bantú haplotype (36.4 %), followed by Senegal (30.3 %), Benin (21.2 %) and Cameroon (12.1 %) haplotypes. Hemoglobin electrophoresis confirmed the AS phenotype in all patients, and fetal hemoglobin levels below 1%. Other hematological parameters were normal in all cases. The HbS haplotypes found more frequently in the sample were of African origin, and their distribution varied according to the place of origin of the individual. The most frequent corresponded to the Bantu haplotype.

  14. [Analysis of clinical phenotype and genotype of unstable Hemoglobin Rush].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shijun; Yang, Biqing; Yi, Wei; Huang, Kai; Liu, Hongxian; Huang, Xiaoqin; Chu, Jiayou; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2017-02-10

    To analyze the hematological and genetic characteristics of unstable hemoglobin Rush (Hb Rush) and compound heterozygote of Hb Rush and thalassemia. Peripheral blood samples and genomic DNA from three patients (including two ethnic Dai and one Han Chinese) with anemia of undetermined origin were collected. Hematological phenotypes of these patients were determined through red blood cell analysis and hemoglobin electrophoresis. Genotypes of alpha- and beta-globin genes, -158 XmnⅠ polymorphic site of Gγ promoter region, and haplotypes of 7 polymorphic restriction sites in the beta-globin gene cluster were determined using PCR-based methods and DNA sequencing. All patients have presented hypochromic microcytic anemia and hemoglobin fraction with significant increased measurement (30.5%-59.2%) in the region of fetal hemoglobin during alkaline medium electrophoresis. DNA analysis suggested that all patients have carried mutations leading to the unstable hemoglobin Rush (HBB codon 101, GAG>CAG, Glu>Gln). Two of them were compound heterozygotes of Hb Rush and thalassemia mutations of -α 3.7,CD17 and Hb E, respectively. Hb Rush mutation was associated with various haplotypes of the β-globin gene cluster. No significant association was found between increased abnormal hemoglobin fraction in the region of Hb F and the polymorphism of Gγ promoter or large deletion of the beta-globin gene cluster. This study has confirmed the distribution of Hb Rush among various Chinese populations and is the third report of its kind. Hb Rush can result in increased measurement of hemoglobin fraction in the region of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) during routine hemoglobin electrophoresis under alkaline condition. Hb Rush heterozygote alone can lead to hypochromic microcytic anemia and thalassemia-like phenotype. Prenatal diagnosis of Hb Rush is necessary for carriers.

  15. Effect of hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients with asymptomatic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, R N; Parfrey, P S; Morgan, J; Barré, P E; Campbell, P; Cartier, P; Coyle, D; Fine, A; Handa, P; Kingma, I; Lau, C Y; Levin, A; Mendelssohn, D; Muirhead, N; Murphy, B; Plante, R K; Posen, G; Wells, G A

    2000-09-01

    Hemoglobin levels below 10 g/dL lead to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, LV dilation, a lower quality of life, higher cardiac morbidity, and a higher mortality rate in end-stage renal disease. The benefits and risks of normalizing hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients without symptomatic cardiac disease are unknown. One hundred forty-six hemodialysis patients with either concentric LV hypertrophy or LV dilation were randomly assigned to receive doses of epoetin alpha designed to achieve hemoglobin levels of 10 or 13.5 g/dL. The study duration was 48 weeks. The primary outcomes were the change in LV mass index in those with concentric LV hypertrophy and the change in cavity volume index in those with LV dilation. In patients with concentric LV hypertrophy, the changes in LV mass index were similar in the normal and low target hemoglobin groups. The changes in cavity volume index were similar in both targets in the LV dilation group. Treatment-received analysis of the concentric LV hypertrophy group showed no correlation between the change in mass index and a correlation between the change in LV volume index and mean hemoglobin level achieved (8 mL/m2 per 1 g/dL hemoglobin decrement, P = 0.009). Mean hemoglobin levels and the changes in LV mass and cavity volume index were not correlated in patients with LV dilation. Normalization of hemoglobin led to improvements in fatigue (P = 0.009), depression (P = 0.02), and relationships (P = 0.004). Normalization of hemoglobin does not lead to regression of established concentric LV hypertrophy or LV dilation. It may, however, prevent the development of LV dilation, and it leads to improved quality of life.

  16. Noninvasive hemoglobin measurement using dynamic spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Spectroscopy methods for noninvasive hemoglobin (Hgb) measurement are interfered by individual difference and particular weak signal. In order to address these problems, we have put forward a series of improvement methods based on dynamic spectrum (DS), including instrument design, spectrum extraction algorithm, and modeling approach. The instrument adopts light sources composed of eight laser diodes with the wavelength range from 600 nm to 1100 nm and records photoplethysmography signals at eight wavelengths synchronously. In order to simplify the optical design, we modulate the light sources with orthogonal square waves and design the corresponding demodulation algorithm, instead of adopting a beam-splitting system. A newly designed algorithm named difference accumulation has been proved to be effective in improving the accuracy of dynamic spectrum extraction. 220 subjects are involved in the clinical experiment. An extreme learning machine calibration model between the DS data and the Hgb levels is established. Correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error of prediction sets are 0.8645 and 8.48 g/l, respectively. The results indicate that the Hgb level can be derived by this approach noninvasively with acceptable precision and accuracy. It is expected to achieve a clinic application in the future.

  17. NITRO MUSK BOUND TO CARP HEMOGLOBIN ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitroaromatic compounds including synthetic nitro musks are important raw materials and intermediates in the synthesis of explosives, dyes, and pesticides, pharmaceutical and personal care-products (PPCPs). The nitro musks such as musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) are extensively used as fragrance ingredients in PPCPs and other commercial toiletries. Identification and quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX (4-AMX) metabolite as well as a 2- amino-MK (2-AMK) metabolite were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry' (GC/MS), with selected ion monitoring (SIM) in both the electron ionization (ElMS) and electron capture (EC) negative ion chemical ionization (NICIMS) modes. Detection of 4-AMX and 2-AMK occurred after the cysteine adducts in carp hemoglobin, derived from the nitroso metabolites, were released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released metabolites were extracted into n-hexane. The extract was preconcentrated by evaporation, and analyzed by GC-SIM-MS. A comparison between the El and EC approaches was made. EC NICIMS detected both metabolites whereas only 4-AMX was detected by ElMS. The EC NICIMS approach exhibited fewer matrix responses and provided a lower detection limit. Quantitation in both approaches was based on internal standard and a calibration plot. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Q

  18. Benign Cardiac Effects of Hemoglobin H Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Claire; Bowden, Donald K; Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Cheng, Ken; Romanelli, Giovanni; Peverill, Roger E

    2016-01-01

    Hemoglobin H (HbH) disease is associated with iron overload, but whether this results in serious cardiac or vascular sequelae is unresolved. We identified 39 adult subjects (age 42 ± 12 years, 13 men) with HbH disease who had undergone echocardiography, 27 of whom had also undergone cardiac and liver magnetic resonance assessment of iron loading using T2*-weighted imaging. None of the subjects had a history of heart failure or arrhythmias. There were 13/39 subjects with a ferritin level within the sex-based normal range and only 4/39 had ferritin >1,000 ng/ml. Left ventricular (LV) and left atrial dilatation was common, but LV ejection fraction was normal (≥55%) in all subjects. Age was positively correlated with log ferritin in the 27 nontransfused subjects (r = 0.43) and was inversely correlated with the transmitral E wave and E/A ratio (r = -0.69 and r = -0.79, respectively), but no relation of log ferritin with E or E/A was evident. The peak tricuspid regurgitation velocity was normal in 24/29 subjects for whom this was obtained, and it was no more than mildly elevated in the other 5. None of the tested subjects had an abnormal cardiac T2* reading, but half had evidence of liver iron loading. No myocardial iron loading or serious cardiac or vascular sequelae were identified in this cohort with HbH disease. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Hemoglobin Variant Profiles among Brazilian Quilombola Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rayra P; Oliveira, Rodrigo M; Soares, Leonardo F; Figueiredo, Camylla V B; Silva, Denise Oliveira; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ana F; Fiuza, Luciana M; Guarda, Caroline C; Adorno, Elisângela V; Barbosa, Cynara G; Gonçalves, Marilda S

    2017-03-01

    Brazilian Quilombolas are communities composed of African-derived populations that have their territories guaranteed by the Brazilian Constitution. The present study investigated the hemoglobin (Hb) variants among these population groups. This study was conducted in a total of 2843 individuals of Brazilian Quilombola communities of the Bahia, Pará, and Piauí states. All the participants had their Hb profiles evaluated. The Hb S (HBB: c.20A>T) variant was described in all the studied localities. However, the individuals in Bahia State had the highest frequency of the Hb C (HBB: c.19G>A) variant; individuals from Piauí State had a higher frequency of the Hb D-Punjab (HBB: c.364G>C) variant compared to the other states, and individuals from Pará State only carried the Hb S variant. The present study revealed a specific distribution of Hb variants that could represent different waves of African influence in these Brazilian populations.

  20. Phase Variation of Hemoglobin Utilization in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ching-Ju; Elkins, Christopher; Sparling, P. Frederick

    1998-01-01

    Most Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates are unable to use human hemoglobin as the sole source of iron for growth (Hgb−), but a minor population is able to do so (Hgb+). This minor population grows luxuriously on hemoglobin, expresses two outer membrane proteins of 42 kDa (HpuA) and 89 kDa (HpuB), and binds hemoglobin under iron-stressed conditions. In addition to the previously reported HpuB, we identified and characterized HpuA, which is encoded by the gene hpuA, located immediately upstream of ...

  1. Receptor targeting of hemoglobin mediated by the haptoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2009-01-01

    -scavenging effects associated with "free" hemoglobin, and, furthermore, elicits an anti-inflammatory response. In the late primate evolution, haptoglobin variants with distinct functions have arisen, including haptoglobin polymers and the haptoglobin-related protein. The latter associates with a subspecies of high...... the parasite. In conclusion, variant human homologous hemoglobin-binding proteins that collectively may be designated the haptoglobins have diverted from the haptoglobin gene. On hemoglobin and receptor interaction, these haptoglobins contribute to different biologic events that go beyond simple removal from...

  2. Outcome of paediatric intensive care survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoester, Hendrika; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Bos, Albert P.

    2007-01-01

    The development of paediatric intensive care has contributed to the improved survival of critically ill children. Physical and psychological sequelae and consequences for quality of life (QoL) in survivors might be significant, as has been determined in adult intensive care unit (ICU) survivors.

  3. Increased health care use in cancer survivors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As the number of cancer survivors increases and these patients often experience long-lasting consequences of cancer and its treatment, more insight into primary health care use of cancer survivors is needed. We aimed to determine how often and for which reasons do adult cancer patients

  4. Increases health care use in cancer survivors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As the number of cancer survivors increases and these patients often experience longlasting consequences of cancer and its treatment, more insight into primary health care use of cancer survivors is needed. Research question: How often and for which reasons do adult cancer patients

  5. Orthostatic intolerance in survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlou, Annelinde; Ruble, Kathy; Stapert, Anne F.; Chang, Ho-Choong; Rowe, Peter C.; Schwartz, Cindy L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the prevalence and severity of orthostatic intolerance in survivors of childhood cancer and in healthy controls, and to correlate results of self-reported measures of health status with orthostatic testing in survivors of childhood cancer. Patient and methods: Thirty-nine

  6. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer...

  7. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cance...

  8. Stigma and psychological distress in suicide survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scocco, Paolo; Preti, Antonio; Totaro, Stefano; Ferrari, Alessandro; Toffol, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Suicide bereavement is frequently related to clinically significant psychological distress and affected by stigma. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between psychological distress by psychopathological domains and stigma, in a sample of individuals bereaved by suicide (suicide survivors). The data were collected between January 2012 and December 2014 and included information on sociodemographic variables (gender, age, marital status and education level) and responses to the Stigma of Suicide Survivor scale (STOSSS) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). One hundred and fifty-five suicide survivors completed the evaluation and were included in the study. Levels of psychological distress in suicide survivors, as measured by BSI, were positively related to levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors, as measured by STOSSS. The association was not affected by age and gender, or by marital status, education level, days from suicide or a personal history of suicide attempt. Participants with higher scores on almost all subscales of the BSI, particularly the interpersonal sensitivity and paranoid ideation subscales, reported the highest levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors. Levels of distress in subjects bereaved by the suicide of a relative or friend were positively associated with levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors. Specific interventions dedicated to the bereavement of suicide survivors might help to alleviate not only psychological distress but also stigma towards loss by suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Internet as a source of health information: experiences of cancer survivors and caregivers with healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, Maria C

    2011-05-01

    To describe the experiences of cancer survivors and caregivers with healthcare providers in the context of the Internet as a source of health information. Qualitative description. Online cancer communities hosted by the Association of Cancer Online Resources. Purposive sample of 488 cancer survivors, with varying cancer types and survivorship stages, and caregivers. Secondary data analysis using Krippendorff's thematic clustering technique of qualitative content analysis. Survivorship, healthcare relationships, and the Internet. Disenchantment with healthcare relationships was associated with failed expectations related to evidence-based practice, clinical expertise, informational support, and therapeutic interpersonal communication. Survivors and caregivers exercised power in healthcare relationships through collaboration, direct confrontation, becoming expert, and endorsement to influence and control care decisions. Disenchantment propelled cancer survivors and caregivers to search the Internet for health information and resources. Conversely, Internet information-seeking precipitated the experience of disenchantment. Through online health information and resources, concealed failures in healthcare relationships were revealed and cancer survivors and caregivers were empowered to influence and control care decisions. The findings highlight failures in cancer survivorship care and underscore the importance of novel interdisciplinary programs and models of care that support evidence-informed decision making, self-management, and improved quality of life. Healthcare professionals need to receive education on survivors' use of the Internet as a source of health information and its impact on healthcare relationships. Future research should include studies examining the relationship between disenchantment and survivorship outcomes.

  10. MECHANISM OF THE OXIDATION OF HEMOGLOBIN BY COPPER (II COMPLXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BAYATI

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available An outer sphere electron transfer mechanism by which human hemoglobin reduces the complexes of copper(II and, in turn, is oxidized to methemoglobin has been characterized. We have found that the rate of oxidation of hemoglobin is a function of pH, temperature, concentration of copper(II, and the environment of the hemoglobin. Prior to oxidation, copper(II complex binds to specific sites on the surface of the protein by losing one or more of its ligands, forming a ternary complex. This process is followed by electron transfer between the Cu(II and Fe(H with the Cu(II-deoxyhemoglobin being the active intermediate. The dominant factors which govern the rate of oxidation of hemoglobin by coppcr(I I complexes seem to be the stability constant of the Cu(II complexes and the overall redox potential of the ternary complex.

  11. Determination of glycated hemoglobin in patients with advanced liver disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lahousen, Theresa; Hegenbarth, Karin; Ille, Rottraut; Lipp, Rainer-W; Krause, Robert; Little, Randie-R; Schnedl, Wolfgang-J

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) determination methods and to determine fructosamine in patients with chronic hepatitis, compensated cirrhosis and in patients with chronic hepatitis treated with ribavirin. HbA(1c...

  12. Comparison of Hemoglobins from Various Subjects Living in Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RINI PUSPITANINGRUM

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to obtain the different characteristics of haemoglobin molecules in subjects under hypoxic condition, namely eel, catfish, suckermouth fish, green sea turtle using an electrophoresis technique. We used human umbilical cord blood and thalassemia patient blood, as well as a normal adult-human blood as controls. The proteins obtained after electrophoresis process were stained with two different colouring techniques, each based on different principles. Both staining techniques gave practically identical results. Subject that live in hypoxic condition has a different haemoglobin in comparison to the one found in adult human live in normal oxygen condition (normoxia. These hypoxia-adapted or -needed hemoglobin migrate slower than adult human hemoglobin from normoxia. This observation suggests that hemoglobin which is needed to live in hypoxic condition or environment is a different molecule. Whether this hemoglobin from hypoxic condition has a higher affinity to oxygen is not yet known.

  13. Molecularly imprinted composite cryogels for hemoglobin depletion from human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydemir, Gözde; Andaç, Müge; Perçin, Işιk; Derazshamshir, Ali; Denizli, Adil

    2014-09-01

    A molecularly imprinted composite cryogel (MICC) was prepared for depletion of hemoglobin from human blood prior to use in proteome applications. Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) based MICC was prepared with high gel fraction yields up to 90%, and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, swelling studies, flow dynamics and surface area measurements. MICC exhibited a high binding capacity and selectivity for hemoglobin in the presence of immunoglobulin G, albumin and myoglobin. MICC column was successfully applied in fast protein liquid chromatography system for selective depletion of hemoglobin for human blood. The depletion ratio was highly increased by embedding microspheres into the cryogel (93.2%). Finally, MICC can be reused many times with no apparent decrease in hemoglobin adsorption capacity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Lower versus Higher Hemoglobin Threshold for Transfusion in Septic Shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. METHODS: In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care...... unit (ICU) who had septic shock and a hemoglobin concentration of 9 g per deciliter or less to receive 1 unit of leukoreduced red cells when the hemoglobin level was 7 g per deciliter or less (lower threshold) or when the level was 9 g per deciliter or less (higher threshold) during the ICU stay...... were similar in the two intervention groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion...

  15. Hemoglobin Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hemoglobin levels may be a sign of: Different types of anemia Thalassemia Iron deficiency Liver disease Cancer and other ... Some forms of anemia are mild, while other types of anemia can be serious and even life threatening if ...

  16. Temperature-dependent enthalpy of oxygenation in Antarctic fish hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fago, A.; Wells, R.M.G.; Weber, Roy E.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the oxygen-binding properties of the hemoglobins of three cold-adapted Antarctic fish species, Dissostichus mawsoni, Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus, sp., has been investigated under different pH values and buffer conditions. A clear non linear van't Hoff plot...... oxygen binding. The degree of the temperature dependence of the heat of oxygenation observed in these hemoglobins seems to reflect the differences in their allosteric effects rather than a specific molecular adaptation to low temperatures. Moreover, this study indicates that the disagreement between...... (logP(50) vs 1/T) of D. mawsoni hemoglobin indicates that the enthalpy of oxygenation (slope of the plot) is temperature dependent and that at high temperatures oxygen-binding becomes less exothermic. Nearly linear relationships were found in the hemoglobins of the other two species. The data were...

  17. Effects of thyroid status on glycated hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Rana; Thukral, Anubhav; Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Roy, Ajitesh; Goswami, Soumik; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) can be altered in different conditions. We hypothesize that HbA1c levels may change due to altered thyroid status, possibly due to changes in red blood cell (RBC) turnover. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of altered thyroid status on HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes, with overt hyper- and hypo-thyroidism, and if present, whether such changes in HbA1c are reversed after achieving euthyroid state. Methods: Euglycemic individuals with overt hypo- or hyper-thyroidism were selected. Age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Baseline HbA1c and reticulocyte counts (for estimation of RBC turnover) were estimated in all the patients and compared. Thereafter, stable euthyroidism was achieved in a randomly selected subgroup and HbA1c and reticulocyte count was reassessed. HbA1c values and reticulocyte counts were compared with baseline in both the groups. Results: Hb A1c in patients initially selected was found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid group. HbA1c values in hyperthyroid patients were not significantly different from controls. HbA1c reduction and rise in reticulocyte count were significant in hypothyroid group following treatment without significant change in glucose level. Hb A1c did not change significantly following treatment in hyperthyroid group. The reticulocyte count, however, decreased significantly. Conclusion: Baseline HbA1c levels were found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid patients, which reduced significantly after achievement of euthyroidism without any change in glucose levels. Significant baseline or posttreatment change was not observed in hyperthyroid patients. Our study suggests that we should be cautious while interpreting HbA1c data in patients with hypothyroidism. PMID:28217494

  18. Effects of thyroid status on glycated hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Bhattacharjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c can be altered in different conditions. We hypothesize that HbA1c levels may change due to altered thyroid status, possibly due to changes in red blood cell (RBC turnover. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of altered thyroid status on HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes, with overt hyper- and hypo-thyroidism, and if present, whether such changes in HbA1c are reversed after achieving euthyroid state. Methods: Euglycemic individuals with overt hypo- or hyper-thyroidism were selected. Age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Baseline HbA1c and reticulocyte counts (for estimation of RBC turnover were estimated in all the patients and compared. Thereafter, stable euthyroidism was achieved in a randomly selected subgroup and HbA1c and reticulocyte count was reassessed. HbA1c values and reticulocyte counts were compared with baseline in both the groups. Results: Hb A1c in patients initially selected was found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid group. HbA1c values in hyperthyroid patients were not significantly different from controls. HbA1c reduction and rise in reticulocyte count were significant in hypothyroid group following treatment without significant change in glucose level. Hb A1c did not change significantly following treatment in hyperthyroid group. The reticulocyte count, however, decreased significantly. Conclusion: Baseline HbA1c levels were found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid patients, which reduced significantly after achievement of euthyroidism without any change in glucose levels. Significant baseline or posttreatment change was not observed in hyperthyroid patients. Our study suggests that we should be cautious while interpreting HbA1c data in patients with hypothyroidism.

  19. GLYCATED HEMOGLOBIN AND FRUCTOSAMINE IN DOGS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Olair Carlos Beltrame; Rosangela Locatelli-Dittrich; Luciane Maria Laskoski; Lia Fordiani Lenati Patricio; Nina da Cunha Medeiros; Marília Oliveira Koch

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) commonly occurs in dogs, and the laboratorial confirmation is carried out by glycemia test. The diagnosis and monitoring in humans is made by glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine concentrations. The objective of this study was to diagnose DM in 19 dogs, by evaluating seric glucose, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine concentrations. Six dogs with DM and treated with insulin were assisted during a twelve-month period, by means of the same blood analysis, until the death...

  20. Hemoglobin Porto Alegre forms a tetramer of tetramers superstructure

    OpenAIRE

    Baudin-Creuza, Véronique; Fablet, Christophe; Zal, Franck; Green, Brian N.; Promé, Danielle; Marden, Michael C.; Pagnier, Josée; Wajcman, Henri

    2002-01-01

    The effects of the mutation β9(A6)Ser → Cys on the interactions between the human hemoglobin molecules were investigated, and comparisons were made with other variants having an additional cysteine residue. In hemoglobin Porto Alegre (PA), the β9 mutation induces polymerization by forming interchain disulfide bonds via the extra cysteine. The hemolysate from a heterozygote was separated by gel filtration into a tetrameric fraction and a higher-molecular-weight oligomeric fraction (30%). Rever...

  1. The range of hemoglobin A(2) in hemoglobin E heterozygotes as determined by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mais, Daniel David; Gulbranson, Ronald D; Keren, David F

    2009-07-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is capable of distinguishing hemoglobin E (HbE) from hemoglobin A(2) (HbA(2)), thus permitting quantification of HbA(2) in patients with HbE. In this study, routine samples submitted for evaluation of hemoglobinopathy that demonstrated HbE were studied by high-pressure liquid chromatography and CE. The data for 52 samples from adult HbE heterozygotes were compared with those for a control group consisting of 209 patients. The mean HbA(2) of patients with HbE trait was 3.4% (SD, 0.4%), which was significantly higher (P < .001) than the 2.6% (SD, 0.4%) for the control group. Seven samples from adults homozygous for HbE were also evaluated. The mean HbA(2) of HbE homozygotes was 4.4%, which was significantly greater (P < .001) than the HbA(2) values for the HbE heterozygotes. Data from these cases provide an estimate of the range of HbA(2) in patients with HbE when evaluated by CE.

  2. Unemployment among adult survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Anne C; Leisenring, Wendy; Krull, Kevin R; Ness, Kirsten K; Friedman, Debra L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Stovall, Marilyn; Park, Elyse R; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Hudson, Melissa M; Robison, Leslie L; Wickizer, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Adult childhood cancer survivors report high levels of unemployment, although it is unknown whether this is because of health or employability limitations. We examined 2 employment outcomes from 2003 in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS): (1) health-related unemployment and (2) unemployed but seeking work. We compared survivors with a nearest-age CCSS sibling cohort and examined demographic and treatment-related risk groups for each outcome. We studied 6339 survivors and 1967 siblings ≥25 years of age excluding those unemployed by choice. Multivariable generalized linear models evaluated whether survivors were more likely to be unemployed than siblings and whether certain survivors were at a higher risk for unemployment. Survivors (10.4%) reported health-related unemployment more often than siblings (1.8%; Relative Risk [RR], 6.07; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 4.32-8.53). Survivors (5.7%) were more likely to report being unemployed but seeking work than siblings (2.7%; RR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.43-2.54). Health-related unemployment was more common in female survivors than males (Odds Ratio [OR], 1.73; 95% CI, 1.43-2.08). Cranial radiotherapy doses ≥25 Gy were associated with higher odds of unemployment (health-related: OR, 3.47; 95% CI, 2.54-4.74; seeking work: OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.15-2.71). Unemployed survivors reported higher levels of poor physical functioning than employed survivors, and had lower education and income and were more likely to be publicly insured than unemployed siblings. Childhood cancer survivors have higher levels of unemployment because of health or being between jobs. High-risk survivors may need vocational assistance.

  3. Outdoor Leadership Considerations with Women Survivors of Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitten, Denise; Dutton, Rosalind

    1993-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of leader awareness of the discomfort and need for emotional safety that may surface for women survivors of sexual abuse during an outdoor experience. Discusses survivor's self-perception and how this affects the outdoor experience; the impact of natural elements on survivors; and how to help survivors develop coping…

  4. 20 CFR 225.21 - Survivor Tier I PIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Survivor Annuities and the Amount of the Residual Lump-Sum Payable § 225.21 Survivor Tier I PIA. The Survivor Tier I PIA is used in computing the tier I component of a survivor annuity. This PIA is determined in accordance with section 215 of the Social...

  5. Thrombocytopenia and erythrocytosis in mice with a mutation in the gene encoding the hemoglobin β minor chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Maria; Hilton, Adrienne A.; Metcalf, Donald; Ng, Ashley P.; Hyland, Craig D.; Collinge, Janelle E.; Kile, Benjamin T.; Hilton, Douglas J.; Alexander, Warren S.

    2012-01-01

    Diverse mutations in the genes encoding hemoglobin (Hb) have been characterized in human disease. We describe here a mutation in the mouse Hbb-b2 gene, denoted Plt12, that precisely mimics the human hemoglobin Hotel Dieu variant. The mutation results in increased affinity of Hb for oxygen and Plt12 mutant mice exhibited reduced partial pressure of O2 in the blood, accompanied by erythrocytosis characterized by elevated erythropoietin levels and splenomegaly with excess erythropoiesis. Most homozygous Hbb-b2Plt12/Plt12 mice succumbed to early lethality associated with emphysema, cardiac abnormalities, and liver degeneration. Survivors displayed a marked thrombocytopenia without significant deficiencies in the numbers of megakaryocytes or megakaryocyte progenitor cells. The lifespan of platelets in the circulation of Hbb-b2Plt12/Plt12 mice was normal, and splenectomy did not correct the thrombocytopenia, suggesting that increased sequestration was unlikely to be a major contributor. These data, together with the observation that megakaryocytes in Hbb-b2Plt12/Plt12 mice appeared smaller and deficient in cytoplasm, support a model in which hypoxia causes thrombocytopenia as a consequence of an inability of megakaryocytes, once formed, to properly mature and produce sufficient platelets. The Plt12 mouse is a model of high O2-affinity hemoglobinopathy and provides insights into hematopoiesis under conditions of chronic hypoxia. PMID:22203977

  6. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  7. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda; Møller, Henrik; Johansen, Christoffer; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-10-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer was diagnosed between 1965 and 1996 before they were 20 years of age. A sex-matched and age-matched population-based control cohort was used for comparison (n=45,449). Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from national registers and explored by discrete-time Cox regression analyses. Childhood cancer survivors had a reduced rate of cohabitation [rate ratio (RR) 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.83], owing to lower rates among survivors of both noncentral nervous system (CNS) tumors (RR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.95) and CNS tumors (RR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.45-0.59). Male CNS tumor survivors had a nonsignificantly lower rate (RR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38-0.58) than females (RR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.47-0.68). The rates of separation were almost identical to those of controls. In conclusion, the rate of cohabitation was lower for all childhood cancer survivors than for the population-based controls, with the most pronounced reduction among survivors of CNS tumors. Mental deficits after cranial irradiation are likely to be the major risk factor.

  8. [Limits of chromatographic determination of glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c) in diabetes mellitus in presence of abnormal hemoglobins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashintseva, L P; Budantseva, T A; Troitskaia, O V; Orlova, E V; Kleshcheva, L V

    2001-07-01

    The content of glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c) evaluated by high pressure chromatography on a VARIANT analyzer using Hb A1c software correlated with the mean daily blood glucose level in the majority of diabetics with types 1 and 2 disease and helped evaluate the compensation of diabetes mellitus during the latest 2-3 months of observation. Low Hb A1c values in combination with an extra hemoglobin fraction, unidentified by the software we used, were detected in 3 Russian women suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus, with high blood glucose levels. Application of Hemoglobinopathy software showed an abnormal spectrum of hemoglobin fractions in the blood of all 3 patients: appearance of hemoglobin D paralleled by decrease of Hb A0. The presence of abnormal hemoglobin D in these patients was confirmed by the results of electrophoresis on cellulose acetate films and a negative test for sickle erythrocytes. Abnormal hemoglobins are responsible for discoordination between glucose content and Hb A1c in the blood of diabetics. Measurement of serum fructosamine is recommended for evaluation of diabetes compensation in patients with hemoglobinopathies.

  9. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  10. STUDI KOMITMEN ORGANISASIONAL: PEKERJA CONTINGENT DAN SURVIVOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenika Walani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, contingent and survivor workers have emerged as a common reality in business activities. Unfortunately, contingent worker has high job insecurity on his employment status. On the other side, downsizing activities can result in decreasing job security of survivor worker. As a consequence, both contingent and survivor workers very potential have low organizational commitment. However, organizations still have an opportunity to give their workers an exclusive treatment for building organizational commitment without ignoring the fact that workers have other commitment foci.

  11. Identification of a haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex in the Alaskan Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, S M; Boger, J K; Michael, V; Duffy, L K

    1992-01-01

    The hemoglobin and a hemoglobin binding protein have been characterized in the Arctic fish (Coregonus sardinella). The evolutionary significance of the hemoglobin and plasma protein differences between fish and mammals is still unresolved. Blood samples from the Alaskan Least Cisco were separated into plasma and hemoglobin fractions and the proteins in these fractions were analyzed both by alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis, by isolelectric focusing, and by capillary electrophoresis. Staining the plasma proteins gels with o-dianisidine revealed hemoglobin containing protein complexes. A hemoglobin-containing band was observed in hemolyzed plasma which did not migrate with free hemoglobin, and is believed to be hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Size exclusion chromatography further characterized the hemoglobin as disassociating freely into dimers, and hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex having a molecular weight greater then 200,000 daltons.

  12. Aryloxyalkanoic Acids as Non-Covalent Modifiers of the Allosteric Properties of Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelsattar M. Omar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb modifiers that stereospecifically inhibit sickle hemoglobin polymer formation and/or allosterically increase Hb affinity for oxygen have been shown to prevent the primary pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD, specifically, Hb polymerization and red blood cell sickling. Several such compounds are currently being clinically studied for the treatment of SCD. Based on the previously reported non-covalent Hb binding characteristics of substituted aryloxyalkanoic acids that exhibited antisickling properties, we designed, synthesized and evaluated 18 new compounds (KAUS II series for enhanced antisickling activities. Surprisingly, select test compounds showed no antisickling effects or promoted erythrocyte sickling. Additionally, the compounds showed no significant effect on Hb oxygen affinity (or in some cases, even decreased the affinity for oxygen. The X-ray structure of deoxygenated Hb in complex with a prototype compound, KAUS-23, revealed that the effector bound in the central water cavity of the protein, providing atomic level explanations for the observed functional and biological activities. Although the structural modification did not lead to the anticipated biological effects, the findings provide important direction for designing candidate antisickling agents, as well as a framework for novel Hb allosteric effectors that conversely, decrease the protein affinity for oxygen for potential therapeutic use for hypoxic- and/or ischemic-related diseases.

  13. Precision and accuracy of noninvasive hemoglobin measurements during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Eran; Raban, Oded; Bouganim, Tal; Tenenbaum-Gavish, Kinneret; Hod, Moshe

    2012-12-01

    The NBM-200 is a novel device allowing noninvasive hemoglobin measurement. The system is based on occlusion spectroscopy technology in the red/near-infrared range. At the core of this technology is the production of a new bio-physical signal, resulting from temporarily occluding the blood flow in the measurement site. The measurement is performed using an annular, multi-wavelength probe with pneumatically operated cuffs, with which an over-systolic pressure is produced at the finger base. OrSense NBM200 was tested during the years 2011-2012 in a population of pregnant women. Upon receipt of informed consent, two noninvasive Hemoglobin measurements were performed on the right and left thumbs of each subject. Reference hemoglobin values were obtained from venous blood samples drawn at the same time of the noninvasive measurement. Blood Hemoglobin was evaluated on an LH-750 Beckman Coulter counter, acting as the reference "gold standard." A total of 126 data pairs were obtained in the trial from 63 women. The mean error (bias) of the NBM200 readings compared to the reference was 0.1 g/dL and the accuracy, defined as the standard deviation of error, was 0.86 g/dL. A Bland-Altman comparison of the NBM200 versus the Coulter device shows that the 95% limits of agreement is -1.59 to 1.79 g/dL. Our study demonstrates a good correlation between reference blood hemoglobin and noninvasive hemoglobin measurements. The NBM-200 can accurately assess hemoglobin levels, in a noninvasive fashion, during pregnancy.

  14. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  15. Hemoglobin is present as a canonical α2β2 tetramer in dopaminergic neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Roberta; Zucchelli, Silvia; Codrich, Marta; Marcuzzi, Federica; Verde, Cinzia; Gustincich, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Hemoglobin is the oxygen carrier in blood erythrocytes. Oxygen coordination is mediated by α2β2 tetrameric structure via binding of the ligand to the heme iron atom. This structure is essential for hemoglobin function in the blood. In the last few years, expression of hemoglobin has been found in atypical sites, including the brain. Transcripts for α and β chains of hemoglobin as well as hemoglobin immunoreactivity have been shown in mesencephalic A9 dopaminergic neurons, whose selective dege...

  16. Plant hemoglobins: Important players at the crossroads between oxygen and nitric oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Kapuganti J; Hebelstrup, Kim; Mur, Luis A J

    2011-01-01

    Plant hemoglobins constitute a diverse group of hemeproteins and evolutionarily belong to three different classes. Class 1 hemoglobins possess an extremely high affinity to oxygen and their main function consists in scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) at very low oxygen levels. Class 2 hemoglobins ha...... at high O2 concentrations. Depending on their physical properties, hemoglobins belong either to hexacoordinate non-symbiotic or pentacoordinate symbiotic groups. Plant hemoglobins are plausible targets for improving resistance to multiple stresses....

  17. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  18. Kinetic resolution of 3-fluoroalanine using a fusion protein of D-amino acid oxidase with Vitroscilla hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young-Man; Khang, Yong-Ho; Yun, Hyungdon

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a fusion protein (VHb-DAAO) of D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) with Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The k(cat) value VHb-DAAO (47.1 s⁻¹) towards rac-3-flouroalanine was about 2-fold higher than that of DAAO (21.9 s⁻¹). rac-3-Flouroalanine (500 mM) was kinetically resolved into (R)-3-fluoroalanine with high enatiomeric excess (>99%) by VHb-DAAO with about 52% conversion.

