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Sample records for survivors atomic veterans

  1. Cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, I.; Kagan, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the cancer registry in Nagasaki, with atomic bomb survivor data, 1973-1977; cancer mortality; methods for study of delayed health effects of a-bomb radiation; experimental radiation carcinogenesis in rodents; leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma; cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands; malignant tumors in atomic bomb survivors with special reference to the pathology of stomach and lung cancer; colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors; breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors; and ovarian neoplasms in atomic bomb survirors

  2. Tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Matsushita, Hiroshi.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of atomic bomb on tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors necropsied after 1956 when Atomic Bomb Hospital was opened were observed statistically and the following results were obtained. The morbidity of tuberculosis in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter was higher than that of the control group, but there was not a significant difference between the both groups. The morbidity of all types of tuberculosis was significantly higher in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter than in the control group. The morbidity of tuberculosis tended to decrease in both exposed and non-exposed groups with time. However, the morbidity of miliary or active tuberculosis has tended to rise in the exposed since 1975. The morbidity in young a-bomb survivors exposed within 2 km was higher than that in those of other groups, but there was not a difference in the morbidity among the aged. The higher the rate of complication of active tuberculosis with stomach cancer or acute myelocytic leukemia or liver cirrhosis, the nearer the places of exposure were to the hypocenter. Out of 26 patients with miliary tuberculosis, 6 were suspected to have leukemia while they were alive and were suggested to have leukemoid reaction by autopsy. They all were a-bomb survivors, and 4 of them were exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter. (Tsunoda, M.)

  3. Thyroid disorders in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshikiyo; Inoue, Keisuke; Sugihara, Toru; Oshima, Tetuya; Matsueda, Kazuhiro

    1984-01-01

    There was no difference in blood levels of thyroid stimulating hormones among atomic bomb survivors having normal thyroid function, irrespective of the exposure distance from the explosion. Of 336 atomic bomb survivors admitted to the hospital for health examinations, hyperthyroidism was seen in one patient, hypothyroidism in four, malignant struma in three, and benign tumor in one. The incidence of struma associated with positive antithyroidglobulin antibody tended to be high in atomic bomb survivors living within 1.0 km from the explosion. The overall study in patients visiting the department of internal medicine, in addition to the 336 survivors, revealed that the incidence of thyroid disorders, especially hypothyroidism, was high in survivors directly exposed to atomic bomb. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Secondary salutogenic effects in veterans whose parents were Holocaust survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Sharon; Solomon, Zahava; Rozenstreich, Eyal

    2013-02-01

    Addressing the ongoing controversy over inter-generational transmission of trauma, we examined the impact of the Nazi Holocaust on PTSD course and co-morbid symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) among offspring of survivors following their own adversity in two longitudinal studies. Two samples of Israeli war veterans included Second Generation Holocaust (i.e., SGH) survivors and comparable veterans with no such family history (i.e., not-SGH). Study I: 1982 Lebanon War veterans (N = 669) were assessed 1, 3, and 20 years after the war. Study II: 1973 Yom Kippur War veterans (N = 343) were followed up 18, 30, and 35 years after the war. Results indicated that SGH endorsed higher PTSD and co-morbid symptoms criteria rates than not-SGH veterans in the initial post-war years but this pattern was reversed in the long-term, that is, lower rates were evident among SGH in later follow-ups. These findings suggest the development of a complex trauma reaction among offspring of trauma survivors. Possibly there is a transmission of positive trauma outcomes from one generation to the next rather than merely negative ones. Future studies are therefore warranted to re-evaluate the notion of inter-generational transmission of trauma and examine its components. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Atomic bomb survivor data: utilization and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, R.L.; Thompson, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    There were several motivations for organizing the SIMS Conference reported in this monograph. Risk assessment and its methods have been subjects of several SIMS Conferences in the recent past, and focusing these newer, more powerful methods on the largest human experience of exposure to ionizing radiation seemed an appropriate sequel. There was also the conviction that the data resources of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), generated through the mortality and medical follow-up of large samples of the survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, were being under utilized, and that a conference and its proceedings would create interest in exploiting this resource. The time seemed ripe for gathering a small group of current RERF scientists, veteran US statisticians and epidemiologists, and others with more recent entry into the field of radiation biology to consider long range plans for maximizing the output of information not only on the long term effects of ionizing radiation on man but on new knowledge of the determinants of health and disease that can be learned by study of the records of this cohort. This seemed particularly appropriate at this time while intensive joint Japanese-US efforts are underway to provide a new, more accurate dosimetry for use in these studies. Finally, there was a hope that an ad hoc forum of this type would provide not only a summary of current statistical and epidemiologic activities at RERF, but a useful critique of their scope and quality

  6. 38 CFR 3.405 - Filipino veterans and their survivors; benefits at the full-dollar rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filipino veterans and... Compensation Effective Dates § 3.405 Filipino veterans and their survivors; benefits at the full-dollar rate... compensation at full-dollar rates to certain Filipino veterans and their survivors, are considered liberalizing...

  7. 38 CFR 3.505 - Filipino veterans and their survivors; benefits at the full-dollar rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filipino veterans and... Compensation Reductions and Discontinuances § 3.505 Filipino veterans and their survivors; benefits at the full... compensation for a Filipino veteran or his or her survivor under § 3.42 will be the earliest of the dates...

  8. Cancer developing among atom-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-12-01

    Cancer (with the exception of leukemia) which had often been observed among atom bomb survivors was discussed. Prevalence of thyroid carcinoma was high in the people who had been exposed to more than 50 rad of the atomic radiation. A great difference in prevalence of cancer was seen between irradiated people whose age had been under 20 years at the time of exposure and non-irradiated. More women than men had papillary adenocarcinoma. The highest prevalence was seen 16 to 20 years after exposure to atomic radiation, but there was no difference in prevalence between those from Hiroshima and from Nagasaki. Lung cancer comprised 89% of all cancers of the people whose age was 50 years and over. Most of them had been exposed to atomic radiation of more than 300 rad. The type was cellular retrograde cancer. The prevalence of gastric carcinoma was low, and breast cancer occurred at an early age before menopause. The occurrence of cancer in juvenile survivors was several times higher in the patients who had been exposed to atomic radiation of more than 100 rad than in non-irradiated. These values indicate that cancer occurs more frequently than leukemia does in such survivors.

  9. Aging study on atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo; Aoyama, Takashi; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Nishimori, Issei; Shiomi, Toshio

    1976-01-01

    This is an ad interim report on the survey which is being performed at the Atomic Disease Institute, Nagasaki University School of Medicine for the acceleration of aging in atomic bomb survivors. The survivors group consisted of 50 females between 40 and 49 years of age who were exposed somewhere within 1.4 km where exposure dose could be estimated accurately and whose mean estimated exposure dose was 225.9+-176.8 rads. The control group consisted of females of the same age group who were exposed at sites more than 2.5 km apart (atmospheric dose 2.9 rads). The items for the judgement of aging included physical measurements, external findings, functional findings, and special tests (urine, blood, pattern of serum protein fraction, and chromosome aberrations). As far as chromosome aberrations were concerned, the number of cells with stable aberrations, Cs, showed differences between the two groups, and the number of cells with exchange-type aberrations was large in the survivors group. No significant differences were observed in the other tests. (Serizawa, K.)

  10. Chromosome abnormalities in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomonaga, Y [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1976-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells were recognized in 6 cases which consisted of one case of chronic myelogenous leukemia, two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia, one case of sideroblastic anemia, and two cases of myelodysplasis. Frequency of stable type chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells was investigated in 45 atomic bomb survivors without hematologic disorders and 15 controls. It was 1.4% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 1 km from the hypocenter, which was significantly higher as compared with 0.1% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb over 2.5 km from the hypocenter and 0.2% in normal controls. Examination of chromosome was also made on 2 of 3 cases which were the seconds born of female with high chromosome abnormality, who was exposed to within 1 km from the hypocenter, and healthy male exposed 3 km from the hypocenter. These two cases showed chromosome of normal male type, and balanced translocation was not recognized. There was not a significant difference in chromosome abnormalities between the seconds of atomic bomb survivors and controls.

  11. Chromosome abnormalities in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, Yu

    1976-01-01

    Chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells were recognized in 6 cases which consisted of one case of chronic myelogenous leukemia, two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia, one case of sideroblastic anemia, and two cases of myelodysplasis. Frequency of stable type chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells was investigated in 45 atomic bomb survivors without hematologic disorders and 15 controls. It was 1.4% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 1 km from the hypocenter, which was significantly higher as compared with 0.1% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb over 2.5 km from the hypocenter and 0.2% in normal controls. Examination of chromosome was also made on 2 of 3 cases which were the seconds born of female with high chromosome abnormality, who was exposed to within 1 km from the hypocenter, and healthy male exposed 3 km from the hypocenter. These two cases showed chromosome of normal male type, and balanced translocation was not recognized. There was not a significant difference in chromosome abnormalities between the seconds of atomic bomb survivors and controls. (Kanao, N.)

  12. Cardiovascular disease among atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kotaro; Takahashi, Ikuno; Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori

    2017-10-01

    The profile of cardiovascular disease in Japan has been different from that in Western countries. Hypertension was the major cause not only for hemorrhagic stroke but also for ischemic stroke and heart disease in the past, and the influence of hypertension has decreased with calendar years because of reduced salt intake and westernization of lifestyle, and also improved medical care. The health status of atomic bomb survivors has reflected this profile as well as radiation effects. It is also likely that this cohort has been affected by the difficult conditions experienced in the aftermath of the war and atomic bombings. In this article, we tried to make a consistent interpretation of epidemiological findings of atomic bomb radiation effects on cardiovascular disease. Among the atomic bomb survivors, radiation exposure was associated with some cardiovascular diseases that are often associated with hypertension, and dose response appeared to be primarily non-linear among those who were exposed at younger ages. These effects are thought to reflect the nature of whole body irradiation. But, some findings remain inconsistent, possibly because of possible misclassification in death certificate diagnoses in the Life Span Study as well as selected information from the Adult Health Study which was limited to participants, focused on specific outcomes, and gathered in selected periods of follow-up. Therefore, a comprehensive and balanced interpretation of the results from both groups is necessary.

  13. Cancer risk among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Continued mortality surveillance and incidence studies have revealed the risk of cancer among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to increase with increasing dose. Among the sites where the frequency of cancer can be clearly shown to be dose-related are the following: female breast, colon, esophagus, lung, ovary, stomach, thyroid, urinary bladder and leukemia. Although the evidence is less compelling, cancers of the liver, salivary glands, and skin as well as multiple myeloma appear increased too. This increase generally manifests itself when the survivors reach those ages where the natural incidence of cancer begins to rise. Risk is, however, related to the age of the individual at the time of the bombing; the highest risks are associated with individuals who were exposed in the first two decades of life. Current evidence suggests these higher risks decline with increasing time since exposure

  14. Sister chromatoid exchanges in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Mimako; Awa, Akio

    1980-01-01

    Sister chromatoid exchange (SCE) frequencies in the peripheral lymphocyte with and without mitomycin-C (MMC) were studied, in the age of tens and thirties for an atomic-bomb survivor group and in thirties, fifties, and seventies for an unexposed group. The observation of 100 cells showed no statistically significant difference of SCE frequencies with aging or irradiation. The increasing rates of SCE frequencies by MMC showed no difference among the groups. The average increasing ratio by MMC was 3.6. (Nakanishi, T.)

  15. Leukemia in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyssel, R; Brill, A B; Woodbury, L A; Nishimura, Edwin T; Ghose, Tarunendu; Hoshino, Takashi; Yamasaki, Mitsuru

    1959-03-01

    This report is intended to provide the basic data pertinent to the leukemia experience observed in the survivors of the Hiroshima atomic explosion. Many of the conclusions in this report are tentative. The one clear fact to emerge is that radiation increases the occurrence rate of leukemia and that the magnitude of increase is dependent on dose received. Additional observations can be made, which, while not definitive in themselves, seem to complement each other, and are corroborated by other experiences in radiation biology. From the data a linear relationship between dose and incidence of leukemia is found. The shape of the relation in the lower dose range is not known with certainty. An approximate minimum time for the appearance of leukemia following radiation is 3 years or less. The data suggest that the time of maximum risk of leukemia may be dependent on the dose of radiation received. In this group the mean latent period is found to lie in the interval between 4 and 8 years following exposure. The length of time during which the increased incidence of leukemia persists is not known. The incidence of the acute leukemias and of chronic granulocytic leukemia is increased in the exposed survivors. The chronic granulocytic variety is disproportionately increased in Japanese survivors of the atomic bomb. No effect of radiation on monocytic or chronic lymphatic leukemia incidence is noted. Aplastic anemia, polycythemia vera, and myelofibrosis have been investigated. Myelofibrosis is the only one of this group of diseases in which a suggestive relation to radiation exposure is apparent. The natural history of leukemia following radiation does not seem to differ from that of the spontaneously occurring variety. 17 references, 5 figures, 38 tables.

  16. Risk of cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo; Schull, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the risk of cancer and in particular cancers other than leukemia among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Attention focuses primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effect Research Foundation in the period 1950-1985 based on the recently revised dosimetry, termed the DS86 doses. Mortality from malignant tumors is increased among A-bomb survivors as a late effect of A-bomb radiation. Basides the well-known increase of leukemia, there also has been demonstrated increase of cancer of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, thyroid, and of multiple myeloma, but no increase has yet been observed in mortality from cancer of the rectum, gallbladder, pancreases, prostate and uterus, and of malignant lymphoma. The pattern of appearance over time of radiation-induced cancer other than leukemia differs from that of leukemia. In general, radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear after attaining the age at which the cancer is normally prone to develop (so-called cancer age), and countinues to increase proportionally with the increase in mortality of the control group as it ages. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher for persons who were young at the time of the bomb (ATB) in general than for those who were older ATB. Furthermore, susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer tends to be higher in pre- than in post-natally exposed survivors (at least those exposed as adults). Other radiation effect modifiers and the shape of the dose response curve will also be discussed. (author)

  17. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, H.; Ezaki, H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occuring in A-bomb survivors

  18. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Ezaki, Haruo.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occurring in A-bomb survivors. (author)

  19. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi; Tomonaga, Masao; Okumura, Yutaka

    1999-01-01

    We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

  20. Aging studies in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belsky, J.L.; Moriyama, I.M.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1979-07-01

    Although the studies of the effect of ionizing radiation on atomic bomb survivors have not produced any evidence of radiation-induced aging, there have been studies on experimental animals and man which suggest accelerated aging after exposure to ionizing radiation. To determine if certain physiologic functions could be related to exposure to ionizing radiation, a battery of age-related tests was given at the time of the physical examinations at ABCC. Some 11,351 persons were given these non-invasive age-related tests. The results were essentially negative. Until a satisfactory operational definition of biologic or physiologic age is developed, the administration of functional tests as a measure of aging does not seem justified. (author)

  1. Health risks of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Y.; Soda, M.; Mabuchi, K.

    1992-01-01

    At the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor organization, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, mortality and morbidity surveys have been continually carried out on about 1,800 persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Although the effect of radiation exposure was marked enough to permit observation of a dose-response relationship in the 30 known cases of severe mental retardation among the in utero-exposed, the association between in utero exposure and cancer risk is still uncertain. Based on data for all cancers from 1950 through 1984 for the in utero-exposed, the excess risk per 10,000 person-year-Gy was 6.57 and the relative risk at 1 Gy was 3.77. For the recent years 1985-89, there was no evident excess of cancer risk. During the remaining lifetime, it seems unlikely that any great excess of leukemia will appear. As for the risk of solid tumors, further follow up is in progress. The 1950-89 findings for cancer risk among the in utero-exposed will be compared with cancer risk among A-bomb survivors who were less than 10 years old at the time of the bombings. (author)

  2. Thyroid disorders in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, M.; Neriishi, K.; Akahoshi, M.; Suzuki, G.; Nakashima, E.; Nagataki, S.; Eguchi, K.

    2003-01-01

    It is known from several studies, including those from RERF that radiation exposure can cause thyroid tumors (Socolow, N Engl J Med. 1963;268:406, Parker, Ann Intern Med. 1974;80:600). Effects of radiation on autoimmune thyroid disease are not well understood. We have conducted thyroid disease screening on a population of 2856 individuals from the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort of atomic-bomb survivors for the period of 1984-1987. This study, which for logistical reasons involved survivors only from Nagasaki, revealed a statistically significant relationship between radiation dose and prevalence of solid nodules, including cancer, and that of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Nagataki, JAMA. 1994;272:364). Because the previous thyroid study was conducted only in Nagasaki, the new comprehensive thyroid disease screening study has been ongoing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS participants since March 2000. For about 4,000 participants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS cohort, thyroid ultrasonography, aspiration biopsy of nodules, thyroid function test, thyroid autoantibody (thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody) test by highly sensitive assay using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were performed for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. Analysis of data from the 1874 people examined through July 2001 (915 people from Hiroshima, 959 people from Nagasaki) provides evidence that thyroid cancer increases with radiation dose. The prevalence of positive result for thyroid autoantibody test is increased in the people exposed to relative low dose of radiation (0.01-0.99 Sv). Examination and measurements was completed in February 2003 for all patients. The analysis of these data is providing new and more complete insights into relationships between thyroid diseases and low doses of radiation

  3. Perceptions of barriers and facilitators to health behavior change among veteran cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, Gregory P; Rodrigues, Amy E; Kay, Morgan A; Kiviniemi, Marc T; Steinbrenner, Lynn

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to health behavior change related to body size in a sample of veteran cancer survivors. A qualitative study was conducted with a sample of 35 male and female cancer survivors receiving care at a Veterans Administration comprehensive cancer center. Participants completed individual interviews regarding barriers and facilitators to lifestyle change and responded to a brief questionnaire regarding current health behaviors. Participants reported suboptimal adherence to recommended health behavior goals and the majority were overweight or obese (80%). Qualitative analysis revealed numerous barriers and facilitators to health behavior change across six broad categories: environmental factors, health services delivery factors, health-related factors, factors related to attitudes toward change, factors related to enacting change, and motivational factors. Veteran cancer survivors were impacted by common barriers to change affecting the general population, cancer-specific factors related to personal diagnosis and treatment history, and health service delivery factors related to the Veterans Administration health care system. There are many barriers and facilitators that exist in diverse domains for veteran cancer survivors, each of which offers unique challenges and opportunities for improving engagement in behavior change following cancer diagnosis and treatment. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Federal Benefits for Veterans, Dependents and Survivors: 2017 Online Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Business with VA Acquisition, Logistics, & Construction Small & Veteran Business Programs VetBiz.gov Financial & Asset Enterprise Management Security Investigation Center/Background Clearances Freedom of Information ...

  5. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunga, M.; Land, C.E.; Tokuoka, S.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950-80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiationinduced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer

  6. Leukemia in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brill, A B; Heyssel, R; Itoga, T; Tomonaga, M

    1960-08-01

    In the 13.5 years following the detonation of the atomic bomb, 95 cases of leukemia have been observed in the Nagasaki survivors. This increase is highly significant statistically. The increased leukemia risk apparently started 1.5 to 2.5 years following radiation exposure, and has lasted through 1958. Acute leukemias of all types and chronic granulocytic leukemia are increased, (with the possible exception of the Schilling type of acute monocytic leukemia). Males in general, and individuals in the younger ages (0 to 09), are apparently most sensitive. The risk of radiation induction of leukemia is related to the size of the dose. The shape of the curve does not differ greatly from a linear model, but is consistent with a variety of hypotheses. The data in the low dose region are too limited to be of significance in evaluating the risk of low doses of radiation. The data suggest that high radiation doses may be associated with a decrease in the latent period to leukemia induction. 43 references, 2 figures, 31 tables.

  7. Breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi

    1978-10-01

    Three hundred and sixty cases of breast cancer were collected from among the 63,000 female members of the RERF extended Life Span Study sample which includes atomic bomb exposed women and controls of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The relationship of these breast cancer cases to A-bomb radiation was sought, and in studying 5-year survival, the following conclusions were obtained concerning its relationship to histopathological findings: 1) The prognosis of the 50 + rad high dose group is the best, followed by the nonexposed group and the low dose group; 2) The apparently better survival may be due, at least in part, to the fact that this group is heavily weighted in favor of those who were younger at the time of the bomb; 3) There is no specificity of the histologic type of breast cancer in the survivors by dose; 4) Nor, is any significant difference observed in the distribution of tumor size and histological grade; 5) Cellular reaction is significantly marked at the stroma of carcinoma tissue in the high dose group; 6) Immune reaction is considered to be strong at the affected site of breast cancer in the high dose group and this can be regarded as a finding suggestive of good prognosis; 7) Further extended studies are therefore warranted. (author)

  8. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Land, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950 - 80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiation-induced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer. (author)

  9. A review of colorectal cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Susumu; Sawai, Terumitsu; Ishii, Toshiyo; Eida, Kazuyuki; Noguchi, Kyoichi; Takahara, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer amongst atomic bomb survivors, who had undergone operations from 1971∼1984, have been reviewed and compared with that of a control group. The survival rate of the atomic bomb survivors over the age of 60 years was statistically better than that of the same age group in the controls. In this age bracket, the control group were in a more advanced stage of the disease than were the survivors, this accounting for the reason why the survivors had better prognosis. Further, the fact that the survivors continually have received more medical attention than have the aged in the control group affects this statistic. (author)

  10. Smoking habits among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Kimura, Masafumi

    1992-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation made a research through mailing, the smoking habits among the A-bomb survivors in 1978-79. Statistic analysis was made on the smoking habits and radiation doses. (J.P.N.)

  11. Gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiro, Hisashi; Odan, Hideki; Hinoi, Takao; Inagaki, Kazuo; Tanaka, Issei

    1992-01-01

    During 22 years from 1968 through 1989, 538 A-bomb survivors were operated on for gastric cancer, accounting for 30.9% of 1,741 surgical cases of gastric cancer during that period. To determine whether age at the time of exposure to A-bombing might influenced the occurrrence of gastric cancer, these A-bomb survivors were compared with 1,138 other non-exposed gastric cancer patients. According to age at the time of exposure, the 538 A-bomb survivors were divided into those under the age of 19 (118), those in their twenties (134), those in their thirties (178), and those over the age of 40 (108). The largest number of gastric cancer was those in their thirties at the time of exposure, followed by the twenties, 19 years or less, and 40 years or more in the exposed group. The younger A-bomb survivors were at the time of exposure, the earlier gastric cancer occurred. These findings were common to the non-exposed group. Postoperative 5-year survival rate was 72.0% in A-bomb survivors aged 19 years or less at the time of exposure, which was better than the other age groups. This may be explained by active participation in health examination for A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  12. Incidence of skin cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto

    1990-01-01

    Among a total of 65,268 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 140 cases with skin cancer were collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City from 1961 through 1987. Subsequently, these cases of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were statistically analyzed in relation to the estimated distance from the hypocenter by age, sex, histology and latent period. The results were as follows: (1) A high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and the distance from the hypocenter. (2) The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors now appears to be increasing in relation to exposure distance. (3) Among 140 cases, basal cell epithelioma was observed in 67 cases (47.9%) and squamous cell carcinoma in 43 cases (30.7%). (author)

  13. Organ dose estimates for the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1978-10-01

    Recent studies concerning radiation risks to man by the Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation have emphasized the need for estimates of dose to organs of the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. Shielding of internal organs by the body has been investigated for fission-weapon gamma rays and neutrons, and ratios of mean absorbed dose in a number of organs to survivors' T65D assignments of tissue kerma in air are provided for adults. Ratios of mean absorbed dose to tissue kerma in air are provided also for the thyroid and active bone marrow of juveniles. These organ dose estimates for juveniles are of interest in studies of radiation risks due to an elevated incidence of leukemia and thyroid cancer in survivors exposed as children compared to survivors exposed as adults

  14. Noncancer disease mortality among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Y.; Pierce, D.A.; Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, K

    2000-01-01

    We examined the noncancer disease mortality for 86,572 atomic bomb survivors with dose estimates in the Radiation Effect Research Foundation's Life Span Study cohort between 1950 and 1990. There are 27,000 noncancer disease deaths and show a statistically significant increase in noncancer disease death rates with radiation dose. Increasing trends are observed for diseases of the circulatory, digestive, and respiratory systems. Rates for those exposed to 1 Sv are elevated about 10%, a relative increase that is considerably smaller than that for cancer. However, because noncancer deaths are much more common than cancer deaths, the absolute increase in noncancer rates is large. The estimates of the number of radiation-related noncancer deaths in the cohort to date are 50% to 100% of the number for solid cancer. There remains uncertainty about the shape of the dose-response. In particular, there is considerable uncertainty regarding risks in the range below 0.2 Sv of primary interest for radiation protection. The data are statistically consistent with curvilinear dose response functions that posit essentially zero risk for doses below 0.5 Sv, but there is no significant evidence against linearity. While the ERR for those exposed as children tends to increase with attained age, there is no statistically significant dependence of ERR on age at exposure or attained age. We also tried to estimate the lifetime risk, allowing for competing risks of cancer mortality. Especially we considered the impact of competing radiation risks since both cancer and noncancer mortality are in part radiation-related. These findings, as they are based on death certificates, have their limitation. However, the present findings can not be explained by biases due to misclassification of the cause of death and confounding factors. In the future, it will be necessary not only to continue mortality follow-up, but also to conduct a clinical study as well as animal experiments and biological

  15. Some aspects of readaptation of atomic survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of some aspects of psycho social readaptation of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima is presented. Reports from 31 survivors, 8 men and 23 women, were used as data for the analysis. The reports were collected individually through a structured interview, in one of the two hospitals in Hiroshima which deliver services to the survivors. The data were grouped according to the following areas: family, work, health and psychological readaptation. These data were analysed considering the psycho social aspects of disasters and the characteristics of the japanese culture. (M.A.C.)

  16. Pancreatic exocrine secretion in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Masataka; Kawanishi, Masahiro; Ohtaki, Megu

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of A-bombing on pancreatic exocrine secretion in 6 A-bomb survivors (an average age of 57 years) and the age- and sex-matched non-exposed 6 persons (an average age of 58 years). Six A-bomb survivors consisted of: three who had been directly exposed to A-bombing, one who had entered the city within 3 days after bombing, one who had worked in caring for A-bomb survivors, and one who had later entered the city. Caerulein-Secretin test revealed no significant difference in the total secretion of lipase, maximum bicarbonate, amylase output, or lipase output between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The concentration of lipase ten min after stimulation was significantly decreased in the exposed group than the control group. This suggests that radiation may be responsible for abnormality in the ability of pancreatic exocrine secretion. (N.K.)

  17. Leukemia in atomic bomb survivors. 1. General observations. Leukemia in survivors of atomic bombing. Cytologic and biochemical studies on the granulocytes in early leukemia among atomic bomb survivors. Leukemogenic effects of ionizing radiation on atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, R D; Moloney, W C; Yamawaki, Tokuso; Kastenbaum, M A

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 4 separate reports on leukemia in survivals of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first report, observations on seventy-five established cases of leukemia occurring in people exposed to atomic bomb radiation are presented. These data indicate a great increase in the incidence of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors due to a single massive exposure to ionizing radiation. The leukemogenic effects of radiation are manifested equally in both sexes and at all age levels represented in this series. The striking preponderance of chronic myelogenous leukemia compared to chronic lymphatic leukemia has been noted in exposed individuals but it is pointed out that chronic lymphatic leukemia is comparatively rare among the Japanese. Cases of leukemia are still appearing in atomic bomb survivors. However, since 1950 there has been a steady decline in the number of cases. The second report consists of a review of all cases of leukemia referred to the ABCC from 1948 to April 1952, a total of 75 cases. In the third report, hematological and biochemical findings in separated leukocytes of four cases of preclinical myelogenous leukemia developing in atomic bomb survivors are described. The incidence of leukemia among survivors in Hiroshima is the topic of the fourth report. 38 references, 8 figures, 10 tables.

  18. Aging studies in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belsky, J.L.; Moriyama, I.M.; Fujita, Seiichiro; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1980-01-01

    Though acceleration of aging induced by radiation could not be demonstrated in many investigations on delayed effects of ionizing radiation on a-bomb survivors, studies on acceleration of aging after the exposure to ionizing radiation in human and animals have been carried out. To investigate whether physiological function was related to the exposure to ionizing radiation, a series of examinations concerning age was carried out at the time of general health examinations at ABCC. Simple examinations concerning aging were carried out on 11,351 a-bomb survivors, but the result was essentially negative. If biological or physiological age was defined clearly, the results of functional test would be used as criterion of aging. (Tsunoda, M.)

  19. Preleukemic state in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Motoko

    1980-01-01

    Hematology data before onset of leukemia were available for 55 of the 1462 acute leukemia cases (as of the end of June 1976) collected by RERF. Among these, 8 showed preleukemic state and 2 were polycythemia. In content, preleukemic state comprised anemia, leukopenia and morphological abnormalities of RBC, platelets and WBC. Leukemia cases presenting preleukemic state were, by type, mostly erythroleukemia and monocytic leukemia. Preleukemic state was not necessarily frequent among cases of leukemia in A-bomb survivors exposed to high dose. The prevalence of the 5 items, prescribed as preleukemic state, i.e., anemia (female =50%), and relative monocytosis (>=10%), could not be said to be high in the survivors exposed to high dose. Anemia in males and leukopenia in males and females were increased significantly with age. Leukemia prevalence was significantly high especially in those cases that had presented leukopenia, relative neutropenia or relative lymphocytosis among the 5 items prescribed as preleukemic state. (author)

  20. Malignant Lymphoma in an Atomic-bomb Survivor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Lee

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Atomic bomb survivors outside of Japan are few and often hard to follow-up. Spinal malignant lymphoma among these survivors is rare in established studies from Japan or the United States. Here, we report an 81-year-old woman, who experienced the atomic bomb explosion in Nagasaki when she was 19 years old, who presented with papillary thyroid carcinoma when she was 70 years old. Both follicular lymphoma over the right elbow region and vertebral malignant lymphoma were found when she turned 81 years old. Bone scan did not show any increased uptake of isotope. However, thoracolumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple infiltrative soft tissue masses involving vertebral bodies at the T10–11 level. Computed tomography-guided biopsy further showed lymphocyte infiltration. Fortunately, the neurological deficit was improved after chemotherapy. The diagnosis of malignant lymphoma in atomic bomb survivors should be more careful and aggressive, even when their bone scan results show negative findings. In addition, the authors suggest that atomic bomb survivors should be followed-up carefully throughout their entire life.

  1. Atomic veterans and their families: Responses to radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, B.C.; Ellis, P.; Greenberg, S.

    1990-01-01

    In-depth interviews with seven atomic veterans and their families indicated powerful psychological effects on all family members from exposure to low-level ionizing radiation. Four themes emerged: the invalidation of their experiences by government and other authority figures; family concerns about genetic effects on future generations; family members' desire to protect each other from fears of physical consequences; and desire to leave a record of their experiences to help prevent future suffering

  2. Study of apoprotein among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Sadamatsu; Tokunaga, Yutaka; Ishibashi, Shinzo; Mito, Kazuyo; Ito, Chikako; Kato, Masafumi.

    1988-01-01

    In an effort to examine the relationship between A-bomb exposure and arteriosclerosis, the serum concentrations of apoproteins (Apo) were measured in a total of 192 A-bomb survivors, consisting of 28 A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤2,000 m from the hypocenter (the exposed group) and 110 A-bomb survivors exposed at ≥3,000 m and entering the city 9 days or later after A-bombing (the control group). No definitive difference in average serum concentrations of Apo A-I and A-II was found between the exposed and control groups; nor did average serum concentrations of Apo B and B/A-I differ between the groups. According to the age group, Apo A-I was significantly higher in men over the age of 70 in the exposed group than the control group. Apo B tended to be higher in men over the age of 50 in the exposed group than the control group. As for men in the control group, there was a significant negative correlation between age group and both Apo A-I and A-II; however, this tendency was not seen in the exposed group. For women, no correlation between Apo and age group was found in either the exposed or control group. There was a tendency among men towards a higher incidence of hypoapoproteinemia A-I in the exposed group than the control group. The incidence of hyperapoproteinemia B was significantly higher as well for men in the exposed group than the control group. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Japanese Legacy Cohorts: The Life Span Study Atomic Bomb Survivor Cohort and Survivors' Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kotaro; Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori

    2018-04-05

    Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors-including those exposed in utero-and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950. Cohorts of in utero survivors and the survivors' children include about 3,600 and 77,000 subjects, respectively, and have been followed since 1945. Atomic bomb radiation dose was estimated for each subject based on location at the time of the bombing and shielding conditions from exposure, which were obtained through enormous efforts of investigators and cooperation of subjects. Outcomes include vital status, cause of death, and cancer incidence. In addition, sub-cohorts of these three cohorts were constructed to examine clinical features of late health effects, and the subjects have been invited to periodic health examinations at clinics of ABCC and RERF. They were also asked to donate biosamples for biomedical investigations. Epidemiological studies have observed increased radiation risks for malignant diseases among survivors, including those exposed in utero, and possible risks for some non-cancer diseases. In children of survivors, no increased risks due to parental exposure to radiation have been observed for malignancies or other diseases, but investigations are continuing, as these cohorts are still relatively young.

  4. Nutritional survey of atomic bomb survivors, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Fumiyo; Tanigawa, Junko; Ito, Chikako

    1978-01-01

    136 cases in which mild anemia was recognized but stomach disease was not recognized by the examination for a-bomb survivors, were investigated concerning living conditions, the habit of food, and the intake amount of nutrition, and the following results were obtained. 1. The mean intake amount of nutritive substances in a-bomb survivors almost reached the level as compared to the necessary amount of nutritive substances in control. 2. Shortage in intake of protein and iron which seemed to be a factor of occurrence of anemia (protein: 50% in men and 19.7% in women, iron: 25% in men and 22.5% in women), much and frequent intake of confectioneries and luxuries, and the rate of going without meal (33.3% of men went without meal one to 6 times a week) were recongized in each case of anemia with high rate. These tendency was marked in men. 3. Anemia was recognized in some of women, although they took all nutritive substances. This seemed to be caused by physiological loss of iron. Accordingly, it was desirable to take an excess amount of iron. (Tsunoda, M.)

  5. Leukemia and lymphoma in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Leukemia has been observed to increase with increasing radiation dose in the A-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first radiation-related cases occurred 3 to 5 years following exposure. The peak incidence years were about 7 to 8 years following exposure and the leukemogenic effect has decreased since that time, but it may last for 40 years or longer in the most heavily exposed persons. A bimodal susceptibility pattern was observed, with peaks following exposure during childhood and after age 50. Latent periods for the development of acute leukemia were shortest in the younger exposed persons. Both acute and chronic forms of leukemia occurred in exposed persons at younger ages in life than normally is expected. The most common types of radiation-induced leukemia were acute and chronic granulocytic in adults and children, and acute lymphocytic in children. The highest radiation-related leukemia risk was for chronic granulocytic leukemia following childhood exposure

  6. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-01-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims' mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  7. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-03-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims` mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  8. Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro.

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported that there was a high correlation between the exposure dose and the incidence of skin cancer in A-bomb survivors using the data of the Nagasaki Life Span Study of Radiation Effects Research Foundation and Nagasaki Tumor Registry. In Report 3 of this series, we clarified that the correlation between the exposure distance and the incidence of skin cancer was statistically significant in 140 cases of skin cancer collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts on the basis of the data of the total 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, and that the correlation was the same even when the cases were divided by sex. In this report, we examined the chronological change of the incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, using the data of the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster. It is likely that the incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors has increased after 1962, especially after 1975 in those exposed within 2.5km from the hypocenter compared to those exposed at 3.0km or more. (author)

  9. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Kenji; Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-01-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  10. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Kenji [Hiroshima City Hospital (Japan); Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-12-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  11. Tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors. Study of autopsy cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, T [H.ma Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Matsushita, Hiroshi

    1980-03-01

    Effects of atomic bomb on tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors necropsied after 1956 when Atomic Bomb Hospital was opened were observed statistically and the following results were obtained. The morbidity of tuberculosis in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter was higher than that of the control group, but there was not a significant difference between the groups. The morbidity of all types of tuberculosis was significantly higher in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter than in the control group. The morbidity of tuberculosis tended to decrease in both exposed and non-exposed groups with time. However, the morbidity of miliary or active tuberculosis has tended to rise in the exposed since 1975. The morbidity in young a-bomb survivors exposed within 2 km was higher than that in those of other groups, but there was not a difference in the morbidity among the aged. The higher the rate of complication of active tuberculosis with stomach cancer or acute myelocytic leukemia or liver cirrhosis, the nearer the places of exposure were to the hypocenter. Out of 26 patients with miliary tuberculosis, 6 were suspected to have leukemia while they were alive and were suggested to have leukemoid reaction by autopsy. They all were a-bomb survivors, and 4 of them were exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter.

  12. Leukemia in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors from 1946 to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkita, Takeshi

    1976-01-01

    In five recent years, 134 deaths from leukemia among Hiroshima citizen were recorded. Of these, 23 cases (17 acute and 6 chronic types) were atomic bomb survivors exposed within 2,000 m of the hypocenter. Fifteen of them (65%) were over 60 years of age. The frequency of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was still low. Although the risk of leukemia was greatly reduced after 1961, and the frequency of chronic granulocytic leukemia (one of the most characteristic type of Hiroshima atomic bomb-induced leukemia) was also decreased, the death rate from leukemia among survivors exposed within 2,000 m or 1,500 m from the hypocenter was about 3 to 4 times higher than the mean death rate in all Japan. Therefore, careful and long-range follow-up surveillance should be continued. A brief review was also made of relevant studies such as the influence of environmental and host factors in the epidemiology of leukemia, the incidence of leukemia in children exposed in utero, and leukemia in offspring of atomic bomb survivors. (Evans, J.)

  13. Cold pressor test on atomic bomb survivors, Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Tomoyoshi; Sweedler, D R; Okamoto, Akira

    1964-03-12

    Cold pressor test was performed on a sample of 1156 atomic bomb survivors and other persons (ages ranging between 15 to 81 years) residing in Nagasaki City. Response values differed according to such factors as age, sex, blood pressure and month of examination. The response in systolic pressure increased with age but no evidence was found to support an acceleration of aging by irradiation. The response in diastolic blood pressure showed no change with age, but differed between Comparison Groups during the summer months. However, this was apparently due to some other cause than exposure to the atomic bomb. 25 references, 8 tables.

  14. Lung cancer among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Akamizu, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Patho-statistical study of the relationship between lung cancer and the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) was made on 259 lung cancer cases autopsied in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital between 1956 and 1983. These autopsy cases were divided into 3 groups; those exposed at 2000 m from the hypocenter or those entering the city after the bombing (group B), and non-exposed group. The incidence of lung cancer was high irrespective of sex in the group A, being 1.8 times higher than in the non-exposed group. It tended to increase rapidly since 1975 in women of the group A, and the ratio of women to men was high, as compared with the other groups. In the group B and the non-exposed group, the incidence of lung cancer tended to increase year by year, particularly in men. Grip-sized adenocarcinoma was seen more frequently in the group A than in the other groups. Squamous cell carcinoma and undifferentiated cancer occurred more frequently than adenocarcinoma in older women of the exposed groups. This seemed to be due to the fact that older patients tended to have squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated cancer more frequently than adenocarcinoma. The incidence of lung cancer, particularly adenocarcinoma, tended to increase in the exposed groups. There was no great difference in the incidence of organ metastasis between the exposed groups and non-exposed group. Twenty-one of 24 cases of multiple cancer were A-bomb victims, although the incidence of complications was independent of exposure status. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. High incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintani, Takahiro; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Hoshi, Masaharu

    1999-01-01

    Since the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, high incidences of leukemia, thyroid cancer and other tumors have been reported as atomic bomb-induced tumors. We investigated the incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. Sixty-eight patients surgically treated for meningioma who had been within 2.0 km of the hypocenter of the explosion were identified. Six hundred and seven non-exposed patients with meningioma were also studied. Treatment dates were from 1975 to 1992. The incidences of meningioma among 68 subjects within 2.0 km and 607 non-exposed patients were 8.7 and 3.0 cases per 10 5 persons per year, respectively. The incidences of meningioma among the survivors of Hiroshima in 5-year intervals since 1975 were 5.3, 7.4, 10.1, and 14.9, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by distances from the hypocenter of 1.5-2.0 km, 1.0-1.5 km and less than 1.0 km were 6.3, 7.6 and 20.0, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by doses to the brain of 0-0.099 Sv, 0.1-0.99 Sv and more than 1.0 Sv were 7.7, 9.2 and 18.2, respectively. The incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors has increased since 1975. There was a significant correlation between the incidence and the dose of radiation to the brain. The present findings strongly suggest that meningioma is one of the tumors induced by atomic bombing in Hiroshima. (author)

  16. Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro.

    1990-01-01

    We already reported that there was a high correlation between the exposure dose and the incidence of skin cancer in A-bomb survivors using the data of the Nagasaki Life Span Study of Radiation Effects Research Foundation and Nagasaki Tumor Registry. In Report 3 of this series, we confirmed that the correlation between the exposure distance and the incidence of skin cancer was statistically significant. In Report 4, we clarified that the incidence of skin cancer in proximally exposed Nagasaki A-bomb survivors when compared to distally exposed victims appears to be increasing since 1975. In this final report of the series, we examined the characteristics of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors using 140 skin cancer cases collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts on the basis of the data of a total of 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. Among the various items examined, the only item that showed a statistical significance was the age at exposure in the cases of squamous cell carcinoma, i.e., those exposed within 2.5 km from the hypocenter were significantly younger than those exposed at 3.0 km or more. (author)

  17. Increased somatic cell mutant frequency in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakoda, Masayuki; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Awa, A.A.; Yamakido, Michio; Otake, Masanori.

    1988-05-01

    Frequencies of mutant T-cells in peripheral blood, which are deficient in the activity of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) were determined for atomic bomb survivors by direct clonal assay using a previously reported method. Results from 30 exposed survivors (exposed to more than 1 rad) and 17 age- and sex-matched controls (exposed to less than 1 rad) were analyzed. The mean mutant frequency (Mf) in the exposed (5.2 x 10 -6 ; range 0.8 - 14.4 x 10 -6 ) was significantly higher than in controls (3.4 x 10 -6 ; range 1.3 - 9.3 x 10 -6 ), a fact not attributable to lower nonmutant cell cloning efficiencies in the exposed group since cell cloning efficiencies were virtually identical in both groups. An initial analysis of the data did not reveal a significant correlation between individual Mfs and individual radiation dose estimates when the latter were defined by the original, tentative estimates (T65D), even though there was a significant positive correlation of Mfs with individual frequency of lymphocytes bearing chromosome aberration. However, reanalysis using the newer revised individual dose estimates (DS86) for 27 exposed survivors and 17 controls did reveal a significant but shallow positive correlation between T-cell Mf values and individual exposure doses. These results indicate that HPRT mutation in vivo in human T-cells could be detected in these survivors 40 years after the presumed mutational event. (author)

  18. Infectious diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Ishida, Sadamu; Matsushita, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Incidences of various infectious diseases in 986 autopsy cases at Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital and Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital from 1965 to 1975 were compared according to the distance from the explosion place, and the following results were obtained. There was not a significant difference at incidences of most infectious diseases between each exposured group and not-exposured group. Incidence of old tuberculosis focus was a little higher in exposured groups, but incidences of main lesions such as tuberculosis, active tuberculosis, and miliary tuberculosis were lower in exposured groups and effect of exposure was negative. Out of urinary tract infections, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidence of cistitis in female was. Incidence of cystitis of female was higher than that of male in the group exposured near to the explosion place. With respect to stomach cancer, leukemia, malignant lymphoma, and cerebrovascular disorder, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidences of various infectious diseases were. (Tsunoda, M.)

  19. Epidemiologic study of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-01-01

    Data from 140 A-bomb survivors with skin cancer were analyzed with the purpose of elucidating the relationship between atomic bombing and skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer was significantly correlated with the distance from the hypocenter (p<0.01), regardless of sex. Basal cell epithelioma was the most predominant, followed by squamous cell carcinoma. Histology of skin cancer seemed independent of the distance. Since 1965, the incidence of skin cancer has been increased with aging in A-bomb survivors exposed at le2500 m from the hypocenter. It has been significantly higher since 1975 in the le2500 m group than in the ge3000 m group. (N.K.).

  20. Epidemiologic study of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko

    1989-01-01

    Data from 140 A-bomb survivors with skin cancer were analyzed with the purpose of elucidating the relationship between atomic bombing and skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer was significantly correlated with the distance from the hypocenter (p<0.01), regardless of sex. Basal cell epithelioma was the most predominant, followed by squamous cell carcinoma. Histology of skin cancer seemed independent of the distance. Since 1965, the incidence of skin cancer has been increased with aging in A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤2500 m from the hypocenter. It has been significantly higher since 1975 in the ≤2500 m group than in the ≥3000 m group. (N.K.)

  1. Chronic disease management perspectives of colorectal cancer survivors using the Veterans Affairs healthcare system: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullig, Leah L; Goldstein, Karen M; Bosworth, Hayden B; Andrews, Sara M; Danus, Susanne; Jackson, George L; Provenzale, Dawn; Weinberger, Morris; Kelley, Michael J; Voils, Corrine I

    2018-03-09

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the US. CRC survivors may have complex healthcare needs requiring care from both specialists and primary care. Our objective was to understand how CRC survivors perceive their survivorship care, especially management of their cardiovascular-related chronic diseases. We identified patients diagnosed with non-metastatic CRC between 10/1/2007 and 12/31/2015 at Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in North Carolina or Virginia. In 2016, we conducted telephone-based, semi-structured interviews to assess survivors' experiences with cancer survivorship and changes in health priorities. Interviews were conducted until thematic saturation was reached. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded. The 25 participants were, on average, 64 years old and approximately 4 years post-CRC diagnosis at the time of interview; most were white (60%), male (92%), and diagnosed with colon cancer (64%) as opposed to rectal cancer. CRC survivors reported: (1) a shift in focus from surviving cancer to reducing cardiovascular disease risk (e.g., by managing weight); (2) challenges with taking medications for CVD-related conditions; (3) new recognition of the importance of engaging with primary care providers. Experiences with cancer shapes how survivors view their health. Management of cardiovascular-related chronic disease is important to veteran CRC survivors. There is a need to deliver cardiovascular disease risk reduction programs tailored for CRC survivors.

  2. Profiles of non-cancer diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazunori Kodama; Saeko Fujiwara; Michiko Yamada; Fumiyoshi Kasagi; Yukiko Shimizu; Itsuzo Shigematsu

    1996-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a recent study of atomic bomb radiation and non-cancer diseases in the AHS (Adult Health Study) population by the RERF (Radiation Effects Research Foundation) along with a general discussion of previous studies. Recent studies have demonstrated almost certainly that uterine myoma is more frequent among atomic bomb survivors. It cannot, at present, be concluded that uterine myoma is caused by radiation, because there are no reported studies of other exposed populations. Further analyses including the role of confounding factors as well as molecular approaches are needed to verify this radiation effect. The relationship between atomic bomb radiation exposure and hyperparathyroidism can now be said to have been established in view of the strong dose response, the agreement with results of studies of other populations, the high risk in the younger survivors, and the biological plausibility. Future studies by molecular approaches, etc., are needed to determine the pathogenic mechanism. Among other benign tumours, a dose response has been demonstrated for tumours of the thyroid, stomach and ovary. Although fewer studies have been conducted than for cancer, a clear association between radiation and various benign tumours is emerging. 79 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  3. Two cases of giant parathyroid adenoma in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Nishida, Toshihiro; Fujikura, Toshio

    1983-12-01

    In a study of parathyroid tumor among autopsy cases at RERF in Hiroshima, 16 cases of parathyroid adenoma were detected among 4,136 autopsies during 1961-77. Of these, two cases were giant adenoma (5 cm in diameter) accompanied by hyperparathyroidism. Both cases were atomic bomb survivors from Hiroshima. One was exposed to 55 rad at age 51 and died at age 71, and the other was exposed to 28 rad at age 45 and died at age 71. These two cases will be reported together with a review of the literature on parathyroid tumors developed following irradiation on the head and neck. (author)

  4. Review of dosimetry for the atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses results of some 1980-1981 studies of neutron and γ-ray exposure to the atomic bomb survivors by W.E. Loewe and E. Mendelsohn of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, D.C. Kaul and W.H. Scott of Science Applications, Inc., and J.V. Pace of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Some other special studies which are now underway to complete the review will also be discussed. The expert assistance of others in these special studies is being supported in part by the US Department of Energy and in part by the US Defense Nuclear Agency

  5. Stomach cancer in atomic bomb survivors, 1950-73

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kuniomi.

    1978-04-01

    Stomach cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Life Span Study was studied using death certificates for the period 1950-73. A consistent increase in mortality with increasing radiation dose was observed in Hiroshima, the highest rate being in the dose region of 400 - 499 rad. For Nagasaki, however, the evidence of a radiation effect is very weak. An excess in stomach cancer mortality was found only at doses above 500 rad. More evidence is needed to establish radiation as a causative factor in stomach cancer. (author)

  6. Health survey of atomic bomb survivors in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arita, Ken-ichi; Iwamori, Hiroshi; Kishi, Akihiro; Koutoku, Michiya

    1988-05-01

    Health survey was undertaken among Korea survivors exposed to atomic bomb in Japan who now reside in South Korea. Of 232 A-bomb survivors on whom raditation exposure information was available, all were exposed to atomic bomb in Hiroshima. According to the distance from the hypocenter, one (0.4 %) A-bomb survior was exposed at < 1,000 m, 60 (25.9 %) at 1,000 - 2,000 m, 124 (53.4 %) at > 2,000 - 3,000 m, and 43 (18.5 %) at < 3,000 m. In the four remaining, it was unknown. According to age, 14.7 % were in their forties, 33.6 % in their fifties, 32.6 % in their sixties, 16.0 % in their severties, and 3.1 % in their eighties, indicating the tendency for the aging of older persons. Common subjective symptoms were lumbar pain and joint pain, which seemed atributable to osteoarthritis. Other diseases included hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sequelae of cerebral stroke, eczema, and mycosis. (Namekawa, K.).

  7. Mass survey of lung cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Itoh, Chikako; Mitsuyama, Toyofumi; Mishima, Yasuhiro; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1978-01-01

    Men atomic bomb survivors over the age of 40 years received a survey of lung cancer by questionnaire together with the general survey for atomic bomb survivors, and the following results were obtained. The survey by questionnaire was carried out on 29780 cases during one year 1977 to 1978, and 6 cases of lung cancer were discovered. The discovery rate was 20.1 persons against a hundred thousand persons. Lung cancer discovered during 2 years from April, 1976 was 14 cases, and the discovery rate was 23.9 persons against a hundred thousand persons. The discovery rate according to exposure conditions was higher in order of a group entering Hiroshima city after A-bomb explosion and other group (33.2 persons), a group directly exposed over 2 km from the center of explosion (20.0 persons), and a group directly exposed within 2 km (1.5 persons). Therefore, results that the discovery rate of lung cancer was higher in short-distance group could not be obtained. (Tsunoda, M.)

  8. Carcinoma of the stomach in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehiro, Shinichi; Ogawa, Yuichiro; Nagasue, Naofumi; Abe, Shunichi; Sasaki, Yukiharu.

    1985-01-01

    A retrospective study of 135 atomic bomb survivors (A-bomb group) and 377 non-atomic bomb survivors (control group) who had carcinoma of the stomach was made with respect to surgical and pathological findings of carcinoma. An average age was significantly older in the A-bomb group (65 years) than in the control group (57 years). The number of female patients was significantly larger in the A-bomb group than in the control group. Although there was no difference of incidence in liver and peritoneal metastases, lymph node metastases along the left gastric artery, common hepatic artery and splenic artery, around the celiac artery, and at the splenic hilus occurred less frequently in the A-bomb group than in the control group. When carcinoma of the stomach was histologically classified as differentiated and undifferentiated, the incidence of differentiated type was higher than that of undifferentiated type in the A-bomb group. Regarding postoperative complications and follow-up results, there was no significant difference between the groups, synchronous or heterochronous multiple cancer occurred more frequently in the A-bomb group than in the control group. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Studies on population change of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima prefecture 1965-1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueoka, Hiroshi; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru

    1984-01-01

    Studies of population change of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors from 1965 to 1979 in Hiroshima prefecture of which registered in Data Base of Atomic Bomb Survivors of RINMB were conducted, and following were obtained: 1. Population change of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors showed increasing trend until 1976 and diminishing trend from 1977. It would be estimated that reason of increasing trend of Atomic Bomb Survivors was correlated the same trend to get register card of ''Atomic Bomb Treatment Law'', and decreasing trend of them was related so much death of the elderly generations. 2. Analysing by residential place the survivors who make a living in Hiroshima city was almost 110,000, and those who make a living in Hiroshima prefecture (except Hiroshima city) was 65,000. Considering exposed distance of the survivors in Hiroshima city, those survivors exposed within 2 km showed diminishing trend; and those who make a living in Hiroshima prefecture (except Hiroshima city), exposed within 2 km showed increasing trend. 3. In 1979, the ratio of male and female survivors by age level showed difference. Those male survivors over 50 years old in Hiroshima city showed much lower percentage than female. 4. In 1979, the population trends of survivors who get the ''card'' before 1964 showed rapid decrease, and those who get the ''card'' after 1965 showed mild decrease. (author)

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of leukemia recognized in atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, M [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1978-05-01

    Out of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 256 patients which were diagnosed as having leukemia by 1975 and of which exposure dose was estimated as over 1 rad were described. Chronic myelocytic leukemia (CGL) was plentiful in Hiroshima, and acute myelocytic leukemia (AGL) was comparatively plentiful in Nagasaki. Chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL) was not recognized in the atomic bomb survivors exposed at places near the center of the explosion, but CLL was recognized plentifully in the atomic bomb survivors exposed to radiation of under 1 rad. The incidence of leukemia according to the total dose was higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. When RBE of neutron on the occurrence of leukemia was considered to be five times that of gamma-ray, the occurrence curves in both cities were consistent well. As to a relationship between leukemia in the atomic bomb survivors and the age at the exposure time, CGL occurred early in the atomic bomb survivors exposed at an early age. A specific lesion of leukemia in the atomic bomb survivors was not recognized, but cases of which leukemia cells were negative to peroxidase and were very difficult to be identified were plentiful in the atomic bomb survivors exposed within 2 km from the explosion center. The treatment of leukemia in atomic bomb survivors does not differ from that of general leukemia, but a method of treatment, administration dosage, a method and a kind of supportive care must be discussed according to each case.

  11. Outcome and status of microsatellite stability in Japanese atomic bomb survivors with early gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Manabu; Taguchi, Kenichi; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Matsuyama, Ayumi; Yoshinaga, Keiji; Tsutsui, Shinichi; Ishida, Teruyoshi

    2013-03-01

    In the decade after the 1945 atomic bombing of Hiroshima, a high incidence of leukemia was observed among atomic bomb survivors. However, the incidence of other cancers gradually increased, while that of leukemia decreased after this period. We evaluated the clinical outcome of early gastric cancer and microsatellite stability over a long-term period in atomic bomb survivors. The results of surgical treatment for early gastric cancer were reviewed for 117 atomic bomb survivors and 394 control patients between 1995 and 2006. In addition, immunohistochemical staining for hMSH2 and hMLH1 expression was performed to evaluate the status of microsatellite stability in 57 atomic bomb survivors and 82 control patients. The long-term survival rate for early gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors was significantly lower than that in control patients (p bomb survivorship was related to defective hMSH2 and/or hMLH1 expression. The prognosis of early gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors was poor and was related to age and sex, rather than to being an atomic bomb survivor. Furthermore, a higher rate of defective hMSH2 and/or hMLH1 expression was observed in the survivors.

