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Sample records for survival results demonstrated

  1. Avoiding radical surgery improves early survival in elderly patients with rectal cancer, demonstrating complete clinical response after neoadjuvant therapy: results of a decision-analytic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fraser McLean; Rao, Christopher; Oliva Perez, Rodrigo; Bujko, Krzysztof; Athanasiou, Thanos; Habr-Gama, Angelita; Faiz, Omar

    2015-02-01

    In elderly and comorbid patients with rectal cancer, radical surgery is associated with significant perioperative mortality. Data suggest that a watch-and-wait approach where a complete clinical response is obtained after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy might be oncologically safe. This study aimed to determine whether patient age and comorbidity should influence surgeon and patient decision making where a complete clinical response is obtained. Decision-analytic modeling consisting of a decision tree and Markov chain simulation was used. Modeled outcome parameters were elicited both from comprehensive literature review and from a national patient outcomes database. Outcomes for 3 patient cohorts treated with neoadjuvant therapy were modeled after either surgery or watch and wait. Patients included 60-year-old and 80-year-old men with mild comorbidities (Charlson score 3). Absolute survival, disease-free survival, and quality-adjusted life years were measured. The model found that absolute survival was similar in 60-year-old patients but was significantly improved in fit and comorbid 80-year-old patients at 1 year after treatment where watch and wait was implemented instead of radical surgery, with a survival advantage of 10.1% (95% CI, 7.9-12.6) and 13.5% (95% CI, 10.2-16.9). At all of the other time points, absolute survival was equivalent for both techniques. There were no short- or long-term differences among any patient groups managed either by radical surgery or watch and wait in terms of either disease-free survival or quality-adjusted life years. Oncologic data for the watch-and-wait approach used for this study is derived from only a small number of studies pertaining to a highly selected group of patients. The 90-day postoperative mortality rate derived from the United Kingdom population-based study might be lower in other countries or individual institutions. This study suggests competing effects of oncologic and surgical risk when using watch

  2. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  3. MODIL cryocooler producibility demonstration project results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, G.E.; Franks, R.M.

    1993-04-07

    The production of large quantities of spacecraft needed by SDIO will require a cultural change in design and production practices. Low rates production and the need for exceedingly high reliability has driven the industry to custom designed, hand crafted, and exhaustively tested satellites. These factors have mitigated against employing design and manufacturing cost reduction methods commonly used in tactical missile production. Additional challenges to achieving production efficiencies are presented by the SDI spacecraft mission requirement. IR sensor systems, for example, are comprised of subassemblies and components that require the design, manufacture, and maintenance of ultra precision tolerances over challenging operational lifetimes. These IR sensors demand the use of reliable, closed loop, cryogenic refrigerators or active cryocoolers to meet stringent system acquisition and pointing requirements. The authors summarize some spacecraft cryocooler requirements and discuss observations regarding Industry`s current production capabilities of cryocoolers. The results of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Spacecraft Fabrication and Test (SF and T) MODIL`s Phase I producibility demonstration project is presented.

  4. MODIL cryocooler producibility demonstration project results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, G.E.; Franks, R.M.

    1993-06-24

    The production of large quantities of spacecraft needed by SDIO will require a cultural change in design and production practices. Low rates production and the need for exceedingly high reliability has driven the industry to custom designed, hand crafted, and exhaustingly tested satellites. These factors have mitigated against employing design and manufacturing cost reduction methods commonly used in tactical missile production. Additional challenges to achieving production efficiencies are presented by the SDI spacecraft mission requirement. IR sensor systems, for example, are comprised of subassemblies and components that require the design, manufacture, and maintenance of ultra precision tolerances over challenging operational lifetimes. These IR sensors demand the use of reliable, closed loop, cryogenic refrigerators or active cryocoolers to meet stringent system acquisition and pointing requirements. The authors summarize some spacecraft cryocooler requirements and discuss their observations regarding Industry`s current production capabilities of cryocoolers. The results of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Spacecraft Fabrication and Test (SF and T) MODIL`s Phase I producibility demonstration project are presented. The current project that involves LLNL and industrial participants is discussed.

  5. Demonstration results for the standard ENV 12924.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Kees

    2002-01-01

    Within the working programme of CEN/TC251 (Health Informatics), a standard for Security Categorisation and Protection for Healthcare Information Systems has been developed. This document was formally adopted in 1997 by CEN as pre-standard CEN ENV 12924. A demonstration and implementation effort, which was to be effected in principle at one location, was planned and executed as part of the MEDSEC project. The standard CEN ENV 12924 contains a security categorisation model for information systems in Healthcare, distinguishing six categories, plus some refinements. For each category it specifies the required protection measures. The project task consisted of demonstrating and implementing the standard (as far as possible within a limited period) in a real life situation, and providing feedback on these results to the CEN organisation. To this end, the categorisation scheme, as specified in the standard, was applied to a large part of the information (sub)-systems in the Leiden University Medical Centre. A set of ten sub-systems was then selected for a more detailed investigation. The actual protection status for each sub-system was evaluated on the basis of the recommended protection profiles specified in the standard. For each of the relevant recommendations in the standard, its status was recorded, and remarks were added on its relevance, feasibility, etc. These detailed data have been gathered in separate reports for each sub-system. These reports evidently are confidential, in view of protection of the hospital's information security. A similar, though more limited exercise has been done at Magdeburg University Hospital (UHM), in order to be able to allow for possible differences in local situations. A thorough comparison of results for different hospitals was beyond the scope of the project, however. From the overall picture we have tried to draw conclusions on the quality, completeness and applicability of the standard, as well as on the actual level of

  6. Advanced wing design survivability testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, J.; Tobias, M.

    1992-01-01

    Composite wings on current operational aircraft are conservatively designed to account for stress/strain concentrations, and to assure specified damage tolerance. The technology that can lead to improved composite wing structures and associated structural efficiency is to increase design ultimate strain levels beyond their current limit of 3500 to 4000 micro-in/in to 6000 micro-in/in without sacrificing structural integrity, durability, damage tolerance, or survivability. Grumman, under the sponsorship of the Naval Air Development Center (NADC), has developed a high-strain composite wing design for a subsonic aircraft wing using novel and innovative design concepts and manufacturing methods, while maintaining a state-of-the-art fiber/resin system. The current advanced wing design effort addressed a tactical subsonic aircraft wing using previously developed, high-strain wing design concepts in conjunction with newer/emerging fiber and polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials to achieve the same goals, while reducing complexity. Two categories of advanced PMC materials were evaluated: toughened thermosets; and engineered thermoplastics. Advanced PMC materials offer the technological opportunity to take maximum advantage of improved material properties, physical characteristics, and tailorability to increase performance and survivability over current composite structure. Damage tolerance and survivability to various threats, in addition to structural integrity and durability, were key technical issues addressed during this study, and evaluated through test. This paper focuses on the live-fire testing, and the results performed to experimentally evaluate the survivability of the advanced wing design.

  7. Final Results from U.S. FCEV Learning Demonstration (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-05-01

    This presentation discusses the objectives of the U.S. DOE Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Project, describes NREL's technology validation approach, and summarizes key technical results from the project.

  8. Graphite electrode arc melter demonstration Phase 2 test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Oden, L.L.; Turner, P.C.

    1996-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Energy organizations and the U.S. Bureau of Mines have been collaboratively conducting mixed waste treatment process demonstration testing on the near full-scale graphite electrode submerged arc melter system at the Bureau`s Albany (Oregon) Research Center. An initial test series successfully demonstrated arc melter capability for treating surrogate incinerator ash of buried mixed wastes with soil. The conceptual treatment process for that test series assumed that buried waste would be retrieved and incinerated, and that the incinerator ash would be vitrified in an arc melter. This report presents results from a recently completed second series of tests, undertaken to determine the ability of the arc melter system to stably process a wide range of {open_quotes}as-received{close_quotes} heterogeneous solid mixed wastes containing high levels of organics, representative of the wastes buried and stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Phase 2 demonstration test results indicate that an arc melter system is capable of directly processing these wastes and could enable elimination of an up-front incineration step in the conceptual treatment process.

  9. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-28

    This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valley region of Los Angeles County, California. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate its fleet of Proterra BEBs in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This is the second report summarizing the results of the BEB demonstration at Foothill Transit and it provides data on the buses from August 2015 through December 2016. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  10. King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration: Preliminary Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The U.S. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds a variety of research projects that support the commercialization of zero-emission bus technology. To evaluate projects funded through these programs, FTA has enlisted the help of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct third-party evaluations of the technologies deployed under the FTA programs. NREL works with the selected agencies to evaluate the performance of the zero-emission buses compared to baseline conventional buses in similar service. The evaluation effort will advance the knowledge base of zero-emission technologies in transit bus applications and provide 'lessons learned' to aid other fleets in incrementally introducing next generation zero-emission buses into their operations. This report provides preliminary performance evaluation results from a demonstration of three zero-emission battery electric buses at King County Metro in King County, Washington. NREL developed this preliminary results report to quickly disseminate evaluation results to stakeholders. Detailed evaluation results will be published in future reports.

  11. The CMS event builder demonstrator and results with Myrinet

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G; Cittolin, Sergio; Erhan, S; Faure, B; Gigi, D; Gutleber, J; Jacobs, C; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Ninane, A; Orsini, L; Pollet, Lucien; Rácz, A; Samyn, D; Schleifer, W; Sinanis, N; Sphicas, Paris

    2001-01-01

    The data acquisition system for the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will require a large and high performance event building network. Several switch technologies are currently being evaluated in order to compare different architectures for the event builder. One candidate is Myrinet. This paper describes the demonstrator which has been setup to study a small-scale (16*16) event builder based on PCs running Linux connected to Myrinet and Ethernet switches. A detailed study of the Myrinet switch performance has been performed for various traffic conditions, including the behaviour of composite switches. Results from event building studies are presented, including measurements on throughput, overhead and scaling. Traffic shaping techniques have been implemented and the effect on the event building performance has been investigated. The paper reports on performances and maximum event rate obtainable using custom software, not described, for the Myrinet control program and the low-level communica...

  12. Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Gibson, Marc A.; Geng, Steven M.; Sanzi, James L.