  19. [Role of hemoglobin affinity to oxygen in adaptation to hypoxemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasiborski, Przemysław Jerzy; Kowalczyk, Paweł; Zieliński, Jakub; Przybylski, Jacek; Cwetsch, Andrzej

    2010-04-01

    One of the basic mechanisms of adapting to hypoxemia is a decrease in the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. This process occurs mainly due to the increased synthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in the erythrocytes, as well as through the Bohr effect. Hemoglobin with decreased affinity for oxygen increases the oxygenation of tissues, because it gives up oxygen more easily during microcirculation. In foetal circulation, however, at a partial oxygen pressure (pO2) of 25 mmHg in the umbilical vein, the oxygen carrier is type F hemoglobin which has a high oxygen affinity. The commonly accepted role for hemoglobin F is limited to facilitating diffusion through the placenta. Is fetal life the only moment when haemoglobin F is useful? THE AIM OF STUDY was to create a mathematical model, which would answer the question at what conditions an increase, rather than a decrease, in haemoglobin oxygen affinity is of benefit to the body. Using the kinetics of dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin described by the Hill equation as the basis for further discussion, we created a mathematical model describing the pO2 value in the microcirculatory system and its dependence on arterial blood pO2. The calculations were performed for hemoglobin with low oxygen affinity (adult type) and high-affinity hemoglobin (fetal type). The modelling took into account both physiological and pathological ranges of acid-base equilibrium and tissue oxygen extraction parameters. It was shown that for the physiological range of acid-base equilibrium and the resting level of tissue oxygen extraction parameters, with an arterial blood pO2 of 26.8 mmHg, the higher-affinity hemoglobin becomes the more effective oxygen carrier. It was also demonstrated that the arterial blood pO2, below which the high-affinity hemoglobin becomes the more effective carrier, is dependent on blood pH and the difference between the arterial and venous oxygen saturation levels. Simulations performed for the pathological

  20. The Survivor Syndrome: Aftermath of Downsizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Steven H.; Delage, Claude; Labib, Nadia; Gault, George

    1997-01-01

    Downsizing can result in remaining staff developing "survivor syndrome," experiencing low morale, stress, and other psychosocial problems. If downsizing is necessary, precautions include managing perceptions and communications and empowering employees to take career ownership. (SK)

  1. Symptomatic and Palliative Care for Stroke Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creutzfeldt, Claire J; Holloway, Robert G; Walker, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    ... care needs of stroke survivors. Some of the most common and disabling post-stroke symptoms that are reviewed here include central post-stroke pain, hemiplegic shoulder pain, painful spasticity, fatigue, incontinence, post-stroke...

  2. Hopelessness Experience among Stroke Survivor in Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawab Sawab

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hopelessness was a negative feelings about goal achievement and powerlessness feeling against an expectation. Hopelessness in stroke survivors can occur due to prolonged disability and neurologic defi cit. This condition can lead to emotional and mental disorders even a suicide action. Therefore, it was a need to explore hopelessness experience in stroke survivors. Method: This study was a qualitative descriptive phenomenology with 6 participants. Results: 7 themes were revealed in this study, (1 Physical changes as a response on hopelessness, (2 Loss response as a hopelessness stressor, (3 Dysfunction of the family process, (4 Loss of meaning of life, (5 Self support and motivation as a coping resource against hopelessness, (6 The spiritual meaning behind hopelessness, (7 Can go through a better life. Discussion: This study suggests to develop a nursing care standards in hopelessness, encourage a family support and family psychoeducation for stroke survivors. Keywords: Stroke survivor, hopelessness experiences, qualitative

  3. A microfluidic approach for hemoglobin detection in whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taparia, Nikita; Platten, Kimsey C.; Anderson, Kristin B.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis of anemia relies on the detection of hemoglobin levels in a blood sample. Conventional blood analyzers are not readily available in most low-resource regions where anemia is prevalent, so detection methods that are low-cost and point-of-care are needed. Here, we present a microfluidic approach to measure hemoglobin concentration in a sample of whole blood. Unlike conventional approaches, our microfluidic approach does not require hemolysis. We detect the level of hemoglobin in a blood sample optically by illuminating the blood in a microfluidic channel at a peak wavelength of 540 nm and measuring its absorbance using a CMOS sensor coupled with a lens to magnify the image onto the detector. We compare measurements in microchannels with channel heights of 50 and 115 μm and found the channel with the 50 μm height provided a better range of detection. Since we use whole blood and not lysed blood, we fit our data to an absorption model that includes optical scattering in order to obtain a calibration curve for our system. Based on this calibration curve and data collected, we can measure hemoglobin concentration within 1 g/dL for severe cases of anemia. In addition, we measured optical density for blood flowing at a shear rate of 500 s-1 and observed it did not affect the nonlinear model. With this method, we provide an approach that uses microfluidic detection of hemoglobin levels that can be integrated with other microfluidic approaches for blood analysis.

  4. [Hemoglobin variants in Colombian patients referred to discard hemoglobinopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sánchez, Consuelo; Gómez Gutiérrez, Alberto; Duarte, Yurani; Amazo, Constanza; Manosalva, Clara; Chila M, Lorena; Casas-Gómez, María Consuelo; Briceño Balcázar, Ignacio

    2015-10-01

    Oxygen transport is altered in hemoglobinopathies. To study the distribution of hemoglobinopathies in Andean subjects without African ancestry. We analyzed blood samples of 1,407 subjects aged 18 to 59 years (58% females), living in the central Andean region of Colombia, referred to discard hemoglobinopathies. The frequency and type of hemoglobinopathy was established by capillary and agarose gel electrophoresis. The frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 34.5% and higher among females. The structural variants found were: AS-heterozygous hemoglobin (8.1%), homozygous SS (3.7%), heterozygous SC (2.2%), AC heterozygotes (0.5%) and heterozygous AE (0.3%). Quantitative variants found were Hb A-Beta thalassemia (13.91%) and Hb H (0.06%), Beta-thalassemia heterozygotes C (0.88%), S-Beta thalassemia heterozygotes (6.07%) and compound heterozygous SC/Beta thalassemia (0.25%), with a persistence of fetal hemoglobin 0. Composite thalassemia was also found in 31%. All techniques showed good correlation and capillary electrophoresis demonstrated a greater detection of hemoglobin variants. The frequency of hemoglobin variants in the analyzed population was high, which is an important public health indicator. The most common hemoglobin variant was HbA/Increased structural Hb A2 and the mos frequent structural hemoglobinopathy was sickle cell trait. Capillary electrophoresis can discern any Hb variants present in the population.

  5. Outcome of paediatric intensive care survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Knoester, Hendrika; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Bos, Albert P.

    2007-01-01

    The development of paediatric intensive care has contributed to the improved survival of critically ill children. Physical and psychological sequelae and consequences for quality of life (QoL) in survivors might be significant, as has been determined in adult intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Awareness of sequelae due to the original illness and its treatment may result in changes in treatment and support during and after the acute phase. To determine the current knowledge on physical and ...

  6. Increased health care use in cancer survivors.

    OpenAIRE

    Heins, M.J.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As the number of cancer survivors increases and these patients often experience long-lasting consequences of cancer and its treatment, more insight into primary health care use of cancer survivors is needed. We aimed to determine how often and for which reasons do adult cancer patients contact their Primary Care Physician (PCP) 2-5 years after diagnosis. Methods: Using data from the Netherlands Information Network of Primary Care (LINH), we determined the volume and diagnoses made...

  7. Increases health care use in cancer survivors.

    OpenAIRE

    Heins, M.J.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As the number of cancer survivors increases and these patients often experience longlasting consequences of cancer and its treatment, more insight into primary health care use of cancer survivors is needed. Research question: How often and for which reasons do adult cancer patients contact their Primary Care Physician (PCP) 2-5 years after diagnosis. Methods: Using data from the Netherlands Information Network of Primary Care (LINH), we determined the volume and diagnoses made dur...

  8. Survivor-Reaktionen im Downsizing-Kontext

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Diese Arbeit untersucht die Reaktionen der nach einem Personalabbau (Downsizing) verbleibenden Mitarbeiter (Survivors) eines Unternehmens. Dabei werden die für die Ausbildung von positiven und negativen Survivor-Reaktionen als relevant angenommenen Antezedenzien in einem integrativen Rahmenmodell dargestellt und in ihren Zusammenhängen untersucht. Besonders ist dabei der metaanalytische Untersuchungsansatz, der statistisch fundierte und verlässliche Aussagen zu zentralen Zusammenhängen von Ev...

  9. Hopelessness Experience Among Stroke Survivor in Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Sawab Sawab; Moch Bahrudin; Novy Helena Catharina Daulima

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hopelessness was a negative feelings about goal achievement and powerlessness feeling against an expectation. Hopelessness in stroke survivors can occur due to prolonged disability and neurologic defi cit. This condition can lead to emotional and mental disorders even a suicide action. Therefore, it was a need to explore hopelessness experience in stroke survivors. Method: This study was a qualitative descriptive phenomenology with 6 participants. Results: 7 themes were revealed...

  10. Proteomic profiles in acute respiratory distress syndrome differentiates survivors from non-survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Bhargava

    Full Text Available Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS continues to have a high mortality. Currently, there are no biomarkers that provide reliable prognostic information to guide clinical management or stratify risk among clinical trial participants. The objective of this study was to probe the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF proteome to identify proteins that differentiate survivors from non-survivors of ARDS. Patients were divided into early-phase (1 to 7 days and late-phase (8 to 35 days groups based on time after initiation of mechanical ventilation for ARDS (Day 1. Isobaric tags for absolute and relative quantitation (iTRAQ with LC MS/MS was performed on pooled BALF enriched for medium and low abundance proteins from early-phase survivors (n = 7, early-phase non-survivors (n = 8, and late-phase survivors (n = 7. Of the 724 proteins identified at a global false discovery rate of 1%, quantitative information was available for 499. In early-phase ARDS, proteins more abundant in survivors mapped to ontologies indicating a coordinated compensatory response to injury and stress. These included coagulation and fibrinolysis; immune system activation; and cation and iron homeostasis. Proteins more abundant in early-phase non-survivors participate in carbohydrate catabolism and collagen synthesis, with no activation of compensatory responses. The compensatory immune activation and ion homeostatic response seen in early-phase survivors transitioned to cell migration and actin filament based processes in late-phase survivors, revealing dynamic changes in the BALF proteome as the lung heals. Early phase proteins differentiating survivors from non-survivors are candidate biomarkers for predicting survival in ARDS.

  11. Proteomic Profiles in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Differentiates Survivors from Non-Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Maneesh; Becker, Trisha L.; Viken, Kevin J.; Jagtap, Pratik D.; Dey, Sanjoy; Steinbach, Michael S.; Wu, Baolin; Kumar, Vipin; Bitterman, Peter B.; Ingbar, David H.; Wendt, Christine H.

    2014-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) continues to have a high mortality. Currently, there are no biomarkers that provide reliable prognostic information to guide clinical management or stratify risk among clinical trial participants. The objective of this study was to probe the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) proteome to identify proteins that differentiate survivors from non-survivors of ARDS. Patients were divided into early-phase (1 to 7 days) and late-phase (8 to 35 days) groups based on time after initiation of mechanical ventilation for ARDS (Day 1). Isobaric tags for absolute and relative quantitation (iTRAQ) with LC MS/MS was performed on pooled BALF enriched for medium and low abundance proteins from early-phase survivors (n = 7), early-phase non-survivors (n = 8), and late-phase survivors (n = 7). Of the 724 proteins identified at a global false discovery rate of 1%, quantitative information was available for 499. In early-phase ARDS, proteins more abundant in survivors mapped to ontologies indicating a coordinated compensatory response to injury and stress. These included coagulation and fibrinolysis; immune system activation; and cation and iron homeostasis. Proteins more abundant in early-phase non-survivors participate in carbohydrate catabolism and collagen synthesis, with no activation of compensatory responses. The compensatory immune activation and ion homeostatic response seen in early-phase survivors transitioned to cell migration and actin filament based processes in late-phase survivors, revealing dynamic changes in the BALF proteome as the lung heals. Early phase proteins differentiating survivors from non-survivors are candidate biomarkers for predicting survival in ARDS. PMID:25290099

  12. Pregnancy and Labor Complications in Female Survivors of Childhood Cancer: The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reulen, Raoul C; Bright, Chloe J; Winter, David L; Fidler, Miranda M; Wong, Kwok; Guha, Joyeeta; Kelly, Julie S; Frobisher, Clare; Edgar, Angela B; Skinner, Roderick; Wallace, W Hamish B; Hawkins, Mike M

    2017-11-01

    Female survivors of childhood cancer treated with abdominal radiotherapy who manage to conceive are at risk of delivering premature and low-birthweight offspring, but little is known about whether abdominal radiotherapy may also be associated with additional complications during pregnancy and labor. We investigated the risk of developing pregnancy and labor complications among female survivors of childhood cancer in the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS). Pregnancy and labor complications were identified by linking the BCCSS cohort (n = 17 980) to the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) for England. Relative risks (RRs) of pregnancy and labor complications were calculated by site of radiotherapy treatment (none/abdominal/cranial/other) and other cancer-related factors using log-binomial regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. A total of 2783 singleton pregnancies among 1712 female survivors of childhood cancer were identified in HES. Wilms tumor survivors treated with abdominal radiotherapy were at threefold risk of hypertension complicating pregnancy (relative risk = 3.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.29 to 4.71), while all survivors treated with abdominal radiotherapy were at risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.41 to 7.93) and anemia complicating pregnancy (RR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.27 to 3.46) compared with survivors treated without radiotherapy. Survivors treated without radiotherapy had similar risks of pregnancy and labor complications as the general population, except survivors were more likely to opt for an elective cesarean section (RR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.70). Treatment with abdominal radiotherapy increases the risk of developing hypertension complicating pregnancy in Wilms tumor survivors, and diabetes mellitus and anemia complicating pregnancy in all survivors. These patients may require extra vigilance during pregnancy.

  13. Psychosocial aspects of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Jin Seo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of childhood cancer survivors and their families will be psychologically healthy, but may desire and benefit from preventive care. A significant portion of the survivor population will be psychosocially distressed in various aspects by their harsh experience of long cancer treatment, and may warrant professional intervention and treatment. Pediatricians should be aware of the late psychological effects that can occur a year or 2 after treatment, possibly in many aspects of a survivor's life. Not only the cancer diagnosis, but also treatments such as chemotherapy, irradiation, and surgical intervention may exert different long-term effects on the psychosocial outcomes of survivors. Pediatricians need to be more concerned with maintaining and improving the psychological health of this growing number of childhood cancer survivors through long-term follow-up clinics, community support, or self-help groups. Research on all of the psychosocial aspects of childhood cancer survivors is important to recognize the reality and problems they face in Korea.

  14. Health Behaviors of Minority Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolley, Melinda R.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Tangney, Christy; Schiffer, Linda; Arroyo, Claudia; Kim, Yoonsang; Campbell, Richard; Schmidt, Mary Lou; Breen, Kathleen; Kinahan, Karen E.; Dilley, Kim; Henderson, Tara; Korenblit, Allen D.; Seligman, Katya

    2015-01-01

    Background Available data suggest that childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are comparable to the general population on many lifestyle parameters. However, little is known about minority CCSs. This cross-sectional study describes and compares the body mass index (BMI) and health behaviors of African-American, Hispanic and White survivors to each other and to non-cancer controls. Methods Participants included 452 adult CCS (150 African-American, 152 Hispanic, 150 white) recruited through four childhood cancer treating institutions and 375 ethnically-matched non-cancer controls (125 in each racial/ethnic group) recruited via targeted digit dial. All participants completed a 2-hour in-person interview. Results Survivors and non-cancer controls reported similar health behaviors. Within survivors, smoking and physical activity were similar across racial/ethnic groups. African-American and Hispanic survivors reported lower daily alcohol use than whites, but consumed unhealthy diets and were more likely to be obese. Conclusions This unique study highlights that many minority CCSs exhibit lifestyle profiles that contribute to increased risk for chronic diseases and late effects. Recommendations for behavior changes must consider the social and cultural context in which minority survivors may live. PMID:25564774

  15. Mental health status of adolescent cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mertens AC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ann C Mertens, Jordan Gilleland Marchak Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorder Center, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Due to the successful treatment of children with cancer, overall 5-year survival rates now exceed 80%. Because of this success in treating childhood cancer, concerns are now focusing on the potential risk of both physical and psychosocial late effects in these cancer survivors. There is limited data available for clinicians and researchers on the mental health of adolescent survivors of childhood cancers. The goal of this review is to provide a concise evaluation of the content and attributes of literature available on this often overlooked, yet vulnerable, population. Overall, studies on psychological outcomes in adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer suggest that the majority are mentally healthy and do not report significant levels of psychological distress. Several factors were recognized as playing an important role in adverse psychosocial outcomes in these adolescent cancer survivors: to include the diagnosis of a tumor in the central nervous system, central nervous system-directed cancer treatment, and physical late effects. To identify the subset of survivors who may benefit from systematic psychological services, systematic psychological screening of all adolescent cancer survivors during follow-up oncology visits is recommended. Further research into this critical area is needed to help identify other potential risk factors and guide the development of evidence-based support for these vulnerable adolescents. Keywords: adolescents, psychological, psychosocial, screening recommendations

  16. Recurrent trauma: Holocaust survivors cope with aging and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantman, Shira; Solomon, Zahava

    2007-05-01

    The current study aims to determine whether elderly Holocaust survivors are affected differently from non-survivors by the adversity of aging and cancer. Holocaust survivors and non-survivors suffering from cancer, were assessed tapping PTSD, psychiatric symptomatology, psychosocial adjustment to illness and coping with the aftermath of the Holocaust. Findings indicate a significant difference between survivors and non-survivors in post-traumatic symptoms and their intensity, survivors endorsing significantly more PTSD symptoms. Survivors were classified into 3 sub-groups, namely "Victims," "Fighters," and "Those who made it". "Victims" reported the highest percentage of persons who met PTSD, psychiatric symptomatology and difficulty coping with the problems of old age. The diversity of responses points to heterogeneity of long-term adaptation and adjustment among Holocaust survivors and similar response to subsequent adversity.

  17. Hemoglobin is essential for normal growth of Arabidopsis organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim Henrik; Hunt, Peter; Dennis, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the class I hemoglobin AHb1 is transiently expressed in the hydathodes of leaves and in floral buds from young inflorescences. Nitric oxide (NO) accumulates to high levels in these organs when AHb1 is silenced, indicating an important role in metabolizing NO. AHb1-silenced...... lines are viable but show a mutant phenotype affecting the regions where AHb1 is expressed. Arabidopsis lines with an insertional knockout or overexpression of AHb2, a class II 3-on-3 hemoglobin, were generated. Seedlings overexpressing AHb2 show enhanced survival of hypoxic stress. The AHb2 knockout...... lines develop normally. However, when AHb2 knockout is combined with AHb1 silencing, seedlings die at an early vegetative stage suggesting that the two 3-on-3 hemoglobins, AHb1 and AHb2, together play an essential role for normal development of Arabidopsis seedlings. In conclusion, these results...

  18. Manipulation of hemoglobin expression affects Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaping; Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim

    2011-01-01

    of hemoglobins during invitro morphogenesis. Shoot organogenesis was induced in Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing class 1, 2 and 3 hemoglobins (GLB1, 2 and 3) and lines in which the respective genes were either downregulated by RNAi (GLB1) or knocked out (GLB2 and GLB3). The process was executed...... by culturing root explants on an initial auxin-rich callus induction medium (CIM) followed by a transfer onto a cytokinin-containing shoot induction medium (SIM). While the repression of GLB2 inhibited organogenesis the over-expression of GLB1 or GLB2 enhanced the number of shoots produced in culture...... to cytokinin allowing the 35S::GLB1 and 35S::GLB2 lines to produce shoots at low cytokinin concentrations which did not promote organogenesis in the WT line. These results show that manipulation of hemoglobin can modify shoot organogenesis in Arabidopsis and possibly in those systems partially or completely...

  19. Nitric Oxide in Plants: The Roles of Ascorbate and Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Hargrove, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Ascorbic acid and hemoglobins have been linked to nitric oxide metabolism in plants. It has been hypothesized that ascorbic acid directly reduces plant hemoglobin in support of NO scavenging, producing nitrate and monodehydroascorbate. In this scenario, monodehydroascorbate reductase uses NADH to reduce monodehydroascorbate back to ascorbate to sustain the cycle. To test this hypothesis, rates of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin reduction by ascorbate were measured directly, in the presence and absence of purified rice monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. Solution NO scavenging was also measured methodically in the presence and absence of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin and monodehydroascorbate reductase, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, in an effort to gauge the likelihood of these proteins affecting NO metabolism in plant tissues. Our results indicate that ascorbic acid slowly reduces rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin at a rate identical to myoglobin reduction. The product of the reaction is monodehydroascorbate, which can be efficiently reduced back to ascorbate in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. However, our NO scavenging results suggest that the direct reduction of plant hemoglobin by ascorbic acid is unlikely to serve as a significant factor in NO metabolism, even in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase. Finally, the possibility that the direct reaction of nitrite/nitrous acid and ascorbic acid produces NO was measured at various pH values mimicking hypoxic plant cells. Our results suggest that this reaction is a likely source of NO as the plant cell pH drops below 7, and as nitrite concentrations rise to mM levels during hypoxia. PMID:24376554

  20. Electrochemical behavior of immobilized hemoglobin in alkaline solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović-Jovičić, Nataša; Mojović, Zorica; Mojović, Miloš; Banković, Predrag; Ajduković, Marija; Milutinović-Nikolić, Aleksandra; Jovanović, Dušan

    2017-04-01

    Glassy carbon electrode was modified with different synthesized hybrid clay-based materials and tested in alkaline solution with and without H2O2. The hybrid materials were obtained by immobilizing hemoglobin (Hb) on acid activated (AA) clay, or on AA clay modified with different sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) loadings. The obtained materials were characterized using DR UV-vis and ESR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and SEM. The characterization confirmed higher degree of hemoglobin incorporation in the presence of SDS. The presence of SDS on the surface of clay particles resulted in the partial oxidation/denaturation of hemoglobin and formation of hemichrome. Cyclic voltammetry was used for the investigation of the electrochemical behavior of immobilized hemoglobin in alkaline solution. Two cathodic peaks at -0.45 V and -0.70 V were recorded and ascribed to the reduction of heme Fe(III)/Fe(II), and formation of HbFe(I) - highly reduced form of hemoglobin - respectively. The latter peak reflects hemoglobin denaturation. The presence of H2O2 in the alkaline solution increased current intensities corresponding to both peaks (-0.45 V and -0.7 V). Linear response of peak current intensity vs. H2O2 concentration was monitored for all investigated samples within different H2O2 concentration ranges. The AA-SDS1.0-Hb electrode exhibited the highest current response with linear regression equation in the following form: I(μA) = 7.99 + 1.056 × [H2O2] (mM) (R = 0.996). The limit of detection of 28 μM was estimated using the 3 sigma method. Different modified electrodes exhibited different degrees of denaturation resistance. The obtained values of Michaelis-Menten constant indicated that prolonged cycling in the presence of SDS increases protein denaturation.

  1. Longitudinal discriminant analysis of hemoglobin level for predicting preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Malihe; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Zayeri, Farid; Kariman, Noorosadat; Safavi Ardebili, Nastaran

    2015-03-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the most serious complications during pregnancy with important effects on health of mother and fetus that causes maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. This study was performed to evaluate whether high levels of hemoglobin may increase the risk of preeclampsia. The present study aimed to predict preeclampsia by the hemoglobin profiles through longitudinal discriminant analysis and comparing the error rate of discrimination in longitudinal and cross sectional data. In a prospective cohort study from October 2010 to July 2011, 650 pregnant women referred to the prenatal clinic of Milad Hospital in Tehran were evaluated in 3 stages. The hemoglobin level of each woman was measured in the first, second, and third trimester of pregnancy by an expert technician. The subjects were followed up to delivery and preeclampsia was the main outcome under study. The covariance pattern and linear-mixed effects models are common methods that were applied for discriminant analysis of longitudinal data. Also Student t, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests were used for comparing the demographic and clinical characteristics between two groups. Statistical analyses were performed using the SAS software version 9.1. The prevalence rate of preeclampsia was 7.2% (47 women). The women with preeclampsia had a higher mean of hemoglobin values and the difference was 0.46 g/dL (P = 0.003). Also the mean of hemoglobin in the first trimester was higher than that of the second trimester, and was lower than that of the third trimester and the differences were significant (P = 0.015 and P < 0.001, respectively). The sensitivity for longitudinal data and cross-sectional data in three trimesters was 90%, 67%, 72%, and 54% and the specificity was 88%, 55%, 63%, and 50%, respectively. The levels of hemoglobin can be used to predict preeclampsia and monitoring the pregnant women and its regular measure in 3 trimesters help us to identify women at risk for preeclampsia.

  2. [Hemoglobin anomalies at the university hospital center in Lome, Togo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segbena, A Y; Kueviakoe, I; Messie, A K; Napo-Koura, I G; Vovor, A; David, M

    2002-01-01

    Togo is a sub-Saharan African nation with a number of public health problems including endemic tropical disease. The country is also located in the Lehmann sickle cell belt characterized by a high incidence of genetic red blood cell disorders. The purpose of this study was to identify the main hemoglobin variants, evaluate their incidence and discuss diagnostic pitfalls. Data on 5604 subjects was compiled from the 3 studies, i.e., a 405-case prospective study conducted in a rheumatology department, a 5028-case retrospective study using electrophoresis and a 171-case transversal study in newborns. Diagnosis of hemoglobinopathy was based on alkaline electrophoresis. Rare hemoglobins were identified in the Biochemistry Laboratory of the Henri Mondor Hospital in Paris, France. Diagnosis of alpha-thalassemia was checked by PCR. The main abnormal hemoglobins were the S and C variants with respective incidence ranges of 15.8 to 16.7% for the AS trait and 12.1 to 15.8% for AC trait. SS sickle cell disease was observed in 1.2 to 2% of subjects and SC sickle disease in 2.3 to 4.2%. Rare hemoglobulinopathies involved the fast hemoglobulin variant, hemoglobin D, and hereditary persistence of hemoglobin F. Alpha-thalassemia was detected in 47% of the 171 newborns studied with a predominance of the heterozygous form (36.8%), followed by the homozygous form (8%). The incidence of alpha gene triplication in the newborns was about 2.4%. Hemoglobin Barts was not a consistent finding in association with diagnosis of alpha-thalassemia since it was present in 15 newborns with normal alpha genotype (8.8%) and absent in 10 newborns with heterozygous alpha genotype (5.9%). This study demonstrates that molecular biology is the best method for the detection of the alpha-globin gene abnormalities.

  3. Plant hemoglobins: important players at the crossroads between oxygen and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kapuganti J; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Mur, Luis A J; Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2011-12-15

    Plant hemoglobins constitute a diverse group of hemeproteins and evolutionarily belong to three different classes. Class 1 hemoglobins possess an extremely high affinity to oxygen and their main function consists in scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) at very low oxygen levels. Class 2 hemoglobins have a lower oxygen affinity and they facilitate oxygen supply to developing tissues. Symbiotic hemoglobins in nodules have mostly evolved from class 2 hemoglobins. Class 3 hemoglobins are truncated and represent a clade with a very low similarity to class 1 and 2 hemoglobins. They may regulate oxygen delivery at high O(2) concentrations. Depending on their physical properties, hemoglobins belong either to hexacoordinate non-symbiotic or pentacoordinate symbiotic groups. Plant hemoglobins are plausible targets for improving resistance to multiple stresses. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation of serum leptin with levels of hemoglobin in hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafieian-Kopaei Mahmoud

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To examine the association of serum leptin level with anemia in hemodialysis, we investigated 36 patients (males: 21, diabetics: 11 under regular hemodialysis. For patients, complete blood counts, iron profile, serum leptin, and adequacy of hemodialysis were assessed. In this study a significant correlation of serum leptin with level of hemoglobin and body mass index was detected. An association between serum leptin and total iron binding capacity was observed. No correlation of serum ferritin with leptin level was seen. Our findings attest previous findings showing that greater serum leptin levels are associated with greater hemoglobin levels.

  5. Solar thermal conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review of the fundamentals of the conversion of solar energy into mechanical work (or electricity via generators) is given. Both past and present work on several conversion concepts are discussed. Solar collectors, storage systems, energy transport, and various types of engines are examined. Ongoing work on novel concepts of collectors, energy storage and thermal energy conversion are outlined and projections for the future are described. Energy costs for various options are predicted and margins and limitations are discussed.

  6. Computers and conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Luff, Paul; Gilbert, Nigel G

    1986-01-01

    In the past few years a branch of sociology, conversation analysis, has begun to have a significant impact on the design of human*b1computer interaction (HCI). The investigation of human*b1human dialogue has emerged as a fruitful foundation for interactive system design.****This book includes eleven original chapters by leading researchers who are applying conversation analysis to HCI. The fundamentals of conversation analysis are outlined, a number of systems are described, and a critical view of their value for HCI is offered.****Computers and Conversation will be of interest to all concerne

  7. Psychological outcomes of siblings of cancer survivors: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, David; Casillas, Jacqueline; Krull, Kevin R; Goodman, Pam; Leisenring, Wendy; Recklitis, Christopher; Alderfer, Melissa A; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Kunin-Batson, Alicia; Stuber, Margaret; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2011-12-01

    To identify risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes among adult siblings of long-term survivors of childhood cancer. Cross-sectional, self-report data from 3083 adult siblings (mean age 29 years, range 18-56 years) of 5 + year survivors of childhood cancer were analyzed to assess psychological outcomes as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18). Sociodemographic and health data, reported by both the siblings and their matched cancer survivors, were explored as risk factors for adverse sibling psychological outcomes through multivariable logistic regression. Self-reported symptoms of psychological distress, as measured by the global severity index of the BSI-18, were reported by 3.8% of the sibling sample. Less than 1.5% of siblings reported elevated scores on two or more of the subscales of the BSI-18. Risk factors for sibling depression included having a survivor brother (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.42-3.55), and having a survivor with impaired general health (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.18-3.78). Siblings who were younger than the survivor reported increased global psychological distress (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.05-3.12), as did siblings of survivors reporting global psychological distress (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.08-4.59). Siblings of sarcoma survivors reported more somatization than did siblings of leukemia survivors (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.05-3.98). These findings suggest that siblings of long-term childhood cancer survivors are psychologically healthy in general. There are, however, small subgroups of siblings at risk for long-term psychological impairment who may benefit from preventive risk-reduction strategies during childhood while their sibling with cancer is undergoing treatment. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  9. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  10. Expression and purification of recombinant hemoglobin in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Jiang, Xiaoben; Fago, Angela

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technologies have played a pivotal role in the elucidation of structure-function relationships in hemoglobin (Hb) and other globin proteins. Here we describe the development of a plasmid expression system to synthesize recombinant Hbs in Escherichia coli, and we describe...

  11. A retrospective study on fourteen year hemoglobin genotype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hospital data are a useful source of information about health status of people in a geographical location. Aim of the study: An attempt was made to extend demographic data about hemoglobin variants and their prevalence in Southwestern Nigeria to Akure the capital city of Ondo state. Subjects and methods: ...

  12. Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

  13. The Relationship Between Hemoglobin Level and Intellectual Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Nancy

    In a study to learn whether or not poor nutrition, as indicated by low hemoglobin levels, affects intelligence and behavior, 113 Head Start children in Missoula, Montana took part. Group testing with the Lorge Thorndike Intelligence Test and individual testing with the Wechsler and Primary Scale of Intelligence or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  14. Relationships between hemoglobin A1c and spot glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glycosylated hemoglobin, HbA1c is the most acceptable measure of chronic glycemia. It is not widely available and/or affordable in Nigeria. The mean of the monthly fasting plasma glucose (MFPG) of the preceding 3 months is often used as surrogate for assessing chronic glycemia. Objective: To determine the ...

  15. Ultrasonic processing for recovery of chicken erythrocyte hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobin from chicken blood has been shown to be a good substitute for synthetic polymeric flocculants. One stage of processing the blood entails breaking open the cells and releasing the cytoplasmic contents; in the present study, we investigate the use of ultrasonic processing at this stage. Was...

  16. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin entrapped in dextran film on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin (Hb) entrapped in the dextran (De) film on the surface of a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6) modified carbon paste electrode (CILE) has been investigated. UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that Hb retained its native ...

  17. Myth or reality : Hematocrit and hemoglobin differ in trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Johanna M. M.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Hendriks, Herman G. D.; ten Duis, Hendrik-Jan; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    Background: Estimating blood loss in trauma patients usually involves the determination of hematocrit (Ht) or hemoglobin (Hb). However, in trauma patients, a poorly substantiated habit exists to determine both Ht and Hb in assessing acute blood loss. This suggests that Ht and Hb provide different

  18. Hemoglobin level as the prognostic factor for patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemoglobin level as the prognostic factor for patients with carcinoma cervix receiving radiation therapy. ... South African Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ... (Hb) level on local control and pelvic disease-free and overall disease-free survival in patients with carcinoma of the cervix receiving radiation therapy. Material ...

  19. The influence of socioeconomic status on the hemoglobin level and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 100 children with SCA and 100 age-, sex-, and social class-matched ..... This reduced red blood cell lifespan in the subjects is due to premature hemolysis. Furthermore, lower socioeconomic status was associated with significant reduction in mean hemoglobin.

  20. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin entrapped in dextran film on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    app. ) for the electro- catalytic reaction was calculated as 0⋅17 μM. Keywords. Hemoglobin; dextran; direct electrochemistry; ionic liquid; cyclic voltammetry. 1. Introduction ... in recent years for its potential applications in bio- sensors and bioreactors. ..... had showed some advantages such as biocompatible interface and ...

  1. A Microplate Assay for the Determination of Hemoglobin Concentration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frenchik, Michael D; McFaul, Steve J; Tsonev, Latchezar I

    2004-01-01

    ... (NaOH), and converts all hemoglobin species, including COHb, to AHD within 5 min. Both protocols are carried out in cuvettes, and are, therefore, time intensive and difficult to manage when many samples are quantified. This impedes acquisition of triplicate values for each sample necessary to improve accuracy and determine statistical significance.