  12. Multiple primary cancer in cases of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tsuneo; Matsuda, Masahiro; Matsugu, Yasuhiro; Ishimoto, Tatsuro; Nakahara, Hideki; Kagawa, Naoki; Fukuda, Yasuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Multiple primary cancer was investigated in individual atomic bomb survivors more than 50 years after exposure. During the decade from 1995 to 2004, double cancer was detected in 275 individuals visiting our facility. These 275 patients with multiple primary cancer were divided into an atomic bomb-exposed group and a non-exposed group. In terms of age at the time of definite diagnosis of double cancer and age upon onset of the first cancer, there was no significant difference between the atomic bomb-exposed group and the non-exposed group. In both groups, the percentage of males was higher than that of females. However, the percentage of females was higher in the exposed group than in the non-exposed group. Synchronous double cancer (cases where a second cancer develops within one year after onset of the first cancer) was seen in 32 individuals from the exposed group. Triple cancer was seen in 3 cases. In the exposed group, the site affected by cancer was the stomach in 28% and the colon/rectum in 27% of cases. Thus, cancer affected the stomach or colon/rectum in the majority of cases. The most frequent combination of organs affected by double cancer was the stomach+colon/rectum (20 cases, 25%). In a study of multiple primary cancer patients, the percentage of females was higher in the atomic bomb exposed group compared to the non-exposed group. There was no other difference between the two groups. (author)

  13. Aplastic anemia and related disorders in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Tomonaga, Yu; Matsunaga, Masako; Sadamori, Naoki; Ishimaru, Toranosuke.

    1978-01-01

    Whether the incidence of aplastic anemia significantly increases due to the later effect of atomic-bomb radiation was studied. After the data of aplastic anemia which occurred within 1950 - 1973 were evaluated and the diagnoses of the cases were certified, the incidence of aplastic anemia per 109,000 inhabitants of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was calculated and compared according to the dose of atomic-bomb radiation. There was no increase in the incidence according to an increase in radiation dose, and there was no fact that aplastic anemia increased in a certain period either. Most of the atomic-bomb survivors who were close to the epicenter and were clinically diagnosed as aplastic anemia had leukemia lesion or myeloid proliferating lesion, and it is likely to be that pathological changes resembling aplastic anemia may appear in a certain phase of myeloid proliferation or as a phenotype of myeloid proliferation. An evaluation was made on cases of aplastic anemia of other groups, but the doses of atomic-bomb radiation which they received were not so much to give effect on the bone marrow except only two cases. (Ueda, J.)

  14. Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro.

    1990-01-01

    In Report 1 of this series, we suspected that the incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors might have increased based on evidence of chromosomal aberrations and clonal formations in cultured skin cells. In Report 2, we described the results of a preliminary study using 110 cases of skin cancer collected from the three major hospitals in Nagasaki City (Nagasaki University Hospital, A-bomb Hospital and Citizens Hospital). In that study a high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and exposure distance in the analysis of all 110 cases and of the 50 male cases (p<0.01), but no such correlation was noted in a separate analysis of the 60 female cases. In this report, 140 cases of skin cancer collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts were statistically analyzed in respect to the estimated distance from the hypocenter, using the data of a total of 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of the Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. The results disclosed a high correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and the exposure distance (p<0.01). In addition, this correlation was the same even when the cases were analyzed separately according to sex. (author)

  15. Radiation therapy among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkston, J.A.; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.

    1980-10-01

    In the continuing evaluations of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects, not only doses from the A-bombs but those from other radiation sources must be considered, for the latter may be concomitantly acting factors causing bias among these investigations. In the present study, among 73 Hiroshima and 22 Nagasaki Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects who reported receiving radiation therapy, from 1970 through 1979, the medical records of 72 and 20, respectively, were reviewed, and 41 Hiroshima and 14 Nagasaki subjects were confirmed to have received radiation therapy. The data obtained in the present study were pooled with those of the previous investigation on radiation therapy exposures of AHS subjects prior to 1970. A total of 190 subjects have been documented as receiving radiation therapy and their doses were estimated. Energies used in treatments and diseases treated are discussed. Malignancies developed subsequent to radiation therapy in seven cases; five after treatment for malignancies and two after treatment for benign diseases. Neoplasms of 12 AHS subjects may have been induced by earlier radiation therapy; 5 in the earlier study and 7 in the present one. These investigations underscore the need for continued documentation of exposures to ionizing radiation for medical reasons, especially from sources incurring relatively high doses. Bias in assessments of late radiation effects among A-bomb survivors can thus be avoided. (author)

  16. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Shozo; Onitsuka, Hideo; Lee, K.; Shimizu, Yukiko; Russell, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose. (author)

  17. Noncancer mortality among the Japanese atomic bomb survivor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeford, R.

    1999-01-01

    Yukiko Shimizu and her colleagues from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima have recently published the results of the updated analysis of deaths from causes other than cancer among the Japanese survivors of the atomic bomb explosions, covering the period 1950-1990 (Shimizu Y, Pierce D A, Preston D L and Mabuchi K 1999 Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors. Report 12, Part II. Noncancer mortality: 1950-1990 Radiat. Res. 152 374-389). The primary analyses are based on 27 000 deaths, 30% more than in the previous report on this subject. These latest findings confirm a statistically significant trend of an increasing rate of noncancer mortality with increasing dose, due to trends for diseases of circulatory, digestive and respiratory systems. At 1 Sv, the proportional increase is about 10%, much smaller than for cancer (at around 50%), but the numbers of excess deaths are more comparable. The all-important question of the dose-response relationship remains unresolved: linearity is possible, but the data are also consistent with a threshold at 0.5 Sv. The authors conclude that misclassification, confounding or selection effects are unlikely to fully explain the findings. Enhanced knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying these epidemiological observations would enable the nature of the dose-response to be better understood. Also reported is a statistically significant trend of an increasing rate of noncancer blood diseases with dose, which cannot be accounted for by misclassification. This paper also confirms that suicide rates tend to decrease with increasing dose. Clearly, the impact of these latest results for noncancer mortality upon risk estimates for low dose exposures is going to be much discussed by the radiological protection community. (author)

  18. Some hematological disorders among atomic bomb survivors. Presidential Address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Susumu

    1977-01-01

    Focusing on their hematological disorders, the late radiation effects among Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, including cytogenetic and cytological studies, are summarized and discussed. Because of personal research experience, the data were concentrated on the Hiroshima survivors

  19. Mortality among atomic-bomb survivors, 1950-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Pierce, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of cancer mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors during the period from 1950 through 1990 was recently published in Radiation Research. Work is also nearing completion on an updated analysis of data on noncancer mortality in the LSS. The new LSS mortality reports, collectively called Report 12, differ from earlier LSS reports in several general aspects. The Report includes some simple tabular, and graphical summaries of the excess risks which were developed to make it easier to comprehend the magnitude and nature of the excess risks in this cohort while highlighting uncertainties in the current LSS data. In order to overcome problems inherent in the use of summary risk estimates averaged over the current follow-up, sex- and age-at-exposure-specific lifetime risks computed for the LSS cohort are used as primary summaries of the excess risks. Throughout the new report, risk estimates were derived from models that make explicit allowance for important risk-modifying factors, such as age-at-exposure, sex, or attained age. This chapter contains a brief summary of some of the findings of the cancer mortality report and provides a preview of the latest non-cancer results

  20. Proliferative and nonproliferative breast disease in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Land, C.E.; Aoki, Yoichiro; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Asano, Masahide; Sato, Eiichi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Sakamoto, Goi; Page, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    The risk of female breast cancer in association with radiation exposure is well established, on the basis of follow-up studies of the atomic-bomb survivors and other exposed populations. This association is especially strong for women exposed before age 20 yr and appears to be much weaker among women exposed after age 40 yr. In this study, breast-tissue autopsy samples from high-dose and low-dose individuals in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study sample were examined in detail to determine whether nonproliferative or proliferative breast lesions are associated with radiation exposure. The results suggest that proliferative disease in general and atypical hyperplasia in particular are associated with radiation exposure and that the risk is strongest for subjects who were ages 40-49 yr at the time of the bombings. It is hypothesized that this finding may be related to the age dependence of radiation-induced breast cancer, in the sense that potential cancers reflecting early-stage changes induced at these ages by radiation exposure may receive too little hormonal promotion to progress to frank cancers. (author)

  1. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-08-25

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  2. Smoking and serum proteins in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stram, D.O.; Akiba, Suminori; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hosoda, Yutaka; Stevens, R.G.

    1989-09-01

    Associations of smoking habit with serum levels of total protein as well as protein fractions were studied in a population consisting of 4,739 atomic bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima who participated in the 1979-81 period of the Adult Health Study, an on-going health follow-up program of the RERF. Smoking was strongly related to serum protein concentration after correction for age, sex, and body mass index. Among current smokers as compared to nonsmokers, levels of total protein, β globulin, and γ globulin were significantly lower (p 1 and α 2 globulin were significantly higher (p 1 globulin. Duration of smoking (years) was related to increased α 1 and α 2 globulin. Smoking duration was also associated with albumin level but the trend was not monotonic. The radiation exposure effect on serum protein level was significant in several instances but was in general much smaller than the smoking effect. Its inclusion in the regression models did not noticeably affect the association between smoking and serum proteins. (author)

  3. Foreign bodies radiographically demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-02-01

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foregin bodies among atomic bomb survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of possible A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All available roentgenograms of Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects which demonstrated foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal foreign bodies and of acupuncture needles was analyzed in detail. Analyses were made by distance from the hypocenter, sex, age, body sites involved, and shielding at the time of the A-bomb (ATB). The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from the hypocenter, with heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than in the hand and wrist. On the contrary, metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and were not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  4. Serum autoantibodies in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamakido, Michio; Hamilton, H.B.; Kobuke, Kyoko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Hakoda, Masayuki; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Yoshimoto, Keiko; Fujikura, Toshio.

    1983-12-01

    In order to evaluate delayed effects of radiation on humoral immunity, an attempt was made to detect antibodies in the serum of atomic bomb survivors against kidney, liver, and parietal cells from rats. The following results were observed. Comparing by sex and age, the detection frequency of antibodies increased significantly for all three organs in the male group only. Analysis of changes in antibody detection frequencies by age and exposure dose without considering sex showed that the rates for those exposed to 100 + rad showed a trend to increase with age for all three organs (P < 0.01). However, in the 0 rad group, a significant trend to increase with age was noted for antikidney and antiliver antibodies only (P < 0.01 for both). Analysis of changes in antibody detection frequencies by sex, age, and exposure dose showed that the detection frequencies increased significantly with age for all three organs in males exposed to 100 + rad (P < 0.05), but only the antiliver antibody frequency increased significantly with age in males in the 0 rad exposure group. Females failed to show any statistical changes in any exposure group. (author)

  5. Studies on the life spans of atom-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroo

    1975-01-01

    A shortening of whole life as late injuries of atom-bomb survivors was discussed from the aspects of aging and the studies on the causes of leukemia and cancers. Twenty-one thousands four hundreds and forty-seven of 109000 subjects died during the period between 1950 and 1970. Mortality by exposure doses presented a high value with exposure doses. Mortality of subjects which had received exposure doses of more than 200 rads rose to a level which was 1.27 times in all causes of deaths of the control which had received exposure doses of 0 to 9 rads, and it showed 1.32 times in all deaths of sickness, 18.3 times in leukemia, and 1.48 times in death from cancer. Mortality due to leukemia decreases after 1950-1954, but in the group which had received exposure doses over 100 rads, the mortality was significantly higher than that in all districts in Japan. The shape of dose-reaction curve in Hiroshima was different from that in Nagasaki. In the same dose, mortality due to leukemia in Hiroshima was higher than that in Nagasaki. The younger the age at exposure was, the higher the risk rate of occurring cancer was. Especially, the risk rate of cancer was high in the patients who were exposed to atomic bomb during the age of 0 to 9 years old. Mortality due to cancer increased with the dose. Cancers which statistically showed higher mortality than that in the control group are lung cancer, cancer of the breast (100-199 rad), carcinoma of the esophagus, cancer of the urinary organ (200-299 rad) and gastric cancer (over 300 rads). There are not so clear difference in the mortality due to cancer between Hiroshima and Nagasaki, comparing with the mortality due to leukemia. (Kanao, N.)

  6. Studies on the life spans of atom-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, H [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-12-01

    A shortening of whole life as late injuries of atom-bomb survivors was discussed from the aspects of aging and the studies on the causes of leukemia and cancers. Twenty-one thousands four hundreds and forty-seven of 109000 subjects died during the period between 1950 and 1970. Mortality by exposure doses presented a high value with exposure doses. Mortality of subjects which had received exposure doses of more than 200 rads rose to a level which was 1.27 times in all causes of deaths of the control which had received exposure doses of 0 to 9 rads, and it showed 1.32 times in all deaths of sickness, 18.3 times in leukemia, and 1.48 times in death from cancer. Mortality due to leukemia decreases after 1950-1954, but in the group which had received exposure doses over 100 rads, the mortality was significantly higher than that in all districts in Japan. The shape of dose-reaction curve in Hiroshima was different from that in Nagasaki. In the same dose, mortality due to leukemia in Hiroshima was higher than that in Nagasaki. The younger the age at exposure was, the higher the risk rate of occurring cancer was. Especially, the risk rate of cancer was high in the patients who were exposed to atomic bomb during the age of 0 to 9 years old. Mortality due to cancer increased with the dose. Cancers which statistically showed higher mortality than that in the control group are lung cancer, cancer of the breast (100-199 rad), carcinoma of the esophagus, cancer of the urinary organ (200-299 rad) and gastric cancer (over 300 rads). There are not so clear difference in the mortality due to cancer between Hiroshima and Nagasaki, comparing with the mortality due to leukemia.

  7. A study on thyroid disorder of Sjoegren's disease in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, Koji; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Hasegawa, Kazuyo.

    1984-01-01

    Thyroid disorders were seen in eight of 25 atomic bomb survivors with Sjoegren's disease -- simple goiter in 2, chronic thyroiditis in 4, and primary hypothyroidism probably arising from chronic thyroiditis in 2. Thyroid disorders associated with Sjoegren's disease seemed to occur frequently in survivors exposed near the explosion. One of the two survivors with primary hypothyroidism had been exposed to atomic bomb 1.7 km from the explosion. As for the other clinical laboratory findings, there was no significant difference between the group with thyroid disorders and the group without them. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Mental health conditions in Korean atomic bomb survivors. A survey in Seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimoto, Rika; Nakane, Hideyuki; Kim, Hyen

    2011-01-01

    More than 60 years have elapsed since the atomic bombings to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and since all of the atomic bomb survivors have become old, the importance of caring their mental health has become increasing in Japan. Although approximately 70% of overseas atomic bomb are living in Korea, there have been quite few studies on their mental health. The objectives of the present study were to elucidate whether the mental health conditions of atomic bomb survivor in Korea are similar to those in Japan. The subjects were 181 Korean atomic bomb survivors living in Korea (cases) and 209 outpatients of a hospital in Seoul who were not exposed to atomic bombs (controls). Interviewers administered them at the hospital a questionnaire with Impact of Event Scale-Revised, General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12), Korean version of short form Geriatric Depression Scale and the K scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Excluding subjects with incomplete responses we analyzed 162 cases and 189 controls. The proportion of subjects with high score of GHQ-12 (≥4) was significantly higher in cases (78/162 or 48.1%) than in controls (42/189 or 22.2%) (p<0.0001, Fisher's exact test). The present results, though preliminary, indicate that atomic bomb survivors in Korea have also mental health problems similar to those observed in Japanese atomic bomb survivors, indicating the necessity of a larger study. (author)

  9. Hematologic studies of irradiated survivors in Hiroshima, Japan. Refractory anemia occurring in survivors of the atomic bombing in Nagasaki, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasowa, Yoshimichi; Lange, R D; Wright, S W; Tomonaga, Masanobu; Kurasaki, Hirotami; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Matsunaga, Haruji

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 2 reports on the effects of radiation on the survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first report is a hematologic survey conducted 33 to 44 months after the detonation of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, Japan. The hematologic findings on a total of 824 survivors are compared with those on a control group of 1145 residents of Kure. Although statistical differences are apparent in the two groups, when one takes into account errors inherent in the hematologic methods themselves and differences in the possible incidence of parasitism and nutrition it would be unwarranted to attribute the slight changes found to radiation effect. The data presented here seem to indicate that radiation resulting from the explosion of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, on August 6, 1945, has not significantly varied the hematologic values as analyzed in this report over a three-to four-year period. In the second report, the case histories of six Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who developed refractory anemia are presented. Four of these individuals received undoubted radiation injury. The fact that refractory anemia may occur as a late manifestation of exposure to atomic radiation is pointed out. 15 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima City. First report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Tomin; Ishida, Morihiro

    1960-04-01

    The 1957-1958 incidence of neoplasms among the survivors of the Hiroshima A-bomb, varies directly with radiation dose insofar as it may be inferred from distance from the hypocenter at exposure. The incidence of all malignant neoplasms among the survivors who were within 1000 meters is more than 4 times that of the non-exposed population. The incidence of benign neoplasms among the survivors exposed within 1500 meters is also significantly higher than that among the non-exposed. For survivors under 1500 meters significant differences are seen between the numbers of observed cancers of the lung, stomach, uterus and ovary and the expected cases calculated from the age-specific rates of the non-exposed portion of the Hiroshima population. The increased incidence among survivors within 1500 meters is not related to sex or age. 18 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  11. Health status of atomic bomb survivors in South Korea, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Sadamu; Kawamura, Torataro; Kurihara, Minoru; Watanabe, Masaharu; Cheong, Chang-Saeng.

    1980-01-01

    Investigation was made on 405 A-bomb survivors in Hap Cheon Gun who received health examinations from December 1973 to December 1977. Excepting 16 exposed in Nagasaki, they were exposed in Hiroshima. The distribution of their age at the time of exposure showed its peak at the age between 25 and 29 years, and it decreased before and after that age. The percentage of A-bomb survivors exposed directly was 93.3%, and that of A-bomb survivors exposed within 2 km from the center of explosion was 51.8%. Seventeen A-bomb survivors were exposed within 1 km. Acute disturbances such as loss of hair (over one second loss), tiredness, fever, vomiting on the day of exposure, and diarrhea were found with high incidence, but incidences of lesions in the oral cavity and the pharynx were low. Incidences of burn and bruise were high, but those of wound and injuries were low. Loss of hair, vomiting, hemorrhage, tiredness, and dairrhea appeared with high incidence in A-bomb survivors whose age advanced at the time of exposure. Most of A-bomb survivors who were young at the time of exposure had not these acute disturbances. These acute symptoms appeared frequently in a short-distance group, and burn, wound and injuries, and bruise also appeared frequently in A-bomb survivors exposed within 2 km. (Tsunoda, M.)

  12. Dietary factors and cancer mortality among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvaget, Catherine; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Waldren, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    Dietary factors such as fruit and vegetables are thought to reduce the risk of cancer incidence and mortality. We investigated the effect of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables against the long-term effects of radiation exposure on the risk of cancer. A cohort of 36,228 atomic-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, for whom radiation dose estimates were currently available, had their diet assessed in 1980. They were followed for a period of 20 years for cancer mortality. The joint-effect of fruit and vegetables intake and radiation exposure on risk of cancer death was examined, in additive (sum of effects of diet alone and radiation alone) and multiplicative (product of effects of diet alone and radiation alone) models. In the additive model, a daily intake of fruit and vegetables significantly reduced the risk of cancer deaths by 13%, compared to an intake of once or less per week. Radiation exposure of 1 Sievert (Sv) increased significantly the risk of cancer death by 48-49%. The additive joint-effects showed a lower risk of cancer among those exposed to 1 Sv who had a diet rich in vegetables (49%-13%=36%) or fruit (48%-13%=35%). The multiplicative model gave similar results. The cancer risk reduction by vegetables in exposed persons went from 52% (effect of radiation alone) to 32% (product of effect of vegetables and radiation), and cancer risk reduction by fruit was 52% (radiation alone) to 34% (product of effect of fruit and radiation). There was no significant evidence to reject either the additive or the multiplicative model. A daily intake of fruit and vegetables was beneficial to the persons exposed to radiation in reducing their risks of cancer death

  13. Biochemical mutations in the children of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Chiyoko; Neel, J.V.

    1988-01-01

    Genetic effects of atomic bombs in children of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were studied using two biochemical indicators. Eligible children were classified as those born to parents exposed at up to 2,000 m from the hypocenter (Group I, n=13,052); and those born to either parents exposed at a distance of over 2,500 m or parents who were not in the cities (Group II, n=10,609). Thirty blood proteins were examined by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In Group I, 3 mutations altering electrophoretic mobility of proteins were identified among 667,404 locus tests. This corresponded to a mutation rate of 0.45 x 10 -5 per locus per generation. In Group II, 3 mutations among 466,881 locus tests were seen, yielding a mutation rate for electromorphs of 0.64 x 10 -5 per locus per generation. According to the dose schedule developed in 1965 (T65 DR), average gonal doses of gamma and neutrons were 16.9 and 3.4, respectively, for Hiroshima's fathers; 14.0 and 1.3 for Hiroshima's mothers; 26.2 and 0.3 for Nagasaki's fathers; and 19.7 and 0.1 for Nagasaki's mothers. A screening for variants in 9 erythrocyte enzymes with activity ≤66% of normal value revealed one mutation resulting in the loss of enzyme activity in 60,529 tests for Group I, but none of the mutations in 61,741 tests for Group II. The mutation rates in both groups are thus considered to be 0.60 and 0.64 x 10 -5 , respectively, per locus per generation. (Namekawa, K)

  14. Radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, E T

    1959-01-01

    This report summarizes the present state of knowledge in dosimetry of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. Data have been presented on the physical factors involved in the two cities and on attenuation of radiation by various shielding situations. This information is being used to estimate a tentative radiation dose to individual A-bomb survivors. It should be emphasized that many important problems remain to be solved before accurate doses can be assigned to individual survivors. Such information will greatly strengthen investigation of biological consequences of instantaneous doses of gamma and neutron irradiation in men. 18 references, 9 figures.

  15. Incidence of skin cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors; Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1990-09-01

    Among a total of 65,268 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 140 cases with skin cancer were collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City from 1961 through 1987. Subsequently, these cases of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were statistically analyzed in relation to the estimated distance from the hypocenter by age, sex, histology and latent period. The results were as follows: (1) A high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and the distance from the hypocenter. (2) The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors now appears to be increasing in relation to exposure distance. (3) Among 140 cases, basal cell epithelioma was observed in 67 cases (47.9%) and squamous cell carcinoma in 43 cases (30.7%). (author).

  16. Mathematical phantoms for use in reassessment of radiation doses to Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.

    1985-07-01

    In 1972 committees of the United Nations and the US National Academy of Sciencs emphasized the need for organ dose estimates on the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. These estimates were then supplied by workers in Japan and the US, and they were used with the so-called T65D estimates of a survivor's radiation exposure to assess risk from radiation. Recently the T65D estimates have been questioned, and programs for reassessment of atomic-bomb radiation dosimetry have been started in Japan and the US. As a part of this new effort a mathematical analogue of the human body (or ''mathematical phantom''), to be used in estimating organ doses in adult survivors, is presented here. Recommendations on organ dosimetry for juvenile survivors are also presented and discussed. 57 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Surgical techniques for the atomic bomb survivors of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Dohi, Kiyohiko; Noso, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    As for proper surgical techniques for radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis, this paper explains with a focus on the Hiroshima University cases, with an addition of the cases of Radiation Effects Research Foundation and Takeichi Clinic. The definitive diagnosis of thyroid cancer is usually carried out by echo-guided aspiration biopsy cytology, but Takeichi Clinic faces the surgery by preparing 'thyroid - cervical lymph node map' by combining this technique with CT and MRI. As the surgery examples at Hiroshima University, 259 cases during 1955-1972 and 363 cases during 1965-1982 were taken up, and the survival rate and cancer death rate classified by tissue types for 10 years after the initial operations were shown in a table. Dead patients were mostly the surgery cases of senior persons of 60 years in age or older, and the death rate for surgery cases of the persons of 19 years old or younger was only 1.9% at 6 cases. Higher cancer death rate was seen in the cases of papillary cancer of more than 5 cm in size, where extra glandular infiltration could not be curated or cut out, and 64/318 cases of patients had a recurrence of cancer at thyroid gland. The mortality rate up to 20 years after the surgery of atomic bomb survivors was not significantly different from that of non-victims. Information on the multicentric cancerous focuses and microscopic cancer in the thyroid gland, as well as the tissue types and high risk of cancer death were described from the cases of Hiroshima University and Takeichi Clinic. The thyroid cancer of radiation exposure victims often results in papillary cancer, and the following are described related with this: (1) selection of ablation method, (2) method to protect the parathyroid tissue, and (3) method to prevent damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve and superior laryngeal nerve. The surgical procedure to perform the neck outside area lymph node dissection due to the quasi-subtotal or quasi-complete removal of the thyroid gland is

  18. Report on results of fourth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in the U. S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzen, Tetsuo (Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan)); Ito, Chikako; Tanaka, Yoshikiyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Inamizu, Tsutomu

    1984-01-01

    Review was made of the fourth medical examination and the actual state of health of the U.S. atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors. The number of survivors registered with the Committee of A-bomb Survivors residing in the U.S. as of the end of June 1983 in 592 (males 154, females 438), of whom 58.8% possess U.S. citizenship. Survivor's health handbooks issued to survivors under the Japanese A-bomb Survivors Medical Treatment Law are possessed by 29.2%, with female holders being about twice as numerous as males. Responses to the health survey questionnaire were received from 306. Complaints of subjective symptoms tended to be higher in the early entrants, and by place of examination, those of Honolulu had the higher rate. Those who underwent health examination numbered 305 (73 males and 232 females). RBC and hemoglobin value were higher in the U.S. survivors than in Hiroshima survivors. No abnormality was observed in 47.5%. The main abnormalities noted were obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and liver disease. Comparison of those who had received examination on two consecutive occasions in 1981 and 1983 and those who were examined for the first time in 1983 showed a decrease in the frequency of obesity and hypertension.

  19. Report on results of fourth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in the U. S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzen, Tetsuo [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan); Ito, Chikako; Tanaka, Yoshikiyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Inamizu, Tsutomu

    1984-01-01

    Review was made of the fourth medical examination and the actual state of health of the U.S. atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors. The number of survivors registered with the Committee of A-bomb Survivors residing in the U.S. as of the end of June 1983 in 592 (males 154, females 438), of whom 58.8% possess U.S. citizenship. Survivor's health handbooks issued to survivors under the Japanese A-bomb Survivors Medical Treatment Law are possessed by 29.2%, with female holders being about twice as numerous as males. Responses to the health survey questionnaire were received from 306. Complaints of subjective symptoms tended to be higher in the early entrants, and by place of examination, those of Honolulu had the higher rate. Those who underwent health examination numbered 305 (73 males and 232 females). RBC and hemoglobin value were higher in the U.S. survivors than in Hiroshima survivors. No abnormality was observed in 47.5%. The main abnormalities noted were obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and liver disease. Comparison of those who had received examination on two consecutive occasions in 1981 and 1983 and those who were examined for the first time in 1983 showed a decrease in the frequency of obesity and hypertension.

  20. Adverse reproductive outcomes in families of atomic veterans: the feasibility of epidemiologic studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee to Study the Feasibility of, and Need for, Epidemiologic Studies of Adverse Reproductive Outcomes in the Families of Atomic Veterans, Institute of Medicine

    .... One such group are those U.S. servicemen (the "Atomic Veterans" who participated in the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site or in the Pacific Proving Grounds, who served with occupation forces in or near Hiroshima...

  1. Comparison of DSM-IV and proposed ICD-11 formulations of PTSD among civilian survivors of war and war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; van Emmerik, Arnold A P; Andrews, Bernice; Brewin, Chris R

    2014-12-01

    The World Health Organization recently proposed a reformulation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for the 11(th) edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), employing only 6 symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of this reformulation of PTSD as compared to criteria according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) on the prevalence of current PTSD as well as comorbid major depressive episode and anxiety disorders other than PTSD. Study 1 involved previously collected interviews with 560 Kosovar civilian war survivors; Study 2 employed a previously collected sample of 142 British war veterans. Results revealed no change in the diagnostic status under the criteria proposed for ICD-11 in 87.5% of civilian war survivors and 91.5% of war veterans. Participants who only met the newly proposed criteria showed lower rates of comorbid major depressive episode than participants who only met DSM-IV criteria (13.6% vs. 43.8% respectively). Rates of comorbid anxiety disorders did not significantly differ between participants who lost or gained a PTSD diagnosis under the proposed criteria. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  2. Immunohistochemical analysis of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masami; Yamamoto, Tetsuro; Hata, Jotaro; Nakagawa, Hitoshi; Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Tahara, Eiichi.

    1987-01-01

    In order to elucidate the biological characteristics of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, a total of 159 cases of colorectal cancers comprising 73 cases in exposed atomic bomb survivors and 86 cases in non-exposed individuals were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for various functioning proteins. No statistical differences could be demonstrated in the incidence of various marker expressions of colorectal cancers between the exposed group and control group. However, comparison by the site of colorectal cancer showed that sigmoid colon cancers in the exposed group or high dose group showed a significantly higher frequency of glycoproteins such as α 1 -antichymotrypsin (ACT), secretory component (SC), α 1 -antitrypsin (AAT), and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) when compared with the control group. These results correlated well with the epidemiological data that the radiation effect on the incidence of colorectal cancer in atomic bomb survivors was most remarkable in the sigmoid colon. (author)

  3. Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi

    2013-10-01

    Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (bomb survivors who were alive in 1996. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk of prostate cancer development, with adjustment for age at atomic bomb explosion, attained age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the distal group, the proximal group had significant increased risks of total, localized, and high-grade prostate cancer (relative risk and 95% confidence interval: 1.51 [1.21-1.89]; 1.80 [1.26-2.57]; and 1.88 [1.20-2.94], respectively). This report is the first known to reveal a significant relationship between atomic bomb radiation and prostate cancer. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  4. Study of gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Sadamatsu; Tadehara, Futoshi; Okusaki, Ken; Ito, Yoshiko; Ogawa, Junichiro; Kato, Masafumi; Ito, Chikako; Oyama, Hiroko; Mito, Kazuyo.

    1990-01-01

    Ten gastric cancer A-bomb survivors who had been false negative in mass screening for gastric cancer one year before the diagnosis were entered in a study determining an adequate interval of gastric mass screening for A-bomb survivors. Doubling time of cancer was determined on X-ray films. Of the 10 A-bomb survivors, 8 had entered the city after the bombing and the other two had been exposed at 1,700 m and 2,500 m, respectively, from the hypocenter. Six had early gastric cancer and the other 4 had advanced cancer. Doubling time averaged 19.1 months for early cancer and 7.6 months for advanced cancer. Three measurements of tumor diameter available for 4 A-bomb survivors revealed a very rapid increase in doubling time during the progression period from early to advanced cancer. An interval of one year seems to be adequate in mass screening to detect early cancer. (N.K.)

  5. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubota, Motoki; Ito, Chikako

    1980-01-01

    Mass examinations of the stomach were performed on 13,412 a-bomb survivors from Oct. 1975 to Mar. 1979. The necessity rate for detailed examinations was 13.6% on the average, and it was a little lower than the average in Japan. That in women was higher than that in men. The performance rate of detailed examinations was very high (91.8%), which might be influenced by active appeals to have detailed examinations. The estimated discovery rate of stomach cancer was 0.27% on the average, and it was higher than that in mass examinations of Chugoku and Shikoku districts. A relationship between the estimated discovery rate of stomach cancer and exposure conditions was not clarified. The discovery rate of stomach cancer was supposed to be influenced strongly by aging of a-bomb survivors. (Tsunoda, M.)

  6. Investigation of lung cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Itoh, Chikako; Mitsuyama, Toyofumi; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1976-01-01

    Fourty two cases of lung cancer in A-bomb survivors experienced between 1971 and 1975 were compared to non-exposure cases with lung cancer, and discussed. The mean age of A-bomb survivors with lung cancer was 68.7 year old, and that of control cases was 60 year old. The incidence ratio of male to female in the group was 4 : 1, and that of control group was 5 : 1. Occupation was one of the predisposing causes, but patients who had engaged in the occupation which was considered to predispose lung cancer were three. Among 39 patients with lung cancer whose smoking histories were clarified, 20.5 per cent was nonsmoker, and 69.3 per cent was heavy smoker. Among 39 patients whose cancer histories were clarified, 28.2 per cent of the patients had family history of cancer. Subjective symptoms of this disease were cough, sputum, bloody sputum and chest pain, and some had no symptoms. Seventeen cases (40.5 per cent) were detected in the physical examination for the A-bomb survivors. For the early detection of lung cancer in A-bomb survivors, patients with high risk should be selected to have received clearly established diagnosis. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma was seen in many cases, following adenoma, and undifferenciated large cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. Disturbances in pulmonary functions were obstructive ventilation, high rate of residual air, lowered diffusions ability. Therapy was operation in stage I, chemotherapy and radiation therapy in stage II and stage III. (Kanao, N.)

  7. Pathological study of multiple myeloma in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaki, Y.; Kishikawa, M.; Bundo, K. (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1980-11-01

    Pathological records of autopsies carried out in Nagasaki from '46 to '77 were reviewed. Of 9331 autopsies, 5787 were unexposed cases and were used as a control. 9.2% of the deaths were due to hematologic disorders. There was no evidence that the incidence of multiple myeloma among a-bomb survivors increased compared with the control. The incidences of leukemia, lymphoma and aplastic anemia were also listed.

  8. Effects of radiation on aging in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo; Miyajima, Junko; Ichimaru, Michito

    1980-01-01

    Effect of radiation on aging was studied for 122 female a-bomb survivors exposed to more than 100 rad. Correlations of grades of external appearances, Physiological functions, and hematological features with age and radiation were investigated. Several parameters were used for multiple regression analysis, including hair loss, skin elasticity, grip strength, blood pressure, potassium content etc. The comparison of the estimated age of the exposed group and unexposed one showed no statistically significant difference. (Nakanishi, T.)

  9. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Naito, Yasuo; Kumasawa, Toshihiko

    1977-01-01

    Indirect gastroroentgenegraphy was performed in 14890 of the survivors, in whom stool examination was positive for occult blood at time of general examinations during 3 years and 11 months from November 1971 to September 1975. The results were as follows. The rate of the survivors to whom precise examination was required was 20.8% in male, 14.0% in female and 16.7% in total at all ages. The rate was higher in male than in female. Precise examination was carried out in 80.1% in male and 83.1% in female, showing higher percentage in female. The rate of the survivors with abnormal findings was higher in male and aged people in both sexes. The rate was also higher in the direct exposed group at more than 2.1 km from hypocenter, settlers into the city after A-bomb explosion and other groups than in the direct exposed group within 2.0 km. The findings of 2024 precise examinations revealed that gastric ulcer was more frequently found in male than in female and in the younger people than in the aged people. Gastric polyp was more frequently seen in female than in male, and in the aged people than in the younger people. The rate of estimated gastric carcinoma was 1.02% in male and 1.19% in female in the direct exposed group within 1.0 km, showing higher percentage than that in the direct exposed group more than 2.1 km, settlers group and other groups. The ratio of male-to-female reached almost 1 in proximally exposed survivors. (Kumagaya, S.)

  10. Study of thyroid tumors in atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Ichiro; Shichijo, Kazuko; Ito, Masahiro; Kishikawa, Masao; Mine, Mariko; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Ooya, Seiichi.

    1992-01-01

    Thyroid tumors, which were registered during 16 years from 1973 through 1988 in the Nagasaki tumor tissue registration committee, were examined with the purpose of searching for the relationship between thyroid tumors and A-bombing. One hundred and three A-bomb survivors having an A-bomb survivors 'handbook and 89 non-exposed persons born before August 9, 1945 in Nagasaki City were enrolled in the present study. The A-bomb survivors were divided into three groups: people exposed at >2,000 m from the hypocenter (n=20), those exposed at ≤2,000 m (n=68), and those entered the city early after A-bombing (n=15). Thyroid tumors examined were: thyroid carcinoma, nodular goiter, thyroid adenoma and malignant lymphoma. Crude incidence rate and relative risk of thyroid cancer were higher in all exposed groups, except for the ≤2,000 m group of males, than the non-exposed group. In particular, the >2,000 m group had significantly higher incidence of thyroid cancer, irrespective of sex. These findings confirmed the previous data for the higher incidence of thyroid cancer in A-bomb survivors exposed to higher doses of radiation. According to age, thyroid cancer was the most common in their sixth decade of life in the exposed group and in their fifth decade of life in the non-exposed group. Histologically, follicular carcinoma occupied higher incidence in the exposed group (19.2%) than the non-exposed group (8.7%). (N.K.)

  11. Availability of ultrasonography in health examination of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masafumi; Mito, Kazuyo; Ishibashi, Shinzo; Takayama, Sadamatsu; Ito, Chikako

    1989-01-01

    A total of 1424 A-bomb survivors, consisting of 596 men and 827 women, participated in the health screening during the period from August 1985 through March 1988. Abnormal findings of ultrasonography were observed in 64% for men and 53% for women. According to age groups, the incidence of abnormal findings tended to increase with aging in men. In women, it was independent of aging. The most common abnormal finding was billiary calculus (13%), followed by renal cyst, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and liver disturbance. Suspected hepatic tumor, hepatomegaly, liver disturbance, fatty liver, and liver cirrhosis were more frequent in men than women. The incidence of billiary or gallbladder calculus was significantly higher in women than men. Among 56 survivors (13%) with suspected malignancy, it was confirmed in 25 survivors (19 with primary or metastatic liver carcinoma, 3 with renal cell carcinoma, 2 with cholangiocarcinoma, and one with pancreatic carcinoma). Of 9 hepatoma patients, 8 had an increased alpha-fetoprotein. Hematologic findings were normal in all of the patients with renal cell carcinoma. (N.K.)

  12. Mass survey of lung cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Itoh, Chikako; Mitsuyama, Toyofumi; Mishima, Yasuhiro; Ohmura, Toshio.

    1980-01-01

    Mass survey of lung cancer was performed only by questionnaire together with general health examinations of a-bomb survivors during 3 years between April 1976 and March 1979, and the following results were obtained. The number of men aged more than 40 years old who had questionnaire was 89,778, and those who were required to have detailed examinations because they had bloody sputum and paroxysmal cough + a history of smoking were 1,453. Out of them, 861 a-bomb survivors had detailed examinations. The performance rate of detailed examinations was 59.3%. Lung cancer was found in 23 a-bomb survivors. The discovery rate was 25.6 per 100,000 persons, and it was a little higher than discovery rates reported by many researchers. It was low in men aged more than 40 years old. There was a straight line relationship between logarithm values of the discovery rate of lung cancer and age, and the discovery rate increased markedly with aging. Cytodiagnosis of sputum by Saccomanno method showed a positive test which was 20% higher than that by 3 days serial smear method. To discover lung cancer at an early stage, it is advisable to perform the first screening by chest x-ray examination and questionnaire on men aged over 40 years old, and to perform cytodiagnosis by Saccomanno method on men who were required to have detailed examinations. (Tsunoda, M.)

  13. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed in utero, and children of atomic bomb survivors (F 1 ). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose–response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed in utero is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F 1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts

  14. Medical Database for the Atomic-Bomb Survivors at Nagasaki University

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    The Scientific Data Center for Atomic-Bomb Disasters at Nagasaki University was established in 1974. The database of atomicbomb survivors has been in operation since 1977. The database is composed of following 6 physical database : (1) Fundamental information database. (2) Atomic-Bomb Hospital database, (3) Pathological database, (4) Household reconstruction database, (5) Second generation database, and (6) Address database. We review the current contents of the database for its further appli...

  15. Autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihara, Megumu; Kurihara, Kanji; Aimitsu, Shiomi; Yukaya, Hirofumi; Hamada, Tadao.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1956, 388 autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been obtained at the Hiroshima Red Cross and A-Bomb Survivors Hospital, which consisted of those of proximately exposed 52 A-bomb survivors (mean age, 63.8 years), 105 distally exposed A-bomb survivors (mean age, 64.2 years), and the other 231 non-exposed patients (mean age, 60.6 years). Since 1985, the incidence of HCC tended to be higher in both proximately and distally exposed groups than the non-exposed group. There was no consistent tendency for the incidence of HCC by ages at autopsy and A-bombing. The incidence of liver cirrhosis was approximately 2 times higher in males than females in the non-exposed group, although no gender difference existed after 1981. In the exposed group, the incidence was similar in male and female groups. Approximately 90% of HCC patients had coexistent liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis was associated with HCC in 50-60%. No significant differences in these incidences were observed between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The proportion of liver cirrhosis associated with HCC became constant in patients over the age of 40 in the non-exposed group. In the exposed group, on the other hand, the proportion reached the peak in those in their fifties and sixties. Survival time tended to be longer in the exposed group than the non-exposed group. The patients in the non-exposed group tended to have histologically atypical type and metastases, as compared with those in the exposed group. (N.K.)

  16. Results of lung cancer screening in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masayo; Kato, Hironari; Inoue, Noriko; Naito, Kumiko; Kawanishi, Masahiro; Kira, Sakurako; Sasaki, Hideo; Ishida, Hajime; Maeda, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Risk of lung cancer in A-bomb survivors is reportedly increased. The screening in the title has been conducted since 1988 and this report summarizes its results of the latest 6-year term (2004-2009). The total number of subjects who visited authors' facility for the screening in the period was 39,147 men (average age 70.6 y) and 45,351 women (71.8 y), of the age range of 60-89 y. The screening results of the cancer were examined concerning with sex, age and exposure situation. As well, the relationship between the found cancer incidence and exposure in never, formerly and currently smoking subjects were also examined. Exposure situation was divided in 3 groups of the exposure by entrance in the city/by other reasons, within 2 km close (Close, C) to, and out of 2.1 km afar (Distant, D) from, the city. Statistic analysis was performed by Chi-squire and/or Fisher's exact test. The index of positive finding in the screening of the lung cancer per 1,000 subjects was the highest in C men of ages 70s, 2.88 subjects, which was statistically significant from 0.85 in D men of the same generation. In current smokers, the index 5.40 in C men of ages 70s was significantly higher than 0.90 in D men of the same generation. Overall, positive results tended to be high in survivors of C regardless to sex and smoking, and was significantly high in current smokers of C as above, both implying the particular necessity of promotion to stop smoking in survivors. (T.T.)

  17. Autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihara, Megumu; Kurihara, Kanji; Aimitsu, Shiomi; Yukaya, Hirofumi [Hiroshima Red Cross Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Hamada, Tadao

    1994-12-01

    Since 1956, 388 autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been obtained at the Hiroshima Red Cross and A-Bomb Survivors Hospital, which consisted of those of proximately exposed 52 A-bomb survivors (mean age, 63.8 years), 105 distally exposed A-bomb survivors (mean age, 64.2 years), and the other 231 non-exposed patients (mean age, 60.6 years). Since 1985, the incidence of HCC tended to be higher in both proximately and distally exposed groups than the non-exposed group. There was no consistent tendency for the incidence of HCC by ages at autopsy and A-bombing. The incidence of liver cirrhosis was approximately 2 times higher in males than females in the non-exposed group, although no gender difference existed after 1981. In the exposed group, the incidence was similar in male and female groups. Approximately 90% of HCC patients had coexistent liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis was associated with HCC in 50-60%. No significant differences in these incidences were observed between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The proportion of liver cirrhosis associated with HCC became constant in patients over the age of 40 in the non-exposed group. In the exposed group, on the other hand, the proportion reached the peak in those in their fifties and sixties. Survival time tended to be longer in the exposed group than the non-exposed group. The patients in the non-exposed group tended to have histologically atypical type and metastases, as compared with those in the exposed group. (N.K.).

  18. The significance of chromosome deletions in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Shigeta, Chiharu; Oguma, Nobuo; Kamada, Nanao; Deng, Z.; Niimi, Masanobu; Aisaka, Tadaichi.

    1986-01-01

    In 39 A-bomb survivors 40 years after exposure at ≤ 1,000 m from ground zero, the frequency and features of chromosome deletions in peripheral lymphocytes were examined using a differential staining technique. Simultaneously, in vitro irradiation experiment with Cf-252 was made to infer chromosome aberrations occuring immediately after exposure. Californium-252 with 100 rad induced dicentric and ring chromosomes in 40 % of the cells and acentric fragments in 44 %. Among the A-bomb survivors, chromosome aberrations were observed in 651 (21 %) of the total 3,136 cells. There were 146 cells with deletions (22 % of abnormal cells; 5 % of the total cells), and 10 cells with acentric fragment (0.3 % of the total cells). The figure for deletions was far higher than that reported in the literature. A large number of deletions were seen in chromosomes no.4, no.21, and no.22, and a few deletions in chromosomes no.7 and no.20. Significance of chromosome deletions is discussed. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Malignant lymphoma in survivors of the atomic bomb, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R E; Ishida, Kenzo

    1964-02-01

    The present study demonstrates an increased prevalence of Hodgkin's disease, lymphosarcoma and multiple myeloma in survivors within 1400 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima who had surgical or post-mortem examinations at ABCC. Reticulum cell sarcoma appears to have decreased prevalence in this same group. The pathologic material demonstrating these relationships consists of 91 cases of unequivocal malignant lymphoma and is drawn from two essentially independent ABCC sources, the autopsy series and diagnostic lymph node biopsies. A consideration of the epidemiologic characteristics of this material supports the view that the increase in prevalence is a reflection of the occurrence of lymphoma in the general population of survivors within 1400 m of the hypocenter. In addition, among such persons autopsied at ABCC there appears to be a shift to death at an earlier age than is found in the other comparison groups. The possible implications of this are discussed. A comparison of the lymphomas examined shows no morphologic differences in the corresponding diagnostic categories between the various comparison groups. 21 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Hyperparathyroidism among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1986-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Ezaki, Haruo; Sposto, R.; Akiba, Suminori; Neriishi, Kazuo; Kodama, Kazunori; Hosoda, Yutaka; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Yoshimitsu, Kengo.

    1990-10-01

    During the two-year period from August 1986 to July 1988, the prevalence of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) was determined among A-bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima. The diagnosis of HPT was determined biochemically, based upon the presence of consistent hypercalcemia and elevated serum parathyroid hormone levels. Among a population of 4,675 individuals (1,527 males, 3,148 females), primary HPT was diagnosed in 22 (3 males, 19 females). Of these, 8 underwent surgery, of whom 6 had a single parathyroid adenoma and 2 had parathyroid hyperplasia. HPT was more prevalent among the A-bomb survivors who received higher radiation doses (p <.001 for linear trend). The prevalence rates predicted from the model were 0.204% (±0.094%) at 0 Gy and 0.893% (±0.237%) at 1 Gy. The background rate of HPT did not differ significantly by sex or by age at the time of the bombing, although the effect of radiation exposure was greater for individuals exposed at a younger age (p <.01). (author)

  1. Impact on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors of radiation received from the bombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, Harry M

    2014-02-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) studies various cohorts of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, the largest being the Life Span Study (LSS), which includes 93,741 persons who were in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the times of the bombings; there are also cohorts of persons who were exposed in utero and survivors' children. This presentation attempts to summarize the total impact of the radiation from the bombs on the survivors from both an individual perspective (both age-specific and integrated lifetime risk, along with a measure of life expectancy that describes how the risk affects the individual given age at exposure) and a group perspective (estimated numbers of excess occurrences in the cohort), including both early and late effects. As survivors' doses ranged well into the acutely lethal range at closer distances, some of them experienced acute signs and symptoms of radiation exposure in addition to being at risk of late effects. Although cancer has always been a primary concern among late effects, estimated numbers of excess cancers and hematopoietic malignancies in the LSS are a small fraction of the total due to the highly skewed dose distribution, with most survivors receiving small doses. For example, in the latest report on cancer incidence, 853 of 17,448 incident solid cancers were estimated to be attributable to radiation from the bombs. RERF research indicates that risk of radiation-associated cancer varies among sites and that some benign tumors such as uterine myoma are also associated with radiation. Noncancer late effects appear to be in excess in proportion to radiation dose but with an excess relative risk about one-third that of solid cancer and a correspondingly small overall fraction of cases attributable to radiation. Specific risks were found for some subcategories, particularly circulatory disease, including stroke and precedent conditions such as hypertension. Radiation-related cataract in the atomic bomb survivors is well known

  2. Low levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms and psychiatric symptomatology among third-generation Holocaust survivors whose fathers were war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2016-02-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the intergenerational transmission of Holocaust trauma to the third generation (TGH). However, due to the rareness of this population, there are no studies that have examined TGH individuals whose fathers were also victims of war-related trauma and captivity. This prospective study aimed to assess the role of parents' Holocaust background, fathers' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and adult offspring's anxiety sensitivity (AS) in adult offspring's PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology. A sample of 123 Israeli father-child dyads (42 TGH and 71 non-TGH), that included 80 former prisoners of war (ex-POWs) dyads and a comparison group of 44 veteran dyads, completed AS, PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology self-report measures. Fathers were assessed 17 years following the Yom Kippur War (T1: 2008) while offspring took part in T2 (2013-2014). Surprisingly, results show that TGH participants reported lower levels of PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology than non-TGH participants, regardless of their fathers' captivity status. Interestingly, a moderated mediation analysis indicated that offspring's AS mediated the association between Holocaust background and participants' PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology, only among ex-POWs' offspring. This study provides evidence for relatively lower levels of PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology among TGH individuals whose fathers were war veterans. Ex-POWs' adult offspring who are grandchildren of Holocaust survivors reported lower levels of AS that was related to lower levels of PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Whole-blood phagocytic and bactericidal activities of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Sumiko; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Toyota, Emiko; Neriishi, Shotaro; Yamakido, Michio; Matsuo, Miyo; Hosoda, Yutaka; Finch, S.C.

    1989-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in aliquots of whole blood from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Any significant effects of exposure to A-bomb radiation could not be detected for both phagocytic and bactericidal activities of whole blood from A-bomb survivors. In addition, there were no significant effects of age categories, sex or city, except in neutrophil counts. (J.P.N.)

  4. Survey of radiation doses received by atomic-bomb survivors residing in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Yamada, H.; Marks, S.

    1976-01-01

    A survey has been completed of 300 of an estimated 500 to 750 survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who reside in the United States. Distributions with respect to age, sex, citizenship status, distance from the hypocenter at the time of bombing, and dose from immediate weapon radiation have been tabulated from the results and are presented for this group of 300 survivors. Also presented are survey results concerning exposures to residual radiation from fallout and neutron-induced radioactivity in the areas adjacent to the hypocenter

  5. Mortality statistics among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture. 1968-1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, M; Munaka, M; Hayakawa, N; Yamamoto, H; Ueoka, H; Ohtaki, M [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1981-12-01

    In a comparative analysis of mortality among atomic bomb survivors versus the non-exposed, both resident in Hiroshima Prefecture, it was found that in addition to leukaemia, malignant lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the thyroid gland, breast, lung, esophagus, stomach, urinary organs and salivary gland which have been reported from the past to be elevated in risk among atomic bomb survivors, cancers of the colon, larynx, accessory sinuses, uterus, ovary and testis, diseases of the blood, cirrhosis of liver, hypertensive disease and diabetes mellitus were elevated in risk, but the risk of cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis, senility, and accidents was lower than the non-exposed. The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to the relative risk of cancers of the lung, breast, uterus, and testis could be readily explained, but the relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the relative risk of cancers of many other sites, diseases of the blood, and other causes of death was inconsistent. One of the reasons why the risk of senility was low and the risk of diseases of the blood, malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, and hypertensive disease was high is considered to be the higher diagnostic accuracy in atomic bomb survivors.

  6. Serum immunoglobulin levels in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, C B; Hall, W J; Ashley, F W; Hamilton, H B

    1972-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulins (SI) were determined in 803 survivors and matched controls. Each subject's age, sex, health, exposure, and medical record were evaluated with respect to serum IgG, IgA, IgM levels. The IgG and IgA levels tended to be higher for this Hiroshima population than for Americans. Past exposure to ionizing radiation showed no significant correlation to SI levels. However, age and sex did influence the SI. IgM was significantly higher in females. With advancing age IgG and IgA increased in males, and IgM decreased in females. Elevated sedimentation rate and increased lymphocytes were accompanied by increased SI levels. Radiographic TB was detected in 45% of the population; IgG and IgA levels were somewhat elevated in these individuals. (DLC)

  7. Leukemia among atomic bomb survivors during the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumi, Shizuyo; Matsuo, Tatsuki

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of the dosimetry system 1986, exposure doses were determined in a cohort of 86,502 subjects for the Life Span Study during the period 1950-1985. A total of 248 people were found to develop leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. This is an analysis of the 248 patients with leukemia in connection with exposure doses, years after A-bombing, age at the time of A-bombing, relative risk, and background. An average exposure dose was 0.20 Gy for Hiroshima and 0.22 Gy for Nagasaki. Relative risk for leukemia tended to show a linear increase in proportion to exposure doses. This was significant for acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), regardless of whether A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima or Nagasaki. The younger the age at the time of A-bombing was, the higher excess relative risk for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) was. For AML, however, it was independent of the age at that time. These findings were similar in Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, irrespective of age. As for non-exposed group, the incidence of CML was three times higher in Hiroshima citizen than Nagasaki citizen. Similarly, Hiroshima citizen had a 1.6 fold incidence of AML. There was no significant difference in the incidence of ALL between the cities. The incidences of both AML and ALL tended to increase more and more with aging, but the prevalences tended to increase in younger generation. An increased incidence of CML was associated with aging alone. (N.K.)

  8. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors, 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masafumi; Matsumoto, Yasuko; Mito, Kazuyo; Kumazawa, Toshihiko; Ito, Chikako.

    1986-01-01

    This is a report of the results of gastric mass survey performed during a 3-year period from 1982 through 1984. Included in this survey were 16,781 A-bomb survivors. The subjects were divided into three groups: a group exposed at ≤ 2,000 m from ground zero (Group 1), a group exposed at > 2,000 m from ground zero (Group 2), and a group consisting of those who entered the city after the bombing or others (Group 3). Regarding the rate for necessity of detailed examinations, there was no difference among the groups. The incidence of abnormal findings was 6.1 % in Group 1, 5.4 % in Group 2, and 4.9 % in Group 3, showing significant difference between Groups 1 and 3. Similarly, the incidence of respective disease was significantly higher in Group 1 than Group 3: gastritis was the most common (2.7 % vs 2.0 %), followed by gastric polyp (0.9 % vs 0.5 %) and gastric cancer (0.6 % vs 0.2 %). The age-adjusted incidence of gastric cancer and polyp was high, irrespective of sex, in Group 1. This was significant for gastric cancer in women and for gastric polyp in men. The incidence of gastric cancer in any age class was higher in Group 1 than Group 3. The incidence of gastric polyp tended to increase with aging in Group 1, being higher particularly for survivors over the age of 50 than those in Groups 2 and 3. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Molecular analyses of in vivo hprt mutant T cells from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakoda, M.; Hirai, Y.; Kyoizumi, S.; Akiyama, M.