    2016-01-01

    The Fission Surface Power (FSP) Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) is a system-level demonstration of fission power technology intended for use on manned missions to Mars. The Baseline FSP systems consists of a 190 kWt UO2 fast-spectrum reactor cooled by a primary pumped liquid metal loop. This liquid metal loop transfers heat to two intermediate liquid metal loops designed to isolate fission products in the primary loop from the balance of plant. The intermediate liquid metal loops transfer heat to four Stirling Power Conversion Units (PCU), each of which produce 12 kWe (48 kW total) and reject waste heat to two pumped water loops, which transfer the waste heat to titanium-water heat pipe radiators. The FSP TDU simulates a single leg of the baseline FSP system using an electrically heater core simulator, a single liquid metal loop, a single PCU, and a pumped water loop which rejects the waste heat to a Facility Cooling System (FCS). When operated at the nominal operating conditions (modified for low liquid metal flow) during TDU testing the PCU produced 8.9 kW of power at an efficiency of 21.7 percent resulting in a net system power of 8.1 kW and a system level efficiency of 17.2 percent. The reduction in PCU power from levels seen during electrically heated testing is the result of insufficient heat transfer from the NaK heater head to the Stirling acceptor, which could not be tested at Sunpower prior to delivery to the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The maximum PCU power of 10.4 kW was achieved at the maximum liquid metal temperature of 875 K, minimum water temperature of 350 K, 1.1 kg/s liquid metal flow, 0.39 kg/s water flow, and 15.0 mm amplitude at an efficiency of 23.3 percent. This resulted in a system net power of 9.7 kW and a system efficiency of 18.7 percent.

  13. The Pixel-TPC. Demonstration of the concept and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupberger, Michael [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Collaboration: LCTPC-Deutschland-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is foreseen as tracker for the ILD, one of the two detector concepts at the planned International Linear Collider (ILC). At the TPC endplates, Micromegas or GEMs will be used as gas amplification structure. Besides segmented anodes, also an active endplate with pixel chips, in our experiments the Timepix ASIC, is considered as a readout option. In a photolithographic process a grid has been produced on top of the chip to form a so called InGrid, which is a Micromegas-like gas amplification structure. Several thousand InGrids are necessary to equip a complete TPC endplate. For demonstration of the concept, three endplate modules have been built with a total of 160 InGrids covering an active area of about 300 cm{sup 2}. To read out the 10.5 million channels, the Timepix ASIC was implemented in a general readout system. A dedicated powering scheme, DAQ and online event display were developed by our group. The feasibility of the Pixel-TPC could be proven in a test beam campaign at DESY early 2015. The data has partly been analysed and shows the potential of this new type of detector. An overview of the developments necessary to build the detector is presented followed by impressions from the test beam and some of the results from the data analysis.

  14. Evaluation Results From Prospective Drug Utilization Review: Medicaid Demonstrations

    OpenAIRE

    Kidder, David; Bae, Jay

    1999-01-01

    In 1992 HCFA awarded two cooperative agreements for demonstrations of prospective drug utilization review (PDUR). Iowa tested an on-line prospective drug utilization review (OPDUR) system. Washington tested payments to pharmacists for providing non-dispensing “cognitive services” (CS). In this article the authors report on an evaluation of these demonstrations and on three assessments of retrospective drug utilization review (RDUR) interventions. The evaluation failed to detect effects of eit...

  15. Final Results from U.S. FCEV Learning Demonstration: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-04-01

    The 'Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project,' also known as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration, is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project started in 2004 and concluded in late 2011. The purpose of this project was to conduct an integrated field validation that simultaneously examined the performance of fuel cell vehicles and the supporting hydrogen fueling infrastructure. The DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) received and analyzed all of the raw technical data collected by the industry partners through their participation in the project over its seven-year duration. This paper reviews highlights from the project and draws conclusions about the demonstrated status of the fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen fueling infrastructure technology.

  16. Experimental demonstration of building and operating QoS-aware survivable vSD-EONs with transparent resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Guo, Jiannan; Kong, Bingxin; Yin, Heqing; Zhu, Zuqing

    2017-06-26

    Software-defined elastic optical networks (SD-EONs) provide operators more flexibility to customize their optical infrastructures dynamically. By leveraging infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS), virtual SD-EONs (vSD-EONs) can be realized to further enhance the adaptivity of SD-EONs and shorten the time-to-market of new services. In this paper, we design and demonstrate the building and operating of quality-of-service (QoS) aware survivable vSD-EONs that are equipped with transparent data plane (DP) resiliency. Specifically, when slicing a vSD-EON, our network hypervisor (NHV) chooses to use "1:1" virtual link (VL) protection or on-demand VL remapping as the DP restoration scheme, according to the service-level agreement (SLA) between the vSD-EON's operator and the infrastructure provider (InP). Then, during an actual substrate link (SL) failure, the NHV realizes automatic DP restoration that is transparent to the controllers of vSD-EONs. We build a network testbed to demonstrate the creation of QoS-aware survivable vSD-EONs, the activation of lightpaths in the vSD-EONs to support upper-layer applications, and the automatic and simultaneous QoS-aware DP restorations during an SL failure. The experimental results indicate that our vSD-EON slicing system can build QoS-aware survivable vSD-EONs on-demand, operate them to set up lightpaths for carrying real application traffic, and facilitate differentiated DP restorations during SL failures to recover the vSD-EONs' services according to their SLAs.

  17. Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen Initial Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.; Tomsik, T.

    2015-01-01

    NASA operations for handling cryogens in ground support equipment have not changed substantially in 50 years, despite major technology advances in the field of cryogenics. NASA loses approximately 50% of the hydrogen purchased because of a continuous heat leak into ground and flight vessels, transient chill down of warm cryogenic equipment, liquid bleeds, and vent losses. NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) needs to develop energy-efficient cryogenic ground systems to minimize propellant losses, simplify operations, and reduce cost associated with hydrogen usage. The GODU LH2 project has designed, assembled, and started testing of a prototype storage and distribution system for liquid hydrogen that represents an advanced end-to-end cryogenic propellant system for a ground launch complex. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The system is unique because it uses an integrated refrigeration and storage system (IRAS) to control the state of the fluid. This paper will present and discuss the results of the initial phase of testing of the GODU LH2 system.

  18. Demonstration Results From Greenhouse Heating with Liquified Wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Parish, Don; Cooper, Jerome

    2011-07-01

    carbon monoxide at a ratio of 16.4. Neither the pine LBF nor the white oak LBF fuel showed any measureable methane emissions from the NTG boiler flue gas. These results indicate a viable potential for mildly upgraded bio-oil to become an alternative fuel source for greenhouse operations.

  19. Lichens survive in space: results from the 2005 LICHENS experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Leopoldo G; de la Torre, Rosa; Horneck, Gerda; Ascaso, Carmen; de Los Rios, Asunción; Pintado, Ana; Wierzchos, J; Schuster, M

    2007-06-01

    This experiment was aimed at establishing, for the first time, the survival capability of lichens exposed to space conditions. In particular, the damaging effect of various wavelengths of extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was studied. The lichens used were the bipolar species Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans, which were collected above 2000 m in the mountains of central Spain and as endolithic communities inhabiting granites in the Antarctic Dry Valleys. Lichens were exposed to space in the BIOPAN-5 facility of the European Space Agency; BIOPAN-5 is located on the outer shell of the Earth-orbiting FOTON-M2 Russian satellite. The lichen samples were launched from Baikonur by a Soyuz rocket on May 31, 2005, and were returned to Earth after 16 days in space, at which time they were tested for survival. Chlorophyll fluorescence was used for the measurement of photosynthetic parameters. Scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered mode, low temperature scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the organization and composition of both symbionts. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, in combination with the use of specific fluorescent probes, allowed for the assessment of the physiological state of the cells. All exposed lichens, regardless of the optical filters used, showed nearly the same photosynthetic activity after the flight as measured before the flight. Likewise, the multimicroscopy approach revealed no detectable ultrastructural changes in most of the algal and fungal cells of the lichen thalli, though a greater proportion of cells in the flight samples had compromised membranes, as revealed by the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit. These findings indicate that most lichenized fungal and algal cells can survive in space after full exposure to massive UV and cosmic radiation, conditions proven to be lethal to bacteria and other microorganisms. The lichen upper cortex seems to provide adequate

  20. Lichens Survive in Space: Results from the 2005 LICHENS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Leopoldo G.; de la Torre, Rosa; Horneck, Gerda; Ascaso, Carmen; de los Rios, Asunción; Pintado, Ana; Wierzchos, J.; Schuster, M.

    2007-06-01

    This experiment was aimed at establishing, for the first time, the survival capability of lichens exposed to space conditions. In particular, the damaging effect of various wavelengths of extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was studied. The lichens used were the bipolar species Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans, which were collected above 2000 m in the mountains of central Spain and as endolithic communities inhabiting granites in the Antarctic Dry Valleys. Lichens were exposed to space in the BIOPAN-5 facility of the European Space Agency; BIOPAN-5 is located on the outer shell of the Earth-orbiting FOTON-M2 Russian satellite. The lichen samples were launched from Baikonur by a Soyuz rocket on May 31, 2005, and were returned to Earth after 16 days in space, at which time they were tested for survival. Chlorophyll fluorescence was used for the measurement of photosynthetic parameters. Scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered mode, low temperature scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the organization and composition of both symbionts. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, in combination with the use of specific fluorescent probes, allowed for the assessment of the physiological state of the cells. All exposed lichens, regardless of the optical filters used, showed nearly the same photosynthetic activity after the flight as measured before the flight. Likewise, the multimicroscopy approach revealed no detectable ultrastructural changes in most of the algal and fungal cells of the lichen thalli, though a greater proportion of cells in the flight samples had compromised membranes, as revealed by the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit. These findings indicate that most lichenized fungal and algal cells can survive in space after full exposure to massive UV and cosmic radiation, conditions proven to be lethal to bacteria and other microorganisms. The lichen upper cortex seems to provide adequate

  1. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  2. Post-operative morbidity results in decreased long-term survival after resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Aakash; House, Michael G; Pitt, Henry A; Nakeeb, Attila; Howard, Thomas J; Zyromski, Nicholas J; Schmidt, C Max; Ball, Chad G; Lillemoe, Keith D

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate that post-operative morbidity (PM) associated with resections of hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) is associated with short- and long-term patient survival. Methods Between 1998 and 2008, 51 patients with a median age of 64 years underwent resection for HCCA at a single institution. Associations between survival and clinicopathologic factors, including peri- and post-operative variables, were studied using univariate and multivariate models. Results Seventy-six per cent of patients underwent major hepatectomy with resection of the extrahepatic bile ducts. The 30- and 90-day operative mortality was 10% and 12%. The overall incidence of PM was 69%, with 68% of all PM as major (Clavien grades III–V). No difference in operative blood loss or peri-operative transfusion rates was observed for patients with major vs. minor or no PM. Patients with major PM received adjuvant chemotherapy less frequently than patients with minor or no complications 29% vs. 52%, P= 0.15. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates for all patients were 65%, 36%, 29% and 77%, 46%, 35%, respectively. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, margin status (27% R1), nodal metastasis (35% N1) and major PM were associated with OS and DSS, P operations for HCCA can produce substantial post-operative morbidity. In addition to causing early mortality, major post-operative complications are associated with decreased long-term cancer-specific survival after resection of HCCA. PMID:21241432

