WorldWideScience

Sample records for surviving british north

  1. Irish (Republic) versus British (North West) orthopaedic trainees: what are the differences?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Banks, L N

    2012-02-01

    British Trainees have gradually had their working week curtained over the last 8 years. The Republic of Ireland Trainees have not been subjected to the European Working Time Directive prior to 2009 and have therefore worked on average, more hours than their British counterparts. We wanted to see if the differing schemes had an impact on recruiting and training orthopaedic surgeons. We surveyed Republic of Ireland orthopaedic specialist registrars (SpRs) and North West (NW) British SpRs\\/specialist trainees (ST3 and above) to see if there were any discernable differences in working patterns and subsequent training exposure. A standard proforma was given to Irish Trainees and to NW SpRs\\/STs at their National or regional teaching (January\\/February 2009). 62% of Irish and 47% of British NW Trainees responded. Irish trainees were more likely to have obtained a post-graduate degree (p = 0.03). The Irish worked more hours per week (p < 0.001) doing more trauma operative lists (p = 0.003) and more total cases per 6 months than the NW British (p = 0.003). This study suggests that more hours worked, equals more operative exposure, without detriment to the academic side of training. Obviously it is not possible to say whether fewer operations make for a poorer surgeon, but the evidence suggests that it may be true.

  2. Effect of severity of disability on survival in north east England cerebral palsy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, J L; Colver, A F; Mackie, P C

    2000-12-01

    To investigate the effect of motor and cognitive disabilities on the survival of people on the North of England Collaborative Cerebral Palsy Survey, and compare this with other published results. The cerebral palsy cohort consists of 1960-1990 births in Northumberland, Newcastle, and North Tyneside health districts. Survival and cause of death were analysed in relation to data on birth, disabilities, and a unique measure of the impact of disability. Disability strongly influences survival. More than a third of those with a severe disability die before age 30. Fewer than a third of deaths are attributed to cerebral palsy on death certificates. Of those with severe cognitive disability, 63% live to age 35 (58% with severe ambulatory disability and 53% with severe manual disability), whereas at least 98% without severe disabilities live to age 35. The Lifestyle Assessment Score (LAS) allows a finer categorisation of impact of disability, and is strongly associated with survival: a ten point increase in LAS is associated with a doubling of the hazard rate. People who had LAS of at least 70, and had survived to age 5 have a 39% chance of dying before age 35. The majority of people with cerebral palsy attain adulthood. There appears to be more variation in survival rates associated with severe disability between regions of England, than between north east England, British Columbia, and California. Instantaneous risks of dying vary widely between England and California. This variation is not obviously attributable to differing rates of severe disability.

  3. The British Way of War in North West Europe 1944-45: A Study of Two Infantry Divisions

    OpenAIRE

    Devine, Louis Paul

    2014-01-01

    This thesis will examine the British way of war as experienced by two British Infantry Divisions - the 43rd ‘Wessex’ and 53rd ‘Welsh’ - during the Overlord campaign in North West Europe in 1944 and 1945. The main locus of research centres on the fighting components of those divisions; the infantry battalions and their supporting regiments. In order to understand the way the British fought this part of the war, the thesis will consider the British Army’s history since 1918: its level of expert...

  4. In Vogue: North American and British representations of women smokers in Vogue, 1920s-1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsh, Cheryl Krasnick; Tinkler, Penny

    2007-01-01

    The image of a cigarette in a woman's hand symbolizes independence, non-conformity and personal power, despite widespread awareness that smoking has serious health risks. Through a content analysis of North American and British editions of Vogue, we trace the representation of women smokers from the 1920s-1960s. Vogue located the cigarette within the culture of the feminine elite. We explore the place of cigarette smoking within the constellation of behaviours and appearances presented as desirable characteristics of elitism, through the themes of lifestyle, "the look," and feminine confidence. We chart these themes' transformations over time and national contexts.

  5. How prostate cancer support groups do and do not survive: British Columbian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Halpin, Michael; Bottorff, Joan L; Hislop, T Gregory; McKenzie, Michael; Mroz, Lawrence

    2008-06-01

    Many prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) have formed in North America during the past decade, yet their operation or factors influencing sustainability are poorly understood. This article reports micro (intragroup), meso (intergroup), and macro (group/structure) analyses drawn from the fieldwork and participant observations conducted for an ethnographic study of PCSGs based in British Columbia, Canada. The findings indicate that effective group leadership is integral to group sustainability and the recruitment and retention of attendees. At the meso level, intergroup connections and communication were often informal; however, the primary purpose of all the PCSGs was to provide information and support to men and their families. Many PCSGs were uncertain how formal associations with cancer fund-raising societies would influence group effectiveness. Macro issues such as prostate cancer activism resided with individual group "champions" through activities coordinated by provincial and national PCSG organizations. However, activism did not guarantee group sustainability. The study findings reveal why some groups flourish while others appear untenable, and form the basis for discussion about how PCSG sustainability might be best achieved.

  6. Early Winter Habitat Use by Mountain Caribou in the North Cariboo and Columbia Mountains, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Terry

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter habitat use was compared between two mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou populations in British Columbia. Regional differences were apparent during November and December. Radio-collared caribou inhabiting the gentle plateaus of the northern Cariboo Mountains, near Prince George, B.C. primarily used mid-elevation balsam-spruce stands on moderate slopes (<30%. In contrast, radio-collared caribou in the North Columbia Mountains, near Revelstoke, B.C. used low elevation hemlock-cedar stands and relatively steeper slopes (>30%. To adequately address habitat requirements of caribou, forest management plans should incorporate varying regional and seasonal habitat use patterns. Hypotheses on observed differences in habitat use are discussed.

  7. An Evaluation of the Use by Teachers of British Petroleum's Multi-Media Resource Pack, A North Sea Adventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jean; Lloyd, Gerald

    Presented is an evaluation of a multi-media resource pack, available from British Petroleum Corporation, which details the discovery and extraction of North Sea oil. The evaluation presented includes three thrusts: (1) a determination of the areas where the packs were distributed; (2) personal interviews with teachers who had used the packs; and…

  8. Forest carbon in North America: annual storage and emissions from British Columbia's harvest, 1965-2065.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Caren C

    2012-07-24

    The default international accounting rules estimate the carbon emissions from forest products by assuming all harvest is immediately emitted to the atmosphere. This makes it difficult to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) consequences of different forest management or manufacturing activities that maintain the storage of carbon. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) addresses this issue by allowing other accounting methods. The objective of this paper is to provide a new model for estimating annual stock changes of carbon in harvested wood products (HWP). The model, British Columbia Harvested Wood Products version 1 (BC-HWPv1), estimates carbon stocks and fluxes for wood harvested in BC from 1965 to 2065, based on new parameters on local manufacturing, updated and new information for North America on consumption and disposal of wood and paper products, and updated parameters on methane management at landfills in the USA. Based on model results, reporting on emissions as they occur would substantially lower BC's greenhouse gas inventory in 2010 from 48 Mt CO2 to 26 Mt CO2 because of the long-term forest carbon storage in-use and in the non-degradable material in landfills. In addition, if offset projects created under BC's protocol reported 100 year cumulative emissions using the BC-HWPv1 the emissions would be lower by about 11%. This research showed that the IPCC default methods overestimate the emissions North America wood products. Future IPCC GHG accounting methods could include a lower emissions factor (e.g. 0.52) multiplied by the annual harvest, rather than the current multiplier of 1.0. The simulations demonstrated that the primary opportunities for climate change mitigation are in shifting from burning mill waste to using the wood for longer-lived products.

  9. Northward Translation of ``BAJA British Columbia'' Along the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene Margin of Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhoefer, Paul J.

    1987-08-01

    Paleomagnetic data suggest that a large part of British Columbia and southern Alaska was at the latitude of Baja California, Mexico, in early Late Cretaceous time. This allochthonous block (Baja BC) includes the Insular (Talkeetna in Alaska) and Intermontane composite terranes, the miniterranes between them, and possibly part of the Omineca metamorphic belt. Assuming that Baja BC was adjacent to North America by middle Cretaceous, an analysis using plate kinematics of the Pacific basin produces a model of northward movement of Baja BC which is compatible with the known geology of the reconstructed margin of western North America. Baja BC moved north 2400 km as part of the KuIa plate along a transform margin with North America from 85 to 66 Ma. This time interval is marked by the cessation of igneous activity in the Sierra Nevada, development of wrench faults and basins along coastal California, and initiation of Laramide-style tectonics to the east. Within Baja BC, diminished igneous activity to the west was coeval with possible wrench-tectonic basins along its eastern margin. By the end of the Cretaceous, Baja BC was positioned from Oregon to northern British Columbia. Between 66 and 56 Ma, Baja BC became attached to North America in a dextral-transpressive stage, during which the Kula--North America plate boundary expanded to encompass the whole block with a series of northwest trending strike-slip faults, a fold and thrust belt in the east, and large-scale uplifts and the formation of an incipient volcanic arc on the west. Southern Alaska was the site of convergence during the whole of the period of northward translation of Baja BC. A Late Cretaceous subduction zone in Alaska evolved into a major compressional belt as the basin and miniterranes on the northern margin of Baja BC collided with interior Alaska. The collision culminated in the Paleocene with formation of the McKinley granites and coeval dextral slip on the Denali fault system.

  10. Comparison of breast cancer survival in two populations : Ardabil, Iran and British Columbia, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadjadi, Alireza; Hislop, T. Gregory; Bajdik, Chris; Bashash, Morteza; Ghorbani, Anahita; Nouraie, Mehdi; Babaei, Masoud; Malekzadeh, Reza; Yavari, Parvin

    2009-01-01

    Background: Patterns in survival can provide information about the burden and severity of cancer, help uncover gaps in systemic policy and program delivery, and support the planning of enhanced cancer control systems. The aim of this paper is to describe the one-year survival rates for breast cancer

  11. British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The province of British Columbia has a dubious history where support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) issues in education is concerned. Most notable is the Surrey School Board's decision in 1997 to ban three picture books for children that depict families with two moms or two dads. The North Vancouver School Board has also…

  12. North Pacific driftnet conference: proceedings, volume 1, July 17-19, 1989, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    ... : to assemble factual information available on the nature and impact of the North Pacific Driftnet Fisheries and, in particular, to identify any lack of information and the means of generating required data...

  13. West Nile virus finally debuts in British Columbia 10 years after its introduction to North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Muhammad; Tang, Patrick; Petric, Martin; Krajden, Mel; Roth, David; Henry, Bonnie; Isaac-Renton, Judith

    2011-08-01

    Since its first detection in New York (1999), West Nile virus (WNv) has spread across the United States and Canada with the first activity reported in Canada in 2001. By 2004, WNv had been detected almost in every province of Canada and the contiguous regions of the United States with the exception of British Columbia (BC), this despite being detected in Alberta in 2003 and Washington as early as 2002. In August 2009, two human cases were serologically found to have WNv infection. They reported mosquito bites and had only traveled in the South and Central Okanagan areas of BC before their presentation. On the basis of clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological data, these two human cases have been confirmed as the first locally acquired WNv cases in BC. Various factors may have contributed to the 10-year delay in the spread of WNv to BC, including regional weather conditions and unique topography.

  14. Effect of severity of disability on survival in north east England cerebral palsy cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, J; Colver, A; Mackie, P; ROSENBLOOM, L.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate the effect of motor and cognitive disabilities on the survival of people on the North of England Collaborative Cerebral Palsy Survey, and compare this with other published results.
METHODS—The cerebral palsy cohort consists of 1960-1990 births in Northumberland, Newcastle, and North Tyneside health districts. Survival and cause of death were analysed in relation to data on birth, disabilities, and a unique measure of the impact of disability.
RESULTS—D...

  15. Evaluation of the Risk of Relapse in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma at Event-Free Survival Time Points and Survival Comparison With the General Population in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapgood, Greg; Zheng, Yvonne; Sehn, Laurie H; Villa, Diego; Klasa, Richard; Gerrie, Alina S; Shenkier, Tamara; Scott, David W; Gascoyne, Randy D; Slack, Graham W; Parsons, Christina; Morris, James; Pickles, Tom; Connors, Joseph M; Savage, Kerry J

    2016-07-20

    Studies in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) typically measure the time to events from diagnosis. We evaluated the risk of relapse at event-free survival time points in cHL and compared the risk of death to expected mortality rates in British Columbia (BC). The BC Cancer Agency Lymphoid Cancer Database was screened to identify all patients age 16 to 69 years diagnosed with cHL between 1989 and 2012 treated with the chemotherapy regimen of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (or equivalent). We compared the observed mortality to the general population using age-, sex-, and calendar period-generated expected mortality rates from BC life-tables. Relative survival was calculated using a conditional approach and expressed as a standardized mortality ratio of observed-to-expected deaths. One thousand four hundred two patients were identified; 749 patients were male (53%), the median age was 32 years, and 68% had advanced-stage disease. The median follow-up time was 8.4 years. Seventy-two percent of relapses occurred within the first 2 years of diagnosis. For all patients, the 5-year risk of relapse from diagnosis was 18.1% but diminished to 5.6% for patients remaining event free at 2 years. For advanced-stage patients who were event free at 2 years, the 5-year risk of relapse was only 7.6%, and for those who were event free at 3 years, it was comparable to that of limited-stage patients (4.1% v 2.5%, respectively; P = .07). Furthermore, international prognostic score ≥ 4 and bulky disease were no longer prognostic in patients who were event free at 1 year. Although the relative survival improved as patients remained in remission, it did not normalize compared with the general population. Patients with cHL who are event free at 2 years have an excellent outcome regardless of baseline prognostic factors. All patients with cHL had an enduring increased risk of death compared with the general population. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  16. SURVIVAL OF NORTH AMERICAN GENOTYPES OF TRICHINELLA IN FROZEN PORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    North American genotypes of Trichinella (T. nativa (T-2), T. pseudospiralis (T-4), T. murrelli (T-5), and Trichinella (T-6)) were examined for susceptibility to freezing in pork using established parameters for control of T. spiralis. Pig infections with these Trichinella genotypes were established ...

  17. Forest carbon in North America: annual storage and emissions from British Columbia’s harvest, 1965–2065

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dymond Caren C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The default international accounting rules estimate the carbon emissions from forest products by assuming all harvest is immediately emitted to the atmosphere. This makes it difficult to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG consequences of different forest management or manufacturing activities that maintain the storage of carbon. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC addresses this issue by allowing other accounting methods. The objective of this paper is to provide a new model for estimating annual stock changes of carbon in harvested wood products (HWP. Results The model, British Columbia Harvested Wood Products version 1 (BC-HWPv1, estimates carbon stocks and fluxes for wood harvested in BC from 1965 to 2065, based on new parameters on local manufacturing, updated and new information for North America on consumption and disposal of wood and paper products, and updated parameters on methane management at landfills in the USA. Based on model results, reporting on emissions as they occur would substantially lower BC’s greenhouse gas inventory in 2010 from 48 Mt CO2 to 26 Mt CO2 because of the long-term forest carbon storage in-use and in the non-degradable material in landfills. In addition, if offset projects created under BC’s protocol reported 100 year cumulative emissions using the BC-HWPv1 the emissions would be lower by about 11%. Conclusions This research showed that the IPCC default methods overestimate the emissions North America wood products. Future IPCC GHG accounting methods could include a lower emissions factor (e.g. 0.52 multiplied by the annual harvest, rather than the current multiplier of 1.0. The simulations demonstrated that the primary opportunities for climate change mitigation are in shifting from burning mill waste to using the wood for longer-lived products.

  18. A dynamic retreat model for the North Sea Lobe of the British and Irish Ice sheet from the Vale of Pickering, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddey, Laura; Bateman, Mark D.; Livingstone, Stephen J.; Lee, Jonathan R.

    2017-04-01

    During the Last Glaciation, a large proglacial lake occupied the Vale of Pickering in North Yorkshire, UK. The lake was bounded to the east by ice in the North Sea and to the west by ice in the Vale of York. Until recently, the duration, extent and evolution of Glacial Lake Pickering in response to changes in ice sheet dynamics was uncertain (e.g. Livingstone et al 2012). New research using glacial geomorphological mapping from high-resolution LiDAR and NextMap data combined with luminescence dating has shown that ice may have extended into the Vale of Pickering much earlier and in several advance/retreat stages, leaving a series of subtle moraines. This is also supported through several stages of lake development, reflected in historical and recently recovered boreholes. These results indicate a much earlier onset of glaciation of the North Sea Lobe of the British and Irish Ice Sheet in the region and a longer and more dynamic history. As such this work has important implications for understanding the wider glacial and deglacial history of the North Sea Basin. Livingstone, S.J., Evans, D.J.A., Cofaigh, C.O. et al. (6 more authors) (2012) Glaciodynamics of the central sector of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet in Northern England. Earth Science Reviews, 111 (1-2). 25 - 55.

  19. Sources of parental burden in a UK sample of first-generation North Indian Punjabi Sikhs and their white British counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Helen; Singh, Pratima; Merritt, Rowena; Shetty, Adarsh; Singh, Swaran; Burns, Tom

    2013-03-01

    The correlates of parental burden in schizophrenia may differ between ethnic groups, but few studies have examined this in a UK setting. Our aim was to identify the correlates of burden in a UK sample of first-generation North Indian Punjabi Sikh parents and their white British counterparts. Test the association of burden with a series of clinical, social and service use variables and control for potential confounding factors in a model predicting drivers of burden in a combined sample of the above. The strongest correlates of burden were patient symptoms and parental distress. Differences in correlates of burden between the groups emerged when individual components of service use and parental social network were tested. The group comparisons also revealed differences in expressed emotion (EE) and social networks. The similarities in sources of burden between the groups could be explained by a commonality of sociocultural and economic experience, resulting from the successful acculturation and affluence of this British Sikh group. The differences between the groups may be related to enduring cultural factors such as kin support, since larger family groups were associated with low burden in the British Sikh group. The nature of EE in this British Sikh group may explain why it was not associated with burden in this sample.

  20. Life-history strategies of North American elk: trade-offs associated with reproduction and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrina Morano; Kelley M. Stewart; James S. Sedinger; Christopher A. Nicolai; Marty Vavra

    2013-01-01

    The principle of energy allocation states that individuals should attempt to maximize fitness by allocating resources optimally among growth, maintenance, and reproduction. Such allocation may result in trade-offs between survival and reproduction, or between current and future reproduction. We used a marked population of North American elk (Cervus elaphus...

  1. Differential Drug Survival of Biologic Therapies for the Treatment of Psoriasis: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study from the British Association of Dermatologists Biologic Interventions Register (BADBIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Richard B; Smith, Catherine H; Yiu, Zenas Z N; Ashcroft, Darren M; Barker, Jonathan N W N; Burden, A David; Lunt, Mark; McElhone, Kathleen; Ormerod, Anthony D; Owen, Caroline M; Reynolds, Nick J; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2015-11-01

    Drug survival reflects a drug's effectiveness, safety, and tolerability. We assessed the drug survival of biologics used to treat psoriasis in a prospective national pharmacovigilance cohort (British Association of Dermatologists Biologic Interventions Register (BADBIR)). The survival rates of the first course of biologics for 3,523 biologic-naive patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were compared using survival analysis techniques and predictors of discontinuation analyzed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Data for patients on adalimumab (n=1,879), etanercept (n=1,098), infliximab (n=96), and ustekinumab (n=450) were available. The overall survival rate in the first year was 77%, falling to 53% in the third year. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender (hazard ratio (HR) 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.37), being a current smoker (HR 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03-1.38), and a higher baseline dermatology life quality index (HR 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00-1.02) were predictors of discontinuation. Presence of psoriatic arthritis (HR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.71-0.96) was a predictor for drug survival. As compared with adalimumab, patients on etanercept (HR 1.63; 95% CI: 1.45-1.84) or infliximab (HR 1.56; 95% CI: 1.16-2.09) were more likely to discontinue therapy, whereas patients on ustekinumab were more likely to persist (HR 0.48; 95% CI: 0.37-0.62). After accounting for relevant covariates, ustekinumab had the highest first-course drug survival. The results of this study will aid clinical decision making when choosing biologic therapy for psoriasis patients.

  2. Effect of place of residence and treatment on survival outcomes in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Benny; Goktepe, Ozge; Hay, Kevin; Connors, Joseph M; Sehn, Laurie H; Savage, Kerry J; Shenkier, Tamara; Klasa, Richard; Gerrie, Alina; Villa, Diego

    2014-03-01

    We examined the relationship between location of residence at the time of diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and health outcomes in a geographically large Canadian province with publicly funded, universally available medical care. The British Columbia Cancer Registry was used to identify all patients 18-80 years of age diagnosed with DLBCL between January 2003 and December 2008. Home and treatment center postal codes were used to determine urban versus rural status and driving distance to access treatment. We identified 1,357 patients. The median age was 64 years (range: 18-80 years), 59% were male, 50% were stage III/IV, 84% received chemotherapy with curative intent, and 32% received radiotherapy. There were 186 (14%) who resided in rural areas, 141 (10%) in small urban areas, 183 (14%) in medium urban areas, and 847 (62%) in large urban areas. Patient and treatment characteristics were similar regardless of location. Five-year overall survival (OS) was 62% for patients in rural areas, 44% in small urban areas, 53% in medium urban areas, and 60% in large urban areas (p = .018). In multivariate analysis, there was no difference in OS between rural and large urban area patients (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7-1.4), although patients in small urban areas (HR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0-2.0) and medium urban areas (HR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0-1.9) had worse OS than those in large urban areas. Place of residence at diagnosis is associated with survival of patients with DLBCL in British Columbia, Canada. Rural patients have similar survival to those in large urban areas, whereas patients living in small and medium urban areas experience worse outcomes.

  3. Canada goose nest survival at rural wetlands in north-central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Brenna N.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    The last comprehensive nest survival study of the breeding giant Canada goose (Branta canadensis maxima) population in Iowa, USA, was conducted >30 years ago during a period of population recovery, during which available nesting habitat consisted primarily of artificial nest structures. Currently, Iowa's resident goose population is stable and nests in a variety of habitats. We analyzed the effects of available habitat on nest survival and how nest survival rates compared with those of the expanding goose population studied previously to better understand how to maintain a sustainable Canada goose population in Iowa. We documented Canada goose nest survival at rural wetland sites in north-central Iowa. We monitored 121 nests in 2013 and 149 nests in 2014 at 5 Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) with various nesting habitats, including islands, muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) houses, and elevated nest structures. We estimated daily nest-survival rate using the nest survival model in Program MARK. Survival was influenced by year, site, stage, presence of a camera, nest age, and an interaction between nest age and stage. Nest success rates for the 28-day incubation period by site and year combination ranged from 0.10 to 0.84. Nest survival was greatest at sites with nest structures (β = 17.34). Nest survival was negatively affected by lowered water levels at Rice Lake WMA (2013 β = −0.77, nest age β = −0.07). Timing of water-level drawdowns for shallow lake restorations may influence nest survival rates.

  4. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions.

  5. Improving Survival of Patients With Hodgkin Lymphoma Over 4 Decades: Experience of the British National Lymphoma Investigation (BNLI) With 6834 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Amy; Chadwick, Nick; Hancock, Barry

    2017-02-01

    The management of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has changed markedly over the last 50 years. This is due to the expanding understanding about the biology of the disease, the development of increasingly efficacious multimodal treatment, and the recognition of how to reduce late effects. The British National Lymphoma Investigation (BNLI) was formed in the 1970s to coordinate UK research in the diagnosis and treatment of lymphoma. We describe the improvement in trial patient survival over 4 decades. This analysis is of data on 6834 patients with a de novo diagnosis of HL registered onto studies with BNLI oversight from January 1, 1970, to December 31, 2009. Patients were subdivided in 4 groups according to their decade of registration; 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s. Because of the lengthy data collection period, there is a difference in duration of follow-up between decade groups, with median follow-up in the 1970s group of 28.2 years, 18.0 years in the 1980s group, 9.4 years in the 1990s group, and 5.4 years in the 2000s group. Comparison between data in all 4 groups is not possible beyond 13.4 years (maximum duration of follow-up in the 2000s group), and so a cutoff has been applied at 14 years. Data on overall survival, cause of death, primary treatment modality, and incidence of secondary malignancy were collected. Clear and statistically significant improvements in survival curves between the decades were present, with 10-year overall survival increasing from 62.4% in the 1970s to 89.6% in the 2000s. There was a suggestion that second malignancy and cardiac-related deaths have been reducing over time, but longer follow-up is needed for the later decades to confirm this trend. Results support existing registry data demonstrating that survival for HL has improved over the 4 decades analyzed. This data set is robust and validated, and it adds valuable understanding to the reasons behind the survival curves, which are a balance between efficacious therapies and decreased

  6. Post-Clovis survival of American Mastodon in the southern Great Lakes Region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N.; Beavan, Athfield N.

    2009-01-01

    The end of the Pleistocene in North America was marked by a wave of extinctions of large mammals, with the last known appearances of many species falling between ca. 11,000-10,000??14C yr BP. Temporally, this period overlaps with the Clovis Paleoindian cultural complex (11,190-10,530??14C yr BP) and with sudden climatic changes that define the beginning of the Younger Dryas chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000??14C yr BP), both of which have been considered as potential proximal causes of this extinction event. Radiocarbon dating of enamel and filtered bone collagen from an extinct American Mastodon (Mammut americanum) from northern Indiana, USA, by accelerator mass spectrometer yielded direct dates of 10,055 ?? 40??14C yr BP and 10,032 ?? 40??14C yr BP, indicating that the animal survived beyond the Clovis time period and into the late Younger Dryas. Although the late survival of this species in mid-continental North America does not remove either humans or climatic change as contributing causes for the late Pleistocene extinctions, neither Clovis hunters nor the climatic perturbations initiating the Younger Dryas chronozone were immediately responsible for driving mastodons to extinction. ?? 2009 University of Washington.

  7. Post-Clovis survival of American Mastodon in the southern Great Lakes Region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Beavan Athfield, Nancy

    2009-11-01

    The end of the Pleistocene in North America was marked by a wave of extinctions of large mammals, with the last known appearances of many species falling between ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr BP. Temporally, this period overlaps with the Clovis Paleoindian cultural complex (11,190-10,530 14C yr BP) and with sudden climatic changes that define the beginning of the Younger Dryas chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr BP), both of which have been considered as potential proximal causes of this extinction event. Radiocarbon dating of enamel and filtered bone collagen from an extinct American Mastodon ( Mammut americanum) from northern Indiana, USA, by accelerator mass spectrometer yielded direct dates of 10,055 ± 40 14C yr BP and 10,032 ± 40 14C yr BP, indicating that the animal survived beyond the Clovis time period and into the late Younger Dryas. Although the late survival of this species in mid-continental North America does not remove either humans or climatic change as contributing causes for the late Pleistocene extinctions, neither Clovis hunters nor the climatic perturbations initiating the Younger Dryas chronozone were immediately responsible for driving mastodons to extinction.

  8. A review of models in support of oil and gas exploration off the north coast of British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foreman, M.G.G.; Beauchemin, L.; Cherniawsky, J.Y.; Pena, M.A.; Cummins, P.F.; Sutherland, G.

    2005-07-01

    This report presents a timely review of numerical models that are needed to address scientific and environmental issues pertaining to the removal of the moratorium on offshore oil and gas exploration in northern British Columbia. Comprehensive ocean measurements and computer models are needed to obtain information of oceanic flows for the waters off British Columbia where the coastline is highly irregular with a variable bathymetry and a circulation that is driven by tides, wind and buoyancy forces. Numerical ocean models can clarify ocean processes by interpolating these observations and by providing a detailed and realistic view of the ocean. One of the challenges facing ocean modelling within the coastal environment is sub-grid scale parameterization. The objectives for modelling ocean circulation are to represent past events, predict future events and provide a better understanding of the underlying dynamics. The candidate circulation models presented in this report are the Princeton Ocean Model, the Eulerian-Lagrangian Circulation and Semi-Implicit Eulerian-Lagrangian Finite Element model, and the Regional Ocean Modeling System. Forecasting models are needed in the event that sufficient hydrocarbon reserves are found to warrant production. Specific recommendations are made for circulation, ecosystem, oil spill and drilling mud models. The models predict the physical, chemical and biological interactions that will alter the properties of oil or drilling muds once they are introduced into the ocean, as wells as the pathways by which they move in the environment. The report also pursues complementary needs for more observations to validate these modes and for the development of both high resolution surface wave model and a high resolution atmosphere model. It is expected that these recommendations will assist in the development of future science programs associated with oil and gas exploration. 179 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs., 2 appendices.

  9. Pattern of Presentation and Survival of Breast Cancer in a Teaching Hospital in North Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terfa S. Kene

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Developing countries are experiencing demographic and epidemiologic transition and the prevalence of non-communicable diseases especially cancers which is on the increase. Breast cancer is the most common and lethal malignancy in developing countries with varying presentation. This study aims to determine the pattern of presentation and survival of breast cancer patients in North Western Nigeria.Methods:A five-year retrospective review of breast cancer records from 2001-2005 was conducted. Relevant information was retrieved and analyzed using statistical package for social science software. Manchester stage III and IV were classified as advance disease. Survival analysis was carried out with survival defined as the time between the date of commencement of treatment and the date of last follow-up or death.Results: Most of the patients were in the 4th and 5th decades 58 (57.4% with a mean age of 44.5±13 years. Majority of the patients were females 99 (96.1%. One of the four males had invasive lobular carcinoma while the others presented with invasiveductal carcinoma 3 (75.0%. Most of the patients were premenopausal 62 (62.6% and were presented late with advanced breast cancer disease 64 (62.1%. The left breast was more affected 64 (62.1%, and the upper outer quadrant was mostly involved 48 (60.7%, followed by the areola, 43(41.7% either singly or in combination. Invasive ductal carcinoma was detected in 85 (82.5% cases and was the predominant histological finding. Survival rate beyond 30 months was observed in 24.5% of cases and 100% for advanced and early breast cancer respectively, (p=0.0001. The overall survival rate beyond 36 months was 70.4% and postmenopausal patients (70.6% had better survival beyond 36 months than premenopausal (68.5% patients (p=0.05.Conclusion: The overall survival rate was low and patients with early breast cancer had better survival than those with advanced disease. Majority of the patients were young

  10. Epidemiology and survival of hepatocellular carcinoma in north-east Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsa'adah, Bachok; Nurhazalini-Zayani, Che Ghazali Che

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is relatively high in Southeast Asia. Globally, HCC has a high fatality rate and short survival. The objectives of this retrospective cohort study were to review the epidemiology and survival of HCC patients at a tertiary centre in north-east of Peninsular Malaysia. Subjects were adult HCC patients diagnosed by histopathology or radio-imaging. Secondary liver carcinoma was excluded. Kaplan Meier and multiple Cox proportional hazard survival analyses were used. Only 210 HCC cases from years 1987-2008, were included in the final analysis. The number of cases was increasing annually. The mean age was 55.0 (SD 13.9) years with male:female ratio of 3.7:1. Approximately 57.6% had positive hepatitis B virus, 2.4% hepatitis C virus, 20% liver cirrhosis and 8.1% chronic liver disease. Only 2.9% had family history and 9.0% had frequently consumed alcohol. Most patients presented with abdominal pain or discomfort and had hepatomegaly, 47.9% had an elevated α-fetoprotein level of 800 IU/ml or more, 51.9% had multiple tumors and 44.8% involved multiple liver lobes. Approximately 63.3% were in stage 3 and 23.4% in stage 4, and 82.9% did not receive any treatment. The overall median survival time was 1.9 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 2.3). The 1-month, 6-month, 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 71.8%, 23.3%, 13.0% and 7.3% respectively. Significant prognostic factors were Malay ethnicity [Adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.6; 95%CI: 1.0, 2.5; p=0.030], no chemotherapy [AHR 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1, 2.5; p=0.017] and Child-Pugh class C [AHR 2.6; 95%CI: 1.4, 4.9; p=0.002]. HCC in our study affected a wide age range, mostly male, in advanced stage of disease, with no treatment and very low survival rates. Primary prevention should be advocated in view of late presentation and difficulty of treatment. Vaccination of hepatitis virus and avoidance of liver toxins are to be encouraged.

  11. Modelling survival and connectivity of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the south-western North Sea and Scheldt estuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Molen, J.; van Beek, J.; Augustine, Starrlight

    2015-01-01

    with coastal waters of the North Sea to seed offshore populations; (ii) M. leidyi can survive in the North Sea, and be transported over considerable distances, thus facilitating connectivity between coastal embayments; (iii) under current climatic conditions, M. leidyi may not be able to reproduce in large...... numbers in coastal and offshore waters of the North Sea, but this may change with global warming; however, this result is subject to substantial uncertainty. Further quantitative observational work is needed on the effects of temperature, salinity and food availability on reproduction and on mortality...

  12. Using hierarchical bayes to understand movement, health, and survival in the endangered north atlantic right whale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Schick

    Full Text Available Body condition is an indicator of health, and it plays a key role in many vital processes for mammalian species. While evidence of individual body condition can be obtained, these observations provide just brief glimpses into the health state of the animal. An analytical framework is needed for understanding how health of animals changes over space and time.Through knowledge of individual health we can better understand the status of populations. This is particularly important in endangered species, where the consequences of disruption of critical biological functions can push groups of animals rapidly toward extinction. Here we built a state-space model that provides estimates of movement, health, and survival. We assimilated 30+ years of photographic evidence of body condition and three additional visual health parameters in individual North Atlantic right whales, together with survey data, to infer the true health status as it changes over space and time. We also included the effect of reproductive status and entanglement status on health. At the population level, we estimated differential movement patterns in males and females. At the individual level, we estimated the likely animal locations each month. We estimated the relationship between observed and latent health status. Observations of body condition, skin condition, cyamid infestation on the blowholes, and rake marks all provided measures of the true underlying health. The resulting time series of individual health highlight both normal variations in health status and how anthropogenic stressors can affect the health and, ultimately, the survival of individuals. This modeling approach provides information for monitoring of health in right whales, as well as a framework for integrating observational data at the level of individuals up through the health status of the population. This framework can be broadly applied to a variety of systems - terrestrial and marine - where sporadic

  13. Phased occupation and retreat of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet in the southern North Sea; geomorphic and seismostratigraphic evidence of a dynamic ice lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Dayton; Evans, David J. A.; Lee, Jonathan R.; Roberts, David H.; Tappin, David R.; Mellett, Claire L.; Long, David; Callard, S. Louise

    2017-05-01

    Along the terrestrial margin of the southern North Sea, previous studies of the MIS 2 glaciation impacting eastern Britain have played a significant role in the development of principles relating to ice sheet dynamics (e.g. deformable beds), and the practice of reconstructing the style, timing, and spatial configuration of palaeo-ice sheets. These detailed terrestrially-based findings have however relied on observations made from only the outer edges of the former ice mass, as the North Sea Lobe (NSL) of the British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) occupied an area that is now almost entirely submarine (c.21-15 ka). Compounded by the fact that marine-acquired data have been primarily of insufficient quality and density, the configuration and behaviour of the last BIIS in the southern North Sea remains surprisingly poorly constrained. This paper presents analysis of a new, integrated set of extensive seabed geomorphological and seismo-stratigraphic observations that both advances the principles developed previously onshore (e.g. multiple advance and retreat cycles), and provides a more detailed and accurate reconstruction of the BIIS at its southern-most extent in the North Sea. A new bathymetry compilation of the region reveals a series of broad sedimentary wedges and associated moraines that represent several terminal positions of the NSL. These former still-stand ice margins (1-4) are also found to relate to newly-identified architectural patterns (shallow stacked sedimentary wedges) in the region's seismic stratigraphy (previously mapped singularly as the Bolders Bank Formation). With ground-truthing constraint provided by sediment cores, these wedges are interpreted as sub-marginal till wedges, formed by complex subglacial accretionary processes that resulted in till thickening towards the former ice-sheet margins. The newly sub-divided shallow seismic stratigraphy (at least five units) also provides an indication of the relative event chronology of the NSL. While there

  14. British passports

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    Please note that from 01/01/2009, the passport section of the British Consulate will move from Geneva to Paris. This change is part of a global initiative to rationalize passport services and reduce administrative costs while ensuring that the quality of the service remains high. The aim is to issue new passports within 10 working days of receiving applications (excluding transit time). From 1st January 2009 passport applications should be sent by courier or registered post directly to: British Consulate General BP111-08 75363 Paris CEDEX 08 France For further information please refer to: http://ukinswitzerland.fco.gov.uk/en/passports/passport-move/

  15. Fall and winter survival of brook trout and brown trout in a north-central Pennsylvania watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweka, John A.; Davis, Lori A.; Wagner, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    Stream-dwelling salmonids that spawn in the fall generally experience their lowest survival during the fall and winter due to behavioral changes associated with spawning and energetic deficiencies during this time of year. We used data from Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta implanted with radio transmitters in tributaries of the Hunts Run watershed of north-central Pennsylvania to estimate survival from the fall into the winter seasons (September 2012–February 2013). We examined the effects that individual-level covariates (trout species, size, and movement rates) and stream-level covariates (individual stream and cumulative drainage area of a stream) have on survival. Brook Trout experienced significantly lower survival than Brown Trout, especially in the early fall during their peak spawning period. Besides a significant species effect, none of the other covariates examined influenced survival for either species. A difference in life history between these species, with Brook Trout having a shorter life expectancy than Brown Trout, is likely the primary reason for the lower survival of Brook Trout. However, Brook Trout also spawn earlier in the fall than Brown Trout and low flows during Brook Trout spawning may have resulted in a greater risk of predation for Brook Trout compared with Brown Trout, thereby also contributing to the observed differences in survival between these species. Our estimates of survival can aid parameterization of future population models for Brook Trout and Brown Trout through the spawning season and into winter.

  16. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  17. Fondements du discours propagandiste arabe de la Grande-Bretagne au Maghreb pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale (1939-1943 The Foundations of British Arabic Propaganda Speech in North Africa during World War II (1939-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayçal Cherif

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Second World War’s ramifications and the landing of the Anglo-Americans in North Africa (Torch brought out the antagonism between the powers of the Axis and the Allies. Apart from the military war, a second war including more horrible and complex elements than weapons had been declared by the different rival camps: the propaganda in the Arabic language initiated at the beginning by Germany and Italy and soon developed by Great Britain too (from 1939. It was an efficient and fearsome weapon to control the spirit of the Arab people’s opinion in general, especially that of the Maghrebians, who were often hostile to the British and French colonial policies in their regions. Certainly, radio programmes were preponderant as they were easily accessible but newspapers and leaflets were also used a lot in this psychological war. The subtleties and the impact of this British propaganda will be the subject of research. This article explains the mechanism, the structures, the aims and finally the impact of British propaganda in the Arabic language in North Africa between September 1939 and May 1943.

  18. Liquid assets: The Value of North Eastern British Columbia’s Groundwater Resources in the Face of Climate Change and Competing Uses

    OpenAIRE

    Candlish-Rutherford, Coral Cree

    2016-01-01

    Northeastern British Columbia will experience future groundwater scarcity as a result of climate change and competing uses of water. The Government of British Columbia (BC) now regulates groundwater for the first time in history through the Water Sustainability Act (WSA). The WSA allocates water based on a first-in-time, first-in-right system which does not promote sustainability or efficiency.This study uses lessons learned from water management in Australia’s Murray-Darling Basin, Alberta’s...

  19. Indian Education Programs in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Reg

    The British North America Act of 1867, the founding constitution of Canada, provides that all matters pertaining to Indians and Indian lands are under Federal jurisdiction. Because of this, the province of British Columbia (BC) has not felt it could do much for native peoples and little attention has been paid to the extension of provincial…

  20. Analysis of individual- and time-specific covariate effects on survival of Serinus serinus in north-eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M.J.; Senar, J.C.; Domenech, J.

    2002-01-01

    We developed models for the analysis of recapture data for 2678 serins (Serinus serinus) ringed in north-eastern Spain since 1985. We investigated several time- and individual-specific factors as potential predictors of overall mortality and dispersal patterns, and of gender and age differences in these patterns. Time-specific covariates included minimum daily temperature, days below freezing, and abundance of a strong competitor, siskins (Carduelis spinus) during winter, and maximum temperature and rainfall during summer. Individual covariates included body mass (i.e. body condition), and wing length (i.e. flying ability), and interactions between body mass and environmental factors. We found little support of a predictive relationship between environmental factors and survival, but good evidence of relationships between body mass and survival, especially for juveniles. Juvenile survival appears to vary in a curvilinear manner with increasing mass, suggesting that there may exist an optimal mass beyond which increases are detrimental. The mass-survival relationship does seem to be influenced by at least one environmental factor, namely the abundance of wintering siskins. When siskins are abundant, increases in body mass appear to relate strongly to increasing survival. When siskin numbers are average or low the relationship is largely reversed, suggesting that the presence of strong competition mitigates the otherwise largely negative aspects of greater body mass. Wing length in juveniles also appears to be related positively to survival, perhaps largely due to the influence of a few unusually large juveniles with adult-like survival. Further work is needed to test these relationships, ideally under experimentation.

  1. Cancer in adolescents and young adults in north Netherlands (1989-2003) : increased incidence, stable survival and high incidence of second primary tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaal, J. C.; Bastiaannet, E.; Schaapveld, M.; Otter, R.; Kluin-Nelemans, J. C.; de Bont, E. S. J. M.; van der Graaf, W. T. A.

    Background: Lack of survival improvement in adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer has led to increased awareness of this young population. Design: We carried out a population-based study of incidence and survival of primary tumours and second primary tumours in patients aged 12-24 in north

  2. British Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Andersen, Christine Bang

    2014-01-01

    and the Mexican Gulf and pursuing an ambitious acquisition strategy soaking up significant assets and brands in North America and elsewhere. The case describes the circumstances around the incidents that triggered the executive changes and considers the economic and environmental effects of prevailing policy...

  3. The British Monarchy On Screen

    OpenAIRE

    Merck, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Moving images of the British monarchy, in fact and fiction, are almost as old as the moving image itself, dating back to an 1895 American drama, The Execution of Mary Queen of Scots. British monarchs even appeared in the new ‘animated photography’ from 1896, led by Queen Victoria. Half a century later, the 1953 coronation of Elizabeth II was a milestone in the adoption of television, watched by 20 million Britons and 100 million North Americans. At the century’s end, Princess Diana’s funeral ...

  4. How do Purple Sandpipers Calidris maritima survive the winter north of the Arctic circle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Summers, R.W.; Piersma, T.; Strann, K.B.; Wiersma, P.

    1998-01-01

    Winter north of the Arctic circle in northern Norway is colder, windier and there is less solar radiation than in eastern Scotland, at a latitude 13 degrees further south. We predicted from equations derived from heated taxidermic mounts that the maintenance metabolism (Basal Metabolic Rate plus

  5. Survival of non-Western first generations immigrants with stomach cancer in North East Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemerink, E.J.M.; van der Aa, M.A.; Siesling, Sabine; Hospers, G.A.P.; Mulder, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Isolated groups, such as first generation non-Western immigrants, are at risk for suboptimal utilisation of the health care system resulting in a worse outcome. Methods: From 1989 to 2007, all patients with stomach cancer were selected from the Comprehensive Cancer Centre North-East

  6. Survival of Wild Adults of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann under Natural Winter Conditions in North East Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Peñarrubia-María

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The overwintering of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann at the northern limits of its geographic distribution is not yet well known. With the aim of estimating the survival rate of medfly adults in northeast Spain under natural winter conditions, a two-winter-season trial was carried out. A control was carried out in a climatic chamber at 25°C. The results showed that medfly adults were unable to survive the entire winter season in the Girona area. Climatic conditions, including the daily minimum temperature, daily maximum temperature and the high rainfall, appeared to be involved in adult mortality in winter.