    1989-01-01

    In vivo-derived hprt-deficient mutant T cells isolated from three nonirradiated controls and two atomic bomb survivors were studied by Southern blot analysis to investigate the molecular spectra of the mutations. Mutant frequencies for the three controls were 1.8, 2.3, and 7.3 x 10(-6), and those for the two survivors (who had received radiation doses of 2.46 and 2.15 Gy, based upon the revised atomic bomb shielded kerma estimates) were 9.3 and 14.4 x 10(-6), respectively. Fourteen (13%) of 105 mutant T-cell colonies from the controls showed various structural changes in the hprt gene. The frequency of mutants with hprt gene structural changes in one atomic bomb survivor, who exhibited a mutant frequency of 9.3 x 10(-6), was 26% (16/61), which was significantly higher than that of the controls. However, the frequency of structural changes in the other survivor (14%, 8/59) was not higher than that of the controls. Two sets of mutants (in total, eight mutants) from the survivor, who showed a significantly higher frequency of mutants with hprt gross alterations than did the controls, had the same hprt changes and the same rearrangements of T-cell receptor (TcR) beta- and gamma-chain genes, indicating a clonal expansion from one progenitor mutant. This phenomenon may reflect an in vivo recovery process of T cells in the periphery after exposure to atomic bomb radiation. However, when comparing the frequency of mutations, these two sets of mutants should be reduced. After reducing the total number of mutants from the number of gross hprt changes, the frequency was not significantly higher than that of the controls

  10. Analysis of atomic-bomb survivor data: ongoing research and opportunities for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Study of the atomic bomb survivors has provided uniquely valuable information about the types of effects that are produced by ionizing radiation and their relation to dose, age at exposure, time after irradiation, and other variables. There are still, however, many unresolved questions requiring further investigation. These include reassessment of the dosimetry in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki; continued follow-up of survivors for cancer and other late effects, especially those who were exposed early in life and are just now reaching the age when the common cancers of adult life make their appearance; further evaluation of the possibility of measuring genetic effects in the children of survivors; and continued longitudinal investigation of risk factors predisposing to cancer, preneoplastic lesions, and other diseases. To the extent that a strong statistical foundation is essential to such investigations, the high calibre and sophistication of ongoing statistical research at RERF augers well for the future. 30 references, 4 figures

  11. Organ doses to atomic bomb survivors from radiological examinations at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Sawada, Shozo; Russell, W.J.

    1990-04-01

    When estimating the risks of oncogenesis and cancer mortality as a result of atomic bomb radiation exposure, medical X-ray doses received by the A-bomb survivors must also be estimated and considered. Using a phantom human, we estimated the X-ray doses received by A-bomb survivors during routine biennial medical examinations conducted at RERF as part of the long-term Adult Health Study (AHS), since these examinations may represent about 45 % of the survivors' total medical irradiations. Doses to the salivary glands, thyroid gland, lung, breast, stomach and colon were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The results reported here will aid in estimating organ doses received by individual AHS participants. (author)

  12. Chromosome aberrations of bone marrow cells in heavily exposed atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Ohkita, Takeshi

    1986-01-01

    Seven hundred and ten bone marrow cells from 13 A-bomb survivors, who were heavily exposed to atomic radiation, were examined using chromosome banding method. An average frequency of chromosome aberrations was 17 %. The most common structural abnormality was translocation (47 %), followed by complex aberrations involving three or more chromosomes (32 %). These abnormalities were frequently seen in A-bomb survivors exposed to estimated doses of 3.5 - 4.0 Gy. Eighty two percent of the structural aberrations were stable. Diploid cells were seen in 0.4 % and tetraploid cells were seen in 0.7 %. The frequency of breakpoint sites was high in chromosomes 1 and 17; while it was low in chromosomes 3, 6, 9, and 11. Abnormal clones were seen in one of the 13 survivors. Chromosome aberrations common to the bone marrow cells and peripheral lymphocytes were not seen in the same individual. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Radiation injuries in atomic bomb survivors, chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Atomic bombs, for the first time in human history, were dropped on Hiroshima in August 6, and on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Though the powers of these bombs were small as compared with those of present day nuclear weapons, the atomic bombs claimed many lives instantaneously, damaged human bodies, and destroyed all objects, annihilating the urban areas. Even today, the dreadful consequences of the bombings still remain in both body and mind of the victims. Meanwhile, the experiences of atomic bomb disasters are fading constantly. In order to maintain the vivid information, in Part 2 ''Bodily injuries'', the following matters are described: early bodily injuries such as burns, (blast) external wounds, radiation injuries, and pathology in bodily injuries; later bodily injuries such as keloids, injuries to blood and eyes, injuries in exposed women, injuries in growth, aging and life, injuries in mental/nervous system, malignant tumors, and changes in chromosomes; and genetic effects. (J.P.N.)

  14. Mortality statistics of major causes of death among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1968 to 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Kurihara, Minoru; Munaka, Masaki (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology) (and others)

    1991-01-01

    A comparative study was made on mortality during a 15-year period from 1968 to 1982 between atomic romb survivors resident in Hiroshima Prefecture and non-exposed controls. The mortality rate for all causes of death was lower in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but the rate was higher among those directly exposed within about 1 km than in the non-exposed. The mortality rate for malignant neoplasms was higher in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but that for cerebrovascular disease and heart disease was lower. In examining the rate for malignant neoplasms by site, the site showing a high mortality rate among atomic bomb survivors were almost identical to the results of the Life Span Study. For these sites, the shorter the exposure distance the higher was the mortality rate. The rate for malignant neoplasms of the uterus and stomach, and leukemia was unnaturally high among early entrants whose period after issuance of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was short. In observing the atomic bomb survivors by the level of family destruction due to the bombing as a socio-economic factor, a tendency ws observed for the mortality rate for malignant neoplasms, diseases of blood-forming organs, and peptic ulcer, to be higher among survivors with severe family destruction. (author).

  15. Mortality statistics of major causes of death among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture from 1968 to 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Ohtaki, Megu; Matsuura, Masaaki; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Ueoka, Hiroshi

    1989-06-01

    A comparative study was made on mortality during a 15-year period from 1968 to 1982 between atomic bomb survivors resident in Hiroshima Prefecture and non-exposed controls. The mortality rate for all causes of death was lower in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but the rate was higher among those directly exposed within about 1 km than in the non-exposed. The mortality rate for malignant neoplasms was higher in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but that for cerebrovascular disease and heart disease was lower. In examining the rate for malignant neoplasms by site, the sites showing a high mortality rate among atomic bomb survivors were almost identical to the results of the Life Span Study. For these sites, the shorter the exposure distance the higher was the mortality rate. The rate for malignant neoplasms of the uterus and stomach, and leukemia was unnaturally high among early entrants whose period after issuance of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was short. In observing the atomic bomb survivors by the level of family destruction due to the bombing as a socio-economic factor, a tendency was observed for the mortality rate for malignant neoplasms, diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, and peptic ulcer, to be higher among survivors with severe family destruction. (author).

  16. Mortality statistics of major causes of death among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture from 1968 to 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Ohtaki, Megu; Matsuura, Masaaki; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru; Ueoka, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study was made on mortality during a 15-year period from 1968 to 1982 between atomic bomb survivors resident in Hiroshima Prefecture and non-exposed controls. The mortality rate for all causes of death was lower in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but the rate was higher among those directly exposed within about 1 km than in the non-exposed. The mortality rate for malignant neoplasms was higher in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but that for cerebrovascular disease and heart disease was lower. In examining the rate for malignant neoplasms by site, the sites showing a high mortality rate among atomic bomb survivors were almost identical to the results of the Life Span Study. For these sites, the shorter the exposure distance the higher was the mortality rate. The rate for malignant neoplasms of the uterus and stomach, and leukemia was unnaturally high among early entrants whose period after issuance of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was short. In observing the atomic bomb survivors by the level of family destruction due to the bombing as a socio-economic factor, a tendency was observed for the mortality rate for malignant neoplasms, diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, and peptic ulcer, to be higher among survivors with severe family destruction. (author)

  17. Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) in atomic-bomb survivors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashizawa, K.; Imaizumi, M.; Usa, T.; Tominaga, T.; Hida, A.; Ejima, E.; Neriishi, K.; Soda, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Maeda, R.; Akahoshi, M.; Nagataki, S.; Eguchi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Purpose/Background Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) is defined as a biochemical abnormality characterized by a subnormal level of TSH with otherwise normal thyroid tests (F T 3 , F T 4 ) and no clinical symptoms. There are only a small number of cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of Sh. With the improvement of the sensitivity of TSH assay, it has become possible to survey the clinical significance of Sh. With regard to both Sh and subclinical hypothyroidism, discussions are being focused on such as the necessity of treatment. In order to elucidate the clinical significance of Sh, examination data of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed. Subjects and Method Between 2000 and 2003, of 4,090 A-bomb survivors (1,352 males and 2,738 females with average age of 70.7), 75 individuals (1.83%) with Sh were found who had normal Free T 4 (0.71∼1.51 ng/dL) and TSH<0.45 m U/L. Analysis was limited to those who had not taken antithyroid drugs or thyroxin, and the Sh group (n=35; 9 males and 26 females) was compared with a control group with TSH:0.45∼4.5 m U/L (Group C; N=3,243; 1,109 males and 2,134 females). Result: Nine individuals had TSH<0.1 m U/L. In the Sh group, six individuals were TPO antibody-positive (17%) and 14 were TG antibody-positive (40%); hence, TG antibody-positive was significantly greater in number (p=0.0096). Hematological biochemical tests showed no significant difference between the two groups. Electrocardiograms indicated that more individuals had atrial fibrillation [p=0.028; Odds ratio (OR)=3.98; 95% Confidential interval (CI)=1.2-13.7] or ventricular premature contraction [p=0.016; OR=3.29; 95% CI=1.3-8.6] in the Sh group. In terms of the presence or absence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperuricemia, there was no difference between the two groups. One individual from the Sh group was confirmed to have Graves' disease two years later. Conclusion: Since more individuals in the Sh group were

  18. Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) in atomic-bomb survivors in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashizawa, K; Imaizumi, M; Usa, T; Tominaga, T; Hida, A; Ejima, E; Neriishi, K; Soda, M; Fujiwara, S; Maeda, R; Akahoshi, M; Nagataki, S; Eguchi, K [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Nagasaki (Japan). Nagasaki Branch

    2005-07-01

    Full text: Purpose/Background Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) is defined as a biochemical abnormality characterized by a subnormal level of TSH with otherwise normal thyroid tests (F T{sub 3}, F T{sub 4}) and no clinical symptoms. There are only a small number of cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of Sh. With the improvement of the sensitivity of TSH assay, it has become possible to survey the clinical significance of Sh. With regard to both Sh and subclinical hypothyroidism, discussions are being focused on such as the necessity of treatment. In order to elucidate the clinical significance of Sh, examination data of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed. Subjects and Method Between 2000 and 2003, of 4,090 A-bomb survivors (1,352 males and 2,738 females with average age of 70.7), 75 individuals (1.83%) with Sh were found who had normal Free T{sub 4} (0.71{approx}1.51 ng/dL) and TSH<0.45 m U/L. Analysis was limited to those who had not taken antithyroid drugs or thyroxin, and the Sh group (n=35; 9 males and 26 females) was compared with a control group with TSH:0.45{approx}4.5 m U/L (Group C; N=3,243; 1,109 males and 2,134 females). Result: Nine individuals had TSH<0.1 m U/L. In the Sh group, six individuals were TPO antibody-positive (17%) and 14 were TG antibody-positive (40%); hence, TG antibody-positive was significantly greater in number (p=0.0096). Hematological biochemical tests showed no significant difference between the two groups. Electrocardiograms indicated that more individuals had atrial fibrillation [p=0.028; Odds ratio (OR)=3.98; 95% Confidential interval (CI)=1.2-13.7] or ventricular premature contraction [p=0.016; OR=3.29; 95% CI=1.3-8.6] in the Sh group. In terms of the presence or absence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperuricemia, there was no difference between the two groups. One individual from the Sh group was confirmed to have Graves' disease two years later. Conclusion: Since more individuals in

  19. Nine cases of multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Masanobu; Matsueda, Kazuhiro; Nishida, Kazurou; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kou, Hassei; Mikami, Motoko; Nakamura, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Yoshikiyo; Aisaka, Tadakazu

    1986-03-01

    Nine A-bomb survivors (2 men and 7 women) were diagnosed as having multiple myeloma (MM) 24 years to 38 years after exposure. According to exposure doses, three survivors were exposed at less than or equal to 1,800 m from the hypocenter, three between 2,200 m and 2,500 m, and three between 3,100 m and 4,100 m. Acute atomic radiation injuries, such as epilation and disturbance in bone marrow function, were observed in survivors exposed at less than or equal to 2,400 m. Complications included hypertension in two, diabetes mellitus in one, and cancer of the pharynx in one. Three of the patients are still alive with follow-up periods of 3 years and 6 months to 7 years and 11 months. Two survivors, who showed no evidence of abnormal physical findings, did not meet typical MM criteria according to Abe et al. There has been a continuing discussion regarding the association between A-bomb radiation and intermediate type MM seen in the two survivors. (Namekawa, K.).

  20. Current trend of malignant neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao

    1984-01-01

    A survey was made on 7,589 admitted patients and 1,965 autopsy cases. The overall incidence of malignant neoplasms tended to decrease in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases and to increase in admitted patients. The incidence of pulmonary cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of gastric cancer tended to increase up to 1975, and thereafter tended to decrease. The incidence of liver cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients, which was marked in males. The incidence of leukemia was high in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases, and in the group within 1 km and the group which entered the city after the explosion in admitted patients. The incidence of malignant lymphoma tended to decrease, and the incidence of carcinoma of the colon tended to gradually increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of multiple carcinomas tended to increase in both atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group, being higher in atomic bomb group than in non-exposed group. The incidence of breast cancer became constant since 1970. The incidence of carcinoma of the thyroid gland tended to decrease, although it was high in the group exposed near the explosion. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors, 6. Gastric mass survey in atomic bomb survivors (1982 - 1984)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Masafumi; Matsumoto, Yasuko; Mito, Kazuyo; Kumazawa, Toshihiko; Ito, Chikako

    1986-11-01

    This is a report of the results of gastric mass survey performed during a 3-year period from 1982 through 1984. Included in this survey were 16,781 A-bomb survivors. The subjects were divided into three groups: a group exposed at less than or equal to 2,000 m from ground zero (Group 1), a group exposed at > 2,000 m from ground zero (Group 2), and a group consisting of those who entered the city after the bombing or others (Group 3). Regarding the rate for necessity of detailed examinations, there was no difference among the groups. The incidence of abnormal findings was 6.1% in Group 1, 5.4% in Group 2, and 4.9% in Group 3, showing significant difference between Groups 1 and 3. Similarly, the incidence of respective disease was significantly higher in Group 1 than Group 3: gastritis was the most common (2.7% vs 2.0%), followed by gastric polyp (0.9% vs 0.5%) and gastric cancer (0.6% vs 0.2%). The age-adjusted incidence of gastric cancer and polyp was high, irrespective of sex, in Group 1. This was significant for gastric cancer in women and for gastric polyp in men. The incidence of gastric cancer in any age class was higher in Group 1 than Group 3. The incidence of gastric polyp tended to increase with aging in Group 1, being higher particularly for survivors over the age of 50 than those in Groups 2 and 3. (Namekawa, K.).

  2. Result of medical survey in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Tsubota, Motoki; Kumasawa, Toshihiko

    1980-01-01

    General health examinations were performed on 242,296 a-bomb survivors during 5 years between 1972 and 1977. They were grouped according to exposure conditions, sex, and ages, and the results of examinations were compared. The rate of an erythrocyte count under 3,490,000 or the rate of a hemoglobin under 11.0 g/dl was higher in men of the group exposed within 1.9 km from the hypocenter than those in other exposed groups. The rate of an erythrocyte count under 3,490,000 and the incidence of hypertension were higher in women of the group exposed within 1.9 km than those of other exposed groups. There was a difference in an erythrocyte count, a hemoglobin, a white blood cell count, the rate of positive test for protein and glucose in urine, and blood pressure between men and women. The incidences of mild anemia and hypertension and the rate of positive test for glucose in urine increased with time. An erythrocyte count and a hemoglobin in women aged over 60 and men decreased linearly with their aging, but there was not a difference in them caused by exposure conditions. The maximum blood pressure in men and women increased with their aging, but there was not a difference in them caused by exposure conditions. (Tsunoda, M.)

  3. Noncancer mortality based on the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb survivors registry over 30 years, 1968-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasagi, Keiko

    2002-01-01

    The relation of radiation exposure with noncancer mortality was examined on 44,514 atomic bomb survivors (17,935 males, 26,579 females, and mean age 22.8±15.7 yrs at the time of bombing) registered at Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, based on mortality follow-up over 30 years, 1968-1997. Noncancer mortality was significantly related to radiation dose with relative risk of 1.06 at 1 Sv radiation dose, although weaker than the dose response in solid cancer mortality. The significant dose responses were observed especially in circulatory disease, stroke and urinary organ disease, and suggestive dose response in pneumonia. The temporal pattern in dose response by age at the time of bombing indicated that the relative risk of noncancer mortality was higher with follow-up period, which is contrary to a decreasing dose response in solid cancer mortality with follow-up period. The tendency was remarkable in those survivors younger at the time of bombing. These findings suggest that the significant radiation risk observed in noncancer mortality might increase as the proportion of younger survivors among atomic bomb survivors increases. (author)

  4. Food habits in atomic bomb survivors suffering from malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Kazue; Inoue, Hisako; Uchino, Chito

    1984-01-01

    Food habits were surveyed in patients admitted to 13 hospitals in Nagasaki prefecture and other prefectures to compare the incidence of malignant neoplasms according to the food intake between atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group. The incidence of malignant neoplasms was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of milk and salted fish than in those having the high intake of them in atomic bomb exposed group, while it was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of potatoes and milk and in female patients having the low intake of boiled fish paste than in those having the high intake of them in non-exposed group. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. A simple reductionist model for cancer risk in atom bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    1) In data from the atom bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the roughly linear-quadratic radiation dose responses for chromosome aberration and leukemia correspond closely to each other, as do the linear dose responses for gene mutation and solid cancer incidence. 2) In view of the increasing evidence for multiple oncogene and suppressor gene changes in human cancer, as well as the evidence that human cancer rate is often proportional to age to the power of 6 or so, it is postulated that the radiation has contributed one and only one oncogenic mutational event to the radiation induced cancers. 3) The radiation induced cancers should therefore display a cancer rate versus age relationship that has a power of n-1, where n is the power for the corresponding background cancers. 4) It is shown that this is precisely what is happening in the collective solid cancer incidence of the atom bomb survivors. (author)

  6. Studies on preparation of the database system for clinical records of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tsuyoshi

    1981-01-01

    Construction of the database system aimed at multipurpose application of data on clinical medicine was studied through the preparation of database system for clinical records of atomic bomb survivors. The present database includes the data about 110,000 atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki City. This study detailed: (1) Analysis of errors occurring in a period from generation of data in the clinical field to input into the database, and discovery of a highly precise, effective method of input. (2) Development of a multipurpose program for uniform processing of data on physical examinations from many organizations. (3) Development of a record linkage method for voluminous files which are essential in the construction of a large-scale medical information system. (4) A database model suitable for clinical research and a method for designing a segment suitable for physical examination data. (Chiba, N.)

  7. Carcinoma of the stomach in atomic bomb survivors. A comparison of clinicopathologic features to the general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehiro, S.; Nagasue, N.; Abe, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Sasaki, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The results of surgical treatment of gastric cancer were reviewed retrospectively for 135 atomic bomb survivors and 377 control patients. The mean age was significantly higher in the survivors than in the controls. Otherwise, both groups were quite comparative especially in terms of the stage of the disease. Histopathologically, the rates of poorly differentiated or undifferentiated types of carcinoma and secondary lymph node involvements were significantly lower in the survivors than in the controls. There were no significant difference between the two groups in postoperative morbidity and mortality rates and long-term survival rate. The incidence of second primary malignancies, however, was apparently higher in the survivors than in the controls

  8. Month of estimated onset of leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefzger, M D; Hoshino, Takashi; Itoga, Takashi; Yamada, Atsushi; Toyoda, Shigeki

    1963-10-03

    The monthly distribution of onset of leukemia during 1946-61 has been examined in 638 known cases among Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Comparisons were made of sex, city, chronicity, and distance from the hypocenter. A summer excess was most prominent in the group 0-1999 m from the hypocenter, and an autumn deficiency was most consistently seen in the various subgroups. No explanation of these differences can be offered. 1 reference, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Japanese Legacy Cohorts: The Life Span Study Atomic Bomb Survivor Cohort and Survivors’ Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Ozasa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors—including those exposed in utero—and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950. Cohorts of in utero survivors and the survivors’ children include about 3,600 and 77,000 subjects, respectively, and have been followed since 1945. Atomic bomb radiation dose was estimated for each subject based on location at the time of the bombing and shielding conditions from exposure, which were obtained through enormous efforts of investigators and cooperation of subjects. Outcomes include vital status, cause of death, and cancer incidence. In addition, sub-cohorts of these three cohorts were constructed to examine clinical features of late health effects, and the subjects have been invited to periodic health examinations at clinics of ABCC and RERF. They were also asked to donate biosamples for biomedical investigations. Epidemiological studies have observed increased radiation risks for malignant diseases among survivors, including those exposed in utero, and possible risks for some non-cancer diseases. In children of survivors, no increased risks due to parental exposure to radiation have been observed for malignancies or other diseases, but investigations are continuing, as these cohorts are still relatively young.

  10. Japanese Legacy Cohorts: The Life Span Study Atomic Bomb Survivor Cohort and Survivors’ Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori

    2018-01-01

    Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors—including those exposed in utero—and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950. Cohorts of in utero survivors and the survivors’ children include about 3,600 and 77,000 subjects, respectively, and have been followed since 1945. Atomic bomb radiation dose was estimated for each subject based on location at the time of the bombing and shielding conditions from exposure, which were obtained through enormous efforts of investigators and cooperation of subjects. Outcomes include vital status, cause of death, and cancer incidence. In addition, sub-cohorts of these three cohorts were constructed to examine clinical features of late health effects, and the subjects have been invited to periodic health examinations at clinics of ABCC and RERF. They were also asked to donate biosamples for biomedical investigations. Epidemiological studies have observed increased radiation risks for malignant diseases among survivors, including those exposed in utero, and possible risks for some non-cancer diseases. In children of survivors, no increased risks due to parental exposure to radiation have been observed for malignancies or other diseases, but investigations are continuing, as these cohorts are still relatively young. PMID:29553058

  11. Phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in whole blood from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, S.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Toyota, E.; Neriishi, S.; Yamakido, M.; Matsuo, M.; Hosoda, Y.; Finch, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of peripheral blood leukocytes from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression for age, sex, radiation exposure, city of exposure, and neutrophil counts. No significant radiation effect was observed for either blood phagocytic or bactericidal activities. The only significant variable for these functions was the neutrophil count

  12. Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Harumi; Kishikawa, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Naoki; Amemiya, Tsugio

    2002-01-01

    We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5±8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

  13. Leukaemia following childhood radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in medically exposed groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Incidence and mortality risks of radiation-associated leukaemia are surveyed in the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors exposed in early childhood and in utero. Leukaemia incidence and mortality risks are also surveyed in 16 other studies of persons who received appreciable doses of ionizing radiation in the course of treatment in childhood and for whom there is adequate dosimetry and cancer incidence or mortality follow-up. Relative risks tend to be lower in the medical series than in the Japanese A-bomb survivors. The relative risks in the medical studies tend to diminish with increasing average therapy dose. After taking account of cell sterilisation and dose fractionation, the apparent differences between the relative risks for leukaemia in the Japanese A-bomb survivors and in the medical series largely disappear. This suggests that cell sterilisation largely accounts for the discrepancy between the relative risks in the Japanese data and the medical studies. Excess absolute risk has also been assessed in four studies, and there is found to be more variability in this measure than in excess relative risk. In particular, there is a substantial difference between the absolute risk in the Japanese atomic bomb survivor data and those in three other (European) populations. In summary, the relative risks of leukaemia in studies of persons exposed to appreciable doses of ionizing radiation in the course of treatment for a variety of malignant and non-malignant conditions in childhood are generally less than those in the Japanese A-bomb survivor data. The effects of cell sterilisation can largely explain the discrepancy between the Japanese and the medical series. (authors)

  14. Report on the results of the fourth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Kenji (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Mukai, Hideaki; Suga, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Kunihara, Michitoshi; Ishida, Shigeki

    1991-08-01

    From October 21 through November 5, 1990, health examination was performed in atomic bomb survivors living in Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, and Paraguay. A total of 194 persons were recognized as having been exposed to A-bombing. Among them, 122 atomic-bomb survivors (62.9%) participated in the present health examination, consisting of 55 men and 67 women. An average age was 61.5{+-}9.0 years for men and 59.6{+-}8.6 years for women. The acquisition rate of health handbook for atomic bomb survivors was 35.2%. Past history for cancer resection was seen in 4 atomic bomb survivors. The presenting subjective symptoms were fatigue, heat intolerance, decreased physical fitness, and unintentional weight loss. Laboratory findings included: a decreased value of hemoglobin (5 atomic-bomb survivors), hypertension (26), noticeable ECG findings (5), abnormal values of GOT (28) and GPT (14), hypercholesteremia (43), hyperuricemia (19), and fasting hyperglycemia (8). Overall evaluation showed that 48 atomic bomb survivors need to receive detailed medical examination for hypertension, heart disease, liver disease, and hyperlipemia. (N.K.).

  15. Report on the results of the fourth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Kenji; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Mukai, Hideaki; Suga, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Kunihara, Michitoshi; Ishida, Shigeki.

    1991-01-01

    From October 21 through November 5, 1990, health examination was performed in atomic bomb survivors living in Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, and Paraguay. A total of 194 persons were recognized as having been exposed to A-bombing. Among them, 122 atomic-bomb survivors (62.9%) participated in the present health examination, consisting of 55 men and 67 women. An average age was 61.5±9.0 years for men and 59.6±8.6 years for women. The acquisition rate of health handbook for atomic bomb survivors was 35.2%. Past history for cancer resection was seen in 4 atomic bomb survivors. The presenting subjective symptoms were fatigue, heat intolerance, decreased physical fitness, and unintentional weight loss. Laboratory findings included: a decreased value of hemoglobin (5 atomic-bomb survivors), hypertension (26), noticeable ECG findings (5), abnormal values of GOT (28) and GPT (14), hypercholesteremia (43), hyperuricemia (19), and fasting hyperglycemia (8). Overall evaluation showed that 48 atomic bomb survivors need to receive detailed medical examination for hypertension, heart disease, liver disease, and hyperlipemia. (N.K.)

  16. Frequency of marriage and live birth among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blot, W.J.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, H.; Miller, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Frequency of marriage and birth as of January 1973 was determined for persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombs in 1945 and for controls. The marriage rate was lower in persons heavily exposed in utero than in the non-exposed or lightly exposed. This difference is attributed partly to the lesser marriageability of persons with mental retardation who are significantly more numerous among the heavily exposed, and partly to unmeasured variables, possibly including social discrimination against survivors of the atomic bomb. No consistent relation was observed between radiation exposure and three reproductive indices: childless marriages, number of births, and interval between marriage and first birth

  17. Cancer and non-cancer effects in Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M P

    2009-01-01

    The survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are a general population of all ages and sexes and, because of the wide and well characterised range of doses received, have been used by many scientific committees (International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR)) as the basis of population cancer risk estimates following radiation exposure. Leukaemia was the first cancer to be associated with atomic bomb radiation exposure, with preliminary indications of an excess among the survivors within the first five years after the bombings. An excess of solid cancers became apparent approximately ten years after radiation exposure. With increasing follow-up, excess risks of most cancer types have been observed, the major exceptions being chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and pancreatic, prostate and uterine cancer. For most solid cancer sites a linear dose response is observed, although in the latest follow-up of the mortality data there is evidence (p = 0.10) for an upward curvature in the dose response for all solid cancers. The only cancer sites which exhibit (upward) curvature in the dose response are leukaemia, and non-melanoma skin and bone cancer. For leukaemia the dose response is very markedly upward curving, indeed largely describable as a pure quadratic dose response, particularly in the low dose (0-2 Sv) range. Even 55 years after the bombings over 40% of the Life Span Study cohort remain alive, so continued follow-up of this group is vital for completing our understanding of long-term radiation effects in people. In general, the relative risks per unit dose among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors are greater than those among comparable subsets in studies of medically exposed individuals. Cell sterilisation largely accounts for the discrepancy in relative risks between these two populations, although other

  18. Thyroid cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1958-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Ezaki, Haruo; Ron, E.; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo; Lubin, J.; Asano, Masahide.

    1992-06-01

    One hundred and twelve cases of thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1958-79 among the extended Life Span Study cohort in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were studied. There was a statistically significant association between thyroid cancer incidence and exposure to atomic bomb radiation. The adjusted excess relative risk (ERR) per gray was 1.1 (95% confidence interval=0.3-2.5) and the adjusted absolute risk per 10 4 PYGy was 0.59 (95% confidence interval=0.2-1.7). Based on a comparison of the deviances obtained from relative and absolute risk models, a simple linear relative risk model appeared to fit the data better than an absolute risk model; however, it would not be appropriate to conclude that the data conform strictly to a relative risk pattern. The incidence of thyroid cancer among the members of the Adult Health Study (AHS) population, who have received biennial medical examinations at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, since 1958, was 70% higher than that among the rest of the extended LSS cohort after adjustments for city, sex, log age, calendar year, and Dosimetry System 1986 dose. There was no significant difference between the slope of the dose-response curve for AHS and non-AHS participants, although the estimated ERRs at 1 Gy for the AHS and non-AHS population were 1.6 and 0.3, respectively. The elevated risk appeared to be confined to women, and there was an increasing risk with decreasing attained age and age at exposure. (J.P.N.)

  19. Thyroid Dysfunction and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases Among Atomic Bomb Survivors Exposed in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Misa; Ohishi, Waka; Nakashima, Eiji; Sera, Nobuko; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Ikuno; Fujiwara, Saeko; Sugino, Keizo; Ando, Takao; Usa, Toshiro; Kawakami, Atsushi; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Hida, Ayumi

    2017-07-01

    The risk of thyroid cancer increases and persists for decades among individuals exposed to ionizing radiation in childhood, although the long-term effects of childhood exposure to medium to low doses of radiation on thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid diseases have remained unclear. To evaluate radiation dose responses for the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid disease among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood. Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were younger than 10 years old at exposure underwent thyroid examinations at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation between 2007 and 2011, which was 62 to 66 years after the bombing. Data from 2668 participants (mean age, 68.2 years; 1455 women) with known atomic bomb thyroid radiation doses (mean dose, 0.182 Gy; dose range, 0 to 4.040 Gy) were analyzed. Dose-response relationships between atomic bomb radiation dose and the prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease), and positive for antithyroid antibodies. Prevalences were determined for hypothyroidism (129 cases, 7.8%), hyperthyroidism (32 cases of Graves' disease, 1.2%), and positive for antithyroid antibodies (573 cases, 21.5%). None of these was associated with thyroid radiation dose. Neither thyroid antibody-positive nor -negative hypothyroidism was associated with thyroid radiation dose. Additional analyses using alternative definitions of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism found that radiation dose responses were not significant. Radiation effects on thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid diseases were not observed among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood, at 62 to 66 years earlier. The cross-sectional design and survival bias were limitations of this study. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  20. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Carter, R.L.; Akiyama, Mitoshi

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to atomic-bomb radiation affects immune responsiveness, such as the occurrence of autoantibodies and levels of immunoglobulins. Rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody, and immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE) were measured among 2061 Adult Health Study participants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki from December 1987 to November 1989. The prevalence and titers of rheumatoid factor increased in a statistically significant manner with increasing radiation dose. No radiation effect was found on the prevalence of antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, and anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody. A statistically significant relationship was also found between radiation exposure and the IgA level in females and the IgM levels in both sexes-both levels increased as radiation dose increased. However, the effects of radiation exposure were not large and accounted for less than 10% of the total variation in each measurement. Levels of IgG and IgE were not affected by radiation exposure. (author)

  1. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Chikako; Naitoh, Yasuo; Kumasawa, Toshihiko

    1976-01-01

    Fluororoentogenography of stomach was carried out on the cases of which stool-test was positive at the time of general physical examinations from October, 1971 to September, 1975. Necessity rate of detailed examination was high in male, but there was no difference by exposure condition between female and male. Rate of detailed examination carried out tended to be high in female, but there was no difference by exposure condition. Rate showing abnormal findings was high in male, and was high in the aged of both female and male. Rate showing abnormal findings according to exposure condition was higher in the group exposed directly to atomic bomb over 2.1 km from the hypocenter, in the group who entered city after explosion, and in other groups than in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter. In findings of the detailed examinations, incidence of gastric ulcer was high in young fellows and male, and incidence of gastric polyp was high in the aged of female. Incidence rate of stomach cancer was high in male, and it increased with increase of age in both female and male. Estimated incidence rate of stomach cancer by exposure condition seemed to be high in the group exposed directly within 1 km from the hypocenter. However, a statistically significant difference was not recognized because of small samples. Incidence rate of stomach cancer by sex was higher in females exposed proximally. (Kanao, N.)

  2. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, C; Naitoh, Y; Kumasawa, T [Hiroshima A-Bomb Survivors Health Control Clinic (Japan)

    1976-09-01

    Fluororoentogenography of stomach was carried out on the cases of which stool-test was positive at the time of general physical examinations from October, 1971 to September, 1975. Necessity rate of detailed examination was high in male, but there was no difference by exposure condition between female and male. Rate of detailed examination carried out tended to be high in female, but there was no difference by exposure condition. Rate showing abnormal findings was high in male, and was high in the aged of both female and male. Rate showing abnormal findings according to exposure condition was higher in the group exposed directly to atomic bomb over 2.1 km from the hypocenter, in the group who entered city after explosion, and in other groups than in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter. In findings of the detailed examinations, incidence of gastric ulcer was high in young fellows and male, and incidence of gastric polyp was high in the aged of female. Incidence rate of stomach cancer was high in male, and it increased with increase of age in both female and male. Estimated incidence rate of stomach cancer by exposure condition seemed to be high in the group exposed directly within 1 km from the hypocenter. However, a statistically significant difference was not recognized because of small samples. Incidence rate of stomach cancer by sex was higher in females exposed proximally.

  3. Lymphocyte subsets and response to PHA among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Susumu; Noguchi, Kyouichi; Eida, Kazuyuki; Tashiro, Kazunori; Hayashida, Ken

    1986-01-01

    In an effort to elucidate the effect of radiation exposure on immune competence in man, the number of lymphocytes, lymphocyte subsets, and the percentage of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced transformation of lymphocytes were determined in 66 cancer patients, 25 of whom were exposed to atomic radiation at ≤ 2,000 m from ground zero and 41 others were not exposed. The number of lymphocytes was decreased with increasing age at exposure. The percentage of OKT3-positive cells tended to be lower in exposed patients who were in their twenties at the time of exposure than the non-exposed patients. Among patients in their teens and twenties at the time of exposure, there was a tendency toward decreased percentage of OKT4-positive cells (T4) and increased percentage of OKT8-positive cells (T8). The T4/T8 ratio was reduced. Patients who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure tended to have decreased OKIa 1-positive cells, and increased Leulla-positive cells. Patients exposed in their twenties and thirties had slightly decreased percentage of PHA-induced transformation of lymphocytes. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Cancer risk among atomic bomb survivors. The RERF Life Span Study. Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Y.; Schull, W.J.; Kato, H.

    1990-01-01

    This article summarizes the risk of cancer among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We focus primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation from 1950 through 1985 based on recently revised dosimetry procedures. We report the risk of cancer other than leukemia among the atomic bomb survivors. We note that the number of excess deaths of radiation-induced malignant tumors other than leukemia increases with age. Survivors who were exposed in the first or second decade of life have just entered the cancer-prone age and have so far exhibited a high relative risk in association with radiation dose. Whether the elevated risk will continue or will fall with time is not yet clear, although some evidence suggests that the risk may be declining. It is important to continue long-term follow-up of this cohort to document the changes with time since exposure and to provide direct rather than projected risks over the lifetime of an exposed individual

  5. Effect Analysis on the Radiation Dose Rate of Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Survivors by Atmospheric Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Ji Sun; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Chang Ho [Innovative Technology Center for Radiation Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Heon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) had been established to evaluate the radiation doses for the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The radiation effects of neutrons and gamma-rays emitted from the atomic bombs detonated at both cities were analyzed, and two types of radiation transport codes (i.e., MCNP4C and DORT) were employed in their studies. It was specifically investigated for contribution of each type of radiations to total dose. However, it is insufficient to examine the effects by various environmental factors such as weather conditions, because their calculations were only performed under certain condition at the times of the bombings. In addition, the scope of them does not include acute radiation injury of the atomic bomb survivors in spite of important information for investigating hazard of unexpected radiation accident. Therefore, this study analyzed the contribution of primary and secondary effects (i.e., skyshine and groundshine) of neutrons emitted from the Nagasaki atomic bomb. These analyses were performed through a series of radiation transport calculations by using MCNPX 2.6.0 code with variations of atmospheric density. The acute radiation injury by prompt neutrons was also evaluated as a function of distance from the hypocenter, where hypocenter is the point on the ground directly beneath the epicenter which is the burst point of the bomb in air

  6. Recent results concerning radiation-induced cancer in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    The most recent data of the prospective study among Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors support the following conclusions: (a) the dose-response relationship is consistent with a straight line through the origin, including the lowest dose group (approx. 3 rad); (b) sensitivity to cancer induction varies considerably by irradiated tissues. (c) most cancers show a radiation effect still increasing 40 years after exposure; (d) a small leukemia excess among those irradiated is still present in Hiroshima; (e) the thyroid cancer excess is declining at present; (g) smoking adds to lung cancer incidence; (g) certain benign tumors show a radiation-related effect; (h) children under 10 years old at time of bombing are presently showing the highest relative cancer risk compared to other survivors at equal attained age. If this effect persists, age-specific cancer risk coefficients are necessary [fr

  7. The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1955 - 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Yoshida, Hikotaro; Ichimaru, Michito; Honda, Takeo; Yoshida, Katsuro; Fujiwara, Naoko; Sadamori, Michiko.

    1988-01-01

    Of 20,348 persons included in the extended Life Span Study in Nagasaki, 59 persons were registered as having skin tumors during the years 1955 - 1984. Included in this study were 40 patients with histologically proven skin cancer. Thirty five patients were considered to be exposed to ≥ one cGy. There was statistically significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and exposure doses in both men and women (p < 0.01). Overall, the incidence of skin cancer was significantly correlated as well with the distance from the hypocenter; however, this was not significant when restricted to either men or women. Because the incidence of skin cancer has definitively increased since 1955 among A-bomb survivors, follow-up of A-bomb survivors is warranted with respect to atomic bomb-related skin cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Incidence of leukemia in survivors of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folley, J H; Borges, W; Yamawaki, Takuso

    1959-01-01

    This document contains two reports. The aim of the first investigation was to obtain information concerning all individuals in Hiroshima and Nagasaki having onset of symptoms of leukemia or dying of the disease since the atomic explosion in 1945. Results show that: (1) There is a significant increase in the incidence of leukemia in the exposed populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as compared with the non-exposed populations of the two cities; (2) there is a significant increase in the incidence of leukemia within the exposed population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in subjects exposed at distances less than 2000 meters from the hypocenter; and (3) The concept that radiation from the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is a leukemogenic agent in man is supported. In the second report, 10 patients were used to study the early hematologic and preclinical phases of leukemia in atomic bomb survivors. Findings are presented. 23 references, 13 figures, 15 tables.

  9. A review of 40 years studies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itsuzo Shigematsu

    1993-01-01

    The late health effects of ionizing radiation have been studied by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) based on a fixed population of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki which had been established in 1950. The results thus far obtained up to the present can be classified into the following three categories: (1) The effects for which a strong association with atomic bomb radiation has been found include malignant neoplasms, cataracts, chromosomal aberrations, small head size and mental retardation among the in utero exposed. (2) A weak association has been found in the several sites of cancers, some non-cancer mortalities and immunological abnormalities. (3) No association has been observed in some types of leukemia, osteosarcoma, accelerated aging, sterility and hereditary effects

  10. Leukemia incidence in the atomic bomb survivor Life Span Study, 1950 - 87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, K.; Kusumi, S.; Izumi, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) is currently preparing a series of reports on cancer incidence in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors for the period from 1950 to 1987. One of these reports will present analyses of the data on the risk of hematopoietic cancers including leukemia, malignant lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. These analyses add an additional 11 years of follow-up to the previous comprehensive analysis of the LSS leukemia data. In this presentation, these data are presented and the methods being used modeling the leukemia risks are outlined. An analysis of the leukemia data pooled over subtypes will be used to illustrate these methods. It is shown that the data suggest a non-linear, concave upward dose response and that the temporal pattern of the radiation-induced excess absolute risks (EARs) depends on age-at-exposure and sex. There is no evidence of city differences in the EAR in this pooled analysis. The results suggest that the EARs for the youngest survivors were initially much higher and have declined more rapidly than those for older survivors. The same general pattern is seen both sexes, but the initial peak incidence is somewhat lower and the rate of decline less rapid for women than for men. (author)

  11. Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Land, C.E.; Tokuoka, Shoji; Akiba, Suminori; Nishimori, Issei; Soda, Midori

    1994-01-01

    An incidence survey among atomic bomb survivors identified 807 breast cancer cases, and 20 second breast cancers. As in earlier surveys of the Life Span Study population, a strongly linear radiation dose response was found, with the highest dose-specific excess relative risk (ERR) among survivors under 20 years old at the time of the bombings. Sixty-eight of the cases were under 10 years old at exposure, strengthening earlier reports of a marked excess risk associated with exposure during infancy and childhood. A much lower, but marginally significant, dose response was seen among women exposed at 40 years and older. It was not possible, however to discriminate statistically between age at exposure and age at observation for risk as the more important determinant of ERR per unit dose. A 13-fold ERR at 1 Sv was found for breast cancer occurring before age 35, compared to a 2-fold excess after age 35, among survivors exposed before age 20. This a posteriori finding, based on 27 exposed, known-dose, early-onset cases, suggests the possible existence of a susceptible genetics subgroup. Further studies, involving family histories of cancer and investigations at the molecular level, are suggested to determine whether such a subgroup exists. 41 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs

  12. Clinico-pathological investigation of resectable gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takashi; Saeki, Toshiaki; Hirai, Toshihiro; Toge, Tetuya; Niimoto, Minoru; Hattori, Takao; Ootaki, Megu; Munaka, Masaki

    1989-01-01

    This is a review of 1074 patients with resectable gastric cancer who have satisfied the following criteria: primary cancer, histological confirmation, the description of exposed or non-exposed patients, and certification of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook in exposed patients. There were 250 men and 162 women in the exposed group, and 460 men and 203 women in the non-exposed group. Gastric cancer was detected in 29.6% for the exposed group and 7.4% for the non-exposed group, although the patients had not complained of any symptoms. These figures tended to increase annually, probably benefiting from health examination. The difference between the exposed and non-exposed patients tended to be smaller when preoperative stages and the percentage of macroscopic early cancer were adjusted by age and the presence of complaints. The difference in histology between the groups also tended to be smaller. In the exposed group, however, men and women tended to have well differentiated cancer and poorly differentiated cancer, respectively. Since A-bomb survivors consist of radiation exposed population and are managed under intensive medical care, adjustment of some factors is necessary in comparing A-bomb survivors with general population. (Namekawa, K)

  13. The association between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sera, Nobuko; Hida, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Misa; Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-01-01

    Atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic CVD risk factors. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also known to be a risk factor for CVD and little is known whether CKD is associated with A-bomb radiation. To examine whether CKD is associated with CVD risk factors or with A-bomb radiation in A-bomb survivors, we classified renal dysfunction in 1,040 A-bomb survivors who were examined in 2004-2007 as normal [n = 121; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)]; mild (n = 686; eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); moderate (n = 217; eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); or severe (n = 16; eGFR bomb radiation. Hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.20, P = 0.009]; DM (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.61, P = 0.002); hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.12-2.14, P = 0.008); and MetS (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.32-2.63, P bomb survivors.

  14. Report on the results of the fourteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Jitsuro; Kambe, Masayuki; Hakoda, Masayuki

    2004-01-01

    The fourteenth medical examination of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors resident in North America was carried out from June 18th through July 2nd and from July 24th through August 6th, 2003, in the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Honolulu. The total number of those who underwent the fourteenth medical examination was 453, 65 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinee was 71.6 years. The examination items included an interview, clinical and physical examinations, electrocardiography (E.C.G.), and blood, urine, and stool tests. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of 45.4%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in 15.7% of the survivors examined, with major sites being the mammary gland, uterine, colon, and prostate. As a result of the blood test, 14.9% of the survivors examined were diagnosed as diabetic, and hypercholesterolemia was found in 28.4% of the survivors examined. Latent hypothyroidism was found in 21.2% of the survivors examined. No disease or examination finding showed a clear relation with exposure status. A report providing the results of the medical examination and necessity of undergoing closer examination and receiving medical treatment, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  15. Report on results of fourth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Tetsuo; Ito, Chikako; Tanaka, Yoshikiyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Inamizu, Tsutomu.

    1984-01-01

    Review was made of the fourth medical examination and the actual state of health of the U.S. atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors. The number of survivors registered with the Committee of A-bomb Survivors residing in the U.S. as of the end of June 1983 in 592 (males 154, females 438), of whom 58.8% possess U.S. citizenship. Survivor's health handbooks issued to survivors under the Japanese A-bomb Survivors Medical Treatment Law are possessed by 29.2%, with female holders being about twice as numerous as males. Responses to the health survey questionnaire were received from 306. Complaints of subjective symptoms tended to be higher in the early entrants, and by place of examination, those of Honolulu had the higher rate. Those who underwent health examination numbered 305 (73 males and 232 females). RBC and hemoglobin value were higher in the U.S. survivors than in Hiroshima survivors. No abnormality was observed in 47.5%. The main abnormalities noted were obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and liver disease. Comparison of those who had received examination on two consecutive occasions in 1981 and 1983 and those who were examined for the first time in 1983 showed a decrease in the frequency of obesity and hypertension. (J.P.N.)

  16. Study of mortality and cancer incidence among the offspring of atomic bomb survivors. 1946-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Soda, Midori.

    1996-01-01

    The mortality and cancer incidence among offspring of atomic bomb survivors whose exposure dose was estimated in DS86 (Dose System 1986) were studied as one of means to evaluate the genetic influence of atomic bomb radiation. Big malformation incidence and mortality of subjects with the malformation were also studied. Death and its cause were traced from the city register and certificate of death of 67,586 offspring born in 1946-1984. Cancer was confirmed by certificate of death until 1957 and by cancer registration after 1958. Big malformation and the mortality were traced from clinical diagnostic records at birth or at necropsy, of 9-month examination after birth and of certificate of death. Comparisons were made in general and the offspring's age-related mortalities and in mortality or cancer incidence in relation to the radiation doses the parents had been exposed to. The comparisons showed no statistically significant relationships in those examined parameters. (K.H.)

  17. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in an atomic bomb survivor receiving corticosteroid therapy for aplastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihara, Kazuo; Shida, Norihiko; Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    We report a case of successfully treated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) meningitis in a atomic bomb survivor receiving steroid therapy for aplastic anemia. The patient was a 62-year-old woman and the past medical history included hypothyroidism due to radioiodide therapy for Basedow disease, breast cancer, aplastic anemia, steroid-induced diabetes mellitus, and pulmonary tuberculosis. At the time of onset, she was receiving corticosteroid, anabolic steroid, an H{sub 2}-blocker (famotidine), and other medication. Since she developed symptoms of meningitis when she visited our hospital for regular medical check-up for aplastic anemia, she was hospitalized and given antibiotic therapy, including ABPC, without delay. With this effective antibiotic therapy and successful management of the co-existing medical conditions, she was cured except for being a little euphoric. Lm meningitis is known to occur in aged and immunocompromised patients. Since most of the atomic bomb survivors are now aged and the prevalence of malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and other diseases which cause immunodeficiency have been rising year by year, Lm meningitis is one of the emergency neurologic conditions whose diagnosis should not be delayed in this population. (author).

  18. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in an atomic bomb survivor receiving corticosteroid therapy for aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihara, Kazuo; Shida, Norihiko; Ohta, Michiya

    1995-01-01

    We report a case of successfully treated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) meningitis in a atomic bomb survivor receiving steroid therapy for aplastic anemia. The patient was a 62-year-old woman and the past medical history included hypothyroidism due to radioiodide therapy for Basedow disease, breast cancer, aplastic anemia, steroid-induced diabetes mellitus, and pulmonary tuberculosis. At the time of onset, she was receiving corticosteroid, anabolic steroid, an H 2 -blocker (famotidine), and other medication. Since she developed symptoms of meningitis when she visited our hospital for regular medical check-up for aplastic anemia, she was hospitalized and given antibiotic therapy, including ABPC, without delay. With this effective antibiotic therapy and successful management of the co-existing medical conditions, she was cured except for being a little euphoric. Lm meningitis is known to occur in aged and immunocompromised patients. Since most of the atomic bomb survivors are now aged and the prevalence of malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and other diseases which cause immunodeficiency have been rising year by year, Lm meningitis is one of the emergency neurologic conditions whose diagnosis should not be delayed in this population. (author)

  19. Genetic effects of radiation in atomic-bomb survivors and their children. Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori

    2006-01-01

    Genetic studies in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors have been conducted since 1948 at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Past studies include analysis of birth defects (untoward pregnancy outcome; namely, malformation, stillbirth, and perinatal death), chromosome aberrations, alterations of plasma and erythrocyte proteins as well as epidemiologic study on mortality (any cause) and cancer incidence (the latter study is still ongoing). There is, thus far, no indication of genetic effects in the offspring of survivors. Recently, the development of molecular biological techniques and human genome sequence databases made it possible to analyze DNA from parents and their offspring (trio-analysis). In addition, a clinical program is underway to establish the frequency of adult-onset multi-factorial diseases (diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease etc) in the offspring. The complementary kinds of data that will emerge from this three-pronged approach (clinical, epidemiologic, and molecular aspects) promise to shed light on health effects in the offspring of radiation-exposed people. (author)

  20. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munaka, Masaki

    1983-01-01

    The dietary life and socio-economic status of atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima were investigated. The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste products. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique.physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no dis ease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutr itional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high'' and ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', it tends to be low. The significant difference was observed in ''synthetic physical fitness'' between the two age groups of 50-59 years and beyond 70 years. (author)

  1. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munaka, Masaki (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1983-08-01

    The dietary life and socio-economic status of atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima were investigated. The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste products. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique.physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no dis ease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutr itional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high

  2. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, S.; Cologne, J.; Akahoshi, M. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, S.; Kodama, K.; Yoshizawa, H.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze various laboratory indicators of inflammation measured in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects are 6304 survivors who underwent inflammatory tests at RERF between 1998 and 1992 and whose radiation doses (DS86) are available. Inflammatory tests include leukocyte counts, neutrophil counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alpha 1 globulin, alpha 2 globulin, and sialic acid. Adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and city of residence, regression analysis was conducted. Regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and city of residence showed statistically significant associations with radiation dose for leukocyte counts (71.0 /mm{sup 3}/Gy, p=0.00151), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (1.58 mm/hour/Gy, p=0.0001), corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (1.14 mm/hour/Gy, p=0.0001), alpha 1 globulin (0.0057 g/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), alpha 2 globulin (0.0128 g/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), and sialic acid (1.2711 mg/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), but not for neutrophil counts (29.9 /mm{sup 3}/Gy, p=0.1729). Standardized scores combining results from these seven inflammatory tests showed significant associations with radiation dose both for persons with and without inflammatory disease, and for two inflammatory conditions in particular, chronic thyroiditis and chronic liver disease. In analyses of data from 403 AHS patients, in whom both inflammation indicators and T-cell ratios were measured, increased inflammation correlates with decreases in CD4 T-cells. Since the laboratory indicators of inflammation that we studied are not specific for particular clinical diseases, the implication of their dose-response-pattern is hard to interpret. The general occurrence of infectious diseases in survivors is not related to radiation dose. Such a relationship does exist, however, for other diseases in which infection may play an etiologic role. Virologic studies in A-bomb survivors have suggested dose-response alterations in immune

  3. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, Shizuyo [Institute of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, Tokyo (Japan); Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi [Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  4. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Kusumi, Shizuyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  5. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munaka, Masaki; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Ohtaki, Megu; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Kishida, Noriko; Ishigai, Keiko.

    1982-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste product. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique-physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no disease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutritional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high'' and ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', it tends to be low. The significant difference was observed in ''synthetic physical fitness'' between the two age groups of 50-59 years and beyond 70 years. (J.P.N.)

  6. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte subset in patients with neutropenia among atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Nobutaka; Kimura, Akiro [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine

    1998-12-01

    In 51 patients (atomic bomb survivors 50, unexposed persons 1) who have had neutropenia for two years or more under indistinct cause, cell surface antigen was analyzed by flow cytometry. Twenty-nine cases of survivors were diagnosed as NK cell leukemia or NK cell cytosis because analysis data showed CD3(-), CD56(+) and CD57(+/-). Six cases were diagnosed as NK like T cell hypercytosis because analysis data showed CD3(+), CD56(+/-) and CD57(+). As for 15 cases, CD56(+) cell number was in range of 15.96{+-}5.35 of a normal person, and no relation with NK cell was recognized. But, CD4/CD8 ratio was higher than 2.1, and gain of T helper cell was recognized. One unexposed persons was diagnosed as chronic NK cell leukemia because analysis data showed CD3(-), CD56(+) and CD57(+). Anti-neutrophil antibody wasn't recognized. Cytotoxic activity for K562 and Raji cell line showed high value compared with that of a normal person. Epstein Barr virus wasn't detected. (K.H.)

  7. Atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Takashi

    1986-01-01

    Better atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation dose estimates with a higher accuracy are required for the epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Several scientists have tried to evaluate the free-in-air gamma ray and neutron dose and some weighting factors such as house shielding and body shielding. Since 1965, the tentative 1965 dose (T65D) has been widely used as the basic data for the dose determination of A-bomb survivors in epidemiological studies. In 1976, however, the reevaluation of the T65D dose was proposed by an American scientist who calculated the A-bomb doses on the basis of declassified data on the radiation spectra of the A-bomb. The development of computer technology made it possible to perform complicated dosecalculations for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs. This paper describes the history of A-bomb dosimetry, reviews some issues in the determination of T65D, and discusses the necessity of reassessment of A-bomb dose and the expected values for survivors. (author)

  8. Atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, T.

    1986-01-01

    Better atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation dose estimates with a higher accuracy are required for the epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Several scientists have tried to evaluate the free-in-air gamma ray and neutron dose and some weighting factors such as house shielding and body shielding. Since 1965, the tentative 1965 dose (T65D) had been widely used as the basic data for the dose determination of A-bomb survivors in epidemiological studies. In 1976, however, the reevaluation of the T65D dose was proposed by an American scientist who calculated the A-bomb doses on the basis of declassified data on the radiation spectra of the A-bomb. The development of computer technology made it possible to perform complicated dosecalculations for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs. This paper describes the history of A-bomb dosimetry, reviews some issues in the determination of T65D, and discusses the necessity of reassessment of A-bomb dose and the expected values for survivors

  9. Some effects of random dose measurement errors on analysis of atomic bomb survivor data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of random dose measurement errors on analyses of atomic bomb survivor data are described and quantified for several procedures. It is found that the ways in which measurement error is most likely to mislead are through downward bias in the estimated regression coefficients and through distortion of the shape of the dose-response curve. The magnitude of the bias with simple linear regression is evaluated for several dose treatments including the use of grouped and ungrouped data, analyses with and without truncation at 600 rad, and analyses which exclude doses exceeding 200 rad. Limited calculations have also been made for maximum likelihood estimation based on Poisson regression. 16 refs., 6 tabs

  10. Liver cirrhosis and primary carcinoma of the liver among atomic bomb survivors. Study of autopsy cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, T [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan)

    1980-11-01

    Liver cirrhosis and primary carcinoma of the liver were investigated in 1699 autopsies of atomic bomb survivors carried out in Hiroshima from 1956 to 1980. Liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic biliary carcinoma were observed in 116, 111, and 17 cases respectively, the ratios of man to woman and were 2.3, 3.9, and 1.8 with a mean age of 56, 60, and 67 years respectively. There was no evidence that exposure to a-bomb increased the risk of these diseases significantly. About 90% of the hepatocellular carcinomas was combined with liver cirrhosis. Weight of liver and spleen, amount of ascites, hemorrhage from the digestive canals, esophageal varix, combination with other diseases, and histologic correlation with the activities of HBs antigen and ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein were discussed with the relation to the exposure.