  2. Prediction models for hemoglobin deferral in whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Each year, a relevant proportion of the invited blood donors is eventually deferred from donation because of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Deferrals are meant to protect donors from developing iron deficiency anemia after a blood donation, however, they may increase the risk of donor lapse, even

  3. Trema and parasponia hemoglobins reveal convergent evolution of oxygen transport in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturms, Ryan; Kakar, Smita; Trent, James; Hargrove, Mark S

    2010-05-18

    All plants contain hemoglobins that fall into distinct phylogenetic classes. The subset of plants that carry out symbiotic nitrogen fixation expresses hemoglobins that scavenge and transport oxygen to bacterial symbiotes within root nodules. These "symbiotic" oxygen transport hemoglobins are distinct in structure and function from the nonoxygen transport ("nonsymbiotic") Hbs found in all plants. Hemoglobins found in two closely related plants present a paradox concerning hemoglobin structure and function. Parasponia andersonii is a nitrogen-fixing plant that expresses a symbiotic hemoglobin (ParaHb) characteristic of oxygen transport hemoglobins in having a pentacoordinate ferrous heme iron, moderate oxygen affinity, and a relatively rapid oxygen dissociation rate constant. A close relative that does not fix nitrogen, Trema tomentosa, expresses hemoglobin (TremaHb) sharing 93% amino acid identity to ParaHb, but its phylogeny predicts a typical nonsymbiotic hemoglobin with a hexacoordinate heme iron, high oxygen affinity, and slow oxygen dissociation rate constant. Here we characterize heme coordination and oxygen binding in TremaHb and ParaHb to investigate whether or not two hemoglobins with such high sequence similarity are actually so different in functional behavior. Our results indicate that the two proteins resemble nonsymbiotic hemoglobins in the ferric oxidation state and symbiotic hemoglobins in the ferrous oxidation state. They differ from each other only in oxygen affinity and oxygen dissociation rate constants, two factors key to their different functions. These results demonstrate distinct mechanisms for convergent evolution of oxygen transport in different phylogenetic classes of plant hemoglobins.

  4. Health and well-being in adolescent survivors of early childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Ann C; Brand, Sarah; Ness, Kirsten K; Li, Zhenghong; Mitby, Pauline A; Riley, Anne; Patenaude, Andrea Farkas; Zeltzer, Lonnie

    2014-03-01

    With the growing number of childhood cancer survivors in the US, it is important to assess the well-being of these individuals, particularly during the transitional phase of adolescence. Data about adolescent survivors' overall health and quality of life will help identify survivor subgroups most in need of targeted attention to successfully transition to adulthood. This ancillary study to the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study focused on children 15-19 years of age who had been diagnosed with cancer before the age of 4 years. A cohort of siblings of pediatric cancer survivors of the same ages served as a comparison sample. Adolescent health was assessed using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE) survey. The teen survey was sent to 444 survivor teens and 189 siblings. Of these, 307(69%) survivors and 97 (51%) siblings completed and returned the survey. The overall health profiles of siblings and survivors were similar. Among survivors, females scored significantly below males on satisfaction, discomfort, and disorders domains. Survivors diagnosed with central nervous system tumors scored less favorably than leukemia survivors in the global domains of satisfaction and disorders. In general, adolescent survivors fare favorably compared to healthy siblings. However, identification of the subset of pediatric cancer survivors who are more vulnerable to medical and psychosocial disorders in adolescence provides the opportunity for design and implementation of intervention strategies that may improve quality of life. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Beyond Content of Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2017-02-01

    Social interaction is pivotal to the formation of social relationships and groups. Much is known about the importance of interaction content (e.g., the transfer of information). The present review concentrates on the influence of the act of conversing on the emergence of a sense of solidarity, more or less independently of the content. Micro-characteristics of the conversation (e.g., brief silences, smooth turn-taking) can profoundly influence the emergence and the regulation of relationships and of solidarity. We suggest that this might be because the form of a conversation is experienced as an expression of the social structures within the group. Because of its dynamic nature, moreover, the form of conversation provides group members with a continuous gauge of the group's structural features (e.g., its hierarchy, social norms, and shared reality). Therefore, minor changes in the form and flow of group conversation can have considerable consequences for the regulation of social structure.

  6. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  7. Recovering from Opioid Overdose: Resources for Overdose Survivors & Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAMHSA Opioid Overdose Prevention TOOLKIT: Recovering From Opioid Overdose – Resources for Overdose Survivors & Family Members TABLE OF CONTENTS Recovering From Opioid Overdose Recovering from Opioid Overdose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Resources for Overdose Survivors ...

  8. Hemoglobin Kinetics and Long-term Prognosis in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-López, Carles; Lupón, Josep; de Antonio, Marta; Zamora, Elisabet; Domingo, Mar; Santesmases, Javier; Troya, Maria-Isabel; Boldó, Maria; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2016-09-01

    The influence of hemoglobin kinetics on outcomes in heart failure has been incompletely established. Hemoglobin was determined at the first visit and at 6 months. Anemia was defined according to World Health Organization criteria (hemoglobin < 13g/dL for men and hemoglobin < 12g/dL for women). Patients were classified relative to their hemoglobin values as nonanemic (both measurements normal), transiently anemic (anemic at the first visit but not at 6 months), newly anemic (nonanemic initially but anemic at 6 months), or permanently anemic (anemic in both measurements). A total of 1173 consecutive patients (71.9% men, mean age 66.8±12.2 years) were included in the study. In all, 476 patients (40.6%) were considered nonanemic, 170 (14.5%) had transient anemia, 147 (12.5%) developed new-onset anemia, and 380 (32.4%) were persistently anemic. During a follow-up of 3.7±2.8 years after the 6-month visit, 494 patients died. On comprehensive multivariable analyses, anemia (P < .001) and the type of anemia (P < .001) remained as independent predictors of all-cause mortality. Compared with patients without anemia, patients with persistent anemia (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.62; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 1.30-2.03; P < .001) and new-onset anemia (HR = 1.39; 95%CI, 1.04-1.87, P = .03) had higher mortality, and even transient anemia showed a similar trend, although without reaching statistical significance (HR = 1.31; 95%CI, 0.97-1.77, P = .075). Anemia, especially persistent and of new-onset, and to a lesser degree, transient anemia, is deleterious in heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Breast cancer survivors of different sexual orientations: which factors explain survivors' quality of life and adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, U; Glickman, M; Winter, M; Clark, M A

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about differences by sexual orientation in explanatory factors of breast cancer survivors' quality of life, anxiety, and depression. Survivors were recruited from a cancer registry and additional survivors recruited through convenience methods. Data were collected via telephone survey from all 438 survivors, who were disease free and diagnosed with non-metastatic breast cancer an average of 5 years earlier. To explain quality of life, anxiety, and depression, we focused on sexual orientation as the primary independent factors, in addition, considering demographic, psychosocial, clinical, and functional factors as correlates. Sexual orientation had indirect associations with each of the outcomes, through disease-related and demographic factors as well as psychosocial and coping resources. The various explanatory models explain between 36% and 50% of the variance in outcomes and identified areas of strengths and vulnerabilities in sexual minority compared with heterosexual survivors. This study's findings of strengths among specific subgroups of sexual minority compared with heterosexual survivors require further explorations to identify the reasons for this finding. Most of the identified vulnerabilities among sexual minority compared with heterosexual survivors of breast cancer are amenable to change by interventions.

  10. Genetic hemoglobin disorders rather than iron deficiency are a major predictor of hemoglobin concentration in women of reproductive age in rural prey Veng, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne; Devlin, Angela M; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Kroeun, Hou; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is common in Cambodian women. Potential causes include micronutrient deficiencies, genetic hemoglobin disorders, inflammation, and disease. We aimed to investigate factors associated with anemia (low hemoglobin concentration) in rural Cambodian women (18-45 y) and to investigate the relations between hemoglobin disorders and other iron biomarkers. Blood samples were obtained from 450 women. A complete blood count was conducted, and serum and plasma were analyzed for ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), folate, vitamin B-12, retinol binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and α1 acid glycoprotein (AGP). Hemoglobin electrophoresis and multiplex polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the prevalence and type of genetic hemoglobin disorders. Overall, 54% of women had a genetic hemoglobin disorder, which included 25 different genotypes (most commonly, hemoglobin E variants and α(3.7)-thalassemia). Of the 420 nonpregnant women, 29.5% had anemia (hemoglobin 8.3 mg/L), hemoglobin disorders, respectively. There was no biochemical evidence of vitamin A deficiency (RBP 5 mg/L) and 26% (AGP >1 g/L) of nonpregnant women, respectively. By using an adjusted linear regression model, the strongest predictors of hemoglobin concentration were hemoglobin E homozygous disorder and pregnancy status. Other predictors were 2 other heterozygous traits (hemoglobin E and Constant Spring), parity, RBP, log ferritin, and vitamin B-12. Multiple biomarkers for anemia and iron deficiency were significantly influenced by the presence of hemoglobin disorders, hence reducing their diagnostic sensitivity. Further investigation of the unexpectedly low prevalence of IDA in Cambodian women is warranted. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Psychological status in childhood cancer survivors: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeltzer, Lonnie K; Recklitis, Christopher; Buchbinder, David; Zebrack, Bradley; Casillas, Jacqueline; Tsao, Jennie C I; Lu, Qian; Krull, Kevin

    2009-05-10

    Psychological quality of life (QOL), health-related QOL (HRQOL), and life satisfaction outcomes and their associated risk factors are reviewed for the large cohort of survivors and siblings in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). This review includes previously published manuscripts that used CCSS data focused on psychological outcome measures, including the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18), the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Cantril Ladder of Life, and other self-report questionnaires. Comparisons and contrasts are made between siblings and survivors, and to normative data when available, in light of demographic/health information and abstracted data from the medical record. These studies demonstrate that a significant proportion of survivors report more symptoms of global distress and poorer physical, but not emotional, domains of HRQOL. Other than brain tumor survivors, most survivors report both good present and expected future life satisfaction. Risk factors for psychological distress and poor HRQOL are female sex, lower educational attainment, unmarried status, annual household income less than $20,000, unemployment, lack of health insurance, presence of a major medical condition, and treatment with cranial radiation and/or surgery. Cranial irradiation impacted neurocognitive outcomes, especially in brain tumor survivors. Psychological distress also predicted poor health behaviors, including smoking, alcohol use, fatigue, and altered sleep. Psychological distress and pain predicted use of complementary and alternative medicine. Overall, most survivors are psychologically healthy and report satisfaction with their lives. However, certain groups of childhood cancer survivors are at high risk for psychological distress, neurocognitive dysfunction, and poor HRQOL, especially in physical domains. These findings suggest targeting interventions for groups at highest risk for adverse outcomes and examining the positive growth that remains

  12. [Effects of hemoglobin J-Bangkok traits on measurements of glycated hemoglobin by five methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, D M; Zhang, X M; Suo, M H; Xu, S N; Zhang, D C; Chen, Y Q

    2016-01-12

    To evaluate the interference of hemoglobin variants J-Bangkok on glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1)c) detected by five measurement systems. Seventy cases of blood samples were collected at Zhongshan Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from July 2012 to January 2014, the blood samples were divided into the normal control group (40 cases) and Hb J-Bangkok variant group (30 cases), and the normal control group was divided into healthy control group (20 cases) and diabetic group (20 cases). HbA(1)c measurement systems were Primus Ultra2, Variant Ⅱ, Variant Ⅱ Turbo, Modular P and Leadman. Based on the standard of the American National Glycosylated Hemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP), Primus Ultra2 was used as comparative system, and the other 4 systems were test systems. Comparative analysis and bias evaluation were conducted on the results from five detection systems in different groups, statistical analysis were used for evaluating the differences. The estimated average glucose (eAG) was calculated by HbA(1)c values and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of Hb J-Bangkok variant group with the different detection systems. Deming regression analysis was used to determinate whether Hb J-Bangkok produced significant clinical effect on HbA(1)c results. HbA(1)c ± 10% and relative bias at 6% and 9% HbA1c were evaluation limits. The differences of the 95% confidence interval (95%CI) between the test systems and the comparative system in control group were within ±0.7% HbA(1)c, bias were less than 6%, there were no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). In Hb J-Bangkok group, the eAG calculated from HbA(1)c measured by using Primus Ultra2, Modular P and Leadman were (8.14±2.99), (8.10±3.06) and (8.23±3.00)mmol/L, which had no statistically significant difference compared with FPG ((8.21±3.12)mmol/L, t=0.996, 1.091, 1.479, all P>0.05), and the differences of 95%CI between the results measured by Modular P and the comparative system were all within ±0.7% HbA(1)c, bias

  13. Unusual phenotype of hemoglobin EE with hemoglobin H disease: a pitfall in clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viprakasit, Vip; Tanphaichitr, Voravarn S

    2004-03-01

    Two unrelated individuals previously diagnosed as hemoglobin (Hb) EE were found to be, in fact, Hb EE with Hb H disease. This globin genotype normally results as Hb EF Bart disease. This unusual genotype-phenotype interaction highlights the need for molecular analysis in affected individuals with Hb E disorders before appropriate genetic counseling and genetic risk estimation in offspring can be given.

  14. Implementing the Exercise Guidelines for Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Schwartz, Anna L.; Matthews, Charles E.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the American College of Sports Medicine convened an expert roundtable to issue guidelines on exercise for cancer survivors. This multidisciplinary group evaluated the strength of the evidence for the safety and benefits of exercise as a therapeutic intervention for survivors. The panel concluded that exercise is safe and offers myriad benefits for survivors including improvements in physical function, strength, fatigue, quality of life (QOL), and possibly recurrence and survival. Recommendations for situations in which deviations from the US Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans are appropriate were provided. Here, we outline a process for implementing the guidelines in clinical practice, and provide recommendations for how the oncology care provider can interface with the exercise and physical therapy community. PMID:22579268

  15. Holocaust survivors: three waves of resilience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Roberta R; Hantman, Shira; Sharabi, Adi; Cohen, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    Three waves of resilience research have resulted in resilience-enhancing educational and therapeutic interventions. In the first wave of inquiry, researchers explored the traits and environmental characteristics that enabled people to overcome adversity. In the second wave, researchers investigated the processes related to stress and coping. In the third wave, studies examined how people grow and are transformed following adverse events, often leading to self-actualize, client creativity and spirituality. In this article the authors examined data from a study, "Forgiveness, Resiliency, and Survivorship among Holocaust Survivors" funded by the John Templeton Foundation ( Greene, Armour, Hantman, Graham, & Sharabi, 2010 ). About 65% of the survivors scored on the high side for resilience traits. Of the survivors, 78% engaged in processes considered resilient and felt they were transcendent or had engaged in behaviors that help them grow and change over the years since the Holocaust, including leaving a legacy and contributing to the community.

  16. Daily physical activity patterns in cancer survivors: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Josien; Kurvers, R.; Bloo, H.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2011-01-01

    In cancer survivors physical activity levels are measured primarily with questionnaires. As a result, insight in actual physical activity patterns of cancer survivors is lacking. Activity monitoring with accelerometers revealed that cancer survivors have lower levels of physical activity in the

  17. Participants' Perception of Therapeutic Factors in Groups for Incest Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Inese; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated member-perceived curative factors in an incest-survivor group, comparing therapeutic factors reported in closed, time-limited incest survivor group to those in Bonney et al.'s open, long-term survivor group and to Yalom's therapy groups. Findings suggest that relative importance of curative factors may be related to group stages.…

  18. Counseling Survivors of Suicide: Implications for Group Postvention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Maureen M.; Freeman, Stephen J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses bereavement and mourning and reviews group applications for the resolution of uncomplicated grief. Presents studies that describe grief experiences of suicide survivors and community reaction to survivors. Argues that a structured group experience, where support is provided by other survivors, gives optimal help to people bereaved by…

  19. Cancer survivor identity shared in a social media intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hayeon; Nam, Yujung; Gould, Jessica; Sanders, W Scott; McLaughlin, Margaret; Fulk, Janet; Meeske, Kathleen A; Ruccione, Kathleen S

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how cancer survivors construct their identities and the impact on their psychological health, as measured by depression and survivor self-efficacy. Fourteen young adult survivors of pediatric cancer participated in a customized social networking and video blog intervention program, the LIFECommunity, over a 6-month period. Survivors were asked to share their stories on various topics by posting video messages. Those video blog postings, along with survey data collected from participants, were analyzed to see how cancer survivors expressed their identities, and how these identities are associated with survivors' psychosocial outcomes. In survivors who held negative stereotypes about cancer survivors, there was a positive relationship with depression while positive stereotypes had a marginal association with cancer survivor efficacy. Findings indicate that although pediatric cancer survivors often do not publicly discuss a "cancer survivor identity," they do internalize both positive and negative stereotypes about cancer survivorship. It is important for practitioners to be aware of the long-term implications of cancer survivor identity and stereotypes.

  20. Health examination for A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Chikako [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Casualty Council Health Management Center (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    The health examination for A-bomb survivors by national, prefectural and city administrations was described and discussed on its general concept, history, time change of examinee number, improvement of examination, prevalence of individual diseases, significance of cancer examinations, examinees` point of view and future problems. Subjects were the survivors living in Hiroshima city: in 1994, their number was 100,188, whose ages were 63 y in average for males consisting of 39.5% and 67 y for females of 60.5%. The examination was begun in 1957 on the law for medical care for the survivors firstly and then systematically in 1961. From 1965, it was performed 4 times a year, and in 1988, one examination in the four was made for cancer. Authors` Center examined previously 90% but recently 70% of the examinees. The remainder underwent the examination in other medical facilities. Tests are blood analysis, electrocardiography and computed radiography of chest with imaging plate, of which data have been accumulated either in photodisc or in host computer. From 1973 to 1993, the cardiovascular diseases increased from 6.1% to 26.9%, metabolic and endocrinic ones like diabetes, 3.6% to 19.7%, and bowel ones, 0.9% to 12.3%. Correlations of these diseases with A-bomb irradiation are not elucidated and possibly poor. Five classes of cancer examinations are performed but the examinee rate in the survivors is as low as 7.6-21.8% (1993). The cancer of the large intestine is increasing. The overall examinee rates in the survivors were 70.6% in 1965-1967, 69.5% in 1976-1977 and 58.2% in 1990. In conclusion, how to examine the survivors, who are getting older, as many as possible is the future problem. (H.O.)

  1. Secondary analysis of the CHOIR trial epoetin-α dose and achieved hemoglobin outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Szczech, Lynda A.; Barnhart, Huiman X; Inrig, Jula K.; Reddan, Donal N.; Sapp, Shelly; Califf, Robert M.; Patel, Uptal D.; Singh, Ajay K.

    2008-01-01

    Trials of anemia correction in chronic kidney disease have found either no benefit or detrimental outcomes of higher targets. We did a secondary analysis of patients with chronic kidney disease enrolled in the Correction of Hemoglobin in the Outcomes in Renal Insufficiency trial to measure the potential for competing benefit and harm from achieved hemoglobin and epoetin dose trials. In the 4 month analysis, significantly more patients in the high-hemoglobin compared to the low-hemoglobin arm ...

  2. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  3. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  4. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...... of design. Three distinctions are drawn through which to develop this discussion of models in an architectural context. An examination of these distinctions serves to nuance particular characteristics and roles of models, the modelling activity itself and those engaged in it....

  5. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs......, read posts from the MPs and discuss politics with them and other citizens via the posts made by the MPs....

  6. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  7. 21 CFR 864.8165 - Calibrator for hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calibrator for hemoglobin or hematocrit....8165 Calibrator for hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement. (a) Identification. A calibrator for hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement is a device that approximates whole blood, red blood cells, or a...

  8. Hemoglobin levels in persons with depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lever-van Milligen, B.A.; Vogelzangs, N.; Smit, J.H.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Both low and high hemoglobin levels lead to more physical diseases, and both are linked to mortality. Low hemoglobin, often classified as anemia, has also been linked to more depressive symptoms, but whether both hemoglobin extremes are associated with depressive disorder and potentially

  9. Hemoglobin levels in persons with depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lever-van Milligen, Bianca A.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Both low and high hemoglobin levels lead to more physical diseases, and both are linked to mortality. Low hemoglobin, often classified as anemia, has also been linked to more depressive symptoms, but whether both hemoglobin extremes are associated with depressive disorder and potentially

  10. Faster heme loss from hemoglobin E than HbS, in acidic pH: Effect ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mutant hemoglobin(s) resulting in abnormal structure of one of the globin chains, called hemoglobinopathy. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the classical example of such a disease where a point mutation [β6 (A3) Glu→Val] in the β-globin chain forms sickle hemoglobin, HbS (Dickerson and Geis 1983). Deoxy HbS readily forms ...

  11. Comparable application of the OCT and Abbe refractometers for measurements of glycated hemoglobin portion in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhernovaya, Olga S.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2006-02-01

    It is known that glucose interacts with plasma proteins and hemoglobin in erythrocytes. Glycated (glycosylated) hemoglobin is the result of an irreversible non-enzymatic fixation of glucose on the beta chain of hemoglobin A. The amount of glycated hemoglobin depends on blood glucose concentration and reflects the mean glycemia of about the previous 2-3 months. Glycated hemoglobin is a useful marker for long-term glucose control in diabetic patients. Therefore, the search of quick and high sensitive methods for measurement of glycated hemoglobin portion in blood is important. This study is focused on the determination of refractive index of hemoglobin solution at different glucose concentrations. Measurements were performed using Abbe refractometer at 589 nm and optical coherence tomography (OCT) at 820 nm. The different amount of glucose (from 0 to 1000 mg/dl with a step 100 mg/dl) was added to hemoglobin solution. Theoretical values of refractive index of hemoglobin solutions with glucose were calculated supposing non-interacting hemoglobin and glucose molecules. There is a difference between measured and calculated values of refractive index. This difference is due to glucose binding to hemoglobin. It is shown that the refractive index measurements can be applied for the evaluation of glycated hemoglobin amount.

  12. A single hemoglobin gene in Myrica gale retains both symbiotic and non-symbiotic specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Anne B.; Hebelstrup, Kim Henrik; Larsen, Knud

    2006-01-01

    Here, a hemoglobin gene from the nitrogen-fixing actinorhizal plant Myrica gale was isolated, cloned and sequenced. The gene (MgHb) was a class I hemoglobin with strong sequence homology to non-symbiotic hemoglobin genes. MgHb is highly expressed in symbiotic root nodules, but transcripts...

  13. TECHNIQUES OF EVALUATION OF HEMOGLOBIN OXYGEN SATURATION IN CLINICAL OPHTHALMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen content in body fluids and tissues is an important indicator of life support functions. A number of ocular pathologies, e.g. glaucoma, are of presumable vascular origin which means altered blood supply and oxygen circulation. Most oxygen is transported in the blood in the association with hemoglobin. When passing through the capillaries, hemoglobin releases oxygen, converting from oxygenated form to deoxygenated form. This process is accompanied by the changes in spectral characteristics of hemoglobin which result in different colors of arterial and venous blood. Photometric technique for the measurement of oxygen saturation in blood is based on the differences in light absorption by different forms of hemoglobin. The measurement of saturation is called oximetry. Pulse oximetry with assessment of tissue oxygenation is the most commonly used method in medicine. The degree of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the eye blood vessels is the most accessible for noninvasive studies during ophthalmoscopy and informative. Numerous studies showed the importance of this parameter for the diagnosis of retinopathy of various genesis, metabolic status analysis in hyperglycemia, diagnosis and control of treatment of glaucoma and other diseases involving alterations in eye blood supply. The specific method for evaluation of oxygen concentration is the measurement of pressure of oxygen dissolved in the blood, i.e. partial pressure of oxygen. In ophthalmological practice, this parameter is measured in anterior chamber fluid evaluating oxygen level for several ophthalmopathies including different forms of glaucoma, for instillations of hypotensive eye drops as well as in vitreous body near to the optic disc under various levels of intraocular pressure. Currently, monitoring of oxygen saturation in retinal blood vessels, i.e. retinal oximetry, is well developed. This technique is based on the assessment of light absorption by blood depending on

  14. Evaluation of non cyanide methods for hemoglobin estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya B Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hemoglobincyanide method (HiCN method for measuring hemoglobin is used extensively worldwide; its advantages are the ready availability of a stable and internationally accepted reference standard calibrator. However, its use may create a problem, as the waste disposal of large volumes of reagent containing cyanide constitutes a potential toxic hazard. Aims and Objective: As an alternative to drabkin`s method of Hb estimation, we attempted to estimate hemoglobin by other non-cyanide methods: alkaline hematin detergent (AHD-575 using Triton X-100 as lyser and alkaline- borax method using quarternary ammonium detergents as lyser. Materials and Methods: The hemoglobin (Hb results on 200 samples of varying Hb concentrations obtained by these two cyanide free methods were compared with a cyanmethemoglobin method on a colorimeter which is light emitting diode (LED based. Hemoglobin was also estimated in one hundred blood donors and 25 blood samples of infants and compared by these methods. Statistical analysis used was Pearson`s correlation coefficient. Results: The response of the non cyanide method is linear for serially diluted blood samples over the Hb concentration range from 3gm/dl -20 gm/dl. The non cyanide methods has a precision of + 0.25g/dl (coefficient of variation= (2.34% and is suitable for use with fixed wavelength or with colorimeters at wavelength- 530 nm and 580 nm. Correlation of these two methods was excellent (r=0.98. The evaluation has shown it to be as reliable and reproducible as HiCN for measuring hemoglobin at all concentrations. The reagents used in non cyanide methods are non-biohazardous and did not affect the reliability of data determination and also the cost was less than HiCN method. Conclusions: Thus, non cyanide methods of Hb estimation offer possibility of safe and quality Hb estimation and should prove useful for routine laboratory use. Non cyanide methods is easily incorporated in hemobloginometers

  15. Endothelial dysfunction inhibits the ability of haptoglobin to prevent hemoglobin-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graw, Jan A; Yu, Binglan; Rezoagli, Emanuele; Warren, H Shaw; Buys, Emmanuel S; Bloch, Donald B; Zapol, Warren M

    2017-06-01

    Intravascular hemolysis produces injury in a variety of human diseases including hemoglobinopathies, malaria, and sepsis. The adverse effects of increased plasma hemoglobin are partly mediated by depletion of nitric oxide (NO) and result in vasoconstriction. Circulating plasma proteins haptoglobin and hemopexin scavenge extracellular hemoglobin and cell-free heme, respectively. The ability of human haptoglobin or hemopexin to inhibit the adverse effects of NO scavenging by circulating murine hemoglobin was tested in C57Bl/6 mice. In healthy awake mice, the systemic hemodynamic effects of intravenous coinfusion of cell-free hemoglobin and exogenous haptoglobin or of cell-free hemoglobin and hemopexin were compared with the hemodynamic effects of infusion of cell-free hemoglobin or control protein (albumin) alone. We also studied the hemodynamic effects of infusing hemoglobin and haptoglobin as well as injecting either hemoglobin or albumin alone in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and in diabetic (db/db) mice. Coinfusion of a 1:1 weight ratio of haptoglobin but not hemopexin with cell-free hemoglobin prevented hemoglobin-induced systemic hypertension in healthy awake mice. In mice fed a HFD and in diabetic mice, coinfusion of haptoglobin mixed with an equal mass of cell-free hemoglobin did not reverse hemoglobin-induced hypertension. Haptoglobin retained cell-free hemoglobin in plasma, but neither haptoglobin nor hemopexin affected the ability of hemoglobin to scavenge NO ex vivo. In conclusion, in healthy C57Bl/6 mice with normal endothelium, coadministration of haptoglobin but not hemopexin with cell-free hemoglobin prevents acute hemoglobin-induced systemic hypertension by compartmentalizing cell-free hemoglobin in plasma. In murine diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction, haptoglobin therapy appears to be insufficient to prevent hemoglobin-induced vasoconstriction.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Coadministraton of haptoglobin but not hemopexin with cell-free hemoglobin

  16. Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the nitric oxide scavenger pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene in distributive shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinasewitz, Gary T; Privalle, Christopher T; Imm, Amy; Steingrub, Jay S; Malcynski, John T; Balk, Robert A; DeAngelo, Joseph

    2008-07-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of the hemoglobin-based nitric oxide scavenger, pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene (PHP), in patients with distributive shock. Phase II multicenter, randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled study. Fifteen intensive care units in North America. Sixty-two patients with distributive shock, > or = 2 systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria, and persistent catecholamine dependence despite adequate fluid resuscitation (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure > or = 12). Patients were randomized to PHP at 0.25 mL/kg/hr (20 mg/kg/hr), or an equal volume of placebo, infused for up to 100 hrs, in addition to conventional vasopressor therapy. Because treatment could not be blinded, vasopressors and ventilatory support were weaned by protocol. Sixty-two patients were randomized to PHP (n = 33) or placebo (n = 29). Age, sex, etiology of shock (sepsis in 94%), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (33.1 +/- 8.3 vs. 30 +/- 7) were similar in PHP and placebo patients, respectively. Baseline plasma nitrite and nitrate levels were markedly elevated in both groups. PHP infusion increased systemic blood pressure within minutes. Overall 28-day mortality was similar (58% PHP vs. 59% placebo), but PHP survivors were weaned off vasopressors faster (13.7 +/- 8.2 vs. 26.3 +/- 21.4 hrs; p = .07) and spent less time on mechanical ventilation (10.4 +/- 10.2 vs. 17.4 +/- 9.9 days; p = .21). The risk ratio (PHP/placebo) for mortality was .79 (95% confidence interval, .39-1.59) when adjusted for age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and etiology of sepsis. No excess medical interventions were noted with PHP use. PHP survivors left the intensive care unit earlier (13.6 +/- 8.6 vs. 17.9 +/- 8.2 days; p = .21) and more were discharged by day 28 (57.1 vs. 41.7%). PHP is a hemodynamically active nitric oxide scavenger. The role of PHP in distributive shock remains to be determined.

  17. Photochemical Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batschelet, William H.; George, Arnold

    1986-01-01

    Describes procedures for two demonstrations: (1) photochemical energy conversion using ferric oxalate actinometry and (2) liquification of gases using Freon 114. Safety precautions are given for both demonstrations, as are procedures and material specifications. (JM)

  18. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of water and high energy consumption that it requires can be avoided. The main focus of this work was HTC process aiming at production of transportation fuel intermediates. For this study, a new experime...

  19. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  20. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namkje Koudenburg

    Full Text Available Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here. The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay. Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  1. Specialized survivor clinic attendance increases adherence to cardiomyopathy screening guidelines in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Kristin C; Agha, Mohammad; Sutradhar, Rinku; Pole, Jason D; Hodgson, David; Guttmann, Astrid; Greenberg, Mark; Nathan, Paul C

    2017-10-01

    To determine if attendance at a specialized clinic for adult survivors of childhood cancer is associated with better rates of adherence to the Children's Oncology Group (COG) Long-term Follow-up (LTFU) guidelines for cardiomyopathy screening. We conducted a retrospective population-based study using administrative data in Ontario, Canada of 5-year survivors diagnosed between 1986 and 2005 at risk of therapy-related late cardiomyopathy. Patients were classified into three groups based on the recommended frequency of screening: annual, every 2 years, and every 5 years. Of 1811 eligible survivors followed for median 7.8 years (range 0-14.0), patients were adherent to screening for only 8.6% of their period of follow-up. Survivor clinic utilization had the strongest association with increased rates of adherence: when compared to no attendance, ≥ 5 clinic visits/10-year period had RR of adherence of 10.6 (95% CI 5.7-19.5) in the annual group, 3.3 (95% CI 2.3-4.8) in the every 2-year group, and 2.3 (95% CI 1.6-3.2) in the every 5-year group. Additional factors associated with increased adherence after adjusting for clinic attendance included annual assessment by a general practioner, female sex, diagnosis prior to 2003, and living in a rural area. In a model of specialized survivor care, increased clinic utilization is associated with improved patient adherence to COG LTFU cardiomyopathy screening guidelines. Specialized survivor clinics may improve health outcomes in survivors through improved adherence to screening. However, rates of adherence remain suboptimal and further multifacetted strategies need to be explored to improve overall rates of screening in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

  2. Virucidal levels of ozone induce hemolysis and hemoglobin degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, S.J.; Wagner, K.F.; Friedman, L.I.; Benade, L.F. (Jerome H. Holland Laboratory for the Biomedical Sciences, American Red Cross, Rockville, MD (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The animal virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and the bacterial virus, phi 6, were inactivated by greater than 4 log10 in response to incubation with 13 to 14 mL of 1.4 mmol per L (65 micrograms/mL) to 1.6 mmol per L (75 micrograms/mL) of overlaid ozone in virus-spiked, dilute, red cell suspensions. Virus inactivation was greatly inhibited when ozone was overlaid in the presence of high-hematocrit red cells or, to a lesser degree, high levels of plasma. At hematocrits at which 5 to 6 log10 of VSV were inactivated, ozone caused 30-percent hemolysis, as measured by the loss of total cellular hemoglobin. Unexpectedly, this level of hemolysis could not be observed in supernatants because of the ozone-induced destruction (bleaching) of extracellular hemoglobin. These results suggest that ozone may have little biological specificity for damaging viruses over red cells.

  3. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin promotes Salecan production by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-mei; Xu, Hai-yang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jian-fa; Wang, Shi-ming

    2014-11-01

    Salecan is a novel exopolysaccharide produced by the strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, and it is composed of only glucose monomers. The unique chemical composition and excellent physicochemical properties make Salecan a promising material for applications in coagulation, lubrication, protection against acute liver injury, and alleviating constipation. In this study, we cloned the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene into a broad-host-range plasmid pCM158. Without antibiotic selection, there was negligible loss of the plasmid in the host Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 after one passage of cultivation. The expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin was demonstrated by carbon monoxide (CO) difference spectrum. The engineered strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 increased Salecan yield by 30%. The other physiological changes included its elevated respiration rate and cellular invertase activity.

  4. First Reported Case of Proliferative Retinopathy in Hemoglobin SE Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Baciu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of proliferative sickle cell retinopathy in a patient with hemoglobin SE (Hb SE disease. Only a few dozen cases of Hb SE disease have been reported previously, and none had evidence of proliferative retinopathy. A 56-year-old African American man presented to our clinic for routine examination and was found to have sea-fan peripheral neovascularization bilaterally without maculopathy. Hemoglobin analysis revealed Hb SE heterozygosity. Sector laser photocoagulation to areas of nonperfusion in both eyes resulted in regression of the peripheral neovascularization over a period of 6 months. Although Hb SE disease is rare, the incidence of Hb SE disease is postulated to rise in the future. Awareness of its potential ocular complications is needed to appropriately refer these patients for screening.

  5. Holocaust survivors: the pain behind the agony. Increased prevalence of fibromyalgia among Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablin, J N; Cohen, H; Eisinger, M; Buskila, D

    2010-01-01

    To assess the frequency of fibromyalgia among a population of Holocaust survivors in Israel as well as the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and concurrent psychiatric symptoms, including depression and anxiety among survivors. Eighty-three survivors of the Nazi Holocaust and 65 age-matched individuals not exposed to Nazi occupation were recruited. Physical examination and manual tender point assessment was performed for the establishment of the diagnosis of fibromyalgia and information was collected regarding quality of life (SF-36), physical function and health (FIQ), psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90) and PTSD symptoms (CAPS). Significantly increased rates of fibromyalgia were identified among Holocaust survivors compared with controls (23.81% vs. 10.94, p<0.05). Significantly increased rates of posttraumatic symptoms and measures of mental distress were also identified among survivors. The results indicate a significantly increased prevalence of fibromyalgia among Holocaust survivors six decades after the end of the Second World War. This finding furthers our knowledge regarding the long-term effect of stress on the development of fibromyalgia.