  7. La propagande arabe anglaise vers le Maghreb pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale (1939-1943 British Arabic Propaganda towards North Africa in the Second World War (1939-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayçal Cherif

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Second World War and its impact in North Africa, propaganda destined for Arab populations takes multiform aspects: radio, newspapers, leaflets, etc.. The propaganda conducted by Great Britain through the BBC, making use of the Arabic language, began in 1939. Programmes from Radio London were in fact an answer to German radio propaganda which had great success in North Africa. During the brief war operations in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, from 8 November 1942 to 13 May 1943, this propaganda tried to show and to improve the image of different combatants and to convince Arabs of the justice of their cause. A weekly newspaper published by Great Britain, “Akhbar al Ousbou” (or Weekly Information, was exclusively reserved for the governmental authorities. During the North Africa campaign (Torch, the Royal Air Force dropped leaflets in Arabic, trying to explain their war aims and to secure the support of the population. This article examines the developing of British Arabic propaganda and seeks to measure its degree of success or failure in the face of other subversive propaganda particularly from Germany and Italy and especially its impacts on the North African populations from 1939 till May 1943.

  8. An Ever Present Danger: A Concise History of British Military Operations on the North-West Frontier, 1849-1947 (Occasional Paper, Number 33)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    scale with new breech-loading magazine-fed rifles, all of which used smokeless powder . For example, a British historian noted that; “Tribal made...enable a rifleman to fire over it standing and about two to three feet thick. Large stones were placed on the parapet at intervals, like almonds on a...tipsy- cake , and loopholes were constructed at ground 33 level. It was a tribal custom when attacking a piquet by day or night, to divide into a rifle

  9. Possible similarities between the folk medicine historically used by First Nations and American Indians in North America and the ethnoveterinary knowledge currently used in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl

    2016-11-04

    This paper compares sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary remedies in British Columbia with First Nations folk medicine. In 2003, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. The data was then compared with historical documents on First Nations plant use. Exact parallels between First Nations/native American folk medicine and ethnoveterinary remedies used for farm animals and horses were Acer macrophyllum Pursh, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Lonicera involucrata (Richardson) Banks ex Spreng., used as stimulants and tonics for goats; Achlys tripylla DC. as a fly repellent in barns, Alnus rubra Bong., for rabbits' dental care, Berberis repens Lindl., Rumex crispus L., to treat sores and rashes on horses, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson for stomach problems and Bovista pila Berk. and M. A. Curtis and Dolichousnea longissima (Ach.) Articus used on wounds. This study revealed the parallel uses between sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary medicines in British Columbia and the folk medicines used by the First Nations peoples and by native American groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of survival patterns of northern and southern genotypes of the North American tick Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) under northern and southern conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S; Rulison, Eric L; Azevedo, Alexandra; Pang, Genevieve C; Kuczaj, Isis M; Tsao, Jean I; LeBrun, Roger A

    2014-08-26

    Several investigators have reported genetic differences between northern and southern populations of Ixodes scapularis in North America, as well as differences in patterns of disease transmission. Ecological and behavioral correlates of these genetic differences, which might have implications for disease transmission, have not been reported. We compared survival of northern with that of southern genotypes under both northern and southern environmental conditions in laboratory trials. Subadult I. scapularis from laboratory colonies that originated from adults collected from deer from several sites in the northeastern, north central, and southern U.S. were exposed to controlled conditions in environmental chambers. Northern and southern genotypes were exposed to light:dark and temperature conditions of northern and southern sites with controlled relative humidities, and mortality through time was recorded. Ticks from different geographical locations differed in survival patterns, with larvae from Wisconsin surviving longer than larvae from Massachusetts, South Carolina or Georgia, when held under the same conditions. In another experiment, larvae from Florida survived longer than larvae from Michigan. Therefore, survival patterns of regional genotypes did not follow a simple north-south gradient. The most consistent result was that larvae from all locations generally survived longer under northern conditions than under southern conditions. Our results suggest that conditions in southern North America are less hospitable than in the north to populations of I. scapularis. Southern conditions might have resulted in ecological or behavioral adaptations that contribute to the relative rarity of I. scapularis borne diseases, such as Lyme borreliosis, in the southern compared to the northern United States.

  11. Female reproductive success and calf survival in a North Sea coastal bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kevin P; Sim, Texa M C; Culloch, Ross M; Bean, Thomas S; Cordoba Aguilar, Isabel; Eisfeld, Sonja M; Filan, Miranda; Haskins, Gary N; Williams, Genevieve; Pierce, Graham J

    2017-01-01

    Between-female variation in reproductive output provides a strong measure of individual fitness and a quantifiable measure of the health of a population which may be highly informative to management. In the present study, we examined reproductive traits in female bottlenose dolphins from the east coast of Scotland using longitudinal sightings data collected over twenty years. From a total of 102 females identified between 1997 and 2016, 74 mothers produced a collective total of 193 calves. Females gave birth from 6 to 13 years of age with a mean age of 8. Calves were produced during all study months, May to October inclusive, but showed a seasonal birth pulse corresponding to the regional peak in summer water temperatures. Approximately 83% (n = 116) of the calves of established fate were successfully raised to year 2-3. Of the known mortalities, ~45% were first-born calves. Calf survival rates were also lower in multiparous females who had previously lost calves. A mean inter-birth interval (IBI) of 3.80 years (n = 110) and mean fecundity of 0.16 was estimated for the population. Calf loss resulted in shortened IBIs, whilst longer IBIs were observed in females assumed to be approaching reproductive senescence. Maternal age and size, breeding experience, dominance, individual associations, group size and other social factors, were all concluded to influence reproductive success (RS) in this population. Some females are likely more important than others for the future viability of the population. Consequently, a better knowledge of the demographic groups containing those females showing higher reproductive success would be highly desirable for conservation efforts aimed at their protection.

  12. Introduction to the special issue on the 2012 Haida Gwaii and 2013 Craig earthquakes at the Pacific–North America plate boundary (British Columbia and Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Thomas S.; Cassidy, John F.; Rogers, Garry C.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    The 27 October 2012 Mw 7.8 Haida Gwaii thrust earthquake and the 5 January 2013 Mw 7.5 Craig strike‐slip earthquake are the focus of this special issue. They occurred along the transform boundary between the Pacific and North American plates (Fig. 1). The most identifiable feature of the plate boundary, the strike‐slip Queen Charlotte fault, might be viewed as typical of continent–ocean transform faults because it separates the continental crust of the North American plate from oceanic crust of the Pacific plate for most of its length. However, the current relative plate motion of about 5  cm/yr is highly oblique to the Queen Charlotte fault, causing a transpressive plate boundary in the region.

  13. Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah; Johnson, Heather; Mitchell, Michael; Zager, Peter; Proffitt, Kelly; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kauffman, Matthew; Johnson, Bruce; Bissonette, John; Bishop, Chad; Gude, Justin; Herbert, Jeff; Hersey, Kent R.; Hurley, Mark; Lukacs, Paul M.; McCorquodale, Scott; McIntire, Eliot; Nowak, Josh; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, Douglas; White, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Well-informed management of harvested species requires understanding how changing ecological conditions affect demography and population dynamics, information that is lacking for many species. We have limited understanding of the relative influence of carnivores, harvest, weather and forage availability on elk Cervus elaphus demography, despite the ecological and economic importance of this species. We assessed adult female survival, a key vital rate for population dynamics, from 2746 radio-collared elk in 45 populations across western North America that experience wide variation in carnivore assemblage, harvest, weather and habitat conditions. Proportional hazard analysis revealed that 'baseline' (i.e. not related to human factors) mortality was higher with very high winter precipitation, particularly in populations sympatric with wolves Canis lupus. Mortality may increase via nutritional stress and heightened vulnerability to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover or summer forage productivity. Cause-specific mortality analyses showed that wolves and all carnivore species combined had additive effects on baseline elk mortality, but only reduced survival by human factors were included, ‘total’ adult mortality was solely related to harvest; the influence of native carnivores was compensatory. Annual total mortality rates were lowest in populations sympatric with both pumas and wolves because managers reduced female harvest in areas with abundant or diverse carnivores. Mortality from native carnivores peaked in late winter and early spring, while harvest-induced mortality peaked in autumn. The strong peak in harvest-induced mortality during the autumn hunting season decreased as the number of native carnivore species increased. Synthesis and applications. Elevated baseline adult female elk mortality from wolves in years with high winter precipitation could affect elk abundance as winters across

  14. Comparison of survival patterns of northern and southern genotypes of the North American tick Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) under northern and southern conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rulison, Eric L.; Azevedo, Alexandra; Pang, Genevieve C.; Kuczaj, Isis M.; Tsao, Jean I.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundSeveral investigators have reported genetic differences between northern and southern populations of Ixodes scapularis in North America, as well as differences in patterns of disease transmission. Ecological and behavioral correlates of these genetic differences, which might have implications for disease transmission, have not been reported. We compared survival of northern with that of southern genotypes under both northern and southern environmental conditions in laboratory trials.MethodsSubadult I. scapularis from laboratory colonies that originated from adults collected from deer from several sites in the northeastern, north central, and southern U.S. were exposed to controlled conditions in environmental chambers. Northern and southern genotypes were exposed to light:dark and temperature conditions of northern and southern sites with controlled relative humidities, and mortality through time was recorded.ResultsTicks from different geographical locations differed in survival patterns, with larvae from Wisconsin surviving longer than larvae from Massachusetts, South Carolina or Georgia, when held under the same conditions. In another experiment, larvae from Florida survived longer than larvae from Michigan. Therefore, survival patterns of regional genotypes did not follow a simple north–south gradient. The most consistent result was that larvae from all locations generally survived longer under northern conditions than under southern conditions.ConclusionsOur results suggest that conditions in southern North America are less hospitable than in the north to populations of I. scapularis. Southern conditions might have resulted in ecological or behavioral adaptations that contribute to the relative rarity of I. scapularis borne diseases, such as Lyme borreliosis, in the southern compared to the northern United States.

  15. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  16. Growth and survival of larval and early juvenile lesser sandeel in patchy prey field in the North Sea: An examination using individual-based modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürkan, Zeren; Christensen, Asbjørn; Deurs, Mikael van

    2012-01-01

    concentrations is regarded important for survival. Intense aggregations of zooplankton in near-surface waters provide these conditions for larval fish. Simulation studies by individual-based modeling can help understanding of the mechanisms for survival during early life-stages. In this study, we examined how...... growth and survival of larvae and early juveniles of Lesser Sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the North Sea are influenced by availability and patchiness of the planktonic prey by adapting and applying a generic bioenergetic individual-based model for larval fish. Input food conditions were generated...... by modeling copepod size spectra dynamics and patchiness based on particle count transects and Continuous Plankton Recorder time series data. The study analyzes the effects of larval hatching time, presence of zooplankton patchiness and within patch abundance on growth and survival of sandeel early life...

  17. British scorched earth and concentration camp policies.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nick

    THE BRITISH SCORCHED EARTH AND. CONCENTRATION CAMP POLICIES IN THE. POTCHEFSTROOM REGION, 1899–1902. 1. Prof GN van den Bergh. Research Associate, North-West University. Abstract. The continued military resistance of the Republics after the occupation of. Bloemfontein and Pretoria and ...

  18. Earthquakes in British Columbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    This pamphlet provides information about the causes of earthquakes, where earthquakes occur, British Columbia plate techtonics, earthquake patterns, earthquake intensity, geology and earthquake impact...

  19. Geographic Variation of Photoperiodic Diapause but Not Adult Survival or Reproduction of the Invasive Mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisnham, P T; Towler, L; Juliano, S A

    2011-11-01

    Climate differences across latitude can result in seasonal constraints and selection on life-history characters. Because Aedes albopictus (Skuse) invaded North America in the mid-1980s, it has spread across a range of ≈14° latitude and populations in the north experience complete adult mortality because of cold winter temperatures that are absent in the south. Life-table experiments were conducted to test for differences in the adult survival and reproductive schedules of Ae. albopictus females from three populations from the northern (Salem, NJ; Springfield, IL; Eureka, MO; ≈39° N) and southern (Palm Beach, Palmetto, Tampa, FL; ≈27-28° N) extremes of the species distribution in North America. There were consistent differences between northern and southern populations in incidence of photoperiodically-induced egg diapause. Under short daylength, diapause eggs constituted twice the proportion of total viable eggs from northern females (81.9-92.1%) than southern females (35.9-42.7%). There were no consistent differences between northern and southern populations in resource allocation between reproduction and maintenance, reproduction over time, and reproductive investment among offspring, and no apparent trade-offs between diapause incidence with reproduction or longevity. Our results suggest that the main response of North American Ae. albopictus to unfavorable winter climates is via the life history strategy of producing diapausing eggs, rather than quantitative variation in reproduction, and that there are no detectable costs to adult survival. Inherent geographic variation in the expression of diapause, consistent with the latitudinal extremes of A. albopictus, indicates evolutionary loss of diapause response in southern populations because of the invasion of A. albopictus in North America.

  20. Legionum Urbs and the British Martyrs Aaron and Julius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Breeze

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the localization of the martyrdom of the British saints Aaron and Julius, known of solely from Gildas, writing in the early 530s. His remarks were taken up by Bede (d. 737, so that the two saints have never been forgotten, their cult surviving to this day. The author provides a detailed survey of discussion of Aaron and Julius over the centuries, and argues that their martyrdom was neither at Caerleon (in south-east Wales nor Chester (in north-west England, as suggested by numerous scholars, but at Leicester, another major city of Roman Britain. Working from epigraphic sources and taking into account ancient models of naming, the author attempts a reinterpretation of Legionum urbs in the original texts by emending it to Legorum urbs “city of the Legores,” the Celtic people of the Leicester region. The latter, by the time of Gildas, was occupied by the Angles, while the city itself was abandoned, which may explain Gildas’s remarks, otherwise unclear if one identifies Legionum urbs with Caerleon or Chester. The author adduces both historical and linguistic arguments for his proposal and shows that it sheds new light on the history of early British Christianity.

  1. Association between acute statin therapy, survival, and improved functional outcome after ischemic stroke: the North Dublin Population Stroke Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-04-01

    Statins improve infarct volume and neurological outcome in animal stroke models. We investigated the relationship between statin therapy and ischemic stroke outcome in the North Dublin Population Stroke Study.

  2. Validation of Progression-Free Survival as a Surrogate Endpoint for Overall Survival in Malignant Mesothelioma: Analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B and North Central Cancer Treatment Group (Alliance) Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Wang, Xiaoyi; Hodgson, Lydia; George, Stephen L; Sargent, Daniel J; Foster, Nate R; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Crawford, Jeffrey; Kratzke, Robert; Adjei, Alex A; Kindler, Hedy L; Vokes, Everett E; Pang, Herbert

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether progression-free survival (PFS) can be considered a surrogate endpoint for overall survival (OS) in malignant mesothelioma. Individual data were collected from 15 Cancer and Leukemia Group B (615 patients) and 2 North Central Cancer Treatment Group (101 patients) phase II trials. The effects of 5 risk factors for OS and PFS, including age, histology, performance status (PS), white blood cell count, and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) risk score, were used in the analysis. Individual-level surrogacy was assessed by Kendall's tau through a Clayton bivariate Copula survival (CBCS) model. Summary-level surrogacy was evaluated via the association between logarithms of the hazard ratio (log HR)-log HR OS and log HR PFS -measured in R 2 from a weighted least-square (WLS) regression model and the CBCS model. The median PFS for all patients was 3.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-3.5 months) and the median OS was 7.2 months (95% CI, 6.5-8.0 months). Moderate correlations between PFS and OS were observed across all risk factors at the individual level, with Kendall's tau ranging from 0.46 to 0.47. The summary-level surrogacy varied among risk factors. The Copula R 2 ranged from 0.51 for PS to 0.78 for histology. The WLS R 2 ranged from 0.26 for EORTC and PS to 0.67 for age. The analyses demonstrated low to moderate individual-level surrogacy between PFS and OS. At the summary level, the surrogacy between PFS and OS varied significantly across different risk factors. With a short postprogression survival and a moderate correlation between PFS and OS, there is no evidence that PFS is a valid surrogate endpoint for OS in malignant mesothelioma. The Oncologist 2017;22:189-198 Implications for Practice: For better disease management and for more efficient clinical trial designs, it is important to know if progression-free survival (PFS) is a good surrogate endpoint for overall survival

  3. Mortality in neurofibromatosis 1: in North West England: an assessment of actuarial survival in a region of the UK since 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D Gareth R; O'Hara, Catherine; Wilding, Anna; Ingham, Sarah L; Howard, Elizabeth; Dawson, John; Moran, Anthony; Scott-Kitching, Vilka; Holt, Felicity; Huson, Susan M

    2011-11-01

    Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a comparatively common autosomal dominant disorder. However, relatively few studies have assessed lifetime risk; and information about the effect of NF1 on mortality remains uncertain. NF1 patients were identified using The North West regional family Genetic Register, which covers the 4.1 million people living in North West England, including the regions of Greater Manchester, Cheshire and Cumbria. Data relating to tumours and malignancies were obtained from The North West Cancer Intelligence Service. Death data for the general North West population were obtained from the Office of National Statistics. We identified 1186 individuals with NF1, of whom 1023 lived within the strict regional boundaries (constituting a region of North West England bound by The Pennines to the east and Irish Sea to the west, but excluding the conurbation of Liverpool (Merseyside) and the Wirral peninsula) and 131 had died. MPNST and glioma were found to be the two most common causes of reduced life expectancy among NF1 patients. In Kaplan-Meier analyses the median survival for NF1 patients was shown to be 71.5 years, with women living ∼7.4 years longer than men. On average both men and women lived ∼8 years less than their counterparts in the general population. Reduction in life expectancy for NF1 patients was found to be much lower (8 years) than the previously estimated 15-year decrease. Limitations relating to the underreporting of NF1 on death certificates were once again highlighted and should be considered in future investigations.

  4. Survival and causes of death among HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy in north-eastern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuong, Do Duy; Thorson, Anna; Sönnerborg, Anders; Hoa, Nguyen Phuong; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Phuc, Ho Dang; Larsson, Mattias

    2012-03-01

    There is a lack of knowledge on mortality and causes of death among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Vietnam. We investigated the mortality rate, risk factors, causes of death, and impact of enhanced adherence support on survival among 640 Vietnamese treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients receiving ART in a cluster randomized controlled trial. Patients in the intervention group received enhanced adherence from peer-supporters. Data were collected through medical records and a verbal autopsy questionnaire. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to describe the survival trends and the Cox proportional hazard model to identify predictors of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths. After a median follow-up of 15.2 months, there were 60 deaths, 73% of which occurred within 6 months. The mortality rate was 7.4/100 person-y and survival probability was 91% after 1 y. There was no significant difference in mortality rate between the intervention and the control groups. At baseline, the predictive factors for AIDS-related death were age >35 y, clinical stage 3 or 4, body mass index (BMI) 100,000 copies/ml. Tuberculosis (TB) was the most common cause of death (40%). Early deaths occurred after ART, and delay of ART caused a significant decrease in CD4 count and a high mortality. Adherence support had no impact on survival at the early stage of ART. Early ART initiation and intensive follow-up of patients during the first 6 months of ART are therefore necessary to reduce AIDS-related mortality.

  5. Indications and graft survival analysis in optical penetrating keratoplasty in a tertiary care center in North India: a 5-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Sudesh Kumar; Raj, Amit; Bamotra, Ravi Kant; Bhatti, Anubha; Deswal, Jyoti; Sindhu, Meenakshi

    2017-07-07

    To study the indications and variables correlating with graft survival in optical penetrating keratoplasty in a tertiary care hospital in north India. All patients who underwent optical keratoplasty, except those undergoing lamellar grafts, tectonic grafts transplants and penetrating keratoplasty done for therapeutic purposes were included in the study. Patients with follow-up less than 2 years were excluded from the study. Data were obtained by reviewing the records of 101 patients who underwent optical penetrating keratoplasty from 2008 to 2013 for various indications. Out of 101 patients who underwent optical penetrating keratoplasty, 71 were males and 30 were females. The mean age of the recipient was 48.53 years with range 1-82 years. The main indications were previous failed graft (29.7%), healed keratitis except HSV (15.8%), pseudophakic or aphakic bullous keratopathy (14.8%), corneal dystrophies/degenerations (12.9%), adherent leucoma (9.9%), post-HSV scars (8.9%), and others like anterior staphyloma, congenital corneal opacities, buphthalmos and keratoconus (7.9%). The graft survival rate was 67.33% at 1-year follow-up and 59.4% at 2-year follow-up. The mean survival time of the grafts was 22.42 months. The mean time for graft failure was 7.12 (±0.9) months. One- and 2-year survival of grafts at our center is lower as compared to western studies, probably due to higher percentage of poor prognosis indications for surgery and a relative scarcity of excellent-quality donor corneas.

  6. Chronocentrism and British criminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Criminologists display a largely unexamined propensity to ignore writings that are more than fifteen or so years old, with evident consequences for the public presentation and validation of expert knowledge. A citation study was combined with detailed observations from British criminologists to ascertain quite how that disavowal of the past was accomplished.

  7. The North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Westley, K.; Erkens, G.; Hijma, M.P.; Weerts, H.J.T.

    Chapter 7 in the 'SPLASHCOS Taphonomy book', on the landscape-archaeological inventory of the North Sea as a regional sea (covering British, Dutch, Belgian, German and Danish sectors of the southern and central North Sea). Abstract: This chapter gives a general overview of knowledge regarding the

  8. Association of Bystander and First-Responder Intervention With Survival After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in North Carolina, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Kragholm, Kristian; Pearson, David A; Tyson, Clark; Monk, Lisa; Myers, Brent; Nelson, Darrell; Dupre, Matthew E; Fosbøl, Emil L; Jollis, James G; Strauss, Benjamin; Anderson, Monique L; McNally, Bryan; Granger, Christopher B

    2015-07-21

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is associated with low survival, but early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation can improve outcomes if more widely adopted. To examine temporal changes in bystander and first-responder resuscitation efforts before arrival of the emergency medical services (EMS) following statewide initiatives to improve bystander and first-responder efforts in North Carolina from 2010-2013 and to examine the association between bystander and first-responder resuscitation efforts and survival and neurological outcome. We studied 4961 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest for whom resuscitation was attempted and who were identified through the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (2010-2013). First responders were dispatched police officers, firefighters, rescue squad, or life-saving crew trained to perform basic life support until arrival of the EMS. Statewide initiatives to improve bystander and first-responder interventions included training members of the general population in CPR and in use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), training first responders in team-based CPR including AED use and high-performance CPR, and training dispatch centers in recognition of cardiac arrest. The proportion of bystander and first-responder resuscitation efforts, including the combination of efforts between bystanders and first responders, from 2010 through 2013 and the association between these resuscitation efforts and survival and neurological outcome. The combination of bystander CPR and first-responder defibrillation increased from 14.1% (51 of 362; 95% CI, 10.9%-18.1%) in 2010 to 23.1% (104 of 451; 95% CI, 19.4%-27.2%) in 2013 (P defibrillation was 15.2% (30 of 198; 95% CI, 10.8%-20.9%) compared with 33.6% (38 of 113; 95% CI, 25.5%-42.9%) following bystander-initiated CPR and defibrillation (odds ratio [OR], 3.12; 95% CI, 1.78-5.46); 24.2% (83 of 343; 95% CI, 20.0%-29.0%) following bystander CPR and first

  9. Sampling location for harbor seal genetics in Washington and British Columbia from 1993-08-25 to 2009-09-23 (NCEI Accession 0148458)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using skin samples from 777 unweaned pups collected in 9 different regions in WA state and British Columbia (WA Coastal Estuaries, WA North Coast, British Columbia,...

  10. Age-Ratios and Condition of En Route Migrant Blackpoll Warblers in the British Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Clint W.

    2014-01-01

    The en route migration ecology of Blackpoll Warblers (Setophaga striata) is poorly understood, yet intriguing. Blackpoll Warblers undertake the longest open water migration of any wood warbler species, traveling from northeastern North America to South America, with the first potential landfall being the West Indies. This migration requires substantial energy reserves and subjects Blackpoll Warblers to unpredictable weather events, which may influence survival. Few studies have examined age ratios or condition of Blackpoll Warblers while the warblers are en route through the Caribbean region. I captured and banded Blackpoll Warblers in the British Virgin Islands over 10 consecutive autumn migrations. Ratios of hatch-year to adult Blackpoll Warblers were variable but averaged lower than the ratios reported at continental departure locations. Average mass of Blackpoll Warblers was less than that reported at continental departure locations, with 26% of adults and 40% of hatch-year birds below the estimated fat free mass; hatch-year birds were consistently in poorer condition than adults. Blackpoll Warblers captured in the British Virgin Islands were also in poorer condition than those reported from the Dominican Republic and Barbados; this may be because of the British Virgin Islands being the first landfall after the transatlantic crossing, whereas Blackpoll Warblers arriving at the other Caribbean study locations may have had opportunities for stopover prior to arrival or have departed from farther south on the continent. However, this suggests that the British Virgin Islands likely provide important stopover habitat as a first landfall location for Blackpoll Warblers arriving from the transatlantic migration route.

  11. British Policy Towards Loyalists in the Philadelphia Campaign, 1777-1778

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Loyalists. The Queens Rangers provide clear evidence of the potential that resided within the Loyalist volunteers. The British publicly acknowledged...University of North Carolina Press, 1941. Davies, K. G. “The Restoration of Civil Government by the British in the War of Independence.” In. Red

  12. Pitch Alterations in British Motherese: Some Preliminary Acoustic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Brenda; Wheldall, Kevin

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of speech samples from British female adults (N=8) revealed that the subjects increased vocal pitch when addressing young children, but not as much as previously studied North American subjects did. Pitch increases were more commonly observed in free speech than in reading-aloud conditions. (23 references) (Author/CB)

  13. Survival after definitive (chemo)radiotherapy in esophageal cancer patients: a population-based study in the north-East Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Justin K; Muijs, Christina T; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Paardekooper, Gabriel; Timmer, Paul R; Muller, Karin; Woutersen, Dankert; Mul, Véronique E; Beukema, Jannet C; Hospers, Geke A P; van Dijk, Boukje A C; Langendijk, Johannes A; Plukker, John Th M

    2013-06-01

    Definitive (chemo)radiotherapy is employed in esophageal cancer patients as an alternative for patients considered medically unfit for surgery or having unresectable tumors. We evaluated a population-based cohort to improve the selection for intensified nonsurgical strategies and to identify prognostic factors. Patients who had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or adenocarcinoma (AC) were treated in four referral centers in the north-east Netherlands with definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) or radiotherapy (dRT) between 1996 and 2008. Of the 287 included patients, 110 were treated with dCRT and 177 with dRT. Median overall survival (OS) was 11 months (95 % confidence interval: 10-12 months), with OS of 22 and 8 % and disease-free survival (DFS) of 16 and 5 % at 2 and 5 years, respectively. DFS at 2 and 5 years was 24 and 9 % for SCC versus 10 and 2 % for AC patients (P = 0.006). OS after 2 and 5 years was 29 and 14 % for SCC patients versus 17 and 3 % for AC patients (P = 0.044). On multivariate Cox regression, SCC was an independent prognostic factor for DFS [P = 0.020, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.71] and OS (P = 0.047, HR = 0.76). On matched cohort analysis, DFS was higher in the dCRT group compared with dRT patients (P = 0.016). The locoregional failure rate was lower in the dCRT group and in SCC patients (P = 0.001 and 0.046). Long-term results and the local control rate in SCC patients were better after definitive (chemo)radiotherapy compared with in AC patients. SCC was an independent prognostic factor for survival. Definitive chemoradiotherapy leads to improved local control rate and DFS.

  14. War of the British Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    The 1982 Falklands War was shrouded in symbolism, bringing to the fore divergent conceptions of Britishness, kinship, and belonging. This article casts light on the persistent purchase of the idea of Greater Britain long after the end of empire, addressing a case that would normally be deemed...... outside its spatial and temporal boundaries. By highlighting the inherent contradictions of this transnational bond, the South Atlantic conflict had a profound effect on an underexposed British community with a lingering attachment to a “British world”: the Anglo-Argentines. As they found themselves...... different “British worlds” against each other....

  15. Conference Proceedings: Photography and Britishness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Willcock

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The video-recordings presented here were made at the conference Photography and Britishness, held at the Yale Center for British Art on November 4 – 5, 2016. The conference was the result of a collaboration between the Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, London, and the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino—three research institutions that have a converging interest in British art. The conference sought to investigate the various ways in which notions of “Britishness” have been communicated, inflected, and contested through the photographic image. It was not a conference about the history of photography in Britain, or about British photography. Rather, it sought to consider the nature of the relationship between photography and Britishness: the notion that photography can capture images of Britishness, at the same time that our sense of what Britishness constitutes is produced by the photographic image. A key question for the conference was whether Britishness can have a photographic referent—or whether it is itself an effect of representation. Speakers at the conference approached these questions from a wide range of perspectives and focusing on a diverse number of photographic materials—from family albums and studio portraits to advertisements, reportage, and aerial photography—which demonstrated the complexities and instabilities not only of the term Britishness, but also of the medium of photography. The conference was opened with an introduction by John Tagg. The videos included here are presented in the order they were delivered.

  16. Ice-rafting from the British-Irish ice sheet since the earliest Pleistocene (2.6 million years ago): implications for long-term mid-latitudinal ice-sheet growth in the North Atlantic region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thierens, M.; Pirlet, H.; Colin, C.; Latruwe, K.; Vanhaecke, F.; Lee, J.R.; Stuut, J.-B.; Titschaeck, J.; Titschack, J.; Huvenne, V.; Dorschel, B.; Wheeler, A.J.; Henriet, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The Plio-Pleistocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere continental ice-sheet development is known to have profoundly affected the global climate system. Evidence for early continental glaciation is preserved in sediments throughout the North Atlantic Ocean, where ice-rafted detritus (IRD)

  17. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  18. British Coal Opencast deals the 'ace'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.N. (British Coal Opencast, Mansfield (UK))

    1992-02-01

    1992 will see the introduction of the 4000 t Harnischfeger P H 757 'Ace of Spades' electric walking dragline into the Stobswood Opencast Coal Site in Northumberland which will complete a 16 million pound investment by British Coal Opencast in addition to a similar investment by Contractor Crouch Mining to fully equip the most modern opencast mine in the United Kingdom to produce 12 Mt of coal into the 21st century. This paper examines the background to the Stobswood Site and the selection and use of the latest mining equipment by British Coal Opencast and Crouch Mining to complement the mining method, devised by Crouch to ensure that Stobswood Site will be British Coal Opencast's flagship to low cost coal production in the North East of England. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Microcomputing in British planning education

    OpenAIRE

    I Masser; G Teet

    1988-01-01

    The findings of a survey of British planning schools carried out during spring 1986 suggest that the number of microcomputers available in British planning schools has increased by at least two-and-a-half times over an eighteen-month period. However, compulsory courses on computer applications and information management in these schools still tend to be linked with quantitative methods teaching and few opportunities are provided for more advanced training in information management in most sch...

  20. Using opportunistic photo-identifications to detect a population decline of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in British and Irish waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suzanne Beck; Andrew D Foote; Sandra Kötter; Olivia Harries; Laura Mandleberg; Peter T Stevick; Pádraig Whooley; John W Durban

    2014-01-01

      An assemblage of killer whales that has been sighted in waters off the west coast of the British Isles and Ireland has previously been shown to be isolated from other North Atlantic killer whale...

  1. CREEK Project's Oyster Growth and Survival Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  2. Colonization and community: the Vancouver Island coalfield and the making of the British Columbian working class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belshaw, J.D. [University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC (Canada). Department of Philosophy, History, and Politics

    2002-07-01

    During the nineteenth century, coal miners from Europe, Asia, and eastern North America settled on Vancouver Island, British Columbia to mine coal deposits at Nanaimo, Wellington, and Cumberland. The factors that attracted British miners and their families, their expectations and ambitions, and their integration into mining communities are discussed. Working conditions, household wages, racism, industrial organization, gender, schooling, leisure, and community building and identity are considered.

  3. Spatio-temporal dynamics of growth and survival of Lesser Sandeel early life-stages in the North Sea: Predictions from a coupled individual-based and hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurkan, Zeren; Christensen, Asbjørn; Maar, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Accounting for the individual variability and regional variations are important when predicting recruitment in fish species. Spatially explicit descriptions for recruitment in sandeels are necessary and sandeel growth and survival depend locally on zooplankton prey. We investigate the responses...... is validated by Continuous Plankton Recorder survey time series data. Spatio-temporal dynamics of the sandeel cohorts are simulated by the integrated model framework for the period 2004-2006 and five major area divisions of suitable sandeel habitats in the North Sea. This allows obtaining insight...

  4. The Survival of the State in British Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Colin

    1995-01-01

    Considers the two main discourses about broadcasting in the United Kingdom and their expressions in terms of law and regulatory policy. Shows a shift in emphasis from sustenance of a national culture towards an external internationalization and an internal pluralism. Demonstrates evidence of strong and increasing state intervention in the symbolic…

  5. Young British Art / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).

  6. Medical slang in British hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Adam T; Fertleman, Michael; Cahill, Pauline; Palmer, Roger D

    2003-01-01

    The usage, derivation, and psychological, ethical, and legal aspects of slang terminology in medicine are discussed. The colloquial vocabulary is further described and a comprehensive glossary of common UK terms provided in appendix. This forms the first list of slang terms currently in use throughout the British medical establishment.

  7. First-year survival of North East Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) from 1998 to 2012 appears to be driven by availability of Calanus, a preferred copepod prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis

    2016-01-01

    ., Branchiopoda spp. and Echinodermata spp. larvae), as well as stock size, temperature and wind-induced turbulence were not found to be significant. However, stock size was retained in the final model because of a significant interaction with Calanus in oceanic areas west of the North European continental shelf...

  8. Influence of temperature and photoperiod on survival and growth of North East Atlantic isolates of Phycodrys rubens (Rhodophyta) from different latitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskobionikov, G.M; Breeman, Arno; van den Hoek, C; Makarov, V.N; Schoschina, E.V.

    The influence of varying temperatures (from -1.5 degrees C to 23 degrees C) and photoperiod (from to h, light : dark) on growth and survival of eight isolates of the cool temperature red alga Phycodrys rubens from different latitudes along the NE Atlantic coasts were investigated. The isolates

  9. Larch sawfly in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, L.

    1992-01-01

    Summary of the history of infestations in British Columbia of the larch sawfly, first introduced into the province in 1930. Information is based on the Forest Insect and Diseases Survey records and data and preliminary observations on the impact of defoliation on growth of western larch. The report describes biology; history of outbreaks in western larch and tamarack; sampling, population assessments, and predictions; damage appraisal; and controls, including parasites, predators, and weather.

  10. As seen on TV: observational study of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in British television medical dramas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, P N; Williamson, S; Lawler, P G

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and accuracy with which cardiopulmonary resuscitation is portrayed in British television medical dramas. Design: Observational study. Subjects: 64 episodes of three major British television medical dramas: Casualty, Cardiac Arrest, and Medics. Main outcome measures: Frequency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation shown on television; age, sex, and diagnosis of the patients undergoing resuscitation; rate of survival through resuscitation. Results: Overall 52 patients had a cardiorespiratory arrest on screen and 3 had a respiratory arrest alone, all the arrests occurring in 40 of the 64 episodes. Of the 52 patients having cardiorespiratory arrest, 32 (62%) underwent an attempt at cardiopulmonary resuscitation; 8 attempts were successful. All 3 of the patients having respiratory arrests alone received ventilatory support and survived. On 48% of occasions, victims of cardiac arrest seemed to be less than 35 years old. Conclusions: Cardiorespiratory resuscitation is often depicted in British television medical dramas. Patients portrayed receiving resuscitation are likely to be in a younger age group than in real life. Though the reasons for resuscitation are more varied and more often associated with trauma than in reality, the overall success rate is nevertheless realistic. Widespread overoptimism of patients for survival after resuscitation cannot necessarily be blamed on British television medical dramas. Key messagesA quarter of patients in British television medical dramas who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation on screen seemed to surviveThis figure is comparable to initial survival rates in a series of patients in real lifePatients on television are more likely to suffer cardiac arrest as a result of trauma than in real life, and patients undergoing resuscitation are likely to be younger than patients in real lifeThe overall survival rate of patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in British television medical drama seems

  11. Annual Report to the Bonneville Power Administration, Reporting Period: April 2008 - February 2009 [re: "Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and north California Current"].

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries; Cooperative Institute for Marine Resources Studies, Oregon State University; OGI School of Science & Engineering, Oregon Health Sciences University.

    2009-07-17

    We have made substantial progress toward our objectives outlined in our BPA supported proposal entitled 'Columbia River Basin Juvenile Salmonids: Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and northern California Current' which we report on herein. During 2008, we were able to successfully conduct 3 mesoscale cruises. We also were able to conduct 7 biweekly predator cruises, along with substantial shore-based visual observations of seabirds. Detailed results of the mesoscale cruises are available in the Cruise Reports and summarized in the next section. We have taken a proactive approach to getting the results of our research to fisheries managers and the general public. We have begun to make annual predictions based on ocean conditions of the relative survival of juvenile coho and Chinook salmon well before they return as adults. This is based on both biological and physical indicators that we measure during our surveys or collect from outside data sources. Examples of our predictions for 2009 and 2010 are available on the following web site: http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/research/divisions/fed/oeip/a-ecinhome.cfm.

  12. Parents as Educators of Sex and Relationship Education: The Role for Effective Communication in British Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Triece; van Wersch, Anna; van Schaik, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify how British families discuss sexual matters and to determine if the use of a multimedia computer program increases knowledge to promote communication about sexual topics. Design: A mixed-method approach in which families were interviewed within the family environment. Method: Twenty families from the north east of England…

  13. Mixed-severity fire regimes in dry forests of southern interior British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Ken Lertzman; Carmen M. Wong

    2012-01-01

    Historical fire severity is poorly characterized for dry forests in the interior west of North America. We inferred a multicentury history of fire severity from tree rings in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) - ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) forests in the southern interior of British Columbia,...

  14. An Evaluation of Native-speaker Judgements of Foreign-accented British and American English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doel, W.Z. van den

    2006-01-01

    This study is the first ever to employ a large-scale Internet survey to investigate priorities in English pronunciation training. Well over 500 native speakers from throughout the English-speaking world, including North America, the British Isles, Australia and New Zealand, were asked to detect and

  15. Teleoncology uptake in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Melissa; Barnett, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Telehealth enables the delivery of specialized health care to patients living in isolated and remote regions. The purpose of this analysis is to determine the current uptake of teleoncology in mainland British Columbia. Patient appointment data was extracted from the Cancer Agency Information System (CAIS) for the 2009 calendar year. Three types of practitioners used teleoncology in 2009: Medical Oncologists, Genetic Counsellors and Medical Geneticists. In total, 712 telehealth encounters were conducted; Medical Oncologists conducted 595 encounters (83.6%), Genetic Counsellors conducted 112 encounters (15.7%) and Medical Geneticists conducted 5 encounters (0.7%). The most common oncology appointments were Gastro-Intestinal (11.4%) and Lymphoma (11.0%) follow-up appointments with a Medical Oncologist. Telehealth encounters were conducted by 46 individual health care providers however, a single Medical Oncologist conducted 418 encounters and this accounts for more than half (58.7%) of all telehealth appointments in 2009. Radiation Oncologists on the mainland up to this point are not using the technology. The Local Health Areas with the highest number of oncology telehealth appointments were: Kamloops: 203 encounters (34.1%), Penticton: 84 encounters (14.1%), Cranbrook: 58 encounters (9.7%) and the Southern Okanagan: 33 encounter (5.5%). Use of telehealth in rural and remote areas of BC is limited and there is significant room for growth. Further research will be required to identify barriers and restrictions to the use of telehealth in order to increase teleoncology adoption in British Columbia.

  16. Interpersonal perception in Japanese and British observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kito, Tsuneo; Lee, Billy

    2004-01-01

    We compared performance of Japanese and British observers in deciphering images depicting Japanese interpersonal relationships. 201 Japanese and 215 British subjects were assessed by means of a test consisting of 31 photograph problems accompanied by two or three alternative solutions one of which was correct. Japanese subjects outperformed British subjects on the test overall (z = 3.981, p interpersonal relationships, but it may sometimes cause specific errors. Differences in the perceptual cues used suggest that British subjects had difficulty reading Japanese facial expressions.

  17. Demographics, diet, movements, and survival of an isolated, unmanaged raccoon Procyon lotor (Procyonidae, Carnivora) population on the Outer Banks of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Arielle Waldstein; Simons, Theodore R.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Stoskopf, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are highly adaptable meso-carnivores that inhabit many environments, including the Atlantic barrier islands, where their role as predators of declining, beach-nesting bird and turtle species is of particular interest. Population models that improve our understanding of predator-prey dynamics are receiving increasing attention in the literature; however, their effective application requires site-specific information on population parameters. We studied an unharvested raccoon population on the Outer Banks of North Carolina and evaluated spatial and seasonal differences in a number of population/demographic factors of raccoons inhabiting areas of high and low human activity. Raccoons denned and foraged primarily in salt marsh habitats but shifted their movements in response to changes in seasonal resource conditions. The population was skewed toward older animals and exhibited delayed breeding, typical of populations at high density with few sources of mortality. Diet and movement analysis indicated shorebird and turtle predation was attributed to a small number of individual raccoons. Although seasonal resources appeared adequate to sustain a high population density of raccoons, poor body condition and low recruitment suggested a population near carrying capacity.

  18. British Celtic influence on English phonology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laker, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation assesses the influence of British Celtic on the phonological development of English during and shortly after the Anglo-Saxon settlement period, ca. AD 450–700. By reconstructing and then comparing the phonological systems of both British Celtic and English at the time of contact, an

  19. Relationship satisfaction among Turkish and British adults

    OpenAIRE

    Celenk, O.; Van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Goodwin, R.

    2011-01-01

    We tested three theories (adult attachment, autonomy/relatedness, and gender roles) to understand relationship satisfaction among 150 British and 170 Turkish adults, all involved in romantic relationships. Avoidance, relatedness, autonomy–relatedness, and masculinity mediated the relationship between culture and romantic relationship satisfaction. Additionally, as anticipated, Turkish participants scored lower on relationship satisfaction and autonomy whereas British participants scored lower...

  20. Utilisation of British University Research Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncton, P. J.; And Others

    British experience relating to the employment of university research reactors and subcritical assemblies in the education of nuclear scientists and technologists, in the training of reactor operators and for fundamental pure and applied research in this field is reviewed. The facilities available in a number of British universities and the uses…

  1. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  2. Lessons In Operational Art: An Analysis of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in North Russia, 1918-1919

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    north Russia as soon as the ice melted in Archangel regardless of Allied future policy for the expedition.62 Similarly, the British government decided...north Russia. Under the strain of artic warfare fighting for ambiguous reasons, a British battalion, a French battalion, and an American company all...with British equipment to operate in the artic environment.107 To the soldiers of the US contingent, the

  3. Libraries in British Columbia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/britishcolumbia.html Libraries in British Columbia To use the sharing features ... George University Hospital of Northern BC Northern Health Library Services Learning & Development Centre 1475 Edmonton Street Prince ...

  4. British and American attitudes toward credit cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; James, Simon; Lester, David

    2006-04-01

    American university students owned more than twice as many credit cards as British university students. However, scores on a credit card attitude scale predicted the number of cards owned by respondents in both countries.

  5. Retrenchment in British Universities: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, William A.

    1985-01-01

    A study of 14 British universities that underwent severe retrenchment in 1981-1984 is reported, and successful policies, procedures, philosophies, and techniques that may be applicable to institutions in many countries are outlined. (MSE)

  6. Politics, policy and government in British Columbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carty, R. Kenneth

    1996-01-01

    ... and Gerry Kristiansonvi Contents Part 3: Governing the Province 9 The Government of the Day: The Premier and Cabinet in British Columbia / 143 Terence Morley 10 Provincial Governance and the Pu...