  11. Bone marrow cytology in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors 5 years following exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterle, S.N.; Finch, S.C.

    1978-11-01

    Bone marrow aspiration smears obtained from 35 individuals, 5 years following exposure to the Hiroshima atomic bomb, were intensively evaluated for radiation related cytologic abnormalities. No definite radiation related changes were observed, but some findings were very suggestive. The most interesting of these was the occurrence of internuclear bridges joining erythroid precursors in the marrow smears of seven (20%) of the heavily exposed survivors. Although not specific it is likely that this lesion is indicative of residual stem cell damage and some degree of ineffectual erythropoiesis. The bone marrow morphologic lesions may be good markers of residual radiation damage but they are too infrequent in their occurrence to be of value as a biologic dosimeter. The findings in this study also suggest that a gradual disappearance of radiation induced late bone marrow changes continues for periods of 3 to 5 years or more following high dose acute radiation exposure. (author)

  12. A model-free description of the experience of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.; Brenner, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of low doses of radiation on human populations are primarily evaluated from the experience of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Most evaluations performed to date have in common: a) the use of a parametric model for estimating risks, and b) factorizing, in the model, the time post-exposure and dose dependencies. Since there is very little theoretical understanding of carcinogenesis the choice of any one model is arbitrary. Furthermore different models make risk predictions which might differ by factors as large as 100. The Japanese data base is analyzed here using non-parametric monotonic regression methods. These methods make use of only one assumption, namely that the effect is monotonically changing with its covariates (neutron and gamma dose, and time). With these mild restrictions, model-free risk predictions are made of the risks of being irradiated with indirectly ionizing radiation, whether singly or in combination

  13. T and B cells and PHA response of peripheral lymphocytes among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakido, Michio; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Dock, D.S.; Hamilton, H.B.; Awa, A.A.

    1982-07-01

    Little is known about immune compretence in atomic bomb survivors. The following results were observed from this study. T and B cells showed no change in proportion by age or exposure dose. The percentage of T cells was slightly lower in malignant tumor patients than in the control group. However, it was significantly higher in the group with chromosomal aberrations than in the control group. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) response of peripheral lymphocytes decreased significantly with age in the 0 rad control group and the 200+ rad exposure group, particularly so in the latter. The malignant tumor group also showed lower PHA response than the control group. The PHA response of the chromosomal aberration group was significantly depressed compared with that of the control group. (author)

  14. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis of leukemias found in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao; Tanaka, Kimio; Eguchi, Mariko

    1994-01-01

    Seventy five radiation-related leukemia patients in Hiroshima including 16 patients exposed to more than one Gray were cytogenetically examined. Statistical analysis of data on the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in the survivor groups according to bone marrow doses by DS86 estimation revealed that the heavily exposed group tended to have significantly higher aberration rates compared to the non-exposed group. Furthermore, the chromosomal aberrations in the survivors were observed to be of a more complex nature and had the characteristic findings of secondary leukemia. These observations therefore suggest that patients with a history of heavy exposure to atomic bomb radiation had leukemic cells originating from a stem cell which had been damaged by irradiation at the time of the bombing as well as cells involved in complex chromosome abnormalities. A higher incidence(p=0.06) of 11q23 abnormality was found in acute leukemia patients who had a history of exposure to A-bomb and developed from 1986 to 1993. However, we could not detect rearrangement of MLL gene in these patients. Break point region on 11q23 of radiation induced leukemias may be different from the common 8.5 kb region. Molecular biologic studies on RAS genes in acute and chronic leukemias and the BCR gene in chronic myelocytic leukemia were performed in exposed and non-exposed groups. So far, no distinctive differences have been observed in the frequency and sites of point mutations in N and K-RAS genes or in the rearrangement of the BCR gene. Further, retrospective analysis using DNA from leukemia patients who developed the disease in the early period from atomic bomb radiation exposure would be useful for elucidation of the mechanisms of radiation-induced leukemia. (author)

  15. Association of Acute Radiation Syndrome and Rain after the Bombings in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, K; Sakata, R; Cullings, H M; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Acute radiation-induced symptoms reported in survivors after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been suspected to be associated with rain that fell after the explosions, but this association has not been evaluated in an epidemiological study that considers the effects of the direct dose from the atomic bombs and other factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association using information from a fixed cohort, comprised of 93,741 members of the Life Span Study who were in the city at the time of the bombing. Information on acute symptoms and exposure to rain was collected in surveys conducted by interviewers, primarily in the 1950s. The proportion of survivors developing severe epilation was around 60% at levels of direct radiation doses of 3 Gy or higher and less than 0.2% at levels <0.005 Gy regardless of reported rain exposure status. The low prevalence of acute symptoms at low direct doses indicates that the reported fallout rain was not homogeneously radioactive at a level sufficient to cause a substantial probability of acute symptoms. We observed that the proportion of reported acute symptoms was slightly higher among those who reported rain exposure in some subgroups, however, suggestions that rain was the cause of these reported symptoms are not supported by analyses specific to the known areas of radioactive fallout. Misclassification of exposure and outcome, including symptoms due to other causes and recall bias, appears to be a more plausible explanation. However, the insufficient and retrospective nature of the available data limited our ability to quantify the attribution to those possible causes.

  16. Report on the results of the third medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitsuna, Akimitsu; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Noguchi, Kyoichi; Inoue, Nobuhisa; Yokoyama, Yutaka; Oishi, Akinori.

    1989-01-01

    The third medical examination was performed among A-bomb survivors residing in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru during the period October 17- November 4, 1988. One hundred and eighty-five A-bomb survivors were comfirmed to reside in the five countries. One hundred and eighteen A-bomb survivors (64%) participated in the examination, consisting of 50 men and 68 women. Seventy seven (35 men and 42 women) and 41 (15 men and 26 women) A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively. An average age of participants was 56.1±9.7 years for men and 58.4±9.6 years for women. The acquisition rate of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was 28.8%. A questionnaire survey for subjective symptoms revealed a high frequency of fatigue, decreased physical fitness, numbness, and dizziness. Fifty-four A-bomb survivors (47%) were needed to receive detailed examinations. Predominant diseases were hypertension, obesity, and urinary tract disease. (N.K.)

  17. Report on the results of the third medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamitsuna, Akimitsu (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Noguchi, Kyoichi; Inoue, Nobuhisa; Yokoyama, Yutaka; Oishi, Akinori

    1989-08-01

    The third medical examination was performed among A-bomb survivors residing in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru during the period October 17- November 4, 1988. One hundred and eighty-five A-bomb survivors were comfirmed to reside in the five countries. One hundred and eighteen A-bomb survivors (64%) participated in the examination, consisting of 50 men and 68 women. Seventy seven (35 men and 42 women) and 41 (15 men and 26 women) A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively. An average age of participants was 56.1{plus minus}9.7 years for men and 58.4{plus minus}9.6 years for women. The acquisition rate of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was 28.8%. A questionnaire survey for subjective symptoms revealed a high frequency of fatigue, decreased physical fitness, numbness, and dizziness. Fifty-four A-bomb survivors (47%) were needed to receive detailed examinations. Predominant diseases were hypertension, obesity, and urinary tract disease. (N.K.).

  18. A comparison of clinicopathological features and prognosis in prostate cancer between atomic bomb survivors and control patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Koichi; Teishima, Jun; Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Shinmei, Shunsuke; Akita, Tomoyuki; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Takeshima, Yukio; Arihiro, Koji; Tanaka, Junko; Yasui, Wataru; Matsubara, Akio

    2017-07-01

    An atomic bomb (A-bomb) was dropped on Hiroshima on 6th August 1945. Although numerous studies have investigated cancer incidence and mortality among A-bomb survivors, only a small number have addressed urological cancer in these survivors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinicopathological features of prostate cancer (PCa) in A-bomb survivors. The clinicopathological features and prognosis of PCa were retrospectively reviewed in 212 survivors and 595 control patients between November 1996 and December 2010. The histopathological and clinical outcomes of surgical treatment of PCa were also evaluated in 69 survivors and 162 control patients. Despite the higher age at diagnosis compared with the control group (P=0.0031), survivors were more likely to have been diagnosed with PCa from a health check compared with the control group (Pbomb exposure was not found to be an independent predictor for prognosis by multivariate analysis (OS, P=0.7800; CS, P=0.8688). The clinicopathological features of patients who underwent a prostatectomy were similar except for the diagnosis opportunity between the two groups. Progression-free survival rates were similar between the two groups (P=0.5630). A-bomb exposure was not a significant and independent predictor for worsening of progression-free prognosis by multivariate analysis (P=0.3763). A-bomb exposure does not appear to exert deleterious effects on the biological aggressiveness of PCa and the prognosis of patients with PCa.

  19. A survey of radiation doses received by atomic-bomb survivors residing in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Yamada, H.; Marks, S.

    1976-01-01

    A survey has been completed of 300 of an estimated 500 to 750 survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who reside in the U.S. Distributions with respect to age, sex, citizenship status, distance from the hypocenter at the time of bombing, and dose from immediate weapon radiation have been tabulated from the results and are presented for this group of 300 survivors. Also presented are survey results concerning exposures to residual radiation from fallout and neutral-induced radioactivity in the areas adjacent to the hypocenter. (author)

  20. Medical examination of ''Minashi'' atomic bomb survivor in Hiroshima-city, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, Toshihiko

    1978-01-01

    As it is about one year (three examination terms) since health examinations for ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors has been carried out, conditions of these examinations are described. ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors can receive an a-bomb survivor's health notebook when they suffer from 10 damages designated by the Ministry of Public Welfare, and the number of ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors changes frequently. ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors who received a certificate of a recipient of the examination were 2363 at the end of 1977, and by that time, 665 of them (28.1%) also received an a-bomb survivor's health notebook instead of the certificate. Accordingly, the number of persons recognized as ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors at the end of the year was 1703 (688 men and 1015 women). ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors underwent health examinations at the same time and under the same way as a-bomb survivors. There were no great differences in the undergoing rate of general health examinations, the necessity rate for detailed examinations, the undergoing rate of detailed examinations, the necessity rate for treatment, and kinds of diseases requiring treatment between ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors and those in a-bomb survivors. The undergoing rate of general health examinations was 67.6%, (45.6% in a-bomb survivors), the necessity rate for detailed examinations, 43.1% (50.1%), the undergoing rate of detailed examinations, 91.3% (93.3%), and the necessity rate for treatment, 20.3% (29.0%). The undergoing rate of general health examinations in ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors was higher than that in a-bomb survivors, but the necessity rate for detailed examinations, the undergoing rate of detailed examination, and the necessity rate for treatment in ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors were lower than those in a-bomb survivors. (Tsunoda, M.)

  1. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munaka, Masaki; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Ohtaki, Megu; Ueoka, Hiroshi (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Kishida, Noriko; Ishigai, Keiko

    1982-09-01

    The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste product. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique-physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no disease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutritional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high'' and ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', it tends to be low. The significant

  2. Study of skin cancer incidence in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1958-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Otake, Masanori; Honda, Takeo.

    1993-03-01

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on skin cancer incidence in a cohort of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in the Nagasaki Extended Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample have been investigated. Among 25,942 exposed survivors at risk whose DS86 dose estimates were available, 47 cases of skin cancer including malignant melanoma were confirmed in the Nagasaki Tumor Registry during the period from 1 April 1958 to 31 December 1985. The dose-response relationship of skin cancer based on an additive relative risk model showed linearity without threshold, not a linear-quadratic curve. The excess relative risk (ERR) of 2.2 per gray in the LSS-E85 sample was highly significant (95% confidence limits: 0.5 to 5.0). In addition, the ERR of 3.1 per gray in the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample was also significant (95% confidence limits: 0.6 to 20.3). When dose equivalents based on a relative biological effectiveness of neutrons of 10 were used, the ERR in the former sample decreased to 2.0 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.7-4.5), and the risk in the latter group also declined, to 2.7 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.6-17.8). The ERRs did not differ significantly between males and females in the LSS-E85 and AHS samples, but a highly significant increase was observed for the ERR of age at exposure and time trend since exposure. The ERR of skin cancer cases including and excluding 4 malignant melanoma cases for the LSS-E85 sample (there were no malignant melanoma cases in the AHS sample) showed almost the same linear dose response. This is the first report to demonstrate a highly significant dose-response relationship between A-bomb exposure and skin cancer incidence. (author)

  3. Capillary microscopic observation on the superficial minute vessels of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima, 1972--1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuya, A.; Wakano, Y.; Otake, M.; Dock, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    Microscopic and photographic studies were conducted in 1972 to 1973 at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in Hiroshima on the morphology of superficial blood vessels of A-bomb survivors to determine whether the somatic effects of radiation still existed 30 yr after the A-bomb. Control curves representing the relationship between age and score values assigned to morphological changes of the minute blood vessels of the fingernail fold, labial mucosa, and lingual mucosa, which could be regarded as an index of aging, were obtained. These were compared with similar curves obtained from A-bomb survivors with the aim of evaluating the effect of radiation on the aging process of these vessels. The late somatic effects of irradiation which were demonstrated 10 yr after the A-bomb in a previous study (1956 to 1957) were found to persist in the current study (1972 to 1973) conducted 30 yr after the A-bomb, though not as pronounced as in the earlier study. A significant effect was observed only in the nail fold of those exposed to 100 rad or more under the age of 10 at the time of bomb (ATB). A statistically significant difference was not observed with labial and lingual mucosae because the number of cases available for score evaluation was small, but a trend was observed for abnormalities of these two sites to be higher in frequency in the group exposed to 100 rad or more under the age of 10 ATB than that of the control group. No significant difference was observed between the control and exposed with regard to radiation effect on the aging process using the relationship of score values to age as an index of aging

  4. The incidence of leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors: 1950 – 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Preston, Dale L.; Soda, Midori; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Kimura, Akiro; Kamada, Nanao; Dohy, Hiroo; Tomonaga, Masao; Iwanaga, Masako; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Cullings, Harry M.; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Shore, Roy E.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2013-01-01

    A marked increase in leukemia risks was the first and most striking late effect of radiation exposure seen among the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. This paper presents analyses of radiation effects on leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma incidence in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors updated 14 years since the last comprehensive report on these malignancies. These analyses make use of tumor- and leukemia-registry-based incidence data on 113,011 cohort members with 3.6 million person-years of follow-up from late 1950 through the end of 2001. In addition to a detailed analysis of the excess risk for all leukemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia or adult T-cell leukemia (neither of which appear to be radiation-related), we present results for the major hematopoietic malignancy types: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, adult T-cell leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Poisson regression methods were used to characterize the shape of the radiation dose response relationship and, to the extent the data allowed, to investigate variation in the excess risks with sex, attained age, exposure age, and time since exposure. In contrast to the previous report that focused on describing excess absolute rates, we considered both excess absolute rate (EAR) and excess relative risk (ERR) models and found that ERR models can often provide equivalent and sometimes more parsimonious descriptions of the excess risk than EAR models. The leukemia results indicated that there was a non-linear dose response for leukemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia or adult T-cell leukemia, which varied markedly with time and age at exposure, with much of the evidence for this non-linearity arising from the acute myeloid leukemia risks. Although the leukemia excess risks generally declined with attained age or time since exposure, there was evidence

  5. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, M.; Ishimaru, T.; Mikami, M.; Matsunaga, M.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimated risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure

  6. Smoking and serum proteins in atomic-bomb survivors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stram, D.O.; Akiba, S.; Neriishi, K.; Stevens, R.G.; Hosoda, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Associations of smoking habit with serum levels of total protein as well as protein fractions were studied in a population consisting of 4,739 atomic-bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima, Japan who participated in the 1979-1981 period of the Adult Health Study, an ongoing health follow-up program of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Smoking was strongly related to serum protein concentration after correction for age, sex, and body mass index. Among current smokers, levels of total protein, beta globulin, and gamma globulin were significantly lower and levels of alpha-1 and alpha-2 globulin were significantly higher, when compared with nonsmokers. For serum albumin levels a decrease was also noted, but it failed to attain statistical significance. Ex-smokers were indistinguishable from nonsmokers in terms of the serum protein levels analyzed. With an increase of the amount of daily cigarette consumption, monotonic increases of serum levels were observed only in alpha-1 globulin. Duration of smoking was related to increased alpha-1 and alpha-2 globulin. Smoking duration was also associated with albumin level, but the trend was not monotonic. The radiation exposure effect on serum protein level was significant in several instances but was in general much smaller than the smoking effect, and its inclusion in the regression models did not noticeably affect the association between smoking and serum proteins

  7. Report on the results of the ninth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Michiya; Hiyama, Keiko; Matsuo, Kakaru; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Nishida, Masashi; Sasaki, Yoshinobu

    2001-01-01

    The results of the ninth medical examination are reported. Atomic bomb survivors who had emigrated to South America as of November 2000 totaled 180 (153 to Brazil, 4 to Paraguay, 7 to Bolivia, 13 to Argentina, and 3 to Peru). Eighty persons (44.4%) were examined (62 in Brazil, 2 in Paraguay, 6 in Bolivia, 7 in Argentina, and 3 in Peru). The mean age of the males was 71.3 years, and the mean age of the females was 69.7 years. They had hypertension (24.1%), diabetes (10.1%), cancer (8.9%), heart disease (7.6%), and thyroid disease (2.5%). The most common manifestations of illness were fatigue (69.6%), loss of vigor (65.8%), taking medicine (55.7%), and heat intolerance (53.2%). The incident rates of electrocardiographic abnormalities and urine, blood, and biochemical tests abnormalities were almost the same as at the previous examination, and there was no change in the percentage of those who required detailed tests and treatment. When independence in daily life was judged by the criteria of the nursing care insurance system, 68 persons were judged ''independent'', and 7 persons ''handicapped.'' (K.H.)

  8. Report on the results of the ninth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Hiyama, Keiko; Matsuo, Kakaru; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Nishida, Masashi; Sasaki, Yoshinobu

    2001-06-01

    The results of the ninth medical examination are reported. Atomic bomb survivors who had emigrated to South America as of November 2000 totaled 180 (153 to Brazil, 4 to Paraguay, 7 to Bolivia, 13 to Argentina, and 3 to Peru). Eighty persons (44.4%) were examined (62 in Brazil, 2 in Paraguay, 6 in Bolivia, 7 in Argentina, and 3 in Peru). The mean age of the males was 71.3 years, and the mean age of the females was 69.7 years. They had hypertension (24.1%), diabetes (10.1%), cancer (8.9%), heart disease (7.6%), and thyroid disease (2.5%). The most common manifestations of illness were fatigue (69.6%), loss of vigor (65.8%), taking medicine (55.7%), and heat intolerance (53.2%). The incident rates of electrocardiographic abnormalities and urine, blood, and biochemical tests abnormalities were almost the same as at the previous examination, and there was no change in the percentage of those who required detailed tests and treatment. When independence in daily life was judged by the criteria of the nursing care insurance system, 68 persons were judged ''independent'', and 7 persons ''handicapped.'' (K.H.)

  9. Chromosomal instability in acute myelocytic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome patients among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Mitsue; Tanaka, Kimio; Shintani, Takahiro; Takahashi, Tomoko; Kamada, Nanao

    1999-01-01

    To clarify the mechanism of leukemogenesis in atomic bomb survivors, leukemic cells were investigated using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on the basis of conventional G-banding in patients with a history of radiation exposure and also in de novo patients. Conventional G-banding showed higher incidences (p<0.005) of structural and numerical abnormalities without any specific types of chromosome aberrations in the group exposed to a dose of more than one Gy, compared to the non-exposed group. FISH analysis revealed significantly higher incidences (P<0.05) of subclones with monosomy 7 and deletion of the 20q13.2 region, which were not found in conventional cytogenetic analysis in the exposed group (more than one Gy) compared to the non-exposed controls. Furthermore, segmental jumping translocation (SJT) of the c-MYC gene region was observed only in the exposed group. These chromosomal instability suggested that the leukemic cells from the heavily exposed patients contained persistent cellular genetic instability which may strongly influence the development of leukemia in people exposed to radiation. (author)

  10. The shape of the cancer mortality dose-response curve for atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, D.A.; Vaeth, M.

    1989-10-01

    The shape of the cancer mortality dose-response in the atomic bomb survivor data is analyzed in the context of linear-quadratic (LQ) models. Results are given for all cancers except leukemia as a group, for leukemia, and for combined inferences assuming common curvature. Since there is substantial information aside from these data suggesting a dose-response concave from above, the emphasis here is not on estimating the best-fitting dose-response curve, but rather on assessing the maximal extent of curvature under LQ models which is consistent with the data. Such inferences are substantially affected by imprecision in the dose estimates, and methods are applied which make explicit allowances for biases due to this. The primary means used here to express the extent of curvature is the factor by which linear risk estimates should be divided to arrive at appropriate low-dose risk estimates. In the past, influential committees have recommended ranges of 2-10 and of 1.5-3 for such a factor. Results here suggest that values greater than about 2 are at least moderately inconsistent with these data, within the context of LQ models. It is emphasized, however, that there is little direct information in these data regarding low-dose risks; the inferences here depend strongly on the link between low-dose and high-dose risks provided by the assumption of an LQ model. (author)

  11. Available data for house shielding estimates of Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolson, William A.

    1987-01-01

    To make intelligent decisions concerning the methods to update the dosimetry assignments for the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, it is necessary to know the available shielding information that exists in uncoded form on paper and in coded form that can be directly accessed by the computer. The objective of this report is to provide a summary of the available shielding data, both in uncoded and coded form. This report is the result of visits to RERF in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in February and November 1983. The special assistance provided by Mr. Hiroaki Yamada at Hiroshima and Mr. Yoshio Okamoto at Nagasaki is acknowledged. They were in charge of the ABCC shielding sections at their respective locations and have been long involved in the RERF shielding program. Their familiarity with the methods, procedures, and data was of invaluable assistance in this work. The following sections of this report will provide a description of the information that is available in the shielding history files in uncoded form; a brief description of the various shielding methods that were used over the course of time from the T57D system to the present day T65D; and a description of the current coded data bases that can be accessed by computer

  12. The delayed effects of radiation exposure among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Moriyama, I.M.

    1980-07-01

    The most important radiation-induced late medical effect in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been the increased occurrence of certain neoplasms, specifically, leukemia and cancers of the thyroid, lung, and breast. Other definite radiation-related effects include an increase in posterior lenticular opacities, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and some abnormalities of growth and development following irradiation while in utero or during childhood. Moderate to fairly strong associations between A-bomb exposure and the increased occurrence of stomach cancer, multiple myeloma, and several other types of cancer have been observed. Radiation relationships also are suggestive for alterations of certain aspects of immune mechanisms and the increased occurrence of myelofibrosis. No increase in genetic effects has been demonstrated in the children born of exposed parents, and studies to data have been negative for evidence of increased infertility, accelerated aging, or increased mortality from diseases other than cancer. In general, the radiation dose-response relationships for most positive effects have been higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki, and the shape of the dose-response curves for certain effects is different in the two cities. These differences may be related to differences in the quality of the radiation from the two A-bombs. For several radiation-related effects the latent period following exposure is shorter and the incidence rate is higher in personse exposed when young as compared to exposure later in life. (author)

  13. Chromosome break points of T-lymphocytes from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Ohkita, Takeshi

    1980-01-01

    Chromosome break points of T-lymphocytes were investigated for 9 atomic bomb survivors estimated to be irradiated with 100 - 630 red. Chromosome aberration was found in 199 cells out of 678 cells investigated, with non-random distribution. The types of the chromosome aberration were, transfer: 56%, deficit: 38%, additional abnormality 3%, and reverse: 2%. High and low incidence of chromosome aberrations were observed at the chromosome numbers of 22, 21, and 13, and 11, 12, and 4, respectively. The aberration numbers per arm were high in 22q, 21q, and 18p and low in 11q, 5p, and 12q. For the distribution of aberration number within a chromosome, 50.7% was observed at the terminal portion and 73% was at the pale band appeared by Q-partial-stain method, suggesting the non-random distribution. The incidence of aberration number in 22q was statistically significant (P 1 chromosome in chronic myelocytic leukemia. The non-random distribution of chromosome break points seemed to reflect the selection effect since irradiation. (Nakanishi, T.)

  14. Alterations of body mass index and body composition in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa, Y; Misumi, M; Yamada, M; Masunari, N; Oyama, H; Nakanishi, S; Fukunaga, M; Fujiwara, S

    2013-08-01

    Obesity, underweight, sarcopenia and excess accumulation of abdominal fat are associated with a risk of death and adverse health outcomes. Our aim was to determine whether body mass index (BMI) and body composition, assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), are associated with radiation exposure among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Adult Health Study of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. We examined 2686 subjects (834 men and 1852 women), aged 48-89 years (0-40 years at A-bomb exposure), for BMI analysis. Among them, 550 men and 1179 women underwent DXA in 1994-1996 and were eligible for a body composition study. After being adjusted for age and other potential confounding factors, A-bomb radiation dose was associated significantly and negatively with BMI in both sexes (P=0.01 in men, P=0.03 in women) and appendicular lean mass (Pbomb radiation exposure. We will need to conduct further studies to evaluate whether these alterations affect health status.

  15. Urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanefuji, Hayato; Ishimaru, Toranosuke.

    1980-03-01

    A study was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the incidence of urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls in the RERF Life Span Study extended sample. A total of 112 cases of urinary bladder tumors was identified among approximately 99,000 subjects in this fixed cohort during 1961-72. Morphologic diagnoses were available for 86 cases (76.8%), cystoscopy alone for 21 cases (18.7%), and only the cause of death recorded on death certificates for 5 cases (4.5%). Urothelial carcinoma (transitional cell carcinoma) is the most common type of urinary bladder tumor for which morphologic diagnoses are available. The 1961-72 incidence rate was calculated using 106 cases identified as urinary bladder tumors. Although the crude annual incidence rate in the high dose group (100 rad or more) is elevated in both cities and both sexes, all nine cases with this dose were aged 40 years or more at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk adjusted for city and sex for those of age 40 or more ATB in the high dose group is 1.8 in comparison with the control group and this is a suggestive statistical difference. A statistically significant elevation of risk occurs in the high dose group for urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder among those aged 40 or more ATB. (author)

  16. Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation. Artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Masao S.; Tachibana, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined because of ambiguity in the quantitative link to doses below 0.2 Sv in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki arising from limitations in the statistical power and information available on overall radiation dose. To deal with these difficulties, a novel nonparametric statistics based on the ‘integrate-and-fire’ algorithm of artificial neural networks was developed and tested in cancer databases established by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The analysis revealed unique features at low doses that could not be accounted for by nominal exposure dose, including (1) the presence of a threshold that varied with organ, gender and age at exposure, and (2) a small but significant bumping increase in cancer risk at low doses in Nagasaki that probably reflects internal exposure to 239 Pu. The threshold was distinct from the canonical definition of zero effect in that it was manifested as negative excess relative risk, or suppression of background cancer rates. Such a unique tissue response at low doses of radiation exposure has been implicated in the context of the molecular basis of radiation–environment interplay in favor of recently emerging experimental evidence on DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice and its epigenetic memory by histone marking. (author)

  17. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Mikami, Motoko; Matsunaga, Masako.

    1979-10-01

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the occurrence of multiple myeloma has been evaluated in a fixed cohort of approximately 100,000 A-bomb survivors and nonexposed controls during the period from October 1950 to December 1976. Analysis of these data revealed the standardized relative risk adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of the bombs (ATB) to be significantly greater in the group of individuals who received 100 rad or more of radiation than in their controls. An excess risk became apparent in the high dose group about 20 years after exposure. The excess risk of multiple myeloma in those persons aged 20 - 59 ATB is estimated to be approximately 0.24 per million person-years per rad (PYR) in kerma dose and approximately 0.48 per million PYR in bone marrow dose. The interval between radiation exposure and the occurrence of an excess risk for multiple myeloma in the high dose population is considerably longer than that for leukemia. The cases of multiple myeloma observed in the high dose group showed no unusual clinical features. (author)

  18. Malignant tumors during the first 2 decades of life in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Y.; Neel, J.V.; Schull, W.J.; Kato, H.; Soda, M.; Eto, R.; Mabuchi, K.

    1990-01-01

    The risk of cancer (incidence) prior to age 20 years has been determined for children born to atomic bomb survivors and to a suitable comparison group. Tumor ascertainment was through death certificates and the tumor registries maintained in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The rationale for the study stemmed from the evidence that a significant proportion of such childhood tumors as retinoblastoma and Wilms tumor arise on the basis of a mutant gene inherited from one parent plus a second somatic cell mutation involving the allele of this gene. Gonadal radiation doses were calculated by the recently established DS86 system, supplemented by an ad hoc system for those children for one or both of whose parents a DS86 dose could not be computed but for whom an ad hoc dose could be developed on the basis of the available information. The total data set consisted of (1) a cohort of 31,150 live-born children one or both of whose parents received greater than 0.01 Sv of radiation at the time of the atomic bombings (average conjoint gonad exposure 0.43 Sv) and (2) two suitable comparison groups totaling 41,066 children. Altogether, 43 malignant tumors were ascertained in the children of exposed parents, and 49 malignant tumors were ascertained in the two control groups. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed no increase in malignancy in the children of exposed parents. However, examination of the data suggested that only 3.0-5.0% of the tumors of childhood that were observed in the comparison groups are associated with an inherited genetic predisposition that would be expected to exhibit an altered frequency if the parental mutation rate were increased. There is thus far no confirmation of the positive findings that Nomura found in a mouse system

  19. Report on results of medical survey of atomic bomb survivors residing in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Akio; Monzen, Tetsuo; Inamizu, Tsutomu; Oguma, Nobuo; Yotsuya, Koichi; Ozaki, Shinpei; Takamatsu, Katsuro; Kawaguchi, Kiyoshi.

    1986-01-01

    Medical survey of A-bomb survivors was made from October 21 through November 7, 1985 in Brazil, Argentine, and Paraguay. One hundred fifty four A-bomb survivors were identified in these three countries. Of these A-bomb survivors, 133 (86 %) participated in this survey. Eighy six survivors came from Hiroshima and the other 47 from Nagasaki. The average age of them was 55.8 +- 11.1 yr for men and 56.3 +- 9.9 yr for women. Abnormal findings requiring detailed examinations and life instruction were seen in 56 % of the participants. Common findings were hypertension, heart disease, and obesity. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. 38 CFR 3.22 - DIC benefits for survivors of certain veterans rated totally disabled at time of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... benefits under paragraph (a) of this section receives any money or property pursuant to a judicial... amount of money received and the fair market value of the property received. The provisions of this... veteran. The amount to be reported is the total of the amount of money received and the fair market value...

  1. On the existence of a threshold in the dose-response relationship from the epidemiological data of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Tatsuo; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2002-01-01

    Whether or not there is a threshold dose in the dose-response relationship for cancer incidence due to radiation is one of the most important but controversial issues in radiation protection and nuclear policy making. The epidemiological studies on the Life Span Study (LSS) group of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, conducted by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) have been regarded to be most authentic, and they keep the view that there is no evidence to deny the linear non-threshold (LNT) hypotheses. The authors have claimed the necessity of reassessment of exposure doses of survivors, by considering the contribution of chronic dose, which comes from fall-out, induced radioactivity, and early entrance near the center of the city. The authors also have stressed the importance of the cases of if 'not-in-city' survivors, frequently reported to be fatal by the heavy chronic exposure. Recently we have noticed that the appearance of acute radiation symptoms is an important index for estimating total dose. In this paper, based on Obos statistical data (in 1957) for the acute symptoms observed for various category of survivors, we present an estimation of the average chronic dose of survivors, which should be added to the instantaneous dose for the directly exposed groups. By assuming the threshold for the appearance of the acute symptom such as epilation as 0.5 Sv, average chronic dose of 0.32 Sv was estimated for all survivors. Then the present dose-response relationship for cancer incidence should be shifted to the right hand side by this amount, and the value of about 0.32 Sv or more is suggested as the threshold for cancer incidence in low radiation level region

  2. Ophthalmologic survey of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, 1949. Atomic bomb radiation cataract case report with histopathologic study. Medical examination of Hiroshima patients with radiation cataracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, D.G.; Martin, S.F.; Kimura, S.J.; Ikui, Hiroshi; Fillmore, P.G.

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports dealing with the delayed effects of radiation on the eyes of survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first study, 1000 persons who were listed as having been in the open and within two kilometers of the hypocenter at the time of the explosion were selected at random from the census files of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission for study. In addition, 231 others, comprising the total available number of surviving persons listed at present in the census files as having been within one kilometer of the hypocenter, were examined, as were several hundred others who were contacted through newspaper publicity, referrals from local ophthalmologists, or through hearsay. The survey resulted in bringing in persons having, or having had, a variety of ocular conditions. Those connected with the atomic bomb included the following diagnoses; multiple injuries of eyes and eyelids; keratoconjunctivitis from ultraviolet and ionizing radiations; thermal burn of the cornea and of the retina; retinitis proliferans; and radiation cataracts. The cataracts were the only delayed manifestations of ocular injury from the atomic bomb. The second paper is a case report of a histopathologic study of atomic bomb radiation cataract. The third paper presents the results of medical examinations of survivors having radiation induced cataracts. 32 references, 8 figures. (DMC)

  3. A time series analysis on an individual data of atomic-bomb survivors and reduction to a medical treatment of atomic-bomb survivors using the results, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Hiroshi; Hamada, Tadao; Kawagoe, Kazuko; Shigenobu, Takuzo; Matsuura, Chifumi.

    1980-01-01

    To prevent death of a-bomb survivors with myocardial infarction, a time series analysis of conditions of death caused by myocardial infarction was performed. Six a-bomb survivors who died of myocardial infarction were selected as subjects because their time series data could be obtained. Growth-equilibrium curves and polynomial trend line obtained from time series analysis were analysed by using a computer. Changes in a white blood cell count, a erythrocyte count, and Hb showed patterns of hemorrhagic shock at a terminal stage. Essential condition necessary for preservation of damaged heart was to keep up an erythrocyte count of 3,060,000 and Hb of 64.7%. The borderline between life and death was systolic pressure of 54 mmHg. It was demonstrated that prof. Abe's theory that the condition necessary for controlling diabetis is to keep up fasting glucose in blood of 140 mg/dl was correct. (Tsunoda, M.)

  4. Age-at-exposure effects on risk estimates for non-cancer mortality in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Muirhead, Colin R; Hunter, Nezahat

    2005-01-01

    Statistically significant increases in non-cancer disease mortality with radiation dose have been observed among survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The increasing trends arise particularly for diseases of the circulatory, digestive, and respiratory systems. Rates for survivors exposed to a dose of 1 Sv are elevated by about 10%, a smaller relative increase than that for cancer. The aetiology of this increased risk is not yet understood. Neither animal nor human studies have found clear evidence for excess non-cancer mortality at the lower range of doses received by A-bomb survivors. In this paper, we examine the age and time patterns of excess risks in the A-bomb survivors. The results suggest that the excess relative risk of non-cancer disease mortality might be highest for exposure at ages 30-49 years, and that those exposed at ages 0-29 years might have a very low excess relative risk compared with those exposed at older ages. The differences in excess relative risk for different age-at-exposure groups imply that the dose response relationships for non-cancer disease mortality need to be modelled with adjustment for age-at-exposure

  5. Scars remaining in atom bomb survivors: a four year follow-up study. The status of lenticular opacities caused by atomic radiation, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1951-1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, W; Tsukifuji, Neal; Sinskey, R M

    1959-01-01

    Two studies on injuries suffered by survivors of the atomic explosions on Hiroshima and Nagasaki are described. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Database. (DMC)

  6. Benefits for Military Veterans with ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Veterans Resources for Military Veterans, Families & Survivors The ALS Association is working everyday to support people with ...

  7. Psychological problems of atomic bomb survivors from the medical social worker's standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoike, Toshio

    1994-01-01

    Mental data from 80 A-bomb survivors were available during a 20-year period 1973-1992. Types of A-bomb survivors were classified into (1) directly exposed A-bomb survivors, (2) A-bomb survivors living in the United States, (3) those living in prefectures other than Nagasaki, (4) ex-soldiers, (5) A-bomb survivors having family problems and others, (6) the demented elderly, (7) the alcoholic, and (8) others. Mental problems were judged as psychogenic, endogenous, and exogenous. Mental problems were most frequently associated with Type 1 (34.9%), followed by Type 8 (21.0%), Type 2 (18.6%), and Type 3 (7.0%). Noticeable finding was that Type 1 A-bomb survivors suffered from psychogenic and exogenous mental problems in an extremely high incidence, as compared with the non-exposed group (66.3% vs 24%). The incidence of both exogenous and endogenous problems was higher in the non-exposed group (32.6% and 24.5%) than the exposed group (23.2% and 10.5%). There was no significant gender difference in the development of mental problems. According to types of A-bomb survivors, both psychogenic and exogenous mental problems were most common for Type 1. The incidence of psychogenic problems was 2.85 times higher than that of exogenous problems. (N.K.)

  8. Psychological problems of atomic bomb survivors from the medical social worker`s standpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomoike, Toshio [Japanese Red Cross Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Mental data from 80 A-bomb survivors were available during a 20-year period 1973-1992. Types of A-bomb survivors were classified into (1) directly exposed A-bomb survivors, (2) A-bomb survivors living in the United States, (3) those living in prefectures other than Nagasaki, (4) ex-soldiers, (5) A-bomb survivors having family problems and others, (6) the demented elderly, (7) the alcoholic, and (8) others. Mental problems were judged as psychogenic, endogenous, and exogenous. Mental problems were most frequently associated with Type 1 (34.9%), followed by Type 8 (21.0%), Type 2 (18.6%), and Type 3 (7.0%). Noticeable finding was that Type 1 A-bomb survivors suffered from psychogenic and exogenous mental problems in an extremely high incidence, as compared with the non-exposed group (66.3% vs 24%). The incidence of both exogenous and endogenous problems was higher in the non-exposed group (32.6% and 24.5%) than the exposed group (23.2% and 10.5%). There was no significant gender difference in the development of mental problems. According to types of A-bomb survivors, both psychogenic and exogenous mental problems were most common for Type 1. The incidence of psychogenic problems was 2.85 times higher than that of exogenous problems. (N.K.).

  9. Joint analysis of site-specific cancer risks for the atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, D.A.; Preston, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Statistical methods are presented for joint analysis of site-specific cancer risks for the atomic-bomb survivors. Previous analyses of these data, aside from those on leukemia, have been made either without regard to cancer type, or separately for types or classes of cancers. Clearly, analyses without regard to cancer type are less than satisfactory. The primary advantages of joint, rather than separate, analyses are that (1) models can be fitted with parameters common to cancer types, which can allow more-precise estimation of effects of interest, (2) significance tests can be used to compare type-specific risks, and (3) a clearer understanding may be obtained of risk-modification factors such as sex, age at exposure, and time since exposure. Joint analysis is straightforward, entailing primarily the incorporation of another factor for cancer type in the usual cross-tabulation of the data for analysis. The use of these methods is illustrated in an analysis of the three categories of cancer studied by the fifth Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR V): digestive, respiratory, and other solid tumors. Based on this analysis, some criticism is made of the BEIR V-preferred models. Since the proposed methods are applicable to models for either relative or absolute risks, some comments on the use of explicit models for the absolute excess risk are also given. Although some of the gains from joint analysis are apparent from the results here, it will be important to use these methods with a more suitable choice of cancer classes and for cancer incidence data in which the diagnoses are more accurate. (author)

  10. Studies of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1950-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi

    1985-01-01

    Among the 82,064 subjects, 595 cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed, 395 cases (66.4%) by microscopic examinations of histological specimens and 69 cases (11.6%) by death certificate only. Subjects with unknown exposure dose or who were not in Hiroshima city at the time of the bombing were excluded, and the analysis was based on 60,470 persons with estimated exposure dose. In this population, there were 450 colorectal cancer cases: 239 cases of colon cancer, 203 cases of rectal cancer and eight cases with unknown site. Concerning the relationship between incidence of colorectal cancer and radiation exposure, the following conclusions were obtained: 1. The incidence of colorectal cancer increased with radiation dose, and this tendency was observed in both sexes. 2. The risk of colon cancer increased with dose, and linear trend tests showed that the increase was significant both in males (p<0.05) and females (p<0.01). The effects of radiation on the incidence of colon cancer differed by age at the time of the bombing. Among survivors exposed at young ages (less than 20) the effects were especially remarkable, the relative risk of the 100+ rad group versus the 0 rad group being 6.2, which was significantly greater than unity (p<0.01). Further, by site of colon cancer, radiation dose effects on the incidence of cancer of the right side colon (cecum and ascending colon), and sigmoid colon were observed, while dose effects on the incidence of the transverse colon or descending colon were not. 3. No effects atomic bomb radiation on the incidence of rectal cancer could be demonstrated, even when examined by sex and age at the time of the bombing. 4. For both colon cancer and rectal cancer, no difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (J.P.N.)

  11. Primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyama, Shinichi; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Iijima, Soichi; Mori, Kazuo.

    1980-02-01

    An analysis was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the occurrence of primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and nonexposed controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in the fixed cohort of the Life Span Study (LSS) extended sample during the period 1961-75, or 16 to 30 years after the A-bombs. Based on various medical sources, 104 cases of primary intracranial tumors were identified among approximately 99,000 LSS extended sample members who were alive as of 1 January 1961. Of these 104 cases, 45 had manifested clinical signs of brain tumors, but, 59 cases were identified incidentally at postmortem examination. The distributions of morphologic type, age, and size of tumor were quite different for those primary intracranial tumors with and without a clinical sign of brain tumor. Glioma was the most frequent type of tumor with a clinical sign and meningioma was the most frequent type without. In relation to radiation dose the incidence rate of primary intracranial tumors with a clinical sign showed a significant excess risk for males in the high dose group who received 100 rad or more after adjustment for age at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk is around 5 in this group. The data also suggest that the crude relative risk of glioma is greater in the high dose group for younger ages ATB. However, there is no increased risk in females. Among the 5,012 autopsy subjects in the LSS extended sample during 1961-75, there is no relationship between radiation dose and the prevalence rate of primary intracranial tumors in those identified incidentally by autopsy. The relative risk of subclinical adenoma of the pituitary gland between high dose subjects and controls was also examined for a sample of 95 sex- and age-matched pairs using Hiroshima autopsy materials for 1961-74, but no relationship to dose was observed. (author)

  12. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part IV: Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Thompson, D.E.; Soda, Midori

    1994-01-01

    This report compares cancer incidence and mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS) cohort. Because the incidence data are derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, case ascertainment is limited to the time (1958-1987) and geographic restrictions (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) of the registries, whereas mortality data are available from 1950-1987 anywhere in Japan. With these conditions, there were 9,014 first primary incident cancer cases identified among LSS cohort members compared with 7,308 deaths for which cancer was listed as the underlying cause of death on death certificates. When deaths were limited to those occurring between 1958-1987 in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, there were 3,155 more incident cancer cases overall, and 1,262 more cancers of the digestive system. For cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, skin, breast, female and male genital organs, urinary system and thyroid, the incidence series was at least twice as large as the comparable mortality series. Although the incidence and mortality data are dissimilar in many ways, the overall conclusions regarding which solid cancers provide evidence of a significant dose response generally confirm the mortality findings. When either incidence or mortality data are evaluated, significant excess risks are observed for all solid cancers, stomach, colon, liver (when it is defined as primary liver cancer or liver cancer not otherwise specified on the death certificate), lung, breast, ovary and urinary bladder. No significant radiation effect is seen for cancers of the pharynx, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, nose, larynx, uterus, prostate or kidney in either series. There is evidence of a significant excess of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the incidence data, but not in the mortality series. 19 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Congenital malformations, stillbirths, and early mortality among the children of atomic bomb survivors: A reanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, M.; Schull, W.J.; Neel, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    Of all the data sets pertinent to the estimation of the genetic risks to humans following exposure to ionizing radiation, potentially the most informative is that composed of the cohort of children born to atomic bomb survivors. We present here an analysis of the relationship between parental exposure history and untoward pregnancy outcomes within this cohort, using to the fullest extent possible the recently revised estimates of the doses received by their parents, the so-called DS86 doses. Available for study are 70,073 terminations, but DS86 doses have not been or presently cannot be computed on the parents of 14,770. The frequency of untoward pregnancy outcomes, defined as a pregnancy terminating in a child with a major congenital malformation, and/or stillborn, and/or dying in the first 14 days of life, increases with combined (summed) parental dose, albeit not significantly so. Under a standard linear model, when the sample of observations is restricted to those children whose parents have been assigned the newly established DS86 doses (n = 55,303), ignoring concomitant sources of variation and assuming a neutron RBE of 20, the estimated increase per sievert in the predicted frequency of untoward outcomes is 0.00354 (+/- 0.00343). After adjustment for concomitant sources of variation, the estimated increase per sievert in the proportion of such births is 0.00422 (+/- 0.00342) if the neutron RBE is assumed to be 20. A one-hit model with appropriate adjustments for extraneous sources of variation results in an almost identical value, namely, 0.00412 (+/- 0.00364)

  14. Radiation-related ophthalmologic changes and aging among the atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Finch, S.C.; Choshi, Kanji; Takaku, Isao; Mishima, Hiromu; Takase, Tomoko.

    1993-05-01

    The relationship of ionizing radiation to the age-related ophthalmologic findings of the 1978-80 ophthalmologic examination of the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been reanalyzed using Dosimetry System 1986 eye organ dose estimates. The main purpose of this re-evaluation was to determine whether age and radiation exposure have an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect on ophthalmologic changes. The best model fitting axial opacities gives a significant positive effect for both linear dose-response and linear age-related regression coefficients and a significant negative effect for an interaction between radiation dose and age. Such a negative interaction implies an antagonistic effect in that the relative risks with relation to radiation doses decrease with increasing age. This phenomenon suggests that the lenses of younger persons are more sensitive to radiation than are those of older persons. However, the best-fitting relationship for posterior subcapsular changes suggested a linear-quadratic dose response and linear age-related effects. The quadratic estimate of radiation dose squared showed a highly significant effect with a negative trend, but the negative quadratic estimate was so extremely small it had almost no contributive value within an appropriative dose area. These data suggest an additive relationship between aging and radiation for the induction of posterior subcapsular changes, and they also indicate that there is no distinct evidence of a radiation-induced aging effect. The radiation-related relative risks increase with a log linearity. The decrease of visual acuity and accommodation with increasing age were comparable in both exposed and control subjects, with age-related visual acuity decreasing more than accommodation. (J.P.N.)

  15. Cytogenetic study of the offspring of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awa, A.A.; Honda, Takeo; Neriishi, Shotaro

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes the results of a cytogenetic study on 8,322 children born to atomic bomb survivors (4,716 in Hiroshima and 3,606 in Nagasaki) and 7,976 controls (5,112 in Hiroshima and 2,864 in Nagasaki). Because no child was examined before age 12, the data may not be considered valid for the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities that impose a high risk of early death. Thus, we will restrict our comparison to the sex-chromosome aneuploids and autosomal structural rearrangements of the balanced type, although other abnormalities encountered in this survey will be enumerated. Among the children born to exposed parents, 19 individuals (0.23 %) exhibited sex chromosome abnormalities and 23 (0.28 %) exhibited autosomal structural rearrangements, whereas among children born to unexposed parents, 24 (0.30 %) and 27 (0.34 %), respectively, were observed to exhibit these abnormalities. Only one child with a karyotype of 47,XY,+21 was found in the Hiroshima exposed group. Thus, there was no statistically significant difference in the overall frequencies of cytogenetically abnormal cases between the exposed (0.52 %) and control (0.64 %) populations. In Hiroshima, frequencies of chromosome abnormalities were similar between exposed and control groups (0.64 % vs 0.65 %). However, the value observed in the exposed group in Nagasaki was slightly lower (0.36 %) - though not statistically significant - than the value observed in the control group (0.63 %). This value of the Nagasaki control group was similar to that in Hiroshima. Family studies on probands with chromosome abnormalities revealed that the majority of cases (about 90 %) with autosomal structural rearrangements of the balanced type were inherited from one or the other parent. The mutation rates for these reaarangements were similar between the exposed and control groups, being 0.98 x 10 -4 per gamete per generation. (author)

  16. Malignant breast tumors among Atomic Bomb Survivors, Hirsoshima and Nagasaki, 1950 to 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, M.; Norman, J.E. Jr.; Asano, M.; Tokuoka, S.; Ezaki, H.; Nishimori, I.; Tsuji, Y.

    1979-01-01

    From 1950 to 1974, 360 cases of malignant breast tumors were identified among the 63,000 females of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) Extended Life-Span Study sample of survivors of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; 288 of these females were residing in one of these two cities at the time of bombing (ATB). Two-thirds of all cases were classified as breast cancers on the basis of microscopic review of slides, and 108 cases received an estimated breast tissue dose of at least 10 rads. The number of cases of radiogenic breast cancer could be well estimated by a linear function of radiation dose for tissue doses below 200 rads. Excess risk estimates, based on this function, for women 10 to 19, 20 to 29, 30 to 39, and 50 years old or older ATB were 7.3, 4.2, 2.6, and 4.7 cases per million women per year per rad, respectively. Women irradiated in their forties showed no dose effect. Among all women who received at least 10 rads, those irradiated before age 20 years will have experienced the highest rates of breast cancer throughout their lifetimes. Separate excess risk estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not differ significantly, which indicates that for radiogenic breast cancer the effects of neutrons (emitted only in the Hiroshima explosion) and gamma radiation were about equal. Radiation did not reduce the latency period for the development of breast cancer, which was at least 10 years. The distribution of histologic types of cancers did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data suggested that irradiation prior to menarche conferred a greater risk than irradiation after menarche

  17. Cancer risk among children of atomic bomb survivors. A review of RERF epidemiologic studies. Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Y.

    1990-01-01

    This article summarizes recent epidemiologic studies of cancer risk among the children of atomic bomb survivors conducted at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. These children include two groups: (1) the in utero-exposed children (ie, those born to mothers who had been pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) and (2) the F1 population, which was conceived after the atomic-bombings and born to parents of whom one or both were atomic bomb survivors. Although from 1950 to 1984 only 18 cancer cases were identified among the in utero sample, cancer risk did appear to significantly increase as maternal uterine dose increased. However, since the observed cases are too few in number to allow a site-specific review, the increased cancer risk cannot be definitively attributed to atomic bomb radiation, as yet. For those members of the F1 population who were less than 20 years old between 1946 and 1982, cancer risk did not appear to increase significantly as parental gonadal dose increased. Follow-up of this population will continue to determine if the patterns of adult-onset cancer are altered

  18. Post-traumatic stress disoder, survivor guilt and substance use - a study of hospitalised Nigerian army veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G T Okulate

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and survivor guilt in a sample of hospitalised soldiers evacuated from the Liberian and Sierra-Leonean wars in which Nigerians were involved as peace keepers. The relationships between PTSD, survivor guilt and substance use were also investigated. Design. A socio-demographic data questionnaire, the PTSD checklist and a validated World Health Organization substance use survey instrument were used to obtain data from the subjects. Setting. The study took place at the 68 Nigerian Army Reference Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, which was the base hospital for all casualties from the Liberian and Sierra- Leonean operations. Subjects. All hospitalised patients from the military operations during a 4-year period (1990 - 1994 who were physically capable of being assessed were included in the study. Results. The prevalence rate for PTSD was found to be 22% and survivor guilt was found in 38% of the responders. PTSD was significantly associated with long duration of stay in the mission area, current alcohol use, lifetime use of an alcohol/gunpowder mixture, and lifetime cannabis use. Survivor guilt was significantly associated with avoidance of trauma-related stimuli but not duration of combat exposure. Conclusions. Although the sample studied was specific, PTSD might be quite common and probably undetected among Nigerian military personnel engaged in battle in Liberia and Sierra-Leone. Detection of such persons through deliberate screening in military community studies should help to alleviate the symptoms since good intervention methods are now available. Primary prevention efforts with regard to alcohol and cannabis use should help to reduce the incidence of PTSD.

  19. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oikawa Masahiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN, which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH. Methods Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. Results The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread, which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05. The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively. The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15. Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40. Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005 independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Conclusions Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for

  20. Report on the results of the twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasuji; Ohama, Koso; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2000-01-01

    The twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America, was conducted in San Francisco and Seattle from May 20 through June 2 1999, and in Los Angeles and Hawaii from June 9 through 23 1999, The examination included an interview, measurement of height, weight, and blood pressure, an ECG, urine and stool tests, blood tests, a physical examination, examination of the breast, thyroid, and rectum by a surgeon, and screening for uterine cancer and a gynecological interview and examination by an obstetrician and gynecologist. The total confirmed number of A-bomb survivors residing in North America as of the end of June 1999 was 1076. Of the 1062 survivors that remained after excluding the 14 subjects whose survey was incomplete, 279 males and 654 females had been exposed in Hiroshima, and 10 males and 119 females in Nagasaki. The peak age at the time of exposure in both sexes was 15-19 years, followed by 10-14 years. The number of survivors exposed <2000 m from the hypocenter was 236, accounting for 21.9% of the total. The confirmed number of survivors exposed in utero was 26. The survivors' age (mean ±S.D.) was: 69.0±8.69 years; males, 68.4±80.5 years; females, 69.2±8.91 years. A total of 414 survivors were examined (male 129; female 285; mean age 68.0 years). Approximately 80% of the examinees had experienced at least one general symptom. Many still complain of symptoms that suggest possible posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of exposure to the A-bomb. It will be necessary to consider providing mental health care by psychiatrists beginning with the next examination. The prevalence of life-style diseases has been gradually increased with age. A previous history of cancer was found in 9.2% of the examinees. The most prevalent was of breast cancer, followed by malignant tumors of the colon, rectum, uterus, brain, stomach, and thyroid. The need for cancer screening and promotion of life-style education was keenly felt. (K.H.)

  1. Report on the results of the twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yasuji [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan); Ohama, Koso; Fujiwara, Saeko (and others)

    2000-06-01

    The twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America, was conducted in San Francisco and Seattle from May 20 through June 2 1999, and in Los Angeles and Hawaii from June 9 through 23 1999, The examination included an interview, measurement of height, weight, and blood pressure, an ECG, urine and stool tests, blood tests, a physical examination, examination of the breast, thyroid, and rectum by a surgeon, and screening for uterine cancer and a gynecological interview and examination by an obstetrician and gynecologist. The total confirmed number of A-bomb survivors residing in North America as of the end of June 1999 was 1076. Of the 1062 survivors that remained after excluding the 14 subjects whose survey was incomplete, 279 males and 654 females had been exposed in Hiroshima, and 10 males and 119 females in Nagasaki. The peak age at the time of exposure in both sexes was 15-19 years, followed by 10-14 years. The number of survivors exposed <2000 m from the hypocenter was 236, accounting for 21.9% of the total. The confirmed number of survivors exposed in utero was 26. The survivors' age (mean {+-}S.D.) was: 69.0{+-}8.69 years; males, 68.4{+-}80.5 years; females, 69.2{+-}8.91 years. A total of 414 survivors were examined (male 129; female 285; mean age 68.0 years). Approximately 80% of the examinees had experienced at least one general symptom. Many still complain of symptoms that suggest possible posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of exposure to the A-bomb. It will be necessary to consider providing mental health care by psychiatrists beginning with the next examination. The prevalence of life-style diseases has been gradually increased with age. A previous history of cancer was found in 9.2% of the examinees. The most prevalent was of breast cancer, followed by malignant tumors of the colon, rectum, uterus, brain, stomach, and thyroid. The need for cancer screening and promotion of life-style education was keenly felt. (K.H.)