  6. Adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse: survivor's disclosure and nurse therapist's response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, P L; Varvaro, F F; Connors, R; Regan-Kubinski, M J

    1994-12-01

    Recent literature pertinent to adult survivors suggests that childhood sexual abuse is a serious problem, and that disclosure is on the rise. The aftereffects of childhood sexual abuse can cause dysfunction in various aspects of the survivor's physical and mental health. Understanding the traumagenic dynamics of childhood sexual abuse and its aftereffects provides direction for the nurse therapist during both the client's disclosure and intervention planning. This knowledge assists the therapist in promoting mental health and healing, as well as providing comfort for the therapist. The nurse therapist's reactions to the client's disclosure can affect the way the client feels about disclosure and the therapeutic relationship. If a negative message is conveyed to the survivor at the time of disclosure, the feelings of betrayal, stigmatization, and powerlessness that the survivor experienced as a child will be replicated. This can damage the therapeutic relationship and delay the healing process. When disclosure is received and acted upon in a sensitive, therapeutic manner, the survivor is empowered and can enter with the nurse therapist into an effective therapeutic alliance. Nurse therapists should gain awareness of the types of emotional responses that can be engendered in the health professional during disclosure. Awareness of these emotional reactions can lead to the identification of coping strategies useful to both the therapist and the adult survivor. Coping strategies useful to the therapist include maintaining adequate boundaries, understanding oneself and one's responses to sexual-abuse issues, utilizing ongoing consultation or supervision, and preventing burnout.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Financial Burden in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipp, Ryan D; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Fair, Douglas; Rabin, Julia; Hyland, Kelly A; Kuhlthau, Karen; Perez, Giselle K; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Nathan, Paul C; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Leisenring, Wendy M; Park, Elyse R

    2017-10-20

    Purpose Survivors of childhood cancer may experience financial burden as a result of health care costs, particularly because these patients often require long-term medical care. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of financial burden and identify associations between a higher percentage of income spent on out-of-pocket medical costs (≥ 10% of annual income) and issues related to financial burden (jeopardizing care or changing lifestyle) among survivors of childhood cancer and a sibling comparison group. Methods Between May 2011 and April 2012, we surveyed an age-stratified, random sample of survivors of childhood cancer and a sibling comparison group who were enrolled in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Participants reported their household income, out-of-pocket medical costs, and issues related to financial burden (questions were adapted from national surveys on financial burden). Logistic regression identified associations between participant characteristics, a higher percentage of income spent on out-of-pocket medical costs, and financial burden, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Among 580 survivors of childhood cancer and 173 siblings, survivors of childhood cancer were more likely to have out-of-pocket medical costs ≥ 10% of annual income (10.0% v 2.9%; P report spending a higher percentage of their income on out-of-pocket medical costs, which may influence their health-seeking behavior and potentially affect health outcomes. Our findings highlight the need to address financial burden in this population with long-term health care needs.

  8. MR Imaging-derived Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curves and Fetal-Placental Oxygen-Hemoglobin Affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Reut; Golani, Ofra; Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Cohen, Yonni; Biton, Inbal; Garbow, Joel R; Neeman, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To generate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-derived, oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves and to map fetal-placental oxygen-hemoglobin affinity in pregnant mice noninvasively by combining blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) T2* and oxygen-weighted T1 contrast mechanisms under different respiration challenges. Materials and Methods All procedures were approved by the Weizmann Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Pregnant mice were analyzed with MR imaging at 9.4 T on embryonic days 14.5 (eight dams and 58 fetuses; imprinting control region ICR strain) and 17.5 (21 dams and 158 fetuses) under respiration challenges ranging from hyperoxia to hypoxia (10 levels of oxygenation, 100%-10%; total imaging time, 100 minutes). A shorter protocol with normoxia to hyperoxia was also performed (five levels of oxygenation, 20%-100%; total imaging time, 60 minutes). Fast spin-echo anatomic images were obtained, followed by sequential acquisition of three-dimensional gradient-echo T2*- and T1-weighted images. Automated registration was applied to align regions of interest of the entire placenta, fetal liver, and maternal liver. Results were compared by using a two-tailed unpaired Student t test. R1 and R2* values were derived for each tissue. MR imaging-based oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves were constructed by nonlinear least square fitting of 1 minus the change in R2*divided by R2*at baseline as a function of R1 to a sigmoid-shaped curve. The apparent P50 (oxygen tension at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated) value was derived from the curves, calculated as the R1 scaled value (x) at which the change in R2* divided by R2*at baseline scaled (y) equals 0.5. Results The apparent P50 values were significantly lower in fetal liver than in maternal liver for both gestation stages (day 14.5: 21% ± 5 [P = .04] and day 17.5: 41% ± 7 [P curves with a shorter protocol that excluded the hypoxic periods was demonstrated. Conclusion MR imaging-based oxygen-hemoglobin

  9. Community reintegration among stroke survivors in Osun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Stroke is a major neurological problem and a leading cause of disability in the elderly in Nigeria. The incidence is increasing due to increasing risk factors, but many stroke victims now survive because of improved medical care. These survivors become community-dwellers after inpatient rehabilitation. Aims To ...

  10. Survivors of Downsizing: Helpful and Hindering Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Norman E.; Borgen, William A.; Jordan, Sharalyn; Erlebach, Anne C.

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-one downsizing survivors from both the private and public sector were interviewed to determine incidents that either helped or hindered their transition through 1 or more organizational downsizings. A critical incident technique was used to analyze and organize the data around themes that emerged, themes were represented by both positive…

  11. Esophageal atresia: comparison between survivors and mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The places of study were Bahrami Hospital and Children's Medical Center, two referral centers for pediatric surgery in Tehran. The duration of the study was 2 years, starting from April 1999. Survivors and mortality cases were compared with regard to sex, type of surgery, suture material, and technique of anastomosis.

  12. Subsequent Reproductive Performance in Survivors of Complicated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were 2 cases of postpartum hemorrhage. 103 (44%) of the subjects who still desired pregnancy were yet unable to conceive. Conclusions The subsequent reproductive performance in survivors of complicated abortion appears to be largely characterized by a high rate of sub-fertility, fetal wastage and preterm ...

  13. The survivors of childhood solid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.C.; Thompson, E.I.; Simone, J.V. (St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (USA))

    1991-04-01

    With the improvement in cancer therapy in recent years, the number of cancer survivors is rapidly increasing. Potential late medical and psychosocial sequelae of cancer therapy are reviewed. A practical guide for the primary health care giver is provided. 161 refs.

  14. Differentiating incest survivors who self-mutilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, S C; Armsworth, M W

    2000-02-01

    This study was an exploratory analysis of the variables which differentiated incest survivors who self-mutilate from those who do not. A sample of women incest survivors (N = 84) were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of self-mutilation. Participants included both community and clinical populations. A packet consisting of a demographic questionnaire, Sexual Attitudes Survey, Diagnostic Inventory of Personality and Symptoms, Dissociative Events Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory was completed by each participant. Demographic, incest, and family of origin variables distinguished the self-mutilating women from those who did not. These include ethnicity and educational experiences; duration, frequency, and perpetrator characteristics regarding the incest; and multiple abuses, instability, birth order, and loss of mother in one's family of origin. Psychological and physical health concerns also differentiated between the two groups. Many variables may differentiate between women incest survivors who self-mutilate from those who do not. A rudimentary checklist to describe the lives of incest survivors who self-mutilate resulted from these findings. The importance of the concept of embodiment is also discussed.

  15. A Spiritual Framework in Incest Survivors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Kelli; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    Through an examination of recent incest treatment development, this article emphasizes the theoretical concept of "integration" within the treatment process for female adult incest survivors. Spirituality as a therapeutic foundation is discussed with examples of therapeutic techniques. A case study illustrates the psycho-spiritual process of…

  16. Endocrine sequelae in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casano Sancho, Paula

    2017-11-01

    Thanks to the advances in cancer treatment, the five-year survival rate after childhood cancer has increased up to 80%. Therefore 1/500 young adults will be a survivor. Endocrine sequelae are most common, affecting 40-60% of survivors. The most frequent sequelae include growth failure and gonadal and thyroid diseases. Sequelae occur more frequently in survivors from central nervous system tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma. Their development will depend on the type of cancer, its location, age at diagnosis, and treatment administered. Treatments associated to more endocrine sequels are cranial radiotherapy and hematopoietic cell transplantation. Because of the high prevalence of endocrine sequelae, international guidelines recommend endocrinologists to prospectively evaluate the survivors. As some of these endocrine changes will not develop until adult life, transition programs should be implemented, and active investigation should be made to decrease the endocrine consequences of cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Sexual dysfunction in Nigerian stroke survivors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Objectives: This survey reports sexual dysfunction in Nigerian stroke survivors, and determines the influence of socio- ... Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory, Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale and post-stroke sexual function ..... Medical. Aspects of Human Sexuality 1979; 13: 16-30. 25.

  18. Ebola Survivor and Her Pregnancy Outcome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-12-14

    Dr. Moon Kim, a medical epidemiologist at the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, discusses an Ebola virus disease survivor and the delivery of her baby.  Created: 12/14/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/14/2016.

  19. Erythropoiesis and Hemoglobin Regulation: A journey from laboratory to disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Esteghamat, Sahar

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe hematopoietic system provides one of the most attractive systems for studies on development at both levels of molecular characterization and systems biology. Among the single-gene related disorders, hemoglobinopathies ranked on top with the prevalence of 4.83% in the world population (Urbinati et al., 2006). These reasons underlined the need of discovering the mechanisms underlying hemoglobin regulation and erythropoiesis. This thesis describes a journey beginning with an atte...

  20. Fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, R K; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a condition in which the body fat stores are increased to an extent which impairs health and leads to serious health consequences. The amount of body fat is difficult to measure directly, and is usually determined from an indirect measure - the body mass index (BMI). Increased BMI in obese persons is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. This Analytical cross sectional study was undertaken to assess the relation between obesity and glycemic control of body by measuring fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from 1st July 2011 to 30th June 2012 on 120 equally divided male and female persons within the age range of 25 to 55 years. Age more than 55 years and less than 25 years and diagnosed case of Hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, polycystic ovary, Antipsychotic drug user and regular steroid users were excluded. Non probability purposive type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of body mass index was done as per procedure. Fasting serum glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method and Glycosylated hemoglobin by Boronate Affinity method. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS (version 17.0). Data were expressed as Mean±SE and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test and Pearson's correlation coefficient tests were done as applicable. The Mean±SE of fasting serum glucose was significant at 1% level (P value Fasting serum glucose also showed a bit stronger positive correlation with BMI. Both obese male and female persons showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The observed positive correlation between BMI with fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin emphasizes the importance of maintenance of normal BMI to prevent early onset of type 2 diabetes

  1. Hepcidin level predicts hemoglobin concentration in individuals undergoing repeated phlebotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Alan E; Schlumpf, Karen S; Wright, David J; Johnson, Bryce; Glynn, Simone A; Busch, Michael P; Olbina, Gordana; Westerman, Mark; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

    2013-08-01

    Dietary iron absorption is regulated by hepcidin, an iron regulatory protein produced by the liver. Hepcidin production is regulated by iron stores, erythropoiesis and inflammation, but its physiology when repeated blood loss occurs has not been characterized. Hepcidin was assayed in plasma samples obtained from 114 first-time/reactivated (no blood donations in preceding 2 years) female donors and 34 frequent (≥3 red blood cell donations in preceding 12 months) male donors as they were phlebotomized ≥4 times over 18-24 months. Hepcidin levels were compared to ferritin and hemoglobin levels using multivariable repeated measures regression models. Hepcidin, ferritin and hemoglobin levels declined with increasing frequency of donation in the first-time/reactivated females. Hepcidin and ferritin levels correlated well with each other (Spearman's correlation of 0.74), but on average hepcidin varied more between donations for a given donor relative to ferritin. In a multivariable repeated measures regression model the predicted inter-donation decline in hemoglobin varied as a function of hepcidin and ferritin; hemoglobin was 0.51 g/dL lower for subjects with low (>45.7 ng/mL) or decreasing hepcidin and low ferritin (>26 ng/mL), and was essentially zero for other subjects including those with high (>45.7 ng/mL) or increasing hepcidin and low ferritin (>26 ng/mL) levels (P<0.001). In conclusion, hepcidin levels change rapidly in response to dietary iron needed for erythropoiesis. The dynamic regulation of hepcidin in the presence of a low levels of ferritin suggests that plasma hepcidin concentration may provide clinically useful information about an individual's iron status (and hence capacity to tolerate repeated blood donations) beyond that of ferritin alone. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00097006.

  2. Reaching Target Hemoglobin Level and Having a Functioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    documented measure of dialysis adequacy (HR = 2.7, P =0.00), poor functional capacity (HR = 2.4, P = 0.00), lack of a functioning AV fistula (HR = 2.0, P = 0.00), age . 65 years (HR = 1.6, P = 0.02) and cardiovascular disease (HR = 1.5, P = 0.04). Patients with hemoglobin level < 10 g/dl had significantly lower survival rates ...

  3. Hemoglobin and Red Blood Cells Catalyze Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Tilana B.; Spulber Mariana; Kocik Marzena K.; Seidi Farzad; Charan Himanshu; Rother Martin; Sigg Severin J.; Renggli Kasper; Kali Gergely; Bruns Nico

    2013-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) is a promiscuous protein that not only transports oxygen but also catalyzes several biotransformations. A novel in vitro catalytic activity of Hb is described. Bovine Hb and human erythrocytes were found to display ATRPase activity i.e. they catalyzed the polymerization of vinyl monomers under conditions typical for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). N isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGA) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl eth...

  4. Hemoglobin H Disease in Turkey: Experience from Eight Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Gönül Oktay; Can Acıpayam

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to research the problem of hemoglobin H (HbH) disease, to reveal the distribution patterns among different health centers, and to emphasize the importance of this disease for Turkey. A total of 273 patients were included from 8 hemoglobinopathy centers. The Antakya Hemoglobinopathy Center reported 232 patients and the remaining 7 centers reported 41 patients. PubMed was also searched for published articles related to Turkish patients with HbH disease, and we foun...

  5. Monitoring recovery from iron deficiency using total hemoglobin mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsmuth, Nadine B; Aigner, Thomas; Völzke, Christian; Zapf, Jürgen; Schmidt, Walter F

    2015-02-01

    Using hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) to diagnose borderline iron deficiency and monitor the progress of its treatment is difficult because of the confounding effects of plasma volume. Because hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) is not affected by plasma volume, it may be a more sensitive parameter. The aim of this study was to monitor Hbmass, iron storage, and maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) during and after oral iron therapy in subjects with severe and moderate iron deficiency. Three groups of female recreational athletes were monitored for at least 22 wk, as follows: 1) severe iron deficiency group (SID) (n = 8; ferritin, ≤12 ng·mL), 2) moderate iron deficiency group (MID) (n = 14; ferritin, ≤25 ng·mL), and 3) control group (n = 8; ferritin, >25 ng·mL). Hbmass and iron status were determined before, during, and up to 12 wk after at least 10 wk of oral iron supplementation. In total, five V˙O2max tests were performed before, during, and after the supplementation period. Hbmass increased markedly in the SID group (15.6% ± 11.0%, P iron into ferritin and hemoglobin, whereas the MID group incorporated 282 ± 68 mg of iron. V˙O2max increased only in the SID group by 0.20 ± 0.18 L·min (P iron deficiency anemia and assessing the effectiveness of iron supplementation in individuals with severe or moderate iron deficiency.

  6. Effects of porcine hemoglobin on serum lipid content and fecal lipid excretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of dietary hemoglobin on serum and liver lipid contents in rats, and the ability of hemoglobin hydrolysates to disrupt lipid absorption. After rats had been fed on casein- or porcine hemoglobin-containing diets for 4 weeks, their serum and liver lipid contents and fecal cholesterol, bile acid, and nitrogen excretion were measured. To elucidate the mechanism of lipid absorption by dietary hemoglobin, we also examined lipase activity, micellar solubility of cholesterol, and bile acid binding activity in the presence of hemoglobin hydrolysates. Dietary hemoglobin decreased serum and liver triglyceride and cholesterol contents and increased fecal fatty acid, cholesterol, and bile acid excretion. In addition, hemoglobin hydrolysates inhibited lipase activity compared with casein hydrolysates in an in vitro study. These results suggested that the hypolipidemic effect of hemoglobin is mediated by increased fecal lipid excretion, and that decreased lipase activity by hemoglobin is at least partially responsible for this result. The observed effects were documented with an 8 g/kg hemoglobin diet, which is lower than in other studies; therefore. hemoglobin may be useful in the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases.

  7. Comparison of the hemoglobins of the platyhelminths Gastrothylax crumenifer and Paramphistomum epiclitum (Trematoda: Paramphistomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M; Rashid, K A; Stern, M S; Sharma, P K; Siddiqi, A H; Vinogradov, S N; Walz, D A

    1992-04-01

    1. Gastrothylax crumenifer and Paramphistomum epiclitum parasitize the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. 2. Gastrothylas hemoglobin consisted of two fractions of ca 30,000 and ca 18,000 by gel filtration. SDS-electrophoresis showed both to be single, ca 15,000 chains. 3. Paramphistomum hemoglobin was ca 16,000 by both gel filtration and SDS-electrophoresis. 4. Reversed-phase chromatography of carboxymethylated trematode and buffalo globins gave single peaks and two peaks, respectively. Although Paramphistomum hemoglobin provided and N-terminal sequence, Gastrothylax hemoglobin did not, suggesting blocked N-terminals. The buffalo sequences were found to be identical to the sequences of the alpha and beta chains of bovine hemoglobin. 5. Although Paramphistomum hemoglobin consists of only one chain, Gastrothylax hemoglobin consists either of one chain which aggregates to a dimer or of two different chains, only one of which aggregates to a dimer.

  8. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  9. Laser energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1989-01-01

    The conversion of laser energy to other, more useful, forms is an important element of any space power transmission system employing lasers. In general the user, at the receiving sight, will require the energy in a form other than laser radiation. In particular, conversion to rocket power and electricity are considered to be two major areas where one must consider various conversion techniques. Three systems (photovoltaic cells, MHD generators, and gas turbines) have been identified as the laser-to-electricity conversion systems that appear to meet most of the criteria for a space-based system. The laser thruster also shows considerable promise as a space propulsion system. At this time one cannot predict which of the three laser-to-electric converters will be best suited to particular mission needs. All three systems have some particular advantages, as well as disadvantages. It would be prudent to continue research on all three systems, as well as the laser rocket thruster. Research on novel energy conversion systems, such as the optical rectenna and the reverse free-electron laser, should continue due to their potential for high payoff.

  10. Comparison of diabetes management status between cancer survivors and the general population: results from a Korean population-based survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yeon Shin

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine and compare the prevalences of diabetes awareness, treatment, and adequate glycemic control among cancer survivors in a Korean population and two non-cancer control groups, comprising individuals without a history of cancer but with other chronic diseases (non-cancer, chronic disease controls and individuals without a history of cancer or any other chronic disease (non-cancer, non-chronic disease controls.We analyzed data from 2,660 subjects with prevalent diabetes (aged ≥30 years, who had participated in the 2007-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Awareness was defined as a subject having been diagnosed with diabetes by a clinician. Treatment was defined as a subject who was taking anti-diabetic medicine. Adequate glycemic control was defined as a hemoglobin A1c level of <7%. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive margins were used to evaluate whether awareness, treatment, or adequate glycemic control differed among cancer survivors and the two non-cancer control groups.Cancer survivors had greater awareness compared with the non-cancer, chronic disease and non-cancer, non-chronic disease control groups (85.1%, 80.4%, and 60.4%, respectively. Although the prevalences of treatment and adequate glycemic control were higher for survivors compared with the non-cancer, non-chronic disease controls, they were lower compared with the non-cancer, chronic disease controls. The prevalence of diabetes treatment was 67.5% for cancer survivors, 69.5% for non-cancer, chronic disease controls, and 46.7% for non-cancer, non-chronic disease controls; the prevalences of adequate glycemic control in these three groups were 31.7%, 34.6%, and 17.8%, respectively.Cancer survivors were less likely than the non-cancer chronic disease subjects to receive diabetes management and to achieve adequate glycemic targets. Special attention and education are required to ensure that this population receives

  11. Hemoglobin constant spring defined by specific oligonucleotide hybridization and hemoglobin D Punjab (beta 121----Gln) in a Batak Indonesian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosasih, E N; Cai, S P; Kan, Y W; Lie-Injo, L E

    1988-09-01

    A Batak Indonesian from North Sumatra with hemoglobin (Hb) D Punjab (alpha 2 beta 2 121----Gln) and hemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CoSp) is described. The 24-year-old man did not have clinical symptoms, and his hematological indices were normal. However, he had a persistent slight elevation of fetal hemoglobin level. His mother and his brother were heterozygous for Hb D Punjab; his father had Hb CoSp trait. A sister did not have any abnormal hemoglobin. To show the exact molecular defect leading to the synthesis of Hb CoSp in this family, genomic DNA from the father was analyzed by hybridization with synthetic oligonucleotides. Genomic DNA was digested with Sst I and Hind III producing a 1.05-kb fragment from the 3' end segment of the alpha 2-globin gene, including the termination codon. Two nonadecamers were synthesized to serve as probes: one, entirely homologous to the normal 3' end of alpha 2A-globin gene sequence, including the termination codon TAA, the other different from it by a replacement of the T in the termination codon TAA with C, changing it to CAA, the codon for the amino acid glutamine. DNA from normal controls gave a positive signal with the normal alpha 2TAA oligonucleotide probe but negative with the alpha 2 CAA probe. The father of propositus who had Hb CoSp trait gave a positive signal with the normal alpha 2TAA oligonucleotide probe as well as with the alpha 2CAA oligonucleotide probe, showing him to be heterozygous for the alpha 2CAA-globin gene. This result shows that the Hb CoSp in the Batak family is indeed due to a replacement of T by C in the TAA termination codon of the alpha 2-globin gene changing it to CAA the condon for glutamine. This explains the resulting readthrough of the untranslated sequence of the mRNA.

  12. Pancreatic ascites hemoglobin contributes to the systemic response in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Upon hemolysis extracellular hemoglobin causes oxidative stress and cytotoxicity due to its peroxidase activity. Extracellular hemoglobin may release free hemin, which increases vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and adhesion molecule expression. Pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid is reddish and may contain extracellular hemoglobin. Our aim has been to determine the role of extracellular hemoglobin in the local and systemic inflammatory response during severe acute pancreatitis in rats. To this end we studied taurocholate-induced necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. First, extracellular hemoglobin in ascites and plasma was quantified and the hemolytic action of ascitic fluid was tested. Second, we assessed whether peritoneal lavage prevented the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma during pancreatitis. Third, hemoglobin was purified from rat erythrocytes and administered intraperitoneally to assess the local and systemic effects of ascitic-associated extracellular hemoglobin during acute pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin and hemin levels markedly increased in ascitic fluid and plasma during necrotizing pancreatitis. Peroxidase activity was very high in ascites. The peritoneal lavage abrogated the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma. The administration of extracellular hemoglobin enhanced ascites; dramatically increased abdominal fat necrosis; upregulated tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 gene expression; and decreased expression of interleukin-10 in abdominal adipose tissue during pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin enhanced the gene expression and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other hypoxia-inducible factor-related genes in the lung. Extracellular hemoglobin also increased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. In conclusion, extracellular hemoglobin contributes to the inflammatory response in severe acute pancreatitis through abdominal fat necrosis and inflammation

  13. Specialized survivor clinic attendance is associated with decreased rates of emergency department visits in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutradhar, Rinku; Agha, Mohammad; Pole, Jason D; Greenberg, Mark; Guttmann, Astrid; Hodgson, David; Nathan, Paul C

    2015-12-15

    Survivors of childhood cancer are at considerable risk of experiencing treatment-related adverse health outcomes. To provide survivors with specialized care focused on these risks during adulthood, the government of Ontario funded a provincial network of specialized survivor clinics in 1999. The aim of this study was to determine whether prior attendance at survivor clinics by adult survivors of childhood cancer was associated with rates of emergency department (ED) visits. This was a population-based, retrospective cohort study using multiple linked administrative health databases. The cohort consisted of all adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed between January 1, 1986 and December 31, 2005 in Ontario, Canada. A recurrent event regression model was used to evaluate the association between prior attendance at survivor clinics and the rate of ED visits; adjustments were made for individual, demographic, treatment, and provider characteristics. The study consisted of 3912 adult survivors of childhood cancer. Individuals who had at least 1 prior visit to a survivor clinic had a 19% decreased rate of ED visits in comparison with individuals who had not visited a survivor clinic (adjusted relative rate, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-0.85). Each additional prior visit to a survivor clinic was associated with a 5% decrease in the rate of ED visits (adjusted relative rate, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.93-0.96). These results were independent of whether or not survivors received care from a primary care physician. Attendance at a specialized survivor clinic was significantly associated with decreased ED visits among adult survivors of childhood cancer. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  14. Hemoglobin redux: combining neutron and X-ray diffraction with mass spectrometry to analyse the quaternary state of oxidized hemoglobins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueser, Timothy C., E-mail: timothy.mueser@utoledo.edu; Griffith, Wendell P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kovalevsky, Andrey Y. [Bioscience Division, MS M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Guo, Jingshu; Seaver, Sean [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Langan, Paul [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Bioscience Division, MS M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hanson, B. Leif [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    X-ray and neutron diffraction studies of cyanomethemoglobin are being used to evaluate the structural waters within the dimer–dimer interface involved in quaternary-state transitions. Improvements in neutron diffraction instrumentation are affording the opportunity to re-examine the structures of vertebrate hemoglobins and to interrogate proton and solvent position changes between the different quaternary states of the protein. For hemoglobins of unknown primary sequence, structural studies of cyanomethemoglobin (CNmetHb) are being used to help to resolve sequence ambiguity in the mass spectra. These studies have also provided additional structural evidence for the involvement of oxidized hemoglobin in the process of erythrocyte senescence. X-ray crystal studies of Tibetan snow leopard CNmetHb have shown that this protein crystallizes in the B state, a structure with a more open dyad, which possibly has relevance to RBC band 3 protein binding and erythrocyte senescence. R-state equine CNmetHb crystal studies elaborate the solvent differences in the switch and hinge region compared with a human deoxyhemoglobin T-state neutron structure. Lastly, comparison of histidine protonation between the T and R state should enumerate the Bohr-effect protons.

  15. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  16. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...... gradually evolved into second-person inquiry. We argue that enacting second-person reflective conversations renders alternative strategies for handling uncertainties through articulation of the tacit assumptions within particular empirical situations. Finally, we argue that reflective conversations should...... a methodological reflective approach that provides space for taking seriously uncertainties experienced in the field as these can be a catalyst for learning and sharpening our theoretical and empirical skills as action researchers. Through first-person inquiry, we investigate how our reflective conversations...

  17. The Poetry of Holocaust Survivor Testimony: Towards a New Performative Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Rapport

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Performative Social Science provides the research scientist with a much needed platform to move beyond traditional approaches to data collection, analysis and the presentation of study findings towards a response to research questions that closely resonates with the raw materials at hand. For the Performative Social Scientist's voice to be heard, new ways must be found to consider how best to represent the social world, relaxing longstanding and rigid qualitative research frameworks in favour of more contemporary and flexible approaches to working that welcome inter-disciplinary practice. By re-defining the theoretical and paradigmatic boundaries of our studies we can then encourage others to consider a range of alternative positions from which to view the world. The paper embraces the potential such a platform offers by presenting one Holocaust survivor's lived experiences of these extraordinary events including internment in Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp. Through a visual and textual journey that employs photographs and poetic representations derived from one "research conversation" with the survivor, a "photo-textual montage" aims to engender a more empathic response to survivor testimony. The paper also attempts a novel juxtaposition of images and words to present a richer understanding of the researcher's relationship with the survivor, the research process and research outputs. In effect, the paper maps aspects of the research process in "coming to know" the data in chronological, temporal and spatial frames whilst emphasising the importance of presentation style, format and layout. This paper makes visible what is often invisible in more traditional approaches—the researchers own personal journey and the insights that this affords. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802285

  18. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Takaguchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song et al., Science 327, 1018 (2010SCIEAS0036-8075] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  19. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  20. Long-term survivors of childhood Ewing sarcoma: report from the childhood cancer survivor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Jill P; Goodman, Pamela; Leisenring, Wendy; Ness, Kirsten K; Meyers, Paul A; Wolden, Suzanne L; Smith, Stephanie M; Stovall, Marilyn; Hammond, Sue; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2010-08-18

    The survival of Ewing sarcoma (ES) patients has improved since the 1970s but is associated with considerable future health risks. The study population consisted of long-term (> or =5-year) survivors of childhood ES diagnosed before age 21 from 1970 to 1986. Cause-specific mortality was evaluated in eligible survivors (n = 568), and subsequent malignant neoplasms, chronic health conditions, infertility, and health status were evaluated in the subset participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (n = 403). Outcomes were compared with the US population and sibling control subjects (n = 3899). Logistic, Poisson, or Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustments for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and potential intrafamily correlation, were used. Statistical tests were two-sided. Cumulative mortality of ES survivors was 25.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1 to 28.9) 25 years after diagnosis. The all-cause standardized mortality ratio was 13.3 (95% CI = 11.2 to 15.8) overall, 23.1 (95% CI = 17.6 to 29.7) for women, and 10.0 (95% CI = 7.9 to 12.5) for men. The nonrecurrence-progression non-external cause standardized mortality ratio (subsequent non-ES malignant neoplasms and cardiac and pulmonary causes potentially attributable to ES treatment) was 8.7 (95% CI = 6.2 to 12.0). Twenty-five years after ES diagnosis, cumulative incidence of subsequent malignant neoplasms, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers, was 9.0% (95% CI = 5.8 to 12.2). Compared with siblings, survivors had an increased risk of severe, life-threatening, or disabling chronic health conditions (relative risk = 6.0, 95% CI = 4.1 to 9.0). Survivors had lower fertility rates (women: P = .005; men: P < .001) and higher rates of moderate to extreme adverse health status (P < .001). Long-term survivors of childhood ES exhibit excess mortality and morbidity.

  1. (Can) Not talk about it - Urinary incontinence from the point of view of stroke survivors: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Myrta; Mayer, Hanna; Kesselring, Jürg; Saxer, Susi

    2018-03-01

    The current study intends to gain an in-depth understanding of stroke survivors' lived experience of urinary incontinence and its treatment in an inpatient rehabilitation clinic. A qualitative approach was chosen. Semi-structured individual interviews with ten stroke survivors suffering from urinary incontinence were conducted in an inpatient rehabilitation clinic and analysed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. '(Can) not talk about it' was identified as the first main category. The affected persons do not talk about urinary incontinence because they are ashamed. At the same time, no one asks them about this issue. Psychological strain is so high that patients feel the need to talk about incontinence, but from their point of view, conversations with nurses - if they indeed occur - are superficial or nurses do not listen. Therefore, patients' needs and concerns are not properly considered. 'Trying to command incontinence' was also identified as a main category. Participants reported that they try to command incontinence and to develop their own strategies in order to hide urinary incontinence and prevent shameful situations. However, this proved mostly unsuccessful and resulted in resignation to their condition. It is important to raise awareness within the treatment team of urinary incontinence in stroke survivors. Team members should be able to communicate about urinary incontinence in an open and empathic way. Obviously, there is great potential for supporting stroke survivors in dealing with incontinence. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  2. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...... singular points nor closed orbits. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with dynamical systems with multiple singular elements. Hereafter, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorems and highlight the differences between our results and previous work by a number...

  3. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  4. Hydrogen Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-27

    Schoeppei, R.J. and Gray, C.L., "The Hydrogen Engine in P^srectl^e", Proceedings 7th international Energy Conversion Encrineering C^ference.: San Dxego...Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, Sept. 19/^, pp. 1349-1354. 10. Hausz, W., Leeth, G., and Meyer, C., "Eco-Energy", ibid, pp. 1316-1322. II...75114, . 24. ^schütz, R.H., "Hydrogen Burning Engine Experience", presented at Symposium, see Ref. 8. 25. A. Presto filipo (Pnblio Service’Electric S

  5. Freely flowing conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    the following referred to as UDI) effort was launched in 2008 as an attempt to improve prison life by inviting inmates to participate in organizational development together with staff. The effort has improved prisons by decreasing tension between inmates and guards and by creating more meaningful jobs...... relations by changing conversations. Through the theoretical framework of the complexity approach, we discuss how this may lead to organizational change. Finally we suggest that inviting inmates to take part in conversations about core organizational development may be a fundamental strategy in trying...

  6. Gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshiro, Hisashi; Itamoto, Toshiyuki; Sumimoto, Ryo [Hiroshima Prefectural Hiroshima Hospital (Japan)] [and others

    1994-10-01

    This is a retrospective review of gastric cancer in A-bomb survivors. Firstly, surgical cases of gastric cancer (1968-88) were compared in 514 A-bomb survivors and 1,092 non-exposed persons. The average age was 63.5 years in the exposed group and 60.0 years in the non-exposed group. Although there were much more men than women in the non-exposed group (67.3% vs 32.7%), there was no great difference in the exposed group (56.0% vs 44.0%). The frequency of early gastric cancer tended to be higher in the exposed group, and thus, both the curative resection and 5-year survival rates were slightly higher. This seems to have been attributed to periodical health examination for A-bomb survivors. Secondly, the frequency of gastric cancer was examined in relation to the age at the time of A-bombing (ATA). According to the ATA, 538 A-bomb survivors (1968-89) were divided into the <19 year group (n=118), 20-29 year group (n=134), 30-39 year group (n=178), and >40 year group (n=108). The <19 year group accounted for more A-bomb survivors directly exposed to A-bombing. Using 1,138 other non-exposed patients as controls, there was no factors specific to the exposed group. Thirdly, the distance from the hypocenter was examined in 569 A-bomb survivors (1966-1990) by dividing them into the {<=}2.0 km group (n=137), >2.1 km group (n=168), and secondarily exposed group (n=264). In all three groups, well-differentiated cancer was predominant. The frequency of poorly differentiated cancer was higher in those exposed nearer the hypocenter; this was significant in both the {<=}2.0 km and >2.1 km groups than the secondarily exposed group. In directly exposed groups, the frequency of poorly differentiated cancer was high in the age group of <50 and the frequency of well differentiated cancer was high in the age group of >60. This suggests the relationship between exposure doses and poorly differentiated gastric cancer. (N.K.).