  7. A study on the Gut contents of six Leathery Turtles Dermochelys Coriacea (Linnaeus) (Reptilia: Testudines: Dermochelyidae) from British waters and from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.; Nierop, van M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Microscopical investigations of the gut contents of six individuals of Dermochelys coriacea from southern England and the North Sea revealed the presence in all of these of numerous nematocysts, mainly scyphozoan. Only six species of Scyphozoa occur in British shallow waters and in the North Sea,

  8. Identities in the third space? Solidity, elasticity and resilience amongst young British Pakistani Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mythen, Gabe

    2012-09-01

    Over the last decade the issue of identity has been prevalent in discussions about British Muslims, with the events of 9/11 serving as a touchstone for media debates about religious, national and cultural affiliations. The 7/7 terrorist attacks in the UK led to young British Pakistanis being subjected to intense public and institutional scrutiny and wider political concerns being expressed about the failure of multiculturalism. Young British Pakistanis have thus had to negotiate and maintain their identities in an environment in which they have been defined as a threat to national security whilst simultaneously being pressurized to align with 'core British values'. Within this context, we convey the findings of a qualitative study involving British Pakistanis living in the North-west of England. In presenting the experiences and perspectives of participants, three interconnected processes salient to the maintenance of identity are delineated: solidity, elasticity and resilience. Having unpacked these processes, we draw upon Bhabha's third space thesis to explore the political potentiality of and the limits to hybridic identities. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  9. Interacting effects of latitude, mass, age, and sex on winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata): Implications for differential migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Esler, Daniel N.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Ward, David; Boyd, Sean; Kirk, Molly; Lewis, Tyler L.; VanStratt, Corey S.; Brodhead, Katherine M.; Hupp, Jerry; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    We quantified variation in winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) across nearly 30° of latitude on the Pacific coast of North America to evaluate potential effects on winter distributions, including observed differential distributions of age and sex classes. We monitored fates of 297 radio-marked Surf Scoters at three study sites: (1) near the northern periphery of their wintering range in southeast Alaska, USA, (2) the range core in British Columbia, Canada, and (3) the southern periphery in Baja California, Mexico. We detected 34 mortalities and determined that survival averaged lower at the range peripheries than in the range core, was lower during mid-winter than during late winter at all sites, and was positively correlated with body mass within locations. Although neither age nor sex class had direct effects, mass effects led to differential survival patterns among classes. When simultaneously incorporating these interacting influences, adult males of mean mass for their location had highest survival at the northern range periphery in Alaska, whereas adult females and juveniles had higher survival at the range core and the southern periphery. Our observations help to explain patterns of differential migration and distribution reported for this species and highlight seasonal periods (mid-winter) and locations (range peripheries) of elevated levels of mortality for demographically important age–sex classes (adult females).

  10. Breeding biology of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorraine A. Andrusiak; K. M. Cheng

    1997-01-01

    Breeding of the Barn Owl was studied from 1990-1992 in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, the northern limit of the species' North American range. Over 3 years, mean clutch size was 6.5 ± 3.5, mean brood size at time of banding was 3.3 ± 2.0, and mean number of nestlings fledged was 2.6 ± 2.1. Clutch size ranged from 2 to 18 eggs....

  11. Ability Emotional Intelligence, Trait Emotional Intelligence, and Academic Success in British Secondary Schools: A 5 Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualter, Pamela; Gardner, Kathryn J.; Pope, Debbie J.; Hutchinson, Jane M.; Whiteley, Helen E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the long-term effects of ability- and trait EI on academic performance for British adolescents. The sample comprised 413 students from three secondary schools in the North-West of England. Students completed tests of ability EI, trait EI, personality, and cognitive ability in Year 7 (mean age = 11 years 2 months). Performance…

  12. British Teachers' Transnational Work within and beyond the British Empire after the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kay

    2017-01-01

    Focusing on British graduates from Gipsy Hill Training College (GHTC) in London, this article illustrates transnational history's concerns with the reciprocal flows of people and ideas within and beyond the British Empire. GHTC's progressive curriculum and culture positioned women teachers as agents of change, and the article highlights the lives…

  13. Modelling survival and connectivity of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, J.; van Beek, J.; Augustine, S.; Vansteenbrugge, L.; van Walraven, L.; van Langenberg, V.; van der Veer, H.W.; Hostens, K.; Pitois, S.; Robbens, J.

    2015-01-01

    Three different models were applied to study the reproduction, survival and dispersal of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Scheldt estuaries and the southern North Sea: a high-resolution particle tracking model with passive particles, a low-resolution particle tracking model with a reproduction model

  14. Phonemic Transcriptions in British and American Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Šuštaršič

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of recent criticisms concerning vowel symbols in some British English dictionaries (in particular by J. Windsor Lewis in JIPA (Windsor Lewis, 2003, with regard to the Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation (Upton, 2001, this article extends the discussion on English phonemic transcriptions by including those that typically occur in standard American dictionaries, and by comparing the most common conventions of British and American dictionaries. In addition to symbols for both vowels and consonants, the paper also deals with the different representations of word accentuation and the issue of consistency regarding application of phonemic (systemic, broad, rather than phonetic (allophonic, narrow transcription. The different transcriptions are assessed from the points of view of their departures from the International Phonetic Alphabet, their overlapping with orthographic representation (spelling and their appropriateness in terms of reflecting actual pronunciation in standard British and/or American pronunciation.

  15. The British Library's Vulnerable Collection Items Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly C. Kowal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The British Library embarked on a project in 2007 to better protect collection materials considered vulnerable. Following thefts of maps contained within books, a methodology was developed to firmly identify the unique copies of rare and valuable British Library holdings, using a range of security photography and copy-specific descriptive metadata. The outcome of the project not only served to improve the security of the selected maps, but by revealing these hidden collections, access to and knowledge of them is enhanced.

  16. Four Centuries of British Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.; Ang, James B.; Banerjee, Rajabrata

    2010-01-01

    of two competing second-generation endogenous growth models to account for the British growth experience. The results suggest that innovative activity was an important force in shaping the Industrial Revolution and that the British growth experience is consistent with Schumpeterian growth theory.......Using long historical data for Britain over the period 1620–2006, this paper seeks to explain the importance of innovative activity, population growth and other factors in inducing the transition from the Malthusian trap to the post-Malthusian growth regime. Furthermore, the paper tests the ability...

  17. A critical history of British earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. W. Musson

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of the study of historical British earthquakes. The publication of compendia of British earthquakes goes back as early as the late 16th Century. A boost to the study of earthquakes in Britain was given in the mid 18th Century as a result of two events occurring in London in 1750 (analogous to the general increase in earthquakes in Europe five years later after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake). The 19th Century saw a number of significant studies, culminating in th...

  18. CRITERIA OF BRITISH TEACHERS’ COMMUNICATION CULTURE FORMEDNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesipov Mikhail Alekseevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication culture formation belongs to most essential problems for pedagogical theory and practice. The level of a teacher’s communication culture influences greatly the efficiency of his professional communication with colleagues and students. The peculiarities of teachers’ communication culture formation in the British educational system are considered. Main characteristics of a communication-oriented teacher are mentioned. Criteria for specifying the level of British teachers’ communication culture formedness as well as brief description of these levels are given in this article.

  19. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Alastair; Khanam, Shopnara; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towards depression with increasing age amongst British Bangladeshis. Older British Bangladeshis believed depression was an illness that brought a sense of shame and loss of dignity to the individual and his or her family, and they also favoured a lay referral system for sufferers. They also had more superstitious beliefs about depression than both younger British Bangladeshis and British Whites. A pattern of increasing negativity with increasing age was not evident amongst the British Whites, but older individuals in both groups tended to believe that depression was not helped by psychological intervention. The attitudes towards depression in the young was similar (and generally positive) in both ethnic groups. These findings highlight the necessity to provide more culturally sensitive and accessible services for migrant communities - particularly amongst older individuals.

  20. Record of recent river channel instability, Cheakamus Valley, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, John J.; Turner, Robert J. W.; Reyes, Alberto V.

    2003-07-01

    Rivers flowing from glacier-clad Quaternary volcanoes in southwestern British Columbia have high sediment loads and anabranching and braided planforms. Their floodplains aggrade in response to recurrent large landslides on the volcanoes and to advance of glaciers during periods of climate cooling. In this paper, we document channel instability and aggradation during the last 200 years in lower Cheakamus River valley. Cheakamus River derives much of its flow and nearly all of its sediment from the Mount Garibaldi massif, which includes a number of volcanic centres dominated by Mount Garibaldi volcano. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon and dendrochronological dating of recent floodplain sediments at North Vancouver Outdoor School in Cheakamus Valley show that Cheakamus River aggraded its floodplain about 1-2 m and buried a valley-floor forest in the early or mid 1800s. The aggradation was probably caused by a large (ca. 15-25×10 6 m 3) landslide from the flank of Mount Garibaldi, 15 km north of our study site, in 1855 or 1856. Examination of historical aerial photographs dating back to 1947 indicates that channel instability triggered by this event persisted until the river was dyked in the late 1950s. Our observations are consistent with data from many other mountain areas that suggest rivers with large, but highly variable sediment loads may rapidly aggrade their floodplains following a large spike in sediment supply. Channel instability may persist for decades to centuries after the triggering event.

  1. Highly discrepant proportions of female and male Scandinavian and British Isles ancestry within the isolated population of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas D; Jorgensen, Tove H; Børglum, Anders D

    2006-01-01

    Isles ancestry. In the present study we used 122 new and 19 previously published hypervariable region I sequences of the mitochondrial control region to analyse the genetic diversity of the Faroese population and compare it with other populations in the North Atlantic region. The analyses suggested......The Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean are inhabited by a small population, whose origin is thought to date back to the Viking Age. Historical, archaeological and linguistic evidence indicates that the present population of the Faroe Islands may have a mixture of Scandinavian and British...... the female settlers of the Faroe Islands. Compared to other admixed populations of the North Atlantic region, the population of the Faroe Islands appears to have the highest level of asymmetry in Scandinavian vs British Isles ancestry proportions among female and male settlers of the archipelago....

  2. British Higher Education and Its Older Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Alan; Wilson, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Using results from a survey of British graduates, examined outcomes of higher education for older students, including their current employment situation, relationship of degree to job, and student satisfaction. Found that mature students are an extremely heterogeneous group, with differences in outcomes by age and mode of study. (EV)

  3. Earnings Returns to the British Education Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Paul J.; Fan, Wen

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of the large expansion in British educational attainment that took place for cohorts born between 1970 and 1975. Using the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, we find that the expansion caused men to increase education by about a year on average and gain about 8% higher wages; women obtained a slightly greater increase in education…

  4. British Technology Education. An American View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the British Craft, Design and Technology (CDT) curriculum, which is comparable to American technology education. According to the author, CDT is characterized by creative thinking and experimentation. He states, however, that little national coordination or cooperation is evident. (CH)

  5. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  6. British physics Newton's law of funding

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In Britain, fundamental physics is in a pickle ISAAC NEWTON, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.

  7. British used Congreve Rockets to Attack Napoleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Sir William Congreve developed a rocket with a range of about 9,000 feet. The incendiary rocket used black powder, an iron case, and a 16-foot guide stick. In 1806, British used Congreve rockets to attack Napoleon's headquarters in France. In 1807, Congreve directed a rocket attack against Copenhagen.

  8. Spitsbergen - Imperialists beyond the British Empire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga; Hacquebord, Louwrens

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between Spitsbergen in the European High Arctic and the global British Empire in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Spitsbergen was an uninhabited no man's land and comprised an unknown quantity of natural resources. The concepts of geopolitics and New

  9. Telephone Operators' Resistance to British Colonial Administration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to write the history of yet another form of resistance to colonial rule in British Africa with a focus on telephone operators in the erstwhile Cameroons Province. The pith and kernel of the paper therefore is to show how telephone operators resisted the colonial administration. This typology of resistance is yet to ...

  10. The Royal Navy and British Security Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    development or production. To Kennedy and MacNamara , the decision to cancel the SKYBOLT program in 1962 was only a measure to improve the cost...Kennedy- MacNamara decision to cancel SKYBOLT. Kennedy suc- cessfully solved the British dilemma by offering to sell them the American POLARIS submarine

  11. Demand for wildlife hunting in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.; Kooten, van G.C.; Voss, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present estimates of the demand for hunting licenses by residents and nonresidents in British Columbia for the period 19712000. We obtain estimates of both short-run and long-run price elasticities and discuss their revenue implications for future fee increases. We find the demand by nonresidents

  12. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strathdee Steffanie

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.

  13. Drivers of Cousin Marriage among British Pakistanis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Why has the apparently high rate of cousin marriage among Bradford Pakistanis been sustained, 50 years since Pakistani migration to Britain began? Methods A review of the anthropological literature on Pakistani migration and settlement, British Pakistani marriage patterns and the phenomenon of transnational marriage. Results British Pakistanis are diverse in regional origins and social class characteristics, with many Bradford Pakistanis originating from the Mirpur district and northern Punjab. British Pakistani marriages often involve a partner from Pakistan who joins a spouse in the UK. Transnational marriage of first cousins offers relatives in Pakistan opportunities for a ‘better’ life in the West and are important for British Pakistanis for economic, social, cultural and emotional reasons. These processes are also differentially influenced by region of origin and class characteristics in Pakistan as well as by education, employment and locality in Britain. The pattern observed in Bradford may not be applicable nationally. Conclusion Further research examining marital decisions over several generations in families differing by social class, region of origin in Pakistan and locality in Britain is necessary to contextualise the findings from Bradford. PMID:25060267

  14. Four former British mining settlements on Spitsbergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga; Claughton, P.; Mills, C.

    2011-01-01

    The LASHIPA project participated in the recent International Polar Year to evaluate the large-scale historical exploitation of polar areas. This sub-project looks at the role of British actors in the economic and geopolitical development of the European High Arctic during the early twentieth

  15. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  16. ARCTIC VECTOR OF BRITISH ENERGETIC STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Valerievna Eremina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the forms, methods, content of British strategy in Arctic. Arctic is becoming the area of international cooperation among, first of all, Arctic states. Britain has ambitions to get the status of so-called “subarctic state” to prove its international leadership and acquire guarantees of energetic security. Now Britain has been elaborating the two strategies: military and scientific ones. The main instrument to solve the tasks for Britain is to participate in international structures, connected with Arctic. The article pays attention to the aspects that were not previously analyzed, such as: reasons of British interests in Arctic, bilateral and multilateral relationships between Britain and its partners, first of all, cooperation between Russia and Britain; British institutions; positive and negative aspects of British Arctic strategy; factors that have impact on its evolution, mainly EU and Scottish factors. The research allowed to make the conclusion that Britain does not have enough instruments to have a strong disposition in Arctic, though it plans to accelerate its participation in Arctic organizations. The article is based upon system and structural analysis.

  17. subordination across ghanaian and british newspaper editorials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empirical research in this area is scanty, though this theoretical argumentation is not without contention, especially cross-culturally. Empirical investigation is therefore ... Frimpong: Subordination Across Ghanaian and British Newspaper Editorials: A Register. Perspective. 78. Figure 1: The Components in a register analysis.

  18. The glaciation of Dartmoor: the southernmost independent Pleistocene ice cap in the British Isles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David J. A.; Harrison, Stephan; Vieli, Andreas; Anderson, Ed

    2012-06-01

    The granite uplands of Dartmoor have traditionally been considered to be relict permafrost and periglacial landscapes that lay beyond the limits of Quaternary glaciations but a variety of landform evidence indicates that a plateau icefield existed on the northern part of the moor, constituting the southernmost independent ice cap in the British Isles. Overdeepened or weakly U-shaped valley segments fringing north Dartmoor document an early, extensive phase of glaciation but the most convincing landform evidence relates to more recent, valley-based glacier occupancy. A moraine ridge on the Slipper Stones represents the most unequivocal palaeo-glacier on north Dartmoor with a palaeo-ELA of c.460 m above sea level (asl), although this relates to the youngest and most restricted phase of glaciation. A longer term ELA is likely to be represented by the Corn Ridge proto-cirque at 370-410 m asl. More extensive valley glaciers are recorded in each of the major drainage basins of north Dartmoor by arcuate and linear bouldery ridges and hummocky valley floor drift, which are interpreted as latero-frontal moraines deposited by outlet lobes of a plateau icefield. Recession of these lobes is marked by inset sequences of such ridges and occasional meltwater channels. Plateau ice was predominantly thin and protective, and snowblow and preferential accumulation in valley heads facilitated the modest glacial erosion and debris transport recorded in the landforms and sediments. It is proposed that the highest plateaux have been occupied by ice for the longest cumulative period of time throughout the Quaternary ("average glacial conditions"), explaining the distribution of different tor types on northern Dartmoor. This also explains the lack of tors on the most expansive of the highest plateau terrain (ice dispersal centres) as the product of: a) average glacial conditions preferentially removing tors or dampening their production rates; b) the survival of high relief (Type 1) tors

  19. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  20. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates...

  1. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites

    OpenAIRE

    McClelland, A.; S. Khanam; Furnham, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towa...

  2. A BRITISH TOUCH ON TANZIMAT: ARCHITECT WILLIAM JAMES SMITH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma İgüs

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the life and works of British architect William James Smith and outlines his contributions to nineteenth century Ottoman architecture and presents his prominence as an architectural historian of nineteenth century British architectural work.

  3. British Asians, Covert Racism and Exclusion in English Professional Football

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Kilvington

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the exclusion of British Asians from English professional football. At present, there are eight British Asians with professional contracts out of over 4,000 players. This statistic is increasingly noteworthy when we consider that, first, football is extremely popular across British Asian groups and, second, Britain is home to over 4 million British Asians (the UK’s largest minority ethnic group). Following a brief introduction as well as a discussion of racisms, the work...

  4. British International Schools: The Deployment and Training of Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarry, Estelle

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on research carried out on behalf of the Council of British International Schools (COBIS) as to the role and deployment of British international school teaching assistants. Through questionnaires and a follow up open discussion with headteachers from British international schools it was found that, due to the differing…

  5. The 'British-Imperial' Model of administration: Assembling the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 'British-Imperial' Model of administration: Assembling the South African constabulary, 1900-1902. ... Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies ... to the colonies but sought guidance from existing institutions throughout the British Isles and Empire in a single 'British-Imperial' model of administration.

  6. The West African currency board and economic integration of British ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WACB) as an economic integration effort in British West Africa. Through a collaborative effort between this public institution and a private company, the Bank of British West Africa, British West African colonies were not only unified but also the way ...

  7. 78 FR 72598 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... directive (AD) for British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Jetstream Series 3101 and Jetstream Model 3201... ADs None. (c) Applicability This AD applies to British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Jetstream Series... instructions of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JM7862, Revision 1, dated...

  8. the relationship between british war correspondents in the field

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lenovo

    on the British side and British Military Intelligence during the Anglo-Boer War, particularly during the formal ... press corps in the field and British Military Intelligence, especially in the initial and formal part of the Anglo-Boer ..... recognised and acknowledged the Value and Power of the Press by establishing a Newspaper as ...

  9. Negative connotations in speech behaviour of the british and american men and women (british and american drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е М Люльчева

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of special linguistic means in the British and American men and women speech is researched in this article. Various linguistic means are typical of the British and American men and women negative emotional speech.

  10. Provincial land use planning in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, W. [British Columbia Ministry of Finance, Victoria, BC (Canada). Land Use Coordination Office

    1998-12-31

    The efforts being made to include Aboriginal communities in land use planning in British Columbia are discussed. British Columbia is in the midst of historic changes with respect to land and resource allocation, use and management. Historic trends in land use allocation and management are contrasted with land use planning and resource management of today. The impact of provincial government moves to double park space within the province, and the Protected Areas Strategy initiative will have on the natural gas and petroleum industry is discussed. New efforts being made to include First Nations directly in land use planning discussions in ways that do not prejudice treaty negotiations, are reviewed. Creation of a new Oil and Gas Commission in the Fort St. John area, is cited as the most recent example of the interconnections between First Nations communities and other public and industry stakeholders in land use planning in the province.

  11. Russian-British Symposium on Quantum Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadkov, V. N.; Kolachevsky, N. N.; Naumov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    In the year 2017, declared 'The Year of Science and Education', the Russian Federation (RF) and the United Kingdom (UK) implemented the Promotion of UK-RF Joint Research in the Field of Quantum Technologies Project. In the framework of this project, Russian scientists from various scientific and science educational institutions in Moscow, Novosibirsk, Kazan, Nizhnii Novgorod and St. Petersburg and their British colleagues from scientific centres in London, Birmingham and Glasgow exchanged visits.

  12. Metaphor and creativity in British magazine advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Lundmark, Carita

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is a cognitive linguistic study of the various ways in which conceptual metaphor and related cognitive processes are exploited for creative purposes in advertising texts and accompanying images. The material consists of advertisements collected from British magazines between the years 1996 and 2002, and is classified into four main categories according to how the metaphorical content is signalled in the advertisement. These categories include polysemous words, idiomatic expression...

  13. Did Senior British Officers Effectively Lead Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    must create a vision, devise a strategy, and implement it. They require buy -in from the wider Army but this support is not guaranteed. Indeed, many...investigate. However, there is a compulsion element to any change in the British Army. Orders are orders after all. How much room there is to...support for change evident throughout? Whether Senior Leaders had any power to influence change is important due to the compulsion aspect of the

  14. Peer Victimization in British Columbia Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...

  15. Sequence variation at the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in the British Isles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyfield, L.A. [Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)]|[Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom); Stephenson, A. [Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom); Cockburn, F. [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Using mutation and haplotype analysis, we have examined the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in the phenylketonuria populations of four geographical areas of the British Isles: the west of Scotland, southern Wales, and southwestern and southeastern England. The enormous genetic diversity of this locus within the British Isles is demonstrated in the large number of different mutations characterized and in the variety of genetic backgrounds on which individual mutations are found. Allele frequencies of the more common mutations exhibited significant nonrandom distribution in a north/south differentiation. Differences between the west of Scotland and southwestern England may be related to different events in the recent and past histories of their respective populations. Similarities between southern Wales and southeastern England are likely to reflect the heterogeneity that is seen in and around two large capital cities. Finally, comparison with more recently colonized areas of the world corroborates the genealogical origin by range expansion of several mutations. 38 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Colonization and Community: the Vancouver Island coalfield and the making of the British Columbian working class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Douglas Belshaw [University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC (Canada). Department of Philosophy, History, and Politics

    2002-04-01

    In the nineteenth century coal-miners imported from Europe, Asia, and eastern North America burrowed beneath the Vancouver Island towns of Nanaimo, Wellington, and Cumberland. The book looks at British Columbia's first working class, the men, women, and children beneath and beyond the pit-head. Beginning with an exploration of emigrant expectations and ambitions, it investigates working conditions, household wages, racism, industrial organization, gender, schooling, leisure, community building, and the fluid identity of the British mining colony, the archetypal west coast proletariat. By connecting the story of Vancouver Island to the larger story of Victorian industrialization, the author delineates what was distinctive and what was common about the lot of the settler society.

  17. The median non-prostate cancer survival is more than 10 years for men up to age 80 years who are selected and receive curative radiation treatment for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickles Tom

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment guidelines recommend that curative radiation treatment of prostate cancer be offered only to men whose life expectancy is greater than 10 years. The average life expectancy of North American males is less than 10 years after age 75, yet many men older than 75 years receive curative radiation treatment for prostate cancer. This study used the provincial cancer registry in British Columbia, Canada, to determine median non-prostate cancer survival for men who were aged 75 to 82 years at start of radiation treatment. Median survival was found to be greater than 10 years in men aged up to 80 years at the start of their radiation treatment. This finding suggests that radiation oncologists are able to appropriately select elderly men with greater than average life expectancy to receive curative radiation treatment.

  18. British Gujarati Indian immigrants' and British Caucasians' beliefs about health and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobanputra, Rena; Furnham, Adrian

    2005-12-01

    This study examined cultural differences in beliefs about health and illness to explore differences in younger and older British Caucasians' and British Gujarati Indian immigrants' beliefs about health and illness. This study required a matched group consisting of first- and second-generation Gujarati Indian immigrants and native British Caucasians to complete a questionnaire assessing their beliefs concerning health and illness. Factor analysis of the health beliefs questionnaire identified six clear factors accounting for 36.04% of the variance. Subsequent ANCOVAs conducted on the factor scores, partialling out the demographic differences between the participants, revealed that Gujarati Indian immigrants agreed with items reflecting supernatural explanations of ill health more than indigenous British Caucasian participants. Older Indian immigrants also rated chance-related factors as more important than older Caucasian immigrants. There were no significant differences between the Gujarati Indian immigrants and British Caucasians in terms of attributions made to psychological factors and self-responsibility, social factors and life circumstances, medical treatment and physical vulnerability and the external environment. Findings are discussed in relation to the model proposed by Helman (2001) and the impact of migration on health beliefs systems; practical implications of the findings are also highlighted.

  19. Innovations’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovations currently represent a tool of maintaining the going concern of a business entity and its competitiveness. However, effects of innovations are not infinite and if an innovation should constantly preserve a life of business entity, it has to be a continual chain of innovations, i.e. continual process. Effective live of a single innovation is limited while the limitation is derived especially from industry. The paper provides the results of research on innovations effects in the financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Objective of this paper is to determine the length and intensity of the effects of technical innovations in company’s financial performance. The economic effect of innovations has been measured at application of company’s gross production power while the Deviation Analysis has been applied for three years’ time series. Subsequently the Survival Analysis has been applied. The analyses are elaborated for three statistical samples of SMEs constructed in accordance to the industry. The results obtained show significant differences in innovations’ survival within these three samples of enterprises then. The results are quite specific for the industries, and are confronted and discussed with the results of authors’ former research on the issue.

  20. Migratory behaviour and survival rates of wild northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts: Effects of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, J.G.; Rikardsen, A.H.; Halttunen, E.; Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Letcher, B.H.; Skarhamar, J.; Naesje, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    To study smolt behaviour and survival of a northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar population during river descent, sea entry and fjord migration, 120 wild S. salar were tagged with acoustic tags and registered at four automatic listening station arrays in the mouth of the north Norwegian River Alta and throughout the Alta Fjord. An estimated 75% of the post-smolts survived from the river mouth, through the estuary and the first 17 km of the fjord. Survival rates in the fjord varied with fork length (LF), and ranged from 97??0 to 99??5% km-1. On average, the post-smolts spent 1??5 days (36 h, range 11-365 h) travelling from the river mouth to the last fjord array, 31 km from the river mouth. The migratory speed was slower (1??8 LF s-1) in the first 4 km after sea entry compared with the next 27 km (3??0 LF s-1). Post-smolts entered the fjord more often during the high or ebbing tide (70%). There was no clear diurnal migration pattern within the river and fjord, but most of the post-smolts entered the fjord at night (66%, 2000-0800 hours), despite the 24 h daylight at this latitude. The tidal cycle, wind-induced currents and the smolts' own movements seemed to influence migratory speeds and routes in different parts of the fjord. A large variation in migration patterns, both in the river and fjord, might indicate that individuals in stochastic estuarine and marine environments are exposed to highly variable selection regimes, resulting in different responses to environmental factors on both temporal and spatial scales. Post-smolts in the northern Alta Fjord had similar early marine survival rates to those observed previously in southern fjords; however, fjord residency in the north was shorter. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Quantifying non-indigenous species in accumulated ballast slurry residuals (swish) arriving at Vancouver, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, T. F.; Levings, C. D.

    2013-08-01

    Ballast tank “swish” samples were collected from ships following their arrival at Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada) after undergoing either a trans-oceanic or a Pacific-coastal voyage. The ballast swish consisted of a residual slurry mixture of sediment and water that remained trapped in ballast tanks following water discharge at port. The ballast tanks of 27 ships were sampled and ballast swish was found on 19 of the 27 ships. These ships were categorized according to ballast water management type: (1) Trans-oceanic = 7 trans-oceanic ships undergoing ballast water exchange (BWE) > 200 nm from shore; (2) Coastal-exchange = 7 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports south of Cape Blanco, Oregon undergoing coastal exchange > 50 nm from shore south of Cape Blanco; and (3) Coastal-no-exchange = 5 Pacific-coastal ships traveling from ports north of Cape Blanco, Oregon, without undergoing BWE. Invertebrate abundance and taxa richness were directly correlated with ballast-swish turbidity suggesting that highly-productive coastal source waters and ballast tank retention processes contributed to this trend. In turn, invertebrate taxa diversity increased with increasing invertebrate abundance. A Principal Component Analysis of the trans-oceanic data revealed that length of voyage showed a strong inverse relationship with invertebrate abundance for this category. Within the coastal-exchange voyage category, voyage length and ballast water age tended to be of the same magnitude and were directly correlated with both crustacean and nematode taxa. Finally, the coastal-no-exchange PCA results revealed that voyage length and salinity were inversely related due to the high number of river ports located at the southern border of the regulatory BWE exemption zone. Coastal voyages not undergoing BWE and undertaking a direct river-to-river route should be considered risky for the introduction of non-indigenous species, if the source waters contain potentially invasive species

  2. The Labour Party and British Republicanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth O. MORGAN

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The famous detective, Sherlock Holmes, once solved a case by referring to “the dog that did not bark.” In the past 250 years of British history, republicanism is another dog that did not bark. This is particularly true of supposedly our most radical major political party, the Labour Party. Over the monarchy, as over constitutional matters generally, Labour’s instincts have been conservative. Even after 1997, when the party, led by Lord Irvine, has indeed embarked upon major constitutional ref...

  3. Exposure to infectious agents in dogs in remote coastal British Columbia: Possible sentinels of diseases in wildlife and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan, Heather M.; Darimont, Chris T.; Paquet, Paul C.; Ellis, John A.; Goji, Noriko; Gouix, Maëlle; Smits, Judit E.

    2011-01-01

    Ranked among the top threats to conservation worldwide, infectious disease is of particular concern for wild canids because domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) may serve as sources and reservoirs of infection. On British Columbia’s largely undeveloped but rapidly changing central and north coasts, little is known about diseases in wolves (Canis lupus) or other wildlife. However, several threats exist for transfer of diseases among unvaccinated dogs and wolves. To gain baseline data on infectious...

  4. Breast cancer treatment and ethnicity in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroetavena Maria

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, survival and mortality are well documented; but few studies have reported on disparities in breast cancer treatment. This paper compares the treatment received by breast cancer patients in British Columbia (BC for three ethnic groups and three time periods. Values for breast cancer treatments received in the BC general population are provided for reference. Methods Information on patients, tumour characteristics and treatment was obtained from BC Cancer Registry (BCCR and BC Cancer Agency (BCCA records. Treatment among ethnic groups was analyzed by stage at diagnosis and time period at diagnosis. Differences among the three ethnic groups were tested using chi-square tests, Fisher exact tests and a multivariate logistic model. Results There was no significant difference in overall surgery use for stage I and II disease between the ethnic groups, however there were significant differences when surgery with and without radiation were considered separately. These differences did not change significantly with time. Treatment with chemotherapy and hormone therapy did not differ among the minority groups. Conclusion The description of treatment differences is the first step to guiding interventions that reduce ethnic disparities. Specific studies need to examine reasons for the observed differences and the influence of culture and beliefs.

  5. Breast cancer treatment and ethnicity in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Parvin; Barroetavena, Maria Cristina; Hislop, T Greg; Bajdik, Chris D

    2010-04-21

    Racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, survival and mortality are well documented; but few studies have reported on disparities in breast cancer treatment. This paper compares the treatment received by breast cancer patients in British Columbia (BC) for three ethnic groups and three time periods. Values for breast cancer treatments received in the BC general population are provided for reference. Information on patients, tumour characteristics and treatment was obtained from BC Cancer Registry (BCCR) and BC Cancer Agency (BCCA) records. Treatment among ethnic groups was analyzed by stage at diagnosis and time period at diagnosis. Differences among the three ethnic groups were tested using chi-square tests, Fisher exact tests and a multivariate logistic model. There was no significant difference in overall surgery use for stage I and II disease between the ethnic groups, however there were significant differences when surgery with and without radiation were considered separately. These differences did not change significantly with time. Treatment with chemotherapy and hormone therapy did not differ among the minority groups. The description of treatment differences is the first step to guiding interventions that reduce ethnic disparities. Specific studies need to examine reasons for the observed differences and the influence of culture and beliefs.

  6. The British Monarchy. On the Teaching of British Affairs at College and School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Doherty, Julian

    1974-01-01

    Deals with "area study" aspects of the teaching of English in schools and colleges. Using as an example the British monarchy, it is shown how "area study" elements are handled in schoolbooks in use today. Suggestions relating to the subject are also offered. (IFS/WGA)

  7. The British Geological Survey seismic monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottemoller, L.; Baptie, B.; Luckett, R.

    2009-04-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) monitors the seismicity in and around the British Isles. The seismic network was started in the seventies and built up over the years to 146 short-period stations. An upgrade of this network started a few years ago and will result in a modern network with broadband seismometers, high dynamic range digitizers and real-time communication (Internet, ADSL, satellite). In total the network will comprise about 50 stations, with only few short-period stations remaining. Equipment is used from both Guralp and Nanometrics, and their respective software for data acquisition is used to bring the data to the centre in near real-time. The automated data processing is done through Earthworm. Event data are analysed using SEISAN. Continuous data are kept for all broadband stations and checked for quality and completeness. Real-time data is also exchanged with neighbouring networks. The data is used for routine monitoring, but also research. The main research objectives are to understand distribution of seismicity and relating earthquakes to tectonics, develop velocity and attenuation models and study the seismic hazard and earthquake effects.

  8. The Ruins of the British Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.

  9. Suicide reporting within British newspapers' arts coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Alexandra; Stevenson, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Many suicide prevention strategies promote media guidelines on suicide reporting, given evidence that irresponsible reporting of suicide can influence imitative suicidal behavior. Due to limited resources, monitoring of guideline adherence has tended to focus on news outputs, with a risk of neglecting other journalistic content. To determine whether British newspapers' arts coverage adheres to media guidelines on suicide reporting. Purposive sampling was used to capture current national practice on suicide reporting within newspapers' arts coverage of exhibitions. Recent major UK exhibitions by artists who had died by suicide were identified: Kirchner, Rothko, Gorky, and Van Gogh. Content analysis of all UK national newspaper coverage of these exhibitions was performed to measure the articles' adherence to widely accepted media guidelines. In all, 68 newspaper reviews satisfied inclusion criteria, with 100% failing to show full adherence to media guidelines: 21% used inappropriate language; 38% provided explicit descriptions of the suicide; 7% employed simplistic explanations for suicide triggers; 27% romanticized the suicide; and 100% omitted information on sources of support. British newspapers' arts coverage of exhibitions deviates considerably from media guidelines on the reporting of suicide. The findings suggest scope to improve journalists' awareness of the importance of this component of suicide prevention strategies.

  10. The truth behind british politeness: some misinterpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixoto, Rafael Marcos Tort

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse a chart published by the British newspaper The Telegraphabout the most common misunderstandings foreigners face while making use of English as their second language. L2 speakers are said to take every word at face value and therefore making some pragmatic mistakes. Sometimes there can be another meaning behind the spoken words, like it is unsaid for a reason. The pragmatics theories of irony in Attardo (1999 shed light on these translating and intercultural awareness issues by explaining what is behind the misunderstanding which is the secret ofthe so famous British politeness. Some considerations will be made upon the chart so as to understand it, such as an analysis of irony and native speakers’ perspectives on it. In addition to that, we will take into account the opinion of some native speakers of English to unveil some details and clarify how meaningful some sentences may be and if the researched chart is actually accurate

  11. Relationship Between Metformin Use and Recurrence and Survival in Patients With Resected Stage III Colon Cancer Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy: Results From North Central Cancer Treatment Group N0147 (Alliance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preet Paul; Shi, Qian; Foster, Nathan R; Grothey, Axel; Nair, Suresh G; Chan, Emily; Shields, Anthony F; Goldberg, Richard M; Gill, Sharlene; Kahlenberg, Morton S; Sinicrope, Frank A; Sargent, Daniel J; Alberts, Steven R

    2016-12-01

    Preclinical and epidemiological data suggest that metformin might have antineoplastic properties against colon cancer (CC). However, the effect of metformin use on patient survival in stage III CC after curative resection is unknown. The survival outcomes were comparable regardless of the duration of metformin use. Before randomization to FOLFOX (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin) with or without cetuximab, 1,958 patients with stage III CC enrolled in the N0147 study completed a questionnaire with information on diabetes mellitus (DM) and metformin use. Cox models were used to assess the association between metformin use and disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and the time to recurrence (TTR), adjusting for clinical and/or pathological factors. Of the 1,958 patients, 1,691 (86%) reported no history of DM, 115 reported DM with metformin use (6%), and 152 reported DM without metformin use (8%). The adjuvant treatment arms were pooled, because metformin use showed homogeneous effects on outcomes across the two arms. Among the patients with DM (n = 267), DFS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-1.35; p = .60), OS (aHR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.65-1.49; p = .95), and TTR (aHR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56-1.35; p = .53) were not different for the metformin users compared with the nonusers after adjusting for tumor and patient factors. The survival outcomes were comparable regardless of the duration of metformin use (colon cancer receiving adjuvant FOLFOX (folinic acid, fluorouracil, oxaliplatin)-based chemotherapy. This relationship was not modified by KRAS or BRAF mutation or DNA mismatch repair status. Metformin use did not increase or decrease the likelihood of chemotherapy-related grade 3 or higher adverse events. ©AlphaMed Press.

  12. North Korea, Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available North Korean politics appears neither irrational nor unpredictable: the logic of its actions may at first seem opaque, but it nonetheless displays its own rationale and patterns. – North Korea: a ruthless political actor, now under the leadership of Kim Jong-Un who inherited the regime’s leadership from his father and "Supreme Leader", Kim Jong-Il, in 2011. The country’s policy is based on its ongoing political agenda of (nuclear brinkmanship, a true threat to the world – or at least that's how the Western hemisphere sees it. Yet our factual knowledge of this post-Leninist and totalitarian regime is extremely limited and relatively distorted; it is largely circumstantial evidence and judgmental speculation that accounts for our perception of this East Asian state. Northeast Asia (China, Japan, South and North Korea, Taiwan is a region dominated by the legacy of the Cold War. The North Korean leadership has indeed established its priorities, primarily its isolationist orientation, but in the long term the regime cannot survive without external stimulus. Most importantly, even in a long-term, non-violent and gradual transformation of North Korea considerable danger can ultimately result in the demise of the regime. Apart from few signs of a North Korean "civil society", currently only the army might have the resources to see through a regime change. In the meantime, the strategies of isolationism as well as tight control of the media remain as fundamental cornerstones of the regime. A close-knit network of social control has been established and access to the internet for the most part is limited to the regime’s entrusted cadre.

  13. Going coastal: shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckworth, Byron V; Dawson, Natalie G; Talbot, Sandra L; Flamme, Melanie J; Cook, Joseph A

    2011-05-04

    Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species.

  14. Going coastal: shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron V Weckworth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species.

  15. Going coastal: Shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckworth, B.V.; Dawson, N.G.; Talbot, S.L.; Flamme, M.J.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. ?? 2011 This is an open-access article.

  16. Apollo in the North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Walter Pater’s fascination with the Hyperborean Apollo, who according to myth resided north of the home of the northern wind, is explored in two of his pieces of short fiction, ‘Duke Carl of Rosenmold’ (1887) and ‘Apollo in Picardy’ (1893). The essay discusses some of Pater’s complex dialogue...... of Apollo the nature god. Furthermore, Pater is engaging in a complex geopolitical argument, playing out German, French and English culture against each other, as he traces the survival of the pagan gods after the onset of Christianity. The myth of the Hyperborean Apollo is a myth about the North: where...... does it begin? Where does it end? Is it a place of light or of darkness? Pater’s dark Apollo challenges conventional notions of the sun god and testifies to the strong presence of paganism in Pater’s late writings....

  17. Effect of incubation temperature on post-embryonic survival and growth of steelhead in a natural stream and a hatchery (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery and North Fork Palouse River; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Baker, Bruce M.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether varying incubation temperatures to match development between embryos from different spawning dates affected survival and growth of unfed steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry released in a stream and in hatchery ponds. Hatchery steelhead returning to the Clearwater River, Idaho were artificially spawned on two dates separated by a four week interval. Progeny from the early date (ExE, from early males and early females) were incubated in chilled (7°C) water and those from the late date (LxL) in ambient (12°C) water until developmental stage matched. A third group, created by fertilizing eggs from late females with cryopreserved milt from early males (ExL), was included to control for any genetic differences between early and late returning adults. Survival in the stream to 3 and 15 months after release was similar among crosses. Survival in the hatchery to near the end of the standard one year rearing period was similar among crosses for one of two year - classes but different for the other; however, it was difficult to ascribe the differences (ExL>ExE; LxL intermediate but closer to ExE) to incubation temperature differences. We conclude that there was little if any effect of incubation temperature on survival. Length of juveniles of one year - class differed among crosses in the stream and in the hatchery. Length of the other year - class differed among crosses in one pond at the hatchery but not in the other pond or in the stream. When length differed the pattern was always the same: ExE>LxL; ExL intermediate but closer to LxL. We speculate that incubation temperature may have affected growth of juveniles, and in particular that a longer period of incubation in chilled water may have caused fast juvenile growth relative to a shorter incubation period in ambient water.

  18. Population Ecology of Caribou in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Seip

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and geographic range of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou decreased in many areas of British Columbia during the 1900's. Recent studies have found that predation during the summer is the major cause of mortality and current population declines. Increased moose {Alecs alces populations may be related to past and current caribou declines by sustaining greater numbers of wolves (Canis lupus. Mortality rates were greater in areas where caribou calved in forested habitats, in close proximity to predators and moose. Caribou populations which had calving sites in alpine areas, islands, and rugged mountains experienced lower mortality and were generally stable or increasing. A predator-induced population decline in one area appeared to stabilize at low caribou densities, suggesting that the wolf predation rate may be density dependent.

  19. British view of Canadian general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, G N

    1971-02-06

    The Canadian general practitioner is remunerated by an item-of-service system of payment which encourages servicing demands rather than needs, discourages delegation of work to paramedical workers, and involves his staff in a massive amount of paper work. He has an excellent hospital attachment, which unfortunately is overdone. His community facilities are piecemeal and his office organization is rudimentary. There are few incentives for good general practice in the community. He spends an inordinate amount of time examining well people. The university departments of general practice are extremely good and much should be heard from them very quickly. The patient's attitude towards his doctor is quite different from the one prevailing currently in Britain.I returned happily to British general practice.

  20. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  1. Effect of developmental stage of unfed fry on survival and growth of steelhead released in a stream and hatchery ponds (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery and North Fork Palouse River; Stock: Dworshak hatchery; Year class: 1996): Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether differences in developmental stage of unfed fry at release affected subsequent survival and growth of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in a stream and hatchery ponds. Differences in development were created by artificially spawning hatchery steelhead from the Clearwater River, Idaho, and incubating their progeny at three different temperatures (means=10.9, 11.3, and 11.7°C). Time between fertilization and maximum alevin wet weight (MAWW) was predicted from incubation temperature using a model. MAWW is equivalent to the button - up fry stage of development. Developmental stages at release were “underdeveloped” (97.7% of model - predicted time to MAWW, mean weight=0.177 g, proportion yolk=0.087), “intermediate” (102.5%, 0.179 g, 0.044), and “overdeveloped” (107.9%, 0.156 g, 0.030). Neither survival nor growth in the hatchery to near the end of the standard one year rearing period differed among groups. In the stream, frequency of overdeveloped fish relative to the other two groups decreased fro m release in May to September, probably indicating lower survival for the overdeveloped fish during that interval since emigration of sub - yearlings is typically negligible. Length in September was less for overdeveloped than for intermediate fish and was in between for underdeveloped fish, suggesting that growth between May and September was less for overdeveloped fish than for intermediate fish. Although changes in relative frequency and size occurred among fry development groups from September to one ye ar later, those changes may have reflected differences in emigration rate during the interval rather than differential survival or growth. Our results show a cost to survival and growth in a stream, but not in a hatchery, from overdevelopment characterize d by loss of weight and yolk reserves relative to fry closer to MAWW at release. We didn’t find any cost from underdevelopment; however, our underdeveloped fry were closer to MAWW than the

  2. The Contradiction in the "Prevent Duty": Democracy vs "British Values"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolton, Suke

    2017-01-01

    The duty to monitor "the failure to uphold British Values" in the "Prevent" strategy, introduced in the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015, is itself an attack on British democracy. This article explains the contradictory nature of the "Prevent Duty." First, the current state of democracy in Britain is examined…

  3. The Politics of Britishness: Multiculturalism, Schooling and Social Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper is set against a backdrop of contemporary concerns about Britishness. It explores the dominant view that unprecedented levels of cultural diversity within western contexts such as the UK are undermining social cohesion and are attributable to minority groups' failure to connect or assimilate with mainstream "British" (read…

  4. Southern Cameroons' financial contributions to British Second World ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The serious damage done to the British economy during World War II compelled the leaders of the British Government to look for ways of repairing the damage. Hence, they turned to the colonies for help. Inter alia, they needed financial assistance because of their inability to pay for imports from the United States. Imports of ...