  2. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Masahiro; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Shiro; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN), which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA) was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread), which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05). The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively). The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15). Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40). Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005) independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for genome-wide aCGH analysis. Our results suggested that A

  3. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Masahiro; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Shiro; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2011-12-07

    It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN), which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA) was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread), which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05). The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively). The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15). Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40). Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005) independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for genome-wide aCGH analysis. Our results suggested that A

  4. Mutations detected in the repetitive sequences in the children of the atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Chiyoko; Kodaira, Mieko

    1994-01-01

    We have been examining genetic effects of radiation in the children of the atomic bomb survivors. In a pilot study, 50 exposed families with 64 children and 50 control families with 60 children were examined for trinucleotide repeat expansion mutations at 3 loci and mutations at 6 minisatellite loci. Average dose of the 51 exposed parents was 1.8 Sv. By examining 124 children of 100 families, 65 germ cells derived from exposed parents and 183 germ cells of non-exposed parents were examined. The trinucleotide repeat expansions in genes of certain human genetic diseases show remarkable variation both within the cells of a single individual and among affected members of a single family which have been interpreted as mitotic and meiotic instability. We examined the regions with triplet repeats in the FMR-1, AR and DM genes causative for fragile X syndrome, spinobulbar muscular atrophy and myotonic dystrophy. No mutations were detected in 177 regions derived from 65 germ cells of exposed parents and 443 regions from 183 germ cells of non-exposed parents. No effects on the instability of the triplet repeats in the germ cells derived from exposed or unexposed individuals were observed. In the examinations of the 6 minisatellite loci of Pc-1, λTM-18, ChdTC-15, pλg3, λMS-1, and CEB-1, we detected single mutations at each of the pλg3 and λMS-1, and 4 mutations at the CEB-1 locus which had occurred in the 65 gametes in the exposed parents. Thus, mutation rates per gamete at the pλg3, λMS-1 and CEB-1 were 1.5%, 1.5% and 6.2%. On the other hand, mutations in these 3 loci in the 183 gametes of non-exposed parents were 0, 11 and 11, that is, the mutation rates per gamete were 0%, 6.0% and 6.0%. No significant difference was observed in the mutation rate at each of the 3 loci between 2 groups of parents. These preliminary results suggest that A-bomb exposure seems not to affect the germline instability at these 3 loci. (J.P.N)

  5. Study of the titers of Anti-Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in the sera of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Ozaki, Kyoko; Mizuno, Shoichi; Cologne, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Antibody titers to Epstein-Barr virus antigens were determined in the sera of 372 atomic bomb survivors to evaluate the effect of the previous radiation exposure on immune competence against the latent infection of the virus. The proportion of persons with high titers (≥ 1:40) of IgG antibodies to the early antigen was significantly elevated in the exposed survivors. Furthermore, the distribution of IgM titers against the viral capsid antigen was significantly affected by radiation dose with an increased occurrence of titers of 1:5 and 1:10 in the exposed persons, although the dose effect was only marginally suggestive when persons with rheumatoid factor were eliminated from the analysis. These results suggest that reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus in the latent stage occurs more frequently in the survivors, even though this might not be affected by the radiation dose. Otherwise, there was neither an increased trend in the prevalence of high titers (≥ 1:640) of IgG antibodies to the viral capsid antigen among the exposed people nor a correlation between the radiation exposure and distributions of titers of IgA antibodies to the viral capsid antigen or antibodies to the anti-Epstein-Barr virus-associated nuclear antigen. (author)

  6. Study of the titers of Anti-Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in the sera of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Ozaki, Kyoko; Mizuno, Shoichi; Cologne, J.B.

    1993-12-31

    Antibody titers to Epstein-Barr virus antigens were determined in the sera of 372 atomic bomb survivors to evaluate the effect of the previous radiation exposure on immune competence against the latent infection of the virus. The proportion of persons with high titers ({>=} 1:40) of IgG antibodies to the early antigen was significantly elevated in the exposed survivors. Furthermore, the distribution of IgM titers against the viral capsid antigen was significantly affected by radiation dose with an increased occurrence of titers of 1:5 and 1:10 in the exposed persons, although the dose effect was only marginally suggestive when persons with rheumatoid factor were eliminated from the analysis. These results suggest that reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus in the latent stage occurs more frequently in the survivors, even though this might not be affected by the radiation dose. Otherwise, there was neither an increased trend in the prevalence of high titers ({>=} 1:640) of IgG antibodies to the viral capsid antigen among the exposed people nor a correlation between the radiation exposure and distributions of titers of IgA antibodies to the viral capsid antigen or antibodies to the anti-Epstein-Barr virus-associated nuclear antigen. (author).

  7. Reanalysis of atomic bomb survivors' leukemia based on the recent classification for leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao.

    1990-01-01

    Four hundred and ninety-three A-bomb survivors developing leukemia, who had been exposed within 9,000 m from the hypocenter, were entered on the study for reanalysis of their disease based on the new classification. Chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) showed the highest concordance rate (95%) between the previous and new classifications. For 10 survivors previously diagnosed as having chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a new classification diagnosed CLL as well in 3 and adult T-cell leukemia in the other 7. None of the A-bomb survivors exposed to one Gy or more had subtype M3 of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), although the exposed group had almost the same distribution pattern of AML subtypes as the naturally induced leukemic group. The incidence of CML was significantly lower than that of AML in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. As A-bomb survivors were older at the time of A-bombing, the relative risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was decreased; that of CML and other types of leukemia was increased. An increased relative risk of ALL and CML tended to be associated with larger doses. A significantly shortened interval between A-bomb exposure and the development of leukemia was also associated with larger doses. (N.K.)

  8. Clinical study of mass survey for lung cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Mitsuyama, Toyofumi; Kamitsuna, Akimitsu; Nishimoto, Yukio; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1988-01-01

    In mass screening for lung cancer, chest roentgenography was performed in A-bomb survivors over the age of 50 years. Out of 47,960 A-bomb survivors examined during seven years from 1979 through 1986, 58 were found to have lung cancer. The prevalence of lung cancer was 120.9/100,000, which was extremely higher than previously reported. A-bomb survivors, as well as persons exposed to environmental pollution and occupational hazards, are considered to belong to the high risk group for lung cancer. Asymptomatic lung cancer was of earlier stage than symptomatic lung cancer. It was also associated with higher surgical rate and faborable prognosis. Primary screening failed to detect lung cancer in 20 %, requiring double checking by pulmonary disease specialists. The role of health care workers is stressed in view of the necessity of detailed examination and surgery for lung cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Cytogenetic studies on leukemia and preleukemic state in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Tomonaga, Yu; Tagawa, Masuko; Kusano, Miyuki; Nishino, Kenji

    1980-01-01

    Chromosomal abberation of bone marrow cells in healthy persons and patients with various hematologic diseases both of the exposed and the non-exposed were discussed. One healthy a-bomb survivor exposed near the hypocenter and structural abnormality of chromosomes closely similar to that found out in a small number of patients with hematologic diseases, but clone formation was not recognized. Though it was clarified that there was chromosomal abberation peculiar to each hematologic disease, specific chromosomal abberation peculiar to a-bomb survivors with hematologic diseases was not recognized. There were many a-bomb survivors with hemopoietic dysplasia who had structural abnormality of chromosomes, and their frequency was significantly higher than that of the non-exposed. (Tsunoda, M.)

  10. Mass survey of gastric diseases in over 60 years of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, C; Kawase, T; Sato, K; Kumasawa, T [Hiroshima A-Bomb Survivors Health Control Clinic

    1980-11-01

    Gastric diseases screening examination was received by 2165 of A-bomb survivors over 60 years for one year. The close investigation was required in 11.5% of them, and 96% of them received the close examination. The detection rate of gastric cancer was estimated to be 1.00% in males and 0.51% in females. This investigation disclosed 14 gastric cancers. The rate of early cancer was 64.2%, which was significantly higher than 24.2% in the investigation on A-bomb survivors who had anemia and occult blood positive test results. It is considered that 66.7% of the early cancer which was found this time could not have been detected unless the present general screening examination was used. Qualitative reevaluation of general screening examination is necessary for aged A-bomb survivors.

  11. 15 years epidemiological studies of diabetes mellitus in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Tsubota, Motoki; Kawate, Ryoso.

    1978-01-01

    Diabetes millitus was studied in 49,176 to 113,853 a-bomb survivors per year from 1963 to 1977. Three to 4 times as many men as women had an abnormal amount of sugar in their urine. In 15 years this abnormal amount increased 2.2 times in men and 2.5 times in women. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed on 19,990 survivors. The incidence of diabetes mellitus in women was 2 to 4 times as high as that in men. In 1977 it increased five times in men and 2.7 times in women, compared to that in 1964. (Tsunoda, M.)

  12. A survey on respiratory diseases of atomic bomb survivors using chest X-ray examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Noma, Koji; Ito, Chikako; Mitsuyama, Toyofumi; Kamitsuna, Akimitsu; Nishimoto, Yukio; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1986-01-01

    From April 1981 through March 1986, 39,363 A-bomb survivors older than 50 years of age underwent chest X-ray examination. The incidence of abnormal findings was higher in men (28 %) than in women (13 %). The most common disease was old pulmonary tuberculosis in both men and women. The incidence of pulmonary fibrosis was remarkably high in survivors exposed directly to A-bomb radiation, when compared with controls. There was no data suggesting the relationship between the incidence of respiratory disease and exposure status such as the distance from ground zero. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Exposure to Atomic Bomb Radiation and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Later Life: The Hiroshima-Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Katsumasa; Takahashi, Ikuno; Nakashima, Eiji; Yanagi, Masahide; Kawasaki, Ryo; Neriishi, Kazuo; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Yin; Hida, Ayumi; Ohishi, Waka; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the association between radiation exposure from the atomic bombings and the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among older residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Adult Health Study is a cohort study of atomic bomb survivors living in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, comprising 2153 participants who underwent examinations with retinal fundus photographs in 2006-2008. The radiation dose to the eye for the analysis was estimated with the revised dosimetry system (DS02). The retinal photographs were graded according to the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System modified for nonstereoscopic retinal images. Early and late AMD were defined according to the type of lesion detected in the worse eye of the participants. Person-specific data were analyzed by using a logistic regression model to assess the association between radiation dose and AMD. Among the 1824 subjects with gradable retinal images (84.7% of the overall participants), the estimated eye dose was widely distributed, with a mean of 0.45 Gy and standard deviation of 0.74 Gy. The prevalence of early and late AMD was 10.5% and 0.3%, respectively. There were no significant associations between radiation dose and AMD, with each 1-Gy increase in exposure, adjusted odds ratio was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-1.15) for early AMD and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.21-2.94) for late AMD. No significant associations were found between atomic bomb irradiation early in life and the prevalence of early or late AMD later in life among Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

  14. Detection of de novo single nucleotide variants in offspring of atomic-bomb survivors close to the hypocenter by whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horai, Makiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Hayashida, Chisa; Kinoshita, Akira; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tsuruda, Kazuto; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Sato, Shinya; Imanishi, Daisuke; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Hata, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro

    2018-03-01

    Ionizing radiation released by the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 caused many long-term illnesses, including increased risks of malignancies such as leukemia and solid tumours. Radiation has demonstrated genetic effects in animal models, leading to concerns over the potential hereditary effects of atomic bomb-related radiation. However, no direct analyses of whole DNA have yet been reported. We therefore investigated de novo variants in offspring of atomic-bomb survivors by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). We collected peripheral blood from three trios, each comprising a father (atomic-bomb survivor with acute radiation symptoms), a non-exposed mother, and their child, none of whom had any past history of haematological disorders. One trio of non-exposed individuals was included as a control. DNA was extracted and the numbers of de novo single nucleotide variants in the children were counted by WGS with sequencing confirmation. Gross structural variants were also analysed. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to the study. There were 62, 81, and 42 de novo single nucleotide variants in the children of atomic-bomb survivors, compared with 48 in the control trio. There were no gross structural variants in any trio. These findings are in accord with previously published results that also showed no significant genetic effects of atomic-bomb radiation on second-generation survivors.

  15. Relationship between epidemiological factors and mortality among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Masanori

    1980-01-01

    In 1965, mail survey on environmental and individual factors was performed for 11,724 male a-bomb survivors, with the age of 40 to 69, selected from the group subjected to joint JNIH-ABCC investigation of life span in a-bomb survivors. During 10 years after the mail survey, 2,834 died. The aim of this mail survey was to clarify the relationship between the mortality and specific environmental, social, and economic factors. There was a relationship between high mortality and low social and economical condition for all causes of death combined, cerebral vascular diseases, all malignant neoplasms, and gastric cancer. Smoking was a significant risk factor to all causes of death combined, ischemic heart diseases, all malignant neoplasms, gastric, tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancers. The mortality due to cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher in a-bomb survivors with heavy weight. The mortality due to all causes of death combined, all malignant neoplasms, lung, and gastric cancer tended to become higher in a-bomb survivors who got married early. (Tsunoda, M.)

  16. Relationship between epidemiological factors and mortality among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, M [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1980-11-01

    In 1965, mail survey on environmental and individual factors was performed for 11,724 male a-bomb survivors, with the age of 40 to 69, selected from the group subjected to joint JNIH-ABCC investigation of life span in a-bomb survivors. During 10 years after the mail survey, 2,834 died. The aim of this mail survey was to clarify the relationship between the mortality and specific environmental, social, and economic factors. There was a relationship between high mortality and low social and economical condition for all causes of death combined, cerebral vascular diseases, all malignant neoplasms, and gastric cancer. Smoking was a significant risk factor to all causes of death combined, ischemic heart diseases, all malignant neoplasms, gastric, tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancers. The mortality due to cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher in a-bomb survivors with heavy weight. The mortality due to all causes of death combined, all malignant neoplasms, lung, and gastric cancer tended to become higher in a-bomb survivors who got married early.

  17. Association of radiation dose with prevalence of thyroid nodules among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Misa; Ohishi, Waka; Nakashima, Eiji; Sera, Nobuko; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Ikuno; Fujiwara, Saeko; Sugino, Keizo; Ando, Takao; Usa, Toshiro; Kawakami, Atsushi; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Hida, Ayumi

    2015-02-01

    Few studies have evaluated the association of radiation dose with thyroid nodules among adults exposed to radiation in childhood. To evaluate radiation dose responses on the prevalence of thyroid nodules in atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood. This survey study investigated 3087 Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were younger than 10 years at exposure and participated in the thyroid study of the Adult Health Study at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Thyroid examinations including thyroid ultrasonography were conducted between October 2007 and October 2011, and solid nodules underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Data from 2668 participants (86.4% of the total participants; mean age, 68.2 years; 1213 men; and 1455 women) with known atomic bomb thyroid radiation doses (mean dose, 0.182 Gy; median dose, 0.018 Gy; dose range, 0-4.040 Gy) were analyzed. The prevalence of all thyroid nodules having a diameter of 10 mm or more (consisting of solid nodules [malignant and benign] and cysts), prevalence of small thyroid nodules that were less than 10 mm in diameter detected by ultrasonography, and atomic bomb radiation dose-responses. Thyroid nodules with a diameter of 10 mm or more were identified in 470 participants (17.6%): solid nodules (427 cases [16.0%]), malignant tumors (47 cases [1.8%]), benign nodules (186 cases [7.0%]), and cysts (49 cases [1.8%]), and all were significantly associated with thyroid radiation dose. Excess odds ratios per gray unit were 1.65 (95% CI, 0.89-2.64) for all nodules, 1.72 (95% CI, 0.93-2.75) for solid nodules, 4.40 (95% CI, 1.75-9.97) for malignant tumors, 2.07 (95% CI, 1.16-3.39) for benign nodules, and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.15-3.12) for cysts. The interaction between age at exposure and the dose was significant for the prevalence of all nodules (P = .003) and solid nodules (P bomb survivors 62 to 66 years after their exposure in childhood. However, radiation exposure is not associated with small thyroid

  18. Report on the results of eighth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Sasaki, Hideo; Neriishi, Kazuo

    1992-01-01

    This is a report of the 7th survey of A-bomb survivor residents in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, Wailuku, and Honolulu conducted from June 11 through July 11, 1991. As of the end of July 1991, the number of A-bomb survivors registered in North America was 1,012, including 23 in Canada, which was increased by 94 compared with the end of July 1989. Of these A-bomb survivors, 963 (255 males and 708 females), excluding 49 deaths, were eligible for the present analysis. A-bomb survivors who had been exposed in Hiroshima accounted for 89.5%. The US nationality and the Japanese nationality with permanent US residency rights were seen in 61.5% and in 30.8%, respectively. They ranged in age from 45 to over 80 years of age, with a mean age of 61.2 years: those aged 55 to 64 years accounted for 52.5%. Those eligible for the Medicare program occupied one fourth of the total. Their residence was comprised of 28 states in the US and 3 provinces in Canada, with 60.7% living in the state of California, 19.4% in the state of Hawaii, and 5.8% in the state of Washington: overall, 67.8% were living on the west coast of the US. The number of A-bomb survivor's health handbook holders showed a 3.2-fold increase during the previous 8 years, with the acquisition rate being 55.5%. During the same period, the number of handbook holders among those with the US nationality showed a 3.4-fold increase, with the acquisition rate being 51.5%. Of a total of 963 eligible A-bomb survivors, 482 (50.1%) participated in the present examination, including 50 offspring (F 1 ). The most common disease requiring treatment and follow-up was hypertension (27.6%) followed by hyperlipidemia, liver disease, thyroid disease, heart disease, and diabetes mellitus in that order. The incidence of liver disease and thyroid disease was increased. (N.K.)

  19. The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors major basis of radiation safety regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rühm, W; Nekolla, E A

    2006-01-01

    Since 1950 about 87 000 A-bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been monitored within the framework of the Life Span Study, to quantify radiation-induced late effects. In terms of incidence and mortality, a statistically significant excess was found for leukemia and solid tumors. In another major international effort, neutron and gamma radiation doses were estimated, for those survivors (Dosimetry System DS02). Both studies combined allow the deduction of risk coefficients that serve as a basis for international safety regulations. As an example, current results on all solid tumors combined suggest an excess relative risk of 0.47 per Sievert for an attained age of 70 years, for those who were exposed at an age of 30 years. After exposure to an effective dose of one Sievert the solid tumor mortality would thus be about 50% larger than that expected for a similar cohort not exposed to any ionizing radiation from the bombs.

  20. Chromosome aberrations in cultured skin cells obtained from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Takeo; Sadamori, Naoki.

    1989-01-01

    Skin specimens were obtained from 11 A-bomb survivors, 10 of whom had been exposed at ≤2300 m from the hypocenter, and 7 non-exposed controls. There was a higher frequency (12%, 147/1222 cells) of chromosome aberrations in the exposed group compared with 1.2% (4/341 cells) in the control group. This suggests that aberrant cells are still present in the skin tissue 40 years or more after the bombing. Of 147 cells, 136 cells (91.3%) showed translocation of chromosome. Other aberrations, such as inversion, deletion, dicentric chromosome and acentric fragment, were observed in only 3.8%. These aberrant cells tended to be observed in A-bomb survivors exposed to high doses and with a history of severe acute symptoms. One hundred and twenty two (83%) of 136 aberrant cells were obtained from 3 A-bomb survivors, which has important implications for marked proliferation of specific clone cells. In an analysis by B-band staining technique for the 122 cells, band sites of break point were found to correspond to loci of protooncogenes, suggesting the involvement in aggressive proliferation of clone cells. (Namekawa, K)

  1. Chromosome break points in T-lymphocytes from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Kamada, Nanao; Ohkita, Takeshi; Kuramoto, Atsushi

    1982-01-01

    In 22 healthy A-bomb survivors who passed more than 30 years since receiving radiation, distribution of 592 chromosome break points found in T-lymphocytes of the peripheral blood was not proportional to the length, the arm length of chromosomes, nor the length of regions, but it was non-random on the chromosomes. High distribution of chromosome break points occurred in 11 regions: 22q1, 14q3, 5q3, 21q2, 6q2, 18p1, 13q3. The regions, 22q1, 14q3, 21q2, and 6q2, contained the chromosome break points which were frequently found in leukemic chromosomes. Some of the changes in nuclear-type observed in leukemic cells of A-bomb survivors were similar to those found in leukemic cells of non-exposed leukemic patients. In abnormal chromosomes of T-lymphocytes of healthy A-bomb survivors, no cells with abnormal nuclear types such as t(4;11), t(8;21), t(9;22), and t(15;17) which are seen in various types of leukemia were not found. However, cells with chromosome aberrations, 22q-, 14q+, and 6q-, were found to be 0.99%, 0.55%, and 0.25% respectively. On the basis of these results, implication of chromosome aberrations in developing cancer was discussed. (Ueda, J.)

  2. Pathological review of lung cancer among A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima Atomic-bomb Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Shigeru; Akamizu, Hiroshi; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Hamada, Tadao.

    1989-01-01

    Autopsy findings were reviewed in 161 A-bomb survivors with lung cancer during the period 1956-1987. The overall ratio of male to female was 2.1. In the group of A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤2,000 m from the hypocenter, the ratio of male to female in the incidence of lung cancer was 1.3. According to age groups, it was the highest in people in their seventies. Histology revealed that the incidence was 41.6% for adenocarcinoma, 29.2% for squamous cell carcinoma, 19.9% for small cell carcinoma, 6.8% for large cell carcinoma, and 2.5% for adenosquamous cell carcinoma. The incidence of small cell carcinoma was relatively high in the ≤2,000 m group. For females in the ≤2,000 m group, the incidence of adenocarcinoma was relatively low, and the incidences of squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma tended to be high. The incidence of histologic type of lung cancer varied with time: squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma were the most predominant during the period 1957-1967; since 1968, it has been gradually replacing by adenocarcinoma. In the ≤2,000 m group, however, small cell carcinoma has still been more predominant even since 1984. For 8 A-bomb survivors exposed at the age of 20 years or less, 7 had adenocarcinoma, showing a significantly higher incidence than those exposed at older ages. (Namekawa, K)

  3. Prejudice and Health Anxiety about Radiation Exposure from Second-Generation Atomic Bomb Survivors: Results from a Qualitative Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Kamite

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure on the survivors and their children has been a worrisome problem since soon after the 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. Researchers have examined physical and genetic effects; however, no research has focused on second-generation survivors’ (SGS psychological effects. Consequently, this study shed light on the SGS’ experience of discrimination and prejudice and their anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure. This study utilized semi-structured interviews with 14 SGS (10 women, mean age = 56 ± 6.25 years, range = 46–68 years. Data were analyzed using a modified version of the grounded theory approach. Three categories were extracted: low awareness as an SGS, no health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation, and health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation. The results did not reveal that SGS who grew up in the bombed areas experienced discrimination or prejudice. They had little health anxiety from childhood to adolescence. In this study, some of the SGS developed health anxiety about their third-generation children, but only among female participants. Perhaps the transgenerational transmission of anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure causes stress, particularly among women with children. However, a change was seen in adulthood health anxiety regarding the effects of radiation, suggesting the possibility that changes in the psychological experiences of SGS can be observed throughout their lifetimes and that their own health status, and that of their children, the third-generation survivors, affects their health anxiety regarding radiation.

  4. A chromosome study of 6-thioguanine-resistant mutants in T lymphocytes of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Yoshiaki; Hakoda, Masayuki; Shimba, Hachiro; Awa, A.A.; Akiyama, Mitoshi.

    1989-07-01

    Cytogenetic characterizations were made of lymphocyte colonies established from somatic mutation assays for 6-thioguanine (TG) resistance in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. G-banded chromosomes were analyzed in both TG-resistant (TG r ) and wild-type (not TG-selected) colonies. Included were 45 TG r and 19 wild-type colonies derived from proximally exposed A-bomb survivors, as well as colonies from distally exposed control individuals who were not exposed to a significant level of A-bomb radiation (18 TG r and 9 wild-type colonies). Various structural and numerical abnormalities of chromosomes were observed in both TG r and wild-type colonies. Aberrations of the X chromosome, on which the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) locus is present, were found in six colonies: two resistant colonies from controls [45,X/46,XX; 46,X,ins(X)], three resistant colonies [45,X/46,XX/46,X,+mar; 46,X,t(Xq+;14q-); 46,Y,t(Xq-;5q+)], and one wild-type colony [45,X/47,XXX] from proximally exposed persons. In cases with exchange aberrations, each of the break points on the X chromosome was situated proximally to band q26 where the HPRT locus is known to be assigned. DNA replicating patterns were also studied, and it was found that abnormal X chromosomes showed early replicating patterns, while normal X chromosomes showed late replicating patterns. (author)

  5. Radiation risk of individual multifactorial diseases in offspring of the atomic-bomb survivors: a clinical health study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Yamada, Michiko; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John B; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Furukawa, Kyoji; Takahashi, Norio; Nakamura, Nori; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Shore, Roy

    2013-01-01

    There is no convincing evidence regarding radiation-induced heritable risks of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in humans, although it is important from the standpoint of protection and management of populations exposed to radiation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation led to an increased risk of common polygenic, multifactorial diseases—hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or stroke—in the first-generation (F 1 ) offspring of A-bomb survivors. A total of 11 951 F 1 offspring of survivors in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, conceived after the bombing, underwent health examinations to assess disease prevalence. We found no evidence that paternal or maternal A-bomb radiation dose, or the sum of their doses, was associated with an increased risk of any multifactorial diseases in either male or female offspring. None of the 18 radiation dose–response slopes, adjusted for other risk factors for the diseases, was statistically significantly elevated. However, the study population is still in mid-life (mean age 48.6 years), and will express much of its multifactorial disease incidence in the future, so ongoing longitudinal follow-up will provide increasingly informative risk estimates regarding hereditary genetic effects for incidence of adult-onset multifactorial disease. (paper)

  6. Capillary microscopic observations on the superficial minute vessels of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima 1972-73

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuya, Akira; Wakano, Yoichi; Otake, Masanori; Dock, D.S.

    1978-04-01

    Microscopic and photographic studies were conducted in 1972-73 at ABCC in Hiroshima on the morphology of superficial blood vessels of A-bomb survivors to determine whether the somatic effects of radiation still existed 30 years after the A-bomb. Control curves representing the relationship between age and score values assigned to morphological changes of the minute blood vessels of the fingernail fold, labial mucosa, and lingual mucosa, which could be regarded as an index of aging, were obtained. These were compared with similar curves obtained from A-bomb survivors with the aim of evaluating the effect of radiation on the aging process of these vessels. The late somatic effects of irradiation which were demonstrated 10 years after the A-bomb in a previous study (1956-57) were found to persist in the current study (1972-73) conducted 30 years after the A-bomb though not as pronounced as in the earlier study. A significant effect was observed only in the fingernail fold of those exposed to 100 rad or more under the age of 10 at the time of the bomb. A statistically significant difference was not observed for labial mucosa and lingual mucosa because the number of cases available for scoring was small, but a trend was observed for abnormalities of these two sites to be higher in frequency in the 100+ rad group under the age of 10 ATB than that of the control group. No significant difference was observed between the control and exposed with regard to radiation effect on the aging process using the relationship of score values to age as an index of aging. This is in accord with results of studies of A-bomb survivors which suggested that radiation induces life shortening attributable primarily to cancers, but not a general acceleration of the aging phenomenon. (author)

  7. Liver cancer in atomic-bomb survivors. Histological characteristics and relationships to radiation and hepatitis B and C viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Sharp, G.B.; Mizuno, Terumi

    2001-01-01

    Histological features of primary liver cancer among atomic-bomb survivors and their relationship to hepatitis B (HBV) and C viral (HCV) infections are of special interest because of the increased risk of liver cancer in persons exposed to ionizing radiation and the high and increasing liver cancer rates in Japan and elsewhere. We conducted a pathology review of liver cancers occurring from 1958 to 1987 among subjects in the 120,321 member cohort of 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents. A panel of pathologists classified tumor histological types and defined accompanying cirrhotic changes of the liver. Archival tissue samples were assessed for HBV using pathology stains and PCR. Reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR was used to determine HCV status. We used unconditional logistic regression to compare 302 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases to 53 cholangiocarcinoma (CC) cases, adjusting for age, year of diagnosis, sex and viral status. Cirrhotic changes occurred significantly more often among HCC than CC cases (76% in HCC and 6% in CC). Compared to CC cases, HCC cases were 10.9 times more likely to be HBV-positive (95% confidence interval: 2.1-83.2) and 4.3 times more likely to be HCV-positive (95% confidence interval: 1.1-20.5) No significant differences were found between HCC and CC cases in radiation exposures. The predominance of HCC in the atomic-bomb survivors follows the background liver cancer pattern in Japan. Our findings suggest that HBV and HCV are involved in the pathogenesis of HCC with or without cirrhosis and are significantly less important in that of CC. (author)

  8. Risk of death among children of atomic bomb survivors after 62 years of follow-up: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Eric J; Furukawa, Kyoji; Sakata, Ritsu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Sadakane, Atsuko; Takahashi, Ikuno; Utada, Mai; Shimizu, Yukiko; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2015-10-01

    No clear epidemiological hereditary effects of radiation exposure in human beings have been reported. However, no previous studies have investigated mortality into middle age in a population whose parents were exposed to substantial amounts of radiation before conception. We assessed mortality in children of the atomic bomb survivors after 62 years of follow-up. In this prospective cohort study, we assessed 75 327 singleton children of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and unexposed controls, born between 1946 and 1984, and followed up to Dec 31, 2009. Parental gonadal doses of radiation from the atomic bombings were the primary exposures. The primary endpoint was death due to cancer or non-cancer disease, based on death certificates. Median follow-up was 54·3 years (IQR 45·4-59·3). 5183 participants died from disease. The mean age of the 68 689 surviving children at the end of follow-up was 53·1 years (SD 7·9) with 15 623 (23%) older than age 60 years. For parents who were exposed to a non-zero gonadal dose of radiation, the mean dose was 264 mGy (SD 463). We detected no association between maternal gonadal radiation exposure and risk of death caused by cancer (hazard ratio [HR] for 1 Gy change in exposure 0·891 [95% CI 0·693-1·145]; p=0·36) or risk of death caused by non-cancer diseases (0·973 [0·849-1·115]; p=0·69). Likewise, paternal exposure had no effect on deaths caused by cancer (0·815 [0·614-1·083]; p=0·14) or deaths caused by non-cancer disease (1·103 [0·979-1·241]; p=0·12). Age or time between parental exposure and delivery had no effect on risk of death. Late effects of ionising radiation exposure include increased mortality risks, and models of the transgenerational effects of radiation exposure predict more genetic disease in the children of people exposed to radiation. However, children of people exposed to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki had no indications of deleterious health effects after 62

  9. Study on cardiac function in atomic bomb survivors, using pulsed doppler method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Shinzo; Takayama, Sadamatsu; Nakano, Kikuo; Mito, Kazuyo; Kato, Masafumi; Ito, Chikako

    1989-01-01

    Influences of A-bombing on the cardiovascular system are of great interest in the graying society. Therefore, diastolic blood circulation was examined by pulsed doppler echocardiography in 44 A-bomb survivors (25 men and 19 women), with an average age of 59 years, who had been exposed at ≤ 2000 m from the hypocenter. Age- and sex-matched A-bomb survivors, who had been exposed at ≥ 3000 m or entered the city 4 days after the bombing, served as the control. Regarding both the peak velocity of atrial contraction (PVAC) and peak velocity of rapid filling (PVRF), there was no significant difference between the exposed and control groups. In the control group, PVAC was significantly associated with aging (p<0.05). A decreased PVRF was significantly observed with aging in both the exposed group (p<0.01) and the control group (p<0.001). There was no marked difference in the ratio of PVAC to PVRF among all of the age groups in both groups; it was significantly increased with aging. Deceleration half time of rapid filling was significantly prolonged in older age group in the exposed group, although there was no difference in the acceleration half time between the exposed and control groups. These findings indicated none of the influences of A-bombing on diastolic function of the heart. (N.K.)

  10. A survey on respiratory diseases of atomic bomb survivors using chest X-ray examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsubara, Naoka; Isobe, Takeshi; Nakamura, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    Chest X-ray films, taken from 48,160 A-bomb survivors aged 40 years or more during a 5-year period 1988-1992, were reviewed. Abnormal X-ray findings were obtained in 26.7% for men and 18.2% for women. The incidence of necessary detailed examination was 2.6%. Of these A-bomb survivors, 93.7% participated in it. Pulmonary fibrosis, chronic emphysema, and pulmonary cyst yielded higher prevalence per population of 100,000 in men, irrespective of exposure distance. In comparing with the results obtained during a 5-year period 1981-1985, the detection rate of primary lung cancer was not different from that in the present 5-year survey. For active pulmonary tuberculosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and chronic emphysema, however, the prevalence tended to decrease. Primary lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis were more frequently detected with aging in both men and women. This was independent of exposure distance. (N.K.)

  11. Notes of problems in estimating mortality rate among atomic-bomb survivors, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Ohtaki, Megu; Matsuura, Masaaki; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Kawanishi, Masahiro; Fukuba, Yoshiyuki; Munaka, Masaki

    1990-01-01

    Annual changes in death hazard were compared in the group in which persons entered the city after the A-bomb explosion and acquired a health handbook during the period 1968-1976 (the case group) and the group in which A-bomb survivors had already acquired it as of 1960 (the control group). Mortality was analyzed by malignant diseases, cardiovascular diseases, digestive system diseases, and respiratory system diseases. Death hazard from malignant tumors was markedly high 3 to 4 years after the acquisition of the health handbook, irrespective of sex, in the case group. For cardiovascular diseases, it was high up to 8 years after the acquisition in males of the case group; however, it tended to be slightly higher in women immediately after the acquisition, and thereafter, it was not different from that in the control group. For both digestive system diseases and respiratory system diseases, death hazard tended to be higher in the case group than the control group during 8 years after the acquisition. The fact that death hazard was higher in the case group than the control group several years after the acquisition means that the acquisition of health handbook may be triggered by worse health conditions in A-bomb survivors in the case group. (N.K.)

  12. Consequences of the new atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on radiation risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.

    1990-01-01

    The assessment of radiation risk includes the following steps: a) selection of biological data from epidemiological studies, b) adjustment of biological data to radiation doses, c) time projection of risk beyond the observation period. The life-time risk used by the ICRP since 1977 is mainly based on the epidemiological data for the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as well as on the linear dose-response and the absolute risk model. A re-evaluation of the life-time risk seems to be useful because since that time the observation period was further growing and better arguments for choosing a time projection model are available. On the other hand the revised dose can cause changes in the shape of the dose-response curves and of the RBE of neutrons. In the present paper the influence of these factors on the life-time risk will be investigated. (author)

  13. Cytogenetic study of the offspring of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awa, A.A.; Honda, T.; Neriishi, S.

    1987-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the radiation sensitivity of human germ-cell chromosomes by measuring the frequency of children with chromosome changes in structure or number induced by radiation in the germ cells of exposed parents. It is expected that stable chromosome aberrations, if induced in the germ cells, would be mot likely transmitted to the offspring. Although there is no evidence of chromosome aneuploidy being induced by radiation exposure in humans, it is difficult to exclude the possibility that abnormalities, such as XYY and XXX, would be induced in the offspring. The present chapter describes the results of somatic chromosome analysis of 8,322 children born to A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Hagasaki and 7,976 children born to parents who had received less than 1 rad (distally exposed) or were not in the cities (NIC) at the time of the bomb (ATB). Chromosome analyses were based mostly on nonbanded preparations throughout the study. Because of the recent, extensive reassessment of A-bomb dosimetry by a US-Japan team of experts, the present study samples have been divided into exposed and control groups based on the T65DR system that has been routinely used until recently at RERF. The data base for the new DS86 dose system has been entered into the RERF computer; however, calculations of the individual dose estimates for each survivor are now in progress, but are not available at this time. For this reason, no attempt has been made to analyze the present data in terms of parental radiation doses

  14. Prevalence rate of thyroid diseases among autopsy cases of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1951-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Ezaki, Haruo; Etoh, Ryozo; Hiraoka, Toshio; Akiba, Suminori

    1995-01-01

    To examine the radiogenic risk of latent thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis, the date for 3821 subjects collected in the course of autopsies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1951 to 1985 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) were analyzed using a logistic model. About 80% of the autopsies were performed at RERF and the remainder at local hospitals. The frequencies of the above diseases were not associated with whether the underlying cause of death was cancer. However, note that our results may be influenced by potentially biasing factors associated with autopsy selection. The relative frequency of latent thyroid cancer (greatest dimension ≤1.5 cm but detectable on a routine microscopic slide of the thyroid gland) increased as the radiation dose increased and was about 1.4-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. The relative occurrence of thyroid adenoma also increased as radiation dose increased, and was about 1.5-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. Sex, age at the time of the bombing or period of observation did not significantly modify the radiogenic risks for thyroid adenoma or latent thyroid cancer. No statistically significant association was found between radiation exposure and the rates of colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis. The possible late effect of atomic bomb radiation on the frequency of benign thyroid diseases is discussed on the basis of these data. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  15. G-banding analysis of radiation-induced chromosome damage in lymphocytes of Hiroshima atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtaki, Kazuo; Nakashima, Eiji.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the G-banding analysis of somatic chromosomes in lymphocytes from 63 atomic-bomb survivors in Hiroshima to determine the type and frequency of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. Summary findings are as follows: (1) The cells with stable-type chromosome aberrations (Cs cells) predominated among the aberrant cells and showed a dose-dependent increase. All stable chromosome aberrations were classified into 9 types: reciprocal translocations (t), translocations of complex type (t-cx), insertions (ins), complex exchanges (e-cx), peri- and paracentric inversions (inv-peri, inv-para), terminal and interstitial deletions (del-ter, del-int), and unidentified rearrangements. Aberration frequencies increased with increasing dose for all aberration categories. Among the chromosome aberrations classified, reciprocal translocations predominated in all dose ranges. The frequencies of complex aberrations were low at the low-dose level but increased sharply as dose increased. (2) The linear model was fitted to test the dose-response relationship for Cs-cell frequencies. With a constant neutron relative biological effectiveness of 10, an estimated linear slope of 15.2%/Sv was obtained for Dosimetry System 1986 bone-marrow dose with an intercept of 2.9% at dose 0. The present observation confirmed a wide variability of Cs-cell frequencies among individual survivors in every dose category.(3) Statistical analysis of data on 3370 break sites showed good correlations between relative DNA content and the distribution of chromosome breaks involved in translocations, although the involvement of chromosome 1 is significantly higher, for as-yet-unknown reasons. (J.P.N.)

  16. The relationship between the life environment of the atomic bomb survivors (Hibakusha) and their cardiovascular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Masatoshi; Saito, Osamu; Miyaki, Sumiyo; Watabu, Akiko

    1978-01-01

    In order to observe clinically the effects of the atomic bomb on the human body (and on the environment), subjects were divided into group A (persons living in Hiroshima city more than 10 years after dropping of the atomic bomb) and group B (persons who changed their residence within 1 month). Group A was divided into two separate groups: group A 1 (persons living in segregated areas), and group A 2 (persons living in other areas). General examinations showed no abnormal findings. Incidence of abnormal ECG findings was higher in subjects living in segregated areas and was also higher in women than in men. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Age-related alteration in the composition of immunocompetent blood cells in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Bloom, E.T.; Makinodan, Takashi; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1988-01-01

    1328 survivors of Hiroshima were studied for alterations in the number of blood lymphocytes belonging to T-cell subpopulations, CD19 antigen-positive B cells and Leu 7 and CD16 antigen-positive lymphocytes. With increasing age, significant decreasing trends in the numbers of some lymphocytes in T-cell subpopulations and of B-cells were seen. The number of blood lymphocytes positive for CD5 antigen was significantly lower in those exposed to radiation (> 1Gy) in the older age group (more than 30 years at the time of bombing) and a similar tendency for decreases in the numbers of CD4, CD8, and CD19 antigen-positive cells was observed, but differences were not significant. The results suggest aging of the T-cell related immune system is accelerated in the irradiated people of advanced age, explained by the age-related decrease in thymic function in those subjects. The number of Leu 7 or CD19 antigen-positive cells was found to be increased significantly in the older age group compared to the younger, although there was little dose dependence. (U.K.)

  18. M-proteinemia in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neriishi, Kazuo; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Mikami, Motoko

    1990-01-01

    A comparative analysis of monoclonal gammopathy (M proteinemia) in A-bomb survivors, detected during the period from October 1979 through September 1981 (the first survey) and the period from June 1985 through May 1987 (the second survey), was made by using the 1986 dosimetry system. M-proteinemia was detected in 33 (0.38%) of 8,796 participants in the first survey and in 69 (0.94%) of 7,350 participants in the second survey; the prevalence of M-proteinemia was 2.5 times higher in the second survey than the first survey. It occurred more frequently with aging, especially in the 70 years and older age group. In 9 (27%) of 33 patients detected at the first survey, death was confirmed at the second survey; it was attributable to malignant tumor in 4, multiple myeloma in 2, and colon cancer, lung cancer and prostatic cancer in one each. Follow-up, available in 8 patients diagnosed as benign monoclonal gammopathy at the first survey, revealed the occurrence of immunoglobulin suppression in 4 patients. The relative risk between the persons exposed to 0.01 Gy or more and non-exposed persons was 2.0 for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and 1.3 for benign monoclonal gammopathy; however, this was not statistically significant. (N.K.) 50 refs

  19. Epidemiological studies among the offspring (F1) of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of results of surveys for the frequency of malignant tumors during the period 1946-1982 and mortality during the period 1946-1985 among the offspring of A-bomb survivors, genetic effects of A-bombing were retrospectively investigated. Among 67,574 children born to parents whose gonad doses could be estimated, 83 in the age group of 20 years or younger were found to develop cancer. Of these, only 18 were considered to have genetic cancers, such as retinoblastoma, Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, and embryonal carcinoma. The other 31 and 34 patients had leukemia and other cancers, respectively. No significantly increased incidence of cancer was associated with radiation doses received in their parents. Genetic effects of A-bombing were considered responsible for 3% to 5% of spontaneously induced malignant tumors. Among 67,586 children born to parents whose gonad doses could be estimated, 3852 (5.7%) were dead during the period 1946-1985. Of these, 76% had died before the age of 4. Survey for mortality has also showed that there is no significant correlation between gonad doses in parents and cancer risk for their offspring. (N.K.)

  20. Report on the results of medical examination for atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Yutaka; Takayama, Sadamatsu; Ishibashi, Sinzo; Kato, Masashi; Mito, Kazuyo; Nakasaki, Minako; Ito, Chikako

    1988-01-01

    An analysis of results of health screening for A-bomb survivors, performed from 1972 through 1985, yielded the following findings. The subjects were divided into three groups: a group exposed at ≤1,900 m from the hypocenter, a group exposed at ≥2,000 m, and a group of persons who entered the city after the bombing. An average age was higher, irrespective of sex, in the ≤1,900 m group than the ≥ 2,000 m group. The incidence of anemia and leukopenia was higher in women than men, while the incidence of hypertension and positive rates for urinary glucose and protein were higher in men than women. In the ≤1,900 m group, 11 g/dl or less of Hb and 349 x 10 4 of erythrocytes tended to be frequent in men and women, respectively. The incidence of mild anemia and positive rate of urinary glucose have gradually increased since 1972 and become flat since 1977. The positive rate of urinary glucose was increased in both men and women. The incidence of hypertension tended to decrease in both men and women. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Estimation of risk map for cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. 1970-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Sato, Yuya; Maruyama, Hirofomi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ohtaki, Megu

    2012-01-01

    A risk map (map I) involving the effects of direct A-bomb exposure and of other confounding factors was estimated to analyze the death risk in the geographic distribution, and another risk map (map II) was also made by subtracting the direct exposure effect to see the confounder effect. The cohort was 37,382/157,327 survivors at Jan. 1, 1970, whose positional coordinates at the exposure were known, and was followed up until Dec. 31, 2009. For survival analysis, the endpoint was defined to be death (total 19,119) by regarding other 18,263 as censoring. Confounding factors were sex, age at the exposure, exposed dose and shielded condition. Maps I and II were depicted using the hazard ratio at the exposed position relative to the hypocenter, which was estimated by previously reported hazard model functions. Map I was found to be rather similar to concentric circle of the hypocenter, but to be tended a bit distorted toward northwest area. The distortion was clearer in the map II, indicating that death causes other than direct exposure existed. The confounder was thought to be the indirect exposure through the black rain, residual radiation and/or internal exposure, which awaiting future investigation. (T.T.)

  2. A case of polycythemia with low neutrophilic alkaline phosphatase and chromosome abnormalities in atomic bomb survivor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiyoda, Shin; Toyoda, Shigeki; Shikaya, Takaaki; Tagawa, Masuko; Matsunaga, Masako.

    1978-01-01

    A case of mild polycythemia with low neutophilic alkaline phosphatase in a short-distance group was reported. The patient was exposed 1.4 km from the center of explosion (estimated exposure dose, 330 rad). He suffered from acute symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, increase in temperature, loss of hair, poor appetite, and hemorrhage. In an examination of a-bomb survivors in 1969, his erythrocyte count was 622 x 10 4 /mm 3 and his hemoglobin level was 18.3 gm/dl. Later his erythrocyte count was sometimes over 550 x 10 4 /mm 3 . Upon admission to a hospital for a detailed examination, a slight increase in erythrocyte count and hemoglobin level and low NAP values were observed. Bone marrow findings revealed a slight increase in erythroblasts. Chromosomal analysis of bone marrow cells and peripheral lymphocytes revealed various abnormalities, seemingly related to exposure to radiation. Low NAPS values continued for a long time, and the patient remained healthy. (Tsunoda, M.)

  3. Histologic review of breast cancer cases in survivors of atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, S.; Asano, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Tokunaga, M.; Sakamoto, G.; Hartmann, W.H.; Hutter, R.V.; Land, C.E.; Henson, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    A panel of Japanese and American pathologists reviewed existing histologic material used to study breast cancer risk among the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a population in which incidence studies have found a strong relationship between breast cancer risk and radiation dose. The primary charge to the panel was to define a body of confirmed cases in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation that would require little or no review for inclusion in future studies of breast cancer incidence. Broad agreement on histologic type was reached for 298 of 300 confirmed cases. The distribution of histologic types was, overall, similar to that seen in other studies of breast cancer in Japanese women, and did not appear to depend on dose; thus radiation-induced breast cancer appeared to be no different histologically from other breast cancer. Also, no evidence was found of variation in histologic type by city, age at exposure, age at diagnosis, or calendar time

  4. Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma in the Retroperitoneum in an Atomic Bomb Survivor: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Nakamura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old Japanese man was admitted to Kosei-Nenkin Hospital (Osaka, Japan in November 2006; his chief complaint was a 10-kg loss in body weight over 3 months prior to admission. Abdominal computed tomography (CT and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed three masses in the retroperitoneum. The patient subsequently underwent surgery. The final histopathological diagnosis of tumors 1 and 2 was malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the retroperitoneum, and tumor 3 was a well-differentiated liposarcoma. By the presence of the liposarcoma, tumor 1 and 2 were thought to be the dedifferentiated areas of liposarcomas. At the age of 16, the patient had been exposed to radiation from the atomic bomb at Hiroshima towards the end of the Second World War. We postulate that in this case, radiation from the atomic bomb may have played an important role in the development of the sarcomas.

  5. Severe mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi; Schull, W.J.

    1988-05-01

    In March 1986, as a result of a comprehensive reevaluatioin of the exposures of the survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a new method for the estimation of individual doses was introduced, termed the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). In the new system they are computed individually without the use generally of explicit, average correction factors and thus allow better for the scattering of radiant energy that occurs within tissues. The comparisons described here rest on the computed dose to the mother's uterus. The DS86 sample itself consists of 1,544 individuals (96.6 %) of the 1,598 belonging to the clinical sample on whom T65DR doses are available. A variety of models with and without a threshold have been fitted to the individual as well as grouped dose data to ascertain the most suitable dose-response relationship. Briefly the findings of this comparison are as follows: The risk of severe mental retardation due to radiation exposure changes little from one dosimetric system to the other. The highest risk of radiation damage to the embryonic and fetal brain occurs 8 - 15 weeks after fertilization under both the T65DR and DS86 systems. Somewhat more evidence exists under the DS86 system of a threshold to the dose-response relationship in the 8 - 15 week interval than existed with the T65DR doses. However, the location and reality of the threshold are difficult to assess. Damage to the fetus 16 - 25 weeks after fertilization seems linear-quadratically or quadratically related to dose, especially in the DS86 sample, and suggests a threshold in the neighborhood of 0.70 Gy (DS86 dose), under a linear model using the individual dose data, with a lower 95 % confidence bound of 0.21 Gy. Grouped dose data give the same lower bound, but an estimate of the threshold of 0.64 Gy. (author)

  6. Thyroid carcinoma in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1958 - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, Yoshitaka; Toyota, Emiko; Yamamoto, Tsutomu

    1978-01-01

    Relation between radiation dose and incidence rate of thyroid carcinoma in A-bomb survivors exposed with large doses was studied by analyzing 82 cases in total consisting of those reported by Parker et al. from 1956 to 1971 and additional 19 cases lately occurred until 1976. Among them, 40 cases were clinically evident cancer confirmed histologically from clinical findings, and 42 cases were silent cancer confirmed by autopsy findings. The incidence rate of thyroid carcinoma during these 18 years rose along with the increase of radiation dose, and especially, this trend is marked in women. More noticeable dose-response was observed in clinically evident cancer. In a dose-response curve, it was observed that the incidence rate tends to rise higher with an increase of doses. However, in terms of statistics, a significantly higher incidence rate than that of a control group of 0 rad was first observed in the group of 50 - 100 rad. As far as the annual changes of radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma are concerned, the group of over 100 rad still showed an increase of the incidence rate of thyroid carcinoma. By ages when patients were exposed to A-bomb, a group of those exposed under 30 years old showed an increase of the incidence rate since 1968 or 1969, while the group of those exposed at relatively higher ages recorded the high incidence rate already in 1958 and showed no remarkable increase afterwards. Also it was indicated that a noticeable influence given by A-bomb radiation appears after cancer age. By histological types, papillary type and papillary sclerosing type were often observed in clonically evident cancer and silent cancer, respectively. Papillary type was rather often seen in the group of over 100 rad. (Iwagami, H.)

  7. Report on the results of the second medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitsuna, Akimitsu; Monzen, Tetsuo; Oguma, Nobuo; Sakuma, Saburo; Takata, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Yoshiaki; Sakata, Morimitsu.

    1987-01-01

    In October 9 - 31, 1986, the second medical examination for A-bomb survivors was undertaken in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru. Among 173 recognized A-bomb survivors in the five countries, 126 (73 %) participated in the examination, consisting of 61 men and 65 women. Seventy-eight A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima and 48 from Nagasaki. The average age was 55.6 +- 9.7 years for men and 56.5 +- 9.8 years for women. The acquisition rate of ''Survivor's Health Handbook'' was 34 %. Gastric cancer was observed in two survivors and cervical cancer in one survivor. Major subjective symptoms were: fatigue, sensation of paralysis, heat intolerance, decreased physical strength, and itching. None of the abnormal findings were observed in 33 %. The incidence of hypertension, obesity, cardiac disease, and liver disease was high. The incidence of hypercholesteremia and diabetes mellitus was lower than that in the USA. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Report on the results of the seventh medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Kodama, Kazunori; Sasaki, Hideo; Ishibashi, Shinzo; Dote, Keigo; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Hirata, Katsumi; Sugimoto, Sumio.

    1990-01-01

    During a one-month period from June 13 through July 13, 1989, the seventh medical examination was conducted at five cities, including San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle, Wailuku and Honolulu, for A-bomb survivors residents in North America. Nine hundred and eighteen A-bomb survivors, including 21 living in Canada, were confirmed, consisting of 234 men and 684 women as of the end of July 1989. The number was increased by 167, compared with that as of the end of July 1987. During the past three years, there were 40 deaths; and 878 A-bomb survivors (223 men and 655 women) are still alive. Ninety percent of the survivors came from Hiroshima. U.S. nationality was seen in 61% and Japanese nationality with permanent U.S. residency rights was seen in 32%. The majority (39%) of the A-bomb survivors were in their fifties, with an average age of 59.4 years. The survivors were residing in 26 states in the USA and in 3 provinces in Canada. The acquisition rate of the A-bomb survivors' health handbook was 52%. Four hundred and six A-bomb survivors participated in the medical examination, including one male and 8 female children born to A-bomb survivors. Questionnaire survey revealed a history of surgical resection for cancer in 21 survivors. Subjective symptoms included complete exhaustion or fatigue, heat intolerance, loss of vigor, and numbness of the body. Overall evaluation revealed the necessity of medical treatment or observation in 71%. This was independent of exposure status. Hypertension was the most common (27%), followed by obesity, hyperlipidemia, heart disease, and diabetes mellitus. Malignant tumors were seen in 9 survivors, consisting of 3 with breast cancer, 2 with colorectal cancer, and single survivors with lung cancer, Hodgkin's disease, cervical cancer, or hepatoma. Only 29% of them have had finantial guarantee for their health management according to the Japanese law. (N.K.)

  9. An autopsy study of histopathological changes in the urinary bladder transitional epithelium of atomic bomb survivors, 1960 - 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Ryozo; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Tokunaga, Masayoshi

    1988-01-01

    From the ABCC-RERF Life Span Study extended sample, there were 4,499 cases in the Pathology Study sample of atomic bomb survivors who had come to autopsy in the period 1960 - 83. Among 370 subjects who were heavily exposed with an estimated dose (T65D) of 100 rad or more, 72 (about 20 %) of them, whose urinary bladder epithelia had been preserved satisfactorily to suit the purpose of this study, were sampled as the index group. An equal number of control subjects were selected from the unexposed group individually, matched with the index cases by city, sex, age at death, and year of death. However, cases with marked epithelial autolysis and those pathologically diagnosed as urinary bladder cancer were previously excluded from both the index group and control subjects. These 72 pairs of autopsy cases were pathologically studied for the presence or absence of epithelial lesions of the urinary bladder, namely, hyperplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma-in-situ, and the frequencies of appearance of these lesions were compared statistically by χ 2 test based on a case-control study design. Carcinoma-in-situ and severe dysplasia were detected in neither the index cases nor the control cases. The risk was relatively higher in the index group than in the control subjects for both hyperplasia and dysplasia (mild and moderate), in particular the relative risk of papillary hyperplasia being about 4.0, but as the total number of cases were small, this was not statistically significant. (author)

  10. Effect of follow-up period on minimal-significant dose in the atomic-bomb survivor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cologne, John; Grant, Eric J.; Cullings, Harry M.; Ozasa, Kotaro [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Preston, Dale L. [Hirosoft International, Eureka, CA (United States)

    2018-03-15

    It was recently suggested that earlier reports on solid-cancer mortality and incidence in the Life Span Study of atomic-bomb survivors contain still-useful information about low-dose risk that should not be ignored, because longer follow-up may lead to attenuated estimates of low-dose risk due to longer time since exposure. Here it is demonstrated, through the use of all follow-up data and risk models stratified on period of follow-up (as opposed to sub-setting the data by follow-up period), that the appearance of risk attenuation over time may be the result of less-precise risk estimation - in particular, imprecise estimation of effect-modification parameters - in the earlier periods. Longer follow-up, in addition to allowing more-precise estimation of risk due to larger numbers of radiation-related cases, provides more-precise adjustment for background mortality or incidence and more-accurate assessment of risk modification by age at exposure and attained age. It is concluded that the latest follow-up data are most appropriate for inferring low-dose risk. Furthermore, if researchers are interested in effects of time since exposure, the most-recent follow-up data should be considered rather than the results of earlier reports. (orig.)