  7. Impact of Fontan conversion with arrhythmia surgery and pacemaker therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Takeshi; Iwata, Yusuke; Matsumura, Goki; Konuma, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Kenji

    2011-10-01

    In the long-term period after Fontan operation, atrial arrhythmia was one of the important factors to decide the postoperative quality of life. We reviewed the impact of Fontan conversion with arrhythmia surgery and pacemaker therapy. Thirty-eight patients underwent Fontan conversion using extracardiac conduit from 1992, and 22 patients with atrial arrhythmia underwent maze procedure simultaneously using cryoablation or radiofrequency ablation and epicardial DDD pacemaker implantation and 16 patients had regular 'sinus' rhythm before Fontan conversion. Mean follow-up period was 52 months. Pre- and postoperative clinical course were analyzed. Average weight, age at Fontan conversion, and years after first Fontan operation were 49.0 kg, 25.8 years old, 14.7 years, respectively. Nineteen percent of patients were in New York Heart Association class I (NYHA I), and 74% of patients were in NYHA II, and 7% were in NYHA III, respectively. Except three early deaths, actual survival rate at 1 year and 5 years were 80% and 64%, respectively. In survivors, 80% of the patients obtained regular heart rhythm including artificial pacemaker rhythm, although only 43% of the patients had regular 'sinus' rhythm before the Fontan conversion. Postoperative average cardiothoracic ratio and oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) were 50% and 94%, and 74% of patients were in NYHA I and 26% were in NYHA II, respectively, after Fontan conversion. Mid-term results of Fontan conversion with arrhythmia surgery and pacemaker therapy were acceptable. Restoration of regular rhythm might improve the postoperative NYHA status and the activity of the daily life. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical, hematological and genetic data of a cohort of children with hemoglobin SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo do Val Rezende

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The hemoglobin FSD is very uncommon in newborn screening programs for sickle cell disease. In the program of Minas Gerais, Brazil, the clinical course of children with hemoglobin SD was observed to be heterogeneous. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence (1999-2012 and to describe the natural history of a cohort of newborns with hemoglobin SD. METHODS: Isoelectric focusing was the primary method used in newborn screening. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and gene sequencing were used to identify mutant alleles and for haplotyping. Gap-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect alpha-thalassemia. RESULTS: Eleven cases of hemoglobin S/D-Punjab and eight of Hb S-Korle Bu were detected. Other variants with hemoglobin D mobility were not identified. All hemoglobin D-Punjab and hemoglobin Korle Bu alleles were associated with haplotype I. Among the children with hemoglobin S/D-Punjab, there were four with the ßS CAR haplotype, six with the Benin haplotype, and one atypical. Results of laboratory tests for hemoglobin S/D-Punjab and hemoglobin S-Korle Bu were: hemoglobin 8.0 and 12.3 g/dL (p-value <0.001, leukocyte count 13.9 × 109/L and 10.5 × 109/L (p-value = 0.003, reticulocytes 7.5% and 1.0% (p-value <0.001, hemoglobin F concentration 16.1% and 6.9% (p-value = 0.001 and oxygen saturation 91.9% and 97% (p-value = 0.002, respectively. Only hemoglobin S/D-Punjab children had acute pain crises and needed blood transfusions or hydroxyurea. Those with the Benin ßS haplotype had higher total hemoglobin and hemoglobin F concentrations compared to the CAR haplotype. Transcranial Doppler was normal in all children. CONCLUSION: The clinical course and blood cell counts of children with hemoglobin S/D-Punjab were very similar to those of hemoglobin SS children. In contrast, children with hemoglobin S-Korle Bu had clinical course and blood cell counts like children with the sickle

  9. Identification of a Small Molecule that Increases Hemoglobin Oxygen Affinity and Reduces SS Erythrocyte Sickling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Small molecules that increase the oxygen affinity of human hemoglobin may reduce sickling of red blood cells in patients with sickle cell disease. We screened 38 700 compounds using small molecule microarrays and identified 427 molecules that bind to hemoglobin. We developed a high-throughput assay for evaluating the ability of the 427 small molecules to modulate the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. We identified a novel allosteric effector of hemoglobin, di(5-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)disulfide (TD-1). TD-1 induced a greater increase in oxygen affinity of human hemoglobin in solution and in red blood cells than did 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), or diformamidine disulfide. The three-dimensional structure of hemoglobin complexed with TD-1 revealed that monomeric units of TD-1 bound covalently to β-Cys93 and β-Cys112, as well as noncovalently to the central water cavity of the hemoglobin tetramer. The binding of TD-1 to hemoglobin stabilized the relaxed state (R3-state) of hemoglobin. TD-1 increased the oxygen affinity of sickle hemoglobin and inhibited in vitro hypoxia-induced sickling of red blood cells in patients with sickle cell disease without causing hemolysis. Our study indicates that TD-1 represents a novel lead molecule for the treatment of patients with sickle cell disease. PMID:25061917

  10. Switch from epoetin to darbepoetin alfa in hemodialysis: dose equivalence and hemoglobin stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrieta J

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Javier Arrieta,1 Iñigo Moina,1 José Molina,2 Isabel Gallardo,3 María Luisa Muñiz,4 Carmen Robledo,5 Oscar García,5 Fernando Vidaur,6 Rosa Inés Muñoz,3 Izaskun Iribar,7 Román Aguirre,7 Antonio Maza8 1Hospital de Basurto, Bilbao, 2Hospital de Donostia, Donostia-San Sebastián, 3Hospital de Galdakao-Usansolo, Galdakao, 4Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo, 5Hospital de Santiago, Vitoria-Gasteiz, 6Policlínica de Guipúzcoa, Donostia-San Sebastián, 7Hemobesa Clinica Virgen Blanca, Bilbao, 8Dialbilbo, Bilbao, Spain Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to describe dose equivalence and hemoglobin (Hb stability in a cohort of unselected hemodialysis patients who were switched simultaneously from epoetin alfa to darbepoetin alfa. Methods: This was a multicenter, observational, retrospective study in patients aged $18 years who switched from intravenous (IV epoetin alfa to IV darbepoetin alfa in October 2007 (Month 0 and continued on hemodialysis for at least 24 months. The dose was adjusted to maintain Hb within 1.0 g/dL of baseline. Results: We included 125 patients (59.7% male, mean [standard deviation (SD] age 70.4 [13.4] years. No significant changes were observed in Hb levels (mean [SD] 11.9 [1.3] g/dL, 12.0 [1.5], 12.0 [1.5], and 12.0 [1.7] at Months −12, 0, 12 and 24, respectively, P=0.409. After conversion, the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA dose decreased significantly (P<0.0001, with an annual mean of 174.7 (88.7 international units (IU/kg/week for epoetin versus 95.7 (43.4 (first year and 91.4 (42.7 IU/kg/week (second year for darbepoetin (65% and 64% reduction, respectively. The ESA resistance index decreased from 15.1 (8.5 IU/kg/week/g/dL with epoetin to 8.1 (3.9 (first year and 7.9 (4.0 (second year with darbepoetin (P<0.0001. The conversion rate was 354:1 in patients requiring high (>200 IU/kg/week doses of epoetin and 291:1 in patients requiring low doses. Conclusion: In patients on hemodialysis receiving ESAs

  11. Structure and stability of human hemoglobin microparticles prepared with a double emulsion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedrati, N; Bonneaux, F; Labrude, P; Maincent, P

    1997-09-01

    Hemoglobin solutions can be used as blood substitutes but they present some disadvantages often due to their rapid removal from the bloodstream after injection. A possible way of overcoming this problem is to trap hemoglobin inside particles. This study deals with the preparation, structure and stability of poly(lactic acid) and ethylcellulose microparticles containing human hemoglobin obtained with a double emulsion technique. We investigated the manufacturing process of these particles in order to increase the encapsulation ratio of hemoglobin. For this purpose, some parameters involved in the procedure were optimized, such as hemoglobin concentration and duration of stirring: hemoglobin loading increases with its concentration in the preparation and well-defined stirring time avoids a leakage of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin concentration, surfactant concentration i.e. poly(vinylic alcohol), amounts of polymer and solvent (methylene chloride), duration and speed of stirring. The microparticles were prepared with satisfactory yields (60 to 73%). They were spherical and their mean size was lower than 200 microns. The functional properties of entrapped hemoglobin were studied. The encapsulation did not alter hemoglobin and the oxygen affinity of the hemoglobin remained unmodified (P50 about 13.9 mm Hg in a Bis-Tris buffer pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C). Moreover, only low levels of methemoglobin could be detected (less than 3%). Besides, about 90% of encapsulated hemoglobin could be released from microparticles, with a speed related to the internal structure of the particles. The prepared microparticles were stored during one month at +4 degrees C. No degradation of the particle structure occurred and the functional properties of hemoglobin were preserved. These particles could provide a potential source of oxygen in the field of biotechnologies but any application for a transfusional purpose would first require a drastic reduction in particle size.

  12. Conversational Involvement and Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the relationship of conversational involvement and loneliness among college students. Found that lonely participants in this study had lower rates of talkativeness, interruptions, and attention than the nonlonely; they were also perceived as less involved and less interpersonally attractive. (PD)

  13. Conversational English Program, 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This second book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  14. Conversational English Program, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This first book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  15. Leadership is a conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate.

  16. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  17. Delusions v. conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khripunov, I. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Russian defense conversion is a gloomy story, punctuated by only a few isolated successes. Overall industrial production in the first quarter of 1994 fell 27.4 percent below 1993 levels. Additionally the defense industry has been afflicted by the government`s failure to pay its debts to the industry, which, in the first quarter of 1994 grew from 2.1 trillion to 4.7 trillion rubles. Some members of government realize that the overmilitarized economy is burdensome and wasteful, and that post-Cold Ware reality necessitates a rapid reorientation to civilian purposes. Defense conversion has been called the first and foremost element in Russian economic reform. A converted defense industry must manufacture high-priority equipment in oil, gas, telecommunications, and space ventures. Russian economists estimate that modernization and conversion of the military-industrial comples will cost from $150 billion to $300 billion, which, Russia does not have. The lamentable state of Russia`s defense conversion projects reflects the disarray of the overall economy. The government can turn the defense industry into an asset, both the task will require time, patience, money and innovation.

  18. Mechanochemical Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the thermodynamics of macromolecular systems, including theories and experiments of cyclic energy conversion with rubber and collagen as working substances. Indicates that an early introduction into the concept of chemical potential and solution thermodynamics is made possible through the study of the cyclic processes. (CC)

  19. Electromechanical Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePage, Wilbur R.

    This programed text on electromechanical energy conversion (motors and generators) was developed under contract with the U.S. Office of Education as Number 12 in a series of materials for use in an electrical engineering sequence. It is intended to be used in conjunction with other materials and with other short texts in the series. (DH)

  20. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  1. Physics of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Krischer, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Covers the physical basis of the most important energy conversion processes used for energy supply. Provides the fundamentals and a scientific understanding of the physics behind thermal power plants, solar cells and power plants, batteries and fuels cells as well as energy storage devices.

  2. Broadband frequency conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    We demonstrate a method for frequency conversion of broadly tunable or broad bandwidth light in a static, passive setup. Using simple optical components like lenses, mirrors and gratings and a BiBO crystal as the nonlinear material, we are able to frequency double a single-frequency, tunable...

  3. Employment status and occupational level of adult survivors of childhood cancer in Great Britain: The British childhood cancer survivor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobisher, Clare; Lancashire, Emma R; Jenkinson, Helen; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2017-06-15

    The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) provides the first detailed investigation of employment and occupation to be undertaken in a large population-based cohort. Previous studies have been limited by design issues such as using small numbers of survivors with specific diagnoses, and involved limited assessment of employment status and occupational level. The BCCSS includes 17,981 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. Employment status and occupational level were ascertained by questionnaire from eligible survivors (n = 14,836). Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with employment and occupation, and to compare survivors to their demographic peers in the general population. Employment status was available for 10,257 survivors. Gender, current age, cancer type, radiotherapy, age at diagnosis and epilepsy were consistently associated with being: employed; unable to work; in managerial or non-manual occupations. Overall, survivors were less likely to be working than expected (OR (99% CI): 0.89 (0.81-0.98)), and this deficit was greatest for irradiated CNS neoplasm survivors (0.34 (0.28-0.41)). Compared to the general population, survivors were fivefold more likely to be unable to work due to illness/disability; the excess was 15-fold among CNS neoplasm survivors treated with radiotherapy. Overall survivors were less likely to be in managerial occupations than expected (0.85 (0.77-0.94)). However, bone sarcoma survivors were more likely to be in these occupations than expected (1.37 (1.01-1.85)) and also similarly for non-manual occupations (1.90 (1.37-2.62)). Survivors of retinoblastoma (1.55 (1.20-2.01)) and 'other' neoplasm group (1.62 (1.30-2.03)) were also more likely to be in non-manual occupations than expected. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  4. Who are happy survivors? Physical, psychosocial, and spiritual factors associated with happiness of breast cancer survivors during the transition from cancer patient to survivor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Danbee; Kim, Im-Ryung; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Yoon, Jung Hee; Lee, Se-Kyung; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Cho, Juhee

    2017-02-24

    This study aims to evaluate physical, psychosocial, and spiritual factors associated with happiness in breast cancer survivors during the reentry period. It is a cross-sectional study with 283 nonmetastatic breast cancer survivors who completed treatment within 1 year. We included survivors who completed questionnaires on happiness and health-related quality of life (QoL) 2 years after cancer diagnosis. Happiness and QoL was measured using the Subjective Happiness Scale and EORTC QLQ-C30, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to find factors associated with happiness. The mean age of the study participants was 48.5 ± 7.8 years. Among the 283 survivors, 14.5%, 43.8%, 32.5%, and 2.1% reported being "very happy," "happy," "neutral," and "not happy at all," respectively. Happy survivors reported a better general health status and QoL (67.6 vs 49.6; P Happy survivors were more likely to feel certain about the future (27.2% vs 11.9%, P happiness. During the reentry period, breast cancer survivors who are hopeful and have a clear purpose in life are more likely to be happy than those who are not. Setting proper life goals might be beneficial to help breast cancer survivors who experience persistent QoL issues. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Estimation of Melanin and Hemoglobin Using Spectral Reflectance Images Reconstructed from a Digital RGB Image by the Wiener Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Aizu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A multi-spectral diffuse reflectance imaging method based on a single snap shot of Red-Green-Blue images acquired with the exposure time of 65 ms (15 fps was investigated for estimating melanin concentration, blood concentration, and oxygen saturation in human skin tissue. The technique utilizes the Wiener estimation method to deduce spectral reflectance images instantaneously from an RGB image. Using the resultant absorbance spectrum as a response variable and the extinction coefficients of melanin, oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin as predictor variables, multiple regression analysis provides regression coefficients. Concentrations of melanin and total blood are then determined from the regression coefficients using conversion vectors that are numerically deduced in advance by the Monte Carlo simulations for light transport in skin. Oxygen saturation is obtained directly from the regression coefficients. Experiments with a tissue-like agar gel phantom validated the method. In vivo experiments on fingers during upper limb occlusion demonstrated the ability of the method to evaluate physiological reactions of human skin.

  6. Intraspecific Polymorphism, Interspecific Divergence, and the Origins of Function-Altering Mutations in Deer Mouse Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Lanier, Hayley C.; Wolf, Cole J.; Cheviron, Zachary A.; Spangler, Matthew L.; Weber, Roy E.; Fago, Angela; Storz, Jay F.

    2015-01-01

    Major challenges for illuminating the genetic basis of phenotypic evolution are to identify causative mutations, to quantify their functional effects, to trace their origins as new or preexisting variants, and to assess the manner in which segregating variation is transduced into species differences. Here, we report an experimental analysis of genetic variation in hemoglobin (Hb) function within and among species of Peromyscus mice that are native to different elevations. A multilocus survey of sequence variation in the duplicated HBA and HBB genes in Peromyscus maniculatus revealed that function-altering amino acid variants are widely shared among geographically disparate populations from different elevations, and numerous amino acid polymorphisms are also shared with closely related species. Variation in Hb-O2 affinity within and among populations of P. maniculatus is attributable to numerous amino acid mutations that have individually small effects. One especially surprising feature of the Hb polymorphism in P. maniculatus is that an appreciable fraction of functional standing variation in the two transcriptionally active HBA paralogs is attributable to recurrent gene conversion from a tandemly linked HBA pseudogene. Moreover, transpecific polymorphism in the duplicated HBA genes is not solely attributable to incomplete lineage sorting or introgressive hybridization; instead, it is mainly attributable to recurrent interparalog gene conversion that has occurred independently in different species. Partly as a result of concerted evolution between tandemly duplicated globin genes, the same amino acid changes that contribute to variation in Hb function within P. maniculatus also contribute to divergence in Hb function among different species of Peromyscus. In the case of function-altering Hb mutations in Peromyscus, there is no qualitative or quantitative distinction between segregating variants within species and fixed differences between species. PMID:25556236

  7. Mass Spectra and Ion Collision Cross Sections of Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang; Terrier, Peran; Douglas, D. J.

    2011-02-01

    Mass spectra of commercially obtained hemoglobin (Hb) show higher levels of monomer and dimer ions, heme-deficient dimer ions, and apo-monomer ions than hemoglobin freshly prepared from blood. This has previously been attributed to oxidation of commercial Hb. Further, it has been reported that that dimer ions from commercial bovine Hb have lower collision cross sections than low charge state monomer ions. To investigate these effects further, we have recorded mass spectra of fresh human Hb, commercial human and bovine Hb, fresh human Hb oxidized with H2O2, lyophilized fresh human Hb, fresh human Hb both lyophilized and chemically oxidized, and commercial human Hb oxidized with H2O2. Masses of α-monomer ions of all hemoglobins agree with the masses expected from the sequences within 3 Da or better. Mass spectra of the β chains of commercial Hb and oxidized fresh human Hb show a peak or shoulder on the high mass side, consistent with oxidation of the protein. Both commercial proteins and oxidized fresh human Hb produce heme-deficient dimers with masses 32 Da greater than expected and higher levels of monomer and dimer ions than fresh Hb. Lyophilization or oxidation of Hb both produce higher levels of monomer and dimer ions in mass spectra. Fresh human Hb, commercial human Hb, commercial bovine Hb, and oxidized commercial human Hb all give dimer ions with cross sections greater than monomer ions. Thus, neither oxidation of Hb or the difference in sequence between human and bovine Hb make substantial differences to cross sections of ions.

  8. Management of Unexplained Symptoms in Survivors of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Michael; Bruns, Gina L.; Pollman, Courtney; Todd, Briana L.

    2010-01-01

    Quality health care for survivors of cancer must evaluate and manage symptoms that are reported at the surveillance visit but are not linked to a cancer recurrence or a new cancer. At present, this does not always occur. This article analyzes quality of health care for survivors of cancer, taking empirical evidence and clinical expertise into consideration. Although emotional distress on the part of the survivor of cancer may exacerbate or even explain the presence of experienced symptoms, there are other potential explanations as well. When survivors present with persistent symptoms (even if unexplained) after cancer diagnosis and treatment, the symptoms can impact the survivor's function and well-being. Oncologists and other providers need to assess and directly target these symptoms for appropriate triage to those who can best help these survivors reduce the symptoms and their impact. PMID:21358961

  9. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov G.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  10. The epidemiology of long- and short-term cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarlbæk, Lene; Christensen, Linda; Bruera, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    , 2.4% lung cancer. Short-term survivors: 21% lung cancer, 7.2% breast cancer. Chemotherapy was provided to 15% of all patients, and to 10% of the 60 + year olds. Discussion. The epidemiology of long- and short-term survivors shows significant differences with regard to age at TOCD, cancer types......' difference in age at TOCD was seen between long- and short-term survivors, with median ages of 60 versus 72 years, respectively. Females comprised 64% of long-term, and 46% of short-term survivors. The proportion of breast and lung cancers differed between the groups: Long-term survivors: 31% breast cancer......Introduction. In this study, we present data from a population-based cohort of incident cancer patients separated in long- and short-term survivors. Our aim was to procure denominators for use in the planning of rehabilitation and palliative care programs. Material and methods. A registry...

  11. Providing services to trafficking survivors: Understanding practices across the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Jordan J; Kynn, Jamie; Stylianou, Amanda M; Postmus, Judy L

    2018-01-01

    Human trafficking is a global issue, with survivors representing all genders, ages, races, ethnicities, religions, and countries. However, little research exists that identifies effective practices in supporting survivors of human trafficking. The research that does exist is Western-centric. To fill this gap in the literature, the goal of this research was to understand practices used throughout the globe with adult human trafficking survivors. A qualitative approach was utilized. Providers from 26 countries, across six different continents, were interviewed to allow for a comprehensive and multi-faceted understanding of practices in working with survivors. Participants identified utilizing an empowerment-based, survivor, and human life-centered approach to working with survivors, emphasized the importance of engaging in community level interventions, and highlighted the importance of government recognition of human trafficking. Findings provide information from the perspective of advocates on best practices in the field that can be used by agencies to enhance human trafficking programming.

  12. The Haptoglobin-CD163-Heme Oxygenase-1 Pathway for Hemoglobin Scavenging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Haugbølle Thomsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The haptoglobin- (Hp- CD163-heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 pathway is an efficient captor-receptor-enzyme system to circumvent the hemoglobin (Hb/heme-induced toxicity during physiological and pathological hemolyses. In this pathway, Hb tightly binds to Hp leading to CD163-mediated uptake of the complex in macrophages followed by lysosomal Hp-Hb breakdown and HO-1-catalyzed conversion of heme into the metabolites carbon monoxide (CO, biliverdin, and iron. The plasma concentration of Hp is a limiting factor as evident during accelerated hemolysis, where the Hp depletion may cause serious Hb-induced toxicity and put pressure on backup protecting systems such as the hemopexin-CD91-HO pathway. The Hp-CD163-HO-1 pathway proteins are regulated by the acute phase mediator interleukin-6 (IL-6, but other regulatory factors indicate that this upregulation is a counteracting anti-inflammatory response during inflammation. The heme metabolites including bilirubin converted from biliverdin have overall an anti-inflammatory effect and thus reinforce the anti-inflammatory efficacy of the Hp-CD163-HO-1 pathway. Future studies of animal models of inflammation should further define the importance of the pathway in the anti-inflammatory response.

  13. Mössbauer studies of hemoglobin in high altitude polycythemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiufang, Zhang; Linming, Shen; Songsen, Chen; Yuanyuan, Liu; Naifei, Gao; Yuanming, Zheng; Zhaohui, Ao; Liangquan, Shong

    1990-07-01

    The Mössbauer spectra have been measured in erythrocytes from normal adults and the patients with high altitude polycythemia (HAPC). The results indicated that two subspectra “a” and “b”, corresponding to oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin respectively, were present in all blood samples, and a third subspectrum “c” was found to exist in almost all samples from the patients. The parameters of the third subspectra “cl” in most samples from the patients were similar to those of carbon monoxyhemoglobin. The components were considered to be the denatured hemoglobin in RBCs (red blood cells). Together with clinical analysis, a possible mechanism of HAPC has been discussed.

  14. Molecular and cellular pathogenesis of hemoglobin SC disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Bunn, H F; Noguchi, C.T.; Hofrichter, J; Schechter, G P; Schechter, A N; Eaton, W A

    1982-01-01

    Solution and cell studies were performed to ascertain why individuals with hemoglobin (Hb) SC have disease whereas those with Hb AS do not. The polymerization of deoxygenated mixtures containing sickle cell Hb (Hb S; alpha 2 beta 2(6)Glu leads to Val) and Hb C (alpha 2 beta 2(6)Glu leads to Lys) was investigated by measurements of delay times and solubilities. In mixtures containing more than 40% Hb S, polymerization takes place by the same mechanism as in solutions of Hb S alone, with no evi...

  15. Hemoglobin – source of reactive oxygen species 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Zapora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes are especially vulnerable to reactive oxygen species because of their direct role in oxygen transport. Moreover, hemoglobin contains iron ions (Fe2 , which catalyze both the Fenton reaction and lipid peroxidation. Reactive oxygen species in erythrocytes are also generated through nonenzymatic and enzymatic processes of heme degradation. The nonenzymatic process of heme degradation is initiated by e.g. hydrogen peroxide, whereas the process of enzymatic degradation is under the influence of heme oxygenase. In both cases biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO and iron ions (Fe2 are generated. These products of heme degradation can initialize the oxidative processes within erythrocytes, but at low concentrations exhibit cytoprotective properties. 

  16. Synthesis of iron nanoparticles from hemoglobin and myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyad, Arshad S; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Ci, Lijie; Kabbani, Ahmad T; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-02-10

    Stable iron nanoparticles have been synthesized from naturally occurring and abundant Fe-containing bio-precursors, namely hemoglobin and myoglobin. The formation of stable iron nanoparticles was achieved through a one-pot, single-phase chemical reduction approach. The reduction of iron ions present in the bio-precursors was carried out at room temperature and avoids the use of harsh chemical reagents. The size distribution of the product falls into the narrow 2-5 nm range and the particles were found to be crystalline. This method can be a valuable synthetic approach for producing bio-conjugated nanoparticle systems for biological applications.

  17. Reduced male fertility in childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hee Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With advances in cancer treatment, more pediatric cancer patients have increased their life expectancy. Because cancer-related therapy causes various physical and psychological problems, many male survivors experience later problems with thyroid and sexual functions, and with growth. As outcomes have improved, more survivors need to maintain their reproductive function to maximize their long-term quality of life. Cancer and cancer-related treatment can impair fertility by damage to the testes, to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, or to the genitourinary organs. Prior radiation therapy to the testes, the use of alkylating agents, and central hypogonadism further impair fertility in male survivors of childhood cancer. Following any course of chemotherapy, peripubertal maturation, any testicular volume changes, and symptoms of androgen deficiency should be monitored systematically. If patients request fertility testing, spermatogenesis status can be evaluated either directly by semen analysis or indirectly by determination of the levels of testosterone/gonadotropins and by monitoring any changes in testicular volume. According to the patient's condition, semen cryopreservation, hormonal therapy, or assisted reproduction technologies should be provided.

  18. Process theology's relevance for older survivors of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowland, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Pastoral work with survivors of domestic violence may reveal theological struggles. Understandings of scripture that reinforce a sense of powerlessness and alienation from God may contribute to an impaired relationship and limit resources for healing. One framework for re-imaging a relationship with God is process theology. This framework was applied to a case study for one survivor. The application resulted in a line of inquiry that may assist survivors in their healing process.

  19. School attendance in childhood cancer survivors and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Amy E; Tsangaris, Elena; Barrera, Maru; Guger, Sharon; Brown, Robert; Urbach, Stacey; Stephens, Derek; Nathan, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    To investigate school absenteeism among childhood cancer survivors and their siblings and examine factors related to absenteeism in survivors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among consecutive cancer survivors attending a large pediatric cancer survivor clinic. Absenteeism rates were obtained for survivors and their closest in age sibling from school report cards. Absenteeism was compared with a population control group of 167752 students using 1-sample t tests. The Child Vulnerability Scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and Behavior Assessment System for Children were administered to survivors. Univariate and multiple regression analyses assessed variables associated with days absent. One hundred thirty-one survivors (median age at assessment: 13.4 years, range 8.0-19.2; median age at diagnosis: 9.4 years, range 4.3-17.3) and 77 siblings (median age at assessment: 13 years, age range 7-18) participated. Survivors and siblings missed significantly more school days than the population control group (mean ± SD: 9.6 ± 9.2 and 9.9 ± 9.8 vs 5.0 ± 5.6 days, respectively, P sibling pairs (N = 77), there was no difference in absenteeism (9.6 ± 9.2 vs 9.9 ± 9.8 days, P = .85). Absenteeism in survivors was significantly associated with a low Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Physical Health Summary Score (P = .01). Parents' perception of their child's vulnerability and emotional and social functioning were not associated with absenteeism. Childhood cancer survivors and siblings miss more school than the general population. The only predictor of absenteeism in survivors is poor physical quality of health. More research should be devoted to school attendance and other outcomes in siblings of childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hospitalization Rates Among Survivors of Young Adult Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Devon P; Daly, Corinne; Sutradhar, Rinku; Paszat, Lawrence F; Wilton, Andrew S; Rabeneck, Linda; Baxter, Nancy N

    2015-08-20

    There are limited data on health care use among survivors of young adult cancers. We aimed to describe patterns of hospitalization among a cohort of long-term survivors compared with noncancer controls. Persons diagnosed between the ages of 20 and 44 years with malignancies in Ontario, Canada, from 1992 to 1999, who lived at least 5 years recurrence free, were identified using the Ontario Cancer Registry and matched to noncancer controls. Hospitalizations were determined using hospital discharges, and rates were compared between survivors and controls. The absolute excess rate of hospitalizations was determined for each type of malignancy in survivors per 100 person-years of follow-up. The cohort included 20,275 survivors and 101,344 noncancer controls. During the study period, 6,948 (34.3%) survivors were admitted to the hospital and the adjusted relative rate (ARR) of hospitalizations in survivors compared with controls was 1.51 (95% CI, 1.48 to 1.54). The rate of hospitalization was highest for survivors of upper GI, leukemia, and urologic malignancies. The hospitalization rate (per person) for survivors significantly decreased from 0.22 in the first time period examined (5 to 8 years after diagnosis) to 0.15 in the last time period examined (18 to 20 years after diagnosis, P < .0001). However, at all time periods, survivors were more likely to be hospitalized than controls (ARR at 5 to 8 years, 1.67 [95% CI, 1.57 to 1.81]; ARR at 18 to 20 years, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.08 to 1.37]). Survivors of young adult cancers have an increased rate of hospitalization compared with controls. The rate of hospitalization for 20-year survivors did not return to baseline, indicating a substantial and persistent burden of late effects among this generally young population. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  1. Physical Activity in Child and Adolescent Cancer Survivors: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gilliam, Margaux B.; Schwebel, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk for future health problems. As such, physical activity (PA) has been targeted as a health promotion priority in child and adolescent cancer survivors. Research indicates that a large portion of pediatric survivors do not meet PA recommendations. Using Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory as a framework, this review presents a conceptual model to explain child and adolescent survivors’ PA. The model considers predictors of PA across six domains: (...

  2. Rehabilitation in cancer survivors - with focus on physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Gjerset, Gunhild Maria

    2012-01-01

    The number of cancer survivors in the Western world has markedly increased over the last few decades. With the growing number of survivors, it has become relevant to address the health of cancer survivors and how to improve it. The malignancy, and more often the cancer treatment, might have negative effects upon physical and psychological aspects of the survivors’ health. For those who experience such adverse effects, professional assistance in addition to their own efforts might be needed in...

  3. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    OpenAIRE

    Korobeynikov G.V.; Drojjin V.U.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results...

  4. Lost Productivity in Stroke Survivors: An Econometrics Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Manav V; Hackam, Daniel G; Silver, Frank L; Laporte, Audrey; Kapral, Moira K

    2016-01-01

    Stroke leads to a substantial societal economic burden. Loss of productivity among stroke survivors is a significant contributor to the indirect costs associated with stroke. We aimed to characterize productivity and factors associated with employability in stroke survivors. We used the Canadian Community Health Survey 2011-2012 to identify stroke survivors and employment status. We used multivariable logistic models to determine the impact of stroke on employment and on factors associated with employability, and used Heckman models to estimate the effect of stroke on productivity (number of hours worked/week and hourly wages). We included data from 91,633 respondents between 18 and 70 years and identified 923 (1%) stroke survivors. Stroke survivors were less likely to be employed (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.33-0.46) and had hourly wages 17.5% (95% CI 7.7-23.7) lower compared to the general population, although there was no association between work hours and being a stroke survivor. We found that factors like older age, not being married, and having medical comorbidities were associated with lower odds of employment in stroke survivors in our sample. Stroke survivors are less likely to be employed and they earn a lower hourly wage than the general population. Interventions such as dedicated vocational rehabilitation and policies targeting return to work could be considered to address this lost productivity among stroke survivors. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. SECONDARY GASTROINTESTINAL MALIGNANCIES IN CHILDHOOD CANCER SURVIVORS: A COHORT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tara O.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Whitton, John; Leisenring, Wendy; Neglia, Joseph; Meadows, Anna; Crotty, Catherine; Rubin, David T.; Diller, Lisa; Inskip, Peter; Smith, Susan A.; Stovall, Marilyn; Constine, Louis S.; Hammond, Sue; Armstrong, Greg T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Nathan, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood cancer survivors develop gastrointestinal malignancies more frequently and at a younger age than the general population, but risk factors for their development have not been well characterized. Objective To determine the risk and associated risk factors for gastrointestinal subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMN) in childhood cancer survivors. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a multi-center study of childhood cancer survivors diagnosed between 1970 and 1986. Patients 14,358 survivors of a malignancy diagnosed at cancer survivors than the general population (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.5-6.1). Colorectal cancer SIR was 4.2 (95% CI: 2.8-6.3). The highest gastrointestinal SMN risk was associated with abdominal radiation (SIR=11.2, 95% CI: 7.6-16.4). However, survivors not exposed to radiation had a significantly increased risk (SIR=2.4, 95% CI-1.4-3.9). In addition to abdominal radiation, high dose procarbazine (RR=3.2, 95% CI 1.1-9.4) and platinum drugs (RR 7.6, 95% CI: 2.3-25.5) independently increased the gastrointestinal SMN risk. Limitations This cohort has not yet attained an age at which gastrointestinal malignancy risk is greatest. Conclusions Childhood cancer survivors, particularly those exposed to abdominal radiation, are at increased risk for gastrointestinal SMN. These findings suggest that surveillance of at-risk childhood cancer survivors should commence at a younger age than recommended for the general population. PMID:22665813

  6. Life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crom, Deborah B; Li, Zhenghong; Brinkman, Tara M; Hudson, Melissa M; Armstrong, Gregory T; Neglia, Joseph; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-01-01

    Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors experience multiple, significant, lifelong deficits as a consequence of their malignancy and therapy. Current survivorship literature documents the substantial impact such impairments have on survivors' physical health and quality of life. Psychosocial reports detail educational, cognitive, and emotional limitations characterizing survivors as especially fragile, often incompetent, and unreliable in evaluating their circumstances. Anecdotal data suggest some survivors report life experiences similar to those of healthy controls. The aim of our investigation was to determine whether life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors differs from that of healthy controls and to identify potential predictors of life satisfaction in survivors. This cross-sectional study compared 78 brain tumor survivors with population-based matched controls. Chi-square tests, t tests, and linear regression models were used to investigate patterns of life satisfaction and identify potential correlates. Results indicated that life satisfaction of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors was similar to that of healthy controls. Survivors' general health expectations emerged as the primary correlate of life satisfaction. Understanding life satisfaction as an important variable will optimize the design of strategies to enhance participation in follow-up care, reduce suffering, and optimize quality of life in this vulnerable population. © 2014 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies to human hemoglobin S and cell lines for the production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ronald H.; Vanderlaan, Martin; Bigbee, William L.; Stanker, Larry H.; Branscomb, Elbert W.; Grabske, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The present invention provides monoclonal antibodies specific to and distinguish between hemoglobin S and hemoglobin A and methods for their production and use. These antibodies are capable of distinguishing between two hemoglobin types which differ from each other by only a single amino acid residue. The antibodies produced according to the present method are useful as immunofluorescent markers to enumerate circulating red blood cells which have the property of altered expression of the hemoglobin gene due to somatic mutation in stem cells. Such a measurement is contemplated as an assay for in vivo cellular somatic mutations in humans. Since the monoclonal antibodies produced in accordance with the instant invention exhibit a high degree of specificity to and greater affinity for hemoglobin S, they are suitable for labeling human red blood cells for flow cytometric detection of hemoglobin genotype.

  8. Modeling hemoglobin at optical frequency using the unconditionally stable fundamental ADI-FDTD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heh, Ding Yu; Tan, Eng Leong

    2011-04-12

    This paper presents the modeling of hemoglobin at optical frequency (250 nm - 1000 nm) using the unconditionally stable fundamental alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain (FADI-FDTD) method. An accurate model based on complex conjugate pole-residue pairs is proposed to model the complex permittivity of hemoglobin at optical frequency. Two hemoglobin concentrations at 15 g/dL and 33 g/dL are considered. The model is then incorporated into the FADI-FDTD method for solving electromagnetic problems involving interaction of light with hemoglobin. The computation of transmission and reflection coefficients of a half space hemoglobin medium using the FADI-FDTD validates the accuracy of our model and method. The specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution of human capillary at optical frequency is also shown. While maintaining accuracy, the unconditionally stable FADI-FDTD method exhibits high efficiency in modeling hemoglobin.