  5. The Relationship between British War Correspondents in the Field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article chronicles the developing relationship between the press corps on the British side and British Military Intelligence during the Anglo-Boer War, particularly during the formal and non-guerrilla phase of the conflict. The article comments on the nature and composition of both the press corps and of the military ...

  6. British and American Journal Evaluation: Divergence or Convergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewe, Ivor; Norris, Pippa

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a survey comparing British and U.S. political scientists' familiarity with different journals, evaluations of journal quality, and measures of journal impact. Concludes that British and U.S. subjects agree about quality but read different sets of journals. Reports the two groups' familiarity with different literature,…

  7. Malta Stockholm Syndrome (or why we love the British)

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Between 1798 and 1800, Malta changed hands three times. The feudal Knights were easily replaced by Napoleonic France, whom the Maltese initially welcomed, then revolted against a mere 82 days later ushering in the British Empire. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/malta-stockholm-syndrome-or-why-we-love-the-british/

  8. Editorial. Themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R J

    2014-03-01

    This themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology stems from the 7th in the series of meetings on the Molecular Pharmacology of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (MPGPCR) held at the Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Melbourne Australia from the 6th-8th December 2012. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Genesis of the Open Learning Institute of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Louise

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the history of distance education and provides historical background on the development of the Open Learning Institute in British Columbia. Topics addressed include the environment of British Columbia; expansion of higher education; political influences; and educational influences, including the role of Simon Fraser University. (Contains…

  10. Political Islam Under British Colonial Administration In Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most serious challenges faced by the British in the occupation of northern Nigeria was where and how to place Islam in the new dispensation. Islam provided the state structure and political machinery, which made it easy for British administrators to rule such a vast area through the Indirect Rule system. On the ...

  11. British Asians, Covert Racism and Exclusion in English Professional Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kilvington

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the exclusion of British Asians from English professional football. At present, there are eight British Asians with professional contracts out of over 4,000 players. This statistic is increasingly noteworthy when we consider that, first, football is extremely popular across British Asian groups and, second, Britain is home to over 4 million British Asians (the UK’s largest minority ethnic group. Following a brief introduction as well as a discussion of racisms, the work will provide an overview of the barriers that have excluded British Asian football communities from the professional ranks. In particular, I shall discuss some of the key obstacles including overt racism, ‘all-Asian’ football structures and cultural differences. However, the focus of this paper is to explore the impact and persist-ing nature of institutional racism within football. With the aid of oral testimonies, this work shall present British Asian experiences of covert racism in the game. I shall therefore demonstrate that coaches/scouts (as gatekeepers have a tendency to stereotype and racialize British Asian footballers, thus exacerbating the British Asian football exclusion. Finally, the article will offer policy recommendations for reform. These recommendations, which have come out of primary and secondary research, aspire to challenge institutional racism and combat inequalities within the game.

  12. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study…

  13. BCASP and the Evolution of School Psychology in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1992, the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP) has been the professional body for school psychologists in British Columbia. In the intervening 24 years, BCASP has been very successful in performing the dual roles of a certifying body and a professional development organization for school psychologists in British…

  14. British Columbia log export policy: historical review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig W. Shinn

    1993-01-01

    Log exports have been restricted in British Columbia for over 100 years. The intent of the restriction is to use the timber in British Columbia to encourage development of forest industry, employment, and well-being in the Province. Logs have been exempted from the within-Province manufacturing rule at various times, in varying amounts, for different reasons, and by...

  15. The British scorched earth and concentration camp policies in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The continued military resistance of the Republics after the occupation of Bloemfontein and Pretoria and exaggerated by the advent of guerrilla tactics frustrated the British High Command. In the case of the Potchefstroom region, British aggravation came to focus on the successful resurgence of the Potchefstroom ...

  16. Hidden survival heterogeneity of three Common eider populations in response to climate fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéry, Loreleï; Descamps, Sébastien; Pradel, Roger; Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Gilchrist, H Grant; Bêty, Joël

    2017-05-01

    Understanding how individuals and populations respond to fluctuations in climatic conditions is critical to explain and anticipate changes in ecological systems. Most such studies focus on climate impacts on single populations without considering inter- and intra-population heterogeneity. However, comparing geographically dispersed populations limits the risk of faulty generalizations and helps to improve ecological and demographic models. We aimed to determine whether differences in migration tactics among and within populations would induce inter- or intra-population heterogeneity in survival in relation to winter climate fluctuations. Our study species was the Common eider (Somateria mollissima), a marine duck with a circumpolar distribution, which is strongly affected by climatic conditions during several phases of its annual cycle. Capture-mark-recapture data were collected in two arctic (northern Canada and Svalbard) and one subarctic (northern Norway) population over a period of 18, 15, and 29 years respectively. These three populations have different migration tactics and experience different winter climatic conditions. Using multi-event and mixture modelling, we assessed the association between adult female eider survival and winter conditions as measured by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. We found that winter weather conditions affected the survival of female eiders from each of these three populations. However, different mechanisms seemed to be involved. Survival of the two migrating arctic populations was impacted directly by changes in the NAO, whereas the subarctic resident population was affected by the NAO with time lags of 2-3 years. Moreover, we found evidence for intra-population heterogeneity in the survival response to the winter NAO in the Canadian eider population, where individuals migrate to distinct wintering areas. Our results illustrate how individuals and populations of the same species can vary in their responses to

  17. Minding the body: psychotherapy and cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, David

    2014-09-01

    This article reviews evidence regarding effects of psychotherapy on overall cancer survival time. Special emphasis is given to research on adverse effects of depression on cancer survival, breast cancer, and mediating psychophysiological pathways linking psychosocial support to longer survival. It reviews all published clinical trials addressing effects of psychotherapy on cancer survival, emphasizing depression, breast cancer, and psychophysiological evidence linking stress, depression, and support to cancer survival. Systematic literature review and synthesis. Eight of 15 published trials indicate that psychotherapy enhances cancer survival time. No studies show an adverse effect of psychotherapy on cancer survival. Potential psychophysiological mechanisms linking stress to shorter survival include dysregulation of diurnal cortisol, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, reduced natural killer cell activity, shorter telomeres and lower telomerase activity, glucocorticoid-mediated suppression of p53 and BrCA1 gene expression, and sympathetic nervous system activation of vascular endothelial growth factor. Stress and support affect the course of cancer progression. What is known? Stress and support have been thought to be related to cancer risk and progression, but evidence has been mixed. Depression is a natural co-morbid condition with cancer. It has not been clear how stress and support could physiologically affect the rate of cancer progression. Immune function was not thought to have much relevance to cancer progression. Few other physiological mechanisms linking stress to cancer progression were known. What does this paper add? There is evidence from 15 RCTs indicating that effective psychosocial support improves quantity as well as quality of life with cancer. There is evidence that chronic depression predicts poorer prognosis with cancer. Dysregulated circadian cortisol patterns predict more rapid cancer progression. Inflammatory processes affect cancer

  18. The Planetary Consciousness of British Travel Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, H.

    2013-04-01

    Global travel, advanced in the early 20th century by trains, automobiles, and airplanes, transformed modernist thought and experience. Stephen Kern has commented that in the modern period “a series of sweeping changes in technology and culture created distinctive new modes of thinking about and experiencing of time and space. Technological innovations including the telephone, wireless telegraph, x-ray, cinema, bicycle, automobile, and airplane established the material foundation for this reorientation.” (1983, pp. 1-2). Emerging travel technologies not only hurled passengers through multiple time zones in a day but also brought to the fore a global awareness regarding Earth as a globe in space and one's position on it. As early as 1909, while traveling in Florence, Virginia Woolf had noted in her diary, “It is strange how one begins to hold a globe in one's head: I can travel from Florence to Fitzroy Square on solid land all the time” (1984, p. 399). This paper traces the ways modernist British travel writers challenged England's geographical and geopolitical imagination at the turn of the 20th century through their travel narratives.

  19. The Fractured Nature of British Politics

    CERN Document Server

    Molinero, Carlos; Smith, Duncan; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of the British General Election to be held in just over one week's time is widely regarded as the most difficult in living memory to predict. Current polls suggest that the two main parties are neck and neck but that there will be a landslide to the Scottish Nationalist Party with that party taking most of the constituencies in Scotland. The Liberal Democrats are forecast to loose more than half their seats and the fringe parties of whom the UK Independence Party is the biggest are simply unknown quantities. Much of this volatility relates to long-standing and deeply rooted cultural and nationalist attitudes that relate to geographical fault lines that have been present for 500 years or more but occasionally reveal themselves, at times like this. In this paper our purpose is to raise the notion that these fault lines are critical to thinking about regionalism, nationalism and the hierarchy of cities in Great Britain (excluding Northern Ireland). We use a percolation method (Arcaute et al. 2015) to...

  20. Unity is strength: staff college and the British officer corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthony

    2009-03-01

    Utilizing Bourdieu's concept of the habitus, Keith Macdonald has recently examined the elite social origins of the British officer corps. His analysis is valid as far at it goes but it ignores the professional practices of British officers. This article examines Britain's Joint Services Command and Staff College to assess the unification of the three services around common forms of military practice. It argues that while the new staff college has been effective in disseminating new forms of professional expertise among British officers, various practices have been institutionalized which actively undermine the unity of the officer corps.

  1. British participation in the first Solvay Councils on physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of the makeup and contributions of the British contingents to the first two Solvay Councils can elucidate the character of British mathematical physics and its internal dynamics at a critical time in its development. The paper provides this analysis, outlines the process of selection of the participants, parses the meaning of "international" in the Solvay context, and offers an explanation of the differential attendance of the British at the two Councils. Most of those invited to the first refused whereas all but one of those invited to the second accepted. The unusual social and scientific views of Ernest Solvay help to explain this divergence.

  2. Affective norms for 210 British English and Finnish nouns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eilola, Tiina M; Havelka, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    .... The norms were collected with 135 native British English and 304 native Finnish speakers, who rated the words according to their emotional valence, emotional charge, offensiveness, concreteness, and familiarity...

  3. British Columbia, Canada Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  4. British Columbia 3 arc-second Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second British Columbia DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM covers the coastal area...

  5. Genre Categorization in Contemporary British and US-American Novels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ceia, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In his article "Genre Categorization in Contemporary British and US-American Novels" Carlos Ceia discusses a certain type of resistance to genre categorization in many novels in contemporary literature...

  6. Malaysia as the Archetypal Garden in the British Creative Imagination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmad, Siti Nuraishah

    2014-01-01

    ...) of Malaysia as a garden. In order to ascertain the ways in which the garden archetype has been deployed by the British creative imagination in the past and the present, novels from the colonial and postcolonial periods...

  7. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic was produced for Anegada, British Virgin Islands, from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements...

  8. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A seamless (bare earth and submerged) topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for a portion of the submerged environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands, was...

  9. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data for a portion of the environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  10. ENCYCLOPEDIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LINGUISTIC PERSONALITY TYPE "THE BRITISH QUEEN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ирина Александровна Мурзинова

    2014-01-01

    .... The author examines a set of semantic characteristics that make up the encyclopedic area of the linguistic personality type "the British Queen", a concept of a typified personality, actualized...

  11. Geology of British Columbia: a journey through time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cannings, Sydney G; Nelson, JoAnne; Cannings, Richard

    2011-01-01

    "In this completely updated edition of the bestselling Geology of British Columbia, authors Sydney Cannings, JoAnne Nelson and Richard Cannings describe the various geological forces that have created...

  12. Shared Concerns: Thoughts on British Literature and British Music in the Long Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Allis

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available As part of the growth of interdisciplinary studies, a number of recent writings have focused upon links between music and literature in the long nineteenth century. In addition to the general significance of music in the work of individual authors and poets, scholars have highlighted particular imagery used in the literary representation of music (charting its effect on narrative and characterisation, and explored the literary reception of several composers. Within this growing body of literature, references to nineteenth- and early twentieth-century British music are significant by their absence. This article therefore aims to redress the balance by suggesting that there are connections between British music and literature in this period, and that these connections are significant. A number of approaches are discussed to highlight their potential, including composer-author affinities, collaborations, generic parallels, hidden narratives, and the suggestion that musical settings of texts can represent critical ‘readings' of those texts. A range of examples (with musical illustrations and sound clips suggest how this particular interdisciplinary focus can lead to the reassessment of individual musical and literary works, and help to explore wider cultural connections within the Victorian and Edwardian era.

  13. Society and the British Army: Implications for Fighting Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    British one accepts some diversity, but within a tightly bounded community that insists on much conformity. In such an organisation , individualism, self...Used to ‘Bridge the Gap’ between the Attitudes and Culture of British Army Recruits and the Army’s Organisational Culture?” (Master’s diss...of military authority combines coercive and hierarchical elements typical of a military organization with ‘group consensus ’ and persuasive forms of

  14. Cultural change and lodestones in the British Police

    OpenAIRE

    Grint, Keith

    2017-01-01

    • Purpose: This Research Paper considers a challenge to an occupational jurisdiction in the British police. Historically, street cops have defended the importance of operational credibility as a way of sustaining the value of experience, and inhibiting attempts to introduce external leaders. This has generated a particular form of policing and leadership that is deemed by the British government as inadequate to face the problems of the next decade. \\ud • Design: The project used the High Pote...

  15. ABC: A Franco-British Intra-Group Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    John, Innes; Pierre, Mevellec; University of Dundee; University of Nantes

    1994-01-01

    This case study describes the implementation of ABC in two factories within the one British multinational group in France and Britain. It also explores the similarities and differences between the assessment, implementation and use of the ABC system in these two factories. The French managers assessed ABC with the major objective of product costing whereas in the British factory ABC was used mainly for cost management. However, it is important to realise that the French homogeneous cost pools...

  16. The Civilisers, British Engineers, Imperialism and Africa 1880-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    2009-01-01

    The thesis analyses the connections between British civil engineers and British imperialism in the period 1880-1914. The thesis works at the intersection of intellectual history, history of technology, and imperial history. The thesis argues that Britain and the Empire should be studied as an int......' through which knowledge circulated, people travelled, and through which trust and authority was negotiated. It is furthermore a contribution to the cultural and intellectual history of engineering....

  17. British-Zionist Military Cooperation in Palestine, 1917-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. Saleh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the British military and security formula in Palestine was the smooth establishment of the Jewish national home with minimum costs of lives and money. However, this British pro-Zionist policy created a continuous security problem, and opened the door to all possibilities of Palestinian revolts and uprisings of both national and religious nature. The British were very active in disarming the Arabs and adopted stringent measures to crush their uprisings and revolts. But, they turned a blind eye to the Jewish arms smuggling and Jewish military organizations, especially, the Hagana, which later became the backbone of the Israeli Army. During Palestinian uprisings of 1920, 1921 and 1929 against the Zionists, most of the Palestinian casualties were inflicted by the British forces despite the fact that the Palestinians avoided attacking the British. The British-Zionist cooperation reached its peak during the Palestinian revolt of 1936-1939, and took different forms, including allowing the Jews to establish a military force of twenty two thousand men under the pretext of protecting the Jewish community.

  18. Historical Meadow Dynamics in Southwest British Columbia: a Multidisciplinary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Lepofsky

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent encroachment of woody species threatening many western North American meadows has been attributed to diverse factors. We used a suite of methods in Chittenden Meadow, southwestern British Columbia, Canada, to identify the human, ecological, and physical factors responsible for its historical dynamics and current encroachment by woody vegetation. We evaluated three hypotheses about the origin and processes maintaining the meadow: the meadow is (1 of recent human origin; (2 of ancient human origin, maintained by aboriginal burning; and (3 of ancient non-human origin, not maintained by aboriginal burning. Our data supported the idea that the meadow had ancient non-human origins and its recent history and current status have resulted from complex interactions among landform, climate, and fire. Soil properties (both horizonation and charcoal content indicate that the meadow is of ancient, non-human origin. Tree ages in the meadow and surrounding forest indicate that encroachment is recent, not related to a variety of recent human activities, and is probably a result of increasing spring temperature and decreasing spring snow depth. Although ethnographic surveys and historical documents revealed indigenous use of the general area over millennia, including the use of fire as a management tool, we found little direct evidence of indigenous use of the meadow. However, there was no proxy record of fire frequency in the meadow that we could have used to determine the role of fire in maintaining the meadow in the past, or the role of humans in igniting those fires. Thus, the historical role of humans in the maintenance of the meadow by prescribed fire remains indeterminate. Based on these conclusions, we combined hypotheses (2 and (3 into an a posteriori hypothesis that reflects changing interactions among people, fire, and climate over time. Without management intervention, we expect that tree encroachment will continue. Several general lessons

  19. Explaining British Political Stability After 1832

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donagh Davis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Though not its main focus, Goldstone's Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World (1991 threw considerable new light on 19th century Europe's revolutions and near-revolutions. While Goldstone stresses the role of an expanding and industrializing economy in absorbing 19th century England's demographic shocks, we accept this analysis but argue alongside it for similar attention to the vector of emigration, settler-colonialism, and imperial state expansion into which at least some of the exhaust fumes of the population explosion were vented. Furthermore, it is important to note the crucial role of a highly interventionist state and 'big' government in the background to these dynamics—a far cry from the light-touch, laissez-faire qualities with which the 19th century British state is often associated. To make our case, this article takes advantage of secondary literature and raw data not available prior to the publication of Goldstone's book. Of crucial importance here is our unique dataset of fatality-inducing political violence events in Britain and Ireland from 1785 to 1900. This is the first research paper to utilise this dataset. We draw upon this in the following section, which seeks to establish what the real level of political instability was in 19th century Britain—thus cross-referencing Goldstone's account with more recent data—before moving on in the following section to a more detailed overview of the socio-economic conditions underlying events at the political level. This is followed by our account of the emigration-settler-colonialism-imperial state expansion vector and the interventionist state policy behind it, which we argue was crucial to making 19th century Britain relatively 'revolution-proof'—alongside the expanding economic opportunities rightly highlighted by Goldstone. Lastly come our brief concluding remarks, which lay out the implications, as we see them, of this article's findings for research on

  20. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenco Grant

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates the commonalities in ethnoveterinary medicine used for horses between Trinidad (West Indies and British Columbia (Canada. These research areas are part of a common market in pharmaceuticals and are both involved in the North American racing circuit. There has been very little research conducted on medicinal plants used for horses although their use is widespread. The data on ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses was obtained through key informant interviews with horse owners, trainers, breeders, jockeys, grooms and animal care specialists in two research areas: Trinidad and British Columbia (BC. A participatory validation workshop was held in BC. An extensive literature review and botanical identification of the plants was also done. In all, 20 plants were found to be used in treating racehorses in Trinidad and 97 in BC. Of these the most-evidently effective plants 19 of the plants used in Trinidad and 66 of those used in BC are described and evaluated in this paper. Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ricinus communis are used in both research areas. More research is needed in Trinidad to identify plants that respondents claimed were used in the past. Far more studies have been conducted on the temperate and Chinese medicinal plants used in BC and therefore these ethnoveterinary remedies reflect stronger evidence of efficacy.

  1. Applicability of NASA Polar Technologies to British Antarctic Survey Halley VI Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    From 1993 through 1997 NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF), developed a variety of environmental infrastructure technologies for use at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. The objective of this program was to reduce the cost of operating the South Pole Station, reduce the environmental impact of the Station, and to increase the quality of life for Station inhabitants. The result of this program was the development of a set of sustainability technologies designed specifically for Polar applications. In the intervening eight years many of the technologies developed through this program have been commercialized and tested in extreme environments and are now available for use throughout Antarctica and circumpolar north. The objective of this document is to provide information covering technologies that might also be applicable to the British Antarctic Survey s (BAS) proposed new Halley VI Research Station. All technologies described are commercially available.

  2. In-hospital resuscitation: opioids and other factors influencing survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamarie Fecho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Karamarie Fecho1, Freeman Jackson1, Frances Smith1, Frank J Overdyk21Department of Anesthesiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA; 2Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USAPurpose: “Code Blue” is a standard term used to alertt hospital staff that a patient requires resuscitation. This study determined rates of survival from Code Blue events and the role of opioids and other factors on survival.Methods: Data derived from medical records and the Code Blue and Pharmacy databases were analyzed for factors affecting survival.Results: During 2006, rates of survival from the code only and to discharge were 25.9% and 26.4%, respectively, for Code Blue events involving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; N = 216. Survival rates for events not ultimately requiring CPR (N = 77 were higher, with 32.5% surviving the code only and 62.3% surviving to discharge. For CPR events, rates of survival to discharge correlated inversely with time to chest compressions and defibrillation, precipitating event, need for airway management, location and age. Time of week, witnessing, postoperative status, gender and opioid use did not influence survival rates. For non-CPR events, opioid use was associated with decreased survival. Survival rates were lowest for patients receiving continuous infusions (P < 0.01 or iv boluses of opioids (P < 0.05.Conclusions: One-quarter of patients survive to discharge after a CPR Code Blue event and two-thirds survive to discharge after a non-CPR event. Opioids may influence survival from non-CPR events.Keywords: code blue, survival, opioids, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, cardiac arrest, patient safety

  3. Temporal genetic variation of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes, across western Europe and the British Isles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J.; Soulsbury, Carl D.; Statham, Mark J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Wall, Dave; Dolf, Gaudenz; Iossa, Graziella; Baker, Phillip J.; Harris, Stephen; Sacks, Benjamin N.; Bradley, Daniel G.

    2012-12-01

    Quaternary climatic fluctuations have had profound effects on the phylogeographic structure of many species. Classically, species were thought to have become isolated in peninsular refugia, but there is limited evidence that large, non-polar species survived outside traditional refugial areas. We examined the phylogeographic structure of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), a species that shows high ecological adaptability in the western Palaearctic region. We compared mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b and control region) from 399 modern and 31 ancient individuals from across Europe. Our objective was to test whether red foxes colonised the British Isles from mainland Europe in the late Pleistocene, or whether there is evidence that they persisted in the region through the Last Glacial Maximum. We found red foxes to show a high degree of phylogeographic structuring across Europe and, consistent with palaeontological and ancient DNA evidence, confirmed via phylogenetic indicators that red foxes were persistent in areas outside peninsular refugia during the last ice age. Bayesian analyses and tests of neutrality indicated population expansion. We conclude that there is evidence that red foxes from the British Isles derived from central European populations that became isolated after the closure of the landbridge with Europe.

  4. First record of Lagocephalus laevigatus (Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodontidae) from Galician waters (north-west Spain), a northernmost occurrence in the north-east Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañón, R; Santás, V

    2011-05-01

    The first record of the smooth puffer Lagocephalus laevigatus from Galician waters (north-west Spain) is reported. Three possible mechanisms of introduction of the specimen are considered: natural displacement, the aquarist trade and transport in ballast water. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Part II: Muslims perceptions of British cobat troops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Ahmed; Carrick, Frederick R; Zaman, Rashid; Hughes, Jamie Hacker

    2017-09-01

    On the 22nd May 2017, suicide bomber Salman Abedi detonated an improvised explosive device (IED) in the Manchester Arena killing 22 people and injuring 116 others. Following the 'massacre in Manchester', the leader of the Labour Party, Jeremy Corbyn, linked UK foreign policy with terrorism on British soil. Controversial and contentious though Corbyn's claims may be, the terrorists themselves have also reported that what motivates them to carry out their abominable atrocities are British military operations in Muslim majority countries. Indeed, on the 22nd May 2013, British serviceman, Lee Rigby, was brutally attacked and killed by Michael Adebolajo and Michael Adebowale near the Royal Artillery Barracks in Woolwich, southeast London. The perpetrators of this heinous act told passers-by at the scene that they wanted to avenge the killing of Muslims by the British Armed Forces. We conducted a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study on Muslim perceptions of British combat troops and UK foreign policy. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. We crafted a survey that explored Muslim perceptions of the British military and the government's foreign policy. Response items were on a Likert-scale and there was white space for free text comments which were subjected to thematic analyses. 75/75 (100%) of the participants recruited responded. (75/75 (100%) Muslim participants, 43/75 (57.3%) female participants, 32/75 (42.7%) male participants, mean age 20.5 years, (Std. Dev. ±2.5)). 66/75 (88%) of respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that British military operations in Muslim majority countries have negatively influenced perceptions towards combat troops. 42/75 (56%) of respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that contact with a combat troops or veterans would positively influence their perceptions towards them. Themes of free text comments included the role that the media plays in demonising Muslims, the transcendental bond that Muslims around the world

  6. English and the Survival of Multiculturalism: Teaching "Writing from Different Cultures and Traditions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article considers questions surrounding the teaching of writing "from different cultures and traditions", in the context of debates over multiculturalism in Britain today, and contends that English teachers have a vital role to play in the survival and flourishing of multicultural British society. In view of the self-consciously…

  7. British sociology and public intellectuals: consumer society and imperial decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bryan S

    2006-06-01

    The following is the lecture given for the BJS 2005 Public Sociology Debate given at the London School of Economics and Political Science on ll October 2005. This lecture on the character of British sociology provides a pretext for a more general inquiry into public intellectual life in postwar Britain. The argument put forward falls into several distinctive sections. First, British social science has depended heavily on the migration of intellectuals, especially Jewish intellectuals who were refugees from fascism. Second, intellectual innovation requires massive, disruptive, violent change. Third, British sociology did nevertheless give rise to a distinctive tradition of social criticism in which one can argue there were (typically home-grown) public intellectuals. The main theme of their social criticism was to consider the constraining and divisive impact of social class, race and gender on the enjoyment of expanding social citizenship. Fourth, postwar British sociology came to be dominated by the analysis of an affluent consumer society. Finally, the main failure of British sociology in this postwar period was the absence of any sustained, macro-sociological analysis of the historical decline of Britain as a world power in the twentieth century.

  8. British auditors in Poland in the interwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Cieślik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of historical research on the operation of British accounting firm Whin-ney, Murray & Co in Poland before World War II. Based on our findings this was the only foreign ac-counting firm active in Poland at that time. Following their clients, British accounting firms expanded their operations abroad at the turn of the 19th century. During the 1920s and 1930s the number of audit assignments on the European continent increased rapidly, which necessitated the establishment of branches (offices in major European cities and industrial districts. Whinney, Murray & Co set up an office in Warsaw in 1932 taking into account its convenient location as a base for undertaking audit assignments throughout the Eastern European region. The Warsaw office concentrated initially on inter-national clients active in Poland but was also engaged in audits of Polish power plants and participated as financial advisor in the electrification program of Polish railways with involvement of British investors. Whinney, Murray & Co contributed to the development of Polish-British economic cooperation before World War II. Its representative was one of the founders of the Polish-British Chamber of Commerce established in Warsaw in 1933.

  9. [North] Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    The Yemen Arab Republic, also called North Yemen, is a small republic on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula facing the Red Sea. Yemen has a temperate interior suitable for agriculture. 8.7 million people of Semetic Arab origin are growing at a rate of 3.1% yearly. The infant mortality rate is 173/1000; the life expectancy is 44 years, and the per capita income is about $550. Yemen was once self-sufficient in food production, exporting fine coffee. Years of civil wars, emigration to Saudi Arabia for work, production of the cash crop "qat" for internal consumption, and the recent drought have contributed to the decline of agriculture. Yemen's economy is maintained by foreign aid from Saudi Arabia, the Soviet Union, China, and the United States. U.S. aid has centered around food, roads and other development projects and primary health care such as immunization and reduction of child mortality.

  10. British Minister over the moon after visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson MP, recently visited CERN. Ian Pearson, UK Minister for Science and Innovation (back row, third left), in the LHC tunnel with Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson (back row, centre), John Ellis (back row, third right), Simon Featherstone, UK Ambassador to Switzerland (back row, far left), Keith Mason, Chief Executive of STFC (the UK funding agency) (back row, second from right), and British scientists working at ATLAS.On the 15 April UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson, made his first trip to CERN. The UK is one of the founding Member States of CERN, and the British contingent is one of the largest of any country with around 650 British scientists and a further 250 staff members working here. After an introduction to the facilities by Director-General Robert Aymar, who expressed CERN’s gratitude for UK government support through its Science and Technology Facilitie...

  11. Electricity and Empire in 1920s Palestine under British Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Ronen

    2016-12-01

    This article examines some techno-political aspects of the early years of electrification in British-ruled 1920s Palestine. It emphasizes the importance of local technical, topographical and hydrological forms of knowledge for understanding the dynamics of electrification. Situating the analysis in a general colonial context of electrification, the study shows that British colonial rulers lagged behind both German firms and local entrepreneurs in understanding the specific conditions pertaining to electrification in Palestine. Subsequently, the study shows that the British had limited control of the actual electrification process and its declared/professed developmental purposes, thereby complicating assumptions about electrification as a tool of the Empire/tool of empire. Finding some similarities between the cases of electrifying Palestine and India, the article's findings may shed further light on the importance of micro-politics of knowledge for understanding the trajectory of electrification in the colonies.

  12. Postponement and childlessness - Evidence from two British cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Joshi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts by reviewing existing projections of childlessness among British men and women. Low current fertility implies high eventual childlessness unless the postponement of parenthood is taken into account. Such re-timing of first births appears to be occurring differentially across social groups. Exploiting the disaggregated evidence of two British cohort studies, the 1958 National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Survey, this paper investigates the extent of postponement across cohorts and projects its impact on eventual levels of childlessness. Men and women are considered separately in our models of a population stratified by educational attainment. We find the most striking postponement occurring among graduate men. Among graduate women, after taking family building intentions into account, we estimate that about a quarter of 1970 born graduate women will remain childless, rather than something nearer 40 per cent as had been conjectured elsewhere.

  13. Coral microatoll as geodetic tool in North Andaman and Little ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coral microatolls were examined from North Andaman and Little Andaman to understand the relative sea level change due to vertical tectonic deformation above the subduction interface.The highest level of survival of coral microatoll before the 26 December,2004 earthquake at eastern coast of North Andaman has been ...

  14. North Atlantic storm driving of extreme wave heights in the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. J.; Gray, S. L.; Jones, O. P.

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between storms and extreme ocean waves in the North Sea is assessed using a long-period wave data set and storms identified in the Interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim). An ensemble sensitivity analysis is used to provide information on the spatial and temporal forcing from mean sea-level pressure and surface wind associated with extreme ocean wave height responses. Extreme ocean waves in the central North Sea arise due to intense extratropical cyclone winds from either the cold conveyor belt (northerly-wind events) or the warm conveyor belt (southerly-wind events). The largest wave heights are associated with northerly-wind events which tend to have stronger wind speeds and occur as the cold conveyor belt wraps rearward round the cyclone to the cold side of the warm front. The northerly-wind events provide a larger fetch to the central North Sea to aid wave growth. Southerly-wind events are associated with the warm conveyor belts of intense extratropical cyclones that develop in the left upper tropospheric jet exit region. Ensemble sensitivity analysis can provide early warning of extreme wave events by demonstrating a relationship between wave height and high pressure to the west of the British Isles for northerly-wind events 48 h prior. Southerly-wind extreme events demonstrate sensitivity to low pressure to the west of the British Isles 36 h prior.

  15. [Comparison of British and French expatriate doctors' characteristics and motivations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, R; Carnet, D; D'Athis, P; Fiet, C; Le Breton, G; Romestaing, M; Quantin, C

    2015-02-01

    Migration of medical practitioners is rarely studied despite its importance in medical demography: the objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics and motivations of the French doctors settled in the United Kingdom and of the British doctors settled in France. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-completed questionnaire sent to all French doctors practicing in the United Kingdom (in 2005) and all British medicine doctors practicing in France (in 2009). The doctors were identified with official data from the National Medical Councils: 244 French doctors practicing in the United Kingdom and 86 British doctors practicing in France. The questionnaire was specifically developed to determine the reasons of moving to the other country, and the level of satisfaction after expatriation. A total of 98 French doctors (out of 244) and 40 British doctors (out of 86) returned the questionnaire. Respondents were mainly general practitioners with a professional experience of 8 to 9 years. The sex ratio was near 1 for both groups with a majority of women among physicians under 50 years. The motivations were different between groups: French doctors were attracted by the conditions offered at the National Health Service, whereas British doctors were more interested in opportunities for career advancement, joining husband or wife, or favourable environmental conditions. Overall, the respondents considered expatriation as satisfactory: 84% of French doctors, compared with only 58% of British doctors, were satisfied with their new professional situation. This study, the first in its kind, leads to a clearer understanding of the migration of doctors between France and the United Kingdom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Manual of engineering drawing to British and international standards

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Colin H; Maguire, Dennis E

    2004-01-01

    The Manual of Engineering Drawing has long been recognised as the student and practising engineer's guide to producing engineering drawings that comply with ISO and British Standards. The information in this book is equally applicable to any CAD application or manual drawing. The second edition is fully in line with the requirements of the new British Standard BS8888: 2002, and will help engineers, lecturers and students with the transition to the new standards.BS8888 is fully based on the relevant ISO standards, so this book is also ideal for an international readership. The comprehen

  17. Disability management: The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Harder

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC is a Crown Corporation created by the Provincial Government in 1974 to provide compulsory auto insurance. It is a common-law or tort system with 'add-on' no-fault provisions (medical/rehabilitation and disability benefits. ICBC insures 2 million British Columbia (BC residents and pays out over $2 billion (Cdn. in claims annually. One billion of this is for injury claims. Currently, one percent of these claims are catastrophic losses (paraplegic, quadriplegic, traumatic brain injury with the remainder being non-catastrophic claims. Seventy percent of these non-catastrophic claims are soft tissue (primarily whiplash injuries.

  18. Religion, Archaeology, and Social Relations: A Study of the Practice of Quakerism and Caribbean Slavery in the Eighteenth-Century British Virgin Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Chenoweth, John Martin

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation considers the social construction and negotiation of religion in a particular place and time: a small, relatively poor cotton plantation in the British Virgin Islands in the eighteenth century. Due to a rich record of archival documents and historical writings, we know that religion, race, class, and other forces of identification were at play on this site, but the specifics of many of the players--their relationships and worldviews--do not survive in texts. To reconstruct...

  19. Diseases in North Sea fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethlefsen, V.

    1984-03-01

    Prior to the studies reviewed here, only lymphocystis and skeletal deformities of a variety of fish species and certain diseases of eel were known to occur in the German Bight (North Sea). From 1977 until now, 9 externally visible lesions on North Sea fishes were observed; in addition to those mentioned before, they comprise: fin rot, ulcerations, epidermal papilloma, hyperplasia, pseudobranchial tumour, eye diseases and gill swellings. With the exception of information on changes in frequencies of vertebral deformities of herring from the 1950's to the 1970's, there are no long-term data characterizing changes in frequencies of the diseases under study. For pseudobranchial tumours of cod and epidermal papilloma of dab, information is provided on occurrence and abundance. The distribution pattern of cod afflicted with pseudobranchial tumours is strongly influenced by the migratory behaviour of the fish. Epidermal papillomas of dab were more frequently found at stations within the inner German Bight than in neighbouring areas. The Bight is used for dumping of wastes from titaniumdioxide production. Further disease hot spots are areas off the Humber estuary and the British coast. Analysis of chromium in dab from the German Bight revealed elevated concentrations in epidermal tissues of specimens from the dumping area compared with that found in dab from neighbouring localities. Particulate iron was demonstrated to occur in mucous cells of dab from the dumping area. From increased levels of heavy metals with cancerogenic potential in sensitive target tissues and from increased prevalences of diseased fish in the dumping area it is concluded that these phenomena are possibly causally linked. In the vicinity of the Humber estuary high disease rates were encountered and areas with high prevalences of dab afflicted with epidermal papilloma extended over regions shown to be transport routes for persistent pollutants such as radioactive materials. It is therefore suggested

  20. Nepal: Quest for Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-02

    However, in spite of a treaty ending the conflict , the threat of Nepal was not removed. The British, despite their eventual success, realized the...block in regional conflict is illustrated by her strong faith in the non-aligned movement and the proposal of Nepal as a "Zone of Peace.* In spite of...Narendra-deva’s successor established matrimonial alliance with the Indian princess. The Licchavis rule in Kathmandu is thus something of a bridge

  1. THE DECLINE OF BRITISH SHIPBUILDING: NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT AND THE SCOTT LITHGOW COMPANY 1960-1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Philip Connors

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of British industrial decline since 1945 has focused on whether the decline was relative or an absolute process. As a British industry, shipbuilding illustrates many contradictions inherent in both views; although overtaken by Japanese competition from the mid 1950’s, between 1945-1973 the output and productivity of British shipbuilding increased faster than at any point previously. This paper will discuss the role of the state in this process by using the negotiations between government and the Scott Lithgow shipyard in Scotland concerning the market for 250,000-ton crude oil carriers as an example, demonstrating that the agency of both management and government influenced the eventual outcome more than prevailing market conditions of the time.

  2. Phytophthora ramorum detections in Canada: Evidence for migration within North America and from Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.M. Goss; M. Larsen; A. Vercauteren; S. Werres; K. Heungens; N.J. Grünwald

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, the cause of sudden oak death on oak and ramorum blight on woody ornamentals, has been reported in ornamental nurseries on the West Coast of North America from British Columbia to California. Long-distance migration of P. ramorum has occurred via the nursery trade, and shipments of host plants are known to...

  3. Distinction among North Atlantic cod Gadus morhua stocks by tissue fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensen, H; Grahl-Nielsen, O

    2014-06-01

    The fatty acid (FA) profiles of the white muscle and heart tissues of cod Gadus morhua from five locations, Faroe Bank, Faroe Plateau, North-West Iceland, Norway-Barents Sea and Denmark-Skagerrak, were population dependent. The interregional differences of FAs were significantly dissimilar (P Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  5. Learning to Be. A Perspective from British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, Judy; Kaser, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how "learning to be", with a specific focus on social-emotional competencies, has become part of the educational mindset--and educational policy--in British Columbia, Canada. The development of a set of learning progressions for social responsibility, an emphasis on social emotional learning in the new curriculum…

  6. Educational Developments in the British West Indies: A Historical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Chad O.

    2012-01-01

    Formal education within the English-speaking Caribbean Community (CARICOM) may be traced back to the establishment of Codrington grammar school in Barbados in 1743. After more than two centuries of British colonial rule the educational systems within CARICOM states continue to reflect the academic traditions of their former colonizer. Prior to…

  7. Segmentation of British Sign Language (BSL): Mind the gap!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orfanidou, E.; McQueen, J.M.; Adam, R.; Morgan, G.

    2015-01-01

    This study asks how users of British Sign Language (BSL) recognize individual signs in connected sign sequences. We examined whether this is achieved through modality-specific or modality-general segmentation procedures. A modality-specific feature of signed languages is that, during continuous

  8. Afrikaans, American and British models for South African English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is rooted in the British tradition, its possible evolution on the American model is demonstrated, and thus the role of the dictionary in a postcolonial community is briefly discussed. Keywords: lexicography, dictionary, definition, social labeling, race, racism, ethnicity, english, south africa, afrikaans, epithets, usage labels ...

  9. A Pragmatic Study of Exaggeration in British and American Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Qassim; Al-Tufaili, Dhayef

    2016-01-01

    The main concern of this study is to tackle exaggeration in British and American situations taken from "Mrs. Dalloway" and "The Great Gatsby" novels. From a pragmatic point of view, exaggeration in the field of literature has not been given enough attention. Accordingly, this study is an attempt to develop a model for the…

  10. Graduate Evaluation of British Higher Education Courses: An Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The retrospective evaluations of their degree courses by 8,948 British 1980 graduates suggested 2 routes of analysis--one based on respondents' satisfaction in becoming an educated person and one based on satisfaction in acquiring an interesting job with a good income. Graduates differed according to the relative importance of the route used. (DB)

  11. Tax Collection in Northern Ghana during British Colonail Rule (1898 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information was also gathered from some chiefs and educationists who hail from the area, and from University dons who have provided written material about the area. Other relevant secondary source material, such as from books, enriched the study. The study found out that the British imposed levies on the caravan transit ...

  12. During the British Antarctic Survey's Offshore Biological Programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    During the British Antarctic Survey's Offshore. Biological Programme (latterly Pelagic Ecosystem. Studies Programme), two specimens of a cephalopod belonging to the squid family Chiroteuthidae were caught in the Scotia Sea by rectangular midwater trawl. (Baker et al. 1973). The material closely resembles. Chiroteuthis ...

  13. Interviewers' challenging questions in British broadcast debate interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, Sofie

    2007-01-01

    In recent years some British broadcast panel interviews take a particularly confrontational form. In these debate interviews, news seems to be generated as arguments provided by the interviewees who participate as protagonists of opposite positions. This paper will briefly attempt to show...

  14. Investigating Deaf Children's Vocabulary Knowledge in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Wolfgang; Marshall, Chloe

    2012-01-01

    This study explores different aspects of the mapping between phonological form and meaning of signs in British Sign Language (BSL) by means of four tasks to measure meaning recognition, form recognition, form recall, and meaning recall. The aim was to investigate whether there is a hierarchy of difficulty for these tasks and, therefore, whether…

  15. Deaf People as British Sign Language Teachers: Experiences and Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Martin; Barnes, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been undertaken into the profession of British Sign Language (BSL) teaching, despite a huge increase in the number of BSL classes offered over the past twenty years. Following the introduction of Qualified Teacher Learning and Skills standards in 2007, BSL teachers working in "further education" (FE) colleges were…

  16. The British Telecom radiopaging service in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports a new radiopaging service supplied by British Telecom that will eventually cover the whole United Kingdom. The use of this service by a three-man practice is described. The service is considered to be a major development in communications that will be of interest to most general practitioners. PMID:7328548

  17. British colonial rule and food crops production in Esan, Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After the conquest and imposition of colonial rule, the British authorities imposed new demands on the people; the production of raw materials such as rubber, palm oil and kernels among others. The production of these raw materials impeded the cultivation of food crop in Esan. This paper therefore, examines the factors ...

  18. Collecting Grey Literature : A British Library Lending Division Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillag, John

    Grey literature in its various aspects presents many problems for producers, intermediaries and end users. The paper describes the British Library Lending Division's activities in this field in the hope that organizations elsewhere will find some of them helpful in overcoming similar difficulties.

  19. Judging Risk: Key Determinants in British Domestic Violence Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Amanda L.; Howarth, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Data from the largest study to date of the working practices of British victim support workers (known as Independent Domestic Violence Advisors or IDVAs) are used to provide insight into how "risk judgments" are made in cases of domestic violence. Using data from more than 2,000 victims, this study found a convergence between actuarial…

  20. Understanding British Strategic Failure in America: 1780-1783

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-17

    subject to this country or independent.”10 With the clairvoyance of hindsight, however, the British decision to employ force in the spring of 1775 rested...warfare. He possessed the presence of mind and clairvoyance of thought to employ a hybrid combination of conventional and non-conventional methods in

  1. Delivery of genetic gain in the interior of British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albricht, M.

    2001-01-01

    The forest industry is important for the province of British Columbia, Canada. Timber harvest is regulated on a sustained yield basis. Productivity can be increased by enhanced reforestation, stand tending and tree improvement thus reducing the area needed to provide the required amount of

  2. The Dutch, French and British species of Psathyrella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kits van Waveren, E.