  3. Ten-Year Survival Results of a Randomized Trial of Irradiation of Internal Mammary Nodes After Mastectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennequin, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.hennequin@sls.aphp.fr [Hôpital Saint-Louis, AP-HP et Université de Paris VII (France); Bossard, Nadine [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Service de Biostatistique, Université Lyon 1, Lyon, and CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, Equipe Biotatistique-Santé, Villeurbanne (France); Servagi-Vernat, Stéphanie [Centre hospitalier Universitaire de Besançon (France); Maingon, Philippe [Centre François Leclerc, Dijon (France); Dubois, Jean-Bernard [Centre Val d' Aurelle, Montpellier (France); Datchary, Jean [Centre Hospitalier d' Annecy (France); Carrie, Christian [Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (France); Roullet, Bernard [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Limoges (France); Suchaud, Jean-Philippe [Centre Hospitalier de Roanne (France); Teissier, Eric [Centre de Radiothérapie de Mougins (France); Lucardi, Audrey [Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); Gerard, Jean-Pierre [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Belot, Aurélien [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Service de Biostatistique, Université Lyon 1, Lyon, and CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, Equipe Biotatistique-Santé, Villeurbanne (France); Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Département des Maladies Chroniques et des Traumatismes, Saint-Maurice (France); and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of irradiation of internal mammary nodes (IMN) on 10-year overall survival in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Methods and Patients: This multicenter phase 3 study enrolled patients with positive axillary nodes (pN+) or central/medial tumors with or without pN+. Other inclusion criteria were age <75 and a Karnofsky index ≥70. All patients received postoperative irradiation of the chest wall and supraclavicular nodes and were randomly assigned to receive IMN irradiation or not. Randomization was stratified by tumor location (medial/central or lateral), axillary lymph node status, and adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy vs no chemotherapy). The prescribed dose of irradiation to the target volumes was 50 Gy or equivalent. The first 5 intercostal spaces were included in the IMN target volume, and two-thirds of the dose (31.5 Gy) was given by electrons. The primary outcome was overall survival at 10 years. Disease-free survival and toxicity were secondary outcomes. Results: T total of 1334 patients were analyzed after a median follow-up of 11.3 years among the survivors. No benefit of IMN irradiation on the overall survival could be demonstrated: the 10-year overall survival was 59.3% in the IMN-nonirradiated group versus 62.6% in the IMN-irradiated group (P=.8). According to stratification factors, we defined 6 subgroups (medial/central or lateral tumor, pN0 [only for medial/central] or pN+, and chemotherapy or not). In all these subgroups, IMN irradiation did not significantly improve overall survival. Conclusions: In patients treated with 2-dimensional techniques, we failed to demonstrate a survival benefit for IMN irradiation. This study cannot rule out a moderate benefit, especially with more modern, conformal techniques applied to a higher risk population.

  4. New Ophthalmosaurid Ichthyosaurs from the European Lower Cretaceous Demonstrate Extensive Ichthyosaur Survival across the Jurassic–Cretaceous Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Valentin; Maisch, Michael W.; Naish, Darren; Kosma, Ralf; Liston, Jeff; Joger, Ulrich; Krüger, Fritz J.; Pérez, Judith Pardo; Tainsh, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Background Ichthyosauria is a diverse clade of marine amniotes that spanned most of the Mesozoic. Until recently, most authors interpreted the fossil record as showing that three major extinction events affected this group during its history: one during the latest Triassic, one at the Jurassic–Cretaceous boundary (JCB), and one (resulting in total extinction) at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary. The JCB was believed to eradicate most of the peculiar morphotypes found in the Late Jurassic, in favor of apparently less specialized forms in the Cretaceous. However, the record of ichthyosaurs from the Berriasian–Barremian interval is extremely limited, and the effects of the end-Jurassic extinction event on ichthyosaurs remains poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on new material from the Hauterivian of England and Germany and on abundant material from the Cambridge Greensand Formation, we name a new ophthalmosaurid, Acamptonectes densus gen. et sp. nov. This taxon shares numerous features with Ophthalmosaurus, a genus now restricted to the Callovian–Berriasian interval. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that Ophthalmosauridae diverged early in its history into two markedly distinct clades, Ophthalmosaurinae and Platypterygiinae, both of which cross the JCB and persist to the late Albian at least. To evaluate the effect of the JCB extinction event on ichthyosaurs, we calculated cladogenesis, extinction, and survival rates for each stage of the Oxfordian–Barremian interval, under different scenarios. The extinction rate during the JCB never surpasses the background extinction rate for the Oxfordian–Barremian interval and the JCB records one of the highest survival rates of the interval. Conclusions/Significance There is currently no evidence that ichthyosaurs were affected by the JCB extinction event, in contrast to many other marine groups. Ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs remained diverse from their rapid radiation in the Middle Jurassic to

  5. New ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs from the European Lower Cretaceous demonstrate extensive ichthyosaur survival across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Fischer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ichthyosauria is a diverse clade of marine amniotes that spanned most of the Mesozoic. Until recently, most authors interpreted the fossil record as showing that three major extinction events affected this group during its history: one during the latest Triassic, one at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary (JCB, and one (resulting in total extinction at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary. The JCB was believed to eradicate most of the peculiar morphotypes found in the Late Jurassic, in favor of apparently less specialized forms in the Cretaceous. However, the record of ichthyosaurs from the Berriasian-Barremian interval is extremely limited, and the effects of the end-Jurassic extinction event on ichthyosaurs remains poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on new material from the Hauterivian of England and Germany and on abundant material from the Cambridge Greensand Formation, we name a new ophthalmosaurid, Acamptonectes densus gen. et sp. nov. This taxon shares numerous features with Ophthalmosaurus, a genus now restricted to the Callovian-Berriasian interval. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that Ophthalmosauridae diverged early in its history into two markedly distinct clades, Ophthalmosaurinae and Platypterygiinae, both of which cross the JCB and persist to the late Albian at least. To evaluate the effect of the JCB extinction event on ichthyosaurs, we calculated cladogenesis, extinction, and survival rates for each stage of the Oxfordian-Barremian interval, under different scenarios. The extinction rate during the JCB never surpasses the background extinction rate for the Oxfordian-Barremian interval and the JCB records one of the highest survival rates of the interval. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is currently no evidence that ichthyosaurs were affected by the JCB extinction event, in contrast to many other marine groups. Ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs remained diverse from their rapid radiation in the Middle

  6. New ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs from the European Lower Cretaceous demonstrate extensive ichthyosaur survival across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Valentin; Maisch, Michael W; Naish, Darren; Kosma, Ralf; Liston, Jeff; Joger, Ulrich; Krüger, Fritz J; Pérez, Judith Pardo; Tainsh, Jessica; Appleby, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    Ichthyosauria is a diverse clade of marine amniotes that spanned most of the Mesozoic. Until recently, most authors interpreted the fossil record as showing that three major extinction events affected this group during its history: one during the latest Triassic, one at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary (JCB), and one (resulting in total extinction) at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary. The JCB was believed to eradicate most of the peculiar morphotypes found in the Late Jurassic, in favor of apparently less specialized forms in the Cretaceous. However, the record of ichthyosaurs from the Berriasian-Barremian interval is extremely limited, and the effects of the end-Jurassic extinction event on ichthyosaurs remains poorly understood. Based on new material from the Hauterivian of England and Germany and on abundant material from the Cambridge Greensand Formation, we name a new ophthalmosaurid, Acamptonectes densus gen. et sp. nov. This taxon shares numerous features with Ophthalmosaurus, a genus now restricted to the Callovian-Berriasian interval. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that Ophthalmosauridae diverged early in its history into two markedly distinct clades, Ophthalmosaurinae and Platypterygiinae, both of which cross the JCB and persist to the late Albian at least. To evaluate the effect of the JCB extinction event on ichthyosaurs, we calculated cladogenesis, extinction, and survival rates for each stage of the Oxfordian-Barremian interval, under different scenarios. The extinction rate during the JCB never surpasses the background extinction rate for the Oxfordian-Barremian interval and the JCB records one of the highest survival rates of the interval. There is currently no evidence that ichthyosaurs were affected by the JCB extinction event, in contrast to many other marine groups. Ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs remained diverse from their rapid radiation in the Middle Jurassic to their total extinction at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous.

  7. Non-Flow-Through Fuel Cell System Test Results and Demonstration on the SCARAB Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, Brianne, T.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the demonstration of a non-flow-through PEM fuel cell as part of a power system on the SCARAB rover. A 16-cell non-flow-through fuel cell stack from Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen, Inc. was incorporated into a power system designed to act as a range extender by providing power to the rover s hotel loads. This work represents the first attempt at a ground demonstration of this new technology aboard a mobile test platform. Development and demonstration were supported by the Office of the Chief Technologist s Space Power Systems Project and the Advanced Exploration System Modular Power Systems Project.

  8. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: Second Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-07-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 new fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The first results report was published in August 2011, describing operation of these new FCEBs from September 2010 through May 2011. New results in this report provide an update through April 2012.

  9. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Sixth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published five previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2016 through December 2016.

  10. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Fifth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published four previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2015 through December 2015.

  11. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Third Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-05-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published two previous reports, in August 2011 and July 2012, describing operation of these buses. New results in this report provide an update covering eight months through October 2013.

  12. Road surface erosion on the Jackson Demonstration State Forest: results of a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Barrett; Rosemary Kosaka; David. Tomberlin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of a 3 year pilot study of surface erosion on forest roads in the Jackson Demonstration State Forest in California’s coastal redwood region. Ten road segments representing a range of surface, grade, and ditch conditions were selected for the study. At each segment, settling basins with tipping buckets were installed to measure...

  13. Development of large aperture telescope technology (LATT): test results on a demonstrator bread-board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, R.; Xompero, M.; Riccardi, A.; Lisi, F.; Duò, F.; Vettore, C.; Gallieni, D.; Tintori, M.; Lazzarini, P.; Patauner, C.; Biasi, R.; D'Amato, F.; Pucci, M.; Pereira do Carmo, João.

    2017-11-01

    The concept of a low areal density primary mirror, actively controlled by actuators, has been investigated through a demonstration prototype. A spherical mirror (400 mm diameter, 2.7 Kg mass) has been manufactured and tested in laboratory and on the optical bench, to verify performance, controllability and optical quality. In the present paper we will describe the prototype and the test results.

  14. InnoDemo Survey Report: Aims and results of demonstration projects in renewable energy and transport

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Dorothy Sutherland

    2014-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a survey of demonstration projects related to energy and transport. The survey was designed to develop an overview of the aims of these projects and the results they have achieved. The projects were carried out in Norway, Sweden and Denmark in the period between 2002 and 2012 and all of them received public funding.