  9. Intensive care survivor-reported symptoms: a longitudinal study of survivors' symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerud, Anne Kathrine; Rustøen, Tone; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Kongsgaard, Ulf; Stubhaug, Audun

    2018-01-01

    There is growing interest in potential long-term outcomes following intensive care, but few researchers have studied the prevalence of multiple symptoms or the association between pain and other symptoms. To investigate the prevalence of anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep disturbance and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among intensive care survivors 3 months and 1 year after being discharged from an intensive care unit (ICU) and to determine whether pain is associated with higher prevalence of these symptoms 3 months and 1 year after ICU stay. Exploratory, longitudinal cohort of intensive care survivors from two mixed ICUs in a tertiary referral hospital in Norway. Intensive care survivors completed surveys at 3 months (n = 118) and 1 year (n = 89) after ICU discharge. Clinical Trials: NCT02279212. Prevalence rates of intensive care survivors' symptoms were pain 58 (49·2%), anxiety/depression 24/118 (20·8%), fatigue 18/118(15·3%), PTSS 15 (12·8%) and sleep disturbance 58/118 (49·2%) at 3 months after ICU discharge (n = 118). Prevalence rates at 1 year (n = 89) changed only slightly to pain 34 (38·2%), anxiety/depression 17 (20·0%), fatigue 12 (13·8%), PTSS 13 (15·1%) and sleep disturbance 40/89 (46·5%). Associations were strong between pain and presence of sleep disturbance, anxiety/depression, PTSS and fatigue. Intensive care survivors have multiple symptoms and the prevalence rates of these symptoms remained almost unchanged from 3 months to 1 year after ICU discharge. The presence of pain was associated with high odds for the presence of sleep disturbance, anxiety/depression, PTSS and fatigue, compared to a no-pain group. ICU survivors may benefit from targeted interventions designed to alleviate the symptom burden. Knowledge about ICU survivor's prevalence and risk for having multiple symptoms may help health care professionals to give better care, if needed, to the ICU survivors. © 2017 British Association of Critical Care

  10. Heterozygote Hemoglobin G-Coushatta as the Cause of a Falsely Decreased Hemoglobin A1C in an Ion-Exchange HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtoğlu Ayşegül Uğur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is used for the assessment of glycemic control in patients with diabetes. The presence of genetic variants of hemoglobin can profoundly affect the accuracy of HbA1c measurement. Here, we report two cases of Hemoglobin G-Coushatta (HBB:c.68A>C variant that interferes in the measurement of HbA1c by a cation-exchange HPLC (CE-HPLC method. HbA1c was measured by a CE-HPLC method in a Tosoh HLC-723 G7 instrument. The HbA1c levels were 2.9% and 4%. These results alerted us to a possible presence of hemoglobinopathy. In the hemoglobin variant analysis, HbA2 levels were detected as 78.3% and 40.7% by HPLC using the short program for the Biorad Variant II. HbA1c levels were measured by an immunoturbidimetric assay in a Siemens Dimension instrument. HbA1c levels were reported as 5.5% and 5.3%. DNA mutation analysis was performed to detect the abnormal hemoglobin variant. Presence of Hemoglobin G-Coushatta variant was detected in the patients. The Hb G-Coushatta variants have an impact on the determination of glycated hemoglobin levels using CEHPLC resulting in a false low value. Therefore, it is necessary to use another measurement method.

  11. Upregulation of Hemoglobin Expression by Oxidative Stress in Hepatocytes and Its Implication in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wensheng Liu; Baker, Susan S.; Baker, Robert D.; Nowak, Norma J.; Lixin Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies revealed that hemoglobin is expressed in some non-erythrocytes and it suppresses oxidative stress when overexpressed. Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study was designed to investigate whether hemoglobin is expressed in hepatocytes and how it is related to oxidative stress in NASH patients. Analysis of microarray gene expression data revealed a significant increase in the expression of hemoglobin alpha (HBA...

  12. Broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy assessment of hemorrhage- and hemoglobin-based blood substitute resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangwoen; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Mukai, David; Kreuter, Kelly; Saltzman, Darin; Patino, Renee; Goldberg, Robert; Brenner, Matthew

    2009-07-01

    Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) are solutions of cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) that have been developed for replacement or augmentation of blood transfusion. It is important to monitor in vivo tissue hemoglobin content, total tissue hemoglobin [THb], oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations ([OHb], [RHb]), and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2=[OHb]/[THb]×100%) to evaluate effectiveness of HBOC transfusion. We designed and constructed a broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) prototype system to measure bulk tissue absorption and scattering spectra between 650 and 1000 nm capable of accurately determining these tissue hemoglobin component concentrations in vivo. Our purpose was to assess the feasibility of using DOS to optically monitor tissue [OHb], [RHb], StO2, and total tissue hemoglobin concentration ([THb]=[OHb]+[RHb]) during HBOC infusion using a rabbit hypovolemic shock model. The DOS prototype probe was placed on the shaved inner thigh muscle of the hind leg to assess concentrations of [OHb], [RHb], [THb], as well as StO2. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in intubated New Zealand white rabbits (N=6) by withdrawing blood via a femoral arterial line to 20% blood loss (10-15 cc/kg). Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (Hb-200) 1:1 volume resuscitation was administered following the hemorrhage. These values were compared against traditional invasive measurements, serum hemoglobin concentration (sHGB), systemic blood pressure, heart rate, and blood gases. DOS revealed increases of [THb], [OHb], and tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation after Hb-200 infusion, while blood total hemoglobin values continued did not increase; we speculate, due to hyperosmolality induced hemodilution. DOS enables noninvasive in vivo monitoring of tissue hemoglobin and oxygenation parameters during shock and volume expansion with HBOC and potentially enables the assessment of efficacy of resuscitation efforts using artificial blood substitutes.

  13. Engineering the oxygen sensing regulation results in an enhanced recombinant human hemoglobin production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Ruiz, José Luis; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina

    2015-01-01

    the generation of a set of plasmids to produce functional human hemoglobin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with final titers of active hemoglobin exceeding 4% of the total cell protein. In this study, we propose a strategy for further engineering S. cerevisiae by altering the oxygen sensing pathway by deleting...... the transcription factor HAP1, which resulted in an increase of the final recombinant active hemoglobin titer exceeding 7% of the total cellular protein....

  14. Implications of metric conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laros, R K

    1980-11-01

    The international scientific community is rapidly achieving conversion to the metric system, and the Système International (SI system) has been chosen for use by health scientists. Because the United States remains 1 of only 4 countries not now using part or all of the SI system, there is now a systematic effort toward rapid conversion. Although most of the SI system is not controversial, several SI units are highly so. Examples include joules instead of calories, pascals instead of millimeters of mercury, and moles per liter instead of milligrams per 100 milliliters. Obstetrician-gynecologists need to be familiar with the SI units and to voice their feelings about the various controversial units. There are decisions still to be made, and the time for discussion and advice is now.

  15. Movement coordination during conversation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Latif

    Full Text Available Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers' perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers.

  16. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  17. Conversion electron surface imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, G M; Wehner, A

    1999-01-01

    A method of imaging the Moessbauer absorption over the surface of a sample based on counting conversion electrons emitted from the surface following resonant absorption of gamma radiation is described. This Conversion Electron Surface Imaging (CESI) method is somewhat analogous to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), particularly chemical shift imaging, and similar tomographic reconstruction techniques are involved in extracting the image. The theory behind the technique and a prototype device is described, as well as the results of proof-of-principle experiments which demonstrate the function of the device. Eventually this same prototype device will be part of a system to determine the spatial variation of the Moessbauer spectrum over the surface of a sample. Applications include imaging of variations of surface properties of steels and other iron containing alloys, as well as other surfaces over which sup 5 sup 7 Fe has been deposited.

  18. Les conversions de cens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Feller

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une recherche entamée sur la circulation des richesses au Moyen Âge, la réflexion s’est dirigée vers la question de la conversion, c’est-à-dire du passage d’une forme à une autre dans la mesure des valeurs (argent contre nature, objets dont l’usage se transforme en s’échangeant, conversions monétaires. Un cycle de trois rencontres est prévu afin de débrouiller une question complexe qui devrait permettre au groupe d’éclairer la question de la valeur des choses au Moyen Âge. La...

  19. Diamagnetism of human apo-, oxy-, and (carbonmonoxy)hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philo, J S; Dreyer, U; Schuster, T M

    1984-02-28

    In recent years, a controversy has arisen over the magnetic properties of oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) and (carbonmonoxy)hemoglobin (HbCO). At present, it is unclear which, if any, conditions give a completely diamagnetic state for the heme-ligand complex which can be used as a diamagnetic reference state. In order to establish a diamagnetic reference independent of assignments of electronic configurations, we have measured the magnetic susceptibilities of apohemoglobin solutions and powdered iron-free protoporphyrin IX. We have also reexamined the magnetism of HbO2 and HbCO solutions at 20 degrees C and at several ionic strengths. We find no difference in magnetism between HbO2 and HbCO and no changes in their magnetism with solution conditions. Furthermore, relative to the new (apohemoglobin + porphyrin) diamagnetic reference, our data are consistent with complete diamagnetism for both HbO2 and HbCO under all conditions we have studied. Our data imply that any low-lying triplet state must lie at least 900 cm-1 above the diamagnetic ground states. These results disagree strongly with reports of substantial room temperature paramagnetism for HbO2 and a smaller paramagnetism for HbCO which disappears at high ionic strength [see Cerdonio, M., Morante, S., Vitale, S., Giacometti, G., & Brunori, M. (1982) in Hemoglobin and Oxygen Binding (Ho, C., Ed.) pp 63-68, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, and references cited therein].

  20. 17α-Ethinylestradiol can disrupt hemoglobin catabolism in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmshausen, Josefin; Kloas, Werner; Hoffmann, Frauke

    2015-05-01

    Different chemical substances, which enter the environment due to anthropogenic influences, can affect the endocrine system and influence development and physiology of aquatic animals. One of these endocrine disrupting chemicals is the synthetic estrogen, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), which is a main component of various oral contraceptives and demonstrably affects many different aquatic vertebrates at extremely low concentrations by feminization phenomena. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a four week exposure to three different concentrations of EE2 (0.3 ng/L, 29.6 ng/L and 2960 ng/L) affects the catabolism of hemoglobin of the amphibian Xenopus laevis. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time that beside an increase of the hepatic vitellogenin gene expression, exposure to EE2 also decreases the gene expression of the hepatic heme oxygenase 1 and 2 (HO1, HO2), degrading heme of different heme proteins to biliverdin, as well as of the biliverdin reductase A (BLVRA), which converts biliverdin to bilirubin. The results further suggest that EE2 already at the environmentally relevant concentration of (29.6 ng/L) can disrupt hemoglobin catabolism, indicated by decreased gene expression of HO2, which becomes evident at the highest EE2 concentration that led to a severe increase of biliverdin in plasma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-03-01

    The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals temporarily exposed to high altitude, and to some extent, it enables them to tolerate the high altitudes. In this phase, erythropoiesis is increased, resulting in higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to improve oxygen delivery capacity. Adaptation is the process of natural acclimatization where genetical variations and acclimatization play a role in allowing subjects to live without any difficulties at high altitudes. Testosterone is a hormone that regulates erythropoiesis and ventilation and could be associated to the processes of acclimatization and adaptation to high altitude. Excessive erythrocytosis, which leads to chronic mountain sickness, is caused by low arterial oxygen saturation, ventilatory inefficiency and reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia. Testosterone increases during acute exposure to high altitude and also in natives at high altitude with excessive erythrocytosis. Results of current research allow us to conclude that increase in serum testosterone and hemoglobin is adequate for acclimatization, as they improve oxygen transport, but not for high altitude adaptation, since high serum testosterone levels are associated to excessive erythrocytosis.

  2. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) improves lutein production in Chlorella vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruijuan; Lin, Xiangzhi

    2014-03-01

    Vitreoscilla hemoglobin is an oxygen-binding protein that promotes oxygen delivery and reduces oxygen consumption under low oxygen conditions to increase the efficiency of cell respiration and metabolism. In this study, we introduced a Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) into Chlorella vulgaris by Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation (ATMT). PCR analysis confirmed that the vgb gene was successfully integrated into the Chlorella vulgaris genome. Analysis of biomass obtained in shake flasks revealed transformant biomass concentrations as high as 3.28 g/L, which was 38.81% higher than that of the wild-type strain. Lutein content of transformants also increased slightly. Further experiments recovered a maximum lutein yield of 2.91 mg/L from the transformants, which was 36.77% higher than that of the wild-type strain. The above results suggest that integrated expression of the vgb gene may improve cell growth and lutein yield in Chlorella vulgaris, with applications to lutein production from Chlorella during fermentation.

  3. Hemoglobin multiple emulsion as an oxygen delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S; Zheng, Y; Beissinger, R L; Wasan, D T; McCormick, D L

    1993-08-20

    Multiple emulsion technology provides a mechanism for the encapsulation and in vivo delivery of drugs, proteins, and other materials which would otherwise be degraded, cleared rapidly, or toxic to the host. These feasibility studies were performed to evaluate a prototype Hb multiple emulsion as a stable oxygen delivery system. A concentrated solution of hemoglobin (Hb) was encapsulated in the form of a Hb-in-oil-in-water (Hb/O/W) multiple emulsion. Studies using mineral oil demonstrated that Hb multiple emulsions have several important characteristics that are compatible with utility as a blood substitute. These include: satisfactory rheological properties and good hydrodynamic stability compared to whole blood, high encapsulation concentration of Hb and high encapsulation efficiency with little met-hemoglobin generation, and satisfactory oxygen affinity and cooperativity compared to whole blood. Isovolemic exchange transfusions of Hb/O/W multiple emulsion can support life in rats whose hematocrit has been reduced to levels (5% or lower) that are incompatible with survival, and induces no acute toxicity. These results are consistent with the utility of Hb/O/W as an oxygen-carrying red blood cell substitute or organ perfusion media.

  4. Fetal hemoglobin in sickle cell anemia: a glass half full?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Martin H; Chui, David H K; Dover, George J; Sebastiani, Paola; Alsultan, Abdulrahman

    2014-01-23

    Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) modulates the phenotype of sickle cell anemia by inhibiting deoxy sickle hemoglobin (HbS) polymerization. The blood concentration of HbF, or the number of cells with detectable HbF (F-cells), does not measure the amount of HbF/F-cell. Even patients with high HbF can have severe disease because HbF is unevenly distributed among F-cells, and some cells might have insufficient concentrations to inhibit HbS polymerization. With mean HbF levels of 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, the distribution of HbF/F-cell can greatly vary, even if the mean is constant. For example, with 20% HbF, as few as 1% and as many as 24% of cells can have polymer-inhibiting, or protective, levels of HbF of ∼10 pg; with lower HbF, few or no protected cells can be present. Only when the total HbF concentration is near 30% is it possible for the number of protected cells to approach 70%. Rather than the total number of F-cells or the concentration of HbF in the hemolysate, HbF/F-cell and the proportion of F-cells that have enough HbF to thwart HbS polymerization is the most critical predictor of the likelihood of severe sickle cell disease.

  5. Hemoglobinas anormais e dificuldade diagnóstica Abnormal hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme G. Leoneli

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available As hemoglobinas humanas, com padrão de herança definido geneticamente, apresentam variações polimórficas características dentro de nossa população, na dependência dos grupos raciais que formam cada região. Aparecem sob a forma de variantes de hemoglobinas ou talassemias, sendo mais freqüentes, no Brasil, os tipos variantes S e C e as talassemias alfa e beta, todas na forma heterozigota. Durante o ano de 1999, amostras de sangue de 506 indivíduos com anemia a esclarecer ou que já passaram por alguma triagem de hemoglobinopatias foram encaminhadas ao Centro de Referência de Hemoglobinas da UNESP, para confirmação diagnóstica e submetidas a procedimentos eletroforéticos, análises bioquímicas e citológicas, para caracterização das hemoglobinas anormais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar quais tipos de hemoglobinas anormais apresentam maior dificuldade diagnóstica. As amostras foram provenientes de 24 cidades de doze estados. Os resultados mostraram que 354 indivíduos (69,96% apresentaram hemoglobinas anormais, sendo 30 Hb AS (5,93%, 5 Hb AC (0,98%, 76 sugestivos de talassemia alfa heterozigota (15,02%, 134 sugestivos de talassemia beta heterozigota (26,48% e 109 com outras formas de hemoglobinas anormais (21,54%, que incluem variantes raras e interações de diferentes formas de talassemias e hemoglobinas variantes. Concluiu-se que, apesar da melhoria técnica oferecida atualmente e a constante formação de recursos humanos capacitados, as talassemias em sua forma heterozigota (210 indivíduos -- 41,50% são responsáveis pela maior dificuldade diagnóstica, seguido da caracterização de variantes raras e formas interativas de hemoglobinopatias (109 indivíduos -- 21,54%, sugerindo que se deve aumentar a capacidade de formação de pessoal e as informações a respeito destas alterações genéticas em nossa população.The human hemoglobins, with genetically defined inheritance patterns, have shown

  6. Hemoglobin Porto Alegre forms a tetramer of tetramers superstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin-Creuza, Véronique; Fablet, Christophe; Zal, Franck; Green, Brian N.; Promé, Danielle; Marden, Michael C.; Pagnier, Josée; Wajcman, Henri

    2002-01-01

    The effects of the mutation β9(A6)Ser → Cys on the interactions between the human hemoglobin molecules were investigated, and comparisons were made with other variants having an additional cysteine residue. In hemoglobin Porto Alegre (PA), the β9 mutation induces polymerization by forming interchain disulfide bonds via the extra cysteine. The hemolysate from a heterozygote was separated by gel filtration into a tetrameric fraction and a higher-molecular-weight oligomeric fraction (30%). Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) under denaturing conditions showed that the tetrameric fraction contained only normal α- and β-chains, whereas the oligomeric fraction contained only normal α-chain and disulfide-linked βPA dimer. Under native conditions, ESI-MS of the oligomeric fraction revealed a principal complex of mass 258,400 Da corresponding to a tetramer of tetramers, and 10% of minor components. Transmission electron microscopy corroborated this structure by showing four spheres of 140 Å diameter surrounding a central cavity. Equilibrium experiments on the oligomer at different concentrations, using gel filtration and dimer exchange experiments with metHbA-CN, showed that the tetramer of tetramers dissociates into smaller species, probably by breaking the dimer–dimer allosteric interface. None of the other variants investigated formed such a large oligomer. PMID:11742129

  7. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  8. Conversations with Miss Jane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Fabre

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide range of conversations in the autobiography, this essay will attempt to appraise the importance of these verbal exchanges in relation to the overall narrative structure of the book and to the prevalent oral tradition in Louisiana culture, as both an individual and communal expression. The variety of circumstances, the setting and staging, the interlocutors , and the complex intersection of time and place, of stories and History, will be examined; in these conversations with Miss Jane many actors participate, from  the interviewer-narrator, to most characters; even the reader becomes involved.Speaking, hearing, listening, keeping silent is an elaborate ritual that performs many functions; besides conveying news or rumors, it imparts information on the times and on the life of a “representative” woman whose existence - spanning a whole century- is both singular and emblematic. Most importantly this essay will analyse the resonance of an eventful and often dramatic era on her sensibility and conversely show how her evolving sensibility informs that history and draws attention to aspects that might have passed unnoticed or be forever silenced. Jane’s desire for liberty and justice is often challenged as she faces the possibilities of life or death.Conversations build up a complex, often contradictory, but compelling portrait: torn between silence and vehemence, between memories and the urge to meet the future, Jane summons body and mind to find her way through the maze of a fast changing world; self-willed and obstinate she claims her right to speak, to express with wit and wisdom her firm belief in the word, in the ability to express deep seated convictions and faith and a whole array of feelings and emotions.

  9. Upregulation of hemoglobin expression by oxidative stress in hepatocytes and its implication in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wensheng; Baker, Susan S; Baker, Robert D; Nowak, Norma J; Zhu, Lixin

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies revealed that hemoglobin is expressed in some non-erythrocytes and it suppresses oxidative stress when overexpressed. Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study was designed to investigate whether hemoglobin is expressed in hepatocytes and how it is related to oxidative stress in NASH patients. Analysis of microarray gene expression data revealed a significant increase in the expression of hemoglobin alpha (HBA1) and beta (HBB) in liver biopsies from NASH patients. Increased hemoglobin expression in NASH was validated by quantitative real time PCR. However, the expression of hematopoietic transcriptional factors and erythrocyte specific marker genes were not increased, indicating that increased hemoglobin expression in NASH was not from erythropoiesis, but could result from increased expression in hepatocytes. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated positive HBA1 and HBB expression in the hepatocytes of NASH livers. Hemoglobin expression was also observed in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. Furthermore, treatment with hydrogen peroxide, a known oxidative stress inducer, increased HBA1 and HBB expression in HepG2 and HEK293 cells. Importantly, hemoglobin overexpression suppressed oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. We concluded that hemoglobin is expressed by hepatocytes and oxidative stress upregulates its expression. Suppression of oxidative stress by hemoglobin could be a mechanism to protect hepatocytes from oxidative damage in NASH.

  10. Methyglyoxal administration induces modification of hemoglobin in experimental rats: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sauradipta

    2017-02-01

    Methylglyoxal, a highly reactive α-oxoaldehyde, increases in diabetic condition and reacts with proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs) following Maillard-like reaction. In the present study, the effect of methylglyoxal on experimental rat hemoglobin in vivo has been investigated with respect to structural alterations and amino acid modifications, after external administration of the α-dicarbonyl compound in animals. Different techniques, mostly biophysical, were used to characterize and compare methylglyoxal-treated rat hemoglobin with that of control, untreated rat hemoglobin. In comparison with methylglyoxal-untreated, control rat hemoglobin, hemoglobin of methylglyoxal-treated rats (32mg/kgbodywt.dose) exhibited slightly decreased absorbance around 280nm, reduced intrinsic fluorescence and lower surface hydrophobicity. The secondary structures of hemoglobin of control and methylglyoxal-treated rats were more or less identical with the latter exhibiting slightly increased α-helicity compared to the former. Compared to control rat hemoglobin, methylglyoxal-treated rat hemoglobin showed higher stability. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis revealed modifications of Arg-31α, Arg-92α and Arg-104β of methylglyoxal-treated rat hemoglobin to hydroimidazolone adducts. The modifications thus appear to be associated with the observed structural alterations of the heme protein. Considering the increased level of methylglyoxal in diabetes mellitus as well as its high reactivity, AGE-induced modifications may have physiological significance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High altitude genetic adaptation in Tibetans: no role of increased hemoglobin-oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashi, Tsewang; Feng, Tang; Koul, Parvaiz; Amaru, Ricardo; Hussey, Dottie; Lorenzo, Felipe R; RiLi, Ge; Prchal, Josef T

    2014-01-01

    High altitude exerts selective evolutionary pressure primarily due to its hypoxic environment, resulting in multiple adaptive responses. High hemoglobin-oxygen affinity is postulated to be one such adaptive change, which has been reported in Sherpas of the Himalayas. Tibetans have lived on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau for thousands of years and have developed unique phenotypes, such as protection from polycythemia which has been linked to PDH2 mutation, resulting in the downregulation of the HIF pathway. In order to see if Tibetans also developed high hemoglobin-oxygen affinity as a part of their genetic adaptation, we conducted this study assessing hemoglobin-oxygen affinity and their fetal hemoglobin levels in Tibetan subjects from 3 different altitudes. We found normal hemoglobin-oxygen affinity in all subjects, fetal hemoglobin levels were normal in all except one and no hemoglobin variants in any of the subjects. We conclude that increased hemoglobin-oxygen affinity or increased fetal hemoglobin are not adaptive phenotypes of the Tibetan highlanders. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Oxidative stress in preeclampsia and the role of free fetal hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Rocco Hansson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a leading cause of pregnancy complications and affects 3–7 % of pregnant women. This review summarizes the current knowledge of a new potential etiology of the disease, with a special focus on hemoglobin-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, we also suggest hemoglobin as a potential target for therapy. Gene and protein profiling studies have shown increased expression and accumulation of free fetal hemoglobin in the preeclamptic placenta. Predominantly due to oxidative damage to the placental barrier, fetal hemoglobin leaks over to the maternal circulation. Free hemoglobin and its metabolites are toxic in several ways; a ferrous hemoglobin (Fe2+ binds strongly to the vasodilator nitric oxide and reduces the availability of free nitric oxide, which results in vasoconstriction, b hemoglobin (Fe2+ with bound oxygen spontaneously generates free oxygen radicals and c the heme groups create an inflammatory response by inducing activation of neutrophils and cytokine production. The endogenous protein α1-microglobulin, with radical and heme binding properties, has shown both ex vivo and in vivo to have the ability to counteract free hemoglobin-induced placental and kidney damage. Oxidative stress in general, and more specifically fetal hemoglobin-induced oxidative stress, could play a key role in the pathology of preeclampsia seen both in the placenta and ultimately in the maternal endothelium.

  13. Upregulation of hemoglobin expression by oxidative stress in hepatocytes and its implication in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensheng Liu

    Full Text Available Recent studies revealed that hemoglobin is expressed in some non-erythrocytes and it suppresses oxidative stress when overexpressed. Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. This study was designed to investigate whether hemoglobin is expressed in hepatocytes and how it is related to oxidative stress in NASH patients. Analysis of microarray gene expression data revealed a significant increase in the expression of hemoglobin alpha (HBA1 and beta (HBB in liver biopsies from NASH patients. Increased hemoglobin expression in NASH was validated by quantitative real time PCR. However, the expression of hematopoietic transcriptional factors and erythrocyte specific marker genes were not increased, indicating that increased hemoglobin expression in NASH was not from erythropoiesis, but could result from increased expression in hepatocytes. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated positive HBA1 and HBB expression in the hepatocytes of NASH livers. Hemoglobin expression was also observed in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. Furthermore, treatment with hydrogen peroxide, a known oxidative stress inducer, increased HBA1 and HBB expression in HepG2 and HEK293 cells. Importantly, hemoglobin overexpression suppressed oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. We concluded that hemoglobin is expressed by hepatocytes and oxidative stress upregulates its expression. Suppression of oxidative stress by hemoglobin could be a mechanism to protect hepatocytes from oxidative damage in NASH.

  14. A proposal to standardize reporting units for fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Callum G; Allison, James E; Halloran, Stephen P; Young, Graeme P

    2012-06-06

    Fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin are replacing traditional guaiac fecal occult blood tests in population screening programs for many reasons. However, the many available fecal immunochemical test devices use a range of sampling methods, differ with regard to hemoglobin stability, and report hemoglobin concentrations in different ways. The methods for sampling, the mass of feces collected, and the volume and characteristics of the buffer used in the sampling device also vary among fecal immunochemical tests, making comparisons of test performance characteristics difficult. Fecal immunochemical test results may be expressed as the hemoglobin concentration in the sampling device buffer and, sometimes, albeit rarely, as the hemoglobin concentration per mass of feces. The current lack of consistency in units for reporting hemoglobin concentration is particularly problematic because apparently similar hemoglobin concentrations obtained with different devices can lead to very different clinical interpretations. Consistent adoption of an internationally accepted method for reporting results would facilitate comparisons of outcomes from these tests. We propose a simple strategy for reporting fecal hemoglobin concentration that will facilitate the comparison of results between fecal immunochemical test devices and across clinical studies. Such reporting is readily achieved by defining the mass of feces sampled and the volume of sample buffer (with confidence intervals) and expressing results as micrograms of hemoglobin per gram of feces. We propose that manufacturers of fecal immunochemical tests provide this information and that the authors of research articles, guidelines, and policy articles, as well as pathology services and regulatory bodies, adopt this metric when reporting fecal immunochemical test results.

  15. The acetylation of hemoglobin by aspirin. In vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, K R; Schmidt, G J; Jensen, M; Cerami, A; Bunn, H F

    1975-01-01

    The chemical modification of hemoglobin by aspirin (ASA) has been studied, both in intact human red cells and in purified hemoglobin solutions. After incubation of red cells with 20 mM [acetyl-1minus14C]ASA, incorporation of radioactivity into hemoglobin was observed in agreement with the results of Klotz and Tam (1973. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 70: 1313-1315). In contrast, no labeling of hemoglobin was seen when [carbosyl-14-C]ASA was used. These results indicate that ASA acetylates hemoglobin. The acetylated hemoglobin was readily separated from unmodified hemoglobin by both gel electrofocusing and by column chromatography. Quantitation of the extent of acetylation by densitometric scanning of gels agreed very well with estimates obtained from radioactivity measurements. Hemolysates prepared from red cells incubated with ASA showed normal oxygen affinity and heme-heme interaction. Purified acetylated hemoglobin had a slightly increased oxygen affinity and decreased heme-heme interaction. There was no difference in the rate of acetylation of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin. ASA acetylated column-purified hemoglobin A more readily than hemoglobin in crude hemolysate, but less rapidly than purified human serum albumin. The rate of acetylation of hemoglobulin increased with pH up to approximately pH 8,5. Structural studies were done on hemoglobin incubated with 2.0 mM and 20 mM [acetyl-1-14-C]ASA. Alpha- and beta-chains were acetylated almost equally. Tryptic digests of purified acetylated subunits were fingerprinted on cellulose thin layer plates and autoradiographed. Both alpha- and beta-chains showed a number of radioactive spots that were either ninhydrin negative or weakly ninhydrin positive. These results indicate that hemoglobin is acetylated at a number of sites, probably at the epislon-amino group of lysine residues. To determine whether ASA acetylates hemoglobin in vivo, hemolysates of 14 patients on long-term high-dose ASA therapy were analyzed by gel

  16. The Yale Fitness Intervention Trial in female cancer survivors: Cardiovascular and physiological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobf, M Tish; Jeon, Sangchoon; Smith, Barbara; Harris, Lyndsay; Thompson, Siobhan; Stacy, Mitchel R; Insogna, Karl; Sinusas, Albert J

    Induced premature menopause and cardio-toxic therapy increase cardiovascular disease risk in female cancer survivors. To compare the effects of a 12 month aerobic-resistance fitness center intervention to home based physical activity on cardiovascular function and metabolic risk factors. Subjects (N = 154) who had completed primary and/or adjuvant chemotherapy (past 3 years) were randomized to a fitness center intervention or a home based group. The fitness center intervention was a structured thrice weekly aerobic (30 min brisk walking treadmill in target heart range) combined with resistance (30 min of lower body strength training) exercise program, supervised for the first 6 months. The home based group received national guidelines for 30 min moderate intensity exercise most days of the week. Fasting serum samples were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months for insulin, glucose, lipids and hemoglobin A-1C. A graded exercise stress test was also performed at baseline and 6 months. The majority of subjects were white (85.7%), had breast cancer (83.1%) and the average age was 51.9 years. Subjects in the fitness center intervention had significantly improved time on treadmill (p = .039), improved heart rate recovery at 1 min (p = .028), greater MET minutes/week (p ≤ .0001), a trend for improved insulin resistance (p = .067) and stable insulin levels (p = .045) compared to the home based physical activity group. Exercise represents a potential cardiac risk reduction intervention for cancer survivors. CLINICAL TRIALS.GOV: NCT01102985. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Blood serum and BSA, but neither red blood cells nor hemoglobin can support vitellogenesis and egg production in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina K. Gonzales

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is the major vector of dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses that put millions of people in endemic countries at risk. Mass rearing of this mosquito is crucial for strategies that use modified insects to reduce vector populations and transmission of pathogens, such as sterile insect technique or population replacement. A major problem for vector mosquito mass rearing is the requirement of vertebrate blood for egg production since it poses significant costs as well as potential health hazards. Also, regulations for human and animal use as blood source can pose a significant obstacle. A completely artificial diet that supports egg production in vector mosquitoes can solve this problem. In this study, we compared different blood fractions, serum and red blood cells, as dietary protein sources for mosquito egg production. We also tested artificial diets made from commercially available blood proteins (bovine serum albumin (BSA and hemoglobin. We found that Ae. aegypti performed vitellogenesis and produced eggs when given whole bovine blood, serum, or an artificial diet containing BSA. Conversely, egg production was impaired after feeding of the red blood cell fraction or an artificial diet containing only hemoglobin. We also found that egg viability of serum-fed mosquitoes were comparable to that of whole blood and an iron supplemented BSA meal produced more viable eggs than a meal containing BSA alone. Our results indicate that serum proteins, not hemoglobin, may replace vertebrate blood in artificial diets for mass mosquito rearing.

  18. Towards sustainable conversation: Developing environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards sustainable conversation: Developing environmental education processes. ... Southern African Journal of Environmental Education ... paper highlights the importance of seeing environmental education as a process and considers the value of conversation and storytelling in environmental education processes.

  19. Microbial Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Merry [American Society for Microbiology (ASM), Washington, DC (United States); Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  20. Survivorship education for Latina breast cancer survivors: Empowering Survivors through education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Gloria; Mayorga, Lina; Hurria, Arti; Ferrell, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Nueva Luz is an English and Spanish quality of life (QOL) intervention developed to address the educational needs of Latina breast cancer survivors and provide strategies to assist in their transition into survivorship. A qualitative approach was used to evaluate the English and Spanish educational intervention (Nueva Luz). A purposive sample of eight Latina breast cancer survivors was selected from the group who received the intervention to participate in a digitally recorded interview. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings provide evidence that the one-on-one tailored approach is a feasible and acceptable method of providing a bilingual psychosocial intervention. The provision of printed bilingual information along with the verbal instruction from a bilingual and culturally competent health care provider can be effective in helping Latina breast cancer survivor's transition successfully into survivorship, improve QOL and contribute to better patient outcomes. The study informs our understanding of the cultural context in patient education content and delivery of psychosocial interventions. The findings may also have relevance for other ethnic minority cancer survivors.

  1. Understanding the Early Support Needs of Survivors of Traumatic Events: The Example of Severe Injury Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Rachel M; Chisholm, Katherine; Terhaag, Sonia; Lau, Winnie; Forbes, David; Holmes, Alex; O'Donnell, Meaghan

    2017-05-29

    In the aftermath of a potentially traumatic event, people may experience a range of mental health outcomes, including subclinical symptoms and distress. There is growing evidence that trauma survivors with subclinical symptoms are at increased risk of developing later psychiatric disorders, and this is especially the case with severe injury survivors. There is a need to develop evidence-based, early, brief interventions for those who are at risk of developing trauma-related psychopathology. To date, interventions for this at-risk group have largely been derived from expert consensus. This study therefore aimed to understand the early psychosocial difficulties and perceived needs from the perspective of trauma survivors to further inform intervention development. Forty-three survivors of a serious injury, identified as high risk for developing trauma-related psychopathology, were interviewed and qualitative methods (Thematic Analysis) were used to synthesize the data gathered. Participants described 5 main stressors: trauma-related psychological reactions, relationship stress, unsatisfactory services and support systems, reduced functioning, and negative thoughts and emotions in relation to recovery. In addition, participants described 3 main factors that were helpful in recovery: positive coping, professional support, and social support. These findings can inform posttrauma intervention development for those at risk of later psychological symptoms. In particular, the results support approaches focusing on promoting activity, supporting social relationships, stress and arousal management, and cognitive restructuring. In addition, future interventions might helpfully target rumination, worry, and reexperiencing symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  3. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  4. Hemoglobin oxygen affinity in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Böning

    Full Text Available In patients with cystic fibrosis lung damages cause arterial hypoxia. As a typical compensatory reaction one might expect changes in oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. Therefore position (standard half saturation pressure P50st and slope (Hill's n of the O2 dissociation curve as well as the Bohr coefficients (BC for CO2 and lactic acid were determined in blood of 14 adult patients (8 males, 6 females and 14 healthy controls (6 males, 8 females. While Hill's n amounted to approximately 2.6 in all subjects, P50st was slightly increased by 1 mmHg in both patient groups (controls male 26.7 ± 0.2, controls female 27.0 ± 0.1, patients male 27.7 ± 0.5, patients female 28.0 ± 0.3 mmHg; mean and standard error, overall p<0.01. Main cause was a rise of 1-2 µmol/g hemoglobin in erythrocytic 2,3-biphosphoglycerate concentration. One patient only, clearly identified as an outlier and with the mutation G551D, showed a reduction of both P50st (24.5 mmHg and [2,3-biphosphoglycerate] (9.8 µmol/g hemoglobin. There were no differences in BCCO2, but small sex differences in the BC for lactic acid in the controls which were not detectable in the patients. Causes for the right shift of the O2 dissociation curve might be hypoxic stimulation of erythrocytic glycolysis and an increased red cell turnover both causing increased [2,3-biphosphoglycerate]. However, for situations with additional hypercapnia as observed in exercising patients a left shift seems to be a more favourable adaptation in cystic fibrosis. Additionally when in vivo PO2 values were corrected to the standard conditions they mostly lay left of the in vitro O2 dissociation curve in both patients and controls. This hints to unknown fugitive factors influencing oxygen affinity.