  11. Report on the result of the eighth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital (Japan); Ishioka, Shinichi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Kawano, Michimura; Sasaki, Yoshioki; Hirakami, Kojiro

    1999-05-01

    The atomic bomb survivors emigrating in the South America were 189 in total (160 in Brazil, 4 in Paraguay, 8 in Bolivia, 14 in Argentina and 3 in Peru) in November, 1998. Ninety-three persons (49%) took a medical examination (72 in Brazil, 3 in Paraguay, 6 in Bolivia, 9 in Argentina and 3 in Peru). The mean age was 68.6 years in male, and 68.1 years in female. They had hypertension (21.5%), diabetes (8.6%), cancer (6.5%), heart disease (5.4%), and thyroid gland diseases (4.3%). The subjective symptoms with high frequency were complete exhaustion or fatigue (58.1%), loss of vigor (55.9%), heat intolerance (49.5%) and numbness or tingling (47.1%). Electrocardiogram abnormality, total protein decrement, hypercholesterolemia and corpulence were almost the same as the last time. There was no change of a ratio of persons who needed tests on treatments. (K.H.)

  12. Report on the result of the eighth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in the South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Michiya; Ishioka, Shinichi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Kawano, Michimura; Sasaki, Yoshioki; Hirakami, Kojiro

    1999-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors emigrating in the South America were 189 in total (160 in Brazil, 4 in Paraguay, 8 in Bolivia, 14 in Argentina and 3 in Peru) in November, 1998. Ninety-three persons (49%) took a medical examination (72 in Brazil, 3 in Paraguay, 6 in Bolivia, 9 in Argentina and 3 in Peru). The mean age was 68.6 years in male, and 68.1 years in female. They had hypertension (21.5%), diabetes (8.6%), cancer (6.5%), heart disease (5.4%), and thyroid gland diseases (4.3%). The subjective symptoms with high frequency were complete exhaustion or fatigue (58.1%), loss of vigor (55.9%), heat intolerance (49.5%) and numbness or tingling (47.1%). Electrocardiogram abnormality, total protein decrement, hypercholesterolemia and corpulence were almost the same as the last time. There was no change of a ratio of persons who needed tests on treatments. (K.H.)

  13. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Yoshida

    Full Text Available Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly.

  14. Incidence of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in relation to neutron and gamma dose, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Otake, Masanori; Ichimaru, Michito.

    1978-03-01

    The incidence of leukemia during 1950-71 in the fixed mortality sample of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been analyzed as a function of individual gamma and neutron kerma and marrow dose. Two dose response models were tested for each of acute leukemia, chronic granulocytic leukemia, and all types of leukemia, respectively. Each model postulates that leukemia incidence depends upon the sum of the separate risks imposed by the gamma ray and neutron doses; in Model I both are assumed to be directly proportional to the respective doses, while Model II assumes that while the risk from neutrons is directly proportional to the dose, the risk from gamma rays is proportional to dose-squared. Weighted regression analyses were performed for each model. When the two models were fitted to the data for all types of leukemia, the estimated regression coefficients corresponding to the neutron and gamma ray doses both differed significantly from zero, for each model. However, when analysis was restricted to acute leukemia, both the neutron and gamma ray coefficients were significant only for Model II, and with respect to chronic granulocytic leukemia, only the coefficient of the neutron dose was significant, using either Model I or Model II. It appeared that the responses of the two leukemia types differed by type of radiation. If the chronic granulocytic and acute leukemias are considered together, the Model II appears to fit the data slightly better than Model I, but neither models is rejected by the data. (author)

  15. Evaluation of adverse events in atomic bomb survivors receiving curative-intent radiation therapy from 2005 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yoshiko; Murakami, Yuji; Kenjo, Masahiro; Imano, Nobuki; Kimura, Tomoki; Nagata, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety of radiation therapy (RT) in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors (ABS), we evaluated the frequency of RT-associated adverse events (AEs) in ABS. We selected patients who underwent curative external-beam RT (EBRT) at Hiroshima University Hospital between January 2005 and December 2010 and were born before August 1946; the patients were divided into ABS and non-ABS groups, which groups received identical treatments without stratification. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 220 ABS and 753 non-ABS patients. The median age was 72 years. The median observation durations were 41 and 37 months for the ABS and non-ABS groups, respectively. The ABS group had higher frequencies of women, breast cancer patients, and concurrent chemotherapy and had a lower incidence of only acute hematological AEs. However this tendency disappeared when breast cancer patients were excluded, and no significant differences were observed between the ABS and non-ABS groups regarding Grade ⩾ 3 other acute and late AEs. The overall cumulative incidence of Grade ⩾ 3 late AEs did not significantly differ between the ABS and non-ABS groups. Notable increases in AEs were not observed during or after RT among ABS. This study clarified that stratification is not required when treating ABS with RT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kubo, Yoshiko; Yamaoka, Mika; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c) and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly.

  17. Report on the results of the fifth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the United States and Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Inamizu, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Hideo; Niimi, Masanobu; Yamada, Hiroaki; Doko, Fumio; Sugimoto, Sumio.

    1986-01-01

    The 5th medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was conducted from 11 June to 18 July 1985 in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle, Maui, and Honolulu in the US and in Vancouver in Canada. A total of 682 A-bomb survivors (177 men and 505 women) were confirmed as of the end of July 1985, including 23 who died. Among them, 90.7 % were exposed to A-bombing in Hiroshima. By nationality, 60.8 % and 35.3 % of the survivors possessed US nationality and Japanese nationality with permanent US residency right, respectively. The mean age of the survivors was 56.4 years. By residence, 445 of 659 A-bomb survivors (67.5 %) were residing in California. The rate of health handbook acquisition was 33.2 %. Questionnaires performed in 350 survivors revealed a history of cancer in 16 survivors, and subjective symptoms, such as fatigue, heat intolerance, itching, loss of vigor, and chest pain, in high frequencies. The medical examination performed in 339 survivors, including 115 participating in it for the first time, revealed no abnormality in 12.3 %, and higher incidence of hypertension and heart diseases than those in the previous examinations. According to the Japanese law, health management allowance would be payable in 30.3 % of the survivors with a certain disease. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Report on the results of the fifteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambe, Masayuki; Matsumura, Makoto; Suyama, Akihiko

    2006-01-01

    The fifteenth medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was carried out from May 11th through May 25th and from June 15th through June 29th, 2005, in the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Honolulu. The total number of those who underwent the fifteenth medical examination was 435, 68 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinees was 73.1 years. The examination items included an interview, clinical and physical examinations, electrocardiography (E.C.G.), and blood, urine, and stool tests. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of 51.8%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in 19.6% of the survivors examined, with major sites being the mammary gland, uterus, colon, and prostate. As a result of the blood test, 12.8% of the survivors examined were diagnosed as diabetic, and hypercholesterolemia was found in 26.2% of the survivors examined. Latent hypothyroidism was found in 16.9% of the survivors examined. Among the examinees of A-bomb survivors, statistically significant associations with exposure status were not found in any disease or examination finding. A report providing the results of the medical examination and the necessity of undergoing closer examination and receiving medical treatment, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  19. Occurrence of breast cancer, renal cancer and multiple myeloma in a Nagasaki atomic bomb survivor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Kubota, Kazuo; Tamura, Jun'ichi; Kurabayashi, Hitoshi; Shirakura, Takuo; Hayashida, Masayoshi; Nagayama, Tadao.

    1990-01-01

    A 60-year-old female, who was exposed to the Nagasaki atomic bomb at 18 years old, had renal cancer and subsequently was found to have multiple myeloma (IgGk). She underwent the left mastectomy for breast cancer at 43 years old but was not given chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The karyotype of bone marrow cells was 46, XX. The estimated radiation dose was under 10 rads. While the effect of such a low-dose of radiation is considered to be almost negligible, there would be a possibility that in this case the risk of carcinogenesis was enhanced as her age advanced. (author)

  20. Autopsy case of acute myelocytic leukemia preceded by hemopoietic dysplasia found in an atomic bomb survivor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, Y; Edagawa, J; Taniwaki, M; Ide, T; Misawa, S [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1981-03-01

    An autopsy case of acute myelocytic leukemia preceded by hemopoietic dysplasia, presumably on a sequela to the atomic bomb in Hiroshima is reported. On admission, severe anemia and thrombocytosis were found and the bone marrow aspiration showed myeloid hyperplasia without definite maturation arrest. Mild to moderate eosinophilia and basophilia continued during the course of the disease, accompaning mild monocytosis 2 years later. Furthermore, he had the radical operation for the early gastric cancer in this preleukemic stage. After the administration of methenolone acetate (25 mg/day), severe anemia has dramatically improved, but leukocytosis with profound monocytosis persisted, and subsequently acute myelocytic leukemia developed. He died from an intracerebral bleeding due to an accidental trauma on the head. Autopsy findings disclosed the systemic leukemic infiltration. Repeated chromosome analyses revealed the mosaic karyotype of 46, XY/45, XY, -16 on admission, but it was 46, XY/46, XY, del (8) (p 12) in the overt leukemic phase. The granulopoietic colony forming capacity of bone marrow cells was already low one year before the onset of overt leukemia. This finding suggested that the existence of an abnormal clone could be predictable. In addition, the possible causative effect of the exposure to the atomic bomb in leukemogenesis in this case is discussed.

  1. Anti-human T-lymphotropic virus type-I antibodies in atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Nakashima, Eiji; Carter, R.L. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Nagasaki (Japan). Nagasaki Branch] [and others

    1995-03-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), induced by human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I), is endemic in Nagasaki, Japan. To investigate the effects of atomic-bomb radiation on development of this specific type of leukemia, 6182 individuals in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Adult Health Study sample in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were examined for positive rate of HTLV-I antibody. Several lymphocyte parameters were also studied for 70 antibody-positive subjects in Nagasaki. The HTLV-I antibody-positive rate was higher in Nagasaki (6.36%) than in Hiroshima (0.79%) and significantly increased with increasing age, but no association was observed with radiation dose. Whether relationship existed between antibody titer levels and radiation dose among antibody-positive subjects was not clear. The frequency of abnormal lymphocytes tended to be higher in antibody-positive subjects than in antibody-negative subjects, and higher in females than in males regardless of radiation dose. The lymphocyte count was lower in antibody-positive subjects than in antibody-negative subjects and lower in female than in male subjects. No evidence was found to suggest that atomic-bomb radiation plays an important role in HTLV-I infection. (author).

  2. Levels of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin in serum among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Yokoyama, Naokata; Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Sposto, R.; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Shiraki, Mastaka

    1994-01-01

    To examines the potential causes of increased levels of calcium in serum with increasing dose of atomic bomb radiation, which was obtained from the previous preliminary analysis, levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin in serum were examined among 1459 subjects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A significant effect of radiation on levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin in serum was found, even after patients with hyperparathyroidism were excluded. The level of calcium in serum increased with radiation dose; this can be explained partly by the increase in the level of PTH with radiation dose. However, the dose effect on calcium remained even after adjustment for PTH, calcitonin and confounding factors such as renal function, serum albumin level and medication. Parathyroid hormone increased initially by 6.8% per gray, but the dose response leveled off after about 1 Gy. The level of calcitonin increased with radiation dose, probably in part due to feedback mechanisms stimulated by the increase in calcium. However, after adjustment for the level of calcium, the increase in the level of calcitonin with dose was still found. Although the etiological mechanisms of the effect of radiation on serum levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin are unclear, radiation exposure may affect secretion of PTH and calcitonin and regulation of calcium a long time after atomic bomb exposure. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Yukiko

    1984-01-01

    Of 108,739 atomic-bomb (A-bomb) victims enrolled in the population of life span survey by Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 730 victims from October 1950 to December 1980 were selected as subjects of colorectal cancer based on death certificates, autopsy and operative findings, and clinicopathological reconfirmation of colorectal cancer. Tentative dose decided in 1965 (T65D) was used to estimate radiation doses of A-bomb victims. Although the incidence of colon cancer was found to be related to radiation, the relation of the incidence of rectal cancer to radiation was not confirmed. Radiation effects were dependent on the age of A-bomb victims at the time of the bombing, which was noted in A-bomb victims aged less than twenty years at that time. Dose-response relationship was found in cases of cancer of the sigmoid colon. Histological types of cancer were independent of radiation doses. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Histological review of breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, Shoji; Asano, Masahide; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Sakamoto, Goi; Hartmann, W.H.; Hutter, R.V.P.; Henson, D.E.

    1983-09-01

    A group of pathologists from the United States and Japan reviewed breast cancer material of women exposed to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and controls. The purpose of the review was to verify the diagnoses, establish a base of confirmed cases for epidemiologic study, and provide a reference for other pathology review. Compared to the control group, matched through the Life Span Study extended sample, there were no differences in distribution of tumor type and tumor size. There were also no differences in histological type by age or radiation dose. The peak age for cancer to develop was the same in the exposed and control groups. The type of radiation had no effect on histological type. Atypical changes or residual proliferative lesions were not found in women exposed to radiation but free from cancer. On the basis of this study, it was concluded that radiogenic breast cancer does not differ histologically from spontaneously occurring cancer in Japanese women. (author)

  5. Report on the results of the thirteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in north america

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yasuji; Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan); Urabe, Takeshi [Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital (Japan)] [and others

    2002-05-01

    The thirteenth medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was carried out from June 13th through June 27th and from July 12th through July 26th, 2001, in the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Honolulu. The total number of those who underwent the thirteenth medical examination was 399, 53 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinee was 69.5 years. The examination items included an interview, clinical and physical examinations, electrocardiography (E.C.G.), and blood, urine, and stool tests. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of 39.3%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in 13.6% of the survivors examined, with major sites being the mammary gland, uterine, and colon. As a result of the blood test, 9.5% of the survivors examined were diagnosed as diabetic, and hypercholesterolemia was found in 32.1% of the survivors examined. Latent hypothyroidism was found in 18.5% of the survivors examined. No disease or examination finding showed a clear relation with exposure status. A report providing the results of the medical examination and necessity of undergoing closer examination and receiving medical treatment, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  6. Report on the results of the thirteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in north america

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasuji; Ohta, Michiya; Urabe, Takeshi

    2002-01-01

    The thirteenth medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was carried out from June 13th through June 27th and from July 12th through July 26th, 2001, in the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Honolulu. The total number of those who underwent the thirteenth medical examination was 399, 53 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinee was 69.5 years. The examination items included an interview, clinical and physical examinations, electrocardiography (E.C.G.), and blood, urine, and stool tests. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of 39.3%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in 13.6% of the survivors examined, with major sites being the mammary gland, uterine, and colon. As a result of the blood test, 9.5% of the survivors examined were diagnosed as diabetic, and hypercholesterolemia was found in 32.1% of the survivors examined. Latent hypothyroidism was found in 18.5% of the survivors examined. No disease or examination finding showed a clear relation with exposure status. A report providing the results of the medical examination and necessity of undergoing closer examination and receiving medical treatment, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  7. Distribution of onset of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in the leukemia registry by dose, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1946-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Ichimaru, Michito; Mikami, Motoko; Yamada, Yasuaki; Tomonaga, Yuu.

    1982-03-01

    The data from the RERF Leukemia Registry for the years 1946-75 were used to determine the distribution of onset of acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in relation to city, dose, and age at the time of the bomb (ATB). A total of 509 confirmed leukemia cases (297 in Hiroshima and 212 in Nagasaki) have occurred among A-bomb survivors in the open populations of these cities in these years. Analysis revealed that the onset of both acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia tends to shift to earlier years with increasing dose in Hiroshima, but in Nagasaki, although the onset of both types of leukemia was earlier in the high dose group than in the low dose or control groups, the latter two groups did not differ. The distribution of onset of acute leukemia in the three dose groups also depended upon age ATB. While the distribution of onset of acute leukemia among those survivors whose age ATB was less than 30 differed significantly in the three dose classes, this tendency was not observed among those individuals whose age ATB was 30 years or more. For chronic granulocytic leukemia, the onset was shifted to earlier years in the high dose group than in the control group regardless of age ATB in Hiroshima. These findings support the pattern of leukemogenesis observed in A-bomb survivors in the Life Span Study sample, a fixed cohort, in relation to city, dose, age ATB, and years after exposure. (author)

  8. A study on social life and mental health of middle-aged and elderly atomic bomb survivors. Analysis of general health questionnaire (GHQ-30)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Yasuyuki; Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Toriyama, Fumiko; Sugasaki, Hiroyuki.

    1996-01-01

    The psychological state of middle aged and elderly atomic bomb survivors was analyzed by GHQ, which had been done from September to November, 1992. Subjects were 1,399 Nagasaki survivors of the average age of 61.3 y and 1,054 non-irradiated people of 62.2 y living in the countryside of Nagasaki prefecture as the control. Analyses were performed with χ square method and t-test. When the subordinate measure derived from factor analysis of GHQ was compared with that of the control group, the score possibly attributable to anxiety reaction to the stress was significantly higher in the survivors. However, the two scores attributable to obstacle in personal relations and to avoidance of social activities were significantly lower, which suggested that the survivors are able to have rich personal and social interactions. Besides, it was suggested that the GHQ score was increased possibly by anxiety for the future in the essential part of life such as loss of feeling of healthiness and dissatisfaction for the present life conditions. It was confirmed that systematic and continuous examinations are necessary from the bio-psycho-social viewpoint. (H.O.)

  9. Radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts from atomic bomb survivors with and without breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Sadayuki; Setlow, R.B.; Bender, M.A.

    1990-11-01

    Fibroblasts were established in vitro from skin biopsies obtained from 55 women and one man with or without breast cancer and with or without exposure to radiation from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima. The radiosensitivity of these cells was evaluated by clonogenic assays after exposure to X rays or to fission neutrons from a 252 Cf source. Data were fitted to a multitarget model, S/S 0 = A[1-(1-e kD ) N ], for both X-ray and neutron dose-survival curves. A single-hit model, S/S 0 = Ae kD , fits the neutron dose-survival responses as well. These was no difference in the means or variances of radiosensitivity between exposed and nonexposed groups, or between patients with or without breast cancer. Hence, although the sample is not large, it provides no support for the hypothesis that A-bomb radiation preferentially induces breast cancer in women whose cells in vitro are sensitive to cell killing by radiation. (author)

  10. Mortality among the offspring (F1) of atomic bomb survivors, 1946-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Schull, W.J.; Kato, Hiroo; Neel, J.V.

    1991-01-01

    We compare the mortality in the years of 1946-85 in a cohort of 31,159 children born to parents one or both of whom were exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (a parental gonadal dose ≥0.01 Sv) with that in a control group of 41,069 children. The average gonadal dose for the exposed parents was 0.435 Sv. The mean age of the cohorts was 28.8 years. In the ≥0.01 Sv dose group 1,253 deaths were observed in the subset of children both of whose parents have been assigned DS86 doses. 3.2% were attributed to cancers, 72.9% to all diseases except neoplasms. These proportions in the 0 Sv dose group were about the same. Based on a linear relative risk model, no statistically significant increase in the mortality attributable to diseases other than neoplasms is noted following parental exposure, the excess relative risk being 0.030 (±0.046) per sievert based on the DS86 doses (RBE of neutrons=20). For fatal cancer, no statistically significant effect of parental radiation dose was also observed. An analysis based on the full sample, using not only the DS86 dose group but also ad hoc dose group, yields essentially the same results as the analysis restricted to the DS86 dose group. (author)

  11. Autopsy findings of the first and second filial generations of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio

    1992-01-01

    Autopsy findings of 652 fetuses whose parents or one parent were exposed to the Atomic Bomb (F 1 ) and 115 fetuses which had one or two grandparents exposed (F 2 ) were compared with that of 8570 fetuses whose parents were not exposed (control). The F 1 fetuses have been collected since 1963 and F 2 fetuses since 1971 voluntarily in Hiroshima. The findings were classified according to the types of delivery and to the distances away from the hypocenter where the parents and grandparents were exposed. Many normal cases in the group of artificial abortions and many malformations and pathological findings in the group of spontaneous abortions were found in both groups of F 1 and F 2 . The malformations were cardiovascular, central nervous and urogenital system, quantitatively in that order, in both groups of F 1 and F 2 . Although there were a few cases of cystic kidney and chondrodystrophy which belong to autosomal dominant and osteogenesis imperfecta which belong to autosomal recessive, these cases were not correlated with the distance. Most cases of malformation which belong to the multifactorial inheritance were found in each organ. No peculiar malformation was found in the groups of F 1 and F 2 . (author)

  12. Autopsy findings of the first and second filial generations of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satow, Yukio (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1992-01-01

    Autopsy findings of 652 fetuses whose parents or one parent were exposed to the Atomic Bomb (F[sub 1]) and 115 fetuses which had one or two grandparents exposed (F[sub 2]) were compared with that of 8570 fetuses whose parents were not exposed (control). The F[sub 1] fetuses have been collected since 1963 and F[sub 2] fetuses since 1971 voluntarily in Hiroshima. The findings were classified according to the types of delivery and to the distances away from the hypocenter where the parents and grandparents were exposed. Many normal cases in the group of artificial abortions and many malformations and pathological findings in the group of spontaneous abortions were found in both groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. The malformations were cardiovascular, central nervous and urogenital system, quantitatively in that order, in both groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. Although there were a few cases of cystic kidney and chondrodystrophy which belong to autosomal dominant and osteogenesis imperfecta which belong to autosomal recessive, these cases were not correlated with the distance. Most cases of malformation which belong to the multifactorial inheritance were found in each organ. No peculiar malformation was found in the groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. (author).

  13. Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes of atomic bomb survivors using monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kobuke, Kyoko; Hakoda, Masayuki; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Ochi, Yoshimichi; Jones, S.L.; Olson, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on the immune competence of man, the proportions of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (subpopulations) were determined by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay using monoclonal antibodies and fluorescence microscopy. The study was based on a total of 104 Adult Health Study participants in Hiroshima, including 29 individuals exposed to 100 + rad, 46 exposed to 1 - 99 rad, and 29 0 rad controls. No change in the proportion of Leu-1 positive cells (total T cells) and Leu-2a positive cells (cytotoxic/suppressor T cells) and the ratio of Leu-3a/Leu-2a was observed with age, while Leu-3a positive cells (helper/inducer T cells) decreased with age and HLA-DR positive cells (B cells and monocytes) increased with age, with the differences occurring predominantly in the oldest age group (age > 75). The proportion of HLA-DR positive cells was higher in males, but there was no significant sex difference in the proportions of other cell types and the ratio of Leu-3a/Leu-2a. Radiation exposure did not significantly affect the proportions of Leu-1, Leu-2a, Leu-3a, and HLA-DR positive cells and the ratio of Leu-3a/Leu-2a. No interaction between the effects of age and radiation exposure was demonstrated. (author)

  14. Changes of disease incidence among atomic-bomb survivors 1956-78

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Matsushita, Hiroshi.

    1978-01-01

    Statistical observation was made concerning changes with time of incidences of various diseases in autopsy cases since 1956 when Atomic Bomb Hospital was established, and the following results were obtained. The incidence of lung cancer tended to increase in men and women of both groups (an exposed group and a non-exposed group). A marked decrease of the incidence of leukemia was recognized in men and women of both groups, and a decrease of that of malignant lymphoma was recognized in men. The incidence of liver cirrhosis and hepatic cancer tended to decrease in men and women of both groups. The incidence of colon cancer tended to increase in both groups, but that of stomach cancer decreased recently in men and women of both groups. Incidences of digestive organ diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular disorder, and respiratory organ diseases tended to increase in both groups, but urinary tract diseases, infectious diseases, and blood diseases tended to decrease in both groups, which suggested an increase of older persons' diseases due to aging of the exposed. Incidences of various diseases in the exposed changed almost in parallel with those in the non-exposed, and a difference in incidences of various diseases tended to be shortened. (Tsunoda, M.)

  15. Infectious diseases in atomic bomb survivors. Statistical study on autopsy cases, 1965--1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, T; Ishida, S [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Matsushita, H

    1976-09-01

    Incidences of various infectious diseases in 986 autopsy cases at Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital and Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital from 1965 to 1975 were compared according to the distance from the explosion place, and the following results were obtained. There was not a significant difference at incidences of most infectious diseases between each exposured group and not-exposured group. Incidence of old tuberculosis focus was a little higher in exposured groups, but incidences of main lesions such as tuberculosis, active tuberculosis, and miliary tuberculosis were lower in exposured groups and effect of exposure was negative. Out of urinary tract infections, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidence of cistitis in female was. Incidence of cystitis of female was higher than that of male in the group exposured near to the explosion place. With respect to stomach cancer, leukemia, malignant lymphoma, and cerebrovascular disorder, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidences of various infectious diseases were.

  16. Agreement between death-certificate and autopsy diagnoses among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Carter, R.L.; Jablon, S.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko.

    1993-11-01

    Using the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission/Radiation Effects Research Foundation series of over 5000 autopsies, we examined death-certificate accuracy for several disease categories and assessed the effect of potential modifying factors on this accuracy. For 12 cause-of-death categories, the overall percent agreement between death-certificate and autopsy diagnoses was only 52.5%. Although neoplasms had the highest detection rate (on the death certificate) in the study, still almost 25% of cancers diagnosed at autopsy were missed on the death certificate. Only for neoplasms and external causes of death were confirmation and detection rates above 70%. Confirmation rates were between 50% and 70% for infectious and parasitic diseases and heart and other vascular diseases. Detection rates reached a similar level for infectious and parasitic, cerebrovascular, and digestive diseases. Specificity rates were above 90% for all but the cerebrovascular disease category. Overall agreement decreased with increasing age of the decedents and was lower for deaths occurring outside of hospital vs those occurring in a hospital. There was some suggestion that agreement rates were higher for more-recent deaths but no indication that radiation dose, sex, city of residence, or inclusion in a biennial clinical-examination program influenced agreement. Because the inaccuracy of death-certificate diagnoses can have major implications for many aspects of health research and planning, it is important to be aware that death-certificate accuracy is low and can vary widely depending on the patient's age at death and the place of death. (J.P.N.)

  17. Breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-69. Pathologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, D H [Veterans Administration Hospital, Kansas (USA); Land, C E; Choi, K; Tokuoka, S; Liu, P I

    1981-01-01

    The pathological features of 161 cases of breast cancer --7% noninfiltrating carcinoma, 47% nonspecific infiltrating duct carcinoma, 21% nonfiltrating papillary duct carcinoma, 7% comedo carcinoma, 6% medullary carcinoma, 6% colloid carcinoma, 4% lobular carcinoma, and 2% sarcoma-- were investigated and their relation to irradiation dosage due to the atomic bomb was studied. Irradiation dosage was estimated from T65 dosage, the total dosage of ..gamma..-rays and neutrons in unshielded tissue. However, there was no relation between the dosage and any specific tissue type. Breast cancers were classified as either type I, type II, or type III according to the histological grade, and each grade was divided according to the degree of differentiation, multiplicity, and mitiotic activity. The pathological characteristics, lymphatic infiltration, fibrosis, necrosis, localization, calcification, and vascular, perineurial, muscular, and dermal invasion were investigated in each case. The histological grade and the incidence of localized invasion, necrosis, localization, and calcification were lower in the patients who were irradiated with more than 50 rad than in those who were not irradiated. The absolute risk rate for breast cancer was estimated to increase by 1.9 cases/100,000 rad from 1950 to 1969. This increase was much smaller than that estimated from x-ray irradiation during medical treatment in North America. The dose response curves at Hiroshima and Nagasaki were similar and fitted well with a linear model, suggesting that the effect of ..gamma..-rays was analogous to that of neutrons in inducing cancer. The problems involved in the histological classification of breast cancer and the histological differences between cancer patients in Japan and in the U.S.A. were discussed.

  18. Long-term Radiation-Related Health Effects in a Unique Human Population: Lessons Learned from the Atomic Bomb Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douple, Evan B.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Cullings, Harry M.; Preston, Dale L.; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E.

    2014-01-01

    For 63 years scientists in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have been assessing the long-term health effects in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in their children. The identification and follow-up of a large population (approximately a total of 200 000, of whom more than 40% are alive today) that includes a broad range of ages and radiation exposure doses, and healthy representatives of both sexes; establishment of well-defined cohorts whose members have been studied longitudinally, including some with biennial health examinations and a high survivor participation rate; and careful reconstructions of individual radiation doses have resulted in reliable excess relative risk estimates for radiation-related health effects, including cancer and noncancer effects in humans, for the benefit of the survivors and for all humankind. This article reviews those risk estimates and summarizes what has been learned from this historic and unique study. PMID:21402804

  19. Dose-responses for mortality from cerebrovascular and heart diseases in atomic bomb survivors: 1950-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoellnberger, Helmut [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Department of Radiation Sciences, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and the Environment, Neuherberg (Germany); Eidemueller, Markus; Simonetto, Cristoforo; Kaiser, Jan Christian [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Department of Radiation Sciences, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Cullings, Harry M. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Department of Statistics, Hiroshima (Japan); Neff, Frauke [Staedtisches Klinikum Muenchen and Technical University of Munich, Institute of Pathology, Munich (Germany)

    2018-03-15

    The scientific community faces important discussions on the validity of the linear no-threshold (LNT) model for radiation-associated cardiovascular diseases at low and moderate doses. In the present study, mortalities from cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) and heart diseases from the latest data on atomic bomb survivors were analyzed. The analysis was performed with several radio-biologically motivated linear and nonlinear dose-response models. For each detrimental health outcome one set of models was identified that all fitted the data about equally well. This set was used for multi-model inference (MMI), a statistical method of superposing different models to allow risk estimates to be based on several plausible dose-response models rather than just relying on a single model of choice. MMI provides a more accurate determination of the dose response and a more comprehensive characterization of uncertainties. It was found that for CeVD, the dose-response curve from MMI is located below the linear no-threshold model at low and medium doses (0-1.4 Gy). At higher doses MMI predicts a higher risk compared to the LNT model. A sublinear dose-response was also found for heart diseases (0-3 Gy). The analyses provide no conclusive answer to the question whether there is a radiation risk below 0.75 Gy for CeVD and 2.6 Gy for heart diseases. MMI suggests that the dose-response curves for CeVD and heart diseases in the Lifespan Study are sublinear at low and moderate doses. This has relevance for radiotherapy treatment planning and for international radiation protection practices in general. (orig.)

  20. Frequency of malignant tumors during the first two decades of life in the offspring (F1) of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Neel, J.V.; Kato, Hiroo; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Schull, W.J.; Soda, Midori; Eto, Ryozo.

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of cancer prior to age 20 has been determined in children born to atomic bomb survivors and to a suitable comparison group. Tumor ascertainment was through death certificates and the tumor registries maintained in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The rationale for the study stemmed from the evidence that a significant proportion of childhood tumors such as retinoblastoma and Wilms' tumor arise on the basis of a mutant gene inherited from one parent plus a second somatic cell mutation involving the allele of this gene. Gonadal radiation doses were calculated using the recently established DS86 system, supplemented by an ad hoc system for those children whose parents' (one or both) DS86 dose could not be computed but for whom a dose could be developed on the basis of the available information. The total data set consisted of: 1) a cohort of 31,150 liveborn children, one or both of whose parents received ≥ 0.01 Sv of radiation at the time of the A-bombings (an average conjoint gonad exposure of 0.435 Sv), and 2) two suitable comparison groups, totaling 41,066 children. A total of 92 cancer cases at age less than 20 years was confirmed; 49 and 43 cases, respectively, in the 0 Sv and ≥ 0.01 Sv groups. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed no increase in malignancy in the children of exposed parents. However, examination of the data suggested that only 3.0 % to 5.0 % of the tumors of childhood observed in the comparison groups are associated with an inherited genetic predisposition that would be expected to exhibit an altered frequency if the parental mutation rate were increased. These is thus far no confirmation of the positive findings of Nomura in a mouse system. (author)

  1. Comparison of type and frequency of chromosome aberrations by conventional and G-staining methods in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtaki, Kazuo; Shimba, Hachiro; Sofuni, Toshio; Awa, A.A.

    1982-07-01

    Somatic chromosomes derived from cultured lymphocytes of 23 atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima were analyzed to determine the type and frequency of radiation-induced structural aberrations, using in sequence the ordinary staining method (O-method) and the trypsin G-banding method (G-method). Of 896 cells examined, 342 were found to contain induced aberrations, including 31 cells in which the precise identification of the type of aberrations was not possible even by the G-method. The number of chromosome aberrations observed was 376 in the 311 cells where aberrant precise identification was possible. The majority (288 or 76.6%) were intra- or inter-chromosomal symmetric exchanges due to a two-break event, while only 24 were found to be asymmetric exchanges (dicentrics, rings, and interstitial deletions). Further, there were 28 aberrations showing acentric fragments and terminal deletions, and the remaining 36 were complex intra- and inter-chromosomal exchanges involving three or more breaks which result in insertions and double translocations. A comparative karyotype analysis of the same metaphases examined by the sequential 0- And G-methods was carried out independently on 361 aberrations, mostly of the symmetric type. It was found that 78 (21.6%) of the 361 were detected only by the G-method; among these were 14 paracentric inversions, 48 reciprocal interchanges of chromosome segments with either equal length (11) or unequal length (37), 14 minor deletions and 2 complex rearrangements, all of which were nevertheless judged to fall within the normal range of variation by theO-method. In contrast, 25 aberrations detected in O-method chromosomes which were overcontracted or twisted, were shown to have normal banding patterns by the G-method. (author)

  2. Comparison of medical data of atomic-bomb survivors resident in the U.S. and Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Matsubara, Hiroomi; Yamakido, Michio; Yamada, Hiroaki.

    1982-01-01

    The third medical examination of A-bomb survivors residing in the U.S. was performed in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle and Honolulu during the period 6 - 28 May 1981. The test results were studied and the actual state of the survivors in the U.S., was reviewed as explained hereunder. 1) The number of survivors actually registered with the Committee of A-bomb Survivors in the U.S. is 491 (133 males and 358 females) of whom 57.2% are U.S. citizens. Those exposed in Hiroshima accounted for 91.8%. The mean age was 53.3 +- 8.9, thus they were more than 3 years younger than their counterparts in Hiroshima. The present addresses of the survivors are distributed over 15 states, but those in California constitute 77.6% of the total, and when those residing in the states along the west coast and Hawaii are added the rate increases to 95.9%. 2) Those who underwent health examination numbered 166 (45 males and 121 females), and comparison of the U.S. survivors against the Hiroshima survivors showed there to be a difference in the following points. The prevalence of hypertension was lower among the U.S. survivors, but RBC counts and hemoglobin concentration were significantly higher. The same was observed for blood lipids with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia being found at a significantly higher rate in the U.S. survivors. 3) Those free of clinical abnormalities in this survey were 37.3%, and the rest required dietary guidance, follow-up observation, detailed examination of treatment. Those with diseases which are considered would make them eligible for health management allowance if in Japan, accounted for 18.7%. (author)

  3. Report on the results of the tenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Jun [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan); Ohta, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Hideo [and others

    1996-01-01

    The 10th medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was conducted from 6 June to 6 July 1995 in L.A., S.F., Seattle, Wailuku, and Honolulu. Since this is the 10th medical examination, results of the previous examination are summarized. With the exclusion of 55 whose death has been confirmed, the total registered number of A-bomb survivors resident in North America is 1,043. The examinees in the present examination amounted to 463 (48 of them are the children of A-bomb survivors), 26 of whom are newly registered survivors. The mean age of the examinees in 64 years. The proportion of those having US nationality gradually increased and reached 62% at the time of the 10th examination, while that of those who have Japanese nationality and permanent US residency rights decreased to 30%. When the examination program was initiated, A-bomb survivors resident in 15 states of the US, but now, in Canada and 31 states of the US. About 90% of these survivors reside along the west coast of the US including Hawaii. The number of holders of A-bomb survivor`s health handbook has increased year after year, reaching 612. When the holders in North-America visit Japan for medical treatment, they are treated similarly with their counterparts in Japan. The major subjective symptoms are complete exhaustion or fatigue, heat intolerance, loss of vigor, and numbness or tingling. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus and the proportion of abnormal ECG findings has been increasing with the age. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was high and that of low HDL cholesterolemia was low. A significant difference was observed between the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and North America. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus were observed mainly. Diseased of specific places were not observed. (H.O.).

  4. Mortality among the offspring (F1) of atomic bomb survivors, 1946-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Schull, W.J.; Kato, Hiroo; Neel, J.V.

    1991-03-01

    We compare deaths occurring in the years 1946-85 in a cohort of 31,159 children born to parents one or both of whom were exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima or Nagasaki, and received a combined (i.e., joint) gonadal dose of 0.01 Sv or more, with deaths in a comparable control group, totaling 41,069 children. The average combined gonadal dose equivalent for the exposed parents was 0.435 Sv. Gonadal doses were calculated using the recently established DS86 system, supplemented by an ad hoc system for those children for whom a DS86 dose could not be computed for one or both parents. The mean age of living members of the cohorts was 28.8 years. When a linear relative risk model is fitted to the data, no statistically significant increase in the risk of mortality attributable to diseases other than neoplasms is noted following parental exposure, the excess relative risk being 0.030 (±0.046) per sievert based on the subset of individuals with DS86 doses, assuming the RBE of neutrons to be 20. For fatal cancer, in confirmation of an earlier report on cancer incidence below the age of 20 in this same group, again no statistically significant effect was observed as parental radiation dose increased. This model was also fitted to the data used in the relative risk estimate to provide some continuity with the past. The results give an intercept of 0.0420(±0.0015) and a linear regression coefficient of 0.00169 (±0.00157) per sievert. This leads to the calculation of a (statistically nonsignificant) excess relative risk of 0.040, in good agreement with the excess obtained by fitting the relative risk model. An analysis based on the full sample, using not only the DS86 dose group but also the ad hoc dose group, yields essentially the same result as the analysis restricted to the DS86 dose group. (J.P.N.)

  5. Report of a workshop on the application of molecular genetics to the study of mutation in the children of atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    A workshop, entitled 'application of molecular genetics to the study of mutation in the children of atomic-bomb survivors,' was held on November 12-14, 1991, which was presided over by Mortimer Mendelsohn and Toshiyuki Kumatori, co-chairmen of the RERF Scientific Council. The purpose of this workshop was to evaluate the status of the emerging DNA-oriented techniques for the study of mutation and to discuss possible developments that would bear upon the program. Although specific genetic follow-up studies of children of A-bomb survivors were addressed, it was clear to the participants that their discussions had much-wider implications -- most notably, the Chernobyl accidents of 1986. This report summarizes the contents of the lively 2.5-day meeting. A complete list of the invited participants is shown in the Appendix. (N.K.) 79 refs

  6. Radiation-related small head sizes among prenatally exposed atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaki, Masanori; Schull, William J.

    2004-01-01

    The population prenatally exposed to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, referred to as the In Utero Clinical Sample, on whom Dosimetry System 1986 doses are available consists of 1566 individuals (1242 in Hiroshima and 324 in Nagasaki). Of these study subjects, 1473 had the circumference of their heads measured at least once between ages 9 to 19. Among these 1473 individuals, 62 had small heads - the circumference of the head was two standard deviations or more below the observed specific age-at-measurement mean. Twenty-six of the 30 cases with severe mental retardation described elsewhere are included among these subjects. Of these 26 severely mentally retarded cases, 15 (58%) had small heads. Most (86%) of the individuals with small heads were exposed in the first or second trimester of pregnancy - 55% in the former period and 31% in the latter. Various dose-response relationships, with and without a threshold, have been fitted to the data grouped by the trimester or postovulatory age (weeks after ovulation) at which exposure occurred. A significant effect of radiation on the frequency of individuals with atypically small heads is observed only in the first and second trimesters and for the intervals postovulation of 0-7 weeks and 8-15 weeks. Although the risk of a small head at 0-7 weeks postovulation increases significantly with increasing dose, no increase in risk for severe mental retardation is noted in this period. No excess risk of a small head was seen in the third trimester or among individuals exposed at ≥ 16 weeks postovulation. The estimated threshold, based either on a linear or a linear-quadratic dose-response relationship, is zero or thereabouts. This apparent absence of a threshold and the somewhat different periods of vulnerability suggest an embryological difference in the development of both a small head and mental retardation. Mean IQ (using the Koga test) and its standard deviation are 63.8 and 8.5, respectively, for the

  7. Report on the results of the sixth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Hiroaki [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Hirata, Katsumi; Taguchi, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Fumio; Nawachi, Sadahiro; Terada, Kensaku

    1995-11-01

    The medical examination of A-bomb survivors was carried out in Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Republic of Peru, and Paraguay from October 25th to November 11th 1994. The survivors were 191 persons, and 98 (51.3%) of them received health consultation. Sixty-two persons were exposured in Hiroshima and 36 in Nagasaki. Average age of the medical examinee was 65.0{+-}8.5-year-old. The holding rate of A-bomb survivor`s handbook was 55.1%. The lowered physical vitality and the involution of the mental vitality with increased age were observed from interview sheets. This first orthopedic examination revealed abnormal findings in 12 persons. Sixty-five persons required further examinations. Cardiovascular risk factors of such as hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus were observed. (H.O.).

  8. Carcinogenesis model analysis for breast cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors and the implications for cancer risk estimate for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki; Kusama, Tomoko

    2000-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence is the highest risk due to radiation among atomic bomb survivors. The excess relative risk of the early-onset breast cancer seems to be remarkably high for the youngest age-at-exposure groups. The cancer risk estimate of breast cancer is a current issue in radiological protection. We used a two-stage stochastic model for carcinogenesis to analyze the breast cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors (Kai, et al. Radiat. Res. 1997). Our purpose is to examine the dependence of radiation risk on age at exposure using the two-stage model and how to transfer it to other populations for radiological protection. We fitted the model assuming that radiation acts as an initiator and that the rate of radiation-induced mutation and background initiation mutation leading to baseline cancer are additive. We took two age-dependence, not attained age but age at exposure, of the spontaneous process into account. First, age-dependence of spontaneous initiation was expressed by a linear model. We also modeled the age-dependence of spontaneous net growth rate of initiated cells by a linear function. As far as radiation-induced initiation is concerned, we took a stepwise function other than a liner function into account. The analysis did not show that the radiation mutation for the youngest age-at-exposure groups below age 10 was higher than for the older groups. Furthermore, the incidence of female breast cancer in Japan is increasing and the birth cohort effect can be observed in atomic bomb survivors. Our model assumed that an acute exposure to atomic radiation can only initiate cancers and do not influence other stages of carcinogenesis, whereas spontaneous initiation and promotion are age-dependent to consider birth cohort effects. When these cohort effects are properly accounted for, the shape of the age-specific incidence curve in Japan is remarkably similar to the age-specific incidence in western populations (shown in figure). Recently Little and

  9. Report on the results of the tenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Jun; Ohta, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Hideo

    1996-01-01

    The 10th medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was conducted from 6 June to 6 July 1995 in L.A., S.F., Seattle, Wailuku, and Honolulu. Since this is the 10th medical examination, results of the previous examination are summarized. With the exclusion of 55 whose death has been confirmed, the total registered number of A-bomb survivors resident in North America is 1,043. The examinees in the present examination amounted to 463 (48 of them are the children of A-bomb survivors), 26 of whom are newly registered survivors. The mean age of the examinees in 64 years. The proportion of those having US nationality gradually increased and reached 62% at the time of the 10th examination, while that of those who have Japanese nationality and permanent US residency rights decreased to 30%. When the examination program was initiated, A-bomb survivors resident in 15 states of the US, but now, in Canada and 31 states of the US. About 90% of these survivors reside along the west coast of the US including Hawaii. The number of holders of A-bomb survivor's health handbook has increased year after year, reaching 612. When the holders in North-America visit Japan for medical treatment, they are treated similarly with their counterparts in Japan. The major subjective symptoms are complete exhaustion or fatigue, heat intolerance, loss of vigor, and numbness or tingling. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus and the proportion of abnormal ECG findings has been increasing with the age. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was high and that of low HDL cholesterolemia was low. A significant difference was observed between the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and North America. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus were observed mainly. Diseased of specific places were not observed. (H.O.)

  10. Report on the results of the ninth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hirabayashi, Naoki; Sato, Reiko; Kawamoto, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Nishihara, Yoji; Yamane, Kiyoaki; Fukuhara, Teruaki.

    1994-01-01

    The 9th medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in the North America was conducted from June 16 to July 15, 1993 at Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, Wailuku and Honolulu. As of the end of July 1993, the number of A-bomb survivors registered in the North America was 1073, including 23 in Canada. Of these survivors, 53 deaths were confirmed. Thus, the total number of living survivors was 1020, being composed of 268 men and 752 women, with an average age of 62.8 years. Those exposed in Hiroshima accounted for 88.5%. U.S. nationality was seen in 62.1%; Japanese nationality with permanent U.S. residency rights in 30.6%. The most common residential state was California (61.6%), followed by Hawaii (18.8%) and Washington (5.6%). The rate of A-bomb survivors' health handbook possession was 58.5%, which was 3.9 times higher than that 10 years ago. Four hundreds and seventy-one A-bomb survivors (46.2%) participated in the present examination. In addition, 78 offsprings (F 1 ) of A-bomb survivors also participated in it, consisting of 35 men and 43 women. The most common disease requiring treatment and follow-up was hyperlipidemia (33.7%), followed by hypertension, liver disease, heart disease, thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus in that order. Cancer was seen in 4 survivors, consisting of colon cancer (2), leukemia (one) and Hodgkin's disease (one). (N.K.)

  11. Report on the results of the second medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamitsuna, Akimitsu; Monzen, Tetsuo; Oguma, Nobuo; Sakuma, Saburo; Takata, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Yoshiaki; Sakata, Morimitsu.

    1987-06-01

    In October 9 - 31, 1986, the second medical examination for A-bomb survivors was undertaken in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru. Among 173 recognized A-bomb survivors in the five countries, 126 (73 %) participated in the examination, consisting of 61 men and 65 women. Seventy-eight A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima and 48 from Nagasaki. The average age was 55.6 +- 9.7 years for men and 56.5 +- 9.8 years for women. The acquisition rate of ''Survivor's Health Handbook'' was 34 %. Gastric cancer was observed in two survivors and cervical cancer in one survivor. Major subjective symptoms were: fatigue, sensation of paralysis, heat intolerance, decreased physical strength, and itching. None of the abnormal findings were observed in 33 %. The incidence of hypertension, obesity, cardiac disease, and liver disease was high. The incidence of hypercholesteremia and diabetes mellitus was lower than that in the USA. (Namekawa, K.).

  12. Report on the results of the eighteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Shizuteru; Matsumura, Makoto; Yanagida, Jitsuro

    2012-01-01

    The eighteenth medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was carried out from June 15th through 29th and from July 13th through 27th, 2011, in the cities of Los Angeles, Honolulu, San Francisco, and Seattle. The total number of those who underwent the eighteenth medical examination was 378, 77 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinees was 77.6 years. The examination items included an medical interview, clinical (including surgical and gynecological) examinations, physical measurement, electrocardiography (ECG), and hematology, blood biochemistry, urine, and fecal occult blood reaction tests, and cervical cancer screening. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of about 60%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in about 18% of the survivors examined, with major cancer sites being the prostate, mammary gland, colon, and uterus. As a result of the blood biochemistry test, about 38% and 67% of the survivors examined were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and dyslipidemia, respectively. Analyses of the A-bomb survivors who underwent this examination showed no statistically significant associations between exposure status and any disease or examination finding. A report providing the results of the medical examination and the necessity of undergoing closer examination, receiving medical treatment, and clinical follow-up, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  13. Report on the results of the eighteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usui, Shizuteru; Matsumura, Makoto; Yanagida, Jitsuro [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association, Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan); others, and

    2012-05-15

    The eighteenth medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was carried out from June 15th through 29th and from July 13th through 27th, 2011, in the cities of Los Angeles, Honolulu, San Francisco, and Seattle. The total number of those who underwent the eighteenth medical examination was 378, 77 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinees was 77.6 years. The examination items included an medical interview, clinical (including surgical and gynecological) examinations, physical measurement, electrocardiography (ECG), and hematology, blood biochemistry, urine, and fecal occult blood reaction tests, and cervical cancer screening. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of about 60%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in about 18% of the survivors examined, with major cancer sites being the prostate, mammary gland, colon, and uterus. As a result of the blood biochemistry test, about 38% and 67% of the survivors examined were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and dyslipidemia, respectively. Analyses of the A-bomb survivors who underwent this examination showed no statistically significant associations between exposure status and any disease or examination finding. A report providing the results of the medical examination and the necessity of undergoing closer examination, receiving medical treatment, and clinical follow-up, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  14. Leukemia incidence among individuals exposed in utero, children of atomic bomb survivors, and their controls; Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Ichimaru, Michito; Mikami, Motoko.

    1982-03-01

    The incidence of leukemia has been analyzed in relation to the fetal dose of individuals exposed in utero, and the parental gonadal dose of individuals born to atomic bomb survivors and controls in the two fixed RERF cohorts. Among 3,636 in utero exposed children and controls, 3 leukemia cases have been identified through 1979. No excess risk of leukemia for in utero exposed children is apparent. For children born to exposed parents and controls, 36 leukemia cases have been identified in the years 1946-79 among 50,689 study subjects where the parental gonadal dose is available. Again, no excess risk of leukemia exists. (author)

  15. Report on the results of the sixth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Hiroaki; Hirata, Katsumi; Taguchi, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Fumio; Nawachi, Sadahiro; Terada, Kensaku.

    1995-01-01

    The medical examination of A-bomb survivors was carried out in Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Republic of Peru, and Paraguay from October 25th to November 11th 1994. The survivors were 191 persons, and 98 (51.3%) of them received health consultation. Sixty-two persons were exposured in Hiroshima and 36 in Nagasaki. Average age of the medical examinee was 65.0±8.5-year-old. The holding rate of A-bomb survivor's handbook was 55.1%. The lowered physical vitality and the involution of the mental vitality with increased age were observed from interview sheets. This first orthopedic examination revealed abnormal findings in 12 persons. Sixty-five persons required further examinations. Cardiovascular risk factors of such as hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus were observed. (H.O.)

  16. Report on results of third medical examination of Atomic Bomb Survivors residing in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Hiroomi; Yamakido, Michio; Ito, Chikako; Yamada, Hiroaki.

    1982-01-01

    The number of survivors actually registered with the Committee of A-bomb survivors in the U.S. in 491 (133 males and 358 females) of whom 57.3% are U.S. citizens. Those exposed in Hiroshima accounted for 91.8%. The mean age was 53.3 +- 8.9, thus they were more than 3 years younger than their counterparts in Hiroshima. Responses to the Health Survey Questionnaires numbered 255, and those with symptoms which appeared to be related to diseases were found at a high rate among the early entrants, but as the number of those receiving examination in this group was few, it is considered that many of those in poor health had come in for the examination. No association could be demonstrated between psychological complaints and exposure status. Those who underwent health examination numbered 166 (45 males and 121 females), and comparison of the U.S. survivors against the Hiroshima survivors showed there to be a difference in the following points. The prevalence of hypertension was lower among the U.S. survivors, but RBC counts and hemoglobin values were significantly higher. The same was observed for blood lipids with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia being found at a significantly higher rate in the U.S. survivors, the cause being considered to be the larger intake of animal fat and sugar by those of Japanese ancestry than the indigenous Japanese. Those free of clinical abnormalities in this survey were 37.3%, and the rest required dietary guidance, follow-up observation, detailed examination or treatment. Those with diseases which are considered would make them eligible for health management allowance if in Japan, accounted for 18.7%. (J.P.N.)

  17. Study on mass survey for cardiovascular diseases. An analysis of the electrocardiographic findings of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Noriko; Harada, Hisako; Nakamura, Kenji; Fujita, Keiko; Ishida, Sakurako; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Tanaka, Gaku; Maeda, Ryo.

    1996-01-01

    Electrocardiographic findings obtained at authors' center in 1993 of 12,534 survivors (5,500 males and 7,034 females), aged 47-99 y, were analyzed in relation to irradiation conditions such as distance from the explosion site by Minnesota code to give the following results. The rate of survivors without abnormalities was higher in females than in males. In males and females, there was an increasing tendency with age of the appearance of QRS high potential, ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities, bundle-branch block and arrhythmia. The frequency of appearance of ischemic abnormalities was correlated with sex and blood pressure but not with irradiation conditions. (H.O.)

  18. Ph1 chromosomes and bcr gene rearrangements in chronic myelocytic leukemia patients developed from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Takechi, Miho; Shigeta, Chiharu; Sakatani, Keiko; Oguma, Nobuo; Kamada, Nanao; Takimoto, Yasuo; Kuramoto, Atsushi

    1989-01-01

    This study compared findings of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) in A-bomb survivors (n=8) developing CML within 10 years after the bombing and in non-exposed CML patients (n=14). Both Ph 1 chromosomes and bcr rearrangement were observed in all patients in both exposed and non-exposed groups. There was no significant difference in distribution sites of bcr rearrangement between the groups. These results suggest that bcr-abl chimera mRNA and chimera protein associated with Ph 1 chromosomes have an important role in the development of CML among A-bomb survivors, as well as among non-exposed patients. (N.K.)

  19. Transformation from refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) into acute myeloid leukemia (AML) obserbed in a heavily exposed atomic bomb survivor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwato, Koji; Kawano, Michio; Kimura, Akiro; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Tanaka, Kimio; Kamada, Nanao

    1987-01-01

    A heavily exposed atomic bomb survivor, 59-year-old man presented refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) terminating in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) 38 years after exposure. When he manifested AML, combination chemotherapy was started. But complete remission was not obtained even by B-DOMP regimen. Cytogenetic studies were performed, and their relation to the clinical course was analyzed. Peripheral blood T lymphocytes had 41.9 % non-clonal chromosomal abnormalities suggesting over 400 rad exposure. Bone marrow cells at RAEB exhibited a presence of mosaic clones of normal and abnormal chromosomal pattern, which supported the clinical diagnosis of RAEB and corresponded to the clinical features such as steady state and a low percentage of myeloblasts. At transformation into AML, clonal chromosomal abnormality was seen in bone marrow cells. It may explain a rapid increase of abnormal cells. This abnormal clone showed a little different karyotype seen at RAEB. But it was suspected to derive from a clone at RAEB, because of the same persistent chromosomal abnormalities. Then it aquired an additional chromosomal abnormalities at clinically drug-resistant phase of AML. In vivo selection assay of these leukemic cells revealed that transforming gene took part in this leukemogenesis. These data shown in this paper contribute to investigate a mechanism of leukemogenesis in atomic bomb survivors and establishment of new therapy.

  20. Relative risks of radiation-associated cancer: comparison of second cancer in therapeutically irradiated populations with the Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R.; Haylock, R.G.E.; Thomas, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the radiation-associated relative risks of second primary cancer incidence in groups treated for first primary cancer by radiotherapy are compared with radiation-associated relative risk estimates in the Japanese atomic bomb survivor cancer incidence data. For four cancer sites, namely lung cancer, bone cancer, ovarian cancer and leukaemia, the relative risks in the comparable (age at exposure, time since exposure, sex matched) subsets of the Japanese data are significantly greater than those in the majority of second cancer studies. Even when the differences between the relative risks in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and the medical series do not approach conventional levels of statistical significance, relative risks tend to be higher in the Japanese data than in the second cancer studies. At least for leukaemia, the discrepancy between the Japanese and second cancer risks can be largely explained by cell- sterilisation effects. There are few indications of modification of radiation-associated second cancer relative risk among those treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, nor are there strong indications of modification of radiation- associated relative risk by heritable genetic factors. If anything, there is evidence that second cancer relative excess risks are lower among those patients with cancer-prone disorders than among non-susceptible patients. However, the higher underlying cancer risk in some of these medically exposed populations should also be considered, in particular for those with cancer-prone conditions, so that the absolute excess risk is sometimes higher than in the Japanese data. (orig.)