    1985-01-01

    The sole object of the present work is to furnish a monograph dealing exclusively with the species of the genus Psathyrella (exclusive of Lacrymaria, see Chapter VI) reported from the Netherlands, France and the British Isles. Ever since 1958 we intensively collected, described, depicted and stored

  3. Subordination Across Ghanaian And British Newspaper Editorials: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a corpus-based empirical study which argues in the light of the register theory that grammatical categories are functional and relate to their situational context of use. Using editorials from Ghanaian and British newspapers, this paper examined the usage dynamics and the functional motivations behind the use of ...

  4. Identifying British Army infantry recruit population characteristics using biographical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, M D; Arthur, A; Repper, J; Mukhuty, S; Fear, N T

    2016-04-01

    The infantry accounts for more than a quarter of the British Army but there is a lack of data about the social and educational background of its recruits. To provide an insight into British Army infantry recruits' personal, social and educational background prior to enlistment. The study sample consisted of infantry recruits who enlisted into the British Army School of Infantry. Each recruit completed a 95-item biographical questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample in terms of demographic, physical, personal, social and educational attributes. The study sample consisted of 1000 male recruits. Over half of the recruits were consuming alcohol at a hazardous or harmful level prior to enlistment and 60% of recruits had used cannabis prior to joining the Army. Academic attainment was low, with the majority of recruits achieving GCSE grade C and below in most subjects, with 15% not taking any examinations. Over half the recruits had been in trouble with the police and either been suspended or expelled from school. Substance misuse and poor behaviour are highly prevalent among recruits prior to enlistment. Taken alongside existing evidence that some of these problems are commonplace among personnel in regular service, the assumption that the British Army infantry is, in itself, a cause of these behaviours should be questioned. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. British army commisions by purchase | Usher | Scientia Militaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 4 (1978) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. British army commisions by purchase. HJ Dick ...

  6. Rethinking Apprenticeship Training in the British Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The British government continued intervention to support apprenticeship training across the economy has been notable in recent years. The construction industry is the only sector to retain a levy/grant scheme (that supports training including apprenticeships) since 1964, yet it still faces the problem of skills shortages. This article thus reviews…

  7. Health-adjusted life expectancy of the British population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.; van den Brink, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, changes in the quality of health-adjusted life expectancy of the British population between 1991 and 1998 are analysed. It is found that at all given age levels, life expectancy increased during this period. Life expectancy at birth increased by 1 year for women and by 1.5 years for

  8. British colonial administration, development of Islam and lslamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    British policy towards religion in colonial Africa was influenced by its intrinsic value to the maintenance of a very strong administration over the continent and achieving the socio-economic objectives Britain set itself at the beginning of its colonization. The Benin Kingdom had been largely untouched by any world religion ...

  9. Popular Music Pedagogy: Band Rehearsals at British Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There has been little published pedagogical research on popular music group rehearsing. This study explores the perceptions of tutors and student pop/rock bands about the rehearsals in which they were involved as a part of their university music course. The participants were 10 tutors and 16 bands from eight British tertiary institutions. Analysis…

  10. Ethnic, Gender and Class Intersections in British Women's Leadership Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showunmi, Victoria; Atewologun, Doyin; Bebbington, Diane

    2016-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to examine how gender and ethnicity influenced leadership experiences of a mixed ethnic sample of British women. An intersectional framework was used which took the viewpoint that socio-demographic identities should be considered simultaneously in order to challenge universalist, gender and ethnic neutral…

  11. Russian perceptions of the Boer and British Armies: An introduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Russian perceptions of the Boer and British Armies: An introduction through Russian documents. DR GENNADY SHUBIN. Institute for African Studies, Moscow. On the eve of the outbreak of the All'glo-Boer War in South Africa, Colonel. N.S. Yermolov, the Russian Military agent [attache] in London reported on October I,.

  12. British Columbia Library Network: A Study of Feasibility. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffner, Ralph M.; Madden, Mary A.

    This feasibility study was conducted to collect financial, operational, and other data concerning the alternatives of continuing with the University of Toronto Library Automation System (UTLAS), the present supplier of catalog support to the British Columbia Union Catalogue (BCUC) participating libraries, or of replicating the Washington Library…

  13. integration and disintegration in british colonial west africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usually attributed largely to the mood or the British public and parliament rather than to the ..... amongst Tribes hostile to each other. is a hot bed of intrigue. and from the ... arise which would seriously affect the interests or Lagos. In such an.

  14. Spanish listeners’ perception of American and Southern British English vowels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escudero, P.; Chládková, K.

    2010-01-01

    L2 studies demonstrate that learners differ in their speech perception patterns. Recent explanations attribute this variation to the different initial stages with which learners start their L2 development. Spanish listeners' categorization of Standard Southern British English and American English

  15. Motherhood, Choice and the British Media: A Time to Reflect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, L.; Rudoe, N.; Sanderson-Mann, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask: How is motherhood being represented in the British media, especially in relation to choice, age and fertility? Do media discourses reflect a redefinition or transformation of "motherhood" in the twenty-first century, and what implications do they have for feminist research into maternal identity and motherhood? As…

  16. Physical Punishment by Mothers and Fathers in British Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobes, Gavin; Smith, Marjorie; Upton, Penney; Heverin, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    British mothers (n=362) and fathers (n=103) of randomly selected children from 366 two-parent families were interviewed concerning physically punishing their children. The proportion of mothers and fathers who had used physical punishments were similar. Percentages of types and severity of punishments varied. These findings are discussed in…

  17. Colors in French, American and British dictionaries | Williams | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colors have senses specific to particular fields such as physics and printing, in addi-tion to senses used in everyday life. This article examines the specialized information found in color definitions in French, American and British dictionaries. We explore whether specialized and non-specialized definitions are lumped or split ...

  18. American and British Business-Related Spelling Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James Calvert

    2004-01-01

    English language business-related documents around the world contain purposeful spelling differences that reflect two standards, American English and British English. Given the importance of culturally acceptable spelling, the need to be aware of and sensitive to cultural differences, and strong reactions to variation in spelling, it is important…

  19. John Dewey's Democracy and Education: A British Tribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Steve, Ed.; Coffield, Frank, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    In 1916 John Dewey published "Democracy and Education: An introduction to the philosophy of education". In this book some of today's foremost historians, philosophers, psychologists, and sociologists of education mark the anniversary of Dewey's work by reviewing and reflecting, from a British perspective, on Dewey's contribution to our…

  20. Bauxite deposits in Suriname and Demerara (British Guiana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersen, van J.F.

    1956-01-01

    On the basis of the morphology and stratigraphic positions, the bauxite deposits in Suriname and Demerara (British Guiana) were divided into four main groups, namely: 1. Plateau type bauxite, 2. High-level type bauxite, 3. Medium-level type bauxite, 4. Low-level type bauxite. The age of these

  1. Algorithm for Concrete Mix Design Based on British Method | Ezeh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained from the algorithm were compared with those obtained based on the British method and the differences between them were found to be less than 10% in each example. Hence, the algorithm developed in this paper is working with minimum error. It is recommended for use in obtaining good results for ...

  2. Farmland Preservation Verdicts - Rezoning Agricultural Land in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbe, T.; Eagle, A.J.; Cotteleer, G.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2011-01-01

    The Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, is a provincial zoning scheme designed to protect agricultural land from development. Since 1973, landowners have not been permitted to use ALR land for nonagricultural purposes, prompting some to seek recovery of development

  3. Nostalgic constructions of nurse education in British national newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Karen

    2014-11-01

    To explore nostalgic constructions of nurse education in British National newspapers. British newspaper discourse relating to the increased academic level of nurse education in the UK is negative, evoking comparisons between negative constructions of nurse education in the present and an idealized nostalgic view of the past. Discussion paper. This study used a critical discourse analysis approach to analyse 11 British Newspaper articles, which exemplify nostalgic constructions of nurse education. This was a purposive sample from a database search (LexisNexis) of British national newspaper articles relating to the increasing academic level of nurse education in the period from 1999-2012. A dominant nostalgic discourse constructs a 'golden era' of nurse education, which idealizes the past, making the present flawed in comparison. Nostalgic constructions create group identities creating contrasting 'caring' nurses educated in the idealized past with those educated now, who are perceived as too educated to care. An inherent characteristic of the nostalgic discourse is the notion that the solution to current problems with nurse education is a return to an idealized version of the past. Another less common newspaper discourse views nostalgia as a problematic construct. Nostalgic discourse with a focus on the past potentially acts as a barrier to creating an effective nurse education system for the 21(st) Century. This focus on an idealized past also has potential consequences in terms of public opinion and legitimization of government policy, which might otherwise be viewed as retrograde. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Sex Ratios Among Births in British Columbia, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, K S; Lee, Lily; Williams, Kim

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have reported distorted sex ratios among live births within specific immigrant groups in Canada. We carried out an investigation into sex ratios in British Columbia. All stillbirths and live births to residents of British Columbia from April 2000 to March 2013 were included in the study, with data obtained from the British Columbia Perinatal Data Registry. We examined sex ratios among births and among pregnancy terminations that resulted in a stillbirth or live birth. Analyses were stratified by congenital anomaly status, maternal residence, and parity. The study population included 567 225 stillbirths and live births. In the Fraser Health Authority, the sex ratio among births without congenital anomalies was 51.3% males (95% CI 51.1 to 51.5); this was significantly higher than the sex ratio of 40.7% males (95% CI 33.2 to 48.6) among late pregnancy terminations without congenital anomalies (P = 0.008). However, in British Columbia, excluding the Fraser Health Authority, the same sex ratios were 51.1% (95% CI 50.9 to 51.3) and 51.1% (95% CI 45.5 to 56.7), respectively (P = 0.99). Sex ratios among births to multiparous women were also significantly different in the Fraser Health Authority. Only a negligible fraction of the shortfall in female births in the Fraser Health Authority could be explained by sex ratio distortions among late pregnancy terminations. Sex ratios among stillbirths and live births to residents of the Fraser Health Authority are distorted relative to those observed elsewhere in British Columbia. This is likely due to sex differences in early pregnancy terminations. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. All rights reserved.

  5. The Great British Music Hall: Its Importance to British Culture and ‘The Trivial’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Gerrard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available By 1960, Britain’s once-thriving Music Hall industry was virtually dead. Theatres with their faded notions of Empire gave way to Cinema and the threat of Television. Where thousands once linked arms singing popular songs, watch acrobatics, see feats of strength, and listen to risqué jokes, now the echoes of those acts lay as whispers amongst the stalls’ threadbare seats. The Halls flourished in the 19th Century, but had their origins in the taverns of the 16th and 17th Centuries. Minstrels plied their trade egged on by drunken crowds. As time passed, the notoriety of the Music Hall acts and camaraderie produced grew. Entrepreneurial businessman tapped into this commerciality and had purpose-built status symbol theatres to provide a ‘home’ for acts and punters. With names like The Apollo giving gravitas approaching Olympian ideals, so the owners basked in wealth and glory. The Music Hall became the mass populist entertainment for the population. Every town had one, where everyone could be entertained by variety acts showing off the performers’ skills. The acts varied from singers, joke-tellers, comics, acrobats, to dancers. They all aimed to entertain. They enabled audiences to share a symbiotic relationship with one another; became recruitment officers for the Army; inspired War Poets; showed short films; and they and the halls reflected both the ideals and foibles of their era. By using Raymond Williams’ structures of feeling as its cornerstone, the article will give a brief history of the halls, whilst providing analysis into how they grew into mass populist entertainment that represented British culture. Case studies of famous artistes are given, plus an insight into how Music Hall segued into radio, film and television.

  6. Detrital zircons from the Nanaimo basin, Vancouver Island, British Columbia: An independent test of Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic northward translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, W. A.; Guest, B.; Coutts, D.; Bain, H.; Hubbard, S.

    2017-05-01

    The development of the Cordilleran orogen of western North American is disputed despite a century of study. Paleomagnetic observations require large-scale dextral displacements of crustal fragments along the western margin of North America, from low latitudes to moderate latitudes during the Cretaceous-Paleogene. A lack of corroborating geological evidence for large-scale (>1500 km) displacements has prevented the widespread integration of paleomagnetic data into most contemporary tectonic models for the margin. Here we use detrital zircons from the Nanaimo basin, southwestern British Columbia, Canada as an independent test of its Late Cretaceous paleogeographic position. We compare 4310 detrital zircon U/Pb dates from 16 samples to potential source areas in western North America to test hypothesized northern and southern Late Cretaceous paleogeographic positions. Our detrital zircon data suggest that sediment in the Nanaimo basin derives from either a geographically restricted portion of the Belt-Purcell basin or the Mojave-Sonoran region of southwestern North America. A paleogeographic position for the basin adjacent to the Mojave-Sonoran region is preferred as it is consistent with the paleomagnetic results, but further geological, isotopic, or geophysical data are required to rule out a Belt-Purcell source.

  7. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) assisted migration potential: testing establishment north of the species range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLane, Sierra C; Aitken, Sally N

    2012-01-01

    The translocation of species into habitable locations outside of their current ranges, termed assisted migration, has been proposed as a means of saving vulnerable species from extinction as a result of climate change. We explore the use of this controversial technique using a threatened keystone species in western North America, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), as a case study. Species distribution models predict that whitebark pine will be extirpated from most of its current range as temperatures rise over the next 70 years. However, the same models indicate that a large area within northwestern British Columbia, Canada, is climatically suitable for the species under current conditions and will remain so throughout the 21st century. To test the capacity of whitebark pine to establish relative to climatic and habitat features within its predicted climatic range, we planted seeds from seven populations in eight locations spanning from 600 km southeast to 800 km northwest of the northern boundary of the current species range. During the first three growing seasons, germination occurred in all locations. Nearly three times as many treated (induced maturation and broken dormancy) than untreated seeds germinated, and most treated seeds germinated a year earlier than the untreated seeds. Germination, survival, and growth were primarily influenced by seed mass, site climate conditions related to the duration of snow cover, and provenance temperature. Our experiment provides a preliminary test of models predicting the existence of climatically suitable whitebark pine habitat north of the current species ranges. More broadly, our techniques and results inform the development of scientific guidelines for assisting the migration of other species that are highly threatened by climate change. Applied case studies of this kind are critical for assessing the utility of species distribution models as conservation planning tools.

  8. Outcome of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a 20-year British Columbia Cancer Agency experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapgood, Greg; Pickles, Tom; Sehn, Laurie H; Villa, Diego; Klasa, Richard; Scott, David W; Gerrie, Alina S; Gascoyne, Randy D; Slack, Graham W; Parsons, Christina; Morris, James W; Connors, Joseph M; Savage, Kerry J

    2017-01-01

    Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (PCALCL) is a rare CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorder with excellent outcomes reported despite frequent cutaneous relapses. Limited information exists on the development of systemic lymphoma. The British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) Lymphoid Cancer Database was searched to identify all adults diagnosed with PCALCL from 1993 to 2013. From 2005, the BCCA endorsed radiotherapy (RT) alone for limited stage with data failing to support chemotherapy. Forty-seven patients were identified with a male predominance (n = 31, 66%), median age of 64 years and predominantly limited stage (n = 40, 85%). Median follow-up was 8·4 years. The 5-year time to progression (TTP) was 58% (64% limited versus 29% advanced stage). The 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival was 86% and 75%, respectively. In an as-treated analysis, the 5-year DSS for limited stage patients was similar comparing RT to combined modality treatment or chemotherapy alone but the 5-year TTP favoured RT (82% vs. 33%, P = 0·004). The 5-year cumulative risk of developing systemic lymphoma was 14%. Our results confirm the favourable prognosis of PCALCL despite a high relapse rate. Limited stage patients treated with RT alone have excellent outcomes. There is a small risk of systemic lymphoma in PCALCL. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Interannual climate variability drives regional fires in west central British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jill E.; Smith, Dan J.

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the influence of climate variability on forest fire occurrence at eight sites in west central British Columbia, Canada. Forty-six local fire years affecting a single site and 16 moderate fire years affecting two or more sites were identified (1600-1900 A.D.). Existing fire history data were incorporated to identify 17 regionally synchronous fire years (fires that affected ≥3 sites). Interannual and multidecadal relationships between fire occurrence and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Pacific North American (PNA) pattern were examined, in addition to the effects of additive positive phases of ENSO and PDO. We examined multiple reconstructions of ENSO, PDO, and PNA and utilized three methodological approaches to characterize climate-fire relationships. We found that the influence of interannual climate, expressed as PDSI, increasingly synchronized the occurrence of fires when examined from local to regional scales. An association between local fires and positive antecedent moisture conditions suggests moisture-driven fine fuel development and the proximity of some sites to grasslands likely function as key determinants of local-scale fire activity. The relationships between regional fires and ENSO, PDO, and PNA suggest that large-scale patterns of climate variability exert a weak and/or inconsistent influence over fire activity in west central British Columbia between 1700 and 1900 A.D. Although inconsistent among reconstructions of climate patterns, we identified a significant relationship between regional fires and large-scale climate patterns when ENSO and PDO were both in positive phases.

  10. Screening of a long-term sample set reveals two Ranavirus lineages in British herpetofauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Price

    Full Text Available Reports of severe disease outbreaks in amphibian communities in mainland Europe due to strains of the common midwife toad virus (CMTV-like clade of Ranavirus are increasing and have created concern due to their considerable population impacts. In Great Britain, viruses in another clade of Ranavirus-frog virus 3 (FV3-like-have caused marked declines of common frog (Rana temporaria populations following likely recent virus introductions. The British public has been reporting mortality incidents to a citizen science project since 1992, with carcasses submitted for post-mortem examination, resulting in a long-term tissue archive spanning 25 years. We screened this archive for ranavirus (458 individuals from 228 incidents using molecular methods and undertook preliminary genotyping of the ranaviruses detected. In total, ranavirus was detected in 90 individuals from 41 incidents focused in the north and south of England. The majority of detections involved common frogs (90% but also another anuran, a caudate and a reptile. Most incidents were associated with FV3-like viruses but two, separated by 300 km and 16 years, involved CMTV-like viruses. These British CMTV-like viruses were more closely related to ranaviruses from mainland Europe than to each other and were estimated to have diverged at least 458 years ago. This evidence of a CMTV-like virus in Great Britain in 1995 represents the earliest confirmed case of a CMTV associated with amphibians and raises important questions about the history of ranavirus in Great Britain and the epidemiology of CMTV-like viruses. Despite biases present in the opportunistic sample used, this study also demonstrates the role of citizen science projects in generating resources for research and the value of maintaining long-term wildlife tissue archives.

  11. Screening of a long-term sample set reveals two Ranavirus lineages in British herpetofauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephen J; Wadia, Alexandra; Wright, Owen N; Leung, William T M; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2017-01-01

    Reports of severe disease outbreaks in amphibian communities in mainland Europe due to strains of the common midwife toad virus (CMTV)-like clade of Ranavirus are increasing and have created concern due to their considerable population impacts. In Great Britain, viruses in another clade of Ranavirus-frog virus 3 (FV3)-like-have caused marked declines of common frog (Rana temporaria) populations following likely recent virus introductions. The British public has been reporting mortality incidents to a citizen science project since 1992, with carcasses submitted for post-mortem examination, resulting in a long-term tissue archive spanning 25 years. We screened this archive for ranavirus (458 individuals from 228 incidents) using molecular methods and undertook preliminary genotyping of the ranaviruses detected. In total, ranavirus was detected in 90 individuals from 41 incidents focused in the north and south of England. The majority of detections involved common frogs (90%) but also another anuran, a caudate and a reptile. Most incidents were associated with FV3-like viruses but two, separated by 300 km and 16 years, involved CMTV-like viruses. These British CMTV-like viruses were more closely related to ranaviruses from mainland Europe than to each other and were estimated to have diverged at least 458 years ago. This evidence of a CMTV-like virus in Great Britain in 1995 represents the earliest confirmed case of a CMTV associated with amphibians and raises important questions about the history of ranavirus in Great Britain and the epidemiology of CMTV-like viruses. Despite biases present in the opportunistic sample used, this study also demonstrates the role of citizen science projects in generating resources for research and the value of maintaining long-term wildlife tissue archives.

  12. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed

  13. A comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 9–11 year old British Pakistani and White British girls: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that British children of South Asian origin are less active and more sedentary than White British children. However, little is known about the behaviours underlying low activity levels, nor the familial contexts of active and sedentary behaviours in these groups. Our aim was to test hypotheses about differences between British Pakistani and White British girls using accelerometry and self-reports of key active and sedentary behaviours, and to obtain an understanding of factors affecting these behaviours using parental interviews. Methods Participants were 145 girls (70 White British and 75 British Pakistani) aged 9–11 years and parents of 19 of the girls. Accelerometry data were collected over 4 days and girls provided 24-hour physical activity interviews on 3 of these days. Multilevel linear regression models and generalised linear mixed models tested for ethnic differences in activity, sedentary time, and behaviours. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents. Results Compared to White British girls, British Pakistani girls accumulated 102 (95% CI 59, 145) fewer counts per minute and 14 minutes (95% CI 8, 20) less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. British Pakistani girls spent more time (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 14, 42) sedentary. Fewer British Pakistani than White British girls reported participation in organised sports and exercise (OR 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.64) or in outdoor play (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.20, 0.91). Fewer British Pakistani girls travelled actively to school (OR 0.26 95% CI 0.10, 0.71). There was no significant difference in reported screen time (OR 0.88 95% CI 0.45, 1.73). Parental interviews suggested that structural constraints (e.g. busy family schedules) and parental concerns about safety were important influences on activity levels. Conclusions British Pakistani girls were less active than White British girls and were less likely to participate in key active behaviours

  14. North Sea Storm Driving of Extreme Wave Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ray; Gray, Suzanne; Jones, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between storms and extreme ocean waves in the North sea is assessed using a long-period wave dataset and storms identified in the Interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim). An ensemble sensitivity analysis is used to provide information on the spatial and temporal forcing from mean sea-level pressure and surface wind associated with extreme ocean wave height responses. Extreme ocean waves in the central North Sea arise due to either the winds in the cold conveyor belt (northerly-wind events) or winds in the warm conveyor belt (southerly-wind events) of extratropical cyclones. The largest wave heights are associated with northerly-wind events which tend to have stronger wind speeds and occur as the cold conveyor belt wraps rearwards round the cyclone to the cold side of the warm front. The northerly-wind events also provide a larger fetch to the central North Sea. Southerly-wind events are associated with the warm conveyor belts of intense extratropical storms developing in the right upper-tropospheric jet exit region. There is predictability in the extreme ocean wave events up to two days before the event associated with a strengthening of a high pressure system to the west (northerly-wind events) and south-west (southerly-wind events) of the British Isles. This acts to increase the pressure gradient over the British Isles and therefore drive stronger wind speeds in the central North sea.

  15. Structural Impediments to African Growth? New Evidence from British African Real Wages, 1880-1965

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Waijenburg, van M.

    2012-01-01

    British colonial rule has often been praised for its comparatively benign features, such as its support of local educational development. This study argues that the impact of British educational policies and investments on the supply of schooling in British Africa should not be overstated. Until

  16. 75 FR 19209 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Register approved the incorporation by reference of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin No. 32-JA030644, Revision No. 1, dated August 19, 2008; British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100... Register approved the incorporation by reference of BAE Systems British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100...

  17. 75 FR 3418 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream... Service Information BAE Systems (Operations) Limited has issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin No. 32-JA020741, dated November 2, 2002; British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100...

  18. 75 FR 59170 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Models Jetstream Series 3101 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 05-JA090143, dated April 30, 2009; and British Aerospace Regional Aircraft has issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service... Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 05-JA090143, dated April 30, 2009. (2) Replace the...

  19. Attitudes toward buying online as predictors of shopping online for British and American respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David; James, Simon

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the attitudes toward online shopping of British and American individuals. Using a sample of 327 British and American university students, the British respondents were found to have less favorable attitudes toward online shopping. Attitudes toward online shopping were found to be significant predictors of making online purchases. The implications of these results were discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  20. Governing the "New Administrative Frontier:" "Cohering" Rationalities and Educational Leadership in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Michelle; Mazawi, Andre Elias

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the School Leadership Society, later renamed the British Columbia Educational Leadership Council (BCELC), was launched with the assistance of the British Columbia Ministry of Education to transform the goals and objectives of educational leadership and management in the Province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. In this paper the authors…

  1. The Evolution of Capitalism: A Comparison of British and American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanwick, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of capitalism in British and American literature. The impact of capitalism on the lives of individuals has been well represented in both American and British literature throughout the centuries. The paper will discuss how seminal British authors such as Thomas More, William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens and George…

  2. Educating for British Values: Kant's Philosophical Roadmap for Cosmopolitan Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Carl

    2017-01-01

    The UK's 2016 decision to exit the European Union and the discussion surrounding it indicate that public understanding of British identity has important consequences, one way or another. Defining British identity will be an important task in the years to come. The UK government not long ago provided some guidance on the matter of British identity…

  3. Trends in incidence and long-term outcomes of myelomeningocele in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Taylor; Cheong, Alexander; Steinbok, Paul; Radic, Julia Ae

    2017-12-13

    Myelomeningocele is typically a disabling condition that results in neurologic, orthopedic, and urologic morbidity. The aim of this study was to examine the trends over time in both incidence and outcomes of myelomeningocele (MMC) in British Columbia (BC). A retrospective chart review was performed of all children with MMC followed in the British Columbia Children's Hospital (BCCH) Spinal Cord Clinic between 1971 and 2016. The incidence of new MMC cases and the long-term outcomes of MMC were compared between two 10-year cohorts. The first cohort comprised children born with MMC between 1971 and 1981, and the second cohort comprised children born with MMC between 1996 and 2006. A total of 309 children with MMC were followed in the BCCH Spinal Cord Clinic between 1971 and 2016. There were 101 and 46 children with MMC in the two-time cohorts, respectively. Between the earlier and later cohorts, there was a significant difference in the following: MMC incidence [2.5/10,000 births vs 1.1/10,000 births, respectively (p = 0.0002)], mortality [18 vs 0% (p = 0.0009)], and the proportion of cases repaired in under 48 h [56 vs 98% (p MMC has decreased between 1971 and 2016, while the probability of survival for these patients has increased. Despite earlier and more universal post-natal repair, long-term outcomes have not improved significantly over time. Future research should focus on developing ways of reducing disability and improving quality of life for MMC patients and their families.

  4. The Scottish Constitutional Tradition: A Very British Radicalism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulmer W. Elliot

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent developments in Scottish nationalist constitutional thought during the period of 2002 to 2014, showing how the Scottish constitutional conversation has diverged from, but continues to be influenced by, the UK-wide constitutional conversation at Westminster. It presents Scottish nationalist constitutional thought as a ‘very British radicalism’, which is characterised by certain constitutional forms and ideas that are radical in a British context (such as popular sovereignty, proportional representation, a written constitution, and a commitment to covenantal socio-economic and environmental provisions while at the same time retaining a persistent ‘Britishness’ in terms of specific institutional proposals and ambivalence towards the principles of constitutional government. Finally, I will discuss possible designs of a future constitutional settlement in Scotland and the United Kingdom. Notably, I will explore how far the Scottish constitutional tradition might impact on the constitutional shape of the United Kingdom.

  5. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium malmoense in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Al-Moamary

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium malmoense was first described in northern Europe and the United Kingdom in 1977. Since then, reports have appeared with increasing frequency. Cases have, however, rarely been reported from the United States, and, until now, none have been reported in Canada. This may reflect either true low prevalence of the disease or underdiagnosis by laboratories due to slow growth of the organism. This report describes a case of pulmonary disease caused by M malmoense in a 44-year-old man from British Columbia who was successfully treated with an 18-month course of conventional antituberculous drugs combined with a macrolide. This is the first report of this disease in British Columbia and, to our knowledge, in Canada.

  6. SOME LINGUO-CULTURAL CONCEPT IN CONTEMPORARY BRITISH LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asratyan, Z.D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of some aspects of the British conceptual world on the basis of contemporary imaginative literature examination. Concept is understood as the individual author’s vision of the reflected world, as a predication of the topic to its author’s interpretation. The work analyses concepts reflecting the collective unconscious of the nation which turns them into linguo-cultural ones. The article examines the concept of tolerance through cause-effect relations of crime and punishment. The problems of children-parents relations in the British Muslim culture are also touched upon. The work shows the differences of some basic linguo-cultural concepts in Britain and in Russia.

  7. Survival of adult female northern pintails in Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael R.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Orthmeyer, Dennis L.; Newton, Wesley E.; Gilmer, David S.

    1995-01-01

    North American populations of northern pintails (Anas acuta) declined between 1979 and the early 1990s. To determine if low survival during winter contributed to declines, we estimated winter (last week of Aug-Feb 1987-90) survival for 190 adult (after hatching yr [AHY]) female radio-tagged pintails in late summer in Sacramento Valley (SACV), California. Survival rates did not vary by winter (P = 0.808), among preseason, hunting season, or postseason intervals (P = 0.579), or by body mass at time of capture (P = 0.127). Premolt (wing) pintails (n = 10) tended to survive at a lower rate (0.622, SE = 0.178) than pintails that had already replaced flight feathers (0.887, SE = 0.030) (P = 0.091). The pooled survival (all years) estimate for the 180-day winter was 0.874 (SE = 0.031). Hunting mortality rate (0.041-0.087) and nonhunting mortality rate (0.013-0.076) did not differ among years (P = 0.332) or within years (all P > 0.149). Legal hunting (n = 7), predation (n = 4), cholera (n = 2), illegal shooting (n = 2), botulism (n = 1), and unknown cause (n = 1) accounted for all mortality. Nonwintering survival (annu. survival/winter survival = 0.748) was lower than winter survival; thus, if gains in annual survival are desired for this population, managers should first examine the breeding-migration period for opportunities to achieve increases.

  8. Long-Term Outcomes and Complications in Patients With Craniopharyngioma: The British Columbia Cancer Agency Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Andrea C., E-mail: andrealo@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Howard, A. Fuchsia [School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Nichol, Alan; Sidhu, Keerat; Abdulsatar, Farah [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Hasan, Haroon [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Goddard, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: We report long-term outcomes and complications of craniopharyngioma patients referred to our institution. Methods and Materials: Between 1971 and 2010, 123 consecutive patients received primary treatment for craniopharyngioma in British Columbia and were referred to our institution. The median age was 30 years (range, 2-80 years). Thirty-nine percent of patients were treated primarily with subtotal resection (STR) and radiation therapy (RT), 28% with STR alone, 15% with gross total resection, 11% with cyst drainage (CD) alone, 5% with CD+RT, and 2% with RT alone. Eight percent of patients received intracystic bleomycin (ICB) therapy. Results: Median follow-up was 8.9 years, and study endpoints were reported at 10 years. Ten-year Kaplan-Meier progression-free survival (PFS) was 46%. Patients treated with STR+RT or CD+RT had the highest PFS (82% and 83%, respectively). There were no significant differences between PFS after adjuvant versus salvage RT (84% vs 74%, respectively; P=.6). Disease-specific survival (DSS) was 88%, and overall survival (OS) was 80%. Primary treatment modality did not affect DSS or OS, while older age was a negative prognostic factor for OS but not DSS. Kaplan-Meier rates for visual deterioration, anterior pituitary hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, seizure disorder, and cerebrovascular events (CVE) due to treatment, not tumor progression, were 27%, 76%, 45%, 16%, and 11%, respectively. The CVE rate was 29% in patients who received ICB compared to 10% in those who did not (P=.07). Conclusions: We report favorable PFS in patients with craniopharyngioma, especially in those who received RT after surgery. DSS and OS rates were excellent regardless of primary treatment modality. We observed a high incidence of hypopituitarism, visual deterioration, and seizure disorder. Eleven percent of patients experienced CVEs after treatment. There was a suggestion of increased CVE risk in patients treated with ICB.

  9. Language and identity among British South Asians: a theoretical review.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2010-01-01

    Given the pervasiveness of language in social life and the implications that language use can have for one’s individual and collective identities, attempts were made to explore the theoretical and empirical advantages in connecting social psychological theories of identity and sociological/sociolinguistic approaches to language use and language choices in order to make sense of language and identity among second-generation British Asians. The current theoretical essay features a brief overvie...

  10. Still Invisible? Women artists in British public collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Montfort

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Does women's work in British public collections receive curatorial care and scholarly attention? And if or when it does not—when it lingers on the darkest racks of museums stores, collected for a posterity it will never achieve—how has this happened, and why? Or should we be especially concerned about the display of women’s work in public collections, in an age of digital images and online archives?

  11. Tracing Sydenham's chorea: historical documents from a British paediatric hospital

    OpenAIRE

    de Martino, D.; Tanner, A.; Defazio, G.; Church, A J; Bhatia, K.P.; Giovannoni, G.; Dale, R. C.

    2005-01-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) became a well defined nosological entity only during the second half of the nineteenth century. Such progress was promoted by the availability of large clinical series provided by newly founded paediatric hospitals. This paper analyses the demographic and clinical features of patients with chorea admitted to the first British paediatric hospital (the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London) between 1852 and 1936. The seasonal and demographic characterist...

  12. Popular Music Pedagogy: band rehearsals at British universities

    OpenAIRE

    Pulman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There has been little published pedagogical research on popular music group rehearsing. This study explores the perceptions of tutors and student pop/rock bands about the rehearsals in which they were involved as a part of their university music course. The participants were 10 tutors and 16 bands from eight British tertiary institutions. Analysis of participants’ interview responses suggested their perceptions could be grouped into three over-arching categories: operational mechanics of rehe...

  13. Identifying and characterising price leadership in British supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Jonathan S.; Waterson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Price leadership is a concept that lacks precision. We propose a deliberately narrow, falsifiable, definition then develop it, illustrate its feasibility and test it using the two leading British supermarket chains. We find both firms engaging in leading prices upward over a range of products, with the larger being initially more dominant but the smaller increasing leadership activity to take overall leadership over time. However, more price leadership events are price reductions than price i...

  14. Confrontations : French Criminology seen by British criminologists (janvier 2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Paul Jean

    2010-01-01

    The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, edited by Mike MAGUIRE, Rod MORGAN and Robert REINER and justly considered as the reference in the British criminology world because of the enormous knowledge it contains, has no equivalent in the French language. A simple review of the summary gives an idea of the extent of the scientific fields examined, and also by the way, that of the distance that must be covered before French criminology, traditionally dominated by sociology, becomes a « total ...

  15. The British warning; L'avertissement britannique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-09-01

    Just as the Stone Age did not come to an end for want of stones, the end of the LPG Age will not occur due to a shortage of LPG. This witticism, offered by Tom Fidell (the Director-General of the British LP Gas Association) conceals a serious warming: these needs to be a fast response in terms of technology, as the advantages of autogas are being reduced by competing fuels and their supporting technologies. (authors)

  16. German and British Trade Unions: Problems and opportunities after enlargement

    OpenAIRE

    Zahn, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines and compares German and British trade union responses in a European context following the recent European enlargements in 2004 and 2007, enlargements that are unprecedented in the history of the European Union. In particular, the paper undertakes a contextualized comparison of trade union behaviour in responding to the changing regulatory and opportunity structures which present themselves following the enlargements. Account is taken of the role that trade unions adopt wit...

  17. Ecological factors drive differentiation in wolves from British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Darimont, Chris T.; Wayne, Robert K.; Paquet, Paul C.; Leonard, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim Limited population structure is predicted for vagile, generalist species, such as the grey wolf (Canis lupus L.). Our aims were to study how genetic variability of grey wolves was distributed in an area comprising different habitats that lay within the potential dispersal range of an individual and to make inferences about the impact of ecology on population structure. Location British Columbia, Canada – which is characterized by a continuum of biogeoclimatic zones across which grey w...

  18. Directors in British and Irish cinema 

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, R. P.

    2006-01-01

    Directors in British and Irish Cinema is an assessment of the careers and achievements of over a thousand directors, most of whom have received little scholarly attention. It draws upon the expertise of over sixty contributors. Each of the 1028 entries has been provided with a comprehensive filmography (which for some of the silent film directors includes over a hundred films). Comprehensive coverage have made it a standard reference work. Collaboration with the BFI-based website Screenonli...

  19. 'Race', disadvantage, and policy processes in British planning

    OpenAIRE

    H Thomas; V Krishnarayan

    1994-01-01

    In this paper some of the mechanisms by which black and ethnic minorities can be put at a particular disadvantage within the planning system in Britain (and how these processes can be challenged) are examined. A number of types of policy processes operating in British planning are identified, and, drawing on a range of secondary and primary data, the influence of black and ethnic minorities within these processes are analysed. The paper is concluded with a review of the possibilities for the ...

  20. Western false hemlock looper in British Columbia, 1947-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Compilation and summary of published and unpublished data on western false hemlock looper in British Columbia since its discovery near Chase in 1942. Information is based on file reports of the Insect and Disease Survey for Pacific and Yukon Regions. The report describes biology, methods of detection, tree mortality and incremental loss, and controls, including insect parasites, bacterial and viral disease, predators, and chemical insecticides.

  1. British political values, attitudes to climate change, and travel behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Ron; Deeming, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The UK is committed to a sharp reduction of greenhouse gases. Progress towards its goal will depend on whether the public can be persuaded to change their travel behaviour. Using British Social Attitudes 2011 survey data, analyses show that the majority of adults – especially the young and better-educated – believe that climate change is occurring but even concerned believers appear reluctant to modify their behaviour. Policies designed to alter transport habits and induce behaviour change ne...

  2. Symptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Is Underdiagnosed in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorichetti, Brendan; Goshen, Oran; Pauwels, Julie; Kozak, Frederick K; Tilley, Peter; Krajden, Mel; Gantt, Soren

    2016-02-01

    Records were reviewed from all infants tested for congenital cytomegalovirus infection in British Columbia, Canada from 2006 to June 2014. Fourteen of 701 infants, or approximately 4.2 per 100,000 live births, had a positive test, indicating that >90% of expected symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection cases were not diagnosed using clinician-initiated testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. British Air Power in Peripheral Conflict, 1919-1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    the Somaliland cam - paign, however, was its effect on British internal security policy in a more recent imperial acquisition: the territory of...unquestionably a critical element in the successful prosecution of the counterinsurgency cam - paign. Air Vice-Marshal N. M. Maynard cites transport as...than a coffee planta - tion with a few tents pitched at the side of a 400-yard soil airstrip. Mweiga nevertheless became the nerve center of the

  4. Patterns of outdoor recreational injury in northern British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besserer, Floyd A; Caron, Nadine R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the patterns of severe injury documented at a northern British Columbia regional trauma center based on age, sex, month of year, activity type, injury type, and injury severity as they relate to participation in outdoor recreational activities. A retrospective analysis of data abstracted from the British Columbia Trauma Registry for patients sustaining injuries between April 1, 2004, and March 31, 2007, while engaged in outdoor recreational activities in the Northern Health Authority. The British Columbia Trauma Registry inclusion criteria are as follows: 1) admitted for treatment of injuries sustained from the transfer of external energy or force; 2) admitted to the facility within 7 days of injury; and 3) length of stay more than 2 days or in-hospital mortality. In all, 159 patients met study criteria. August and September were peak injury months (mean 7.3 and 7.0 per month, respectively). The highest injury patterns involved cycling (n = 31), all-terrain vehicle operation (n = 30), horseback riding (n = 22), and snowmobiling (n = 22). Of the 159 patients, 76.1% were male, with a peak age distribution between 10 years and 19 years (22%). Males were more commonly injured than females among cycling (83.9%), all-terrain vehicle (86.7%), and snowmobile (100%) traumas. Females were more commonly injured from horseback riding events (42.1%). This study emphasizes the need for rapid translation of research findings into injury prevention awareness and programming in northern British Columbia, particularly relating to cycling, horseback riding, snowmobiling, and all-terrain vehicle operation. Further investigation is required to analyze long-term outcomes for this common injury population. Wilderness Medical Society.

  5. ENCYCLOPEDIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LINGUISTIC PERSONALITY TYPE "THE BRITISH QUEEN”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Александровна Мурзинова

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article clarifies the concept of the encyclopedic zone as a semantic component of a linguistic and cultural concept and methodology of its study. The author examines a set of semantic characteristics that make up the encyclopedic area of the linguistic personality type "the British Queen", a concept of a typified personality, actualized in everyday, mass-media, encyclopedic types of discourse. The relevance of the problem is evidenced by the need to study the most important concepts in the British culture, including both their universal characteristics and cultural peculiarities, which will undoubtedly contribute to a better understanding of the concepts that are most important for external cultures and optimize cross-cultural communication in general. The study is based on the theory of linguistic personality types, which is being developed at present at the junction of linguistics, linguistic conceptology, linguistic personology, semiotics and axiological linguistics. We used methods of linguistic research (conceptual, definitional, contextual, interpretive types of analysis, the method of quantitative analysis, the method of questionnaire, and the scientific methods (hypothetical-deductive analysis, data integration and classification, introspection. The most general paradigmatic components of “the British Queen” concept have been revealed, demarcating the semantic component of the linguistic personality type “the British Queen” from other concepts. The results can be used for scientific research in the field of linguistics and related sciences, in particular, for the further development of the theory of linguistic personality types as one of the areas of linguistics, as well as in teaching (in university courses of linguistics, intercultural communication, country specific studies (focusing on Britain, the theory of linguistic personality types, linguistic personality and studies,  linguistic conceptology, semiotics, axiological

  6. Caribou in British Columbia: A 1996 status report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Heard

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus in British Columbia are classified into mountain, northern and boreal ecotypes based on behavioural and ecological characteristics. We recognized 12 mountain caribou herds, 27 northern caribou herds, and an area occupied by low density boreal caribou dispersed in the boreal forests of the northeast portion of the province. Abundance estimates were usually based on attempts at total counts made from the air. Trends were based on repeated population estimates or the difference between recruitment and mortality rates for each herd. In 1996 there were approximately 18 000 caribou in British Columbia; 2300 mountain and 15 600 northern and boreal. These estimates suggest a slight increase in the numbers of both ecotypes over the last 18 years. Fifteen percent of the herds were reportedly increasing, 10% were decreasing, 31% were stable, but for 44% of the herds the trend was unknown. Historically caribou were found throughout 8 of the 14 biogeoclimatic zones in B.C. Caribou are now rarely found in the Sub-Boreal Spruce zone, likely due to increased predation from wolves that increased in response to increasing moose numbers. Ranges of several herds in the Engelmann Spruce — Subalpine Fir and Alpine Tundra zones of south-eastern British Columbia are also reduced relative to historic conditions, probably because of habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, predation and hunting. Forest harvesting represents the greatest threat to caribou habitat and current research focuses on the mitigation of forest harvesting impacts.

  7. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  8. High risk bladder cancer : current management and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leliveld-Kors, Anna; Bastiaannet, Esther; Doornweerd, Benjamin H J; Schaapveld, Michael; de Jong, Igle J

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the pattern of care in patients with high risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in the Comprehensive Cancer Center North-Netherlands (CCCN) and to assess factors associated with the choice of treatment, recurrence and progression free survival rates. Materials and

  9. Aircraft Survivability: Rotorcraft Survivability. Summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    protect those who serve to protect us?” The answer is a mixed bag. I am fortunate to have joined a group of dedicated men and women who represent this...and Service subject matter experts on rotorcraft safety and survivability to complete the study and report the results to the Joint Chiefs of...Operations and Support CDD TEMP DT DT/OT LUT IOT &E BLRIP TEMP TEMP LRIP Acquisition & LFT Strategies B C LFT&E Review Requirements Approve TEMPs

  10. Whither British labour law crisis, what crisis? an historical perspective on the juridification of British industrial relations

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Roger

    2013-01-01

    This paper is largely historical in that it reflects on the reasons why the British system of industrial relations was transformed from a system rooted in voluntarism or legal abstentionism to one which became increasingly juridified from the 1960s onwards. Juridification can be understood as a combination of judicial intervention in the arena of industrial conflict and the enactment of substantial legislation in areas previously left to employment contracts between employers and their employ...