  15. Interpreting overall survival results when progression-free survival benefits exist in today's oncology landscape: a metastatic renal cell carcinoma case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Y

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yiyun Tang,1 Paul Bycott,1 Örjan Åkerborg,2 Linus Jönsson,2 Sylvie Negrier,3 Connie Chen4 1Pfizer Global Research and Development, La Jolla, CA, USA; 2OptumInsight, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Medical Oncology Department, University of Lyon, Lyon, France; 4Pfizer Global Outcomes Research, New York, NY, USA Background: The debate surrounding the acceptance of progression-free survival (PFS as an intermediate endpoint to overall survival (OS has grown in recent years, due to the challenges in demonstrating an OS benefit within clinical trials today. PFS is generally a good predictor of OS for cases where survival post-progression (SPP is short, and less so when SPP is long. SPP depends on multiple factors, including residual effect from experimental treatment and effect from crossover or other subsequent therapies, posing unique challenges into the translation of PFS benefit into OS. Methods: The objective of this analysis was to conduct simulations investigating how increasing SPP impacts PFS translation to OS, utilizing data from the AXIS (axitinib versus sorafenib in advanced metastatic renal cell carcinoma trial. The underlying assumption was a treatment benefit in PFS (the PFS distribution parameters were chosen to be equal to median PFS in the AXIS trial but no treatment effect on SPP, implying that PFS improvement is directly reflected in OS improvement. Results: The probability of a statistically significant difference between arms for OS decreased from 54.7% to 6.1% when median SPP was increased from one to 20 months. The probability of the hazard ratio of OS being ≥0.9 was similarly increased from 24.3% to 72.6%, even though the hazard ratio for PFS was 0.69. Conclusion: The present study shows that when simulated SPP is added to trial PFS data, the existing PFS benefit is diluted. Knowing that the AXIS treatment arms are well balanced with respect to post-trial treatments, we conclude that the PFS to OS benefit translation is primarily

  16. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results. Fourth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-02

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 12 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The FCEBs in service at AC Transit are 40-foot, low-floor buses built by Van Hool with a hybrid electric propulsion system that includes a US Hybrid fuel cell power system and EnerDel lithium-based energy storage system. The buses began revenue service in May 2010.

  17. Obesity and survival among women with ovarian cancer: results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, C M; Dixon, S C; Jensen, A; Kjaer, S K; Modugno, F; deFazio, A; Fereday, S; Hung, J; Johnatty, S E; Fasching, P A; Beckmann, M W; Lambrechts, D; Vergote, I; Van Nieuwenhuysen, E; Lambrechts, S; Risch, H A; Rossing, M A; Doherty, J A; Wicklund, K G; Chang-Claude, J; Goodman, M T; Ness, R B; Moysich, K; Heitz, F; du Bois, A; Harter, P; Schwaab, I; Matsuo, K; Hosono, S; Goode, E L; Vierkant, R A; Larson, M C; Fridley, B L; Høgdall, C; Schildkraut, J M; Weber, R P; Cramer, D W; Terry, K L; Bandera, E V; Paddock, L; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L; Wentzensen, N; Yang, H P; Brinton, L A; Lissowska, J; Høgdall, E; Lundvall, L; Whittemore, A; McGuire, V; Sieh, W; Rothstein, J; Sutphen, R; Anton-Culver, H; Ziogas, A; Pearce, C L; Wu, A H; Webb, P M

    2015-09-01

    Observational studies have reported a modest association between obesity and risk of ovarian cancer; however, whether it is also associated with survival and whether this association varies for the different histologic subtypes are not clear. We undertook an international collaborative analysis to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), assessed shortly before diagnosis, progression-free survival (PFS), ovarian cancer-specific survival and overall survival (OS) among women with invasive ovarian cancer. We used original data from 21 studies, which included 12 390 women with ovarian carcinoma. We combined study-specific adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) using random-effects models to estimate pooled HRs (pHR). We further explored associations by histologic subtype. Overall, 6715 (54%) deaths occurred during follow-up. A significant OS disadvantage was observed for women who were obese (BMI: 30-34.9, pHR: 1.10 (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.99-1.23); BMI: ⩾35, pHR: 1.12 (95% CI: 1.01-1.25)). Results were similar for PFS and ovarian cancer-specific survival. In analyses stratified by histologic subtype, associations were strongest for women with low-grade serous (pHR: 1.12 per 5 kg m(-2)) and endometrioid subtypes (pHR: 1.08 per 5 kg m(-2)), and more modest for the high-grade serous (pHR: 1.04 per 5 kg m(-2)) subtype, but only the association with high-grade serous cancers was significant. Higher BMI is associated with adverse survival among the majority of women with ovarian cancer.

  18. Survival of two post systems--five-year results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter, Marc; Hamadi, Khaled; Rammelsberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To assess the survival rate of two different post systems after 5 years of service with a prospective randomized controlled trial. One hundred patients in need of a post were studied. Half of the patients received long glass fiber-reinforced posts, while the other half received long metal screw posts. The posts were assigned randomly. After at least 5 years (mean, 61.37 months), follow-ups were established. When a complication occurred prior to this recall, the type and time of the complication was documented. Statistical analysis was performed using the log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Additionally, a Cox regression was performed to analyze risk factors. The survival rate of fiber-reinforced posts was 71.8%. In the metal screw post group, the survival rate was significantly lower, 50.0% (log-rank test, P = .026). Metal posts resulted more often in more unfavorable complications (eg, root fractures); consequently, more teeth (n = 17) had to be extracted. The Cox regression identified the following risk factors: position of the tooth (anterior vs posterior teeth), degree of coronal tooth destruction, and the post system (fiber-reinforced post vs metal screw post). Fiber-reinforced restorations loosened in several patients; in some of these cases (n = 6), patients did not notice this, leading to the extraction of teeth. Long metal screw posts should be used with great care in endodontically treated teeth. Besides the selection of the post system, other factors influence the survival of the restoration.

  19. Final test results for the ground operations demonstration unit for liquid hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Jumper, K. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Described herein is a comprehensive project-a large-scale test of an integrated refrigeration and storage system called the Ground Operations and Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU LH2), sponsored by the Advanced Exploration Systems Program and constructed at Kennedy Space Center. A commercial cryogenic refrigerator interfaced with a 125,000 l liquid hydrogen tank and auxiliary systems in a manner that enabled control of the propellant state by extracting heat via a closed loop Brayton cycle refrigerator coupled to a novel internal heat exchanger. Three primary objectives were demonstrating zero-loss storage and transfer, gaseous liquefaction, and propellant densification. Testing was performed at three different liquid hydrogen fill-levels. Data were collected on tank pressure, internal tank temperature profiles, mass flow in and out of the system, and refrigeration system performance. All test objectives were successfully achieved during approximately two years of testing. A summary of the final results is presented in this paper.

  20. Contamination control and assay results for the Majorana Demonstrator ultra clean components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, C. D.; Abgrall, N.; Alvis, S. I.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Barton, C. J.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bode, T.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Caldwell, T. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Haufe, C. R.; Hehn, L.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; Lopez, A. M.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Myslik, J.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Othman, G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Reine, A. L.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rouf, N. W.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhu, B. X.

    2018-01-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator is a neutrinoless double beta decay experiment utilizing enriched Ge-76 detectors in 2 separate modules inside of a common solid shield at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. The Demonstrator has utilized world leading assay sensitivities to develop clean materials and processes for producing ultra-pure copper and plastic components. This experiment is now operating, and initial data provide new insights into the success of cleaning and processing. Post production copper assays after the completion of Module 1 showed an increase in U and Th contamination in finished parts compared to starting bulk material. A revised cleaning method and additional round of surface contamination studies prior to Module 2 construction have provided evidence that more rigorous process control can reduce surface contamination. This article describes the assay results and discuss further studies to take advantage of assay capabilities for the purpose of maintaining ultra clean fabrication and process design.

  1. Automatically explaining machine learning prediction results: a demonstration on type 2 diabetes risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Predictive modeling is a key component of solutions to many healthcare problems. Among all predictive modeling approaches, machine learning methods often achieve the highest prediction accuracy, but suffer from a long-standing open problem precluding their widespread use in healthcare. Most machine learning models give no explanation for their prediction results, whereas interpretability is essential for a predictive model to be adopted in typical healthcare settings. This paper presents the first complete method for automatically explaining results for any machine learning predictive model without degrading accuracy. We did a computer coding implementation of the method. Using the electronic medical record data set from the Practice Fusion diabetes classification competition containing patient records from all 50 states in the United States, we demonstrated the method on predicting type 2 diabetes diagnosis within the next year. For the champion machine learning model of the competition, our method explained prediction results for 87.4 % of patients who were correctly predicted by the model to have type 2 diabetes diagnosis within the next year. Our demonstration showed the feasibility of automatically explaining results for any machine learning predictive model without degrading accuracy.

  2. Repetitive transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of liver metastases from gastric cancer: Local control and survival results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: T.Vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Eichler, Katrin [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Trojan, Jörg [Department of Internal Medicine I, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Zangos, Stephan [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Naguib, Nagy N.N. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2013-02-15

    Objective: To evaluate the local tumor control and survival data after transarterial chemoembolization with different drug combinations in the palliative treatment of patients with liver metastases of gastric cancer. Materials and methods: The study was retrospectively performed. 56 patients (mean age, 52.4) with unresectable liver metastases of gastric cancer who did not respond to systemic chemotherapy were repeatedly treated with TACE in 4-week intervals. In total, 310 chemoembolization procedures were performed (mean, 5.5 sessions per patient). The local chemotherapy protocol consisted of mitomycin alone (30.4%), mitomycin and gemcitabine (33.9%), or mitomycin, gemcitabine and cisplatin (35.7%). Embolization was performed with lipiodol and starch microspheres. Local tumor response was evaluated by MRI according to RECIST. Survival data from first chemoembolization were calculated according to the Kaplan–Meier method. Results: The local tumor control was: complete response in 1.8% (n = 1), partial response in 1.8% (n = 1), stable disease in 51.8% (n = 29) and progressive disease in 44.6% (n = 25) of patients. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rate from the start of chemoembolization were 58%, 38%, and 23% respectively. The median and mean survival times were 13 and 27.1 months. A Statistically significant difference between patients treated with different chemotherapy protocols was noted (ρ = 0.045) with the best survival time in the mitomycin, gemcitabine and cisplatin group. Conclusion: Transarterial chemoembolization is a minimally invasive therapy option for palliative treatment of liver metastases in patients with gastric cancer.

  3. Test-beam results from the ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Bohm, C; Bright-Thomas, P G; Connors, A; Edwards, J; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Ellis, Nick; Engström, M; Farthouat, Philippe; Garvey, J; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Hanke, P; Hatley, R; Hellman, S; Hillier, S J; Kluge, E E; Landon, M; Maddox, A J; Pentney, J M; Perera, V J O; Pfeiffer, U; Schuler, G A; Schumacher, C; Shah, T P; Silverstein, S; Staley, R J; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Wunsch, M

    1998-01-01

    The ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger will utilise a number of advanced technologies, many of which have already been successfully demonstrated. To evaluate the different technologies associated with the important areas of $9 high-speed data transport a large demonstrator system has been designed and operated during the last two years, using signals from prototype calorimeters in the ATLAS test-beam. Using this system, inter-crate data transmission and $9 reception have been demonstrated at over 1.4 Gbyte/s, with individual links running at up to 1.6 Gbaud. Operating with 160 Mbit/s signals across a transmission-line backplane, custom transceiver ASICs have achieved inter-module data $9 fanout at peak rates above 800 Mbyte/s. With the addition of further modules, the system was extended to emulate a vertical slice through the ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger. We present here the results from these tests, including $9 measurements of bit-error rates across different data paths. (12 refs).