  1. Transformation from refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) into acute myeloid leukemia (AML) obserbed in a heavily exposed atomic bomb survivor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwato, Koji; Kawano, Michio; Kimura, Akiro; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Tanaka, Kimio; Kamada, Nanao

    1987-01-01

    A heavily exposed atomic bomb survivor, 59-year-old man presented refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) terminating in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) 38 years after exposure. When he manifested AML, combination chemotherapy was started. But complete remission was not obtained even by B-DOMP regimen. Cytogenetic studies were performed, and their relation to the clinical course was analyzed. Peripheral blood T lymphocytes had 41.9 % non-clonal chromosomal abnormalities suggesting over 400 rad exposure. Bone marrow cells at RAEB exhibited a presence of mosaic clones of normal and abnormal chromosomal pattern, which supported the clinical diagnosis of RAEB and corresponded to the clinical features such as steady state and a low percentage of myeloblasts. At transformation into AML, clonal chromosomal abnormality was seen in bone marrow cells. It may explain a rapid increase of abnormal cells. This abnormal clone showed a little different karyotype seen at RAEB. But it was suspected to derive from a clone at RAEB, because of the same persistent chromosomal abnormalities. Then it aquired an additional chromosomal abnormalities at clinically drug-resistant phase of AML. In vivo selection assay of these leukemic cells revealed that transforming gene took part in this leukemogenesis. These data shown in this paper contribute to investigate a mechanism of leukemogenesis in atomic bomb survivors and establishment of new therapy. (author)

  2. JNIH-ABCC life span study of children born to atomic bomb survivors. Report 1. Influence of concomitant variables upon mortality rate comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroo; Ueda, Shoichi

    1963-04-18

    The study of mortality rates among children born to atomic bomb survivors is being conducted according to the protocol, and at present, data for those whose parents are included in the Life Span Study sample are ready for analysis. Using this portion, the influence of various concomitant factors on the infant mortality rate was investigated. The distribution of year of birth, maternal age, and birth order differs between comparison groups. The differences introduce fairly large biases into mortality rate comparisons. For example, the infant mortality rate in children, both of whose parents were atomic bomb survivors would be overestimated by 10% or more. As far as such concomitant factors are observable, the bias can be reduced to negligible magnitude. Other factors are equally important but difficult to observe. For example, environmental factors influence mortality a great deal but adequate methods for treating such factors have not yet been found. If such bias is not eliminated, conclusions to be derived from this study suffer serious limitation, namely, unless drastic radiation effects exist, neither existence nor absence of radiation effects will be demonstrable. Investigation is continuing, especially concerning: how to measure environmental factors; regression analysis on radiation dose or distance from the hypocenter; and examination of specific causes of death. 7 references, 4 figures, 9 tables.

  3. Incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors based on DS86 dosimetry system, 1958-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadamori, Naoki (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Otake, Masanori; Honda, Takeo

    1992-03-01

    The incidence of skin cancer during the period 1958-1985 was examined in the population registered in the life span study extension (LSSE) and the adult health study (AHS). Among 25,942 A-bomb survivors in whom DS86 was available, skin cancer was confirmed in 47 A-bomb survivors. These A-bomb survivors consisted of 24 males and 23 females. According to DS86 dosimetry system, ten A-bomb survivors had been exposed to 0.50 Gy or more. The most common histology was basal cell epithelioma (n=25), followed by malignant melanoma (n=4) and basosquamous cell carcinoma and sweat gland carcinoma (one each). In the group of 0.50 Gy or more, the incidence of occurrence of skin cancer was 20.8/100,000 population per year (PY) for the LSSE population and 22.8/100,000 PY for the AHS population. In the group of 0.01-0.49 Gy, it was 6.8/100,000 PY for the LSSE population and 12.8/100,000 PY for the AHS population. It was significantly associated with higher exposure doses. The dose-response relationship was linear. (N.K.).

  4. Incidence of leukemia in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki October 1950 - December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Mikami, Motoko; Yamada, Yasuaki; Ohkita, Takeshi.

    1982-12-01

    The present analysis of leukemia incidence is confined to 189 cases in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The analysis again demonstrates that the risk of all types of leukemia has increased with dose in both cities except among individuals who received less than 100 rad in kerma total dose in Nagasaki. The shape of the dose-response curve is different in the two cities and between the two major types of leukemia (acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia), though the average marrow total dose is quite similar in each total kerma dose class in the two cities. The present findings are quite consistent with those described in the previous report. The excess risk among survivors who received 100 rad or more kerma total dose has gradually declined with years after exposure in both cities. It had disappeared among Nagasaki survivors by 1970 (25 years after exposure) but the risk was still high even after 1970 among exposed survivors in Hiroshima who were 30 years of age or older ATB. The leukemogenic effect of radiation differs in relation to dose, age ATB, and duration after exposure between Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. The analysis has again supported previous observations that the leukemogenic effect of radiation in those individuals exposed at younger ages ATB was greater in the early postbomb period and declined more rapidly in subsequent years, while the effect in older individuals ATB appeared later and persisted longer. (author)

  5. Synthetic medical studies on atomic bomb survivors exposed in short distances, 15. Detection of transforming gene(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamada, Nanao; Tanaka, Kimio; Kontani, Nobuko; Yokoro, Kenjiro; Takimoto, Yasuo; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru; Hattori, Takao

    1988-03-01

    In an effort to search for biological significance of chromosome aberration observed in bone marrow cells and peripheral lymphocytes, the presence of transforming genes in the DNA of bone marrow cells was examined in four healthy A-bomb survivors (Group I), three with preleukemia (Group II), and nine with leukemia (Group III). In Group I exposed at 300 - 500 m from the hypocenter, estimated radiation doses ranged from 565 to 667 cGy; and randomly abnormal karyotypes ranged from 30.7 % to 48.3 %. In Group II exposed at 800 m, in which estimated radiation doses were 300 - 600 cGy, one survivor had a complicated karyotype abnormality; and in the two others, abnormal clones were partly observed. Group III, which was exposed at 800 - 2,000 m and had estimated doses of 20 - 200 cGy, consisted of acute lymphoid leukemia (one), acute myeloid leukemia (five), and chronic myeloid leukemia (three). The patient with acute lymphoid leukemia had a complicated karyotype abnormality. N-ras genes were observed not only in seven acute or chronic leukemic patients but also in three healthy survivors. This may have important implications for the mechanism of leukemic transformation. (Namekawa, K.).

  6. Report on the results of the fifth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Kenji; Hirata, Katsumi; Chiyoda, Shin; Moteki, Noriyuki; Ishino, Makoto; Hirai, Motohisa; Fukumoto, Masayuki.

    1993-01-01

    From October 20 to Novermber 6, 1992, medical examination was made in A-bomb survivors living in Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Peru and Paraguay. A total of 198 A-bomb survivors were identified in these 5 countries. Among them, 106 (53.5%) participated in the present medical examination, consisting of 49 men and 57 women. Seventy-two and 34 persons came from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively. A mean age was 63.5±8.5 years for men and 63.8±7.3 years for women. The acquisition rate of A-bomb survivors' handbook was 51.9%. Medical questionnaires revealed surgical treatment for cancer in 4 persons. Subjective symptoms included fatigue, heat exhaustion, decreased body strength, and sensation of numbness. Laboratory findings revealed hypertension in 36 persons (38.3%), the necessity of ECG in 7 (6.5%), abnormal GOT in 5 (5.3%) and abnormal GPT in 2 (2.1%), hypercholesteremia in 20 (21.3%), hyperuricemia in 14 (14.9%), and high levels of fasting glucose in 10 (10.6%). The present medical examination revealed that 38 persons (35.8%) were required to take detailed examination and that common diseases were hypertension, hyperlipemia, hyperuricemia and cardiovascular diseases. (N.K.)

  7. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamatani, K.; Mukai, M.; Takahashi, K.; Nakachi, K.; Kusunoki, Y.; Hayashi, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important

  8. Relationship between spontaneous γH2AX foci formation and progenitor functions in circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells among atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-Ping; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-05-01

    Accumulated DNA damage in hematopoietic stem cells is a primary mechanism of aging-associated dysfunction in human hematopoiesis. About 70 years ago, atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation induced DNA damage and functional decreases in the hematopoietic system of A-bomb survivors in a radiation dose-dependent manner. The peripheral blood cell populations then recovered to a normal range, but accompanying cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells still remain that bear molecular changes possibly caused by past radiation exposure and aging. In the present study, we evaluated radiation-related changes in the frequency of phosphorylated (Ser-139) H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation in circulating CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34+Lin-) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) among 226Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. An association between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation in HSPCs and the radiation dose was observed, but the γH2AX foci frequency was not significantly elevated by past radiation. We found a negative correlation between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation and the length of granulocyte telomeres. A negative interaction effect between the radiation dose and the frequency of γH2AX foci was suggested in a proportion of a subset of HSPCs as assessed by the cobblestone area-forming cell assay (CAFC), indicating that the self-renewability of HSPCs may decrease in survivors who were exposed to a higher radiation dose and who had more DNA damage in their HSPCs. Thus, although many years after radiation exposure and with advancing age, the effect of DNA damage on the self-renewability of HSPCs may be modified by A-bomb radiation exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Report on the results of the eleventh medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakido, Michio; Dohy, Hiroo; Neriishi, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    The 11th medical examination of A-bomb survivors was conducted in 1997. Two medical teams conducted health examinations in Los Angeles and Seattle, and in San Francisco and Hawaii, respectively. The total number of A-bomb survivors resident in North America as of the end of July 1997 was 1,060, an increase of 17 over that confirmed in 1995. The number of survivors exposed <2,000-m from the hypocenter was 234, accounting for 22.1% of the total. The confirmed number of in-utero exposed survivors was 26. As to the past medical history information, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and heart disease were frequently observed in the <2,000-m group. Frequent subjective symptoms include complete exhaustion or fatigue, loss of vigor, blurring of vision, itching of the skin, which were reported in more than 40% of the survivors. The frequencies of nocturia, nervousness, severe headache, and excessive sweating in cold weather were higher in the <2,000-m group. Chest pain was seen frequently in the <2,000-m group for males, but no difference was observed in females. Nocturia was observed in more than half of the males in the <2,000-m group. There were 99 cases (22.8%) with fasting plasma glucose level of 110 mg/dl or above, consisting of 39 males (32.0%) and 60 females (19.2%). Abnormal HbA1c levels were observed in 33 cases (7.6%), including 12 males (9.8%) and 11 females (6.7%). The proportion of cases with abnormal HbA1c levels was higher in males. No difference by exposure status was observed either for fasting plasma glucose or HbA1c. The disease of the highest prevalence was hyperlipidemia (57.4%), followed by hypertension (35.0%), obesity (27.2%), liver disease (21.9%), thyroid disease (20.0%), gastrointestinal disease (20.7%), heart disease (13.4%) and urological disease (12.9%). Malignant tumors were observed in two cases in L.A., two in Seattle, and one in S.F. Cancer will be important issue in the future examinations. (K.H.)

  10. Dose survival of G0 lymphocytes irradiated in vitro: A test for a possible population bias in the cohort of atomic-bomb survivors exposed to high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori; Sposto, R.; Akiyama, Mitoshi.

    1993-04-01

    An in-vitro colony assay was employed for X-ray dose-survival studies of peripheral-blood lymphocytes from 117 Adult Health Study participants with Dosimetry System 1986 doses 10 values (the X-ray dose required to kill 90% of cells) for these two groups were 3.40 Gy (7.5%) and 3.34 Gy (7.8%), respectively. No statistically significant differences in their distributions were detected. In addition, neither sex nor age affected the in-vitro radiosensitivity of lymphocytes for either group or for all subjects combined. Therefore it was concluded that, as far as the G 0 -lymphocyte colony assay is concerned, there is no evidence for preferential loss of individuals with higher cellular radiosensitivity among the high-dose atomic bomb survivors. However, it should be noted that the interindividual variations in cellular radiosensitivity were not large compared with the experimental variations. Consequently, the above-mentioned results should be considered due to the small heterogeneity of lymphocyte radiosensitivity among the survivors. (J.P.N.)

  11. Relationship of stature to gamma and neutron exposure among atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Amano, Takako; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1982-10-01

    A reanalysis has been undertaken of the relationship of attained adult height of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb (ATB) to radiation dose based upon new dosimetry data. The present analysis aims to examine the relationship of stature to radiation dose in terms of gamma rays and neutrons, separately. The 628 individuals were selected from Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, aged less than 10 ATB, whose doses were available, and whose statures were recorded at the Adult Health Study (AHS) biennial health examination during 1970-72. To ascertain the relationship of attained adult stature to gamma and neutron doses three doseresponse models were applied to the data. The analysis revealed that the attained height is a separate function of exposure to gamma rays and neutrons. The model assuming a squared term dependence on gamma rays and a linear dependence on neutrons provides a better explanation of the data. The regression coefficient associated with the squared gamma dose is -0.00000927 and the coefficient associated with neutron dose is -0.0172. The relative biological effectiveness of neutrons in relation to gamma radiation with respect to the effect for diminished development of stature is estimated as 43.1 / √Dn in kerma (Dn=neutron dose). The 95% confidence limits are 19.3 / √Dn--96.5 / √Dn. (author)

  12. Investigation on circular asymmetry of geographical distribution in cancer mortality of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors based on risk maps: analysis of spatial survival data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Ohtaki, Megu; Sato, Yuya; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    While there is a considerable number of studies on the relationship between the risk of disease or death and direct exposure from the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, the risk for indirect exposure caused by residual radioactivity has not yet been fully evaluated. One of the reasons is that risk assessments have utilized estimated radiation doses, but that it is difficult to estimate indirect exposure. To evaluate risks for other causes, including indirect radiation exposure, as well as direct exposure, a statistical method is described here that evaluates risk with respect to individual location at the time of atomic bomb exposure instead of radiation dose. In addition, it is also considered to split the risks into separate risks due to direct exposure and other causes using radiation dose. The proposed method is applied to a cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. The resultant contour map suggests that the region west to the hypocenter has a higher risk compared to other areas. This in turn suggests that there exists an impact on risk that cannot be explained by direct exposure. (orig.)

  13. Investigation on circular asymmetry of geographical distribution in cancer mortality of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors based on risk maps: analysis of spatial survival data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Ohtaki, Megu [Hiroshima University, Department of Environmetrics and Biometrics, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Sato, Yuya [Hiroshima University, Division of Radiation Information Registry, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi [Hiroshima University, Department of Epidemiology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Tashiro, Satoshi [Hiroshima University, Division of Radiation Information Registry, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Hiroshima University, Department of Cellular Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Department of Radiation Biophysics, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    While there is a considerable number of studies on the relationship between the risk of disease or death and direct exposure from the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, the risk for indirect exposure caused by residual radioactivity has not yet been fully evaluated. One of the reasons is that risk assessments have utilized estimated radiation doses, but that it is difficult to estimate indirect exposure. To evaluate risks for other causes, including indirect radiation exposure, as well as direct exposure, a statistical method is described here that evaluates risk with respect to individual location at the time of atomic bomb exposure instead of radiation dose. In addition, it is also considered to split the risks into separate risks due to direct exposure and other causes using radiation dose. The proposed method is applied to a cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. The resultant contour map suggests that the region west to the hypocenter has a higher risk compared to other areas. This in turn suggests that there exists an impact on risk that cannot be explained by direct exposure. (orig.)

  14. Simulation-extrapolation method to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates, 1950-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allodji, Rodrigue S.; Schwartz, Boris; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vathaire, Florent de [Gustave Roussy B2M, Radiation Epidemiology Group/CESP - Unit 1018 INSERM, Villejuif Cedex (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Agbovon, Cesaire [Pierre and Vacances - Center Parcs Group, L' artois - Espace Pont de Flandre, Paris Cedex 19 (France); Laurier, Dominique [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DRPH, SRBE, Laboratoire d' epidemiologie, BP17, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

    2015-08-15

    Analyses of the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bombing survivors have routinely incorporated corrections for additive classical measurement errors using regression calibration. Recently, several studies reported that the efficiency of the simulation-extrapolation method (SIMEX) is slightly more accurate than the simple regression calibration method (RCAL). In the present paper, the SIMEX and RCAL methods have been used to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates. For instance, it is shown that using the SIMEX method, the ERR/Gy is increased by an amount of about 29 % for all solid cancer deaths using a linear model compared to the RCAL method, and the corrected EAR 10{sup -4} person-years at 1 Gy (the linear terms) is decreased by about 8 %, while the corrected quadratic term (EAR 10{sup -4} person-years/Gy{sup 2}) is increased by about 65 % for leukaemia deaths based on a linear-quadratic model. The results with SIMEX method are slightly higher than published values. The observed differences were probably due to the fact that with the RCAL method the dosimetric data were partially corrected, while all doses were considered with the SIMEX method. Therefore, one should be careful when comparing the estimated risks and it may be useful to use several correction techniques in order to obtain a range of corrected estimates, rather than to rely on a single technique. This work will enable to improve the risk estimates derived from LSS data, and help to make more reliable the development of radiation protection standards. (orig.)

  15. Atomic bomb irradiation-induced leukemias revisited. Summary data of 50 years-long term follow up study on survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, Masao; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Preston, D.L.; Bennett, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Life Span Study (LSS) on 93,741 survivors (fixed cohort) and the Open City Study (OCS) on all survivors (unfixed) irrespective of whether they belonged to LSS or not, have been conducted in parallel over 45 years to ensure reliable case detection. We adopted the FAB classification for acute leukemias and for exposure dose of individual survivors, the new dosimetry system 1986 (DS86). In LSS, 221 leukemia cases were analysed. There was strong evidence of radiation-induced risks for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but not for adult T-cell leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. There was also significant difference between three major types with respect to the effects of age at bombing and sex, and in the temporal pattern of the elevated risks. For AML the dose response function was non-linear, whereas there was no evidence against linearity for ALL and CML. The hypothesis of a 0.5 Gy threshold could be rejected for three major types of leukemia. Excess Absolute Risk (EAR) estimates in cases per 10,000 Person Year Sievert (PYSv) were 0.6, 1.1, 0.9 for ALL, AML and CML, respectively. The corresponding relative risk at 1.0 Sv were 9.1, 3.3, 6.2, respectively. Although childhood exposure <15 age at bombing apparently induced three major types, the age-related highest risk was observed for ALL. In OCS, 413 cases with DS86 estimates were used for analysis. Type specific incidence rates were calculated indirectly by using the over all incidence of leukemia from LSS data and multiplying these values by the corresponding proportions of cases in OCS. In conjunction with LSS data, the effects of radiation were significantly greater on the incidences of ALL and CML than on that of AML. In the high dose group there was a strong evidence for shorter incubation time and faster decline of elevated risk for ALL and CML than for AML. AML risk was apparently persistent through 1980. (K.H.)

  16. Bone mineral density of the spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Masuko; Kohno, Tsuneaki; Morikawa, Akira; Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa.

    1996-01-01

    Bone mineral density, a risk factor for osteoporosis, of the spine of 3,414 survivors was measured using Hologic QDR2000 DEXA apparatus. Decrease of the density was shown correlated with age and was statistically significant in forties and fifties as compared with other ages. No significance was seen between the density and the distance of irradiation. Menopause, fracture, experience for osteoporosis examination and that for its treatment were significantly correlated with the density decrease. No significance was observed in meals, exercise and sunlight exposure. High significance (p<0.01) was detected in coffee and alcohol intakes. In groups having twice examinations, no significance was seen between changes in the density and in the meals, exercise and go-out period. (H.O.)

  17. Bone mineral density of the spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagawa, Masuko; Kohno, Tsuneaki; Morikawa, Akira [Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Casualty Council (Japan); Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa

    1996-03-01

    Bone mineral density, a risk factor for osteoporosis, of the spine of 3,414 survivors was measured using Hologic QDR2000 DEXA apparatus. Decrease of the density was shown correlated with age and was statistically significant in forties and fifties as compared with other ages. No significance was seen between the density and the distance of irradiation. Menopause, fracture, experience for osteoporosis examination and that for its treatment were significantly correlated with the density decrease. No significance was observed in meals, exercise and sunlight exposure. High significance (p<0.01) was detected in coffee and alcohol intakes. In groups having twice examinations, no significance was seen between changes in the density and in the meals, exercise and go-out period. (H.O.)

  18. Association between mortality and residual radiation in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors exposed at long-distance from the hypocenter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi; Shibata, Yoshisada

    2012-01-01

    Mortality of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors exposed at 3 km or longer distance from the hypocenter was compared with that of those who were additionally exposed to residual radiation because of their entrance in the area at 1 km or closer to the center within 24 hr post explosion. The latter survivors (group I), 2,357 men with average age of 28.4 y and 2,618 women of 26.5 y at the exposure, were alive at 1970, and the former (group II, without exposure to residual radiation) was selected to match their numbers in sex, exposed distance, ages at exposure and at start of the follow-up study to those of group I. Follow-up was conducted from 1970 to 2007, and their total, malignant, cerebrovascular, cardiac and pneumonic deaths were observed. Cox proportional hazard model was used for estimation of mortality risk with covariates of sex and age at start of the study. The risk in group II was defined to be standard. Ages at start of the study were 53.3 and 51.4 y in men and women, respectively. Crude mortality tended to be higher in men of group I at ages of 40-49 and 50-59 y at start of the study. Hazard ratios of total and malignant tumor deaths in group I were 0.965 and 1.092, respectively, without statistic significance from group II and of other deaths, 0.982-0.999, also of statistic insignificance. Thus increased mortality due to residual radiation was not observed. (T.T.)

  19. Veterans' homecomings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund

    2015-01-01

    provided the soldier by rank, function, and mission vanishes and translates into an imperative ontological question about possible veteran subjectivity. In this article I argue that the veterans’ struggle to create postdeployment, postmilitary social identities entails profound secrecy work where past...... experiences, present conditions, and future ambitions are embedded in webs of concealment, disclosure, exposure, deception, lying, silence, and so forth, only partially controlled by the veterans themselves. The intricacies and anxieties associated with secrecy work are discussed in relation to three veteran...

  20. Radiation-related posterior lenticular opacities in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors based on T65DR and DS86 dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Schull, W.J.

    1989-10-01

    This paper investigates the quantitative relationship of ionizing radiation to the occurrence of posterior lenticular opacities among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, as suggested by the DS86 dosimetry system. DS86 doses are available for 1,983 (93.4%) of the 2,124 A-bomb survivors analyzed in 1982. In the DS86 system, both gamma-ray and neutron regression coefficients for the best-fitting model are positive and highly significant for the estimated energy deposited in the eye, here termed the eye organ dose. The DS86 gamma regression coefficient is almost the same as that associated with the T65DR gamma kerma, the ratio of the two coefficients being 1.1 (95% confidence limits: 0.5 - 2.3) for D86 kerma in the individual data. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values based on the individual gamma and neutron components of the DS86 eye organ dose are estimated to be 32.4 + 0.73/(D ν - 0.06)>0 with the 95% confidence limits ranging from 11.8 to 88.8 + 1.39/(D ν - 0.06)>0, where D ν is the neutron dose in gray. It is suggested that the neutron component could be more important for the eyes than for other sites of the body. Finally, it is interesting to observe that a linear-quadratic gamma and linear neutron model with two thresholds, which fits the data less well, produces very similar estimates of the two thresholds as the linear gamma-linear neutron-response model. In this model, however, the regression coefficient is not significantly associated with the quadratic gamma response. (J.P.N.)

  1. Relationship between the life environment of the atomic bomb survivors (Hibakusha) and their cardiovascular disorders. Chiefly regard to ECG findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasaka, M; Saito, O; Miyaki, S; Watabu, A [Fukushima Medical Co-Operative Hospital (Japan)

    1978-04-01

    In order to observe clinically the effects of the atomic bomb on the human body (and on the environment), subjects were divided into group A (persons living in Hiroshima city more than 10 years after dropping of the atomic bomb) and group B (persons who changed their residence within 1 month). Group A was divided into two separate groups: group A/sub 1/ (persons living in segregated areas), and group A/sub 2/ (persons living in other areas). General examinations showed no abnormal findings. Incidence of abnormal ECG findings was higher in subjects living in segregated areas and was also higher in women than in men.

  2. Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Alain; Villani, Cedric; Guthleben, Denis; Leduc, Michele; Brenner, Anastasios; Pouthas, Joel; Perrin, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Completed by recent contributions on various topics (atoms and the Brownian motion, the career of Jean Perrin, the evolution of atomic physics since Jean Perrin, relationship between scientific atomism and philosophical atomism), this book is a reprint of a book published at the beginning of the twentieth century in which the author addressed the relationship between atomic theory and chemistry (molecules, atoms, the Avogadro hypothesis, molecule structures, solutes, upper limits of molecular quantities), molecular agitation (molecule velocity, molecule rotation or vibration, molecular free range), the Brownian motion and emulsions (history and general features, statistical equilibrium of emulsions), the laws of the Brownian motion (Einstein's theory, experimental control), fluctuations (the theory of Smoluchowski), light and quanta (black body, extension of quantum theory), the electricity atom, the atom genesis and destruction (transmutations, atom counting)

  3. Report on the results of the seventh medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in the South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishioka, Shinichi; Ohta, Nobuhiro; Taguchi, Atsushi; Okada, Fumio; Hara, Tokihiro; Ueno, Kouki.

    1997-01-01

    The medical examination was carried out in Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina and Peru on 80, 4, 7, 11 and 3 survivors, respectively, from Oct. 30 to Nov. 15, 1996. They (43 males and 62 females) were 66.5 years old in average. The examination involved physical measurements, blood and urine analyses, electrocardiography, health questionnaire and consultation with blood pressure measurement. Results were as follows: Anamnesis; hypertension (51.4%), heart diseases (23.8%), cancer (21.0%), diabetes (19.0%), hemorrhoids (19.0%), stroke (18.1%), stomach ulcer (12.4%) and others: Present major disease; hypertension (23.8%), diabetes (6.7%), heart diseases (6.7%), cancer (6.7%) and others. Loss of vigor (63.8%), complete exhaustion or fatigue (63.8%), heat intolerance (60.0%), numbness or tingling (43.8%), failure of memory (42.9%) and many others were recognized as subjective symptoms. Blood pressure measurement gave hypertensive findings in 31.4%. Normal ECG was found in 67.7%. Cases judged to be necessary for further examinations or for treatment were in 46.7%. This examination was concluded to be continued. (K.H.)

  4. Report on the results of the seventh medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishioka, Shinichi [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ohta, Nobuhiro; Taguchi, Atsushi; Okada, Fumio; Hara, Tokihiro; Ueno, Kouki

    1997-06-01

    The medical examination was carried out in Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina and Peru on 80, 4, 7, 11 and 3 survivors, respectively, from Oct. 30 to Nov. 15, 1996. They (43 males and 62 females) were 66.5 years old in average. The examination involved physical measurements, blood and urine analyses, electrocardiography, health questionnaire and consultation with blood pressure measurement. Results were as follows: Anamnesis; hypertension (51.4%), heart diseases (23.8%), cancer (21.0%), diabetes (19.0%), hemorrhoids (19.0%), stroke (18.1%), stomach ulcer (12.4%) and others: Present major disease; hypertension (23.8%), diabetes (6.7%), heart diseases (6.7%), cancer (6.7%) and others. Loss of vigor (63.8%), complete exhaustion or fatigue (63.8%), heat intolerance (60.0%), numbness or tingling (43.8%), failure of memory (42.9%) and many others were recognized as subjective symptoms. Blood pressure measurement gave hypertensive findings in 31.4%. Normal ECG was found in 67.7%. Cases judged to be necessary for further examinations or for treatment were in 46.7%. This examination was concluded to be continued. (K.H.)

  5. Statistical investigation into historical health examination records and cause of death among Atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki city, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Fukahori, Miyako; Okajima, Syunzo

    1984-01-01

    Changes in clinical laboratory findings before death were investigated based on the data in 621 patients (323 males and 298 females) extracted from the Scientific Data Center of Atomic-Bomb Disasters, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. A decrease in hemoglobin level and an increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate began to occur 2 years before death in many of the patients with cancer, cerebrovascular disease or heart disease. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. A search for mutations affecting protein structure in children of proximally and distally exposed atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.V.; Satoh, Chiyoko; Hamilton, H.B.; Otake, Masanori; Goriki, Kazuaki; Kageoka, Takeshi; Fujita, Mikio; Neriishi, Shotaro; Asakawa, Jun-ichi.

    1981-07-01

    A total of 289,868 locus tests based on 28 different protein phenotypes, employing one-dimensional electrophoresis to detect variant proteins, has yielded one probable mutation in the offspring of 'proximally exposed' parents, who received an estimated average gonadal exposure dose of between 31 and 39 rem from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There were no mutations in 208,196 locus tests involving children of 'distally exposed' parents, who had essentially no radiation exposure. (author)

  7. Breast cancer risk in atomic bomb survivors from multi-model inference with incidence data 1958-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, J.C.; Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Cullings, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer risk from radiation exposure has been analyzed in the cohort of Japanese a-bomb survivors using empirical models and mechanistic two-step clonal expansion (TSCE) models with incidence data from 1958 to 1998. TSCE models rely on a phenomenological representation of cell transition processes on the path to cancer. They describe the data as good as empirical models and this fact has been exploited for risk assessment. Adequate models of both types have been selected with a statistical protocol based on parsimonious parameter deployment and their risk estimates have been combined using multi-model inference techniques. TSCE models relate the radiation risk to cell processes which are controlled by age-increasing rates of initiating mutations and by changes in hormone levels due to menopause. For exposure at young age, they predict an enhanced excess relative risk (ERR) whereas the preferred empirical model shows no dependence on age at exposure. At attained age 70, the multi-model median of the ERR at 1 Gy decreases moderately from 1.2 Gy"-"1 (90% CI 0.72; 2.1) for exposure at age 25 to a 30% lower value for exposure at age 55. For cohort strata with few cases, where model predictions diverge, uncertainty intervals from multi-model inference are enhanced by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to the preferred empirical model. Multi-model inference provides a joint risk estimate from several plausible models rather than relying on a single model of choice. It produces more reliable point estimates and improves the characterization of uncertainties. The method is recommended for risk assessment in practical radiation protection. (orig.)

  8. Capsule summary of results of radiation studies on Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1945-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, I.M.

    1978-04-01

    This is a summary in capsule form of the more significant findings of studies that have been conducted over the past 30 years. The growth and development in terms of height, weight, and head and chest circumferences were less for children in utero whose mothers were proximally exposed. Smaller head size and mental retardation appeared to be associated with radiation exposure. Mortality especially during infancy, was significantly higher among children exposed in utero, and increased with dose. Delayed effects of disease occurrence, particularly neoplasms, have been observed. Of special significance is the increased leukemia incidence with a clear-cut dose response relationship with the peak coming 6 years after exposure. Although the leukemia rates in the high dose groups have declined persistently from 1950 to 1972, they have not yet reached the level experienced by the general population. For the solid tumors, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, salivary gland tumors, breast cancer, cancer of the esophagus, stomach and the urinary tract, and lymphomas have been found to be associated with A-bomb radiation exposure. The latent period for the solid tumors appears to be less than 20 years. After a latent period of about 15 years, children who received 100 rad or more A-bomb radiation have begun to develop an excess of malignancies. Some 25 years or more after exposure, the accumulated increase of cancer is relatively high, with no indication that a peak has been reached. Radiation induced chromosome aberrations in survivors continue to persist, and the aberration frequency is, in general, proportional to the radiation dose received. To date, there is no evidence of a relationship between radiation dose and the other diseases. (author)

  9. Breast cancer risk in atomic bomb survivors from multi-model inference with incidence data 1958-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, J.C.; Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R. [Institute of Radiation Protection, Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Neuherberg (Germany); Cullings, H.M. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Department of Statistics, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Breast cancer risk from radiation exposure has been analyzed in the cohort of Japanese a-bomb survivors using empirical models and mechanistic two-step clonal expansion (TSCE) models with incidence data from 1958 to 1998. TSCE models rely on a phenomenological representation of cell transition processes on the path to cancer. They describe the data as good as empirical models and this fact has been exploited for risk assessment. Adequate models of both types have been selected with a statistical protocol based on parsimonious parameter deployment and their risk estimates have been combined using multi-model inference techniques. TSCE models relate the radiation risk to cell processes which are controlled by age-increasing rates of initiating mutations and by changes in hormone levels due to menopause. For exposure at young age, they predict an enhanced excess relative risk (ERR) whereas the preferred empirical model shows no dependence on age at exposure. At attained age 70, the multi-model median of the ERR at 1 Gy decreases moderately from 1.2 Gy{sup -1} (90% CI 0.72; 2.1) for exposure at age 25 to a 30% lower value for exposure at age 55. For cohort strata with few cases, where model predictions diverge, uncertainty intervals from multi-model inference are enhanced by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to the preferred empirical model. Multi-model inference provides a joint risk estimate from several plausible models rather than relying on a single model of choice. It produces more reliable point estimates and improves the characterization of uncertainties. The method is recommended for risk assessment in practical radiation protection. (orig.)

  10. Further observations on sex ratio among infants born to survivors of the atomic bombs, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schull, W J; Neel, J V; Hashizume, Asaji

    1965-11-18

    Data are presented on the sex ratio of 47,624 children born in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during 1956 to 1962. The total number of births in these two cities for which information is available is now 140,542, and of this number in 73,994 instances one or both parents were exposed to the atomic bombs. The suggestion of an effect of exposure on sex ratio in the earlier data is not borne out by the present findings. One can argue either that a small early effect has disappeared or that the original observation had no biological significance. 27 references, 4 tables.

  11. An autopsy case of acute myelocytic leukemia preceded by hemopoietic dysplasia found in an atomic bomb survivor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Yoshiaki; Edagawa, Junichi; Taniwaki, Masafumi; Ide, Tohru; Misawa, Shinichi

    1981-01-01

    An autopsy case of acute myelocytic leukemia preceded by hemopoietic dysplasia, presumably on a sequela to the atomic bomb in Hiroshima is reported. On admission, severe anemia and thrombocytosis were found and the bone marrow aspiration showed myeloid hyperplasia without definite maturation arrest. Mild to moderate eosinophilia and basophilia continued during the course of the disease, accompaning mild monocytosis 2 years later. Furthermore, he had the radical operation for the early gastric cancer in this preleukemic stage. After the administration of methenolone acetate (25 mg/day), severe anemia has dramatically improved, but leukocytosis with profound monocytosis persisted, and subsequently acute myelocytic leukemia developed. He died from an intracerebral bleeding due to an accidental trauma on the head. Autopsy findings disclosed the systemic leukemic infiltration. Repeated chromosome analyses revealed the mosaic karyotype of 46, XY/45, XY, -16 on admission, but it was 46, XY/46, XY, del (8) (p 12) in the overt leukemic phase. The granulopoietic colony forming capacity of bone marrow cells was already low one year before the onset of overt leukemia. This finding suggested that the existence of an abnormal clone could be predictable. In addition, the possible causative effect of the exposure to the atomic bomb in leukemogenesis in this case is discussed. (author)

  12. Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auffray, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The atom through centuries, has been imagined, described, explored, then accelerated, combined...But what happens truly inside the atom? And what are mechanisms who allow its stability? Physicist and historian of sciences, Jean-Paul Auffray explains that these questions are to the heart of the modern physics and it brings them a new lighting. (N.C.)

  13. Women Veteran Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report summarizes the history of women Veterans in the military and as Veterans. It profiles the characteristics of women Veterans in 2015, and illustrates how...

  14. Veteran Services - Welcome Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assistance Crosswalk websites Transition GPS National Career Readiness Certificate Post Traumatic Stress Credits (PDF) Fidelity Bonding Program National Career Readiness (PDF) Veteran Recruitment State/Federal veteran recruitment process Military Veteran Employment Guide Veterans Hiring Toolkit Other Information

  15. Serum TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroidal disorders in atomic bomb survivors exposed in youth: 30-year follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, I.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Sato, K.; Hamilton, H.B.; Kawamoto, S.; Izumi, M.; Nagataki, S.

    1987-01-01

    Follow-up examinations to determine the frequency of thyroidal disorders were conducted by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on individuals in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were less than 20 yr of age at the time of exposure to the atomic bomb. Concentrations of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), and anti-TG antibody 30 yr after exposure were also determined. Nontoxic uninodular goiter was found in 13 cases of the 100 + rad exposed group (n = 477) and in three cases of the nonexposed group (n = 501). The prevalence in the 100+ rad exposed group was significantly higher (chi-squared = 6.584, p less than 0.01). Thyroid cancer was found in eight exposed cases, all of whom were in the 100+ rad group, and the prevalence was significantly greater (chi-squared = 7.919, p less than 0.01). Regardless of the presence or absence of thyroid disorders, serum TSH and TG levels were not statistically different between the 100 rad + exposed and nonexposed groups. Although hypothyroidism was found in 23 of the total cases, there was no correlation between its development and exposure to ionizing irradiation

  16. Search for mutations altering protein charge and/or function in children of atomic bomb survivors: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.V.; Satoh, C.; Goriki, K.; Asakawa, J.; Fujita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kageoka, T.; Hazama, R.

    1988-01-01

    A sample of (1) children whose parents had been proximally exposed (i.e., less than 2000 m from the hypocenter) at the time of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and (2) a suitable comparison group have been examined for the occurrence of mutations altering the electrophoretic mobility or activity of a series of 30 proteins. The examination of the equivalent of 667,404 locus products in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded three mutations altering electrophoretic mobility; the corresponding figure for the comparison group was three mutations in 466,881 tests. The examination of a subset of 60,529 locus products for loss of enzyme activity in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded one mutation; no mutations were encountered in 61,741 determinations on the children of the comparison group. When these two series are compared, the mutation rate observed in the children of proximally exposed persons is thus 0.60 x 10(-5)/locus/generation, with 95% confidence intervals between 0.2 and 1.5 x 10(-5), and that in the comparison children is 0.64 x 10(-5)/locus/generation, with 95% intervals between 0.1 and 1.9 x 10(-5). The average conjoint gonad doses for the proximally exposed parents are estimated to be 0.437 Gy of gamma radiation and 0.002 Gy of neutron radiation. If a relative biological effectiveness of 20 is assigned to the neutron radiation, the combined total gonad dose for the parents becomes 0.477 Sv. (Organ absorbed doses are expressed in gray [1 Gy = 100 rad]; where dose is a mixture of gamma and neutron radiation, it is necessary because of the differing relative biological effectiveness of gamma and neutron radiation to express the combined gamma-neutron gonad exposures in sieverts [1 Sv = 100 rem])

  17. Search for mutations altering protein charge and/or function in children of atomic bomb survivors: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.V.; Satoh, Chiyoko; Goriki, Kazuaki; Asakawa, Jun-ichi; Fujita, Mikio; Takahashi, Norio; Kageoka, Takeshi; Hazama, Ryuji.

    1990-04-01

    A sample of children whose parents were proximally exposed at the time of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (i.e., within 2,000 m of the hypocenter) and a suitable comparison group have been examined for the occurrence of mutations altering the electrophoretic mobility or activity of a series of 30 proteins. The examination of the equivalent of 667,404 locus products in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded three mutations altering electrophoretic mobility; the corresponding figure for the comparison group was three mutations in 466,881 tests. The examination of a subset of 60,529 locus products for loss of enzyme activity in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded one mutation; no mutations were encountered in 61,741 determinations on the children of the comparison group. Combining these two series, the mutation rate observed in the children of proximally exposed is thus 0.60 x 10 -5 /locus/generation, with 95 % confidence intervals between 0.2 and 1.5 x 10 -5 , and in the comparison children, 0.64 x 10 -5 /locus/generation, with 95 % intervals between 0.1 and 1.9 x 10 -5 . The average conjoint gonad doses of the proximally exposed parents are estimated to be 0.437 Gy of gamma radiation and 0.002 Gy of neutron radiation. Assigning a relative biological effectiveness of 20 to the neutron radiation, the combined total gonad dose of the parents becomes 0.477 Sv. (author)

  18. Dose-response relationship of neutrons and γ rays to leukemia incidence among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki by type of leukemia, 1950--1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, T.; Otake, M.; Ichimaru, M.

    1979-01-01

    The incidence of leukemia during 1950 to 1971 in a fixed mortality sample of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was analyzed as a function of neutron and γ kerma and marrow doses. Two dose-response models were tested for acute leukemia, chronic granulocytic leukemia, and all types of leukemia, respectively. Each model postulates that the leukemia incidence depends upon the sum of separate risks imposed by γ and neutron doses. In Model I the risk from both types of radiation is assumed to be directly proportional to the respective doses, while Model II assumes that whereas the risk from neutrons is directly proportional to the dose, the risk from γ rays is proportional to dose-squared. The analysis demonstrated that the dose-response of the two types of leukemia differed by type of radiation. The data suggested that the response of acute leukemia was best explained by Model II, while the response of chronic granulocytic leukemia depended almost linearly upon neutron dose alone, because the regression coefficients associated with γ radiation for both Models I and II were not significant. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons in relation to γ rays for incidence of acute leukemia was estimated to be approximately 30/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ [95% confidence limits; 17/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ approx. 54/(Dn)/sup 1/2/] for kerma and 32/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ [95% confidence limits; 18/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ approx. 58/(Dn)/sup 1/2/] for marrow dose (Dn = neutron dose). If acute and chronic granulocytic leukemias are considered together as all types of leukemia, Model II appears to fit the data slightly better than Model I, but neither model is statistically rejected by the data

  19. Combining diagnostic categories to improve agreement between death certificate and autopsy classifications of cause of death for atomic bomb survivors, 1950-87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.L.; Ron, E.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko.

    1993-05-01

    Several investigators have observed less-than-desirable agreement between death certificate diagnoses and autopsy diagnoses for most specific causes of death, and even for some causes grouped by major disease category. Our results from data on 5130 autopsies of members of the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki conducted prior to September 1987 were equally discouraging. Among diseases with more than 10 cases observed, confirmation rates ranged from 13 % to 97 % and detection rates from 6 % to 90 %. Both rates were greater than 70 % for only 6 of 60 disease categories studied and for only 1 of 16 categories defined by major International Classification of Disease categories (neoplasms). This deficiency suggests cautious interpretation of results from studies based on death certificate diagnoses. To determine whether any groupings of diagnoses might meet acceptable accuracy requirements, we applied a hierarchical clustering method to data from these 5130 cohort members. The resulting classification system had 10 categories: breast cancer; other female cancers; cancers of the digestive organs; cancer of the larynx; leukemia; nasal, ear, or sinus cancer; tongue cancer; external causes; vascular disease; and all other causes. Confirmation and detection rates for each of these categories were at least 66 %. Although the categories are broad, particularly for nonneoplastic diseases, further divisions led to unacceptable accuracy rates for some of the resulting diagnostic groups. Using the derived classification system, there was 72 % agreement overall between death certificate and autopsy diagnoses compared to 53 % agreement for a second system obtained by grouping strictly by major disease category. Eighty-seven percent agreement was observed for a similar classification system with vascular disease grouped with all other nonneoplastic diseases. Further agglomeration achieved very little additional improvement. (J.P.N.)

  20. Do gamma rays and alpha particles cause different types of lung cancer? A comparison between atomic bomb survivors and uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Excess lung cancer risk has been associated with exposure to alpha particle radiation from inhaled radon daughter products among uranium miners in Czechoslovakia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere, and with exposure to gamma rays and neutrons from the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Differences in distribution by histological type, as well as certain epidemiological differences, suggest the possibility of differences in the causation of radiation-induced lung cancer. An epidemiological analysis is summarised of results from a blind pathology panel review of tissue slides from lung cancer cases diagnosed in 108 Japanese A bomb survivors and 92 American uranium miners selected on the basis of radiation exposure, smoking history, sex, age, and source and quality of pathology material. Consensus diagnoses were obtained with respect to principal sub-type, including squamous cell cancer, small cell cancer, adenocarcinoma, and less frequent sub-types. The results were analysed in terms of population, radiation dose, and smoking history. As expected, the proportion of squamous cell cancer was positively related to smoking history in both populations. The relative frequencies of small cell cancer and adenocarcinoma were very different in the two populations, but this difference was adequately accounted for by differences in radiation dose (more specifically, dose-based relative risk estimates based on published risk coefficients). Data for the two populations conformed to a common pattern, in which radiation-induced cancers appeared more likely to be of the small-cell sub-type, and less likely to be adenocarcinomas. No additional explanation in terms of radiation quality (alpha particles or gamma rays), uniform or local irradiation, inhaled as against external radiation source, or other population differences, appeared to be required. (author)

  1. Serum TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroid disorders in atomic bomb survivors exposed in youth: a study 30 years after exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Isao; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Sato, Kenshi; Hamilton, H.B.; Kawamoto, Sadahisa; Izumi, Motomori; Nagataki, Shigenobu.

    1986-08-01

    A study of individuals in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were under 20 years of age at the time of atomic bomb exposure and who had been exposed to 100+ rad was conducted to determine the frequency of thyroid disorders as well as the levels of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), antithyroglobulin antibody, and thyroglobulin (TG), 30 years after exposure. Thyroid disorders were detected in 56 of the 477 subjects of the 100+ rad exposed group and in 39 of the 501 subjects of the 0 rad exposed group, the prevalence being significantly higher in the former group (X 2 = 3.872, P = 0.049). This increased prevalence of thyroid disorders in the 100+ rad exposed group was due to the increased occurrence of thyroid cancer and nontoxic uninodular goiter. Thyroid cancer was found in eight exposed individuals, all of whom belonged to the 100+ rad group; statistically, the prevalence was significantly higher (X 2 = 7.919, P = 0.005). Nontoxic uninodular goiter was observed in 13 cases of the 100+ rad exposed group and 3 cases of the 0 rad exposed group, the prevalence in the 100+ rad exposed group being significantly higher (X 2 = 6.584, P = 0.010). In these cases no increase of serum TSH or TG levels was observed. Mean serum TSH levels in individuals without thyroid disorders were 1.64 ± 1.89 μU/ml (n = 421) in the 100+ rad exposed group and 1.54 ± 1.86 μU/ml (n = 462) in the 0 rad exposed group. Mean serum TG levels were 13.49 ± 13.88 ng/ml (n = 421) in the 100+ rad exposed group and 14.76 ± 15.69 ng/ml (n = 462) in the 0 rad exposed group. Thus, these differences between the two groups were not significant. Also, no significant differences were observed between the 100+ rad and 0 rad exposed groups in the mean serum TSH and TG levels of the subjects who had thyroid diseases but had not been treated for the diseases, and the subjects who had no thyroid diseases. (J.P.N.)

  2. Increased frequency of CD4{sup -}8{sup -}T cells bearing T-cell receptor {alpha}{beta} chains in peripheral blood of atomic bomb survivors exposed to high doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoichiro Kusunoki; Seishi Kyoizumi; Yuko Hirai; Shoichiro Fujita; Mitoshi Akiyama [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    A rare T-cell subpopulation, CD4{sup -z}8{sup -}{alpha}{beta} cells, may be differentiated through a pathway (or pathways) different from the pathway(s) of conventional CD4+ or CD8+ cells. In the present study, the frequencies of CD4{sup -}8{sup -} T cells in peripheral-blood {alpha}{beta} T cells in 409 atomic bomb survivors were determined to investigate late effects of radiation on the composition of human T-cell subpopulations. The frequency of CD4{sup -}8{sup -}{alpha}{beta} T-cell decreased significantly with the subject`s age and was higher in females than males. A significant increase in the frequency was found in the survivors exposed to more than 1.5Gy, suggesting that the previous radiation exposure altered differentiation and development of T cells. 25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Increased frequency of CD4-8-T cells bearing T-cell receptor αβ chains in peripheral blood of atomic bomb survivors exposed to high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoichiro Kusunoki; Seishi Kyoizumi; Yuko Hirai; Shoichiro Fujita; Mitoshi Akiyama

    1994-01-01

    A rare T-cell subpopulation, CD4 -z 8 - αβ cells, may be differentiated through a pathway (or pathways) different from the pathway(s) of conventional CD4+ or CD8+ cells. In the present study, the frequencies of CD4 - 8 - T cells in peripheral-blood αβ T cells in 409 atomic bomb survivors were determined to investigate late effects of radiation on the composition of human T-cell subpopulations. The frequency of CD4 - 8 - αβ T-cell decreased significantly with the subject's age and was higher in females than males. A significant increase in the frequency was found in the survivors exposed to more than 1.5Gy, suggesting that the previous radiation exposure altered differentiation and development of T cells. 25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Lung cancer mortality between 1950 and 1987 after exposure to fractionated moderate-dose-rate ionizing radiation in the Canadian fluoroscopy cohort study and a comparison with lung cancer mortality in the atomic bomb survivors study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    Current lung cancer risk estimates after exposure to low-linear energy transfer radiation such as X rays are based on studies of people exposed to such radiation at high dose rates, for example the atomic bomb survivors. Radiobiology and animal experiments suggest that risks from exposure at low to moderate dose rates, for example medical diagnostic procedures, may be overestimated by such risk models, but data for humans to examine this issue are limited. In this paper we report on lung cancer mortality between 1950 and 1987 in a cohort of 64,172 Canadian tuberculosis patients, of whom 39% were exposed to highly fractionated multiple chest fluoroscopies leading to a mean lung radiation dose of 1.02 Sv received at moderate dose rates. These data have been used to estimate the excess relative risk per sievert of lung cancer mortality, and this is compared directly to estimates derived from 75,991 atomic bomb survivors. Based on 1,178 lung cancer deaths in the fluoroscopy study, there was no evidence of any positive association between risk and dose, with the relative risk at 1 Sv being 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.94, 1.07), which contrasts with that based on the atomic bomb survivors, 1.60 (1.27, 1.99). The difference in effect between the two studies almost certainly did not arise by chance (P = 0.0001). This study provides strong support from data for humans for a substantial fractionation/dose-rate effect for low-linear energy transfer radiation and lung cancer risk. This implies that lung cancer risk from exposures to such radiation at present-day dose rates is likely to be lower than would be predicted by current radiation risk models based on studies of high-dose-rate exposures. 25 refs., 8 tabs

  5. A comparison of the risk of stillbirth associated with paternal pre-conception irradiation in the Sellafield workforce with that of stillbirth and untoward pregnancy outcome among Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison is made of the relative risks associated with paternal pre-conception irradiation of stillbirth and untoward pregnancy outcome (stillbirths, congenital malformations, neonatal deaths) in the offspring of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and of stillbirth in the offspring of Sellafield workers. It is concluded that the pre-conception exposure risks of stillbirth in the offspring of Sellafield workers are statistically incompatible with the Japanese data at the 5% level. Other human and experimental data relating to the induction of congenital abnormalities are briefly reviewed. (author)

  6. Human T-lymphotropic virus type-I infection, antibody titers and cause-specific mortality among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arisawa, Kokichi; Soda, Midori; Akahoshi, Masazumi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Nagasaki (Japan). Nagasaki Lab.; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Nakashima, Eiji; Tomonaga, Masao; Saito, Hiroshi

    1998-08-01

    There have been few longitudinal studies on the long-term health effects of human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I) infection. The authors performed a cohort study of HTLV-I infection and cause-specific mortality in 3,090 atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, Japan, who were followed from 1985-1987 to 1995. The prevalence of HTLV-I seropositivity in men and women was 99/1,196 (8.3%) and 171/1,894 (9.0%), respectively. During a median follow-up of 8.9 years, 448 deaths occurred. There was one nonfatal case of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (incidence rate=0.46 cases/1,000 person-years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-2.6). After adjustment for sex, age and other potential confounders, significantly increased risk among HTLV-I carriers was observed for deaths from all causes (rate ratio (RR)=1.41), all cancers (RR=1.64), liver cancer (RR=3.04), and heart diseases (RR=2.22). The association of anti-HTLV-I seropositivity with mortality from all non-neoplastic diseases (RR=1.40) and chronic liver diseases (RR=5.03) was of borderline significance. Possible confounding by blood transfusions and hepatitis C/B (HCV/HBV) viral infections could not be precluded in this study. However, even after liver cancer and chronic liver diseases were excluded, mortality rate was still increased among HTLV-I carriers (RR=1.32, 95% CI 0.99-1.78), especially among those with high antibody titers (RR=1.56, 95% CI 0.99-2.46, P for trend=0.04). These findings may support the idea that HTLV-I infection exerts adverse effects on mortality from causes other than adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Further studies on confounding by HCV/HBV infections and the interaction between HCV/HBV and HTLV-I may be required to analyze the increased mortality from liver cancer and chronic liver diseases. (author)

  7. Sexual self-esteem and psychosocial functioning in military veterans after cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, Maggie L; Delaney, Eileen; Wachen, Jennifer Schuster; Gosian, Jeffrey; Moye, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the sexual well-being of male Veteran cancer survivors, or the relationship of sexual concerns to psychosocial adaptation postcancer. This study examined the association between sexual self-esteem and psychosocial concerns in male Veteran cancer survivors. Forty-one male survivors were recruited from a Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital to participate in a pilot study addressing cancer survivorship care for Veterans. Sixty- to 90-minute interviews were conducted, assessing sociodemographic, medical, stress/burden (cancer-related posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression), and resource (social support, post-traumatic growth) variables. Twenty-one (51.2%) Veteran cancer survivors reported lowered sexual self-esteem as a result of cancer, which corresponded to significantly higher levels of depression and cancer-related PTSD. The lowered sexual self-esteem group also indicated significantly lower social support. Veteran cancer survivors with lowered sexual self-esteem tend to have higher levels of stress and lower levels of resources, putting them at risk for lowered quality of life. This increased risk highlights the importance of addressing sexual well-being in the survivorship care of Veterans.

  8. Veterans Crisis Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The caring responders at the Veterans Crisis Line are specially trained and experienced in helping Veterans of all ages and circumstances. Some of the responders are...

  9. Dose-response relationship of leukemia incidence among atomic bomb survivors and their controls by absorbed marrow dose and two types of leukemia Hiroshima and Nagasaki, October 1950 - December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Otake, Masanori; Ichimaru, Michito; Mikami, Motoko.

    1982-07-01

    Analysis of the relationship of the incidence of leukemia to gamma and neutron dose among atomic bomb survivors until 1971 has been reported previously by RERF. The present inquiry was prompted by the extension of case finding to 1978 and by the recent availability of new dose estimates for this fixed cohort. It is focused on the relationship of absorbed marrow dose of gamma rays and neutrons to the incidence of two types of leukemia in the fixed cohort of A-bomb survivors and their controls, the Life Span Study extended sample, in the period October 1950-December 1978. Three dose-response models have been fitted to the data on acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia. The relationship of the incidence of acute leukemia to gamma and neutron dose again suggests that the ''best'' fitting model involves a dependence on the square of the gamma dose and a linear dependence on neutrons. The estimated relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons in the induction of acute leukemia is approximately 44/√Dn(Dn = neutron dose) under this model. Based on the 95% confidence limits of the estimated RBE, the risk of this disease is estimated as 0.0026 - 0.0072 cases per million person-years per rem 2 of marrow dose. This analysis has failed, however, to produce a significant dose-response function for the incidence of chronic granulocytic leukemia in relation to the two kinds of radiation. (author)

  10. 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey (VERS) was conducted to determine the factors that impact veterans' employability resulting from participation in the...