  11. The prognostic effect of ethnicity for gastric and esophageal cancer: the population-based experience in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Amil M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric and esophageal cancers are among the most lethal human malignancies. Their epidemiology is geographically diverse. This study compares the survival of gastric and esophageal cancer patients among several ethnic groups including Chinese, South Asians, Iranians and Others in British Columbia (BC, Canada. Methods Data were obtained from the population-based BC Cancer Registry for patients diagnosed with invasive esophageal and gastric cancer between 1984 and 2006. The ethnicity of patients was estimated according to their names and categorized as Chinese, South Asian, Iranian or Other. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of ethnicity adjusted for patient sex and age, disease histology, tumor location, disease stage and treatment. Results The survival of gastric cancer patients was significantly different among ethnic groups. Chinese patients showed better survival compared to others in univariate and multivariate analysis. The survival of esophageal cancer patients was significantly different among ethnic groups when the data was analyzed by a univariate test (p = 0.029, but not in the Cox multivariate model adjusted for other patient and prognostic factors. Conclusions Ethnicity may represent underlying genetic factors. Such factors could influence host-tumor interactions by altering the tumor's etiology and therefore its chance of spreading. Alternatively, genetic factors may determine response to treatments. Finally, ethnicity may represent non-genetic factors that affect survival. Differences in survival by ethnicity support the importance of ethnicity as a prognostic factor, and may provide clues for the future identification of genetic or lifestyle factors that underlie these observations.

  12. "Unremarkable" recoveries: normalizing adversity and cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, Moira; Schlitz, Marilyn Jean; Lewis, Nola

    2002-02-01

    Much of the existing popular literature suggests that survival from life-threatening diseases encourages a process of self-transformation. Seventeen long-term survivors of metastatic cancer were interviewed about the impact of a life-threatening condition on their life stories. Contrary to the existing literature, which suggests such an event greatly transforms the individual, nearly all of those interviewed for this study framed their unusual recoveries as being largely unremarkable. Traditional North American cultural values, which normalize adversity, appear to bolster the participants' beliefs that one can have control over one's health and can even resist a recurrence of cancer.

  13. Reassortant highly pathogenic influenza A H5N2 virus containing gene segments related to Eurasian H5N8 in British Columbia, Canada, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, John; Berhane, Yohannes; Joseph, Tomy; Bowes, Victoria; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Handel, Katherine; Alexandersen, Soren

    2015-03-25

    In late November 2014 higher than normal death losses in a meat turkey and chicken broiler breeder farm in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia initiated a diagnostic investigation that led to the discovery of a novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 virus. This virus, composed of 5 gene segments (PB2, PA, HA, M and NS) related to Eurasian HPAI H5N8 and the remaining gene segments (PB1, NP and NA) related to North American lineage waterfowl viruses, represents the first HPAI outbreak in North American poultry due to a virus with Eurasian lineage genes. Since its first appearance in Korea in January 2014, HPAI H5N8 spread to Western Europe in November 2014. These European outbreaks happened to temporally coincide with migratory waterfowl movements. The fact that the British Columbia outbreaks also occurred at a time associated with increased migratory waterfowl activity along with reports by the USA of a wholly Eurasian H5N8 virus detected in wild birds in Washington State, strongly suggest that migratory waterfowl were responsible for bringing Eurasian H5N8 to North America where it subsequently reassorted with indigenous viruses.

  14. Using hierarchical models to estimate effects of ocean anomalies on north-west Pacific Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R; Liermann, M

    2010-11-01

    The high variability in survival over the past three decades of north-west Pacific Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha is summarized for 24 stocks and analysed using hierarchical Bayesian models. Results from a simple model indicate that recruitment anomalies appear to be correlated in time and space. A simple model with a covariate based on basin-scale effects (Pacific Decadal Oscillation and El Niño Southern Oscillation) and local-scale effects (sea surface temperature, SST anomaly) was introduced to explain this variability. The model still exhibited residual patterns that were removed when a random-walk component was added to the model. The analysis indicates that recruitment is negatively related to SST anomaly for all stocks and the effect of basin-scale variables is negligible. The effect of climate over the next century is expected to result in estimated recruitment declining by an average of 13% for O. tshawytscha stocks coastwide. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Perceptions of Quality and Approaches to Studying in Higher Education: A Comparative Study of Chinese and British Postgraduate Students at Six British Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haoda; Richardson, John T. E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of "the Chinese learner" have confounded the effects of culture and context or have used heterogeneous samples of students. In this study, 134 British students and 207 students from mainland China following 1-year postgraduate programmes at six British business schools completed the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ)…

  16. Iceland’s External Affairs from the Napoleonic Era to the occupation of Denmark: Danish and British Shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldur Thorhallsson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Iceland enjoyed essential shelter, for its development and prosperity, provided by Denmark and Britain. Societal relations with Copenhagen were of fundamental importance in the preservation and evolution of Icelandic identity and culture, providing the foundation of the modern society and leading to the establishment of the Icelandic state. Danish financial backups created the basis for the island’s economic prosperity in the 20th century. Moreover, Denmark provided partial political shelter in terms of significant diplomatic support in guaranteeing trade agreements with other states. Also, Denmark led by example and Iceland followed its foreign policy. On the other hand, Denmark failed to provide Iceland with protection of its land and waters and economic cover when it was in most need. Moreover, the economic cover it did provide was, at times, highly costly. Denmark had been downgraded to a small European power in the post-Napoleonic period. In practice, Britain was in control over the North Atlantic. It guaranteed Iceland’s neutrality and connection to the outside world and markets when the Danish authorities failed in these areas, as long as British interests were also served. Nor did British protection come without cost. Accordingly, this paper confirms the common claim of small-state studies that small states are at the mercy of their larger neighbours. Moreover, our findings indicate that Iceland’s growing autonomy did not affect its need for political, economic and societal cover.

  17. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: water transportation and storage of logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Sedell; W.S. Duval

    1985-01-01

    Environmental effects of water transportation of logs in western North America include the historical driving of logs in rivers and streams, and the current dumping, sorting, transportation, and storage of logs in rivers and estuaries in British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. The historical discussion focuses on habitat losses and volumes of...

  18. LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF NATO’S MEDIA IMAGE (THE CASE STUDY OF BRITISH ONLINE PUBLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valuyskaya Olga Ruslanovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates linguistic specific means of NATO's image making in online British leading newspapers. The case study involves news reports and analytical articles that represent explicit and implicit evaluation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The investigation is based on the principles of the media linguistic approach and suggests the structural peculiarities of a media image that can be analyzed as a three-sided unit including positive, negative and neutral structural elements of image introduction into a media text. The NATO's image can be viewed as that of a geopolitical actor, creating its Natoland. Certain media topics are analyzed as creating positive and negative images of the NATO as a military organization. A finite list of positive and negative constituents to the Alliance's image is presented in the paper. It is assumed that the simplistic writer-reader model of interaction shapes certain elements of a media image that can be interpreted by a reader. The author distinguishes in the paper the principle constituents of an international organization in general, and the NATO in particular. Findings of the study demonstrate that the NATO's media image is interpreted by the readers as the conceptual entity of two key images: a peacemaker and a hawk that are restored on lexical and intertextual levels.

  19. Lower and middle Jurassic radiolarian biostratigraphy and systematic paleontology, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, E.S.; Cameron, B.E.B.; Smith, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    Extensive geological investigation of Mesozoic strata of the Pacific Rim is currently underway to determine the hydrocarbon potential of these rocks. Precise biostratigraphic control is essential for advances in this type of exploration, and substantial new information on the Jurassic biostratigraphy and taxonomy of Jurassic radiolarians from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, is presented in this report. Five new genera and forty-two new species are described, most of which have restricted, and therefore useful, biostratigraphic ranges. A preliminary radiolarian zonation is proposed, calibrated with associated ammonite and foraminiferal faunas. This zonation refines existing stratigraphic control and thus constitutes an extremely useful and practical contribution to hydrocarbon exploration. The study emphasizes Toarcian (lower Jurassic) radiolaria, because hitherto little was known of their morphology and distribution; rich, well preserved assemblages of middle to late Toarcian radiolarians have now been recovered from limestones of the Whiteaves and Phantom Creek formations. Radiolaria from the Queen Charlotte Islands (part of the displaced terrane of Wrangellia) compare well with Tethyan assemblages from western North America, the Mediterranean area, and Japan. 152 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Winter snow accumulation reconstruction with MODIS imagery, southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, J. M.; Moore, R. D.; Menounos, B.

    2010-12-01

    The warming trend and associated loss of glacier mass since the end of the Little Ice Age have influenced streamflow regimes in the mountain regions of western North America. These hydrologic changes have substantial implications for aquatic ecosystems, regional water supplies, hydroelectric power generation, and global sea-levels. Glacier fluctuations are driven by changes in the surface mass balance, or the difference between winter accumulation (bw) and summer ablation (bs). Snow accumulations are highly variable in mountainous terrain, and the scarcity of high-altitude observation sites is an obstacle to interpolating and extrapolating precipitation data to estimate bw, and by extension bs. Composited scenes of MODIS snow cover (MOD10L2) and regionally interpolated air temperature fields are used to estimate winter snow accumulations in the Lajoie and Bridge basins in southwestern British Columbia. A positive degree-day (PDD) melt model tuned to historical mass balance data is used to calculate the cumulative melt up to the date of snow disappearance obtained from MODIS snow cover imagery. Reconstructed winter accumulations are compared to bw observations, snow pillow data, and snow course measurements for 2007 and 2008 accumulation seasons. Given the lack of reliable precipitation data for high elevation sites, and the even greater scarcity of glacier mass balance measurements, this approach provides important information for making regional-scale estimates of glacier mass balance.

  1. Conventional natural gas play atlas, northeast British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, B. [Petrel Robertson, Calgary, AB (Canada); Davidson, J.; Feduniak, B. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hayes, M.; Walsh, W.; Ferri, F.; Hickin, A.; Richardson, D.; Fournier, M.; Adams, C.; Kerr, B.; Lee, C. [British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria, BC (Canada); Johnson, J.; Mclean, D.; Barker, J.; Walker, D.; Farr, G. [British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission, Fort St. John, BC (Canada)] (and others)

    2006-07-01

    This report provides an assessment of British Columbia's undiscovered resources. Although it covers all of the province's gas potential areas, its main focus is the quantification of the remaining undiscovered conventional gas potential of northeast British Columbia. The Conventional natural gas play atlas for northeast British Columbia contains both established and conceptual plays. Play definitions include resources that are considered proven and developable with current technology. They include exploration concepts that have been typically exploited in the province's portion of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. Play descriptions were also provided. Unconventional plays such as coalbed gas, some tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrates were also included, although they were deemed not currently productive. The atlas provides a framework for the assessment process as well as a reference point for future analyses. The current play definitions are expected to evolve with new geological concepts, technological developments and changing commodity prices. The northeast BC geographic areas covered in this report include the Deep Basin; Liard Basin and Fold Belt; the Northern Foothills; the southern Foothills; Fort St. John; and, Fort Nelson/Northern Plains. A series of maps were created to spatially display cumulative data for all plays throughout northeast BC. Values for the following categories were assigned to PNG and NTS grid units: discovered gas in place; discovered initial established marketable gas; discovered remaining marketable gas; cumulative marketable gas produced; undiscovered gas in place; undiscovered marketable gas; ultimate gas in place; ultimate marketable gas and ultimate remaining marketable gas. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Pessimism Preserved: Real Wages in the British Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Allen; Allen, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    The paper compares Feinstein`s and Clark`s consumer price and real wage indices for the British industrial revolution. The sources for their weights and component price series are evaluated. While some of Clark`s innovations are improvements, many of his changes degrade the price index. A new price index is developed using the best components of Clark`s and Feinstein`s. This index is much closer to Feinstein`s than to Clark`s. The implied growth in real wages is also close to Feinstein`s and ...

  3. Status report : British Columbia`s economic plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    A sector-by-sector update of actions taken under British Columbia`s three-year economic plan is outlined and the progress to date reviewed. The three year plan includes the support for industry growth in partnership with the private sector, making Vancouver a major international conference destination, and developing Vancouver International Airport into a major gateway to the Pacific. The plan also includes the promotion of adventure tourism in major international markets, and promoting aboriginal tourism and culture. The government also plans to stimulate the economy by providing $973 million in tax reductions for BC families and business. 1 tab.

  4. Locating Ancestry in Notions of Britishness/Germanness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Pöllmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on ancestry as a controversial marker of Britishness/Germanness. Considering developments in nationality law and large-scale survey data for England and Germany, it illustrates that macrocontextual distinctions into civic and ethnic nations tend to overestimate cross-national differences, while underestimating important within-country variations according to people’s educational background. The fact that—in both countries—higher levels of formal education are strongly associated with more ethnically inclusive notions of legitimate national membership underlines the formative potential of formal education in contemporary multicultural societies.

  5. Robinson Crusoe: the fate of the British Ulysses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Juan

    2010-03-01

    If travel has been one of the leitmotifs of Western imagination, Robinson Crusoe has certainly been one of its foremost incarnations. This British Ulysses foretold the global village, but also its problems. He predicted the end of distance, but also the triumph of isolation and anaesthetized loneliness. This paper provides an overview of the connections between Defoe's narrative and the new science and explores two versions of the story by two contemporary writers, Julio Cortazar and John Maxwell Coetzee. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Community Paramedicine Initiative: Transforming Paramedicine in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, Colton; Brittain, Michelle; Sirivar, Daniel; Kotani, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    British Columbia's health care system is facing challenges related to rural access to care and an ever increasing demand for services. These variables are compounded by the anticipated needs of an aging population that can expect to live several of their golden years with a chronic illness. The introduction of community paramedicine in BC allows for a care delivery model that expands the role of qualified paramedics to include the delivery of prevention, health promotion and primary care services in the community. The implementation of the Community Paramedicine Initiative in rural and remote BC highlights a transformational approach to health care delivery empowered by a technology enabled perspective of community needs.

  7. A Lass and a Lack? Women in British Silent Comedy

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Laraine

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers the role of women in British silent film comedy from 1895 to the end of the 1920s and their legacy into the early sound period. It argues that women comedians became increasingly marginalized as cinema developed into an industry, with the codes, form and style of the “mature silent cinema” restricting women into a narrow range of stereotypes that negated female agency and prioritized looks and glamour over personality or character. The dominance of a few male directors ...

  8. Joseph Kestner, Masculinities in British Adventure Fiction, 1880–1915

    OpenAIRE

    Pham-Thanh, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Masculinities in British Adventure Fiction, 1880-1915 compte deux cent treize pages, dont cent soixante-seize réservées à l’étude à proprement parler. La formulation inaugurale plurielle du titre place l’analyse dans le cadre des Masculinities Studies, Joseph Kestner (université de Tulsa, USA) posant ainsi implicitement que la société phallocentrique de la Grande-Bretagne est traversée par la « crise de la masculinité dont parle Elaine Showalter. En outre, le même titre indique que cette remi...

  9. The impact of the British model on economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon György Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is searching for an answer to the question how the British model affected economic development in its mother country, the United Kingdom. The statistical analysis, models of mathematical economics and econometric investigation make it probable to conclude that there was a substantial difference in success between the Thatcherite and the Blairite economic policies; the latter proved more effective. It is particularly remarkable that the Blairite model, connecting privatization with a successful employment policy, reduced unemployment and social sensitivity, has not only speeded up economic growth but also improved economic equilibrium, curtailing, among others, the budget deficit.

  10. The British species of Enicospilus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. Broad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nine British and Irish species of Enicospilus are revised, mapped and an identification key provided. One species, Enicospilus myricae sp. nov., is described as new; Enicospilus merdarius (Gravenhorst, 1829 is a senior synonym of E. tournieri (Vollenhoven, 1879 syn. nov.; the only available name for E. merdarius auctt. is Enicospilus adustus (Haller, 1885 stat. rev., and a neotype is designated for Ophion adustus Haller, 1885. Enicospilus cerebrator Aubert, 1969 and E. repentinus (Holmgren, 1860 are newly recorded from Britain. Some host data are available for eight of the nine species.

  11. Proof-Carrying Survivability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    pp.289-302 ( Impact factor : 2.09). 2. Julic, J. and Zuo, Y. (2012). “An RFID Survivability Impact Model in the Military Domain”, Proc. of 18 th...Availability, Reliability and Security, 40(4), pp. 406-418 ( Impact factor : 2.016). 10. Zuo, Y. (2010). “A Holistic Approach for Specification of Security... Impact factor : 1.596). 20. Zuo, Y., Pimple, M. and Lande, S. (2009). “A Framework for RFID Survivability Requirement Analysis and Specification”, Proc

  12. Gender differences in early trauma and high-risk behaviors among street-entrenched youth in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Torchalla, Iris; Krausz, Michael Reinhardt

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate gender differences among the street-entrenched youth in British Columbia in terms of their demographics, experiences of childhood maltreatment, mental health issues, and substance use behaviors. Data were derived from the BC Health of the Homeless Study (BCHOHS), carried out in three cities in British Columbia, Canada. Measures included socio-demographic information, the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus and the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC)-Health Chapter. Youth constituted 16.5% (n=82) of the homeless population. Females (55%) outnumbered males and engaged in survival sex more frequently (17.8%; p=0.03). Males had greater substance abuse of alcohol (81.1%) and cannabis (89.2%). Depression (p=0.02) and psychosis (p=0.05) were more common among females, while panic disorder was more common among males (p=0.04). Rates of childhood trauma were similar across genders. Our findings reflect trends among youth where illicit drug use may be similar among genders while males may report increased alcohol and cannabis use, possibly as a means to self medicate their panic-related symptoms. In any case, this population of street entrenched-youth frequently experiences several significant problems ranging from childhood abuse to high rates of substance abuse and mental illnesses.

  13. Body Esteem and Self-examination in British Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gayle; Dewhurst, Anne M

    2013-06-01

    Breast and testicular cancers affect a substantial and increasing proportion of the global population. Self-examination encourages early detection and treatment of these cancers, which positively impacts on patient quality of life and survival. The present study investigated the role of body esteem in breast and testicular self-examination. Men (N = 60) and women (N = 90) recruited from a British University completed the body esteem scale and either the testicular self-examination or breast self-examination questionnaire. Logistic regression models revealed that body esteem predicted women's intention to engage in breast self-examination. Women with higher levels of sexual attractiveness and those with lower levels of weight concern were more likely to report that they would regularly self-examine in the future. Body esteem did not however, distinguish between those women that did or did not currently self-examine or predict men's current or intended testicular self-examination. The findings have implications for the promotion of self-examination and highlight an emerging area of preventive health research.

  14. Do invasive bullfrogs in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, show evidence of parasite release?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, O K; Forbes, M R

    2013-06-01

    Few studies have examined vertebrate models of invasive species to explore parasite release as a proposed mechanism through which host species might become invasive. In this study, we examined evidence for parasite release in invasive American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana/Lithobates catesbeianus) from five sites in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. We examined helminth species richness, as well as the prevalence, intensity and abundance of lung and kidney fluke infections. These flukes are expected to impose costs on host survival, growth and reproductive output. We compared measures of these parasite taxa with bullfrogs from Ontario and New Brunswick where they are endemic. Helminth species richness in bullfrogs from the Victoria sites was lower than in Ontario bullfrogs, but comparable to reported indices for other endemic populations. The prevalence of lung flukes (Haematoloechus spp.) in bullfrogs from Victoria was twice as high as was observed in the Ontario bullfrogs, and higher than has been reported from other endemic locations. In four of the five study sites in Victoria, numbers of Echinostoma spp. kidney cysts were lower than observed in endemic populations; however, the fifth site had uncharacteristically high numbers of cysts. In this study, there did not appear to be clear evidence to support parasite release using either parasite species numbers, or infection by specific parasite taxa. Instead, the invasive bullfrogs demonstrated high parasite species richness and high levels of infection for parasites known to be harmful to their hosts.

  15. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  16. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  17. Education for Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of current approaches to education and concludes that none of these is sufficient to meet the challenges that now face the human race. It argues instead for a new concept of education for survival. (Contains 1 note.)

  18. Flexible survival regression modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortese, Giuliana; Scheike, Thomas H; Martinussen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Regression analysis of survival data, and more generally event history data, is typically based on Cox's regression model. We here review some recent methodology, focusing on the limitations of Cox's regression model. The key limitation is that the model is not well suited to represent time-varyi...

  19. Seeds to survive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds are important for man, either as propagation material of crops or directly for the production of foods, fodder and drinks. The natural function of seeds is dispersal of its genes to successive generations. Survival mechanisms seed have evolved sometimes interfere with those preferred by

  20. Survival After Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Clark; Youngblood, Stuart A.

    1986-01-01

    Examined survival rates after retirement in a large corporation. A regression analysis was performed to control for age, sex, job status, and type of work differences that may influence longevity. Short-term suvivors seemed to undergo a different adjustment process than long-term survivors. (Author/ABL)

  1. Negative emotions and alcohol dependence symptoms in British Indian and White college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Amandip; Moneta, Giovanni B

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in the association between negative emotions and alcohol dependence symptoms in British Indian and White college students. Based on a study of levels of alcohol consumption (Spada & Moneta, 2004), it was hypothesized that the association between negative emotions and alcohol dependence symptoms would be present only in British White students. A sample of 150 British Indian students and 150 British White students completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Structural regression modeling indicated that negative emotions predict higher levels of alcohol dependence symptoms in British White students, and do not predict alcohol dependence symptoms in British Indian students. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. What did British nuclear report really say: an EEI perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The British Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution was instituted ''to advise on matters, both national and international, concerning the pollution of the environment; on the adequacy of research in this field; and the future possibilities of danger to the environment.'' The decision to undertake a study of nuclear power was made early in 1974; the final report, Sixth Report, Nuclear Power and the Environment, was submitted to Parliament in September 1976. Generally, the Commission has given nuclear power a clean bill of health, but the Commission's positive findings have been obscured. One of its recommendations says, ''the abandonment of nuclear fission power would, however, be neither wise nor justified. But a major commitment to fission power and a plutonium economy should be postponed as long as possible.'' It is felt that this is a new weapon for the opponents of nuclear power. A major impact of its misinterpretation is expected in the United States. The head of the Commission has said the statements concerning the ''plutonium economy'' were made in the context of looking far into the future. Comments from the Secretary of State for the Environment, a spokeman from the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., and a spokesman from the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority are included. (MCW)

  3. Mach's phenomenalism and the British reception of Mendelism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, P R

    2000-12-01

    The assimilation of Mendel's paper into Britain took place in an Edwardian social context. This paper concentrates on the interplay of empirical and philosophical issues in this reception. A feature of the British reception of mendelism, not duplicated elsewhere, was the role of phenomenalist philosophies of science as developed by the physicist-mathematician and scientific methodologist Karl Pearson from the philosophical positions of Austrian physicist Ernst Mach and British mathematician William Clifford. Pearson's philosophy of science forms the background to his subsequent collaboration with the zoologist W.F.R. Weldon. In this collaborative work, Pearson developed powerful statistical techniques for analyzing Weldon's empirical data on organic variation. Pearson's statistical analysis of causation and his rejection of hidden entities and causes in the explanation of evolutionary change formed the philosophical component of this program. The arguments of Pearson and Weldon were first brought to bear against the pre-Mendel 'discontinuist' analyses of variation of William Bateson. The introduction of Mendel's paper into these empirical and methodological debates consequently resulted in mathematically sophisticated attacks on Mendel's claims by Pearson and Weldon. This paper summarizes this history and argues for the creative importance of this biometrical resistance to Mendelism.

  4. Dental anxiety levels in British servicemen and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, G P; Boyle, C A; Newton, T

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine: 1, the level of dental anxiety in British Service personnel; 2 whether there was a difference in dental anxiety levels across the three Services; and, 3, the relationship between number of operational tours and level of dental anxiety. Cross sectional questionnaire survey of individuals attending 3 Armed Services dental treatment centres in the UK. The questionnaires were completed between February 2008 and April 2009. 50 patients each from the Royal Navy, Army and Royal Air Force, selected consecutively from those attending the centres for treatment. There was a 100% response rate. Dental fear as assessed by the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) and scores on a scale of fear of dental injections. 27% of the Armed Services experienced severe dental anxiety: a level similar to that found in the general population. There was no difference in the level of dental anxiety or fear of dental injections across the three Armed Services. There was no relationship between number of operational tours undertaken and level of dental anxiety. Dental anxiety is found amongst members of the British Armed Services at levels similar to that in the general population. This represents a challenge for service provision, particularly in operational settings.

  5. Ethnic inequalities in periodontal disease among British adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Bernabé, Eduardo; Marcenes, Wagner

    2016-11-01

    To explore ethnic inequalities in periodontal disease among British adults, and the role of socioeconomic position (SEP) in those inequalities. We analysed data on 1925 adults aged 16-65 years, from the East London Oral Health Inequality (ELOHI) Study, which included a random sample of adults living in an ethnically diverse and socially deprived area. Participants completed a questionnaire and were clinically examined for the number of teeth with periodontal pocket depth (PPD)≥4 mm and loss of attachment (LOA)≥4 mm. Ethnic inequalities in periodontal measures were assessed in negative binomial regression models before and after adjustment for demographic (gender and age groups) and SEP indicators (education and socioeconomic classification). Compared to White British, Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi and Asian Others had more teeth with PPD≥4 mm whereas White East European, Black African and Bangladeshi had more teeth with LOA≥4 mm, after adjustments for demographic and SEP measures. The association of ethnicity with periodontal disease was moderated by education, but not by socioeconomic classification. Stratified analysis showed that ethnic disparities in the two periodontal measures were limited to more educated groups. This study showed considerable ethnic disparities in periodontal disease between and within the major ethnic categories. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Role of Capital Productivity in British Airways' Financial Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Peter

    1999-01-01

    British Airways (BA) was privatised in 1987, but its financial recovery occurred a number of years earlier. This recovery was sustained throughout the early 1990s economic recession, a period when few major airlines were operating profitably. This paper examines the role of productivity developments at British Airways from the early 1980s through 1996. The emphasis is on capital productivity and investment, but changes in capital intensity and labour productivity are also evaluated. Various measures are considered for both capital and labour productivity: outputs are measured in available tonne-kms (ATKS) and revenue tonne-kms (RTKs), with the former preferred over the latter two measures, after adjustment for work performed by BA for others. Capital inputs are measured in equivalent lease costs adjusted to constant prices with a different treatment of flight and ground equipment or assets. Labour inputs are derived from total payroll costs deflated by a UK wage price index. The airline made considerable capital investments over the period and at the same time went through two major processes of labour restructuring. This resulted in a gradual increase in capital intensity, relative high labour productivity growth, but poor capital productivity performance. However, capital investment played an important role in the airline's sustained labour and total factor productivity over the whole period.

  7. Queer signs: The women of the British projective test movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    As queer history is often hidden, historians must look for "signs" that hint at queer lives and experiences. When psychologists use projective tests, the search for queer signs has historically been more literal, and this was especially true in the homophobic practices of Psychology in the mid-twentieth century. In this paper, I respond to Elizabeth Scarborough's call for more analytic history about the lesser known women in Psychology's history. By focusing on British projective research conducted by lesbian psychologist June Hopkins, I shift perspective and consider, not those who were tested (which has been historically more common), but those who did the testing, and position them as potential queer subjects. After briefly outlining why the projective test movement is ripe for such analysis and the kinds of queer signs that were identified using the Rorschach ink blot test in the mid-twentieth century, I then present June Hopkins' (1969, 1970) research on the "lesbian personality." This work forms a framework upon which I then consider the lives of Margaret Lowenfeld, Ann Kaldegg, and Effie Lillian Hutton, all of whom were involved in the British projective test movement a generation prior to Hopkins. By adopting Hopkins' research to frame their lives, I present the possibility of this ambiguous history being distinctly queer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Off the Chart: The Crimean War in British Public Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Berridge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Crimean War revealed in this issue of '19' is of such rich and varied historical interest as to make a mystery of its relative obscurity with the general public in the UK. My own article adopts a novelist’s perspective to chart some aspects of this popular decline, exploring the treatment of the Siege of Sebastopol through the media of painting, literature, and cinema, and considering whether those aspects of the war that have made the greatest impression on the public mind are also those that make it least commercially attractive. It also examines the more official legacy, from the treatment of war dead to the changing face of sculpted memorials, and by comparing British commemoration with that of Russians in Crimea, discusses the possible role played in national memory by both shame and pride. In a final brief analysis of the 1968 film 'The Charge of the Light Brigade', I consider the extent to which modern rejection of Victorian values has created historical distortion, and whether a more truthful presentation might better serve the cause of preserving an important war in the British public consciousness.

  9. Introduction to British Sculpture Abroad in the 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Wood

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s, British sculpture enjoyed a complex transitional life, taking on a new, bold, and increasingly internationalized profile, at the very same time that its forms and meanings were being challenged and contested. Both in Britain and beyond its shores, sculpture experienced substantial reorientation at the same time as it developed a rich and complicated “import” and “export” life, conceptually, commercially, and curatorially. When “Sculpture” was “British” and “Abroad”, its “abroad-ness” was not always so explicitly visible, since its forms and concerns frequently chimed with sensibilities and approaches that were emerging elsewhere too, whether they were figurative or abstract, Constructivist or Pop. At the same time, when sculpture was being displayed in Britain, whether in terms of groups, schools, and/or recent tendencies, it was increasingly described as “British Sculpture”. Visual evidence of foreign impact and exchange gradually emerged at the same time as this national and generational trope became a cultural identifier on a broader cultural landscape.

  10. Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections in British Hajj pilgrims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, H; Shafi, S; Booy, R; El Bashir, H; Ali, K; Zambon, MC; Memish, ZA; Ellis, J; Coen, PG; Haworth, E

    2008-01-01

    Viral respiratory infections including influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have been reported during the Hajj among international pilgrims. To help establish the burden of these infections at the Hajj, we set up a study to confirm these diagnoses in symptomatic British pilgrims who attended the 2005 Hajj. UK pilgrims with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) were invited to participate; after taking medical history, nasal swabs were collected for point-of-care testing (PoCT) of influenza and for subsequent PCR analysis for influenza and RSV. Of the 205 patients recruited, 37 (18%) were positive for either influenza or RSV. Influenza A (H3) accounted for 54% (20/37) of the virus-positive samples, followed by RSV 24% (9/37), influenza B 19% (7/37), and influenza A (H1) 3% (1/37). Of the influenza-positive cases, 29% (8/28) had recently had a flu immunisation. Influenza was more common in those who gave a history of contact with a pilgrim with a respiratory illness than those who did not (17 versus 9%). The overall rate of RSV was 4% (9/202). This study confirms that influenza and RSV cause acute respiratory infections in British Hajj pilgrims. Continuing surveillance and a programme of interventions to contain the spread of infection are needed at the Hajj, particularly when the world is preparing for an influenza pandemic. PMID:22460211

  11. The French Army and British Army Crimean War Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Dawson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available French army logistics of the Crimean War are generally considered to have been better organized than their British counterpart. This sometimes erroneous belief was fuelled by letters home (from officers and men as well as by the reporting of various ‘special correspondents’ in the Crimea, and created an emotional response favourable to the ordinary soldier and, in particular, towards the French. This then became the basis for arguments for reform of the British army in the military and domestic press and in Parliament. Clamour for reform on French lines led to official studies being made of the French army, especially of logistics, officer education, and even uniforms. The French army, however, was little understood and the resulting ephemeral corps-style units (such as Land Transport Corps, Army Work Corps, and Mounted Staff Corps were quickly found faulty. In fact, official study of the French army often had little or no effect on the major reforms of the war. Emulation of the French was ultimately short-lived and of little effect; the favourable perception of the French was based on short-term emotional response and, indeed, the desire for army reform had its sting drawn with the establishment of the Roebuck Committee. Post-war retrenchment and success in the Indian Mutiny would stifle what was left of the reform debate.

  12. Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Gibson, Will

    2014-02-01

    The problematic use of mobile phones among adolescents has not been widely studied. There are very few instruments for assessing potential technological addiction to mobile phones, or for categorizing different types of users or uses. The most widely used scale is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS), which is used to study adult populations, and has been applied in various forms in international contexts. The aims of this study were to adapt the Spanish version of this scale (MPPUSA) to British adolescents, and then to estimate the prevalence of possible problematic users. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1,529 secondary school pupils aged between 11 and 18 years, with 1,026 completed questionnaires being collected. The analysis showed that the factor and construct validity and reliability were comparable to those obtained in previous studies. The prevalence of problematic users among the students was 10%, and the typical problematic user tended to be an adolescent between 11 and 14 years old, studying in a public school, who considered themselves to be an expert user of this technology, who made extensive use of his/her mobile phone, and who attributed the same problem of use among their peers. These users presented notable scores in all the symptoms covered by the scale used to assess problematic use. In conclusion, the adaptation of the MPPUSA as a screening scale for British adolescents presents good sensitivity and specificity for detecting the main addictive symptoms proposed in this validated version.

  13. An Approximate Bayesian Method Applied to Estimating the Trajectories of Four British Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus Populations from Pup Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Lonergan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For British grey seals, as with many pinniped species, population monitoring is implemented by aerial surveys of pups at breeding colonies. Scaling pup counts up to population estimates requires assumptions about population structure; this is straightforward when populations are growing exponentially but not when growth slows, since it is unclear whether density dependence affects pup survival or fecundity. We present an approximate Bayesian method for fitting pup trajectories, estimating adult population size and investigating alternative biological models. The method is equivalent to fitting a density-dependent Leslie matrix model, within a Bayesian framework, but with the forms of the density-dependent effects as outputs rather than assumptions. It requires fewer assumptions than the state space models currently used and produces similar estimates. We discuss the potential and limitations of the method and suggest that this approach provides a useful tool for at least the preliminary analysis of similar datasets.

  14. Geographical aspects of British overseas trade: a framework and a review

    OpenAIRE

    A G Hoare

    1988-01-01

    This paper is an overview of geographical studies into the British involvement in international trade. A conceptual framework comprising three elements is presented: internal regional economies, British trading ports, and overseas trading partners. The interactions among these three elements are discussed in order to review the rationale for an academic interest in British geography of overseas trade. The existing literature on the subject is also briefly discussed.

  15. Public ownership, privatisation and regulation: social welfare counterfactuals for British Telecom

    OpenAIRE

    Puglisi, Riccardo; Florio, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Is privatization per se socially beneficial? Or do those benefits depend on the subsequent changes in the regulatory regime? In this paper, building on Vogelsang, Jones and Tandon (1994), we answer these questions by analyzing three different counterfactuals about British Telecom privatization and regulation. In the factual scenario, the British government decided to privatize British Telecom, and at the same time to establish an independent agency (OFTEL), which was to impose a price cap mec...

  16. More of the same? The European Employment Strategy and the normalization of British employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which the European Employment Strategy seeks to govern and further improve the performance of British employment policies. It is argued that by creating an epistemological and normalizing space for the problematization and governing of unemployment in terms...... of activation, the European Employment Strategy contributes to the legitimation of British employment policies. By addressing unemployment as a problem of structural labor market barriers, missing incentives and inadequate employability, the European Employment Strategy serves to reinforce the British...

  17. Managing white-tailed deer: eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Fuller, Angela K.; Hurst, Jeremy E.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have documented that coyotes (Canis latrans) are the greatest source of natural mortality for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates (<3 months old). With the range expansion of coyotes eastward in North America, many stakeholders are concerned that coyote predation may be affecting deer populations adversely. We hypothesized that declines in neonate survival, perhaps caused by increasing coyote predation, could be offset by adjusting or eliminating antlerless harvest allocations. We used a stochastic, age-based population simulation model to evaluate combinations of low neonate survival rates, severe winters, and low adult deer survival rates to determine the effectiveness of reduced antlerless harvest at stabilizing deer populations. We found that even in regions with high winter mortality, reduced antlerless harvest rates could stabilize deer populations with recruitment and survival rates reported in the literature. When neonate survival rates were low (25%) and yearling and adult female survival rates were reduced by 10%, elimination of antlerless harvests failed to stabilize populations. Our results suggest increased deer mortality from coyotes can be addressed through reduced hunting harvest of adult female deer in most circumstances throughout eastern North America. However, specific knowledge of adult female survival rates is important for making management decisions in areas where both neonate and adult survival may be affected by predation and other mortality factors.

  18. A global hotspot for dissolved organic carbon in hypermaritime watersheds of coastal British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Allison A.; Tank, Suzanne E.; Giesbrecht, Ian; Korver, Maartje C.; Floyd, William C.; Sanborn, Paul; Bulmer, Chuck; Lertzman, Ken P.

    2017-08-01

    The perhumid region of the coastal temperate rainforest (CTR) of Pacific North America is one of the wettest places on Earth and contains numerous small catchments that discharge freshwater and high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) directly to the coastal ocean. However, empirical data on the flux and composition of DOC exported from these watersheds are scarce. We established monitoring stations at the outlets of seven catchments on Calvert and Hecate islands, British Columbia, which represent the rain-dominated hypermaritime region of the perhumid CTR. Over several years, we measured stream discharge, stream water DOC concentration, and stream water dissolved organic-matter (DOM) composition. Discharge and DOC concentrations were used to calculate DOC fluxes and yields, and DOM composition was characterized using absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The areal estimate of annual DOC yield in water year 2015 was 33.3 Mg C km-2 yr-1, with individual watersheds ranging from an average of 24.1 to 37.7 Mg C km-2 yr-1. This represents some of the highest DOC yields to be measured at the coastal margin. We observed seasonality in the quantity and composition of exports, with the majority of DOC export occurring during the extended wet period (September-April). Stream flow from catchments reacted quickly to rain inputs, resulting in rapid export of relatively fresh, highly terrestrial-like DOM. DOC concentration and measures of DOM composition were related to stream discharge and stream temperature and correlated with watershed attributes, including the extent of lakes and wetlands, and the thickness of organic and mineral soil horizons. Our discovery of high DOC yields from these small catchments in the CTR is especially compelling as they deliver relatively fresh, highly terrestrial organic matter directly to the coastal ocean. Hypermaritime landscapes are common on the British Columbia coast, suggesting that

  19. A global hotspot for dissolved organic carbon in hypermaritime watersheds of coastal British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Oliver

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The perhumid region of the coastal temperate rainforest (CTR of Pacific North America is one of the wettest places on Earth and contains numerous small catchments that discharge freshwater and high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC directly to the coastal ocean. However, empirical data on the flux and composition of DOC exported from these watersheds are scarce. We established monitoring stations at the outlets of seven catchments on Calvert and Hecate islands, British Columbia, which represent the rain-dominated hypermaritime region of the perhumid CTR. Over several years, we measured stream discharge, stream water DOC concentration, and stream water dissolved organic-matter (DOM composition. Discharge and DOC concentrations were used to calculate DOC fluxes and yields, and DOM composition was characterized using absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC. The areal estimate of annual DOC yield in water year 2015 was 33.3 Mg C km−2 yr−1, with individual watersheds ranging from an average of 24.1 to 37.7 Mg C km−2 yr−1. This represents some of the highest DOC yields to be measured at the coastal margin. We observed seasonality in the quantity and composition of exports, with the majority of DOC export occurring during the extended wet period (September–April. Stream flow from catchments reacted quickly to rain inputs, resulting in rapid export of relatively fresh, highly terrestrial-like DOM. DOC concentration and measures of DOM composition were related to stream discharge and stream temperature and correlated with watershed attributes, including the extent of lakes and wetlands, and the thickness of organic and mineral soil horizons. Our discovery of high DOC yields from these small catchments in the CTR is especially compelling as they deliver relatively fresh, highly terrestrial organic matter directly to the coastal ocean. Hypermaritime landscapes are common on the

  20. Mobile measurement of methane emissions from natural gas developments in northeastern British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Atherton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available North American leaders recently committed to reducing methane emissions from the oil and gas sector, but information on current emissions from upstream oil and gas developments in Canada are lacking. This study examined the occurrence of methane plumes in an area of unconventional natural gas development in northwestern Canada. In August to September 2015 we completed almost 8000 km of vehicle-based survey campaigns on public roads dissecting oil and gas infrastructure, such as well pads and processing facilities. We surveyed six routes 3–6 times each, which brought us past over 1600 unique well pads and facilities managed by more than 50 different operators. To attribute on-road plumes to oil- and gas-related sources we used gas signatures of residual excess concentrations (anomalies above background less than 500 m downwind from potential oil and gas emission sources. All results represent emissions greater than our minimum detection limit of 0.59 g s−1 at our average detection distance (319 m. Unlike many other oil and gas developments in the US for which methane measurements have been reported recently, the methane concentrations we measured were close to normal atmospheric levels, except inside natural gas plumes. Roughly 47 % of active wells emitted methane-rich plumes above our minimum detection limit. Multiple sites that pre-date the recent unconventional natural gas development were found to be emitting, and we observed that the majority of these older wells were associated with emissions on all survey repeats. We also observed emissions from gas processing facilities that were highly repeatable. Emission patterns in this area were best explained by infrastructure age and type. Extrapolating our results across all oil and gas infrastructure in the Montney area, we estimate that the emission sources we located (emitting at a rate > 0.59 g s−1 contribute more than 111 800 t of methane annually to the atmosphere

  1. A Building as a Catalyst for Change: the New British Library Centre for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Shenton

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Centre for Conservation at the British Library (BLCC opened in London this year. This 2600 square metre, purpose-built Centre is connected to the main British Library by a new public terrace and is adjacent to the new St Pancras Eurostar station opening in November 2007. The Centre houses state-of-the-art book conservation studios and sound preservation studios, together with facilities for an extensive training and public outreach programme. The public programme includes a permanent, free exhibition and education suite at the entrance to the new Centre, linked to the rotation of iconic collection items within the BL’s Treasures Gallery. There are to be free, behind-the-scenes tours of the conservation studios for the public as well as demonstrations, workshops and talks. The professional outreach includes partnering with the University of the Arts on setting up a new two-year Foundation Degree in Book Conservation, setting up funded internships for book and sound preservation, and steps to furthering the BL in conservation research. From the beginning, there were three main, intertwined elements at the core of the Centre for Conservation project, namely construction, fund-raising and a ‘change programme’. The paper describes the construction project and highlights features such as the ‘floating’ sound studios, the natural north light that bathes the majority of the conservation studios and describes how the needs of visitors and circulation were anticipated. Secondly it describes the nature of the fund-raising for the €19.65 (£13.25 million project, which was the first such capital fund-raising project undertaken by the BL. The money has been raised from a combination of public and private sources. The mixture of conservation, professional training and public access has been key to the success in raising the funds. Thirdly, the paper describes how the impetus for providing appropriate accommodation for those areas not

  2. Mobile measurement of methane emissions from natural gas developments in northeastern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Emmaline; Risk, David; Fougère, Chelsea; Lavoie, Martin; Marshall, Alex; Werring, John; Williams, James P.; Minions, Christina

    2017-10-01

    North American leaders recently committed to reducing methane emissions from the oil and gas sector, but information on current emissions from upstream oil and gas developments in Canada are lacking. This study examined the occurrence of methane plumes in an area of unconventional natural gas development in northwestern Canada. In August to September 2015 we completed almost 8000 km of vehicle-based survey campaigns on public roads dissecting oil and gas infrastructure, such as well pads and processing facilities. We surveyed six routes 3-6 times each, which brought us past over 1600 unique well pads and facilities managed by more than 50 different operators. To attribute on-road plumes to oil- and gas-related sources we used gas signatures of residual excess concentrations (anomalies above background) less than 500 m downwind from potential oil and gas emission sources. All results represent emissions greater than our minimum detection limit of 0.59 g s-1 at our average detection distance (319 m). Unlike many other oil and gas developments in the US for which methane measurements have been reported recently, the methane concentrations we measured were close to normal atmospheric levels, except inside natural gas plumes. Roughly 47 % of active wells emitted methane-rich plumes above our minimum detection limit. Multiple sites that pre-date the recent unconventional natural gas development were found to be emitting, and we observed that the majority of these older wells were associated with emissions on all survey repeats. We also observed emissions from gas processing facilities that were highly repeatable. Emission patterns in this area were best explained by infrastructure age and type. Extrapolating our results across all oil and gas infrastructure in the Montney area, we estimate that the emission sources we located (emitting at a rate > 0.59 g s-1) contribute more than 111 800 t of methane annually to the atmosphere. This value exceeds reported bottom

  3. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings......, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations...... of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality....