  4. Spatially explicit bioaccumulation modeling in aquatic environments: Results from 2 demonstration sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stackelberg, Katherine; Williams, Marc A; Clough, Jonathan; Johnson, Mark S

    2017-11-01

    Bioaccumulation models quantify the relationship between sediment and water exposure concentrations and resulting tissue levels of chemicals in aquatic organisms and represent a key link in the suite of tools used to support decision making at contaminated sediment sites. Predicted concentrations in the aquatic food web provide exposure estimates for human health and ecological risk assessments, which, in turn, provide risk-based frameworks for evaluating potential remedial activities and other management alternatives based on the fish consumption pathway. Despite the widespread use of bioaccumulation models to support remedial decision making, concerns remain about the predictive power of these models. A review of the available literature finds the increased mathematical complexity of typical bioaccumulation model applications is not matched by the deterministic exposure concentrations used to drive the models. We tested a spatially explicit exposure model (FishRand) at 2 nominally contaminated sites and compared results to estimates of bioaccumulation based on conventional, nonspatial techniques, and monitoring data. Differences in predicted fish tissue concentrations across applications were evident, although these demonstration sites were only mildly contaminated and would not warrant management actions on the basis of fish consumption. Nonetheless, predicted tissue concentrations based on the spatially explicit exposure characterization consistently outperformed conventional, nonspatial techniques across a variety of model performance metrics. These results demonstrate the improved predictive power as well as greater flexibility in evaluating the impacts of food web exposure and fish foraging behavior in a heterogeneous exposure environment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:1023-1037. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  5. SEXTANT X-Ray Pulsar Navigation Demonstration: Flight System and Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winternitz, Luke; Mitchell, Jason W.; Hassouneh, Munther A.; Valdez, Jennifer E.; Price, Samuel R.; Semper, Sean R.; Yu, Wayne H.; Ray, Paul S.; Wood, Kent S.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation Technology (SEXTANT) is a technology demonstration enhancement to the Neutron-star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission. NICER is a NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity that will be hosted on the International Space Station (ISS). SEXTANT will, for the first time, demonstrate real-time, on-board X-ray Pulsar Navigation (XNAV), a significant milestone in the quest to establish a GPS-like navigation capability available throughout our Solar System and beyond. This paper gives an overview of the SEXTANT system architecture and describes progress prior to environmental testing of the NICER flight instrument. It provides descriptions and development status of the SEXTANT flight software and ground system, as well as detailed description and results from the flight software functional and performance testing within the high-fidelity Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) X-ray Navigation Laboratory Testbed (GXLT) software and hardware simulation environment. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation results are presented, using the engineering model of the NICER timing electronics and the GXLT pulsar simulator-the GXLT precisely controls NASA GSFC's unique Modulated X-ray Source to produce X-rays that make the NICER detector electronics appear as if they were aboard the ISS viewing a sequence of millisecond pulsars

  6. History of Comorbidities and Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients, Results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Freudenheim, Jo L; Eng, Kevin H; Cannioto, Rikki A; Friel, Grace; Szender, J Brian; Segal, Brahm; Odunsi, Kunle; Mayor, Paul; Diergaarde, Brenda; Zsiros, Emese; Kelemen, Linda E; Köbel, Martin; Steed, Helen; deFazio, Anna; Jordan, Susan J; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Risch, Harvey A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goodman, Marc T; Dörk, Thilo; Edwards, Robert; Modugno, Francesmary; Ness, Roberta B; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mizuno, Mika; Karlan, Beth Y; Goode, Ellen L; Kjær, Susanne K; Høgdall, Estrid; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Terry, Kathryn L; Cramer, Daniel W; Bandera, Elisa V; Paddock, Lisa E; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; Sutphen, Rebecca; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Pearce, Celeste L; Wu, Anna H; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Jensen, Allan; Webb, Penelope M; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2017-09-01

    Background: Comorbidities can affect survival of ovarian cancer patients by influencing treatment efficacy. However, little evidence exists on the association between individual concurrent comorbidities and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients.Methods: Among patients diagnosed with invasive ovarian carcinoma who participated in 23 studies included in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, we explored associations between histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, and neurological diseases and overall and progression-free survival. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age at diagnosis, stage of disease, histology, and study site, we estimated pooled HRs and 95% confidence intervals to assess associations between each comorbidity and ovarian cancer outcomes.Results: None of the comorbidities were associated with ovarian cancer outcome in the overall sample nor in strata defined by histologic subtype, weight status, age at diagnosis, or stage of disease (local/regional vs. advanced).Conclusions: Histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, or neurologic diseases were not associated with ovarian cancer overall or progression-free survival.Impact: These previously diagnosed chronic diseases do not appear to affect ovarian cancer prognosis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1470-3. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Results From The Salt Disposition Project Next Generation Solvent Demonstration Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Taylor-Pashow, K. M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-04-02

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples were taken throughout the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Demonstration Plan. These samples were analyzed and the results are reported. SHT: The solvent behaved as expected, with no bulk changes in the composition over time, with the exception of the TOA and TiDG. The TiDG depletion is higher than expected, and consideration must be taken on the required rate of replenishment. Monthly sampling of the SHT is warranted. If possible, additional SHT samples for TiDG analysis (only) would help SRNL refine the TiDG degradation model. CWT: The CWT samples show the expected behavior in terms of bulk chemistry. The 137Cs deposited into the CWT varies somewhat, but generally appears to be lower than during operations with the BOBCalix solvent. While a few minor organic components were noted to be present in the Preliminary sample, at this time these are thought to be artifacts of the sample preparation or may be due to the preceding solvent superwash. DSSHT: The DSSHT samples show the predicted bulk chemistry, although they point towards significant dilution at the front end of the Demonstration. The 137Cs levels in the DSSHT are much lower than during the BOBCalix operations, which is the expected observation. SEHT: The SEHT samples represent the most different output of all four of the outputs from MCU. While the bulk chemistry is as expected, something is causing the pH of the SEHT to be higher than what would be predicted from a pure stream of 0.01 M boric acid. There are several possible different reasons for this, and SRNL is in the process of investigating. Other than the pH issue, the SEHT is as predicted. In summary, the NGS Demonstration Plan samples indicate that the MCU system, with the Blend Solvent, is operating as expected. The only issue of concern regards the pH of the SEHT, and SRNL is in the process of investigating

  8. [Active ageing and quality of life--Results of a WHO demonstration project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von dem Knesebeck, O; David, K; Bill, P; Hikl, R

    2006-04-01

    Based on the Active Ageing Programme of the World Health Organization (WHO), a demonstration project was conducted in a city in North-Rhine Westphalia between October 2002 and December 2004. The aim of the study was to promote an active ageing process, to maintain autonomy and independence among older people, and thereby to promote health and quality of life. The target group included people aged 55 to 80 years. The aim was to include older persons in a critical period of life due to loss of partner within the last five years and people undergoing a status change due to retirement within the last two years. 344 participants were visited at home to assess their health and psychosocial situation and to identify opportunities for activities. Participants were supported in their efforts to realise the agreed-upon activities. In this article results of the external evaluation are presented. It is analysed whether quality of life according to the WHOQOL Bref improves among participants in the course of the project. Results of non-parametric tests show small differences in quality of life between the three waves of interviews (at the beginning of the project, after one year, at the end of the project). This holds true when only those participants are analysed who retired within the last two years. However, quality of life significantly improves among older persons who lost their partner within the last five years. In terms of implementation of the WHO Active Ageing Programme results suggest application of a risk group strategy.

  9. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer: clinical features and survival. Results from the Danish HNPCC register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrhøj, T; Bisgaard, M L; Bernstein, Inge Thomsen

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and other carcinomas. Our aim was to evaluate tumour parameters and survival in HNPCC. METHODS: One hundred and eight Danish HNPCC patients...... were compared with 870 patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. RESULTS: The median age at CRC diagnosis was 41 years in the HNPCC group. HNPCC patients had significantly more carcinomas located to the right colon (68% against 49% in controls), more synchromous tumours (7% versus 1%), more...

  10. Demonstration project Klaipeda, Lithuania. Final evaluation of 2. year results after rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    In order to investigate various options for reducing the district heating return temperature and for introducing energy saving measures in the buildings in Klaipeda, a demonstration area comprising eight buildings was selected. The eight buildings selected were typical 5-floor buildings built in 1982-89. This enabled the experience from the project to be transferred to a maximum number of buildings in Klaipeda and in Lithuania, in general. The existing heating system in all the buildings consisted of a hydro-elevator system and a one-string radiator system. The hot tap water preparation was a tube heat exchanger and a circulation pipe including towel dryers. Since 1991, the supply temperature in the Klaipeda district heating system has been reduced due to shortage of fuel. This has led to a lower indoor temperature, which has decreased from the design value 18 deg. C to 15 deg. C in 1997 and 1998. In 1999, the supply temperature was, however, raised again. With a low room temperature, the improved installations often tend to result in better comfort rather than in energy savings. The project has been implemented during a three-year period from the heating season 97/98 to 99/00. Before the first heating season 97/98, energy and flow meters were installed for measuring the existing heating and hot water consumption in each building. For the second heating season 98/99, various energy saving measures were installed, and measurements were carried out again. After that, the energy consumption and temperature levels were analysed and compared for the two seasons. The results are shown in this report. In the third heating season 99/00, an extra set of measurements was carried out in order to verify the results from the season from 98/99 and to analyse the development in the savings and temperatures. (au)

  11. Results from source-based and detector-based calibrations of a CLARREO calibration demonstration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, Amit; McCorkel, Joel; Thome, Kurt

    2016-09-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is formulated to determine long-term climate trends using SI-traceable measurements. The CLARREO mission will include instruments operating in the reflected solar (RS) wavelength region from 320 nm to 2300 nm. The Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO and facilitates testing and evaluation of calibration approaches. The basis of CLARREO and SOLARIS calibration is the Goddard Laser for Absolute Measurement of Response (GLAMR) that provides a radiance-based calibration at reflective solar wavelengths using continuously tunable lasers. SI-traceability is achieved via detector-based standards that, in GLAMR's case, are a set of NIST-calibrated transfer radiometers. A portable version of the SOLARIS, Suitcase SOLARIS is used to evaluate GLAMR's calibration accuracies. The calibration of Suitcase SOLARIS using GLAMR agrees with that obtained from source-based results of the Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona to better than 5% (k=2) in the 720-860 nm spectral range. The differences are within the uncertainties of the NIST-calibrated FEL lamp-based approach of RSG and give confidence that GLAMR is operating at Suitcase SOLARIS instrument also discussed and the next edition of the SOLARIS instrument (Suitcase SOLARIS- 2) is expected to provide an improved mechanism to further assess GLAMR and CLARREO calibration approaches.