  5. Longitudinal smoking patterns in survivors of childhood cancer: An update from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd M; Liu, Wei; Armstrong, Gregory T; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Hudson, Melissa M; Leisenring, Wendy M; Mertens, Ann C; Klesges, Robert C; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Nathan, Paul C; Robison, Leslie L

    2015-11-15

    Survivors of pediatric cancer have elevated risks of mortality and morbidity. Many late adverse effects associated with cancer treatment (eg, second cancers and cardiac and pulmonary disease) are also associated with cigarette smoking, and this suggests that survivors who smoke may be at high risk for these conditions. This study examined the self-reported smoking status for 9397 adult survivors of childhood cancer across 3 questionnaires (median time interval, 13 years). The smoking prevalence among survivors was compared with the smoking prevalence among siblings and the prevalence expected on the basis of age-, sex-, race-, and calendar time-specific rates in the US population. Multivariable regression models examined characteristics associated with longitudinal smoking patterns across all 3 questionnaires. At the baseline, 19% of survivors were current smokers, whereas 24% of siblings were current smokers, and 29% were expected to be current smokers on the basis of US rates. Current smoking among survivors dropped to 16% and 14% on follow-up questionnaires, with similar decreases in the sibling prevalence and the expected prevalence. Characteristics associated with consistent never-smoking included a higher household income (relative risk [RR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.25), higher education (RR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.22-1.43), and receipt of cranial radiation therapy (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.14). Psychological distress (RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80-0.92) and heavy alcohol drinking (RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.58-0.71) were inversely associated. Among ever-smokers, a higher income (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.32) and education (RR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.10-1.38) were associated with quitting, whereas cranial radiation (RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.97) and psychological distress (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.72-0.90) were associated with not having quit. The development of adverse health conditions was not associated with smoking patterns. Despite modest declines in smoking prevalence

  6. Survivors of Political Violence: Conceptualizations, Empirical Findings, and Ecological Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, Elena Amalia; Rogers, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    There is a vast body of literature on survivors of political violence that has emerged over the past several decades. Most studies focus on the psychological effects of political violence on survivors, as understood within the Western framework of mental health. Studies that conceptualize and examine models that account for the complexity of the…

  7. Comparison of trauma on survivors of sexual assault and intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-20

    Jun 20, 2014 ... Background: Gender-based violence is a challenge in South Africa, despite available interventions. Caring for the survivors of both forms of violence is critical for ensuring their speedy recovery. Objectives: To compare the effects of trauma on female survivors of sexual assault versus those experienced by ...

  8. Daily physical activity patterns in cancer survivors: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Josien; van Weering, Marit; Kurvers, Roel; Tönis, Thijs; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2013-01-01

    In cancer survivors activity levels have been studied primarily by means of questionnaires, while objective information on actual daily activity levels and their distribution throughout the day is lacking. The findings of this study suggest that especially cancer survivors who received chemotherapy

  9. Rape survivor care crisis – mines the worst?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dire need for better healthcare worker training in rape forensics and safe survivor care has never been better illustrated than by the horrifying rape statistics Médecins. Sans Frontières (MSF) presented last month from the platinum-mining boom town of. Rustenburg. Promising to increase its rape survivor care and ...

  10. Gait characteristics of hemiparetic stroke survivors in Osun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of severe handicap. Deficiencies in walking may present significant challenges to mobility, resulting in abnormal and inefficient gait patterns in stroke survivors. This study compared the gait characteristics of hemiparetic stroke survivors and those of healthy individuals and determined the ...

  11. Comparison of trauma on survivors of sexual assault and intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-20

    Jun 20, 2014 ... a psychologist by the survivor support officer (SSO), who is a trauma counsellor. Within the context of Limpopo Province, survivors who reported sexual assault at the clinic had experienced stranger rape and rape by non-strangers who were not intimate partners, whilst those who reported physical assault ...

  12. Adult height and age at menarche in childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorda, E. M.; Somers, R.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Vulsma, T.; Behrendt, H.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effects of cancer treatments on adult height and age at menarche in survivors of various types of childhood cancer. 285 childhood cancer survivors (161 men and 124 women), at least 18 years old and having been off treatment for at least 5 years, were

  13. Impact of cardiovascular counseling and screening in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniëls, L.A.; Krol, S.D.G.; de Graaf, M.A.; Scholte, A.J.H.A.; van 't Veer, M.B.; Putter, H.; de Roos, A.; Schalij, M.J.; van de Poll-Franse, L.; Creutzberg, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common nonmalignant cause of death in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, especially after mediastinal irradiation. The role of screening for CVD in HL survivors is unclear, but confrontation with risks of CVD may have a negative influence on

  14. Ethical Issues in Counseling Adult Survivors of Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, Judith C. and Haverkamp, Beth E.

    1993-01-01

    Counseling adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse raises ethical issues which include maintaining client confidentiality when the situations have been both immoral and illegal or working with survivors without appropriate training. Principles such as autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence and nonmaleficence, and self-interest are examined, as…

  15. Projective drawings: helping adult survivors of childhood abuse recognize boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, J A

    1994-10-01

    1. Boundary issues for adult childhood trauma survivors are complex, problematic, difficult to resolve, and occur on a level of unawareness. 2. Boundary concepts can be found in all types of projective drawings. 3. Projective drawings can facilitate awareness and understanding of boundary problems experienced by adult childhood trauma survivors.

  16. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Previous research suggests that posttraurnatic stress disorder (PTSD) is present in survivors of childhood cancer. The aim of the current study was to explore posttraurnatic stress symptoms in a sample of young adult survivors of childhood cancer. In addition, the impact of demographic,

  17. Quality of life in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, N. E.; Stam, H.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Last, B. F.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years the necessity of measuring quality of life in childhood cancer survivors has been stressed. This paper gives an overview of the results of studies into the quality of life (QL) of young adult survivors of childhood cancer and suggest areas for future research. The review located 30

  18. No excess fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.; van den Bos, C.

    2003-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest that many survivors of childhood cancer experience fatigue as a long-term effect of their treatment. To investigate this issue further, we assessed the level of fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. We compared the results with a group of young adults with no

  19. Learning Profiles of Survivors of Pediatric Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkon, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    By 2010 it is predicted that one in 900 adults will be survivors of some form of pediatric cancer. The numbers are somewhat lower for survivors of brain tumors, though their numbers are increasing. Schools mistakenly believe that these children easily fit pre-existing categories of disability. Though these students share some of the…

  20. Cancer survivors' rehabilitation needs in a primary health care context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Thorbjørn; Søndergaard, Jens; Sokolowski, Ineta

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of cancer survivors' rehabilitation needs have mostly addressed specific areas of needs, e.g. physical aspects and/or rehabilitation needs in relation to specific cancer types. OBJECTIVE: To assess cancer survivors' perceived need for physical and psychosocial rehabilitation, ...

  1. Emergency mental health and psychosocial support for survivors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe the design and delivery of emergency mental health and psychosocial support services for the survivors of Post-Election Violence in Eldoret, Kenya. Design: A longitudinal intervention. Setting: The North Rift Valley region in western Kenya. Subjects: A total of 80,772 survivors received mental health ...

  2. Family Survivors of Suicide and Accidental Death: Consequences for Widows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNiel, Dale E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined the impact of completed suicide on the surviving family, comparing widows (N=13) whose husbands had died through suicide to widows (N=13) whose husbands had died in accidents. Found suicide survivors showed no more family dysfunction, life stress, or psychiatric symptomatology than accident survivors. (Author/ABL)

  3. Poststroke spasticity: sequelae and burden on stroke survivors and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorowitz, Richard D; Gillard, Patrick J; Brainin, Michael

    2013-01-15

    Among the estimated 20% to 40% of stroke survivors who develop spasticity, the burden of this condition on patients, caregivers, and society is substantial. Stroke survivors with spasticity may experience reductions in their ability to perform activities of daily living and in their health-related quality of life. The occurrence of spasticity in stroke survivors may also result in an increased burden on their caregivers, who exhibit poorer physical and emotional health as compared with the general population. The responsibilities that caregivers have to the stroke survivor--in terms of providing medical care, protecting from falls, and assisting with feeding and hygiene, among other tasks of daily living--must be balanced with their responsibilities to other family members and to themselves. Caregivers of stroke survivors often report a feeling of confinement with little opportunity for relief, and although social support can be helpful, it is frequently limited in its availability. In terms of the socioeconomic burden of spasticity after stroke, recent data point to a 4-fold increase in health care costs associated with stroke survivors with spasticity compared with stroke survivors without spasticity. Thus, it is important to reduce the burden of spasticity after stroke. Consequently, effective spasticity treatment that reduces spasticity and the level of disability experienced by stroke survivors will likely increase their functioning and their health-related quality of life and will also result in a diminished burden on their caregivers.

  4. Health Information Needs of Childhood Cancer Survivors and Their Family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L.; Kremer, Leontien C.; van den Bos, Cor; Braam, Katja I.; Jaspers, Monique W. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Knowledge about past disease, treatment, and possible late effects has previously been shown to be low in survivors of childhood cancer and their relatives. This study investigated the information needs of childhood cancer survivors and their parents and explored possible determinants

  5. Work disability assessment of cancer survivors: insurance physicians ' perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Muijen, P.; Duijts, S.F.A.; van der Aa, D.A.; van der Beek, A.J.; Anema, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Assessing work disability in cancer survivors is a complex decision-making process. In the Netherlands, physicians employed by the Dutch Social Security Agency (SSA) play a key role in assessing work disability of cancer survivors on long-term sick leave. Aims: To investigate the aspects

  6. Adult Adjustment of Survivors of Institutional Child Abuse in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-Howard, Roisin; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To document the adult adjustment of survivors of childhood institutional abuse. Method: Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV…

  7. Perceived control, adjustment, and communication problems in laryngeal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, G W; Dineen, M; Kauffman, S M; Raimondi, S C; Simpson, K C

    1993-12-01

    Health locus of control, adjustment to cancer, and communication experiences after a laryngectomy were investigated in 63 laryngeal cancer survivors. Survivors who showed internal control also scored as better adjusted and had fewer communication problems. Scales were intercorrelated (.68 to .92).

  8. CIRCUMSTANCES AND CONSEQUENCES OF FALLS IN POLIO SURVIVORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bickerstaffe, Alice; Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Many polio survivors have symptoms that are known risk factors for falls in elderly people. This study aims to determine the: (i) frequency; (ii) consequences; (iii) circumstances; and (iv) factors associated with falls in polio survivors. Methods: A survey was conducted among 376 polio

  9. Why Rape Survivors Participate in the Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead…

  10. ECHN honors cancer survivors with fun, food and inspirational stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Judith D

    2005-01-01

    A nostalgia theme was fully explored by Eastern Connecticut Health Network (ECHN), Manchester, Conn., in its celebration of Cancer Survivors Day, June 6. The observance is sponsored by the national Cancer Survivors Day organization. This year more than 700 facilities across the country observed the occasion.

  11. Executive function and coping in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Jessica; Dux, Moira; Macko, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability and sequelae may include physical, emotional, and cognitive impairments. The methods employed to cope with distress, both emotional and cognitive, have not been evaluated in individuals post-stroke. However, research in traumatic brain injury (TBI) suggests that executive function is positively correlated with adaptive coping and negatively correlated with maladaptive coping strategies (Krpan et al., 2007). Examination of these constructs post-stroke may assist with enriching our understanding of cognitive and emotional symptomatology and optimize rehabilitation strategies. The present study aimed to assess the association between executive function and coping strategies in a sample of chronic stroke survivors. The researchers hypothesized that executive function would be positively correlated with adaptive coping strategies and negatively correlated with maladaptive coping strategies. Fifteen stroke survivors were administered a battery of cognitive tests assessing executive function and also completed the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WAYS), a self-report coping measure. Analyses indicated that executive function deficits were related to increased avoidant coping. Contrary to expectations, executive function was not significantly related to active coping. In addition, post hoc analyses revealed that executive function was a significant predictor of avoidant coping after controlling for demographics. Our data, in accordance with prior work in TBI, suggests that executive function and aspects of coping are associated. Rehabilitation strategies that improve executive function may also lead to utilization of adaptive coping strategies. Research has shown that aerobic exercise increases activation in the frontal lobe and improves executive function (Colcombe & Kramer, 2003; Colcombe et al., 2004). Future studies should examine whether aerobic exercise positively affects executive function and coping in stroke survivors.

  12. Moodle 20 Course Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Wild, Ian

    2011-01-01

    With clear instructions and plenty of screenshots, this book provides all the support and guidance you will need as you begin to convert your teaching to Moodle. Step-by-step tutorials use real-world examples to show you how to convert to Moodle in the most efficient and effective ways possible. Moodle Course Conversion carefully illustrates how Moodle can be used to teach content and ideas and clearly demonstrates the advantages of doing so. This book is for teachers, tutors, and lecturers who already have a large body of teaching material and want to use Moodle to enhance their course, rathe

  13. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  14. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  15. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    with the production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were....... The synthesis of these by the cycloaddition of ethylene to furanic compounds, followed by dehydrative aromatization, was demonstrated in good yields, using a strong Brønsted acidic catalyst, WOx/ZrO2. As both ethylene and furanics can be derived from carbohydrates by known processes, this constitutes...

  16. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  17. Broadband frequency conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    We present a simple, passive and static setup for broadband frequency conversion. By using simple optical components like lenses, mirrors and gratings, we obtain the spectral angular dispersion to match the second harmonic generation phasematching angles in a nonlinear BiBO crystal. We are able...... to frequency double a single-frequency diode laser, tunable in the 1020-1090 nm range, with almost equal efficiency for all wavelengths. In the experimental setup, the width of the phasematch was increased with a factor of 50. The method can easily be extended to other wavelength ranges and nonlinear crystals...

  18. Conversing Cooperatively: Using "Mini-Conversations" to Develop Conversational Knowledge and Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth B.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Interpersonal communication, relational communication, language and social interaction, professional communication, interviewing practices. Objectives: This single class activity enables students to understand the theoretical foundations of conversation and to develop their conversational skills by talking in dyads with classmates. Upon…

  19. Current hemoglobin levels are more predictive of disease progression than hemoglobin measured at baseline in patients receiving antiretroviral treatment for HIV type 1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Blaxhult, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The role of hemoglobin levels as an independent prognostic marker of progression to AIDS and/or death in HIV-infected patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was investigated. A total of 2,579 patients from the EuroSIDA cohort with hemoglobin, CD4 cell count, and HIV RNA viral...... load measured 6 months prior to starting cART was included in the analyses. Anemia was defined as mild (...

  20. Fertility in female childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Van den Berg, Marleen H

    2009-01-01

    chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have an adverse effect on ovarian function, ovarian reserve and uterine function, clinically leading to sub-fertility, infertility, premature menopause and/or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we will first address normal female fertility and methods to detect decreased...... fertility. Hence we will focus on direct effects as well as late fertility-related adverse effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and we will conclude with a summary of current options for fertility preservation in female childhood cancer survivors....

  1. Aza-heterocyclic Receptors for Direct Electron Transfer Hemoglobin Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Kashyap, D. M. Nikhila; Hebbar, Suraj; Swetha, R.; Prasad, Sujay; Kamala, T.; Srikanta, S. S.; Krishnaswamy, P. R.; Bhat, Navakanta

    2017-02-01

    Direct Electron Transfer biosensors, facilitating direct communication between the biomolecule of interest and electrode surface, are preferable compared to enzymatic and mediator based sensors. Although hemoglobin (Hb) contains four redox active iron centres, direct detection is not possible due to inaccessibility of iron centres and formation of dimers, blocking electron transfer. Through the coordination of iron with aza-heterocyclic receptors - pyridine and imidazole - we report a cost effective, highly sensitive and simple electrochemical Hb sensor using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The receptor can be either in the form of liquid micro-droplet mixed with blood or dry chemistry embedded in paper membrane on top of screen printed carbon electrodes. We demonstrate excellent linearity and robustness against interference using clinical samples. A truly point of care technology is demonstrated by integrating disposable test strips with handheld reader, enabling finger prick to result in less than a minute.

  2. Effects of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers on Blood Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimia Roghani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs have been central in the development of resuscitation agents that might provide oxygen delivery in addition to simple volume expansion. Since 80% of the world population lives in areas where fresh blood products are not available, the application of these new solutions may prove to be highly beneficial (Kim and Greenburg 2006. Many improvements have been made to earlier generation HBOCs, but various concerns still remain, including coagulopathy, nitric oxide scavenging, platelet interference and decreased calcium concentration secondary to volume expansion (Jahr et al. 2013. This review will summarize the current challenges faced in developing HBOCs that may be used clinically, in order to guide future research efforts in the field.

  3. Nitric Oxide Scavenging by Hemoglobin in Health, Disease, and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Shapiro, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). It is made in endothelial cells lining blood vessels and diffuses to smooth muscle cells where it leads to muscle relaxation, vessel dilatation, and increased blood flow and also plays a large role in controlling platelet aggregation and inflammation. Hemoglobin (Hb), the oxygen carrying molecule in the blood, reacts at nearly diffusion limited rates with nitric oxide to (in some reactions) form nitrate ands thereby destroy NO activity. The presence of such large amounts of such a potent NO scavenger in the blood challenges the idea that NO is indeed the EDRF. Encapsulation in red blood cells in healthy individuals limits NO scavenging by Hb. Biophysical experiments will be described exploring and evaluating these mechanisms. Other studies will be described discussing how red cells break open (lyse) in pathological situations and the cell-free Hb reduces NO bioavailability. Finally, methods to restore NO bioavailability through therapeutics will be discussed.

  4. The concept of hemoglobin equivalency of perfluorochemical emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faithfull, N Simon

    2003-01-01

    Perfluorochemical (PFC) emulsions have been in development as intravenous oxygen carriers for a number of years and many publications have dealt with their oxygen transport characteristics in both experimental models and in clinical trials. Though it has been stressed on numerous occasions that PFCs deliver oxygen to the tissues in very different ways to those by which Hemoglobin (Hb) releases oxygen (O2), no serious attempts have been made to correlate the oxygen delivery capacity of PFCs to those of Hb. This paper presents theoretical ways in which this can be done and demonstrates that a 2.7 g/kg dose of PFC is approximately equivalent to 4 g/dL [Hb]. Clinical trial planning is discussed.

  5. Glycated Hemoglobin Measurement and Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Gao, Pei; Khan, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    .48) for the categories of predicted 10-year CVD risk. The improvement provided by HbA1c assessment in prediction of CVD risk was equal to or better than estimated improvements for measurement of fasting, random, or postload plasma glucose levels. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In a study of individuals without known CVD...... and CVD risk changed only slightly after adjustment for total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations or estimated glomerular filtration rate, but this association attenuated somewhat after adjustment for concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein. The C......IMPORTANCE: The value of measuring levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the prediction of first cardiovascular events is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adding information on HbA1c values to conventional cardiovascular risk factors is associated with improvement in prediction...

  6. Hemoglobin H Disease in Turkey: Experience from Eight Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Selma; Oktay, Gönül; Acıpayam, Can; İlhan, Gül; Gali, Edip; Celkan, Tiraje; Bay, Ali; Malbora, Barış; Akar, Nejat; Oymak, Yeşim; Toptaş, Tayfur

    2016-03-05

    The purpose of this study was to research the problem of hemoglobin H (HbH) disease, to reveal the distribution patterns among different health centers, and to emphasize the importance of this disease for Turkey. A total of 273 patients were included from 8 hemoglobinopathy centers. The Antakya Hemoglobinopathy Center reported 232 patients and the remaining 7 centers reported 41 patients. PubMed was also searched for published articles related to Turkish patients with HbH disease, and we found 16 articles involving a total of 198 HbH patients. Most of the patients were reported from Antakya; thus, special attention should be paid to this region. This is a preliminary study to investigate the extent of the problem of HbH disease and it emphasizes the need for hematology associations or the Ministry of Health to record all cases of HbH disease in Turkey.

  7. Glycated hemoglobin as a measure of physiological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netterstrøm, B; Danborg, L; Olesen, H

    1988-01-01

    The concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is an integrated expression of the blood glucose concentration level in the previous weeks. The levels of HbA1c were measured in 23 medical students who had to pass an examination within a few weeks. Twelve other students served as a control group. Four months later, the blood tests were repeated. In addition, serum cholesterol was measured. HbA1c levels were significantly higher in the exam group compared with the control group. The second test revealed a significant decrease in HbA1c in the exam group, while the values in the control group were stable. No differences in serum cholesterol were detected. It is concluded that HbA1c might be of value as a measure of physiological stress.

  8. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storz, Jay F.; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer- dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking...... for snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying - and -type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2......) the oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis...

  9. Peer Support Services for Bereaved Survivors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartone, Paul T; Bartone, Jocelyn V; Violanti, John M; Gileno, Zaneta M

    2017-01-01

    This systematic literature review assesses the evidence regarding benefits of peer support services for bereaved survivors of sudden or unexpected death. Reports were included that addressed peer support services for adults who experienced death of a family member, close friend, or coworker. Of the 32 studies meeting all inclusion criteria, most showed evidence that peer support was helpful to bereaved survivors, reducing grief symptoms and increasing well-being and personal growth. Studies also showed benefits to providers of peer support, including increased personal growth and positive meaning in life. Several studies addressed the growing trend of Internet-based peer support programs, finding that these are beneficial in part due to their easy accessibility. Peer support appears to be especially valuable for survivors of suicide loss, a result that may be related to stigma and lack of support from family and friends experienced by many suicide survivors. The reviewed studies provide consistent evidence that peer support is beneficial to bereaved survivors.

  10. Second-generation Holocaust survivors: Psychological, theological, and moral challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from trauma theory, psychodynamic conceptualization, developmental psychology, clinical data, and personal experience, this article portrays a life haunted by tragedy predating its victims. Healthy child development is outlined, with particular attention to socialization and theological perspectives. Key characteristics of trauma are delineated, highlighting the nuances of trauma that are most harmful. As is the case with general trauma, Holocaust survivors are described as evincing survivor's guilt and paranoia in response to their experiences. Divergent disorders resulting from the Holocaust are described for 1st-generation and 2nd-generation survivors, respectively. Primary trauma responses and pervasive attitudes of survivors are shown to have harmful ramifications on their children's personality and worldview as well as on their interpersonal and theistic object relations. These limitations translate into problems in the adult lives of second generation survivors.

  11. Hemoglobin genetics: recent contributions of GWAS and gene editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elenoe C.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2016-01-01

    The β-hemoglobinopathies are inherited disorders resulting from altered coding potential or expression of the adult β-globin gene. Impaired expression of β-globin reduces adult hemoglobin (α2β2) production, the hallmark of β-thalassemia. A single-base mutation at codon 6 leads to formation of HbS (α2βS2) and sickle cell disease. While the basis of these diseases is known, therapy remains largely supportive. Bone marrow transplantation is the only curative therapy. Patients with elevated levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF, α2γ2) as adults exhibit reduced symptoms and enhanced survival. The β-globin gene locus is a paradigm of cell- and developmental stage-specific regulation. Although the principal erythroid cell transcription factors are known, mechanisms responsible for silencing of the γ-globin gene were obscure until application of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here, we review findings in the field. GWAS identified BCL11A as a candidate negative regulator of γ-globin expression. Subsequent studies have established BCL11A as a quantitative repressor. GWAS-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms lie within an essential erythroid enhancer of the BCL11A gene. Disruption of a discrete region within the enhancer reduces BCL11A expression and induces HbF expression, providing the basis for gene therapy using gene editing tools. A recently identified, second silencing factor, leukemia/lymphoma-related factor/Pokemon, shares features with BCL11A, including interaction with the nucleosome remodeling deacetylase repressive complex. These findings suggest involvement of a common pathway for HbF silencing. In addition, we discuss other factors that may be involved in γ-globin gene silencing and their potential manipulation for therapeutic benefit in treating the β-hemoglobinopathies. PMID:27340226

  12. Glycated Hemoglobin Levels in Patients with Decompensated Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Nadelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aim of this study is to determine if HbA1c levels are a reliable predictor of glycemic control in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Methods. 200 unique patients referred for liver transplantation at University of Tennessee/Methodist University Transplant Institute with a HbA1c result were included. Three glucose levels prior to the “measured” A1c (MA1c were input into an HbA1c calculator from the American Diabetes Association website to determine the “calculated” A1c (CA1c. The differences between MA1c and CA1c levels were computed. Patients were divided into three groups: group A, difference of 1.5. Results. 97 (49% patients had hemoglobin A1c of less than 5%. Discordance between calculated and measured HbA1c of >0.5% was seen in 47% (n=94. Higher level of discordance of greater than >1.5 was in 12% of patients (n=24. Hemoglobin was an independent predictor for higher discordance (odds ratio 0.77 95%, CI 0.60–0.99, and p value 0.04. HbA1c was an independent predictor of occurrence of HCC (OR 2.69 955, CI 1.38–5.43, and p value 0.008. Conclusion. HbA1c is not a reliable predictor of glycemic control in patients with decompensated cirrhosis, especially in those with severe anemia.

  13. Low modulus biomimetic microgel particles with high loading of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Merkel, Timothy J; Pandya, Ashish; Napier, Mary E; Luft, J Christopher; Daniel, Will; Sheiko, Sergei; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2012-09-10

    We synthesized extremely deformable red blood cell-like microgel particles and loaded them with bovine hemoglobin (Hb) to potentiate oxygen transport. With similar shape and size as red blood cells (RBCs), the particles were fabricated using the PRINT (particle replication in nonwetting templates) technique. Low cross-linking of the hydrogel resulted in very low mesh density for these particles, allowing passive diffusion of hemoglobin throughout the particles. Hb was secured in the particles through covalent conjugation of the lysine groups of Hb to carboxyl groups in the particles via EDC/NHS coupling. Confocal microscopy of particles bound to fluorescent dye-labeled Hb confirmed the uniform distribution of Hb throughout the particle interior, as opposed to the surface conjugation only. High loading ratios, up to 5 times the amount of Hb to polymer by weight, were obtained without a significant effect on particle stability and shape, though particle diameter decreased slightly with Hb conjugation. Analysis of the protein by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy showed that the secondary structure of Hb was unperturbed by conjugation to the particles. Methemoglobin in the particles could be maintained at a low level and the loaded Hb could still bind oxygen, as studied by UV-vis spectroscopy. Hb-loaded particles with moderate loading ratios demonstrated excellent deformability in microfluidic devices, easily deforming to pass through restricted pores half as wide as the diameter of the particles. The suspension of concentrated particles with a Hb concentration of 5.2 g/dL showed comparable viscosity to that of mouse blood, and the particles remained intact even after being sheared at a constant high rate (1000 1/s) for 10 min. Armed with the ability to control size, shape, deformability, and loading of Hb into RBC mimics, we will discuss the implications for artificial blood.

  14. Modulation of hemoglobin dynamics by an allosteric effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Jyotsana; Maccarini, Marco; Fouquet, Peter; Ho, Nancy T; Ho, Chien; Makowski, Lee

    2017-03-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) is an extensively studied paradigm of proteins that alter their function in response to allosteric effectors. Models of its action have been used as prototypes for structure-function relationships in many proteins, and models for the molecular basis of its function have been deeply studied and extensively argued. Recent reports suggest that dynamics may play an important role in its function. Relatively little is known about the slow, correlated motions of hemoglobin subunits in various structural states because experimental and computational strategies for their characterization are challenging. Allosteric effectors such as inositol hexaphosphate (IHP) bind to both deoxy-Hb and HbCO, albeit at different sites, leading to a lowered oxygen affinity. The manner in which these effectors impact oxygen binding is unclear and may involve changes in structure, dynamics or both. Here we use neutron spin echo measurements accompanied by wide-angle X-ray scattering to show that binding of IHP to HbCO results in an increase in the rate of coordinated motions of Hb subunits relative to one another with little if any change in large scale structure. This increase of large-scale dynamics seems to be coupled with a decrease in the average magnitude of higher frequency modes of individual residues. These observations indicate that enhanced dynamic motions contribute to the functional changes induced by IHP and suggest that they may be responsible for the lowered oxygen affinity triggered by these effectors. Published by Wiley-Blackwell. © 2016 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  15. Cognitive problems among breast cancer survivors: loneliness enhances risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M; Peng, Juan; Bornstein, Robert; Alfano, Catherine M; Andridge, Rebecca R; Povoski, Stephen P; Lipari, Adele M; Agnese, Doreen M; Farrar, William B; Yee, Lisa D; Carson, William E; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2014-12-01

    Cancer survivors often experience cognitive difficulties after treatment completion. Although chemotherapy enhances risk for cognitive problems, it is likely only one piece of a complex puzzle that explains survivors' cognitive functioning. Loneliness may be one psychosocial risk factor. The current studies included both subjective and objective cognitive measures and tested whether lonelier breast cancer survivors would have more concentration and memory complaints and experience more concentration difficulties than their less lonely counterparts. The relationship between loneliness and cognitive function was tested among three samples of breast cancer survivors. Study 1 was a sample of breast cancer survivors (n = 200) who reported their concentration and memory problems. Study 2a was a sample of breast cancer survivors (n = 185) and noncancer controls (n = 93) who reported their concentration and memory problems. Study 2b was a subsample of Study 2a breast cancer survivors (n = 22) and noncancer controls (n = 21) who completed a standardized neuropsychological test assessing concentration. Studies 1 and 2a revealed that lonelier women reported more concentration and memory problems than less lonely women. Study 2b utilized a standardized neuropsychological continuous performance test and demonstrated that lonelier women experienced more concentration problems than their less lonely counterparts. These studies demonstrated that loneliness is linked to concentration and memory complaints and the experience of concentration problems among breast cancer survivors. The results were also highly consistent across three samples of breast cancer survivors. These data suggest that loneliness may be a risk factor for cognitive difficulties among cancer survivors. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Higher prevalence of osteoporosis among female Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, E-L; Menczel, J

    2007-11-01

    The prevalence of osteoporosis was statistically significantly higher among female Holocaust survivors than among those who were not exposed to the Holocaust. These findings support the importance of nutrition and environmental conditions during childhood and adolescence on BMD in older adults. Holocaust survivors during childhood and adolescence experienced undernutrition and lack of exercise and sunlight. The study aimed to establish if Holocaust survivors have higher prevalence of osteoporosis than subjects who were not Holocaust survivors. Seventy-three female Jewish Holocaust survivors > or = 60 years old and 60 female European-born Jews > or =60 years old who were not in the Holocaust were examined. BMD was measured using DXA of the lumbar spine and hips. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to test for an increasing trend in decreased BMD in the Holocaust survivors versus controls. Among Holocaust survivors 54.8% had osteoporosis, 39.7% osteopenia, and 5.5% normal BMD, whereas among controls 25.0% had osteoporosis, 55.0% osteopenia, and 20.0% normal BMD (p = 0.0001). In those who were Holocaust survivors 58.0% had osteoporosis, 34.0% osteopenia, and 8.0% normal BMD, whereas among controls 20.0% had osteoporosis, 57.8% osteopenia, and 22.2% normal BMD (p = 0.0003). In those > or =17 years old in 1945, among Holocaust survivors 47.8% had osteoporosis, 52.2% osteopenia and none had normal BMD, whereas among controls 40.0% had osteoporosis, 46.7% osteopenia, and 13.3% normal BMD (p = 0.28). The prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly higher among Holocaust survivors.

  17. Cardiopulmonary exercise performance is reduced in congenital diaphragmatic hernia survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanić, Katarina; Grizelj, Ruža; Dilber, Daniel; Šarić, Dalibor; Vuković, Jurica; Pianosi, Paolo T; Driscoll, David J; Weingarten, Toby N; Pritišanac, Ena; Schroeder, Darrell R; Sprung, Juraj

    2016-12-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with lung hypoplasia. CDH survivors may have pulmonary morbidity that can decrease cardiopulmonary exercise. We aimed to examine whether cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) results differ in CDH survivors versus healthy age-matched controls and whether CPET results among CDH survivors differ according to self-reported daily activity. In one medical center in Croatia, CDH survivors-patients with surgically corrected CDH who were alive at age 5 years-were invited to participate in spirometry and CPET. Values were compared with those of controls matched 2:1 by age and sex for each CDH survivor aged 7 years or older. Among 27 CDH survivors aged 5-20 years, 13 (48%) had continued symptoms or spirometric evidence of pulmonary disease. Compared with controls (n = 44), survivors (n = 22) had lower peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2 mean [SD], 35.7 [6.9] vs. 45.3 [8.2] ml/kg per min; P exercise, V˙O2/heart rate (P different (P = 0.72). Among survivors, mean (SD) V˙O2peak (ml/kg per min) differed by self-reported activity level: athletic, 40.3 (5.0); normal, 35.8 (6.5); and sedentary, 32.1 (6.8) (by ANOVA, P = 0.10 across three groups and P = 0.04 athletic vs. sedentary). More than half of CDH survivors continue to have chronic pulmonary disease. CDH survivors had lower aerobic exercise capacity than controls. Self-reporting information on daily activities may identify CDH patients with low V˙O2max who may benefit from physical training. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:1320-1329. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Using the Cascade Model to Improve Antenatal Screening for the Hemoglobin Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Dinah; Papadopoulos, Irena; Kelly, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The inherited hemoglobin disorders constitute a major public health problem. Facilitators (experienced hemoglobin counselors) were trained to deliver knowledge and skills to "frontline" practitioners to enable them to support parents during antenatal screening via a cascade (train-the-trainer) model. Objectives of…

  19. Iron bioavailability of maize hemoglobin in a Caco-2 cell culture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize is an important staple crop in many parts of the world but has low iron bioavailability, in part due to its high phytate content. Hemoglobin is a form of iron that is highly bioavailable and its bioavailability is not inhibited by phytate. We hypothesize that maize hemoglobin is a highly bioav...

  20. A haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor conveys innate immunity to Trypanosoma brucei in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhollebeke, Benoit; De Muylder, Géraldine; Nielsen, Marianne J

    2008-01-01

    receptor also recognized the complex between hemoglobin and haptoglobin-related protein, which explains its ability to capture trypanolytic HDLs. Thus, in humans the presence of haptoglobin-related protein has diverted the function of the trypanosome haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor to elicit innate host...... immunity against the parasite....