  4. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings......, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations...... of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality....

  5. Multiculturalism and Contemporary British Fiction: Londonstani and The Islamist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Elia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century, the need to move beyond post-colonial and cultural studies somewhat abstract categories seems to be stronger than ever. In order to analyse all-encompassing issues such as ‘Europe', ‘black' and ‘white', a reification of post-colonial theoretical tools is made possible by an ever-increasing permeability of the boundaries between subjects such as literature, sociology, contemporary history, political science, international relations, anthropology. By pursuing an interdisciplinary and pragmatic approach, one finds it difficult to identify a persuasive idea of ‘Europe' when even its ‘capital' Brussels has to face an identity compromise between Flemish and Walloons (Castells, AlSayyad: 2002; by the same token, it is hard to imagine that, say, Scottish people would define themselves first as Europeans, and then as British and Scottish - the opposite sequential order is much more likely. Traditional categories such as ‘black' and ‘white' are also being repeatedly challenged and disrupted, witness the recent publication of novels such as Gautam Malkani's Londonstani (2006 and Ed Husain's The Islamist (2007. The former displays a religion-free kind of identity describing the life in Hounslow of apolitical British-Asian teenage rude-boys ironically embracing the traditionally opposed black hip-hop culture. The latter, instead, is based on a real account of a British Muslim who, after becoming an Islamic fundamentalist, rejected political Islam and returned to normal life. My essay aims to investigate this anti-essentialist notion of the South-Asian community in contemporary Britain by reflecting on the passionate debate between those who keep celebrating multiculturalism as the necessary path to a more tolerant society, and those who blame the policy of appeasement that supposedly fostered the growth of Muslim fundamentalism in Britain. Bearing in mind the diverse colonial histories and the dangers of

  6. Cracking the survival code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllgrabe, Jens; Heldring, Nina; Hermanson, Ola; Joseph, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Modifications of histones, the chief protein components of the chromatin, have emerged as critical regulators of life and death. While the “apoptotic histone code” came to light a few years ago, accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy, a cell survival pathway, is also heavily regulated by histone-modifying proteins. In this review we describe the emerging “autophagic histone code” and the role of histone modifications in the cellular life vs. death decision. PMID:24429873

  7. Artillery Survivability Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    experiment mode also enables users to set their own design of experiment by manipulating an editable CSV file. The second one is a real-time mode that...renders a 3D virtual environment of a restricted battlefield where the survivability movements of an artillery company are visualized . This mode...provides detailed visualization of the simulation and enables future experimental uses of the simulation as a training tool. 14. SUBJECT TERMS

  8. Survival analysis models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws.  Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis.Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enablin

  9. Gaps and spaces: representations of dementia in contemporary British poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilig, Hannah

    2014-03-01

    This article considers the work of a number of contemporary British poets who have attempted to articulate some of the experiences that dementia entails. The unique potential of poetry as a means of portraying the dislocations and reinventions of self that dementia involves has been mostly overlooked. The insights offered by critical gerontology are central to this article. This perspective calls for critical thought about the ways in which dementia has been socially constructed. The challenges posed by poets such as Vuyelwa Carlin, Valerie Laws and Jo Shapcott in particular, are examined. The complex poetic representations offered by these poets acknowledge the pathological declines of dementia and simultaneously celebrate the individuality and life of their subjects. Considering dementia with reference to the work of contemporary poets and critical gerontology is one way in which we can deepen our understanding of what this illness involves and humanise those who suffer from it.

  10. The Electronic Agora of the British Society in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rangelova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available H. Rheyngold (1993 introduces the concept of "electronic agora", claiming that virtual communities act on the square - an open space where it all happens. The theoretical framework of this paper will be set by the theory of Schutz for multiplication of reality and will build on the theory of Muggleton virtual identity. Commonwealth in Bulgaria communicates in a parallel to the real world to the virtual. Through virtual identity can reinvent itself, moving freely between multiple online roles, to be the opposite sex, younger, older, anonymous and thus to avoid the presentation of the true self. What roles occupy the British in Bulgaria in the early 21st century in cyberspace and how it used? Do they experiment with their identity? Do they develop strong relationships in social groups? Answers to these questions will be looking for in this study.

  11. The Language in British and Slovene Football Anthems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Križan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Football is probably the world’s most popular game, with a huge number of fans. There are numerous ways in which football fans express dedication to their club and the feelings they have for their team, for example, wearing certain colours, waving banners and flags, and singing. Football anthems are nothing new for football fans, and many clubs have a long-established tradition of them. In this paper, I will address and compare the language in some popular British and Slovene football anthems, and attempt to explain its contribution to the creation of fan identity, to the fans’ sense of belonging, unity, and motivation. The linguistic analysis identities the linguistic resources used in football anthems to express attitudes, form bonds and create identities.

  12. Economic Consequences of BREXIT after the British Referendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Critian PĂUN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union project is strongly challenged today by the historical decision of United Kingdom’s citizens to exit from this structure, with all consequences assumed. United Kingdom will be the first nation that will quit this ambitious initiative and the decision is transmitted by the organized national referendum’s results in this respect. The population’s opinion expressed by a huge number of voting persons should be taken into consideration by British politicians and transposed very soon into political actions that could have a strong and clear economic impact on both sides. This paper will discuss the possible economic consequences of such historical decision, including potential effects on a small country like Romania.

  13. British Coal Corporation Medical Service annual report 1988-89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This annual report reviews the work of British Coal's Medical Service over the period 1988-89. Recruitment was at a lower level resulting in a reduction in the number of pre-employment medical examinations. Statistics are given for these, and for consultations during the year. The work of the rescue service is described. Results of surveys on the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in coal miners from 1961 to 1988 are presented in detail. The fall in prevalence continued. Continued attention has been paid to compliance with COSHH regulations, to encouraging the use of physiotherapy and to educating workers in lifting and handling methods. Following an incidence of Legionnaires Disease an investigation was carried out to identify the source of infection in an underground refrigeration plant. Studies on the mortality of coke workers have progressed. Reports are given on first aid and nursing services and on the administration of pethridine to injured miners.

  14. British Coal Medical Service annual report 1993-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The annual report reviews the work of the Occupational Health Service of British Coal during 1993. The report summarises medical examinations and consultations carried out; presents, in detail, the reports of the Periodic X-ray surveys (1993 was the final year of the eighth round of surveys); reports on various hazards and problems such as noise, temperature, detection inks, occupational stress; discusses activities relating to compliance with health and safety regulations; reports on work of the toxicology unit on hazardous substances and on carcinogenicity; reports on injuries and treatments (including counselling after the Bilsthorpe Accident in August 1993) and on the nursing service, and summarises research on 1-hydroxypyrene as a monitor of exposure to coal liquefaction workers and on monitoring exposure to benzene.

  15. British Museum Exhibition Review: The Jericho Skull, Creating an Ancestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Hirst

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The temporary exhibit at the British Museum, open 15th December-19th February, and located to the right of the main entrance in the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Gallery (Room 59; is dedicated to a single Neolithic crania from Jericho, known as the Jericho Skull. This exhibit demonstrates the value of relatively recent technologies in archaeological research, highlighting the previously hidden information made possible through CT scanning and the value of these methods in both archaeological research but also in communicating archaeology in a visually stimulating manner which allows an exhibit to take a single item, and create an in depth exhibit featuring both the original material and two cranial 3D prints along with a facial reconstruction.

  16. Appearance of bacteriology in the British medical school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, S P

    2006-01-01

    Published histories of bacteriology concentrate on the scientific concepts, exemplified by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. Arguably, the early British bacteriological studies are headed by Lord Lister, whereas other notables such as Ronald Ross, Robert Bruce and Patrick Manson are honoured for their discoveries of 'tropical' microbes, accomplished abroad. What then was happening in Great Britain? The introduction of bacteriology into the medical school curriculum is examined according to the published lectures in The Lancet between 1889 and 1901 and the dates are reviewed in light of other published sources. The names of the people delivering bacteriology at the medical schools in Great Britain and Ireland provide a guide to the relevance of crediting Lister as the leading light for microbiology in the UK. The diversity of names and backgrounds suggests that a critical reassessment of the perceived late and limited start of UK medical bacteriology is needed.

  17. A British Second World War veteran with disseminated strongyloidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, G V; Beeching, N J; Khoo, S; Bailey, J W; Partridge, S; Blundell, J W; Luksza, A R

    2004-06-01

    A case is described of a 78-year-old British veteran of the Second World War (1939-45) who was stationed in Southeast Asia and who developed a recurrent pneumonia with blood eosinophilia. He was treated with steroids, and eventually died with a severe Pseudomonas pneumonia. Just prior to death, larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis were identified in his sputum, and a specific serum ELISA test was later positive. At autopsy no other organs were involved, but bronchoalveolar carcinoma was found. Longstanding (57 years) chronic strongyloidiasis in a veteran who served in Southeast Asia but who was not a prisoner of war is very unusual. The pattern of dissemination was also not that of a true hyperinfection syndrome, and the case demonstrates the continued need for diagnostic vigilance amongst former soldiers who were based in the Far East.

  18. The origins of Muslim nationalism in British India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Baltar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available British rule of India stripped Muslim elites of their traditional status of ruling class and reduced them to the status of a religious minority doubly pressured by the new conditions of colonial society and competition of the majority Hindu community. These pressures strengthened in the collective imagination the perception of a minority at a disadvantage and it helped the Muslim elites to become gradually aware of their right to constitute in nationhood and the need to organize politically to defend their interests. This article aims to analyze how Islamic nationalism was taking shape during the second half of the nineteenth century and an early twentieth century from two fundamental assumptions: the backwardness of the Muslim community and the fear of Hindu hegemony.

  19. Development of Geography and Geology Terminology in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Rhian; Cameron, Audrey; Quinn, Gary; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The BSL Glossary Project, run by the Scottish Sensory Centre at the University of Edinburgh focuses on developing scientific terminology in British Sign Language for use in the primary, secondary and tertiary education of deaf and hard of hearing students within the UK. Thus far, the project has developed 850 new signs and definitions covering Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Astronomy and Mathematics. The project has also translated examinations into BSL for students across Scotland. The current phase of the project has focused on developing terminology for Geography and Geology subjects. More than 189 new signs have been developed in these subjects including weather, rivers, maps, natural hazards and Geographical Information Systems. The signs were developed by a focus group with expertise in Geography and Geology, Chemistry, Ecology, BSL Linguistics and Deaf Education all of whom are deaf fluent BSL users.

  20. Keeping up Appearances on the Romano-British Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Birley

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Roman Vindolanda lies on the Stanegate Road to the south of Hadrian's Wall, on the northern frontier of the Romano-British province. It has complex stratigraphy with at least ten layers of occupation dating from around AD 85 to its abandonment in the 5th century, but it is the first five levels from AD 85 to AD 130-139 that have produced some of the most significant organic objects from the Empire, including the Vindolanda writing tablets (Birley 2009. One of the distinctive aspects of the Vindolanda collection is the large number of wooden hair combs found in these levels. Over 160 boxwood hair combs have been unearthed from the site. Resembling modern nit combs, these small objects had the primary function of cleaning and detangling hair, but further examination of the collection allows for the exploration of different aspects of style and function.

  1. Finding official British information official publishing in the digital age

    CERN Document Server

    Inman, Jane; Purushothama, B

    2011-01-01

    Examining the different bodies that publish official material, this book describes the types of material published, how it is made available and how it is recorded. Finding Official British Information focuses on the digital availability of official information and considers how much is now freely available on the web and how to locate it as well as addressing issues of web only publishing. It covers public bodies in the UK and includes publications issued by central and local government as well as the devolved assemblies and the many other organisations that issue official publications. Quick 'how to find' section for each area Designed for the non-specialist Covering central and local government, the devolved assemblies and other public bodies in the UK.

  2. Assessing the impact of human activities on British Columbia's estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Carolyn K

    2014-01-01

    The world's marine and coastal ecosystems are under threat and single-sector management efforts have failed to address those threats. Scientific consensus suggests that management should evolve to focus on ecosystems and their human, ecological, and physical components. Estuaries are recognized globally as one of the world's most productive and most threatened ecosystems and many estuarine areas in British Columbia (BC) have been lost or degraded. To help prioritize activities and areas for regional management efforts, spatial information on human activities that adversely affect BC's estuaries was compiled. Using statistical analyses, estuaries were assigned to groups facing related threats that could benefit from similar management. The results show that estuaries in the most populated marine ecosections have the highest biological importance but also the highest impacts and the lowest levels of protection. This research is timely, as it will inform ongoing marine planning, land acquisition, and stewardship efforts in BC.

  3. Acute hepatitis A virus infections in British Gurkha soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Chris A; Ross, D A; Bailey, M S

    2013-09-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are endemic in most developing countries, including Nepal and Afghanistan, and may cause outbreaks in military personnel. Previously, more than 99% of new British Gurkha recruits were already immune to HAV because of prior infection, but this may be declining due to improved living conditions in their countries of origin. Acute HAV infections have occurred in Gurkha soldiers serving in Afghanistan, which made them unfit for duty for 2-3 months. In one case, early serological diagnosis was impeded by IgM results against both HAV and HEV that were caused by cross-reactivity or persistence from a previous infection. These cases have led to a policy change whereby all Gurkha recruits are now tested for previous HAV infection and if negative they are offered vaccination. Meanwhile, HEV infection remains a significant threat in Nepal and Afghanistan with low levels of background immunity and no commercially available vaccine.

  4. Towards targeted screening for acute HIV infections in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Malcolm; Cook, Darrel A; Gilbert, Mark; Krajden, Mel; Haag, Devon; Tsang, Peggy; Wong, Elsie; Brooks, James I; Merks, Harriet; Rekart, Michael L

    2011-08-09

    Our objective was to describe the characteristics of acute and established HIV infections diagnosed in the Canadian province of British Columbia. Province-wide HIV testing and surveillance data were analyzed to inform recommendations for targeted use of screening algorithms to detect acute HIV infections. Acute HIV infection was defined as a confirmed reactive HIV p24 antigen test (or HIV nucleic acid test), a non-reactive or reactive HIV EIA screening test and a non-reactive or indeterminate Western Blot. Characteristics of unique individuals were identified from the British Columbia HIV/AIDS Surveillance System. Primary drug resistance and HIV subtypes were identified by analyzing HIV pol sequences from residual sera from newly infected individuals. From February 2006 to October 2008, 61 individuals met the acute HIV infection case definition, representing 6.2% of the 987 newly diagnosed HIV infections during the analysis period. Acute HIV infection cases were more likely to be men who have sex with men (crude OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.01-2.89], to have had a documented previous negative HIV test result (crude OR 2.89; 95% CI 1.52-5.51), and to have reported a reason for testing due to suspected seroconversion symptoms (crude OR 5.16; 95% CI 2.88-9.23). HIV subtypes and rates of transmitted drug resistance across all classes of drugs were similar in persons with both acute and established HIV infections. Targeted screening to detect acute HIV infection is a logical public health response to the HIV epidemic. Our findings suggest that acute HIV infection screening strategies, in our setting, are helpful for early diagnosis in men who have sex with men, in persons with seroconversion symptoms and in previously negative repeat testers.

  5. Electricity and Static: Franklin and his British compatriots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mankin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Les découvertes en électricité de Benjamin Franklin ont mobilisé des chercheurs depuis des décennies. Cet essai ne traite pas de ces découvertes au sens strict, mais étudie le contexte dans lequel Franklin a présenté certains de ses travaux scientifiques et politiques en 1751, ainsi que leur réception en Grande-Bretagne. L’essai suggère que Franklin ne fut ni l’enfant des Lumières britanniques ou européennes, ni un de leurs jouets. Bien que célébré très généralement par son siècle, Franklin demeurait comme une force étrangère à laquelle les Lumières britanniques devaient faire face, tant sur le plan intellectuel que politique. Peut-être que cette situation explique pourquoi il fut un adversaire si redoutable pour l’Etat britannique.Franklin’s discoveries in electricity have rewarded scholarly attention for many decades. This short essay is not about electricity in the strict sense, but about the context in which Franklin presented some of his work in science and in politics in 1751, and about the way that work was received in Britain. The aim of the essay is to suggest that Franklin was neither a child of the British or European Enlightenment nor one of its toys. And though he may have been touted very generally as an inspiration, he was closer to a foreign force with which, intellectually as well as a politically, it had to contend. This may help in explaining why he proved so considerable a foe to the British state.

  6. Alexander von Humboldt and British artists: the Oriental taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido, Elisa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Humboldtian landscape is the best result of a close relationship between artists and scientists in the context of the Enlightenment. Many artists inspired Humboldt to develop his concept of landscape as the best way of representing Nature, but some British artists in particular were a strong reference for him. Thomas Daniell and William Hodges had travelled to Asia creating a particular imagery, which inspired the desire to travel and the feeling of the exotic taste in Humboldt. Around Humboldt, mainly two types of artists have been studied: on the one hand, painter travellers who received direct instructions from Humboldt after his experience in America, and on the other, artists who started their trips by themselves after reading his works. However, this paper is focused on the links between Humboldt and these British painters of the Orient, whom he met on a European tour with Georg Forster, before making his trip to America.El paisaje teorizado por Humboldt es el resultado de una estrecha relación entre artistas y científicos, en el contexto de la Ilustración. Muchos artistas inspiraron a Humboldt a desarrollar su concepto del paisaje como la mejor forma de representar la naturaleza pero particularmente, algunos artistas británicos supusieron una fuerte referencia para él. Principalmente, alrededor de Humboldt se han estudiado dos tipos de artistas: por una parte, los pintores viajeros que recibieron instrucciones directas de Humboldt tras su experiencia en América y por otra, los artistas que iniciaron sus viajes por iniciativa propia tras haber leído los sus trabajos. Sin embargo, este texto se centra en las relaciones entre Humboldt y los pintores británicos de Oriente, a quienes él conoció en su viaje europeo junto a Georg Forster, antes de realizar su viaje americano.

  7. British surgeons' experiences of mandatory online workplace-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Erlick A C; Dean, Benjamin J F

    2009-07-01

    An online workplace-based assessment tool, the Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme (ISCP), has become mandatory for all British surgical trainees appointed since August 2007. A compulsory pound125 annual trainee fee has also been introduced to fund its running costs. The study sought to evaluate user satisfaction with the ISCP. A total of 539 users across all surgical specialties (including 122 surgeons acting as assessors) were surveyed in late 2008 by online questionnaire regarding their experiences with the ISCP. Sixty-seven percent had used the tool for at least one year. It was rated above average by only 6% for its registration process and only 11% for recording meetings and objectives. Forty-nine percent described its online assessments as poor or very poor, only 9% considering them good or very good. Seventy-nine percent rated the website's user friendliness as average or worse, as did 72% its peer-assessment tool and 61% its logbook of procedures. Seventy-six percent of respondents had carried out paper assessments due to difficulties using the website. Six percent stated that the ISCP had impacted negatively on their training opportunities, 41% reporting a negative impact overall upon their training; only 6% reported a positive impact. Ninety-four percent did not consider the trainee fee good value, only 2% believing it should be paid by the trainee. The performance of the ISCP leaves large numbers of British surgeons unsatisfied. Its assessments lack appropriate evidence of validity and its introduction has been problematic. With reducing training hours, the increased online bureaucratic burden exacerbates low morale of trainees and trainers, adversely impacting potentially upon both competency and productivity.

  8. Dental caries experience of British children in an international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, M C; Drugan, C S; Blinkhorn, A S

    2005-06-01

    To document data on current and past levels of dental decay in British children and compare trends with those in other countries, in Europe in particular. Data were abstracted from multiple sources and collated and tabulated. The dental health of the majority of British children has improved dramatically since the early 1970s. Twelve-year-old children now have on average less than one decayed, missing (extracted) or filled tooth. Levels of dental decay in UK children at 5 and 12 years are among the lowest in the world. There are still marked inequalities in the dental decay experience of children between the territorial regions of the UK, high and low socio-economic groups, and regular and symptomatic dental attenders. Many children in areas of deprivation are either not motivated to seek dental treatment or experience barriers in obtaining it. In parallel with improvements in the dental health of the majority of children, the proportion of UK adults who have no natural teeth has fallen from 37% to 12% over the past four decades. Total tooth loss is now confined almost entirely to individuals over 45 years of age. Most of the improvements in children's dental health are attributable to environmental factors, in particular the widespread availability of fluoride containing toothpastes since the 1970s. There are clear benefits from fluoridation of public water supplies over and above those attributable to other factors. The findings suggest initiatives should be directed to bringing children from deprived backgrounds under the umbrella of dental care. To help alleviate the inequalities in dental health, water fluoridation should be implemented, in urban industrial areas in particular, where levels of dental decay are still unacceptably high.

  9. Barossa Night: cohesion in the British Army officer corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Contrasting the classical explanation of military group cohesion as sustained by interpersonal bonds, recent scholars have highlighted the importance of ritualized communication, training and drills in explaining effective military performance in professional armies. While this has offered a welcome addition to the cohesion literature and a novel micro-sociological method of examining cohesion, its primary evidential base has been combat groups. Indeed, despite their prominent role in directing operations over the past decade, the British Army's officer corps has received relatively little attention from sociologists during this period. No attempt has been made to explain cohesion in the officer corps. Using a similar method to recent cohesion scholars, this paper seeks to address this imbalance by undertaking a micro-sociology of one ritual in particular: 'Barossa Night' in the Royal Irish Regiment. Firstly, it draws on the work of Durkheim to examine how cohesion amongst the officer corps is created and sustained through a dense array of practises during formal social rituals. It provides evidence that the use of rituals highlights that social solidarity is central to understanding officer cohesion. Secondly, following Hockey's work on how private soldiers negotiate order, the paper shows how this solidarity in the officer corps is based on a degree of negotiated order and the need to release organizational tensions inherent in a strictly hierarchical rank structure. It highlights how the awarding of gallantry medals can threaten this negotiated order and fuel deviancy. In examining this behaviour, the paper shows that even amongst an officer class traditionally viewed as the elite upholders of organizational discipline, the negotiation of rank and hierarchy can be fluid. How deviant behaviour is later accepted and normalized by senior officers indicates that negotiated order is as important to understanding cohesion in the British Army's officer corps as it is

  10. Chapter 39: an historical overview of British neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, F Clifford

    2010-01-01

    In the UK, neurology stemmed from general (internal) medicine rather than psychiatry. In 1886 the Neurological Society of London was founded, with Hughlings Jackson as its first President. After World War I, Kinnier Wilson was made Physician in Charge of the first independent department of neurology, which was at Westminster Hospital in London. Although before the 17th century there were British doctors who took an interest in diseases of the nervous system, e.g. Gilbertus Anglicus (c. 1230), who distinguished epilepsy from apoplexy, and Bartholomeus Anglicus, whose encyclopedia (c. 1260) provided the first picture of a dissection printed in English, John of Gaddesden (1280-1361) was the first in Britain to produce a manuscript on neurological disorders. Thomas Willis (1621-1675) was the founder of Neurology, being the first to use the term, and was also the leader of the first multidisciplinary team in neurological science, helping to shift attention from the chambers of the brain to the brain substance itself. He wrote seven books, all but the last in Latin, and his second one, Cerebri anatome (1664) was the first on the nervous system to include the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves, introducing such new terms as lentiform body, corpus striatum, optic thalamus, inferior olives and peduncles. Most of his neurology was in his fifth book, De anima brutorum (1672). Before Willis the brain was a mystery, but his work laid the foundations for neurological advances. After the 17th century of William Harvey and Thomas Sydenham and the 18th century of William Heberden and Robert Whytt there followed the 19th century of James Parkinson (1755-1824), John Cooke (1756-1838), Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), Marshall Hall (1790-1856) and Bentley Todd (1809-1860). Besides its "Father," Hughlings Jackson, the giants who established the unique superiority of British neurology were Sir William Gowers, Sir David Ferrier, Kinnier Wilson, Sir Gordon Holmes and Sir Charles

  11. British ‘Bollocks’ versus American ‘Jerk’: do native British English speakers swear more –or differently- compared to American English speakers?

    OpenAIRE

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the differences between 414 L1 speakers of British and 556 L1 speakers of American English in self-reported frequency of swearing and in the understanding of the meaning, the perceived offensiveness and the frequency of use of 30 negative emotion-laden words extracted from the British National Corpus. Words ranged from mild to highly offensive, insulting and taboo. Statistical analysies revealed no significant differences between the groups in self reported freq...

  12. Flow of surface waters to the west of the British Isles and in the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, R. D.

    The flow of surface waters to the west of the British Isles and in the Bay of Biscay is examined from Argos buoy data representing about 10 buoy-years. The study area falls between the North Atlantic Current and the Subtropical Gyre, so mean flow conditions are particularly slack. The buoys were drogued between 30 and 550 m, and for the deeper droguing a simple method based on acceleration differences was used to determine drogue loss. From about 20°W, the mean easterly flow is about 2.5 cm s -1. This flow divides north and south near 51°N with values of about 5 cm s -1 to the northeast. A further separation occurs either side of Rockall Bank. To the south of 51°N, weaker values of about 2.5 cm s -1 are directed southeast towards the Bay of Biscay. In the Bay of Biscay, at depths of about 400 m, a clockwise circulation was found. Mean flows over ˜ 200 days were ˜<2 cm s -1, the kinetic energy was ˜60 cm 2s -2. Near the continental slopes off NW Spain surface conditions are seasonal, with a reversal of surface flow between summer and winter on the Portuguese slopes.

  13. British History is Their History: Britain and the British Empire in the History Curriculum of Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia 1930-1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Jackson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the evolving conceptions of national identity in Canada and Australia through an analysis of officially sanctioned history textbooks in Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia. From the 1930s until the 1950s, Britain and the British Empire served a pivotal role in history textbooks and curricula in both territories. Textbooks generally held that British and imperial history were crucial to the Canadian and Australian national identity. Following the Second World War, textbooks in both Ontario and Victoria began to recognize Britain’s loss of power, and how this changed Australian and Canadian participation in the British Empire/Commonwealth. But rather than advocate for a complete withdrawal from engagement with Britain, authors emphasized the continuing importance of the example of the British Empire and Commonwealth to world affairs. In fact, participation in the Commonwealth was often described as of even more importance as the Dominions could take a more prominent place in imperial affairs. By the 1960s, however, textbook authors in Ontario and Victoria began to change their narratives, de-emphasizing the importance of the British Empire to the Canadian and Australian identity. Crucially, by the late 1960s the new narratives Ontarians and Victorians constructed claimed that the British Empire and national identity were no longer significantly linked. An investigation into these narratives of history will provide a unique window into officially acceptable views on imperialism before and during the era of decolonization.

  14. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  15. Growth pattern and growth dependent mortality of larval and pelagic juvenile North Sea cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune; Munk, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We investigated growth patterns and evidence of growth dependent survival for a population of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua using analysis of their otolith microstructure. Central concentrations of a population of cod larvae and juveniles in the north-eastern North Sea were sampled twice (in April...

  16. Using Web-Based Technologies and Tools in Future Choreographers' Training: British Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidyuk, Dmytro

    2016-01-01

    In the paper the problem of using effective web-based technologies and tools in teaching choreography in British higher education institutions has been discussed. Researches on the usage of web-based technologies and tools for practical dance courses in choreographers' professional training at British higher education institutions by such British…

  17. Social Media as Beat : Tweets as a news source during the 2010 British and Dutch elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, M.J.; Graham, T.S.; Thorsen, E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter investigates the use of Twitter as a source for newspaper coverage of the 2010 British and Dutch elections. Almost a quarter of the British and nearly half of the Dutch candidates shared their thoughts, visions, and experiences on Twitter. Subsequently, these tweets were increasingly

  18. How British-Chinese Parents Support Their Children: A View from the Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter; Guo, Xumei

    2014-01-01

    Although the high level of achievement experienced by British-Chinese pupils in schools is well documented, the Chinese community in the UK is a relatively under-researched ethnic group. There is only patchy information on ways in which British-Chinese parents and children engage with education. It is often presumed the success of Chinese pupils…

  19. Why Do British Indian Children Have an Apparent Mental Health Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Patel, Vikram; Leon, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies document a mental health advantage in British Indian children, particularly for externalising problems. The causes of this advantage are unknown. Methods: Subjects were 13,836 White children and 361 Indian children aged 5-16 years from the English subsample of the British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Surveys. The…

  20. Comics Unmasked: A Conversation with Adrian Edwards, lead curator of Printed Historical Sources, The British Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Priego

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this interview Adrian Edwards, lead curator of Printed Historical Sources, The British Library, talks to Ernesto Priego about the Comics Unmasked: Art and Anarchy in the UK exhibition at The British Library, 2 May – 19 August 2014.

  1. British Chemists Abroad, 1887-1971: The Dynamics of Chemists' Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gerrylynn K.; Simmons, Anna E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent of overseas migration by British chemists over the period 1887-1971. Notwithstanding the "brain drain" alarms of the 1960s, overseas employment was characteristic of some 19% of British chemists' careers throughout our period, though its nature changed considerably. Our study examines the overseas…

  2. 76 FR 28635 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JA090240, Revision 1, dated January 18, 2010. (2... defined in paragraph 2.D.(4) of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32... bores for cracks. Do the inspections following British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service...

  3. 76 FR 14349 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream Series 3101, and... issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JA090240, Revision 1, dated... British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream Series...

  4. "Try a taste of Turkey": an analysis of Turkey's representation in British newspapers' travel sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamid-Turksoy, N.; Kuipers, G.M.M.; van Zoonen, L.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the cultural representation of Turkey as a travel destination for British tourists. Drawing on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 99 travel features published in three British broadsheet and three tabloid papers over a five-year period, we investigate the content

  5. Green Consciousness or Dollar Diplomacy? The British Response to the Threat of Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, James H.; Weiner, Sanford L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the British role in the regulation of believed ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons. Recounts the history of the British policies during the emergence of the issue from 1974-80; a period of tactical resistance from 1980-87; and a change in policy from 1987-90. (66 references) (MDH)

  6. Dairy intake, blood pressure and incident hypertension in a general British population: the 1946 birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heraclides, A.; Mishra, G.D.; Hardy, R.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Black, S.; Prynne, C.J.; Kuh, D.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to examine the association between intake of different subgroups of dairy products and blood pressure and incident hypertension 10 years later, adjusting for confounding factors. Methods: We studied 1,750 British men and women from the 1946 British birth cohort from 1989 to 1999

  7. Proposal to Fund the Establishment of a Computer Based Library Service Utility in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Union Catalogue, Richmond.

    Sponsored by the 28 member libraries of the British Columbia Union Catalogue (BCUC), this proposal requests funds from provincial government to establish the British Columbia Library Network (BCLN), a computerized library information system based on the existing BCUC organization and database. Chapters describe the need for the establishment of…

  8. The British Southern Campaign in the Revolutionary War: Implications for Contemporary Counter Insurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-10

    Iberian Peninsula, some twenty-five years later, suggesting perhaps that at least some officers in the British Army did absorb key lessons from 20 the...lived 1723-1786. A career British officer he was wounded serving in 60th Foot under Wolfe at Quebec. He was promoted Colonel in September 1775

  9. "I dumped my husband for a Turkish toyboy": romance tourism and intersectionality in British tabloid newspapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamid-Turksoy, N.; van Zoonen, L.; Kuipers, G.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we analyse how British tabloid newspapers represent relationships between mature British women and the younger Turkish toyboy lovers they meet (and sometimes look for) on their holiday; a practice that is often considered as the female counterpart to male sex tourism, albeit

  10. Is the Culture of the British Army Conducive to the Successful Execution of Mission Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    John W. Creswell , Research Design : Qualitative , Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications, 2014), 14, 242...in the U.S., British, and Israeli Armies. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011. Creswell , John W., Research Design : Qualitative ...The research for this paper was qualitative in nature. It investigated the relationship between two elements, Mission Command and British Army

  11. Linguistically-Relevant Diachronic Study of Cultural Values in Early British Advertising Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetova, Larisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on linguistic data retrieved from early advertisements published in British newspapers between 1788 and 1900, the study seeks to map out a set of values and account for linguistic means used to codify them in the diachronic perspective. For the purposes of the study, the corpus of advertisements from random issues of British newspapers…

  12. Contemporary North American influenza H7 viruses possess human receptor specificity: Implications for virus transmissibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belser, Jessica A; Blixt, Ola; Chen, Li-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Avian H7 influenza viruses from both the Eurasian and North American lineage have caused outbreaks in poultry since 2002, with confirmed human infection occurring during outbreaks in The Netherlands, British Columbia, and the United Kingdom. The majority of H7 infections have resulted in self......-limiting conjunctivitis, whereas probable human-to-human transmission has been rare. Here, we used glycan microarray technology to determine the receptor-binding preference of Eurasian and North American lineage H7 influenza viruses and their transmissibility in the ferret model. We found that highly pathogenic H7N7...

  13. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation.

  14. CLIL in the North: finding true north?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Nienke

    CLIL teaching in the Netherlands is very popular: roughly 130 secondary schools offer CLIL education. But did you know that only nine secondary schools in the north of the Netherlands currently offer bilingual education? This means that CLIL education is still not at cycling distance for every

  15. Impacts of Participatory Management of Ruvu North Forest Reserve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the impacts of participatory management of Ruvu North forest reserve on reforestation and food availability to farmers in two villages in Kibaha District. Specifically the objectives were: (i) to find out number of households that participated in tree planting and the survival rates of trees during the project life; ...

  16. North Korean Foreign Relations in the Post-Cold War World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    overflight pay- ments, purchases of North Korean magnesite , and a grain-for-zinc barter deal.106 Finally, in September 1999, almost 50 years after the...Il received the red carpet treatment . All nine members of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, the most powerful...of chemical weapons by the North. New York Times, January 28, 1996, p. 10. 131. Scott Snyder, “North Korea’s Challenge of Regime Survival: Internal

  17. Beauty Contest for British Bulldogs? Negotiating (Transnational identities in Suburban Melbourne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Wills

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the absence of bulldogs, Britfest with its re-creation and representation of Britishness provides an entry point for investigating the complex meanings within the transitional narratives of migrancy, ethnicity and ‘belonging’ among British migrants in modern Australia. The identification and promotion of Britishness at this event reflects recent trends in the re-imagining of that Britishness, which has also become the focus of popular and scholarly debate. In much of this debate, events such as Britfest are seen as representative of a newly emergent sense of identity among British migrants—as an organic reawakening of community pride, nationhood and sense of (an often privileged place in Australia.

  18. Survival after blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Ahlgren, Martin; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    of transfusion recipients in Denmark and Sweden followed for up to 20 years after their first blood transfusion. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,118,261 transfusion recipients were identified, of whom 62.0 percent were aged 65 years or older at the time of their first...... the SMR remained significantly 1.3-fold increased. CONCLUSION: The survival and relative mortality patterns among blood transfusion recipients were characterized with unprecedented detail and precision. Our results are relevant to assessments of the consequences of possible transfusion-transmitted disease...... as well as for cost-benefit estimation of new blood safety interventions....

  19. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  20. Design of survivable networks

    CERN Document Server

    Stoer, Mechthild

    1992-01-01

    The problem of designing a cost-efficient network that survives the failure of one or more nodes or edges of the network is critical to modern telecommunications engineering. The method developed in this book is designed to solve such problems to optimality. In particular, a cutting plane approach is described, based on polyhedral combinatorics, that is ableto solve real-world problems of this type in short computation time. These results are of interest for practitioners in the area of communication network design. The book is addressed especially to the combinatorial optimization community, but also to those who want to learn polyhedral methods. In addition, interesting new research problemsare formulated.

  1. Methane Emissions from Hydraulically Fractured Natural Gas Developments in Northeastern British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, E. E.; Risk, D. A.; Fougère, C. R.; Lavoie, M.; Marshall, A. D.; Werring, J.

    2016-12-01

    If we are to attain the recent North American goals to reduce methane (CH4) emissions, we must understand emission patterns across developments of different types. In this study we quantified the incidence of CH4 emissions from unconventional natural gas infrastructure accessing the Montney play in British Columbia, Canada. We used mobile surveying to collect CH4 and CO2 measurements over 11,000 km of survey campaigns. Our routes brought us past more than 1600 unique well pads and facilities, and we repeated the six routes 7-10 times during summer (2015) and winter (2016) to explore temporal variability. Well pads and facilities were considered probable emission sources only if they were upwind by 500 m or less from the survey vehicle, and on-road concentrations were in excess of local background. In the summer campaigns we found that 47% of individual active production wells emitted CH4-rich plumes, and most of them emitted persistently across repeat surveys. Older infrastructure tended to emit more frequently (per unit), with comparable severity to younger infrastructure in terms of measured excess concentrations on-road. About 26% of abandoned wells were also found to be emitting. Extrapolating our emission incidence values across all abandoned oil and gas infrastructure in the BC portion of the Montney, we estimate that there are more than 550 abandoned wells in this area that could be emitting CH4-rich plumes. The results of this study suggest that analyzing emitting infrastructure by ages and operational differences can help delineate emission trends. Considering the recent industry downturn, our results also highlight the importance of focusing emission reduction efforts on abandoned and suspended infrastructure, as well as active. This is the first bottom-up monitoring study of fugitive emissions in the Canadian energy sector, and the results can be used to inform policy development to reduce energy-related emissions.

  2. Socio-economic determinants of selected dietary indicators in British pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, R G; Dykes, J; Sheiham, A

    2001-12-01

    To assess the proportion of pre-school children meeting reference nutrient intakes (RNIs) and recommendations for daily intakes of iron, zinc, vitamins C and A, and energy from non-milk extrinsic sugars. To assess whether meeting these five dietary requirements was related to a series of socio-economic variables. Secondary analysis of data on daily consumption of foods and drinks from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of children aged 1.5-4.5 years based on 4-day weighed intakes. One thousand six hundred and seventy-five British pre-school children aged 1.5-4.5 years in 1993. Only 1% of children met all five RNIs/recommendations examined; 76% met only two or fewer. Very few children met the recommendations for intakes of zinc (aged over four years) and non-milk extrinsic sugars (all ages). The number of RNIs/recommendations met was related to measures of socio-economic class. Children from families in Scotland and the North of England, who had a manual head of household and whose mothers had fewest qualifications, met the least number of RNIs/recommendations. Very few pre-school children have diets that meet all the RNIs and recommendations for iron, zinc, vitamins C and A, and energy from non-milk extrinsic sugars. Dietary adequacy with respect to these five parameters is related to socio-economic factors. The findings emphasise the need for a range of public health policies that focus upon the social and economic determinants of food choice within families.

  3. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of protoparvoviruses infecting wild raccoons (Procyon lotor) in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuti, Marta; Britton, Ann P; Graham, Stephanie M; Lang, Andrew S

    2017-10-15

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) belong to the species Carnivore protoparvovirus 1. While FPV has been endemic in cats for many years, CPV-2 emerged at the end of the 1970s and 3 antigenic variants (CPV-2a, b and c) are currently circulating in domestic and wild animals. Although raccoons played a fundamental role in the emergence of CPV-2a in dogs, knowledge about protoparvoviruses in these animals is still limited. We investigated 72 raccoons found dead or injured in southern British Columbia (BC), Canada, between 2009 and 2017. Among the 49 protoparvovirus-positive (66%) animals, 39 (80%) exhibited enteritis. Approximately 21% were FPV-positive and these were from Vancouver Island, while 79% were CPV-positive and found on the BC mainland, suggesting geographic separation of strains. Notably, one CPV-positive individual was FPV-vaccinated. The co-circulation of multiple FPV strains was observed, while the CPV-2 strain were all classified as CPV-2a, located in one unique clade, and likely originated from a single introduction. All BC CPV-2 sequences possessed a VP2-305His and therefore could represent one of the intermediate viruses that facilitated the emergence of CPV-2a in dogs. Like other raccoon viruses, all BC CPV-2 sequences possessed a VP2-300Asp but, differently, possessed a VP2-301Ala. Finally, two unique amino acid substitutions were identified in the NS1 of FPV (His554Gln and Gly573Cys). To our knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of protoparvoviruses in wildlife from this region of North America and more studies are needed to elucidate the distribution of these viruses in wildlife outside the USA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 4300-Year Old 'Glacier Forests', Southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia and their Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating of in situ and detrital wood have been utilized to date Holocene glacier fluctuations in Garibaldi Provincial Park and at the Pemberton Icefield in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia. Fieldwork at over 30 glaciers has been carried out since 2002. The focus of this paper is on wood that has been radiocarbon dated between 4500 and 4000 years ago, which has been found at six glaciers. At four glaciers the wood was washing out from beneath present-day glacier snouts. At Helm Glacier in Garibaldi Park thirteen detrital branches and stumps were recovered, and at West Squamish Glacier at the Pemberton Icefield seven detrital branches, stems, and stumps were sampled. Some of these samples had diameters of up to 40 cm and were up to 250 cm long, and thus are much larger than any living trees near the present treeline. Tree-ring analysis shows that these glaciers advanced into and over mature forests that had grown near present-day glacier margins for at least 135 years (Helm) and 357 years (W Squamish). Evidence for permanent snow and ice patches forming, as well as glaciers advancing beyond present-day extents at this time is found in the central Coast Mountains, Yukon Territory, Arctic Canada, Norway, and the Swiss Alps. Glacier advances of similar age have been reconstructed not only in western Canada, but also in Europe, Asia, South America, New Zealand, and Antarctica indicating the global nature of this event. A peak in ice-rafted debris in the North Atlantic about 4200 years ago may have been the result of reduced solar output, and based on Earth's position in the obliquity cycle glaciers should have started to expand 4000 years ago. These 'glacier forests' thus could provide a probable start date for Neoglaciation.

  5. Walden North Dam overtopping : emergency response and rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, S. [FortisBC Inc., South Slocan, BC (Canada); McCreanor, J. [Acres International Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Cronin, D.L.R.; Daw, D. [Acres International Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    This paper described the events that led to the overtopping of the Walden North Dam during a heavy rainfall in June 2002, resulting in a breach around an abutment wall. The dam is part of a run-of-river hydro development on Cayoosh Creek near Lillooet, British Columbia. The Walden North Dam was a low, 46 meter wide concrete dam with a single radial gate. The dam overtopping was attributed to failure of the radial gate hoist. Prior to this event, the dam had been classified by the British Columbia Dam Safety Authorities as a high and then a low consequence category of failure. As facility managers, Aquila Networks Canada Ltd. established an immediate action plan to stabilize the situation and resume normal power production by applying the following priorities: (1) ensure safety of workers and the public, (2) limit further damage to the dam and other facilities, (3) ensure environmental protection, and (4) continue to operate the generation units. Local authorities were informed to evacuate a downstream campsite and environmental agencies were contacted along with safety regulators. Repairs included demolition of the damaged portion of the structure and construction a new two-bay gate/stoplog spillway and bridge. Construction was completed by September 2003 according to the requirements of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans for minimum flow, accurate control of fish flows and environmental monitoring of the stream area. 10 figs.

  6. Observing tilts in mid-crustal rocks by paleomagnetism, examples from southeast British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Guy; Irving, E.