  12. Demonstration project Klaipeda, Lithuania. Final evaluation of 1. year results after rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    In order to investigate various options for reduction of the district heating return temperature and for introduction of energy saving measures in the buildings, a demonstration area comprising eight buildings was selected. The eight buildings selected were typical 5-floor buildings built in 1982-89. This enabled the experience to be transferred to a maximum number of buildings in Klaipeda and in Lithuania, in general. All buildings had a one-string radiator system installed. Since 1991, the supply temperature in Klaipeda district heating system has been reduced. This has led to a lower indoor temperature, which has decreased from the design value 18 deg. C to 15 dec. C due to shortage of fuel. With such a low room temperature, the improved sytems may result in better comfort rather than in energy savings. The project has been implemented during a two-year period from heating season 97/98 to 98/99. The first year before the heating season 97/98, energy and flow meters were installed for measuring the existing heating and hot water consumption. For the next heating season 1998/1999, various energy saving measures were installed, and measurements were caried out again. After that, the energy consumption and temperature levels were analysed and compared for the two seasons. (au)

  13. Results of a Long-Term Demonstration of an Optical Multi-Gas Monitor on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Previously at SAMAP we reported on the development of tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) based instruments for measuring small gas molecules in real time. TDLS technology has matured rapidly over the last 5 years as a result of advances in low power diode lasers as well as better detection schemes. In collaboration with two small businesses Vista Photonics, Inc. and Nanoracks LLC, NASA developed a 4 gas TDLS based monitor for an experimental demonstration of the technology on the International Space Station (ISS). Vista invented and constructed the core TDLS sensor. Nanoracks designed and built the enclosure, and certified the integrated monitor as a payload. The device, which measures oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia and water vapor, is called the Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM). MGM measures the 4 gases every few seconds and records a 30 second moving average of the concentrations. The relatively small unit draws only 2.5W. MGM was calibrated at NASA-Johnson Space Center in July 2013 and launched to ISS on a Soyuz vehicle in November 2013. Installation and activation of MGM occurred in February 2014, and the unit has been operating nearly continuously ever since in the Japanese Experiment Module. Data is downlinked from ISS about once per week. Oxygen and carbon dioxide data is compared with that from the central Major Constituents Analyzer. Water vapor data is compared with dew point measurements made by sensors in the Columbus module. The ammonia channel was tested by the crew using a commercial ammonia inhalant. MGM is remarkably stable to date. Results of 18 months of operation are presented and future applications including combustion product monitoring are discussed.

  14. Periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges can survive anesthesia and result in asymmetric drug-induced burst suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Mader Jr.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced burst suppression (DIBS is bihemispheric and bisymmetric in adults and older children. However, asymmetric DIBS may occur if a pathological process is affecting one hemisphere only or both hemispheres disproportionately. The usual suspect is a destructive lesion; an irritative or epileptogenic lesion is usually not invoked to explain DIBS asymmetry. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman with new-onset seizures who was found to have a hemorrhagic cavernoma and periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs in the right temporal region. After levetiracetam and before anesthetic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs were administered, the electroencephalogram (EEG showed continuous PLEDs over the right hemisphere with maximum voltage in the posterior temporal region. Focal electrographic seizures also occurred occasionally in the same location. Propofol resulted in bihemispheric, but not in bisymmetric, DIBS. Remnants or fragments of PLEDs that survived anesthesia increased the amplitude and complexity of the bursts in the right hemisphere leading to asymmetric DIBS. Phenytoin, lacosamide, ketamine, midazolam, and topiramate were administered at various times in the course of EEG monitoring, resulting in suppression of seizures but not of PLEDs. Ketamine and midazolam reduced the rate, amplitude, and complexity of PLEDs but only after producing substantial attenuation of all burst components. When all anesthetics were discontinued, the EEG reverted to the original preanesthesia pattern with continuous non-fragmented PLEDs. The fact that PLEDs can survive anesthesia and affect DIBS symmetry is a testament to the robustness of the neurodynamic processes underlying PLEDs.

  15. Large-scale dynamic compaction demonstration using WIPP salt: Fielding and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, E.H.; Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nuclear Waste Technology Repository Isolation Systems

    1995-10-01

    Reconsolidation of crushed rock salt is a phenomenon of great interest to programs studying isolation of hazardous materials in natural salt geologic settings. Of particular interest is the potential for disaggregated salt to be restored to nearly an impermeable state. For example, reconsolidated crushed salt is proposed as a major shaft seal component for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project. The concept for a permanent shaft seal component of the WIPP repository is to densely compact crushed salt in the four shafts; an effective seal will then be developed as the surrounding salt creeps into the shafts, further consolidating the crushed salt. Fundamental information on placement density and permeability is required to ensure attainment of the design function. The work reported here is the first large-scale compaction demonstration to provide information on initial salt properties applicable to design, construction, and performance expectations. The shaft seals must function for 10,000 years. Over this period a crushed salt mass will become less permeable as it is compressed by creep closure of salt surrounding the shaft. These facts preclude the possibility of conducting a full-scale, real-time field test. Because permanent seals taking advantage of salt reconsolidation have never been constructed, performance measurements have not been made on an appropriately large scale. An understanding of potential construction methods, achievable initial density and permeability, and performance of reconsolidated salt over time is required for seal design and performance assessment. This report discusses fielding and operations of a nearly full-scale dynamic compaction of mine-run WIPP salt, and presents preliminary density and in situ (in place) gas permeability results.

  16. BioSNG - process simulation and comparison with first results from a 1-MW demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehling, Barbara; Aichernig, Christian [Repotec Umwelttechnik GmbH, Vienna (Austria); Hofbauer, Hermann; Rauch, Reinhard [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-07-15

    High oil prices and peak oil, next to ecological aspects, increase the necessity of governmental support regarding the use of renewable energy resources. Biomass is a renewable energy source, which allows a sustainable utilization for several reasons. Its carbon dioxide neutrality and high availability in countries across Europe make economic usage of this source possible. Nowadays, biomass is used in rather conservative ways to produce heat and/or electric power. A more sophisticated way of using wood is transforming it into a secondary energy source by liquefaction and gasification. The product of the gasification process - considered in this paper - is a medium calorific product gas, which is nearly free of nitrogen and has a H{sub 2}/CO ratio favourable for synthesis processes. Therefore, the product gas can be converted into a synthetic natural gas (BioSNG). In Guessing (Austria), the concept of a steam blown dual fluidized bed gasifier coupled to a catalytic conversion of the product gas to BioSNG could be proven successfully. A slipstream was used to run a demonstration unit with a capacity of 1 MW BioSNG. The resulting BioSNG exceeded the regulations for injection into the natural gas grid. The compressed BioSNG was stored in a fuelling station to supply CNG cars with energy. Thus, the applicability of using BioSNG in CNG cars was proven as well. The simulation software IPSEpro was used to model the overall system of gasification, gas cleaning, methanation and upgrading to BioSNG. The aim of this modelling work was to evaluate the optimization potential within the system and improve the economic and ecologic situation. Moreover, this tool will also be used to scale-up the process hereafter. (orig.)

  17. Results of the Clarus Regional Demonstrations : Evaluation of Enhanced Road Weather Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Clarus Initiative is a research effort : of the U.S. Department of Transportation : Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint : Program Office and the Federal Highway : Administrations Road Weather : Management Program to develop and : demonstr...

  18. Single-plate Molteno implants in complicated glaucomas : Results, survival rates, and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakantan Arvind

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-two single-plate single-stage Molteno implantations for complicated glaucomas were performed between March 1991 and November 1992. The charts of all these patients were reviewed to determine the intraocular pressure (IOP control success rate (< 21 mm Hg with or without medications, visual success rate (retention or improvement of visual acuity from preoperative level and the rate of complications encountered. A Kaplan-Meier life-table (survival analysis was also performed. IOP control was obtained in 74.2% of cases. Mean postoperative IOP was 16.97 +/- 8.07 mm Hg (Mean +/- SD. Visual success was obtained in 51.6% of the eyes. Eyes with aphakia/pseudophakic glaucomas showed the best response with 80% of them achieving IOP control and 60% achieving visual success. The survival plot for IOP control revealed 75.81% and 74.19% success rates at 48 and 72 weeks, respectively. Complications encountered were either due to the early postoperative hypotony or were tube-related. These results were gratifying considering the severity of the glaucoma in these cases and they reaffirm the usefulness of the Molteno implant in the management of difficult glaucomas.

  19. Molecular analyses of unselected head and neck cancer cases demonstrates that human papillomavirus transcriptional activity is positively associated with survival and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Liam; Winder, David M; Ball, Siolian L R; Vaughan, Katie; Lehmann, Martin; Scholtz, Lars-Uwe; Sterling, Jane C; Sudhoff, Holger H; Goon, Peter K C

    2016-06-13

    Human papillomavirus DNA detection in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has been linked to improved patient prognosis. The main aims of the study was to test the hypotheses that HPV16 E6/E7 oncogene and p53 function within tumours were associated with the widely reported improved patient survival and prognosis in head and neck cancer. HPV16 DNA, mRNA and p53 mRNA presence were analysed in a prospective study of 42 unselected HNSCC patients; correlating the data with patient age, tumour staging/grade, treatment response, disease recurrence and survival. HPV16 DNA and HPV16 mRNA were present in 45.2 % and 21.4 % of patients, respectively. There was a significant positive association between the detection of HPV16 E6/E7 mRNA and p53 mRNA (p = 0.032), but this was not replicated for HPV16 DNA. Five-year disease free survival for the whole cohort was 63 % (CI 52.5-73.5 %). Multivariable analysis revealed only HPV16 E6/E7 mRNA expression to have significant prognostic influence (p = 0.04). Our study suggests that HPV16 oncogenic transcriptional activity within HNSCC tumours is associated with improved patient survival and better prognosis in a German population. Simple HPV DNA detection alone did not demonstrate this association. The significant association of full-length (wild-type) p53 with HPV16 E6/E7 mRNA is further evidence for a functional relationship, which could contribute to the widely reported improved survival and prognosis. Larger studies are required to validate the frequency of HPV16 mRNA expression in HNSCC.