  1. Hemoglobin levels and new-onset heart failure in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klip, IJsbrand T.; Postmus, Douwe; Voors, Adriaan A.; Brouwers, Frank P. J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Hillege, Hans L.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van der Harst, Pim; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van der Meer, Peter

    Background In established cardiovascular disease and heart failure (HF), low hemoglobin levels are associated with unfavorable outcome. Whether hemoglobin levels are associated with the development of new-onset HF in the population is unclear. This study sought to investigate the relationship

  2. Mapping of hemoglobin in erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts using two photon excitation fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukara, Katarina; Jovanić, Svetlana; Drvenica, Ivana T.; Stančić, Ana; Ilić, Vesna; Rabasović, Mihailo D.; Pantelić, Dejan; Jelenković, Branislav; Bugarski, Branko; Krmpot, Aleksandar J.

    2017-02-01

    The present study describes utilization of two photon excitation fluorescence (2PE) microscopy for visualization of the hemoglobin in human and porcine erythrocytes and their empty membranes (i.e., ghosts). High-quality, label- and fixation-free visualization of hemoglobin was achieved at excitation wavelength 730 nm by detecting visible autofluorescence. Localization in the suspension and spatial distribution (i.e., mapping) of residual hemoglobin in erythrocyte ghosts has been resolved by 2PE. Prior to the 2PE mapping, the presence of residual hemoglobin in the bulk suspension of erythrocyte ghosts was confirmed by cyanmethemoglobin assay. 2PE analysis revealed that the distribution of hemoglobin in intact erythrocytes follows the cells' shape. Two types of erythrocytes, human and porcine, characterized with discocyte and echinocyte morphology, respectively, showed significant differences in hemoglobin distribution. The 2PE images have revealed that despite an extensive washing out procedure after gradual hypotonic hemolysis, a certain amount of hemoglobin localized on the intracellular side always remains bound to the membrane and cannot be eliminated. The obtained results open the possibility to use 2PE microscopy to examine hemoglobin distribution in erythrocytes and estimate the purity level of erythrocyte ghosts in biotechnological processes.

  3. Expression of NO scavenging hemoglobin is involved in the timing of bolting in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim Henrik; Jensen, Erik Østergaard

    2008-01-01

    Plants contain three classes of hemoglobin genes of which two, class 1 and class 2, have a structure similar to classical vertebrate globins. We investigated the effect of silencing the class 1 non-symbiotic hemoglobin gene, GLB1, and the effect of overexpression of GLB1 or the class 2 non-symbio...

  4. Hemoglobin alpha 2 gene +861 G>A polymorphism in Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dilay Ciglidag Dungul

    Abstract Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder which is divided into two groups: alpha and beta. HBA1 and HBA2 are the two genes associated with alpha thalassemia. The aim of this study is to investigate abnormal hemoglobin variants of alpha globin gene in healthy abnormal hemoglobin carrying individuals with ...

  5. Hemoglobin alpha 2 gene +861 G>A polymorphism in Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder which is divided into two groups: alpha and beta. HBA1 and HBA2 are the two genes associated with alpha thalassemia. The aim of this study is to investigate abnormal hemoglobin variants of alpha globin gene in healthy abnormal hemoglobin carrying individuals with intact beta ...

  6. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  7. Hemoglobin levels in persons with depressive and/or anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever-van Milligen, Bianca A; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-04-01

    Both low and high hemoglobin levels lead to more physical diseases, and both are linked to mortality. Low hemoglobin, often classified as anemia, has also been linked to more depressive symptoms, but whether both hemoglobin extremes are associated with depressive disorder and potentially also with anxiety disorder has not been examined before. This study examines to which extent hemoglobin levels are associated with depression and anxiety disorders in a large cohort. The study sample consisted of 2920 persons from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Hemoglobin levels were determined after venipuncture. Depressive and anxiety disorders were determined according to a DSM-IV-based psychiatric interview. Clinical psychiatric characteristics included the severity of depression and anxiety, the duration of symptoms, the age of onset and the antidepressant use. Higher hemoglobin levels were found in those with current depressive and/or anxiety disorders after sociodemographic adjustment and both higher, and lower hemoglobin levels were found in persons with higher depression and anxiety severity. However, after full adjustment for sociodemographics, disease indicators and lifestyle, associations were no longer significant. This cohort study showed that there is no independent association between depressive and/or anxiety disorders and hemoglobin levels or anemia status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Receptor targeting of hemoglobin mediated by the haptoglobins: roles beyond heme scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2009-07-23

    Haptoglobin, the haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor CD163, and the heme oxygenase-1 are proteins with a well-established function in the clearance and metabolism of "free" hemoglobin released during intravascular hemolysis. This scavenging system counteracts the potentially harmful oxidative and NO-scavenging effects associated with "free" hemoglobin, and, furthermore, elicits an anti-inflammatory response. In the late primate evolution, haptoglobin variants with distinct functions have arisen, including haptoglobin polymers and the haptoglobin-related protein. The latter associates with a subspecies of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles playing a crucial role in the innate immunity against certain trypanosome parasites. Recent studies have elucidated this fairly sophisticated immune defense mechanism that takes advantage of a trypanosomal haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor evolved to supply the parasite with heme. Because of the high resemblance between haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related protein, the receptor also takes up the complex of hemoglobin and the HDL-bound haptoglobin-related protein. This tricks the parasite into internalizing another HDL-associated protein and toxin, apolipoprotein L-I, that kills the parasite. In conclusion, variant human homologous hemoglobin-binding proteins that collectively may be designated the haptoglobins have diverted from the haptoglobin gene. On hemoglobin and receptor interaction, these haptoglobins contribute to different biologic events that go beyond simple removal from plasma of the toxic hemoglobin.

  9. Haptoglobin radioassay based on binding to solid-phase hemoglobin. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, D.C.; Reed, R.A.; Peacock, A.C.

    1979-03-01

    A specific and sensitive assay for haptoglobin based on binding to an easily prepred Sepharose-bound hemoglobin reagent is described. The assay is suitable for directly determining radiolabeled amino acid incorporation into haptoglobin in several liver cell systems in vitro and can be adapted to measure unlabeled free haptoglobin in plasma samples regardlss of the presence of the haptoglobin--hemoglobin complex.

  10. The impact of hemoglobin levels on patient and graft survival in renal transplant recipients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Jason

    2008-08-27

    It remains unclear whether low hemoglobin levels are associated with increased mortality or graft loss after renal transplantation. This study assessed the relationship of hemoglobin levels with patient and graft survival in 3859 patients with functioning renal transplants more than 6-months posttransplantation.

  11. Hemoglobin Aggregation in Single Red Blood Cells of Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Izumi; Tanaka, Toyoichi; Sun, Shao-Tang; Imanishi, Yuri; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.

    1983-06-01

    A laser light scattering technique was used to observe the extent of hemoglobin aggregation in solitary red blood cells of sickle cell anemia. Hemoglobin aggregation was confirmed in deoxygenated cells. The light scattering technique can also be applied to cytoplasmic studies of any biological cell.

  12. HIV and other predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Gomo, E; Kæstel, Pernille

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Folate and iron status and hemoglobin concentrations are important to maternal and infant health. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to identify predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 1669 pregnant women (22-35 wk of gestation) in ...

  13. Haploinsufficiency for the erythroid transcription factor KLF1 causes hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Borg (Joseph); P. Papadopoulos (Petros); M. Georgitsi (Marianthi); L. Gutiérrez (Laura); G. Grech (Godfrey); P. Fanis (Pavlos); M. Phylactides (Marios); J.H.M. Verkerk (Annemieke); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); C.A. Scerri (Christian); W. Cassar (Wilhelmina); R. Galdies (Ruth); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); Z. Özgür (Zeliha); N. Gillemans (Nynke); J. Hou (Jun); M. Bugeja (Marisa); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); M.M. von Lindern (Marieke); A.E. Felice (Alex); G.P. Patrinos (George); J.N.J. Philipsen (Sjaak)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractHereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) is characterized by persistent high levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adults. Several contributory factors, both genetic and environmental, have been identified but others remain elusive. HPFH was found in 10 of 27 members from a

  14. Haploinsufficiency for the erythroid transcription factor KLF1 causes hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Joseph; Papadopoulos, Petros; Georgitsi, Marianthi; Gutiérrez, Laura; Grech, Godfrey; Fanis, Pavlos; Phylactides, Marios; Verkerk, Annemieke J. M. H.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Scerri, Christian A.; Cassar, Wilhelmina; Galdies, Ruth; van Ijcken, Wilfred; Ozgür, Zeliha; Gillemans, Nynke; Hou, Jun; Bugeja, Marisa; Grosveld, Frank G.; von Lindern, Marieke; Felice, Alex E.; Patrinos, George P.; Philipsen, Sjaak

    2010-01-01

    Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) is characterized by persistent high levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adults. Several contributory factors, both genetic and environmental, have been identified but others remain elusive. HPFH was found in 10 of 27 members from a Maltese family. We

  15. The relationship of regional hemoglobin A1c testing and amputation rate among patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhall, Karina A; Bekelis, Kimon; Suckow, Bjoern D; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Farber, Adrienne E; Goodney, Philip P; Skinner, Jonathan S

    2017-04-01

    Objective The risk of leg amputation among patients with diabetes has declined over the past decade, while use of preventative measures-such as hemoglobin A1c monitoring-has increased. However, the relationship between hemoglobin A1c testing and amputation risk remains unclear. Methods We examined annual rates of hemoglobin A1c testing and major leg amputation among Medicare patients with diabetes from 2003 to 2012 across 306 hospital referral regions. We created linear regression models to study associations between hemoglobin A1c testing and lower extremity amputation. Results From 2003 to 2012, the proportion of patients who received hemoglobin A1c testing increased 10% (74% to 84%), while their rate of lower extremity amputation decreased 50% (430 to 232/100,000 beneficiaries). Regional hemoglobin A1c testing weakly correlated with crude amputation rate in both years (2003 R = -0.20, 2012 R = -0.21), and further weakened with adjustment for age, sex, and disability status (2003 R = -0.11, 2012 R = -0.17). In a multivariable model of 2012 amputation rates, hemoglobin A1c testing was not a significant predictor. Conclusion Lower extremity amputation among patients with diabetes nearly halved over the past decade but only weakly correlated with hemoglobin A1c testing throughout the study period. Better metrics are needed to understand the relationship between preventative care and amputation.

  16. Recombinant human erythropoietin and hemoglobin concentration at operation and during the postoperative period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Boesby, S; Wolff, B

    1999-01-01

    In a double-blind placebo-controlled study we investigated the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO), on the perioperative hemoglobin concentration and the use of blood transfusions in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery with a preoperative hemoglobin level

  17. Energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, L.M.

    1985-09-16

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

  18. Conversion program in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, E.B. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  19. Identification of hemoglobin variants by top-down mass spectrometry using selected diagnostic product ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho Graça, Didia; Hartmer, Ralf; Jabs, Wolfgang; Beris, Photis; Clerici, Lorella; Stoermer, Carsten; Samii, Kaveh; Hochstrasser, Denis; Tsybin, Yury O; Scherl, Alexander; Lescuyer, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Hemoglobin disorder diagnosis is a complex procedure combining several analytical steps. Due to the lack of specificity of the currently used protein analysis methods, the identification of uncommon hemoglobin variants (proteoforms) can become a hard task to accomplish. The aim of this work was to develop a mass spectrometry-based approach to quickly identify mutated protein sequences within globin chain variants. To reach this goal, a top-down electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry method was developed for hemoglobin β chain analysis. A diagnostic product ion list was established with a color code strategy allowing to quickly and specifically localize a mutation in the hemoglobin β chain sequence. The method was applied to the analysis of rare hemoglobin β chain variants and an (A)γ-β fusion protein. The results showed that the developed data analysis process allows fast and reliable interpretation of top-down electron transfer dissociation mass spectra by nonexpert users in the clinical area.

  20. Aspartic protease activities of schistosomes cleave mammalian hemoglobins in a host-specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Koehler

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the efficiency of digestion of hemoglobin from four mammalian species, human, cow, sheep, and horse by acidic extracts of mixed sex adults of Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni. Activity ascribable to aspartic protease(s from S. japonicum and S. mansoni cleaved human hemoglobin. In addition, aspartic protease activities from S. japonicum cleaved hemoglobin from bovine, sheep, and horse blood more efficiently than did the activity from extracts of S. mansoni. These findings support the hypothesis that substrate specificity of hemoglobin-degrading proteases employed by blood feeding helminth parasites influences parasite host species range; differences in amino acid sequences in key sites of the parasite proteases interact less or more efficiently with the hemoglobins of permissive or non-permissive hosts.

  1. Photonics-based in vivo total hemoglobin monitoring and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurdy, John; Jay, Gregory; Suner, Selim; Crawford, Gregory

    2009-05-01

    Anemia is a serious disorder which, as a result of antiquated invasive blood testing, is undiagnosed in millions of people in the U.S. As a result of the clinical need, many technological solutions have been proposed to measure total blood hemoglobin, and thus diagnose anemia, noninvasively. Because hemoglobin is the strongest chromophore in tissue, spectroscopic methods have been the most prevalently investigated. Difficulties in extracting a quantitative estimation of hemoglobin based on tissue absorption include variability in the absorption spectra of hemoglobin derivatives, interference from other tissue chromophores, and interpatient physiological variations affecting the effective optical path length of light propagating in tissue. In spite of these challenges, studies with a high degree of correlation between in vitro and in vivo measured total hemoglobin have been disclosed using variants of transmission and diffuse reflection spectroscopy in assorted physiological locations. A review of these technologies and the relevant advantages/disadvantages are presented here.

  2. Megalin and cubilin are endocytic receptors involved in renal clearance of hemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gburek, Jakub; Verroust, Pierre J; Willnow, Thomas E

    2002-01-01

    . In conclusion, the study provides a molecular explanation for long-standing observations of hemoglobin uptake in renal proximal tubules that involve the endocytic receptors megalin and cubilin. The findings may prove to be essential for further research on the pathophysiology of hemoglobinuric acute renal......The kidney is the main site of hemoglobin clearance and degradation in conditions of severe hemolysis. Herein it is reported that megalin and cubilin, two epithelial endocytic receptors, mediate the uptake of hemoglobin in renal proximal tubules. Both receptors were purified by use of hemoglobin......-Sepharose affinity chromatography of solubilized renal brush-border membranes. Apparent dissociation constants of 1.7 microM for megalin and 4.1 microM for cubilin were determined by surface plasmon resonance analysis. The binding was calcium dependent in both cases. Uptake of fluorescence-labeled hemoglobin by BN...

  3. Acid Denaturation Inducing Self-Assembly of Curcumin-Loaded Hemoglobin Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaikai Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin is a promising drug carrier but lacks extensive investigation. The chemical conjugation of hemoglobin and drugs is costly and complex, so we have developed curcumin-loaded hemoglobin nanoparticles (CCM-Hb-NPs via self-assembly for the first time. Using the acid-denaturing method, we avoid introducing denaturants and organic solvents. The nanoparticles are stable with uniform size. We have conducted a series of experiments to examine the interaction of hemoglobin and CCM, including hydrophobic characterization, SDS-PAGE. These experiments substantiate that this self-assembly process is mainly driven by hydrophobic forces. Our nanoparticles achieve much higher cell uptake efficiency and cytotoxicity than free CCM solution in vitro. The uptake inhibition experiments also demonstrate that our nanoparticles were incorporated via the classic clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. These results indicate that hemoglobin nanoparticles formed by self-assembly are a promising drug delivery system for cancer therapy.

  4. Proteinuria in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L.R.; Seki, Masafumi; Phair, J.P.; Nefzger, M.D.

    1966-08-25

    A study of the epidemiology of proteinuria was conducted on about 5000 persons comprising a portion of the clinical sample under study at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. In addition, data from previous examinations of similar samples were analyzed. Proteinuria was more common in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. The rates for men and women did not differ within cities. Age-specific rates of proteinuria were peculiar, peaking in adolescence and old age. In the subjects under study proteinuria was frequently inconstant and usually represented excretion of less than 1.0 g of protein per day. Prior exposure to radiation as measured by distance from the hypocenter was correlated with increased proteinuria rates in 18-year-old subjects who were in utero ATB. Subjects exposed after birth did not show this tendency. It is unsettled whether radiation results in renal disease by increasing the subject's susceptibility to the usual causes of glomerulonephritis or by some more direct mechanism. Persons with proteinuria had higher mean blood pressures and serum urea nitrogen levels than controls and had other findings indicative of generalized cardiovascular-renal disease. Persons with thyroid disease had an increased risk of proteinuria whereas the converse was true of those with a history of treatment for peptic ulcer. Many other factors were tested for a relation to proteinuria, including family history of renal disease, socioeconomic status, urinary symptoms, ingestion of medications, physical findings, hemoglobin levels, height, weight, ABO blood groups, audiometry, vibrometry, and serum cholesterol levels. Although urinary symptoms were more common in persons with proteinuria, the findings in other areas were not sufficiently different to suggest meaningful relations. 20 references, 2 figures, 13 tables.

  5. Nutritional interventions for survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jennifer E; Wakefield, Claire E; Cohn, Richard J

    2016-08-22

    Childhood cancer survivors are at a higher risk of developing health conditions such as osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease than their peers. Health-promoting behaviour, such as consuming a healthy diet, could lessen the impact of these chronic issues, yet the prevalence rate of health-protecting behaviour amongst survivors of childhood cancer is similar to that of the general population. Targeted nutritional interventions may prevent or reduce the incidence of these chronic diseases. The primary aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of a range of nutritional interventions designed to improve the nutritional intake of childhood cancer survivors, as compared to a control group of childhood cancer survivors who did not receive the intervention. Secondary objectives were to assess metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, measures of weight and body fat distribution, behavioural change, changes in knowledge regarding disease risk and nutritional intake, participants' views of the intervention, measures of health status and quality of life, measures of harm associated with the process or outcomes of the intervention, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention We searched the electronic databases of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2013, Issue 3), MEDLINE/PubMed (from 1945 to April 2013), and Embase/Ovid (from 1980 to April 2013). We ran the search again in August 2015; we have not yet fully assessed these results, but we have identified one ongoing trial. We conducted additional searching of ongoing trial registers - the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number register and the National Institutes of Health register (both screened in the first half of 2013) - reference lists of relevant articles and reviews, and conference proceedings of the International Society for Paediatric Oncology and the International Conference on Long-Term Complications of Treatment of Children and Adolescents for Cancer (both 2008 to

  6. Psychological Adjustment in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Annette L; Bower, Julienne E

    2015-01-01

    Women living with a diagnosis of breast cancer constitute more than 20 % of the cancer survivor population in the United States. Research on trajectories of psychological adjustment in women recently diagnosed with breast suggests that the largest proportion of women evidences relatively low psychological distress either from the point of diagnosis or after a period of recovery. Substantial heterogeneity exists, however, and some women are at risk for lingering depression, anxiety, fear of cancer recurrence and other long-term psychological effects. Most women diagnosed with breast cancer also report a number of benefits that arise from their experience of cancer. Longitudinal studies have illuminated risk and protective factors for psychological adjustment in breast cancer survivors, which we describe in this chapter. Effective psychosocial interventions, as evidenced in randomized controlled trials, also are available for bolstering breast cancer-related adjustment. We offer directions for research to deepen the understanding of biological, psychological, and social contributors to positive adjustment in the context of breast cancer, as well as suggestions for the development of optimally efficient evidence-based psychosocial interventions for women living with the disease.

  7. The mechanism of formation, structure and physiological relevance of covalent hemoglobin attachment to the erythrocyte membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbourn, Elizabeth M; Wilson, Michael T; Yusof, Ashril; Metodiev, Metodi V; Cooper, Chris E

    2017-02-01

    Covalent hemoglobin binding to membranes leads to band 3 (AE1) clustering and the removal of erythrocytes from the circulation; it is also implicated in blood storage lesions. Damaged hemoglobin, with the heme being in a redox and oxygen-binding inactive hemichrome form, has been implicated as the binding species. However, previous studies used strong non-physiological oxidants. In vivo hemoglobin is constantly being oxidised to methemoglobin (ferric), with around 1% of hemoglobin being in this form at any one time. In this study we tested the ability of the natural oxidised form of hemoglobin (methemoglobin) in the presence or absence of the physiological oxidant hydrogen peroxide to initiate membrane binding. The higher the oxidation state of hemoglobin (from Fe(III) to Fe(V)) the more binding was observed, with approximately 50% of this binding requiring reactive sulphydryl groups. The hemoglobin bound was in a high molecular weight complex containing spectrin, ankyrin and band 4.2, which are common to one of the cytoskeletal nodes. Unusually, we showed that hemoglobin bound in this way was redox active and capable of ligand binding. It can initiate lipid peroxidation showing the potential to cause cell damage. In vivo oxidative stress studies using extreme endurance exercise challenges showed an increase in hemoglobin membrane binding, especially in older cells with lower levels of antioxidant enzymes. These are then targeted for destruction. We propose a model where mild oxidative stress initiates the binding of redox active hemoglobin to the membrane. The maximum lifetime of the erythrocyte is thus governed by the redox activity of the cell; from the moment of its release into the circulation the timer is set. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. "We are survivors and not a virus:" Content analysis of media reporting on Ebola survivors in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhuber, Elisabeth Anne-Sophie; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Kutalek, Ruth

    2017-08-01

    The Ebola virus disease epidemic between 2013 and 2016 in West Africa was unprecedented. It resulted in approximately 28.000 cases and 10.000 Ebola survivors. Many survivors face social, economic and health-related predicaments and media reporting is crucially important in infectious disease outbreaks. However, there is little research on reporting of the social situation of Ebola survivors in Liberia. The study used a mixed methods approach and analysed media reports from the Liberian Daily Observer (DOL), a daily newspaper available online in English. We were interested to know how the situation of Ebola survivors was portrayed; in what way issues such as stigma and discrimination were addressed; and which stigma reduction interventions were covered and how. We included all articles on the situation of Ebola survivors in the quantitative and in-depth qualitative analysis published between April 2014 and March 2016. The DOL published 148 articles that portrayed the social situation of Ebola survivors between the 24 months observation period. In these articles, Ebola survivors were often defined beyond biological terms, reflecting on a broader social definition of survivorship. Survivorship was associated with challenges such as suffering from after-effects, social and economic consequences and psychological distress. Almost 50% of the articles explicitly mentioned stigmatisation in their reporting on Ebola survivors. This was contextualised in untrustworthiness towards international responses and the local health care system and inconclusive knowledge on cures and transmission routes. In the majority of DOL articles stigma reduction and engaging survivors in the response was reported as crucially important. Reporting in the DOL was educational-didactical and well-balanced in terms of disseminating available medical knowledge and reflecting the social situation of Ebola survivors. While the articles contextualised factors contributing to stigmatisation throughout

  9. "We are survivors and not a virus:" Content analysis of media reporting on Ebola survivors in Liberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Anne-Sophie Mayrhuber

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus disease epidemic between 2013 and 2016 in West Africa was unprecedented. It resulted in approximately 28.000 cases and 10.000 Ebola survivors. Many survivors face social, economic and health-related predicaments and media reporting is crucially important in infectious disease outbreaks. However, there is little research on reporting of the social situation of Ebola survivors in Liberia.The study used a mixed methods approach and analysed media reports from the Liberian Daily Observer (DOL, a daily newspaper available online in English. We were interested to know how the situation of Ebola survivors was portrayed; in what way issues such as stigma and discrimination were addressed; and which stigma reduction interventions were covered and how. We included all articles on the situation of Ebola survivors in the quantitative and in-depth qualitative analysis published between April 2014 and March 2016.The DOL published 148 articles that portrayed the social situation of Ebola survivors between the 24 months observation period. In these articles, Ebola survivors were often defined beyond biological terms, reflecting on a broader social definition of survivorship. Survivorship was associated with challenges such as suffering from after-effects, social and economic consequences and psychological distress. Almost 50% of the articles explicitly mentioned stigmatisation in their reporting on Ebola survivors. This was contextualised in untrustworthiness towards international responses and the local health care system and inconclusive knowledge on cures and transmission routes. In the majority of DOL articles stigma reduction and engaging survivors in the response was reported as crucially important.Reporting in the DOL was educational-didactical and well-balanced in terms of disseminating available medical knowledge and reflecting the social situation of Ebola survivors. While the articles contextualised factors contributing to

  10. Meaningful Use of an Electronic Personal Health Record (ePHR) among Pediatric Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rebecca S; Cherven, Brooke O; Gilleland Marchak, Jordan; Edwards, Paula; Palgon, Michael; Escoffery, Cam; Meacham, Lillian R; Mertens, Ann C

    2017-03-15

    Background and Objectivs: Survivors of pediatric and adolescent cancer are at an increased risk of chronic and debilitating health conditions and require life-long specialized care. Stand-alone electronic personal health records (ePHRs) may aid their self-management. This analysis characterizes young adult survivors and parents who meaningfully use an ePHR, Cancer SurvivorLink TM , designed for survivors of pediatric and adolescent cancer. This was a retrospective observational study of patients seen at a pediatric survivor clinic for annual survivor care. Young adult survivors and/or parent proxies for survivors survivors/parents registered and 38% of registrants used SurvivorLink meaningfully. Young adult registrants who transferred to adult care during the study period were more likely to be meaningful users (aOR: 2.6 (95% CI: 1.1, 6.1)) and used the ePHR twice as frequently as those who continued to receive care in our institution's pediatric survivor clinic. Among survivors who continued to receive care at our institution, being a registrant was associated with having an annual follow-up visit (aOR: 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2, 5.8)). While ePHRs may not be utilized by all survivors, SurvivorLink is a resource for a subset and may serve as an important bridge for patients who transfer their care. Using SurvivorLink was also associated with receiving recommended annual survivor care.

  11. Subsequent Neoplasms in 5-Year Survivors of Childhood Cancer: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, John; Leisenring, Wendy; Mertens, Ann C.; Hammond, Sue; Stovall, Marilyn; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Meadows, Anna T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Neglia, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    Background The occurrence of subsequent neoplasms has direct impact on the quantity and quality of life in cancer survivors. We have expanded our analysis of these events in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) to better understand the occurrence of these events as the survivor population ages. Methods The incidence of and risk for subsequent neoplasms occurring 5 years or more after the childhood cancer diagnosis were determined among 14 359 5-year survivors in the CCSS who were treated from 1970 through 1986 and who were at a median age of 30 years (range = 5–56 years) for this analysis. At 30 years after childhood cancer diagnosis, we calculated cumulative incidence at 30 years of subsequent neoplasms and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), excess absolute risks (EARs) for invasive second malignant neoplasms, and relative risks for subsequent neoplasms by use of multivariable Poisson regression. Results Among 14 359 5-year survivors, 1402 subsequently developed 2703 neoplasms. Cumulative incidence at 30 years after the childhood cancer diagnosis was 20.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 19.1% to 21.8%) for all subsequent neoplasms, 7.9% (95% CI = 7.2% to 8.5%) for second malignant neoplasms (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer), 9.1% (95% CI = 8.1% to 10.1%) for nonmelanoma skin cancer, and 3.1% (95% CI = 2.5% to 3.8%) for meningioma. Excess risk was evident for all primary diagnoses (EAR = 2.6 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI = 2.4 to 2.9 per 1000 person-years; SIR = 6.0, 95% CI = 5.5 to 6.4), with the highest being for Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 8.7, 95% CI = 7.7 to 9.8) and Ewing sarcoma (SIR = 8.5, 95% CI = 6.2 to 11.7). In the Poisson multivariable analysis, female sex, older age at diagnosis, earlier treatment era, diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma, and treatment with radiation therapy were associated with increased risk of subsequent neoplasm. Conclusions As childhood cancer survivors progress through adulthood, risk of subsequent neoplasms

  12. Thermodynamics and energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2014-01-01

    This textbook gives a thorough treatment of engineering thermodynamics with applications to classical and modern energy conversion devices.   Some emphasis lies on the description of irreversible processes, such as friction, heat transfer and mixing, and the evaluation of the related work losses. Better use of resources requires high efficiencies, therefore the reduction of irreversible losses should be seen as one of the main goals of a thermal engineer. This book provides the necessary tools.   Topics include: car and aircraft engines,  including Otto, Diesel and Atkinson cycles, by-pass turbofan engines, ramjet and scramjet;  steam and gas power plants, including advanced regenerative systems, solar tower, and compressed air energy storage; mixing and separation, including reverse osmosis, osmotic powerplants, and carbon sequestration; phase equilibrium and chemical equilibrium, distillation, chemical reactors, combustion processes, and fuel cells; the microscopic definition of entropy.    The book i...

  13. Conversations About Responsible Nanoresearch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjølberg, Kamilla Lein; Strand, Roger

    2011-04-01

    There is currently a strong focus on responsible research in relation to the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. This study presents a series of conversations with nanoresearchers, with the 'European Commission recommendation on a code of conduct for responsible nanosciences and nanotechnologies research' (EC-CoC) as its point of departure. Six types of reactions to the document are developed, illustrating the diversity existing within the scientific community in responses towards this kind of new approaches to governance. Three broad notions of responsible nanoresearch are presented. The article concludes by arguing that while the suggestion put forward in the EC-CoC brings the concept of responsible nanoresearch a long way, one crucial element is to be wanted, namely responsible nanoresearch as increased awareness of moral choices.

  14. Power conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  15. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  16. The Role of Conversation Policy in Carrying Out Agent Conversations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Phillips, Laurence R.

    1999-05-20

    Structured conversation diagrams, or conversation specifications, allow agents to have predictable interactions and achieve predefined information-based goals, but they lack the flexibility needed to function robustly in an unpredictable environment. We propose a mechanism that combines a typical conversation structure with a separately established policy to generate an actual conversation. The word "policy" connotes a high-level direction external to a specific planned interaction with the environment. Policies, which describe acceptable procedures and influence decisions, can be applied to broad sets of activity. Based on their observation of issues related to a policy, agents may dynamically adjust their communication patterns. The policy object describes limitations, constraints, and requirements that may affect the conversation in certain circumstances. Using this new mechanism of interaction simplifies the description of individual conversations and allows domain-specific issues to be brought to bear more easily during agent communication. By following the behavior of the conversation specification when possible and deferring to the policy to derive behavior in exceptional circumstances, an agent is able to function predictably under normal situations and still act rationally in abnormal situations. Different conversation policies applied to a given conversation specification can change the nature of the interaction without changing the specification.

  17. Effects of Sleep Disorders on Hemoglobin A1c Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Keskin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have reported the presence of sleep disorders in approximately 50-70% of diabetic patients, and these may contribute to poor glycemic control, diabetic neuropathy, and overnight hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of sleep disorders in diabetic patients, and to investigate possible relationships between scores of these sleep disorders and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS and diabetic parameters (fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], and lipid levels. Methods: We used the Berlin questionnaire (BQ for OSAS, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI to determine the frequency of sleep disorders and their possible relationships with fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and lipid levels. Results: The study included 585 type 2 diabetic patients admitted to family medicine clinics between October and December 2014. Sleep, sleep quality, and sleep scores were used as the dependent variables in the analysis. The ESS scores showed that 54.40% of patients experienced excessive daytime sleepiness, and according to the PSQI, 64.30% experienced poor-quality sleep. The BQ results indicated that 50.20% of patients were at high-risk of OSAS. HbA1c levels correlated significantly with the ESS and PSQI results (r = 0.23, P < 0.001 and r = 0.14, P = 0.001, respectively, and were significantly higher in those with high-risk of OSAS as defined by the BQ (P < 0.001. These results showed that HbA1c levels were related to sleep disorders. Conclusions: Sleep disorders are common in diabetic patients and negatively affect the control of diabetes. Conversely, poor diabetes control is an important factor disturbing sleep quality. Addressing sleep disturbances in patients who have difficulty controlling their blood glucose has dual benefits: Preventing diabetic complications caused by sleep disturbance and improving diabetes control.

  18. Increased risk of attempted suicide among aging holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Yoram; Aizenberg, Dov; Szor, Henry; Swartz, Marnina; Maor, Rachel; Knobler, Haim Y

    2005-08-01

    Suicide rates are higher in elderly persons than in those at other phase of the life-cycle. The majority of World War II (WWII) veterans and Holocaust survivors still define their war experiences as being the "most significant stressor" of their lives. Aging of survivors is frequently associated with depression, reactivation of traumatic syndromes, physical disorders, loss, and psychological distress, possibly increasing the risk of suicide. The aim of the present study was to investigate, among a large cohort of elderly Holocaust survivors, whether their WWII experiences confer an increased risk of suicidal behavior. All medical records of elderly patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Israel during a 5-year period were retrospectively evaluated. Suicidal patients were compared with patients who had not attempted suicide. Of 921 eligible patients, 374 were Holocaust survivors; 135 (14.6%) had attempted suicide in the month before admission. Ninety Holocaust survivors (24%) had attempted suicide, versus 45 of the 502 patients (8.2%) with no WWII experience. The risk of attempted suicide among Holocaust survivors was significantly increased. Although these findings are from a highly selected sample, we suggest that aging Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of attempting suicide. The growth of the elderly population, of whom many had had traumatic life experiences, emphasizes the need to implement preventive strategies so that suicidal risk may be contained.

  19. Life experiences after stroke among Iranian stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvandi, A; Heikkilä, K; Maddah, S S B; Khankeh, H R; Ekman, S L

    2010-06-01

    Stroke is a major cause of disability worldwide. It is a life-threatening and life-altering event, which leaves many physical and mental disabilities, thus creating major social and economic burdens. Experiencing a stroke and its aftermath can be devastating for patients and their families. In Iran, many services are not available for those who lack property; this may result in many difficulties and long-term problems for stroke survivors and their family members who are usually the main caregivers in Iranian cultural. Despite its effect on their lives, little is known about how the survivors perceive stroke in the Iranian context, therefore, knowing more about this process may enhance problem identification and problem solving. To illuminate how stroke survivors experience and perceive life after stroke. A grounded theory approach was recruited using semi-structured interviews with 10 stroke survivors. The survivors perceived that inadequate social and financial support, lack of an educational plan, lack of access to rehabilitative services, physical and psychological problems led them to functional disturbances, poor socio-economical situation and life disintegration. The core concept of life after stroke was functional disturbances. The study shows the need to support the stroke survivors in their coping process with their new situation by providing appropriate discharge plans, social and financial support, social insurances and training programmes for the stroke survivors and their families.

  20. Survivor in the cancer context: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebdon, Megan; Foli, Karen; McComb, Sara

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this analysis was to define survivor in the cancer context. Cancer survivor has been used in the cancer lexicon, but may not represent the individuals it defines. This concept analysis was completed according to Walker and Avant's method. PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, JSTOR, Google and medical and public health websites. Thirty sources from multiple disciplines, published between 1987-2013, were analysed for recurrent themes and conceptual meaning. Critical attributes, antecedents and consequences were extrapolated. Model, related and contrary cases were developed based on an amalgamation of clinical observations. Illegitimate, borderline and invented cases were excluded for this reason. Survivor in the cancer context is an individual with a history of malignancy, who has lived through a personalized challenge and has ongoing positive and negative consequences. Not all cancer survivors would identify themselves using the term survivor. This contributes to the paradigm shift of cancer as a chronic disease as it establishes the unique nature of the cancer experience while highlighting the long-term concerns related to this set of diseases. The Theory of Uncertainty in Illness provides a framework to understand the individualized nature of being a cancer survivor. Nursing research and practice should address the personal experiences of cancer survivors while still focusing on general survivorship needs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.