    1990-10-01

    Metamorphic core complexes that originated in the middle crust have been exposed by uplift and extension. Indicators of paleohorizontal planes are few or absent, thus it is difficult to determine the degree of tilting that might have accompanied this process. However, if aberrant paleomagnetic directions (paleodirections) are observed in core complexes or their associated intrusive rocks, and if large-scale rotation and translation can be excluded, then these paleodirections can be used to calculate the sense and magnitude of tilting. We describe paleodirections from mid-crustal rocks in southeastern British Columbia, where uplift and extension occurred in Eocene time about a central culmination aligned north-south. Several large extensional faults dip both to the west and to the east of this central culmination. The Eocene Granby pluton (49.3°N, 118.5°W), situated to the west of the main culmination, has a mean direction of magnetization (D°, I°) 309°, 41° (α63° = 7° the standard error) and paleopole at 44°N, 138°E (A63° = 7°). To the east of the main culmination, a 20 km long section of altered Eocene Syringa dikes and associated metadiorite (49.3°N, 117.7°W) has a mean direction of 56°, 47° (α63° = 3°) and paleopole at 56°N, 319°E (A63° = 3°). The paleopoles are very different from one another, and from those calculated from contemporaneous (53 to 49 Ma) rocks of the North American craton to the east. They also differ from those observed from coeval bedded volcanic rocks to the west of the sampling area. Hence, these large aberrancies cannot be caused by translations. We suggest that they are caused by tilting which occurred during the extension process. The tilts are in opposite senses on either side of the central culmination. They are estimated to be down 38°±8° at 99°E for the Granby Pluton, and down 41°±4° at 270°W for the dikes and metadiorite. These tilts are consistent with the Wernicke model for simple extensional shear.

  7. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-15

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  8. Teaching Urban Sociology and Urban Sustainability on Two Feet, Two Wheels, and in Three Cities: Our Experience Teaching Sustainable Cities in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Lars; Fischer, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe their experiences teaching Sustainable Cities in North America, a course on both urban sociology and urban sustainability. This course brought students to Portland, Oregon, and Vancouver, British Columbia, and then compared those cities with Minneapolis, Minnesota, on various dimensions of urban sustainability. After…

  9. Open For Business? An Historical, Comparative Study of Public Access to Information about Two Controversial Coastal Developments in North-East Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper compares public access to information about two controversial coastal developments in North-east Scotland: the construction of a gas terminal by the British Gas Council and Total in the 1970s, and the current development of "the world's greatest golf course" by the tycoon Donald Trump. Method: Data has been…

  10. Integrated chronostratigraphy of the Pliocene-Pleistocene interval and its relation to the regional stratigraphical stages in the southern North Sea region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, G.; Langereis, C.G.; Munsterman, D.; Leeuwen, R.-J. van; Verreussel, R.; Meulenkamp, J.E.; Wong, Th.E.

    2006-01-01

    Time-stratigraphic interpretations of Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene sediments from onshore locations and from marginal marine settings of the North Sea Basin often refer to the subdivision of the Dutch and British 'Quaternary' regional stratigraphic stages. Since age control for these stages

  11. Integrated chronostratigraphy of the Pliocene-Pleistocene interval and its relation to the regional stratigraphical stages in the southern North Sea region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, G.; Langereis, C.G.; Munsterman, D.; Leeuwen, R.-J. van; Verreussel, R.; Meulenkamp, J.E.; Wong, Th.E.

    Time-stratigraphic interpretations of Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene sediments from onshore locations and from marginal marine settings of the North Sea Basin often refer to the subdivision of the Dutch and British ‘Quaternary’ regional stratigraphic stages. Since age control for these stages

  12. Effects of salinity on photosynthesis and respiration of the seagrass Zostera japonica: A comparison of two established populations in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zostera japonica is a non-native seagrass along the Pacific Coast of North America that is distributed from Northern California, USA to British Columbia, Canada. Recent observations indicate that the species is expanding both latitudinally and into areas of lower salinity. Ther...

  13. North Korea Conundrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samore, G

    2002-07-01

    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)

  14. Climate change may account for the decline in British ring ouzels Turdus torquatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Colin M; Burfield, Ian J; Sim, Innes M W; Rebecca, Graham W; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Grant, Murray C

    2006-05-01

    1. Climate change is already affecting biodiversity, but the number of species for which reliable models relate weather and climate to demographic parameters is low. 2. We modelled the effect of temperature and rainfall on the breeding success and territory occupancy of ring ouzels Turdus torquatus (L.) in northern Britain, using data from a range of study areas, including one where there was a long-term decline in ring ouzel abundance. 3. Timing of breeding was significantly related to meteorological variables affecting birds in the early spring, though there was no evidence that laying dates had advanced. Breeding success was not significantly related to weather variables; instead, over 90% of annual variation in this parameter could be explained by density dependence. 4. Annual change in territory occupancy was linked to rainfall and temperature the preceding summer, after the main breeding season and to rainfall in the wintering grounds 24 months previously, coincident with the period of juniper Juniperus sp. (L.) flowering. High temperature in late summer, intermediate levels of late summer rainfall, and high spring rainfall in Morocco 24 months previously all had negative impacts on territory occupancy the following year. 5. All three weather variables have changed over recent decades, with a significant increase in summer temperature, a significant decrease in summer rainfall, and a nonsignificant decline in Moroccan spring rainfall. A model based on these trends alone predicted an annual decline in occupancy of 3.6% (compared with an observed decline of 1.2%), and suggested that increased summer temperatures may underlie declines in the British ring ouzel population. 6. Changes in summer temperature after the main breeding period could affect the survival rates of adult and/or juvenile birds. An improved understanding of the post-breeding ecology of ring ouzels is required to elucidate the mechanisms and causes of this relationship. Such knowledge might

  15. An exploratory study of image and performance enhancement drug use in a male British South Asian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Kean, Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Consumerism of image and performance enhancement drugs (IPEDs) is a world-wide public health concern. Given anecdotal reporting of increased normalisation of IPED use and uptake of British South Asian male IPED users at UK needle and syringe exchange services, the study aimed to explore use of IPEDs among this under-researched ethnic group. 20 in depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of British South Asian males attending harm reduction outreach in the North East of England. The interviews explored motives for use of IPEDs, sourcing routes, information seeking, injecting behaviours and cultural and community sensitivities around IPED use among this group. The data was collected and analysed using the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach (IPA). Motives for use centred on the achievement of enhanced definition and density of muscle, and improved recovery from training and injuries. All participants reported initial stimulation of interest and triggers to seek information on IPEDs due to social media, community and peer messages. Diverse forms of IPED use were described, with rational and moderated use common among older participants. In contrast younger participants adopted more excessive use in seeking short cuts to attaining muscle size. Sourcing of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) and growth hormones from originating countries (Pakistan, India) was reported, along with diversification of entrepreneurial activity into IPED dealing networks. Sellers were generally reported to provide effective and reliable products and mentoring to inexperienced users. Group injecting practices were common. IPED use was observed by some as health promotion medium within religious contexts. Crime deterrence and drug abstinence occurred for some while involved in AAS cycles. The study is intended to contribute to health policy and practice debate around the targeting of dedicated education, outreach and harm reduction for ethnic groups engaged in IPED

  16. OBESITY IN CANCER SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Niyati; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V.

    2013-01-01

    Although obesity is a well known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of breast cancer, six studies of prostate cancer, and eight studies of colorectal cancer. We note that the evidence over-represents breast cancer survivorship research and is sparse for prostate and colorectal cancers. Overall, most studies support a relationship between body adiposity and site-specific mortality or cancer progression. However, most of the research was not specifically designed to study these outcomes and, therefore, several methodological issues should be considered before integrating their results to draw conclusions. Further research is urgently warranted to assess the long-term impact of obesity among the growing population of cancer survivors. PMID:22540252

  17. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...... and conflicting feelings may result in pathological expansion of grief characterized by extremely reduced quality of life involving severe psychical and social consequences. Suicide a subject of taboo In the 1980s WHO drafted a health policy document (‘Health for all year 2000’) with 38 targets for attaining......We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...

  18. Obesity in cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Niyati; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V

    2012-08-21

    Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of breast cancer, six studies of prostate cancer, and eight studies of colo-rectal cancer. We note that the evidence overrepresents breast cancer survivorship research and is sparse for prostate and colorectal cancers. Overall, most studies support a relationship between body adiposity and site-specific mortality or cancer progression. However, most of the research was not specifically designed to study these outcomes and, therefore, several methodological issues should be considered before integrating their results to draw conclusions. Further research is urgently warranted to assess the long-term impact of obesity among the growing population of cancer survivors.

  19. Candida survival strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polke, Melanie; Hube, Bernhard; Jacobsen, Ilse D

    2015-01-01

    Only few Candida species, e.g., Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida parapsilosis, are successful colonizers of a human host. Under certain circumstances these species can cause infections ranging from superficial to life-threatening disseminated candidiasis. The success of C. albicans, the most prevalent and best studied Candida species, as both commensal and human pathogen depends on its genetic, biochemical, and morphological flexibility which facilitates adaptation to a wide range of host niches. In addition, formation of biofilms provides additional protection from adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, in many host niches Candida cells coexist with members of the human microbiome. The resulting fungal-bacterial interactions have a major influence on the success of C. albicans as commensal and also influence disease development and outcome. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge of important survival strategies of Candida spp., focusing on fundamental fitness and virulence traits of C. albicans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychology and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D P; Ruth, T E; Wagner, L M

    1993-11-06

    We examined the deaths of 28,169 adult Chinese-Americans, and 412,632 randomly selected, matched controls coded "white" on the death certificate. Chinese-Americans, but not whites, die significantly earlier than normal (1.3-4.9 yr) if they have a combination of disease and birthyear which Chinese astrology and medicine consider ill-fated. The more strongly a group is attached to Chinese traditions, the more years of life are lost. Our results hold for nearly all major causes of death studied. The reduction in survival cannot be completely explained by a change in the behaviour of the Chinese patient, doctor, or death-registrar, but seems to result at least partly from psychosomatic processes.

  1. Injury elimination and survival: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, I R

    1998-01-01

    Injury is potentially avoidable. In this study, nine industrialized countries were compared on the projected impact upon population survival of hypothetically eliminating injury mortality. Three principal research questions were addressed. Computer simulations were performed using a combination of single decrement, multiple decrement and cause-elimination life table techniques. Data pertained to 1992. French and American males exhibited the largest projected addition to life expectancy at birth of 2.1 y. They were followed by Canadian and Spanish males with gains of 1.6 y, respectively. Among females, the French were the leading beneficiaries with an added 1.1 y, followed by Americans with 0.8 y. Male gains typically were twice the female gains. Highlighted as relative injury problems were homicide for the US population, traffic fatalities for the Spanish population, and suicide for Japanese females. Among the hypothetically spared, American males registered the largest average projected benefit for either sex of any nationality with 31 additional years of life. At the other extreme were Dutch females with an extra 16 y. For persons exact age 15 of either sex, the greatest projected improvements in survival between ages 15 and 65 would occur for the French. French and US populations manifested the largest injury mortality burdens and British and Dutch the smallest. But survival benefits accruing from the injury mortality elimination varied considerably across nation and sex according to the nature of the life table analyses conducted.

  2. DETERRING NORTH KOREA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Peck

    2017-01-01

    .... No one can credibly promise that the GMD system will work as planned in an emergency, but with North Korea exploding nuclear bombs underground and testing long-range missiles, the US plans to spend...

  3. Cogeneration and North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, J. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of 18 individual presentations. Appendices include lists of participants, speakers, and session chairmen plus California and North Carolina reports and legislation dealing with cogeneration.

  4. Tuberculosis in North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perry, Sharon; Linton, Heidi; Schoolnik, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Tensions on the Korean Peninsula are high. How South Korea, the United States, and other countries, including China, engage North Korea remains a sensitive issue, as policies tying aid to denuclearization are debated...

  5. DETERRING NORTH KOREA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Peck

    2017-01-01

    ... other. No one can credibly promise that the GMD system will work as planned in an emergency, but with North Korea exploding nuclear bombs underground and testing long-range missiles, the US plans to spend...

  6. Content analysis of 150 years of British periodicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdall-Welfare, Thomas; Sudhahar, Saatviga; Thompson, James; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to detect macroscopic patterns of cultural change over periods of centuries by analyzing large textual time series, specifically digitized books. This method promises to empower scholars with a quantitative and data-driven tool to study culture and society, but its power has been limited by the use of data from books and simple analytics based essentially on word counts. This study addresses these problems by assembling a vast corpus of regional newspapers from the United Kingdom, incorporating very fine-grained geographical and temporal information that is not available for books. The corpus spans 150 years and is formed by millions of articles, representing 14% of all British regional outlets of the period. Simple content analysis of this corpus allowed us to detect specific events, like wars, epidemics, coronations, or conclaves, with high accuracy, whereas the use of more refined techniques from artificial intelligence enabled us to move beyond counting words by detecting references to named entities. These techniques allowed us to observe both a systematic underrepresentation and a steady increase of women in the news during the 20th century and the change of geographic focus for various concepts. We also estimate the dates when electricity overtook steam and trains overtook horses as a means of transportation, both around the year 1900, along with observing other cultural transitions. We believe that these data-driven approaches can complement the traditional method of close reading in detecting trends of continuity and change in historical corpora. PMID:28069962

  7. Content analysis of 150 years of British periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdall-Welfare, Thomas; Sudhahar, Saatviga; Thompson, James; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello

    2017-01-24

    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to detect macroscopic patterns of cultural change over periods of centuries by analyzing large textual time series, specifically digitized books. This method promises to empower scholars with a quantitative and data-driven tool to study culture and society, but its power has been limited by the use of data from books and simple analytics based essentially on word counts. This study addresses these problems by assembling a vast corpus of regional newspapers from the United Kingdom, incorporating very fine-grained geographical and temporal information that is not available for books. The corpus spans 150 years and is formed by millions of articles, representing 14% of all British regional outlets of the period. Simple content analysis of this corpus allowed us to detect specific events, like wars, epidemics, coronations, or conclaves, with high accuracy, whereas the use of more refined techniques from artificial intelligence enabled us to move beyond counting words by detecting references to named entities. These techniques allowed us to observe both a systematic underrepresentation and a steady increase of women in the news during the 20th century and the change of geographic focus for various concepts. We also estimate the dates when electricity overtook steam and trains overtook horses as a means of transportation, both around the year 1900, along with observing other cultural transitions. We believe that these data-driven approaches can complement the traditional method of close reading in detecting trends of continuity and change in historical corpora.

  8. Perceptions of technology at sea amongst British seafaring officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Paul

    2009-10-01

    The use of Information Communication Technology is growing in the maritime industry as more systems become monitored remotely and new technologies are introduced to aid environmental awareness and increase safety. An exploratory survey was conducted as part of the EU project 'FLAGSHIP' to assess how seafarers perceive the current state of technology onboard ship and to identify areas of resistance to advancements in this area. Only 5.8% of the sample of British officers (overall n = 805) reported feeling resistant to new technology either 'quite a lot' or 'a great deal' at a general level compared to 82.8% when asked about the specific issue of training. Logistic regression analysis revealed older seafarers and those with low computer literacy to show greater resistance to new technology. Resistance was also higher on vessels with smaller crews, although a confound with vessel type is likely. Technology training for seafarers should be improved but not as a means of compensating for equipment developed without reference to user-centred design principles. Around 90% of all goods are transported by ship yet ergonomic research into the onboard environment is extremely limited. New technology is being introduced to substitute for the human element but little has been done to investigate how work processes have adapted. Seafarers' perceptions of new technology are examined here.

  9. Physical soil quality indicators for monitoring British soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Corstanje

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil condition or quality determines its ability to deliver a range of functions that support ecosystem services, human health and wellbeing. The increasing policy imperative to implement successful soil monitoring programmes has resulted in the demand for reliable soil quality indicators (SQIs for physical, biological and chemical soil properties. The selection of these indicators needs to ensure that they are sensitive and responsive to pressure and change, e.g. they change across space and time in relation to natural perturbations and land management practices. Using a logical sieve approach based on key policy-related soil functions, this research assessed whether physical soil properties can be used to indicate the quality of British soils in terms of their capacity to deliver ecosystem goods and services. The resultant prioritised list of physical SQIs was tested for robustness, spatial and temporal variability, and expected rate of change using statistical analysis and modelling. Seven SQIs were prioritised: soil packing density, soil water retention characteristics, aggregate stability, rate of soil erosion, depth of soil, soil structure (assessed by visual soil evaluation and soil sealing. These all have direct relevance to current and likely future soil and environmental policy and are appropriate for implementation in soil monitoring programmes.

  10. Regional landslide hazard susceptibility mapping for pipelines in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leir, M.; Ramsay, S. [BGC Engineering Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Mitchell, A. [Terasen Gas Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Terasen Gas Inc. is a major supplier of natural gas in British Columbia. Much of its network of gas distribution pipelines passes through rugged and varied terrain. In an effort to manage ground movement hazards that may potentially affect the operation of their system, Terasen conducted a mapping project to identify slow progressive, subsurface ground deformations that could cause leaks in buried gas pipelines. This paper describes the mapping program and the challenges of the GIS based regional scale landslide hazard susceptibility mapping project that ranked and prioritized the 88 communities serviced by Terasen according to which ones required further hazard and risk studies. Landslide subtypes were restricted to earth and debris slides; earth and rock flows; and, earth and rock creep. An international framework for probabilistic hazard and risk management was used during the project along with landslide hazard zonation and simple Fuzzy Logic operators. The landslide causal factors used in the study were: slope angle, surficial geology, bedrock geology, proximity to water bodies, and proximity to faults. A score was assigned to each community. This study provides useful information to those involved in geohazard management and hazard zonation, geoscience data providers, municipal planners and pipeline integrity personnel. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. HIV/AIDS in Vancouver, British Columbia: a growing epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Colin W; Druyts, Eric; Harvard, Stephanie S; Gilbert, Mark; Tyndall, Mark W; Lima, Viviane D; Wood, Evan; Montaner, Julio SG; Hogg, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of HIV in Vancouver, British Columbia was subject to two distinct periods of rapid increase. The first occurred in the 1980s due to high incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM), and the second occurred in the 1990s due to high incidence among injection drug users (IDU). The purpose of this study was to estimate and model the trends in HIV prevalence in Vancouver from 1980 to 2006. HIV prevalence data were entered into the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) where prevalence trends were estimated by fitting an epidemiological model to the data. Epidemic curves were fit for IDU, MSM, street-based female sex trade workers (FSW), and the general population. Using EPP, these curves were then aggregated to produce a model of Vancouver's overall HIV prevalence. Of the 505 000 people over the age of 15 that reside in Vancouver, 6108 (ranging from 4979 to 7237) were living with HIV in the year 2006, giving an overall prevalence of 1.21 percent (ranging from 0.99 to 1.43 percent). The subgroups of IDU and MSM account for the greatest proportion of HIV infections. Our model estimates that the prevalence of HIV in Vancouver is greater than one percent, roughly 6 times higher than Canada's national prevalence. These results suggest that HIV infection is having a relatively large impact in Vancouver and that evidence-based prevention and harm reduction strategies should be expanded. PMID:19265531

  12. British Coal Medical Service annual report 1989-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The report contains detailed results of surveys on the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in coal miners of various age groups from 1962 to 1989. Only 0.6% of 14,300 men X-rayed in 1989 showed any sign of the disease and the overall figure for the 112 collieries surveyed after the completed seventh round of surveys was 0.7%. Emphasis has continued on dust control measures on coal faces and in drivages - dust concentration of 3.1 mg/m {sup 3} in 1989-90 was in keeping with the trend since 1970. A 'cohort' of young miners is being monitored to develop an early warning system to identify changes in the incidence of pneumoconiosis. The role of Medical Service in treating injuries, skin diseases, back pain etc. and problems caused by noise and chemicals is explained. Continued attention has been paid to implication of the COSHH regulations and audiometry has been introduced to all British Coal's employees. Services are now provided to workers of Coal Products Ltd. Reports of first aid and nursing services are included. Use of pethidine for relieving pain is now being advocated. 6 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. The Biographical Management of Risk and Uncertainty—British Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens O. Zinn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available How individuals deal with risk and uncertainties in the context of an organizational culture is a neglected area in the sociology of risk and uncertainty. This contribution reports from an explorative qualitative study (n=14 which examines the intersection of biographical experiences and organizational culture in the perspective of risk and uncertainty. This study with ex-serviceman of the British Armed Forces shows that coming from different biographical contexts, young adults become soldiers for different reasons and they experience their time as soldiers differently. Some chose the certainty culture of the military as a life perspective; others see it rather as a stage in their life. It is the group which assimilates most into military culture which has serious problems with the transition into civil life. But these problems seem to be rooted in the way in which soldiers adopt the military certainty culture rather than the transition itself. Soldiers who maintain competing interpretations and biographical projects are less assimilated but better prepared to deal with all kinds of issues such as drinking culture, ethical and life and death issues. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001102

  14. Gender violence news in British and American press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bustinduy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to prove which qualities, from the British and United States actual press, are more adequate for gender violence issues, comparing news on the same stories. It is evident the influence of mass media on public opinion and, therefore, the responsibility that written press has on gender violence messages, avoiding sensationalism. Psycholinguistic studies have established the relation language-thought, so language used in journalism is crucial. Following the belief that newspapers considered more liberal and independent will lead to a better treatment than traditional ones considered to be more reluctant to change, journals have been selected. Furthermore, different cultures can be as objective and respectful but maybe less committed with the issue, as it may arise from the samples. There have been emerging ethic codes giving guidelines to journalists, including discrimination, and more specific on gender sensitive reporting. Therefore, the objective to improve public opinion information, stepping away from stereotypes and oversimplifications, is substantial, and will undoubtedly result in a better understanding of equality.

  15. Physical soil quality indicators for monitoring British soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstanje, Ron; Mercer, Theresa G.; Rickson, Jane R.; Deeks, Lynda K.; Newell-Price, Paul; Holman, Ian; Kechavarsi, Cedric; Waine, Toby W.

    2017-09-01

    Soil condition or quality determines its ability to deliver a range of functions that support ecosystem services, human health and wellbeing. The increasing policy imperative to implement successful soil monitoring programmes has resulted in the demand for reliable soil quality indicators (SQIs) for physical, biological and chemical soil properties. The selection of these indicators needs to ensure that they are sensitive and responsive to pressure and change, e.g. they change across space and time in relation to natural perturbations and land management practices. Using a logical sieve approach based on key policy-related soil functions, this research assessed whether physical soil properties can be used to indicate the quality of British soils in terms of their capacity to deliver ecosystem goods and services. The resultant prioritised list of physical SQIs was tested for robustness, spatial and temporal variability, and expected rate of change using statistical analysis and modelling. Seven SQIs were prioritised: soil packing density, soil water retention characteristics, aggregate stability, rate of soil erosion, depth of soil, soil structure (assessed by visual soil evaluation) and soil sealing. These all have direct relevance to current and likely future soil and environmental policy and are appropriate for implementation in soil monitoring programmes.

  16. The dental status of asthmatic British school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDerra, E J; Pollard, M A; Curzon, M E

    1998-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of dental disease in British school children with asthma. A convenience sample of 100 asthmatic children (aged 4-16 years) was examined for dental caries, periodontal condition, and tooth surface loss. School children, equated for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status were chosen for comparison. Children were divided into two age ranges; 4-10 and 11-16 years. A significant difference was found in DMFT (0.96 vs. 0.31) and DMFS (1.37 vs. 0.37) between the 4-10-year-old asthmatic children compared with healthy control children. In the 11-16-year age range, the asthmatic children had a DMFT and DMFS of 2.48 and 3.39 compared with the control children who had a DMFT and DMFS of 1.11 and 1.97 respectively. Asthmatic children had significantly more plaque, gingivitis, and calculus compared with the control group. There was a significant difference in the severity and number of teeth affected by tooth surface loss affecting labial surfaces of the anterior teeth and occlusal surfaces of the posterior teeth of asthmatic children. It was concluded that asthmatic children have more decay affecting their permanent teeth, poorer periodontal status, and more tooth surface loss than healthy controls.

  17. Questionnaire survey of proliferative enteropathy on British pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S H; McOrist, S; Green, L E

    1998-06-20

    Risk factors for proliferative enteropathy were investigated by means of a postal questionnaire survey of randomly selected British pig farms. Replies were received from 319 (56 per cent) of the 569 questionnaires posted, representing 1.5 per cent of the total number of pig farms in Britain. Thirty-one per cent of the farms had experienced at least one episode of proliferative enteropathy within the previous three years, usually confirmed by their veterinary surgeon. There was a strong association for the occurrence of proliferative enteropathy in herds of over 500 sows (P proliferative enteropathy, compared with the use of straw bedding or solid floors. The destocking of entire buildings containing pigs two to four months old before the introduction of fresh pigs, was associated with a reduced risk (P < 0.05), but the destocking of selected pens rather than the whole building had no such association. The type of diet, or feeding or watering system and the types of buildings used were not identified as risk factors.

  18. Funding, Performance and Participation in British Olympic Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Goranova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between sport funding, performance and mass participation. Elite sport development has become a key component in countries’ sport systems. National governing bodies continuously invest money and resources in developing effective sport structures for future current athletes. It could be suggested that with continuously rising sport competition, the British Elite sport funding system needs to be revised to optimize the support for elite athletes in more sports with potential to win medals and in that way increase competitiveness and dominance across a wider range of sports, as well as to minimize the threat for the nation to be surpassed by its rivals (Duffy et al. 2006. A historical database of funding (UK Sport, performance (Olympic medals and participation (Active People Survey statistics has been constructed. All Olympic sports from Sydney 2000 to London 2012 with Team GB representation have been included. Bivariate correlation was used to test the relationship between variables and results indicate no strong correlation to exist. We discuss the implications and limitations of our findings in the context of current sport policy in the UK before making suggestions for future research in this area.

  19. Short Legal Study on “British Exit”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Stancu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available After waiting nearly 13 years to become member of the European Union (EU, the United Kingdom, by the referendum in June 2016, it wants to be the first country leaving the European construction structures. However, the manner by which it was decided to exit the EU, namely the “referendum” raises many legal constitutional debates within the United Kingdom, even to the admission of the possibility to invoke the nullity of the vote of the British people. However, the London Government reaffirmed their desire to abandon the European ship. Thus, engaging the technical procedures for negotiating the conclusion of exiting from the EU cannot be sustained for too long. However, the future relationship between the European Union and Britain gives rise to many uncertainties. It puts in question the type of framework agreement which will regulate the cooperation between the EU and the UK. Maybe it will take as a model the existing agreement, such as that between the Union and the Switzerland or Russia, or it will be preferred the agreement “sur mesure” (customized according to their interests? Also, another question is that of knowing the effects of exiting, in terms of international relations. The European Union is party to various international treaties, the United Kingdom, through its membership, has enjoyed the benefits of these international agreements. Since the Union is no longer serving as interface, should Britain renegotiate bilaterally these treaties? To all these questions we will give an objective answer in this article.

  20. British women's attitudes towards oocyte donation: ethnic differences and altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, S; van den Akker, O B A

    2006-12-01

    This study assessed the importance of altruism and willingness to donate oocytes in British Asian and Caucasian samples. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) was used to test the importance of attitudes towards oocyte donation, normative and control beliefs to attitudes to donate oocytes. One hundred and one participants (55% Asian, 45% Caucasian) completed questionnaires measuring altruism and attitudes to Oocyte donation. There were no socio-demographic differences between ethnic groups. Few women were willing to donate oocytes, Asian women were least likely to donate oocytes, and altruism was not related to willingness to donate. Forty-one participants considered themselves 'possible' oocyte donors and 54 as definite 'non' donors. Possible donors reported significantly more positive attitudes towards egg donation; asking women to donate under various circumstances; to the consequences of donating their eggs; positively experiencing egg donation and to factors that would induce women to donate. Subjective norms and behavioural control also influenced intention to donate. A number of components of the TPB were able to predict possible oocyte donation, and non-oocyte donation. This study provides some empirical support for specific factors influencing cultural differences in gamete donation in the UK. A future culturally appropriate targeted approach to donation education could redress the present imbalance in supply and demand of gametes in infertility treatment.

  1. Resilient Salmon, Resilient Fisheries for British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Healey

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmon are inherently resilient species. However, this resiliency has been undermined in British Columbia by a century of centralized, command-and-control management focused initially on maximizing yield and, more recently, on economic efficiency. Community and cultural resiliency have also been undermined, especially by the recent emphasis on economic efficiency, which has concentrated access in the hands of a few and has disenfranchised fishery-dependent communities. Recent declines in both salmon stocks and salmon prices have revealed the systemic failure of the current management system. If salmon and their fisheries are to become viable again, radically new management policies are needed. For the salmon species, the emphasis must shift from maximizing yield to restoring resilience; for salmon fisheries, the emphasis must shift from maximizing economic efficiency to maximizing community and cultural resilience. For the species, an approach is needed that integrates harvest management, habitat management, and habitat enhancement to sustain and enhance resilience. This is best achieved by giving fishing and aboriginal communities greater responsibility and authority to manage the fisheries on which they depend. Co-management arrangements that involve cooperative ownership of major multistock resources like the Fraser River and Skeena River fisheries and community-based quota management of smaller fisheries provide ways to put species conservation much more directly in the hands of the communities most dependent on the well-being and resilience of these fisheries.

  2. Sinonasal aspergillosis in a British Shorthair cat in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Tamborini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 13-year-old, castrated male, British Shorthair cat presented for investigation of chronic, intermittent, bilateral epistaxis and stertor. CT revealed severe asymmetric bilateral intranasal involvement with extensive turbinate lysis, increased soft tissue attenuation and lysis of the sphenopalatine bone and cribriform plate. On retroflexed pharyngoscopy, a plaque-like mass occluded the choanae. Rostral rhinoscopic examination revealed extensive loss of nasal turbinates, necrotic tissue and mucosal fungal plaques in the left nasal cavity. The right nasal cavity was less severely affected. The nasal cavities were debrided extensively of plaques and necrotic tissue. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated on fungal culture, and species identity was confirmed using comparative sequence analysis of the partial β-tubulin gene. On histopathology of nasal biopsies, there was ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic rhinitis, and fungal hyphae were identified on nasal mucosa, consistent with a non-invasive mycosis. The cat was treated with oral itraconazole after endoscopic debridement, but signs relapsed 4.5 months from diagnosis. Residual left nasal fungal plaques were again debrided endoscopically and oral posaconazole was administered for 6 months. Fourteen months from diagnosis, the cat remains clinically well with mild intermittent left nasal discharge secondary to atrophic rhinitis. Relevance and novel information This is the first case of rhinoscopically confirmed sinonasal aspergillosis to be diagnosed in a cat in the UK. Endoscopic confirmation of resolution of infection is useful in cases where mild nasal discharge persists after treatment.

  3. Air quality health index variation across British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselback, P. [Interior Health Authority, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Taylor, E. [British Columbia Ministry of Health Living and Sport, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    The new Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a tool aiming to present the health risks related to air pollution in Canada. This index can be used by individuals to help them reduce their health risk resulting from poor air quality. An assessment of the short term health risk induced by poor air quality is provided to Canadians through the AQHI. The AQHI is based on three factors: ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter and ozone, the local air quality information being presented on an hourly and daily basis and being calculated each hour for several locations across Canada. Pulmonary disorders and impacts on cardiac function are the more significant short term health risks. Longer term exposure to poor air quality is associated with increased rates of allergies and asthma, low birth weight, atherosclerosis, poorer lung development in children, lung cancer and ear infections. Information on the AQHI and on the variation across British Columbia of the health risk associated with this index are presented in this document. 19 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  4. Issues of Caribou Management in Northeastern British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Harrison

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou inhabit most of Northeastern British Columbia. They live across a variety of climatic and geographic gradients and in areas with as many as seven other ungulate species and seven predatory species. This apparent variability in habitat use may suggest that caribou in the Northeast are wide ranging and ecologically plastic. Conversely, caribou in Northeastern B.C. may live in discrete groups that have adapted to local conditions. There are few published data of woodland caribou in Northeastern B.C. Information is lacking on the number of caribou, their seasonal movements, their habitat requirements, and their interactions with other species. Logging, seismic activity, pipeline construction, oil and natural gas drilling, hydro-electric dams, and prescribed burning have all impacted habitat in previously undeveloped areas. The manner and rate at which these activities are changing habitats far exceeds our growth in knowledge of caribou ecology. Given this combination of few data and rapid habitat alteration, resource managers cannot know the impact of these habitat changes. We believe that this jeopardises the conservation of viable caribou populations.

  5. Marijuana growing operations in British Columbia revisited, 1997-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, D.; Malm, A.; Kinney, B. [University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). Dept. of Criminology and Criminal Justice]|[University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). International Centre for Urban Research Studies

    2005-03-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of marihuana cultivation in British Columbia were presented. This report describes the incidents of marihuana grow operations coming to the attention of the police; the characteristics of marihuana growing operations; the suspects involved; the actions taken by the police and courts; and penalty. The study confirms that these operations which are dispersed throughout the province are increasing in both size and sophistication. The average number of kilograms of harvested marihuana seized per grow operation tripled from 1997 to 2003. In addition, the number of high intensity lights seized per operation also grew, leading to an associated increase in the average amount of electricity theft per operation. About 1 in 5 grow operations involved hydro theft. The average cost associated with hydro theft per operation was about $2,880 in 1997 and $3,740 in 2003. In 2003, it is estimated that growers stole more than $3,200,000 from BC Hydro. In addition to electricity by-passes, 15 per cent of indoor grow operations contained hazards such as weapons, explosives, and other drugs. 25 tabs., 34 figs.

  6. Childhood cancer in Argentina: Survival 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Florencia; Florencia, Moreno; Dussel, Veronica; Veronica, Dussel; Orellana, Liliana; Liliana, Orellana

    2015-08-01

    Information on the epidemiology of childhood cancer in Latin America is limited. The Argentinean Oncopaediatric Registry (ROHA) is a population-based registry active since 2000. This paper describes the 3-year survival experience of children diagnosed with cancer in Argentina during 2000-2007 by major morphological subgroup, age, sex, and geographical region of residence. Newly diagnosed paediatric cancer cases are registered in ROHA (estimated coverage is 93% of the country's cases). Three-year overall survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Univariate Cox models were used to compare subgroup survival. Between 2000 and 2007, a total of 10,181 new cancer diagnoses in children aged 0-14 years were reported to the registry. Three-year overall survival (95%CI) for all cancers was 61.7% (60.7; 62.7). Specific survival for the most frequent morphological types was: leukaemias 63.3% (61.6; 64.9), lymphomas and related neoplasms 75.3% (72.7; 77.7), brain neoplasms 46.3% (43.9; 48.7), soft-tissue sarcomas 52.3% (48.0; 56.5), neuroblastomas 49.6% (44.6; 54.3), renal tumours 76.7% (72.2; 80.6), and malignant bone tumours 47.2% (42.3; 51.9). Overall survival was associated with age but not sex and varied by geographical region. Compared to other regions, patients who resided in the capital city had a significantly higher survival: 69.6% (65.8; 73.0) versus 63.5% (59.4; 67.4) in Patagonia, 63.2% (61.9; 64.5) in the central region, 58.0% (54.2; 61.7) in Cuyo, 55.6% (52.5; 58.6) in the north-east, and 55.4% (52.4; 58.2) in the north-west (all P values <0.005). Of children diagnosed with cancer in Argentina, 62% survived at least 3 years after diagnosis. Even though this figure is lower than that reported for more developed countries, survival patterns by diagnosis, age and sex were quite similar. Survival was lower in the two northern regions, which are areas with higher poverty levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The British Museum: An Imperial Museum in a Post-Imperial World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Duthie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the British Museum’s imperialist attitudes towards classical heritage. Despite considerable pressure from foreign governments, the museum has consistently refused to return art and antiquities that it acquired under the aegis of empire. It is the contention of this article that the British Museum remains an imperialist institution. The current debates over the British Museum’s collections raise profound questions about the relationship between museums and modern nation states and their nationalist claims to ancient heritage. The museum’s inflexible response to repatriation claims also encapsulates the challenges inherent in presenting empire and its legacy to contemporary, post-imperial audiences.

  8. Selective Memory: British Perceptions of the Herero-Nama Genocide, 1904-1908 and 1918

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholt Nielsen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    This article examines British officials’ perceptions of, and degree of involvement in, the Herero–Nama war and subsequent genocide in German South-West Africa in 1904–1908. By examining contemporary British correspondence on this event and comparing it to the British ‘Blue Book’ of 1918, the arti...... to German colonial history, this article challenges the idea of German colonial exceptionalism and the approach to this genocide within a historical framework of the Third Reich. Instead, this event should be understood within the wider transnational context of imperial history....

  9. Surveillance for Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes Ticks and Small Rodents in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Muhammad G; Lee, Min-Kuang; Man, Stephanie; Fernando, Keerthi; Wong, Quantine; Hojgaard, Andrias; Tang, Patrick; Mak, Sunny; Henry, Bonnie; Patrick, David M

    2015-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in British Columbian ticks, fieldwork was conducted over a 2-year period. In all, 893 ticks (Ixodes pacificus, I. angustus, I. soricis, Ixodes spp., and Dermacentor andersoni) of different life stages were retrieved from 483 small rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus, Perognathus parvus, and Reithrodontomys megalotis). B. burgdorferi DNA was detected in 5 out of 359 tick pools, and 41 out of 483 mice were serologically confirmed to have antibodies against B. burgdorferi. These results were consistent with previous studies, data from passive surveillance in British Columbia, and data from neighboring states in the Pacific Northwest, suggesting a continually low prevalence of B. burgdorferi in British Columbia ticks.

  10. Immigrant Incorporation in American Cities: Contextual Determinants of Irish, German and British Intermarriage in 1880.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R; Shin, Hyoung-Jin

    2012-01-01

    This study adds to a growing body of research on the contextual determinants of marriage choice and provides new information on ethnic intermarriage in the late 19(th) Century. Census microdata for 66 major cities in 1880 are used to estimate a multilevel model of assortative mating of Irish, German, and British immigrants. Results demonstrate that marital choices made by individuals are significantly affected by the local urban context where they live. In addition the very large disparity in endogamy between the British and other groups can mainly be attributed to the smaller size of the British population in these cities.

  11. Mad, Bad, and Dangerous to Know? The Strange Allure and Elusive Reality of North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sandra Fahy, Marching Through Suffering: Loss and Survival in North Korea. New York: Columbia University Press, 2015. 272 pp. $40 (cloth/e-book. Hazel Smith, North Korea: Markets and Military Rule. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. 394 pp. $90 (cloth, $33 (paper, $26 (e-book. Lady Caroline Lamb famously called Lord Byron “mad, bad, and dangerous to know.” In describing North Korea, Hazel Smith replaces “dangerous to know” with “sad,” but she, like Sandra Fahy, seeks to recuperate the ultimate humanity of North Koreans. Both Smith and Fahy have spent considerable time in North Korea or with North Koreans, and they convey the contemporary dynamics of North Korea without relying on the ready-made caricatures and stereotypes that dominate in the West (and the rest...

  12. Farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. parr may reduce early survival of wild fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundt-Hansen, L; Huisman, J; Skoglund, H; Hindar, K

    2015-06-01

    The study examined the density-mediated effects on growth, survival and dispersal of wild and farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar offspring in the period immediately following emergence, using a substitutive design. In small confined stream channels, wild parr coexisting with farmed parr had a significantly poorer survival, than wild parr alone. Density did not affect this relationship. In larger unconfined stream channels, wild parr coexisting with farmed parr entered a downstream trap in higher numbers than wild parr in allopatry. The results suggests that during the earliest life stages, farmed S. salar can outcompete wild S. salar, resulting in a reduced survival of wild S. salar. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. The Process of Change: The British Armored Division; Its Development and Employment in North Africa during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    time of the battle as quoted in Nigel Hamilton, Monty: The Makino of a General. 1887-1942 (New York: McGraw- Hill, 1981), p.643. 10. Great Britain. War...RTC) was great. Other members of this group included Colonel C. N. F. Broad, Major Frederick A. Pile and Major Percy Hobart. All three were general...p. 149. 18. Kenneth J. Macksey, Armoured Crusader: A Biooraphy of Major-General Sir Percy Hobart (London: Hutchison, 1967), pp. 79, 100-102. 19

  14. A review of models in support of oil and gas exploration off the north coast of British Columbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foreman, M. G. G

    2005-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review of numerical models that would be needed to address scientific and environmental issues related to removing the moratorium on offshore oil and gas exploration for the waters...

  15. Perspectives for Researching British Appeasement of Nazi Germany in the Inter-War Years Using the Digitized Newspaper Collections of the British Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Vasiliu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to verify that the methods for researching the British appeasement policy towards Germany in the inter-war years can include the new method of studying the digitized collections of newspapers of the British Library. The policy of appeasement led by Great Britain during the inter-war years still represents a very attractive subject of research. The challenge lies not only in the new data harvested from primary sources such as documents and newspapers but also in the new methods of researching that may be applied, and that may increase the interest of scholars. Today, researching the digitized collections of archives are not even a futuristic resource, but a growing necessity. Accessing the British Library's digitized collections through the British Newspaper Archive website is often easier and more efficient than going to the archives. The site has more than 40 million digitized newspapers, mainly local periodicals, which can be accessed by searching for keywords, establishing filters and saving results to retrieve them later. The electronic resources of the digitized collections provide valuable help in my doctoral research on the Anglo-French appeasement reflected in the newspapers, which proves to be a great challenge, given the fact that the subject was widely covered in many of the central newspapers. But, of course, this method immediately poses multiple questions: is this method of research as rigorous as the traditional research conducted in the archives? Does this method provide the intercoder reliability framework required for such works? These are the research questions that remain at the center of this article. Previous research on the subject of digitized collections and also the analysis of the resources of the British Newspaper Archive in comparison with the traditional British Library resources can provide an answer.

  16. Survival assays using Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Eun H; Jung, Yoonji; Lee, Seung-Jae V

    2017-02-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model organism with many useful features, including rapid development and aging, easy cultivation, and genetic tractability. Survival assays using C. elegans are powerful methods for studying physiological processes. In this review, we describe diverse types of C. elegans survival assays and discuss the aims, uses, and advantages of specific assays. C. elegans survival assays have played key roles in identifying novel genetic factors that regulate many aspects of animal physiology, such as aging and lifespan, stress response, and immunity against pathogens. Because many genetic factors discovered using C. elegans are evolutionarily conserved, survival assays can provide insights into mechanisms underlying physiological processes in mammals, including humans.

  17. Effect of environmental stress factors on the uptake and survival of Campylobacter jejuni in Acanthamoeba castellanii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan; Qvortrup, Klaus; Wolff, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Background: Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial food-borne illness in Europe and North America. The mechanisms allowing survival in the environment and transmission to new hosts are not well understood. Environmental free-living protozoa may facilitate both processes. Pre-exposure ......Background: Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial food-borne illness in Europe and North America. The mechanisms allowing survival in the environment and transmission to new hosts are not well understood. Environmental free-living protozoa may facilitate both processes. Pre...

  18. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  19. Surviving a Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-09-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  20. Will the olympics survive?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, T.

    1977-01-01

    The United States of America dominated 58 events in athletics, field and swimming, which between them accounted for 35 per cent of all events in the Munich Olympiad. 1972; these events favour taller individuals. But, in 25 per cent of other events (1) cycling, (2) fencing, (3) gymnastics, (4) judo, (5) weightlifting and (6) Graeco Roman wrestling the U.S.A. did not win a single medal. The failure of the U.S.A. to maintain her lead in Munich was largely due to weaknesses in these other events in many of which the potential medallists can be derived from the lower half of the height distribution (events 3 to 6). These weaknesses are Russia's strength and they continued to remain unstrengthened at Montreal. Also, the domination held by the U.S.A. in swimming was seriously challenged by East Germany. The present trends indicate that the U.S.A.'s ranking is likely to slip further to the third position in Moscow 1980. Factors inhibiting the survival of the Olympics are pointed. PMID:861436