  20. Preliminary results demonstrating the impact of Mediterranean diet on bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Barrea, Luigi; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Savastano, Silvia; Falco, Andrea; Renzullo, Andrea; Scarano, Elisabetta; Nettore, Immacolata Cristina; Colao, Annamaria; Di Somma, Carolina

    2017-04-24

    Nutrition is an environmental factor affecting bone health. Nutrition is considered essential to achieve and maintain optimal bone mass. Mediterranean diet (MD) has shown to prevent bone disease. Aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between bone health status and adherence the MD. Four-hundred eighteen healthy people (105 males and 313 females, age 50 ± 14 years) were recruited in the outdoor hospital of the "Campus Salute Onlus" held in Piazza del Plebiscito in Naples, October 17-20th 2013 and 09-11th October 2014. All subjects underwent clinical assessment, calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) scanner and PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) questionnaire. Globally, prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia were 7.7 and 46.0%, respectively. The majority of subjects (60.5%) had an average score (score 6-9) of adherence to MD. The T-score showed positive correlation with PREDIMED score (r = 0.250, p < 0.001). The higher T-scores were positively associated with a higher consumption of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), vegetables, fruits, legumes, and fish and negatively associated with consumption of red meat. The higher T-scores were positively associated with the highest odds of PREDIMED scores (higher adherence) (OR 6.91, IC 6.27-7.61, p < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis models indicated that, among the single food items investigated, high T-score can be predicted by consumption of EVOO (p < 0.001), fish (p < 0.001) and fruit (p = 0.002) intake. A PREDIMED score of 3 was found to be predictive for a low T-score (α = 0.05, R-squared index = 0.417). The results demonstrate a positive correlation between bone health status and adherence to MD, suggesting that a high adherence to MD promotes bone health. The observations here reported confirmed that a specific dietary approach, such as MD, can represent a modifiable environmental factor for osteoporosis' prevention.

  1. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the early implementation experience for the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, the largest fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States. The ZEBA Demonstration group includes five participating transit agencies: AC Transit (lead transit agency), Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA), Golden Gate Transit (GGT), San Mateo County Transit District (SamTrans), and San Francisco Municipal Railway (Muni). The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service.

  2. Results of the Clarus demonstrations : evaluation of enhanced road weather forecasting enabled by Clarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    This document is the final report of an evaluation of Clarus-enabled enhanced road weather forecasting used in the Clarus Demonstrations. : This report examines the use of Clarus data to enhance four types of weather models and forecasts: The Local A...

  3. Monitoring results of two PBS demonstration vehicles in the forestry industry in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As part of a Performance-Based Standards (PBS) research programme for heavy vehicles in South Africa, a need was identified to design, manufacture and operate a number of PBS demonstration vehicles in order to gain practical experience in the PBS...

  4. POSTERS FOR WORKSHOP ON EPA’S ARSENIC REMOVAL DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM: RESULTS AND LESSONS LEARNED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Workshop included posters on 21 different arsenic demonstration projects. Each poster included information on raw water quality, cost of the system, a schematic of the layout of the system and several graphs and tables on the performance of the system for the removal of arsen...

  5. ADVANCED SIMULATION CAPABILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT- CURRENT STATUS AND PHASE II DEMONSTRATION RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, R.

    2013-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Soil and Groundwater, is supporting development of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). ASCEM is a state-of-the-art scientific tool and approach for understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport in natural and engineered systems. The modular and open source high-performance computing tool facilitates integrated approaches to modeling and site characterization that enable robust and standardized assessments of performance and risk for EM cleanup and closure activities. The ASCEM project continues to make significant progress in development of computer software capabilities with an emphasis on integration of capabilities in FY12. Capability development is occurring for both the Platform and Integrated Toolsets and High-Performance Computing (HPC) Multiprocess Simulator. The Platform capabilities provide the user interface and tools for end-to-end model development, starting with definition of the conceptual model, management of data for model input, model calibration and uncertainty analysis, and processing of model output, including visualization. The HPC capabilities target increased functionality of process model representations, toolsets for interaction with Platform, and verification and model confidence testing. The Platform and HPC capabilities are being tested and evaluated for EM applications in a set of demonstrations as part of Site Applications Thrust Area activities. The Phase I demonstration focusing on individual capabilities of the initial toolsets was completed in 2010. The Phase II demonstration completed in 2012 focused on showcasing integrated ASCEM capabilities. For Phase II, the Hanford Site deep vadose zone (BC Cribs) served as an application site for an end-to-end demonstration of capabilities, with emphasis on integration and linkages between the Platform and HPC components. Other demonstrations

  6. Electroconvulsive stimulation results in long-term survival of newly generated hippocampal neurons in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Wörtwein, Gitta; Folke, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    of the previous work aiming to test the hypothesis that rats subjected to ECS in combination with chronic restraint stress (CRS) display increased formation of new hippocampal neurons, which have a potential for long-term survival. Furthermore, using mediation analysis, we tested if an ECS-induced increase......U-positive neurons showed time-dependent attrition of ∼40% from day 1 to 3 months, with no further decline between 3 and 12 months. ECS did not affect the number of pre-existing dentate granule neurons or the volume of the dentate granule cell layer, suggesting no damaging effect of the treatment. Finally, we found...... that, while ECS increases neurogenesis, this formation of new neurons was not associated to ameliorated immobility in the FST. This implies that other ECS-induced effects than neurogenesis must be part of mediating the antidepressant action of ECS. Taken together, the results of the present study...

  7. History of Comorbidities and Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients, Results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Freudenheim, Jo L; Eng, Kevin H

    2017-01-01

    carcinoma who participated in 23 studies included in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, we explored associations between histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, and neurological diseases and overall and progression-free survival...... with ovarian cancer outcome in the overall sample nor in strata defined by histologic subtype, weight status, age at diagnosis, or stage of disease (local/regional vs. advanced).Conclusions: Histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, or neurologic....... Using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age at diagnosis, stage of disease, histology, and study site, we estimated pooled HRs and 95% confidence intervals to assess associations between each comorbidity and ovarian cancer outcomes.Results: None of the comorbidities were associated...

  8. Five-year survival and durability results of brentuximab vedotin in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Robert; Gopal, Ajay K; Smith, Scott E; Ansell, Stephen M; Rosenblatt, Joseph D; Savage, Kerry J; Connors, Joseph M; Engert, Andreas; Larsen, Emily K; Huebner, Dirk; Fong, Abraham; Younes, Anas

    2016-09-22

    Presented here are the 5-year end-of-study results from the pivotal phase 2 trial of brentuximab vedotin in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) after failed hematopoietic autologous stem cell transplantation. At 5 years, the overall patient population (N = 102) had an estimated overall survival (OS) rate of 41% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 31-51) and progression-free survival (PFS) rate of 22% (95% CI: 13-31). Patients who achieved a complete response (CR) to brentuximab vedotin (N = 34) had estimated OS and PFS rates of 64% (95% CI: 48-80%) and 52% (95% CI: 34-69%), respectively. The median OS and PFS were not reached in CR patients, with 13 patients (38% of all CR patients) remaining in follow-up and in remission at study closure. Of the 13 patients, 4 received consolidative hematopoietic allogeneic stem cell transplant, and 9 (9% of all enrolled patients) remain in sustained CR without receiving any further anticancer therapy after treatment with brentuximab vedotin. Of the patients who experienced treatment-emergent peripheral neuropathy, 88% experienced either resolution (73%) or improvement (14%) in symptoms. These 5-year follow-up data demonstrate that a subset of patients with R/R HL who obtained CR with single-agent brentuximab vedotin achieved long-term disease control and may potentially be cured. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00848926. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  9. Bevacizumab reduces the growth rate constants of renal carcinomas: a novel algorithm suggests early discontinuation of bevacizumab resulted in a lack of survival advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Yang, James; Bates, Susan E; Fojo, Tito

    2008-10-01

    To hasten cancer drug development, new paradigms are needed to assess therapeutic efficacy. In a randomized phase II study in patients with renal cell carcinoma, 10 microg/kg bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA) administered every 2 weeks resulted in a longer time to progression but a statistically significant difference in overall survival could not be demonstrated. We developed a novel two-phase equation to estimate concomitant rates of tumor regression (regression rate constant) and tumor growth (growth rate constant). This method allows us to assess therapeutic efficacy using tumor measurements gathered while a patient receives therapy in a clinical trial. The growth rate constants of renal cell carcinomas were significantly lower during therapy with 10 microg/kg bevacizumab than those of tumors in patients receiving placebo. In all cohorts the tumor growth rate constants were correlated with survival. That a survival advantage was not demonstrated with bevacizumab appears to have been a result of early discontinuation of bevacizumab. Single-agent bevacizumab significantly affects the growth rate constants of renal cell carcinoma. Extrapolating from the growth rate constants, we conclude that the failure to demonstrate a survival advantage in the original study was a result of premature discontinuation of bevacizumab. The mathematical model described herein has applications to many tumor types and should aid in evaluating the relative efficacies of different therapies. Quantitating tumor growth rate constants using data gathered while patients are enrolled in a clinical trial, as in the present study, may streamline and assist in drug development.

  10. Haida Gwaii / Queen Charlotte Islands demonstration tidal power plant feasibility study : summary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, A. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Remote communities may benefit from using tidal energy in terms of reduced diesel fuel consumption and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. A study was conducted to assess the feasibility for a tidal demonstration project on the Haida Gwaii, Queen Charlotte Islands. Candidate communities were scanned for resource potential, load profile, infrastructure distribution and community interest. This presentation focused on choosing an appropriate site for a given tidal power technology. Three hotspots in Masset Sound were identified as well as one hotspot at Juskatla Narrows. Technology providers were solicited for information on unit performance, cost, and trials to date. The presentation noted that demonstration or future commercial deployment is limited by resource and by the ability of the grid to accommodate tidal power. The presentation concluded with next steps which include publishing the study. tabs., figs.