  11. A case of atomic bomb survivor exhibiting a high frequency of peripheral blood TCRαβ+CD4-8-T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Hirai, Yuko; Yamaoka, Mika; Morishita, Yukari; Tanabe, Kazumi; Takahashi, Keiko; Koyama, Kazuaki; Akiyama, Mitoshi

    1990-01-01

    In a healthy A-bomb female survivor aged 47, a high incidence of TCRαβ + CD4 - 8 - T cells (8.7%) was detected in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. Thirteen TCRαβ + CD4 - 8 - T cell clones were established and were analyzed by using a T-cell receptor (TCR) β chain cDNA as a probe. These clones were different from each other in TCR gene reconstitution pattern, surface phenotype, and cytotoxic activity. These findings indicated multi-clonal proliferation of TCRαβ + CD4 - 8 - T cell. (N.K.)

  12. Honoring our Nation's Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Today is Armistice Day, renamed Veterans Day in 1954, to honor our Nation's Veterans. In Washington the rhetoric from both the political right and left supports our Veterans. My cynical side reminds me that this might have something to do with Veterans voting in a higher percentage than the population as a whole, but let me give the politicians this one. Serving our Country in the military is something that deserves to be honored. I was proud to serve our Veterans over 30 years at the four Department of Veterans Affairs (VA hospitals. However, the VA has had a very bad year. First, in Washington there were the resignations of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, Eric Shinseki; the undersecretary for the Veterans Health Administration, Robert Petzel; and the undersecretary for the Veterans Benefits Administration, Allison Hickey. Locally, in the light of the VA wait scandal there were the firing of ...

  13. Minority Veteran Report 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  14. Veterans and Homelessness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perl, Libby

    2007-01-01

    .... The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) estimates that it has served approximately 300 returning veterans in its homeless programs and has identified over 1,000 more as being at risk of homelessness...

  15. Paralyzed Veterans of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connected Twitter @PVA1946 Facebook @Paralyzed Veterans of America Instagram @PVA1946 National Veterans Wheelchair Games App Download Now ... 838-7782 CONNECT WITH US Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Flickr STAY INFORMED WITH NEWS & UPDATES Enter your ...

  16. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  17. Minority Veteran Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  18. Immune responses to epstein-barr virus in atomic bomb survivors: Study of precursor frequency of cytotoxic lymphocytes and titer levels of anti-Epstein-Barr virus-related antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Saito, Mayumi; Ozaki, Kyoko; Hirai, Yuko; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Fukuda, Yasuko; Huang, Hua

    1994-01-01

    Precursor frequencies of cytotoxic lymphocytes to autologous Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells and serum titers of anti-Epstein-Barr virus-related antibodies were measured in 68 atomic bomb survivors to clarify the immune mechanism controlling Epstein-Barr virus infection. The precursor frequency was negatively correlated with the titer of anti-early antigen lgG, which is probably produced at the stage of viral reactivation. A positive correlation between the precursor frequency and titer of anti-Epstein-Barr virus-associated nuclear antigen antibody was also observed, indicating that the precursor frequency reflects the degree of in vivo destruction by T cells of the virus-infected cells. These results suggest that T-cell memory specific to Epstein-Barr virus keeps the virus under control and that the precursor frequency assay is useful for the evaluation of immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus. However, no significant effect of atomic bomb radiation on the precursor frequency was observed in the present study, probably due to the limited number of participants. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Immune responses to epstein-barr virus in atomic bomb survivors: Study of precursor frequency of cytotoxic lymphocytes and titer levels of anti-Epstein-Barr virus-related antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Saito, Mayumi; Ozaki, Kyoko; Hirai, Yuko; Akiyama, Mitoshi (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)); Fukuda, Yasuko (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan) Children' s Hospital Medical Center of Northern California, Oakland, CA (United States)); Huang, Hua (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan) Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Precursor frequencies of cytotoxic lymphocytes to autologous Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells and serum titers of anti-Epstein-Barr virus-related antibodies were measured in 68 atomic bomb survivors to clarify the immune mechanism controlling Epstein-Barr virus infection. The precursor frequency was negatively correlated with the titer of anti-early antigen lgG, which is probably produced at the stage of viral reactivation. A positive correlation between the precursor frequency and titer of anti-Epstein-Barr virus-associated nuclear antigen antibody was also observed, indicating that the precursor frequency reflects the degree of in vivo destruction by T cells of the virus-infected cells. These results suggest that T-cell memory specific to Epstein-Barr virus keeps the virus under control and that the precursor frequency assay is useful for the evaluation of immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus. However, no significant effect of atomic bomb radiation on the precursor frequency was observed in the present study, probably due to the limited number of participants. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. DBA Survivor

    CERN Document Server

    LaRock, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    DBA Survivor is a book to help new DBAs understand more about the world of database administration. More and more people are moving into the DBA profession, and many are looking for a getting-started guide. Blogs are written about how to be an exceptional DBA and what to do in your first 100 days. This book takes a different approach, injecting some humor into helping you understand how to hit the ground running, and most importantly how to survive as a DBA. And it's not just survival that matters. Author Thomas LaRock wants much more for you than mere survival. He wants you to have excellence

  1. Explanation on 'no age-at-exposure effect on the relative risk of breast cancer in atomic-bomb survivors'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori; Sakata, Ritsu

    2013-01-01

    Preston et al. reported in the 2007 paper that 'there was no indication of a significant age-at-exposure effect on the breast cancer ERR'. The 'effect' here did not mean health effect but statistical effectiveness in describing the ERR. Specifically, ERR will be the same regardless of the age at exposure when the survivors reached the same age, say 70 years old. But it was confusing. In this review, possible pitfalls in understanding epidemiologic results will be explained so that epidemiologists and biologists can better understand each other. The epidemiologic results show that in some tissues including breast, the observed high risk following young age exposure is solely due to occurrence of excess young-onset cases, which gave rise to the same ERR at age 70 regardless of age at exposure. In other words, there is no unique radiation fingerprint associated with age at exposure when the irradiated tissue reached to 70 years old. This notion may look counter-intuitive to apply for breast cancer because the tissue structure drastically changes with age. Possible reasons are discussed. (author)

  2. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, M; Tomonaga, M; Amenomori, T; Matsuo, T [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1991-12-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5{approx}0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author).

  3. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Amenomori, T.; Matsuo, T.

    1991-01-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5∼0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  4. Review of the blast pressure, heat, and radiation dose of an atomic bomb received by survivors with ophthalmological disturbances. [In Japanese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, S

    1962-12-01

    Radiation damage to the eyes of subjects exposed to the atomic bomb in Hiroshima is surveyed. Acute radiation sicknes was found even in those who were exposed to a dose of only 70 to 80 r. Severe burns were observed among those who had been outdoors as far as 2100 m from the hypocenter. Cataract was found in those who received large irradiation doses (2685 to 3040 r) and the cataracts progress very slowly.

  5. Korean War Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The spreadsheet of Korean War Veterans by State includes the total Korean War Veteran population for each state and broken out by age and gender. It also includes...

  6. Veterans' Employment and Training Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Job Veterans.Gov Apprenticeship Occupations and Careers Women Who Served Programs & Services Transition GPS Frequently Asked Questions Hire a Veteran Find qualified Veterans Policy & Compliance Employer Toolkit Apprenticeships HIRE Vets Medallion Program Service Providers Grants & ...

  7. National Coalition for Homeless Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Continues Support of National Campaign to End Veteran Homelessness Nov. 14, 2017 This Veterans Day, Harbor Freight ... support of the national campaign to end veteran homelessness through generous contributions to the National Coalition for ...

  8. For Homeless Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Business with VA Acquisition, Logistics, & Construction Small & Veteran Business Programs VetBiz.gov Financial & Asset Enterprise Management Security Investigation Center/Background Clearances Freedom of Information ...

  9. Center for Women Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Business with VA Acquisition, Logistics, & Construction Small & Veteran Business Programs VetBiz.gov Financial & Asset Enterprise Management Security Investigation Center/Background Clearances Freedom of Information ...

  10. Veterans Administration Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  11. Biologically based analysis of lung cancer incidence in a large Canadian occupational cohort with low-LET low-dose radiation exposure, and comparison with Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelton, W.D.; Curtis, S.B.; Moolgavkar, S.H.; Hutchinson, F.; Krewski, D.

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer incidence is analyzed in a large Canadian National Dose Registry (CNDR) cohort with individual annual dosimetry for low-dose occupational exposure to gamma and tritium radiation using several types of multistage models. The primary analysis utilizes the two-stage clonal expansion model (TSCE), with sensitivity analyses using extensions of this model incorporating additional stages. Characteristic and distinct temporal patterns of risk are found for dose-response affecting early, middle, or late stages of carcinogenesis, e.g. initiation with one or more stages, clonal expansion, or malignant conversion. Fixed lag or lag distributions are used to model time from first malignant cell to incidence. Background rates are analyzed by gender, job classification and birth cohort. Lacking individual smoking data, surrogate doses based on US annual per capita cigarette consumption appear to account for much of the birth cohort effect. Males, with mean cumulative exposure for gamma and tritium of 11.5 mSv and 322 incident lung cancer cases have a significant dose-response with 33 cases attributable to radiation. Female dose-response, with mean cumulative exposure of 1.7 mSv and 78 incident cases, appears similar but is not statistically significant. Findings for males include an inverse-dose-rate effect (increased risk with protraction of a given dose) and dose-response effects on initiation, promotion and malignant conversion, although the effect on initiation is not statistically significant. The excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) depend on age at exposure, duration, dose, and age at follow-up. The ERR increases with dose, tapering off at higher doses, making a plot of ERR against dose concave-downward, similar to apparent low-dose results seen below 1 Sv for solid tumor mortality of atomic bomb survivors. The concave-downward trend of ERR and the inverse-dose-rate effect are both counter to prevailing beliefs about effects of low

  12. Arthritis and Veterans

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-09

    One in three veterans has arthritis. This podcast provides information on how veterans can improve their quality of life with physical activity and other arthritis management strategies.  Created: 11/9/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/9/2015.

  13. The influence of gender on suicidal ideation following military sexual trauma among Veterans in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Lindsey L; Bahraini, Nazanin H; Matarazzo, Bridget B; Gerber, Holly R; Soberay, Kelly A; Forster, Jeri E

    2016-10-30

    No studies have examined whether military sexual trauma, as measured and defined within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), is associated with suicidal ideation among Veterans in VHA care, when taking prior suicide attempts into account. Research regarding the role of gender in this association is also limited. The present study examined: (1) whether military sexual trauma was associated with the presence of past-week suicidal ideation among 354 Veterans in VHA (310 men, 44 women); (2) whether gender moderated the association between military sexual trauma and suicidal ideation. Information regarding military sexual trauma, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and psychiatric diagnoses was obtained from self-report instruments and medical records. Adjusting for age, gender, combat, posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive disorders, negative affect, and lifetime suicide attempt, Veterans with military sexual trauma were significantly more likely to report suicidal ideation, compared to Veterans without military sexual trauma. Furthermore, the association between military sexual trauma and suicidal ideation was stronger for men compared to women. These results contribute to a growing literature identifying military sexual trauma as a risk factor for suicidal thoughts and behaviors among Veterans in VHA care and emphasize the importance of screening for suicidal ideation among survivors of military sexual trauma. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...

  15. Veterans Choice Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — If you are already enrolled in VA health care, the Choice Program allows you to receive health care within your community. Using this program does NOT impact your...

  16. Department of Veterans Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whistleblower Rights & Protections Transparency Media Room Inside the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival ...

  17. Veterans Health Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accountability & Whistleblower Protection Transparency Media Room Inside the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival ...

  18. Health Programs for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accountability & Whistleblower Protection Transparency Media Room Inside the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival ...

  19. Veterans Health Administration (VHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSNs and other identifying information for the Department of Veterans Affairs, VHA. DVA will use the information...

  20. Pain in cancer survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladosievicova, B.

    2017-01-01

    Pain is a common problem among cancer survivors, especially in the first few years after treatment. In the longer term, approximately 5% to 10% of survivors have chronic severe pain. Overall prevalence of all types pain is about 40% in some cancer survivors with previous specific diagnosis. Until recently, impact of pain in cancer survivors have largely been unexamined. This complication can be predicted by type of malignancy, its therapy, time elapsed from completion of anticancer treatment and effectivity of previous pain interventions. As the purpose of this article is to update readers on more recent data about prevalence of pain in cancer survivors and common treatment-related chronic pain etiologies in patients with a history of cancer who are beyond the acute diagnosis and treatment phase, previously known information about acute pain, pain in terminally ill patients. Some new studies in certain subpopulations of cancer survivors will be explored in more detail. (author)

  1. Experiences of sexual harassment and sexual assault in the military among OEF/OIF veterans: implications for health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Margret E; Reardon, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Given the frequent occurrence and significant health impact of sexual harassment and sexual assault in the military, it is important that for health care providers working with Veterans to have at least some basic knowledge in this area. Targeting providers addressing mental health and psychosocial issues, but also applicable to clinicians working with survivors in a variety of capacities, this article provides an overview of clinical care with survivors of sexual trauma in the military, particularly those who are OEF/OIF Veterans. We cover basic background information, focusing primarily on the impact of sexual trauma in the military, how survivor's reactions are shaped by various aspects of the military context, and general principles to assist clinicians in working effectively with survivors, whatever their role.

  2. Ovarian neoplasms in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, Shoji

    1986-01-01

    A recent pathological and epidemiological study on females with ovarian neoplasms among the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Life Span Study (LSS) Extended Sample ascertained 194 malignant and 106 benign ovarian tumor cases which had occurred during the period 1950 - 80. Of the 194 cases of ovarian cancer, 128 (66 %) were reviewed microscopically and the age-adjusted incidence of ovarian cancer revealed a statistically significant linear increase with increasing exposure dose, both in microscopically reviewed and in all cases. The radiation-related excess of ovarian cancer appeared to be highest in women less than 20 years of age when exposed, with these women having the longest latent period for tumor development, compared to the older age groups. The histological distribution of cancer types among exposed individuals appeared not very different from that seen in the general population. The analysis of 106 autopsy subjects with benign ovarian tumors, of which 89 were reviewed microscopically, depicted a trend of increasing radiation-related tumor excess with increasing exposure dose among exposed cases, though the trend is not statistically significant when observation was limited to microscopically reviewed subjects. The histological distribution of benign tumor types among exposed cases appeared not very different from that seen in the general population. The findings are consistent with a hypothesis that radiation-injured ovaries in association with secondary excess of gonadotrophic hormones are important causative factors in the development of ovarian tumors, which has been suggested by experimental findings concerning the induction of ovarian tumors by ionizing radiation and by a recent analysis of breast carcinogenesis in exposed females of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (author)

  3. 78 FR 59426 - Board of Veterans Appeals, Veterans Information Office, Voice of the Veteran Call Center Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Information Office, Voice of the Veteran Call Center Survey; Correction AGENCY: Board of Veterans Appeals... comment on the proposed collection. The department name should read ``Board of Veterans' Appeals (BVA... ``Board of Veterans' Appeals, Veterans Information Office, Voice of the Veterans Call Center Survey''. We...

  4. Hiroshima - the effects of the atom bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, M.

    1977-01-01

    The author, a nurse, describes her personal impressions of a visit to Hiroshima in 1977 and of the medical and nursing facilities available for atomic bomb survivors in Japan. The findings of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation are briefly summarized. Hiroshima's Red Cross Hospital, recently re-built, cares for some of the survivors. The problems of discrimination against the survivors in employment and in society are discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Rural Veterans by State (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This spreadsheet contains data from the 2015 American Community Survey and shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Veterans who live in rural and...

  6. Rural Veterans by State (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This speadsheet contains data from the 2014 American Community Survey and shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Veterans who live in rural and...

  7. Veteran Religious Affiliation by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset provide a count of Veteran by their religious affiliation and state of residence. The dataset set covers all 50 states, District of Columbia and other...

  8. House Committee on Veterans' Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the beaches of Normandy, from t... [...] Read Article House Doubles Down on Commitment to Veterans 08 Nov ... R-Tenn.) released the following statement after the House of Representatives passed nine veterans bills Tuesday and ...

  9. The Veteran Population Projection 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VetPop2014 is an actuarial projection model developed by the Office of the Actuary (OACT) for Veteran population projection from Fiscal Year FY2014 to FY2043. Using...

  10. Who are the cancer survivors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovaldt, Hanna Birkbak; Suppli, N P; Olsen, M H

    2015-01-01

    was compared by social position with the non-cancer population. Results: Cancer survivors composed 4% of the Danish population. Somatic comorbidity was more likely among survivors (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.57-1.60) and associated with higher age, male sex, short education, and living alone among survivors......Background: No nationwide studies on social position and prevalence of comorbidity among cancer survivors exist. Methods: We performed a nationwide prevalence study defining persons diagnosed with cancer 1943-2010 and alive on the census date 1 January 2011 as cancer survivors. Comorbidity....... Conclusions: Among cancer survivors, comorbidity is common and highly associated with social position....

  11. Profile of Vietnam War Veterans (2015).

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Profile of Vietnam War Veterans uses the 2015 ACS to provide a view into the demographic characteristics and socioeconomic conditions of the Vietnam War Veteran...

  12. VA Veterans Health Administration Access Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — At the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), our most important mission is to provide the high quality health care and benefits Veterans have earned and deserve —...

  13. "Homelessness and trauma go hand-in-hand": pathways to homelessness among women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Alison B; Poza, Ines; Washington, Donna L

    2011-01-01

    Veterans comprise a disproportionate fraction of the nation's homeless population, with women veterans up to four times more likely to be homeless than non-veteran women. This paper provides a grounded description of women veterans' pathways into homelessness. Three focus groups were held in Los Angeles, California, with a total of 29 homeless women veterans. Five predominant "roots" (precipitating experiences) initiated pathways toward homelessness: 1) childhood adversity, 2) trauma and/or substance abuse during military service, 3) post-military abuse, adversity, and/or relationship termination, 4) post-military mental health, substance abuse, and/or medical problems, and 5) unemployment. Contextual factors, which promoted development of homelessness in the setting of primary roots, included women veterans' "survivor instinct," lack of social support and resources, sense of isolation, pronounced sense of independence, and barriers to care. These contextual factors also reinforced persistence of the roots of post-military adversity and mental health and substance abuse problems, serving to maintain cycles of chronic homelessness. Collectively, these multiple, interacting roots and contextual factors form a "web of vulnerability" that is a target for action. Multiple points along the pathways to homelessness represent critical junctures for VA and community-based organizations to engage in prevention or intervention efforts on behalf of women veterans. Considering the multiple, interconnected challenges that these women veterans described, solutions to homelessness should address multiple risk factors, include trauma-informed care that acknowledges women veterans' traumatic experiences, and incorporate holistic responses that can contribute to healing and recovery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Veterans Crisis Line: 1-800-273-8255

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterans Crisis Line Skip to Main Content SuicidePreventionLifeline.org Get Help Materials Get Involved Crisis Centers About Be There ... Line FAQs Veteran Suicide Welcome to the Veterans Crisis Line Website The Veterans Crisis Line connects Veterans ...

  15. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... videos from Veterans Health Administration Veterans Crisis Line -- After the Call see more videos from Veterans Health ... videos from Veterans Health Administration Talking About It Matters see more videos from Veterans Health Administration Stand ...

  16. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About About the Veterans Crisis Line FAQs Veteran Suicide Spread the Word Videos Homeless Resources Additional Information ... About About the Veterans Crisis Line FAQs Veteran Suicide The Veterans Crisis Line text-messaging service does ...

  17. Hospital System Performance within Veterans Affairs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Strategic Analytics for Improvement and Learning Value Model or SAIL, is a system for summarizing hospital system performance within Veterans Health Administration...

  18. Military veterans and Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anya

    There are 9.4 million military veterans receiving Social Security benefits, which means that almost one out of every four adult Social Security beneficiaries has served in the United States military. In addition, veterans and their families make up almost 40 percent of the adult Social Security beneficiary population. Policymakers are particularly interested in military veterans and their families and have provided them with benefits through several government programs, including Social Security credits, home loan guarantees, and compensation and pension payments through the Department of Veterans Affairs. It is therefore important to understand the economic and demographic characteristics of this population. Information in this article is based on data from the March 2004 Current Population Survey, a large, nationally representative survey of U.S. households. Veterans are overwhelmingly male compared with all adult Social Security beneficiaries who are more evenly split between males and females. Military veterans receiving Social Security are more likely to be married and to have finished high school compared with all adult Social Security beneficiaries, and they are less likely to be poor or near poor than the overall beneficiary population. Fourteen percent of veterans receiving Social Security benefits have income below 150 percent of poverty, while 25 percent of all adult Social Security beneficiaries are below this level. The higher economic status among veterans is also reflected in the relatively high Social Security benefits they receive. The number of military veterans receiving Social Security benefits will remain high over the next few decades, while their make-up and characteristics will change. In particular, the number of Vietnam War veterans who receive Social Security will increase in the coming decades, while the number of veterans from World War II and the Korean War will decline.

  19. Danish Gulf War Veterans Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. METHODS: A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonveterans...... and nonveterans in the incidence rate of long-term sickness absence. After an initial short period (3 months) with elevated incidence rate of long-term absence from work among veterans, there was no difference between the cohorts. CONCLUSION: Among Danish Gulf War Veterans, no postdeployment increased risk...... outcomes and information on deployment history was studied using time-to-event analysis. The index date was the return date from the last deployment to the Gulf. The follow-up period was the time from index date until April 27, 2014. RESULTS: As the main finding, no difference was found between veterans...

  20. Mental health status of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Hideyuki

    2012-01-01

    The most survivors of disaster usually recover with few or no lasting effects on their mental health. However, in some portions of survivors, distress lasts long. The atomic bomb detonated to Nagasaki in August 1945 instantaneously destroyed almost all areas of the city, resulting in a total of ca. 73,884 deaths by the end of 1945 and about 74,909 injured people. Since the A-bomb survivors reached over 60 years of age, their mental health as well as physical health has become of great concern. Some studies on their mental health conditions have been carried out in Japan. I give an outline about a precedent study on mental health of the A-bomb survivors in this report. The mental health studies of the A-bomb survivors who paid attention to a being bombed experience, stigmatization, long-term outcome, recovery are necessary. The improvement of wide appropriate support system for the A-bomb survivors is expected in future. (author)

  1. Suicide among War Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod Rozanov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  2. Suicide among war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its' frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  3. Hiroshima and Nagasaki: the survivors. The reckoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, F.

    1977-01-01

    At a recently held meeting of 44 scientists from 14 countries organised by the International Peace Bureau a great deal of information on the physical, biological, medical, genetic, social and psychological effects of the atomic bombs was made specially available by Japanese scientists including the results of comprehensive surveys of the personal and social disabilities of the survivors. The immediate fire, blast and radiation effects are here summarized and the causes of death upto the end of 1945 are considered. The delayed effects are perhaps the most terrifying and these are examined. (U.K.)

  4. Genetic counseling of the cancer survivor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvihill, J.J.; Byrne, J.

    1989-01-01

    Each year, tens of thousands of persons are diagnosed with cancer, are treated, and become survivors while still in their reproductive years. Their concerns about possible germ-cell damage as a result of life-saving radiation, chemotherapy, or both are plausible, based on evidence from animal models and from somatic cell mutations in human beings. A 40-year follow-up of survivors of the atomic bomb blasts in Japan showed no detectable genetic damage and suggested that the human gonad is more resistant to radiogenic mutation than the laboratory mouse. The pooled results of studying 12 series of offspring of cancer patients showed a 4% rate of major birth defects (similar to that of the general population) and an excess of fetal loss and low birth weight in offspring of women who received abdominal radiotherapy. According to preliminary evaluation of a new National Cancer Institute collaboration with five cancer registries, offspring of survivors of childhood cancers had no more birth defects than expected and, beyond an increase in probably familial cancers in children younger than 5, no overall increase in childhood cancer. Ideally, genetic and reproductive counseling should take place as soon as cancer is diagnosed (before therapy starts) and again when pregnancy is contemplated. 28 references

  5. Is the Holocaust implicated in posttraumatic growth in second-generation Holocaust survivors? A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Sharon; Mandl, Christine; Solomon, Zahava

    2013-08-01

    With the growing interest in posttraumatic growth (PTG), and the ongoing debate on the implications of transgenerational transmission of trauma, this longitudinal study examined PTG among Holocaust survivor offspring following their own exposure to trauma. Using self-report questionnaires, we assessed PTG over time in middle aged (age: M = 53 years) Israeli male combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War whose parents were (n = 43) and were not (n = 156) second-generation survivors of the Nazi Holocaust at 2 time points: 30 and 35 years following the war (in 2003 and 2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and trauma exposure were also assessed in 1991. We hypothesized that second-generation survivors would report more PTG than controls. However, repeated measures design revealed that the second-generation veterans reported less PTG than veterans who were not second generation, which was evident in the PTG domains of relations to others, personal strength, and appreciation of life. Our findings suggest that transmission of trauma from one generation to the next is possibly implicated in the offspring's propensity for growth following subsequent trauma. Future research is warranted to examine the link between transmission of trauma and positive outcomes following trauma. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  6. Endocrine and gonadial tumors among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Dohi, Kiyohiko; Fujikura, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    A review of 4,136 consecutive autopsies between 1961 and 1977 and surgical cases from A-bomb survivors seen in Hiroshima University School of Medicine was made in terms of pituitary tumors, parathyroid tumors, thyroid cancer, carcinoid, tumors of the adrenal cortex, ovarian tumors, testicular tumors, and multiple endocrine gonadial tumors (MEGT). The occurrence of thyroid cancer, parathyroid tumors, and MEGT may be correlated with atomic radiation. Mortality from endocrine and gonadial tumors tended to be higher with increasing T65 doses. As for MEGT, the combination of thyroid cancer and ovarian tumors occurred frequently among A-bomb survivors. The combination of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland and pheochromacytoma of the adrenal gland was unlikely to be related to atomic radiation. Further study may be needed in elucidating possible effects of atomic radiation on endocrine hormones. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Atom bombs and genetic damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Comments are made on a 1981 review on genetic damage in the off-spring of the atom bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The main criticisms of the review concerned, 1) the 'minimal' doubling dose value for radiation-induced mutation in man, 2) the gametic doubling dose value for sex chromosome aneuploidy and 3) the validity of trebling an observed acute doubling dose to measure the effect of chronic irradiation. The firmest conclusion which may be deduced from the studies on A-bomb survivors is that humans are fairly resistant to genetic damage from radiation. (U.K.)

  8. Rehabilitating torture survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjölund, Bengt H; Kastrup, Marianne; Montgomery, Edith

    2009-01-01

    survivors can be addressed from an evidence base generated both from traumatized and non-traumatized patient populations. Thus, trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy and/or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, as well as interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation, should be components......, in December 2008. The main topics were: the context of torture; mental problems including psychotherapy; internet-based therapy and pharmaco-therapy; chronic pain; social integration and family; and functioning and rehabilitation. Available evidence highlights the importance of an interdisciplinary approach......, "Rehabilitating Torture Survivors", was organized by the Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (a rehabilitation clinic and global knowledge and research centre with government support) in collaboration with the Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark...

  9. Epidemiologic Study of One Million U.S. Radiation Workers and Veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boice, John D. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2017-12-14

    The single most important question in radiation epidemiology is determining the level of health risks associated with radiation exposures that occur gradually over time. The study of one million early U.S. radiation workers and veterans has been designed to provide information on risk following chronic exposures by focusing on occupational groups with differing radiation exposure patterns, including intakes of radionuclides. The cost-efficient study builds on the investments made and foundations laid by investigators and government agencies over the past 30-40 years, which have established early worker cohorts that can now provide answers to questions on the lifetime human health risks associated with low-level radiation exposures. Within the overall goal of the epidemiologic study of one million U.S. radiation workers and veterans, this project had a total of nine specific aims which included studies of six populations for multiple endpoints including cancer overall mortality, leukemia and non-cancer mortality. The six populations included: Mound, Ohio, workers exposed to polonium, tritium and plutonium; nuclear power plant workers within the Landauer dosimetry and Nuclear Regulatory Commission data files; industrial radiographers; Mallinckrodt uranium workers; uranium workers who linked with the US Renal Data System; and nuclear weapons test participants. Over 400,000 workers and atomic veterans are included in these populations, with vital status being determined and analyses of all causes of death undertaken. A critical, integral component of the studies has been comprehensive evaluations of dosimetry involving, in many cases, complex dose reconstructions, and assessments of uncertainties. The work has also involved development of state-of-the art statistical approaches and modeling. All nine aims were accomplished successfully, resulting in publication of two NCRP documents, 13 literature papers, numerous Boice Reports in Health Physics News and many

  10. Cancer survivors' experience of time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dorte M.; Elverdam, Beth

    2007-01-01

    , and prioritize how and with whom they want to spend their time. CONCLUSION: With an increasing number of people being cured following a cancer diagnosis, nurses and oncology nurse specialists who work with cancer survivors must be aware of the fact that time is a central theme in understanding cancer survivors......' lives, and they must know how to guide these survivors in their new lives and take care of their well-being....

  11. VeteranOtherInformationService

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This service is used to create, read, delete and update additional information captured during the EVSS Disability Compensation interview in an effort to align with...

  12. Maladaptive behavior in survivors: dysexecutive survivor syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, John

    2012-12-01

    This paper attempts to answer the question: why does normal, goal-directed, purposeful, and coordinated behavior fragment in a survival situation? Events accompanying the initial impact phase of a survival incident are characterized by speed, danger, violence, and uncontrollability. The following recoil phase is known to produce behavioral and cognitive impairment that leads to a reduced ability to produce a response that is meaningful and may result in tonic immobility. The author argues that the commonly witnessed responses among survivors comprise a subset of known behaviors, including loss of initiative, stereotypy, perseveration of thought and action, hyperkinesia, hypokinesia, and, in extreme cases, akinesia or cognitive paralysis. These behaviors are characteristic of executive dysfunction and a model is given suggesting how this condition may arise under survival conditions. The case is presented that during the initial phase of a survival incident, victims show a transient, nonclinical dysexecutive syndrome. This model should aid survival training and provide a context for conducting behavioral autopsies by accident investigators.

  13. FEDERAL PENSIONS: Judicial Survivors Annuities System Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...) specifying that we review certain aspects of the Judicial Survivors' Annuities System (JSAS), which is one of several survivor benefit plans applicable to particular groups of federal employees...

  14. Social participation and self-rated health among older male veterans and non-veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan

    2016-08-01

    To examine self-rated health (SRH) and its association with social participation, along with physical and mental health indicators, among USA male veterans and non-veterans aged ≥65 years. The two waves of the National Health and Aging Trend Study provided data (n = 2845 at wave 1; n = 2235 at wave 2). Multilevel mixed effects generalized linear models were fit to test the hypotheses. Despite their older age, veterans did not differ from non-veterans in their physical, mental and cognitive health, and they had better SRH. However, black and Hispanic veterans had lower SRH than non-Hispanic white veterans. Formal group activities and outings for enjoyment were positively associated with better SRH for veterans, non-veterans and all veteran cohorts. Aging veterans, especially black and Hispanic veterans, require programs and services that will help increase their social connectedness. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 920-927. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Live Chat Veterans Text Homeless Veterans Live Chat Military Live Chat Deaf - Hard of Hearing Contact Us ... Live Chat Veterans Text Homeless Veterans Live Chat Military Live Chat Deaf - Hard of Hearing Contact Us ...

  16. World war II veterans, social support, and veterans' associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, N; Robbins, I

    2001-05-01

    People use many different coping strategies to deal with their traumatic recollections. Twenty-five British World War II veterans were interviewed regarding the ways they used social support both during the war and in the years afterwards. The findings demonstrate that social support is used in fundamentally different ways. During the war comradeship was particularly important and even fifty years after the war comrades are still a valuable resource for discussing war experiences, and dealing with the emotional content of traumatic recollections. Veterans rely on wives and families to help deal with the more physical and practical elements of coping, but tend not to discuss their traumatic memories with them. The findings show that social support is an important lifelong coping strategy for World War II veterans.

  17. Competing Constructivisms: The Negotiation of PTSD and Related Stigma Among Post-9/11 Veterans in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Luther; Bennett, Alexander S; Szott, Kelly; Golub, Andrew

    2018-05-23

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) stands as a form of psychopathology that straddles moral and psychiatric domains. Grounded in discrete instances of trauma, PTSD represents an etiological outlier in an era of increased attention to the genetics of mental illness and a prime location for social constructivist analyses of mental illness. This examination of PTSD narratives-as voiced in qualitative interviews and focus groups with 50 veterans of the recent Iraq and Afghanistan wars living in New York City-attends to the processes through which veterans conceive and navigate PTSD symptoms and diagnoses. In so doing we highlight the social constructivist positions undertaken by veterans themselves as they varyingly challenge and internalize symptomology in dialogue with psychiatric definitions and the stigma associated with PTSD. Findings demonstrate the rejection of classic psychopathological etiology-in brain disease, for example-by many veterans as well as the complex balancing of benefit and stigma that veterans undertake when making decisions about presenting to psychiatric clinicians. Drawing on veterans' accounts, we argue for greater cultural specificity in characterizing the diagnosis-seeking behavior of trauma survivors and a greater appreciation for the contradictions and compromise related to both acceptance and rejection of a mental health diagnosis.

  18. Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry (VACCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry (VACCR) receives and stores information on cancer diagnosis and treatment constraints compiled and sent in by the local...

  19. 38 CFR 10.37 - Claim of widow not living with veteran at time of veteran's death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim of widow not living with veteran at time of veteran's death. 10.37 Section 10.37 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.37 Claim of widow not living with veteran at time of...

  20. Atomic bomb injury: radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, C L; Cronkite, E P; Le Roy, G V; Warren, S

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports. In the first report, the clinical diagnosis and treatment of radiation syndrome in survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are described. The syndrome of acute radiation injury is applied to the symptom complex, or diseased state, which results from exposure of the whole body to the initial nuclear radiation of an atomic bomb. It is applied to injuries of the skin and subcutaneous tissues resulting from x-radiation or from contact with radioactive material. Internal radiation injury may result from the selective deposition, such as in bone or thyroid, of radioactive material that has been inhaled or absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract or wounds. Radiation syndrome is classified as very severe, severe, and mild. In the second report, a brief discussion is presented on the question of genetic effects in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the third report, a study was carried out on 205 4-1/2 year old children who had been exposed to the atomic bomb blast during the first half of intra-uterine life. Correlation between head size and mental development of the child with distance from the hypocenter, symptoms of radiation effect and type of shielding of the mother is discussed. The conclusion drawn from the present study is that central nervous system defects can be produced in the fetus by atomic bomb radiation, provided that exposure occurs within approximately 1200 meters of the hypocenter and that no effective shielding, such as concrete, protects the fetus from direct irradiation.

  1. Disabled Veterans on the Job Front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael J.

    1978-01-01

    The Disabled Veterans Outreach Program (DVOP) administered by the Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration arranges training and placement for disabled veterans in local job service offices. These employees then assist in placing other disabled veterans on jobs. Some typical DVOP success stories are described. (MF)

  2. D-Day for Veterans' Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Robert R.

    1977-01-01

    Focuses on the unemployment problem among Vietnam veterans and on the various Federal and private employment programs open to these veterans. Discussion also covers labor force statistics, readjustment to civilian life, changes in the American economy, and the role of the Department of Defense and civilian employers in helping veterans to find…

  3. 77 FR 20849 - Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    .... Funding Opportunity Description: Section 2021 of Title 38 of the United States Code (U.S.C.) reauthorizes the Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program (HVRP) through fiscal year (FY) 2012 and indicates: ``the... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Program AGENCY: Veterans' Employment and...

  4. Career Development for Transitioning Veterans. Monograph Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Carmen Stein; Osborn, Debra S.; Hayden, Seth C. W.; Van Hoose, Dan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to increase career practitioners' awareness of the transition issues and resources specific to veterans and to provide several examples of how a practitioner might walk a veteran through the career planning process. Case studies based on interviews with real veterans by the authors and military consultants (Thomas…

  5. Gender, race & the veteran wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Brandon; Fontanella, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes earnings outcomes of Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans. We utilize the 2009-2013 American Community Survey and a worker-matching methodology to decompose wage differences between veteran and non-veteran workers. Among fully-employed, 25-40 year-olds, veteran workers make 3% less than non-veteran workers. While male veterans make 9% less than non-veterans, female and black veterans experience a wage premium (2% and 7% respectively). Decomposition of the earnings gap identifies some of its sources. Relatively higher rates of disability and lower rates of educational attainment serve to increase the overall wage penalty against veterans. However, veterans work less in low-paying occupations than non-veterans, serving to reduce the wage penalty. Finally, among male and white subgroups, non-veterans earn more in the top quintile due largely to having higher educational attainment and greater representation in higher-paying occupations, such as management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. DefenseLink Special: Veterans Day 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    our country, and for making a proud history. God bless you all. And God bless our wonderful country a special Veterans Day observance. Story * Command Sgt. Major Praises Women's Service Woman Vet Veterans Affairs * Center of Military History * White House: Honoring Our Veterans * Library of Congress

  7. 38 CFR 3.401 - Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compensation payable by reason of need for aid and attendance or housebound status shall also be awarded for... claim additional disability compensation payable to a veteran by reason of the veteran's spouse's need....) (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 5110 (f), (n)) (c) Divorce of veteran and spouse. See § 3.501(d). (d) Institutional...

  8. Cancer survivors. Work related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Pamela N; Beck, Martha L; Stava, Charles; Sellin, Rena V

    2002-05-01

    New and more effective treatments for cancer have resulted in individuals living longer with a better quality of life. Many more survivors are employed in the workplace. Cancer is no longer only an issue for survivors and their families; it has become an issue for the employer and the workplace. This article describes survey results of 4,364 long term cancer survivors in which they were asked to respond to items describing their ability to work, job discrimination, and quality of life. Thirty-five percent of survivors were working at the time they completed the survey, and 8.5% considered themselves unable to work. This research has shown that age, gender, ethnic group, and cancer type affected the working status of the survivors. Of survivors continuing to work, 7.3% indicated they had experienced job discrimination. The results indicate most cancer survivors do not perceive employment related problems, and are readily assimilated into the work force. Job discrimination and the ability to work is a quality of life issue.

  9. Quality of Life in Iranian Chemical Warfare Veteran's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Abbas; Moradian, Tayeb; Mollahadi, Mohsen; Saeed, Yaser; Refahi, Ali Akbar

    2014-05-01

    Mustard gas has different effects on different body systems such as respiratory tract, blood, gastrointestinal, skin, eye, endocrine and peripheral nervous system. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of life in chemical warfare veterans due to sulfur mustard exposure. In a cross-sectional and analytic study, 242 patients who had a chemical injury during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1983) and their lung damage was proven were investigated in our study. The quality of life was measured in these patients using an extensively validated Iranian version of SF-36. The mean age of veterans was 44.12 ± 4.9 ranging from 22 to 62 years. Our results showed that chemical warfare had a decreased quality of life in all subscales of the SF-36. The lowest scores in SF-36 subscales were related to role physical and general health. The data also showed a significant relationship between the number of organs involved and the quality of life in these patients (P chemical warfare survivors suffering from late complications have a low health related quality of life.

  10. Conversations with Holocaust survivor residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Sandra P; LeNavenec, Carole Lynne; Aldiabat, Khaldoun

    2011-03-01

    Traumatic events in one's younger years can have an impact on how an individual copes with later life. One traumatic experience for Jewish individuals was the Holocaust. Some of these people are moving into long-term care facilities. It was within this context that the research question emerged: What are Holocaust survivor residents' perceptions of a life lived as they move into a long-term care facility? For this qualitative study, Holocaust survivors were individually interviewed. Findings emphasize that nursing care needs to ensure that Holocaust survivor residents participate in activities, receive timely health care, and receive recognition of their life experiences. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Atomic soldiers: American victims of nuclear experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, H.L.

    1980-01-01

    The author has tried to recreate the exposure scenario for military personnel who were involved in the 1957 nuclear testing exercises at Nevada Test Site. Through one man's health saga he builds a case for veteran's compensation for delayed radiation effects. The book is heavily documented with references to Atomic Energy Commission meetings, military correspondence and comments from reputable scientists

  12. Veterans Affairs Intensive Case Management for older veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Somaia; Neale, Michael S; Rosenheck, Robert

    2009-08-01

    There is a growing need for information on evidence-based practices that may potentially address needs of elderly people with severe mental illness (SMI), and more specifically on community-based services such as assertive community treatment (ACT). This study examines national evaluation data from fiscal year 2001-2005 from Veterans Affairs Mental Health Intensive Case Management (MHICM) program (N = 5,222), an ACT-based service model, to characterize the age distribution of participants and the distinctive needs, patterns of service delivery, and treatment outcomes for elderly veterans. Altogether, 24.8% of participants were 55-64 years; 7.4% 65-74 years; and 2.8% were older than 75. Veterans over 75 formed a distinct subgroup that had a later age of onset of primarily nonpsychotic illnesses without comorbid substance abuse and had experienced more limited lifetime hospital treatment than younger participants. Older veterans were less symptomatic and more satisfied with their social relationships than younger clients. They mostly live independently or in minimally restrictive housing, but they received less recovery-focused services and more crisis intervention and medical services. They thus do not appear to be young patients with SMI who have aged but rather constitute a distinct group with serious late-onset problems. It is possible that MHICM services keep them in the community and avoid costly nursing home placement while providing a respite service that reduces family burden. These data highlight the unique characteristics of older veterans receiving ACT-like services and the need to focus greater attention on recovery-oriented services as well as community support for this subgroup.

  13. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in 2018! Learn More For Loved Ones A burn injury doesn't just impact the survivor. Families ... to support longterm recovery, improve the quality of burn care, and prevent burn injury. Explore articles on ...

  14. Ageing Holocaust survivors in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paratz, Elizabeth D; Katz, Benny

    2011-02-21

    In recent years, a phenomenon of "late effects of the Holocaust" has emerged, with impacts on the psychological and physical health of ageing Holocaust survivors. As Holocaust survivors age, they may experience heightened anxiety around normal processes of ageing, worsened post-traumatic stress disorder with cognitive decline, and fear of the medical system. Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiometabolic disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, cancer, and sequelae of Nazi medical experiments. From existing medical literature on this topic, practical principles of management are derived to create a framework for sensitive medical management of Holocaust survivors in Australia. The issues discussed are also relevant to the wider geriatric refugee or prisoner-of-war experience.

  15. The greatest challenges reported by long-term colorectal cancer survivors with stomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Carmit K; Hornbrook, Mark C; Grant, Marcia; Baldwin, Carol M; Wendel, Christopher S; Mohler, M Jane; Altschuler, Andrea; Ramirez, Michelle; Krouse, Robert S

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a qualitative analysis of the greatest challenges reported by long-term colorectal cancer survivors with ostomies. Surveys that included an open-ended question about challenges of living with an ostomy were administered at three Kaiser Permanente regions: Northern California, Northwest, and Hawaii. The study was coordinated at the Southern Arizona Veterans Affairs Health Care System in Tucson. The City of Hope Quality of Life Model for Ostomy Patients provided a framework for the study's design, measures, data collection, and data analysis. The study's findings may be generalized broadly to community settings across the United States. Results replicate those of previous research among veterans, California members of the United Ostomy Association, Koreans with ostomies, and colorectal cancer survivors with ostomies residing in the United Kingdom. The greatest challenges reported by 178 colorectal cancer survivors with ostomies confirmed the Institute of Medicine's findings that survivorship is a distinct, chronic phase of cancer care and that cancer's effects are broad and pervasive. The challenges reported by study participants should inform the design, testing and integration of targeted education, early interventions, and ongoing support services for colorectal cancer patients with ostomies.

  16. 76 FR 65321 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of... Veterans Affairs (VA) established the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review of VA's approach to and programs addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans...

  17. 78 FR 28292 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of... Veterans Affairs (VA) established the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review of VA's approach to and programs addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans...

  18. 75 FR 16577 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of... Veterans Affairs (VA) established the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review of VA's approach to and programs addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans...

  19. 38 CFR 3.454 - Veterans disability pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Veterans disability pension. 3.454 Section 3.454 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Apportionments § 3.454 Veterans...

  20. Military sexual trauma among homeless veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao, Joanne; Turchik, Jessica A; Hyun, Jenny K; Karpenko, Julie; Saweikis, Meghan; McCutcheon, Susan; Kane, Vincent; Kimerling, Rachel

    2013-07-01

    Military sexual trauma (MST) is the Veteran Health Administration's (VHA) term for sexual assault and/or sexual harassment that occurs during military service. The experience of MST is associated with a variety of mental health conditions. Preliminary research suggests that MST may be associated with homelessness among female Veterans, although to date MST has not been examined in a national study of both female and male homeless Veterans. To estimate the prevalence of MST, examine the association between MST and mental health conditions, and describe mental health utilization among homeless women and men. National, cross-sectional study of 126,598 homeless Veterans who used VHA outpatient care in fiscal year 2010. All variables were obtained from VHA administrative databases, including MST screening status, ICD-9-CM codes to determine mental health diagnoses, and VHA utilization. Of homeless Veterans in VHA, 39.7 % of females and 3.3 % of males experienced MST. Homeless Veterans who experienced MST demonstrated a significantly higher likelihood of almost all mental health conditions examined as compared to other homeless women and men, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, bipolar disorders, personality disorders, suicide, and, among men only, schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. Nearly all homeless Veterans had at least one mental health visit and Veterans who experienced MST utilized significantly more mental health visits compared to Veterans who did not experience MST. A substantial proportion of homeless Veterans using VHA services have experienced MST, and those who experienced MST had increased odds of mental health diagnoses. Homeless Veterans who had experienced MST had higher intensity of mental health care utilization and high rates of MST-related mental health care. This study highlights the importance of trauma-informed care among homeless Veterans and the success of VHA homeless

  1. Incidence and Risk Factors for Intensive Care Unit–related Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans and Civilians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James C.; Morandi, Alessandro; Girard, Timothy D.; Hughes, Christopher G.; Thompson, Jennifer L.; Kiehl, Amy L.; Elstad, Mark R.; Wasserstein, Mitzi L.; Goodman, Richard B.; Beckham, Jean C.; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Dittus, Robert S.; Ely, E. Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: The incidence and risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to the intensive care unit (ICU) experience have not been reported in a mixed veteran and civilian cohort. Objectives: To describe the incidence and risk factors for ICU-related PTSD in veterans and civilians. Methods: This is a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort enrolling adult survivors of critical illness after respiratory failure and/or shock from three Veterans Affairs and one civilian hospital. After classifying those with/without preexisting PTSD (i.e., PTSD before hospitalization), we then assessed all subjects for ICU-related PTSD at 3 and 12 months post hospitalization. Measurements and Main Results: Of 255 survivors, 181 and 160 subjects were assessed for ICU-related PTSD at 3- and 12-month follow-up, respectively. A high probability of ICU-related PTSD was found in up to 10% of patients at either follow-up time point, whether assessed by PTSD Checklist Event-Specific Version (score ≥ 50) or item mapping using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). In the multivariable regression, preexisting PTSD was independently associated with ICU-related PTSD at both 3 and 12 months (P < 0.001), as was preexisting depression (P < 0.03), but veteran status was not a consistent independent risk factor for ICU-related PTSD (3-month P = 0.01, 12-month P = 0.48). Conclusions: This study found around 1 in 10 ICU survivors experienced ICU-related PTSD (i.e., PTSD anchored to their critical illness) in the year after hospitalization. Preexisting PTSD and depression were strongly associated with ICU-related PTSD. PMID:26735627

  2. 77 FR 27252 - Veterans' Employment and Training; Veterans Workforce Investment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... service delivery systems that will address the complex employability problems facing eligible veterans; and (c) to increase the skills and competency level of veteran participants through longer-term...

  3. Salt Lake Community College Veterans Services: A Model of Serving Veterans in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Aaron; Foster, Michael; Head, Darlene

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the birth and growth of a veterans' program in Salt Lake City, Utah, and discusses next steps in spurring additional innovations and advancements to improve service for student veterans in community colleges.

  4. Psychosocial function and health in veteran families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mai Tødsø; Karmsteen, Kirstine; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    to the veteran or the mental health of the partner while relatively few publications deal with the veteran family as a whole or its members social relations outside the primary family. Furthermore, there are relatively few publications focusing on relatives to veterans deployed other places than Iraq...... the research field of psychosocial functioning and health among relatives living with a veteran, including potential gaps within this research field. We have found 103 publications. Most of them are American, 7 are from Europe and none from Scandinavia. Most publications focus on the partner’s relationship...... and Afghanistan, publications focusing on relatives of veterans with physical injuries and few publications dealing with relatives to female veterans. The overall conclusion is that there is a potential need for addressing psychosocial functioning and health among these groups of relatives in research to provide...

  5. 2015 Veteran Economic Opportunity Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Competitiveness For purposes of this Report, the definition of a barrier is anything that prevents or obstructs passage, access , or progress. Vulnerable...and data analysis to the VBA and stakeholders. PA&I developed the VBA Enterprise Data Warehouse to enable the generation of recurring and ad hoc...reports in response to VBA decision-making and business needs. PA&I will be a primary source of information on Veteran education, vocational

  6. Promoting Exercise in Young Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In children and adolescent cancer survivors, an online game helped them get regular exercise, as this NCI Cancer Currents post explains. A NCI-funded trial is testing the approach for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors.

  7. Childhood Cancer Survivors Are Living Longer

    Science.gov (United States)

    New data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study suggest that refinements in pediatric cancer treatment over the last few decades have helped to extend the lifespans of many survivors of childhood cancer.

  8. The survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: delayed effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollingsworth, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Results of controlled clinical and epidemiological studies of atomic bomb survivors are presented. Fewer than 100 children irradiated in utero suffered brain damage and microcephaly. Many persons who received more than 100 rads developed posterior lenticular cataracts. Up to 15% of lymphocytes of survivors showed some small chromosomal change, and the percentage and degree of abnormality were directly related to radiation dose. The cumulative rate of myelogenous leukemia was highly dose-related, with a 50-fold increase in those receiving 200 rads. Now, more than 35 years after the bombing, the solid tumor rate is still increasing. Data indicate that a dose as small as 10 rads is carcinogenic, making a so-called safe dose threshold unlikely. Psychologic damage has affected all aspects of life

  9. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterans Crisis Line Skip to Main Content SuicidePreventionLifeline.org Get Help Materials Get Involved Crisis Centers About Be There ... see more videos from Veterans Health Administration Veterans Crisis Line -- After the Call see more videos from ...

  10. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more videos from Veterans Health Administration Lost: The Power of One Connection see more videos from Veterans Health Administration The Power of 1 PSA see more videos from Veterans ...

  11. VA Is Here for the People Who Support Our Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Self-Check Quiz Resources Spread the Word Videos Homeless Resources Additional Information Make the Connection Get Help When To Call What To Expect Resource Locator Veterans Live Chat Veterans Text Homeless Veterans Live Chat Military Live ...

  12. An Exploration of Transition Experiences Shaping Student Veteran Life Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Brian Tuan

    2016-01-01

    Educational institutions offer transformative opportunities for veterans transitioning from military service. Veteran-specific cultural supports in educational environments offer participation in occupations and development of skills needed to complete educational goals. However, veterans experience complex life circumstances atypical from…

  13. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Veterans Health Administration The Power of 1 PSA see more videos from Veterans Health Administration Commitments PSA see more videos from Veterans Health Administration The ...

  14. Employment of Veterans in the Federal Executive Branch

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — These quick facts use data from the 2011 Employment of Veterans in the Federal Executive Branch to compare Veteran employment in the Federal Government by agency,...

  15. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... videos from Veterans Health Administration Talking About It Matters see more videos from Veterans Health Administration Stand ... Health Administration I am A Veteran Family/Friend Active Duty/Reserve and Guard Signs of Crisis Identifying ...

  16. British Nuclear Test Veterans' Association. Radiation exposure and subsequent health history of veterans and their children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquhart, J.

    1993-01-01

    The present study of veterans' health carried out in association with Tyne Tees Television presents new and disturbing evidence of significant health effects in both veterans and their children, based on the health records of 1,454 members of the British Nuclear Test Veterans' Association, of whom 1,147 were fathers. (orig./MG)

  17. Heroes or Health Victims?: Exploring How the Elite Media Frames Veterans on Veterans Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhidenour, Kayla B; Barrett, Ashley K; Blackburn, Kate G

    2017-11-27

    We examine the frames the elite news media uses to portray veterans on and surrounding Veterans Day 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015. We use mental health illness and media framing literature to explore how, why, and to what extent Veterans Day news coverage uses different media frames across the four consecutive years. We compiled a Media Coverage Corpora for each year, which contains the quotes and paraphrased remarks used in all veterans news stories for that year. In our primary study, we applied the meaning extraction method (MEM) to extract emergent media frames for Veterans Day 2014 and compiled a word frequency list, which captures the words most commonly used within the corpora. In post hoc analyses, we collected news stories and compiled word frequency lists for Veterans Day 2012, 2013, and 2015. Our findings reveal dissenting frames across 2012, 2013, and 2014 Veterans Day media coverage. Word frequency results suggest the 2012 and 2013 media frames largely celebrate Veterans as heroes, but the 2014 coverage depicts veterans as victimized by their wartime experiences. Furthermore, our results demonstrate how the prevailing 2015 media frames could be a reaction to 2014 frames that portrayed veterans as health victims. We consider the ramifications of this binary portrayal of veterans as either health victims or heroes and discuss the implications of these dueling frames for veterans' access to healthcare resources.

  18. Sexual Function in Female Veterans: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrock, Laina; Carroll, Richard

    2017-04-03

    Women comprise a significant proportion of the veteran population. Much research has been devoted to physical and mental health outcomes in veterans, both of which show significant decreases in quality of life. However, little is known about the effects of female veterans' unique military experience on sexual function. In particular, military sexual trauma, general military stressors, mental health diagnoses, and other vulnerability factors contribute to sexual dysfunction, dissatisfaction, and decreases in mental health-related quality of life. We propose a model whereby all of these factors interact and contribute to sexual dysfunction in female veterans, and areas for growth in assessment and treatment are discussed.

  19. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  20. Rectal Cancer Survivors' Participation in Productive Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbrook, Mark C; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher; Bulkley, Joanna E; Mcmullen, Carmit K; Altschuler, Andrea; Temple, Larissa Kf; Herrinton, Lisa J; Krouse, Robert S

    2017-01-01

    Rectal cancer and its treatment impair survivors' productivity. To assess determinants of market and nonmarket employment, job search, volunteering, and homemaking among survivors five years or longer after diagnosis. We mailed questionnaires to 1063 survivors who were members of Kaiser Permanente (Northern California, Northwest) during 2010 and 2011. Productive activities, functional health status, and bowel management at the time of the survey. Response rate was 60.5% (577/953). Higher comorbidity burdens were associated with lower productivity for men and women rectal cancer survivors. Productive survivors were younger and had lower disease stage and age at diagnosis, higher household income and educational attainment, and fewer comorbidity burdens and workplace adjustments than did nonproductive survivors (p < 0.05 each; 2-sided). Productive rectal cancer survivors were evenly split by sex. Staying productive is associated with better mental health for rectal cancer survivors. Rectal cancer survivors with multiple chronic conditions, higher disease stage, lower productive activities, and older age need better access to medical care and closer monitoring of the quality of their care, including self-care. To capture the full extent of the involvement of survivors in all types of productive activities, research should routinely include measures of employment, searching for employment, homemaking, and volunteering. Counting market and nonmarket productive activities is innovative and recognizes the continuum of contributions survivors make to families and society. Health care systems should routinely monitor rectal cancer survivors' medical care access, comorbidities, health-related quality of life, and productive activities.