  11. Simulation Trial Results for the Cooperative Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Demonstration (SA15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    cooperative trial, including details of the demonstrated mission, are described in detail in the final report of the Trial ( Neill 2012). As part of the...discussion. A full set of command definitions are included in Neill (2012). Protocols are reported as defined in the present tense. 2.2.1 Buoy Position...NavSong are described in Neill , Knox, Ward & Lawrence (2006) and the specific implementation of NavSong is described in a companion report ( Neill 2012

  12. Survival of European patients diagnosed with lymphoid neoplasms in 2000–2002: results of the HAEMACARE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Allemani, Claudia; Tereanu, Carmen; De Angelis, Roberta; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Maynadie, Marc; Luminari, Stefano; Ferretti, Stefano; Johannesen, Tom Børge; Sankila, Risto; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Simonetti, Arianna; Martos, Maria Carmen; Raphaël, Martine; Giraldo, Pilar; Sant, Milena

    2011-01-01

    Background The European Cancer Registry-based project on hematologic malignancies (HAEMACARE), set up to improve the availability and standardization of data on hematologic malignancies in Europe, used the European Cancer Registry-based project on survival and care of cancer patients (EUROCARE-4) database to produce a new grouping of hematologic neoplasms (defined by the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition and the 2001/2008 World Health Organization classifications) for epidemiological and public health purposes. We analyzed survival for lymphoid neoplasms in Europe by disease group, comparing survival between different European regions by age and sex. Design and Methods Incident neoplasms recorded between 1995 to 2002 in 48 population-based cancer registries in 20 countries participating in EUROCARE-4 were analyzed. The period approach was used to estimate 5-year relative survival rates for patients diagnosed in 2000–2002, who did not have 5 years of follow up. Results The 5-year relative survival rate was 57% overall but varied markedly between the defined groups. Variation in survival within the groups was relatively limited across European regions and less than in previous years. Survival differences between men and women were small. The relative survival for patients with all lymphoid neoplasms decreased substantially after the age of 50. The proportion of ‘not otherwise specified’ diagnoses increased with advancing age. Conclusions This is the first study to analyze survival of patients with lymphoid neoplasms, divided into groups characterized by similar epidemiological and clinical characteristics, providing a benchmark for more detailed analyses. This Europe-wide study suggests that previously noted differences in survival between regions have tended to decrease. The survival of patients with all neoplasms decreased markedly with age, while the proportion of ‘not otherwise specified’ diagnoses increased with

  13. Survival of lichens and bacteria exposed to outer space conditions - Results of the Lithopanspermia experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Rosa; Sancho, Leopoldo G.; Horneck, Gerda; Ríos, Asunción de los; Wierzchos, Jacek; Olsson-Francis, Karen; Cockell, Charles S.; Rettberg, Petra; Berger, Thomas; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; Ott, Sieglinde; Frías, Jesus Martinez; Melendi, Pablo Gonzalez; Lucas, Maria Mercedes; Reina, Manuel; Pintado, Ana; Demets, René

    2010-08-01

    In the space experiments Lithopanspermia, experimental support was provided to the likelihood of the lithopanspermia concept that considers a viable transport of microorganisms between the terrestrial planets by means of meteorites. The rock colonising lichens Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans, the vagrant lichen Aspicilia fruticulosa, and endolithic and endoevaporitic communities of cyanobacteria and bacteria with their natural rock substrate were exposed to space for 10 days onboard the Biopan facility of the European Space Agency (ESA). Biopan was closed during launch and re-entry. In addition, in the Stone facility, one sample of R. geographicum on its natural granitic substrate was attached at the outer surface of the re-entry capsule close to the stagnation point, only protected by a thin cover of glass textolite. Post-flight analysis, which included determination of the photosynthetic activity, LIVE/DEAD staining, and germination capacity of the ascospores, demonstrated that all three lichen were quite resistant to outer space conditions, which include the full spectrum of solar extraterrestrial electromagnetic radiation or selected wavelength ranges. This high resistance of the lichens to space appears to be due to their symbiotic nature and protection by their upper pigmented layer, the cortex. In contrast, the rock- or halite-inhabiting bacteria were severely damaged by the same exposure. After atmospheric re-entry, the granite of the Stone sample was transformed into a glassy, nearly homogenous material, with several friction striae. None of the lichen cells survived this re-entry process. The data suggest that lichens are suitable candidates for testing the concept of lithopanspermia, because they are extremely resistant to the harsh environment of outer space. The more critical event is the atmospheric re-entry after being captured by a planet. Experiments simulating the re-entry process of a microbe-carrying meteoroid did not show any

  14. Research and demonstration results for a new "Double-Solution" technology for municipal solid waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erping, Li; Haoyun, Chen; Yanyang, Shang; Jun, Pan; Qing, Hu

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the pyrolysis characteristics of six typical components in municipal solid waste (MSW) were investigated through a TG-FTIR combined technique and it was concluded that the main pyrolysis process of the biomass components (including food residues, sawdust and paper) occurred at 150-600°C. The main volatiles were multi-component gas including H2O, CO2, and CO. The main pyrolysis temperatures of three artificial products (PP, PVC and leather) was ranged from 200to 500°C. The wavelength of small molecule gases (CH4, CO2 and CO) and the the chemical bonds (CO and CC) were observed in the infrared spectrum Based on the pyrolysis temperature interval and volatile constituent, a new "double-solution" process of pyrolysis and oxygen-enrichment decomposition MSW was designed. To achieve this process, a double-solution project was built for the direct treatment of MSW (10t/d). The complete setup of equipment and analysis of the byproducts has been reported in this paper to indicate the performance of this process. Energy balance and economic benefits were analysed for the process supporting. It was successfully demonstrated that the double-solution process was the environmentally friendly alternative method for MSW treatment in Chinese rural areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization and demonstration results of a SQUID magnetometer system developed for geomagnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, J.; Miyamoto, M.; Kawabata, M.; Nosé, M.; Haruta, Y.; Uehara, G.

    2017-08-01

    We characterized a low temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer system developed for high-sensitivity geomagnetic field measurement, and demonstrated the detection of weak geomagnetic signals. The SQUID magnetometer system is comprised of three-axis SQUID magnetometers housed in a glass fiber reinforced plastic cryostat, readout electronics with flux locked loop (FLL), a 24-bit data logger with a global positioning system and batteries. The system noise was approximately 0.2 pT √Hz- 1/2 in the 1-50 Hz frequency range. This performance was determined by including the thermal noise and the shielding effect of the copper shield, which covered the SQUID magnetometers to eliminate high-frequency interference. The temperature drift of the system was ˜0.8 pT °C- 1 in an FLL operation. The system operated for a month using 33 l liquid helium. Using this system, we performed the measurements of geomagnetic field in the open-air, far away from the city. The system could detect weak geomagnetic signals such as the Schumann resonance with sixth harmonics, and the ionospheric Alfvén resonance appearing at night, for the north-south and east-west components of the geomagnetic field. We confirm that the system was capable of high-sensitivity measurement of the weak geomagnetic activities.

  16. Results of a search for neutrinoless double-beta decay using the COBRA demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quante, Thomas; Goessling, Claus; Kroeninger, Kevin [TU Dortmund, Exp. Physik IV, Dortmund (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    COBRA is an experiment aiming to search for neutrinoless double-beta-decay (0νββ-decay) using CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. The main focus is on {sup 116}Cd, with a Q-value of 2813.5 keV well above the highest dominant naturally occurring gamma lines. By measuring the half-life of the 0νββ-decay, it is possible to clarify the nature of the neutrino as either Dirac or Majorana particle and furthermore to determine its effective Majorana mass. The COBRA collaboration operates a demonstrator to search for these decays at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy. The exposure of 234.7 kg d considered in this analysis was collected between September 2011 and February 2015. The analysis focuses on the decay of the nuclides {sup 114}Cd, {sup 128}Te, {sup 70}Zn, {sup 130}Te and {sup 116}Cd. A Bayesian analysis is performed to estimate the signal strength of 0νββ-decay.

  17. Proof-of-Concept Demonstration Results for Robotic Visual Servo Controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawda, P.V.

    2004-09-22

    There is significant motivation to provide robotic systems with improved autonomy as a means to significantly accelerate deactivation and decommissioning operations while also reducing the associated costs, removing human operators from hazardous environments, and reducing the required burden and skill of human operators. To achieve improved autonomy, fundamental research is focused on the challenges of developing visual servo controllers. The challenge in developing these controllers is that a camera provides 2-dimensional image information about the 3-dimensional Euclidean-space through a perspective (range dependent) projection that can be corrupted by uncertainty in the camera calibration matrix. Disturbances in this relationship (i.e., corruption in the sensor information) propagate erroneous information to the feedback controller of the robot, leading to potentially unpredictable task execution. This technical manual describes 3 proof-of-concept demonstrations of visual servo controllers developed from fundamental research aimed at these challenges. Specifically, one section describes the implementation of a cooperative visual servo control scheme with a camera-in-hand and a fixed camera to track a moving target despite uncertainty in the camera calibration and the unknown constant distance from the camera to a target where the camera is mounted on the end-effector of a 6 degrees-of-freedom hydraulic robot manipulator. The next section describes the implementation of 2 homography-based visual servo tracking and regulation controllers for a mobile robot with a calibrated camera despite an unknown time-varying distance from the camera to a target.

  18. Do neighbourhoods in Vancouver and surrounding areas demonstrate different rates of bystander CPR and survival for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbic, David; Klinkenberg, Brian; Grunau, Brian; Christenson, Jim

    2016-10-17

    No prior work exists examining the relation between the geographic distribution of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the city of Vancouver and surrounding areas that may exhibit a clustering of cases. The primary objective of this study was to describe the distribution of OHCA within the Vancouver Coastal Health region using a geographic information system (GIS) analysis and appropriate statistical analyses. This study was a post-hoc GIS-based analysis of OHCA patients in the city of Vancouver and surrounding areas, using data collected by the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium between September 2007 and December 2011. The kernel density techniques and regression tree analysis using binary recursive partitioning were used. We examined 1617 cases of OHCA with a mortality rate of 86.5% (95% CI 84.8-88.2). The mean age of OHCA cases was 66.6 years (95% CI 65.7-67.5), and 33.6% (95% CI 31.3-35.9) were female. The proportion with an initial shockable rhythm (VF or pulseless VT) was 22.2% (95% CI 20.2-24.2); 42.3% (95% CI 39.9-44.7) of all cases received bystander CPR, and 49.7% (95% CI 47.3-52.1) were transported to the hospital by paramedics. The rate of survival to hospital discharge with favourable neurological status (FNS) Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) 1 or 2 was 10.4% (8.9-11.9). Distance of transport to the hospital (less than 2.7 km) was a significant predictor of survival with FNS, but income did not predict survival with FNS. Areas with higher proportions of commuters by car demonstrated lower rates of survival with FNS. This is the first GIS-based study to examine OHCA in a single large Canadian centre. Clustering of OHCA consistent with areas of high population density was observed. Distance of transport was a significant predictor of survival with FNS for patients with OHCA. This may have important implications for future emergency medical services deployment and dispatch decision-making, and public policy initiatives.

  19. SOME RESULTS FROM THE DEMONSTRATION OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION MEASURES IN BLOCK BASEMENT HOUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active soil ventilation techniques have been tested in 26 block-wall basement houses in eastern Pennsylvania with significantly elevated indoor radon concentrations, generally above 740 Bq/m3, and the results indicate that radon levels can be reduced substantially often below the...

  20. History of Comorbidities and Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients, Results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minlikeeva, A.N.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Eng, K.H.; Cannioto, R.A.; Friel, G.; Szender, J.B.; Segal, B.; Odunsi, K.; Mayor, P.; Diergaarde, B.; Zsiros, E.; Kelemen, L.E.; Kobel, M.; Steed, H.; Defazio, A.; Jordan, S.J.; Fasching, P.A.; Beckmann, M.W.; Risch, H.A.; Rossing, M.A.; Doherty, J.A.; Chang-Claude, J.; Goodman, M.T.; Dork, T.; Edwards, R.; Modugno, F.; Ness, R.B.; Matsuo, K.; Mizuno, M.; Karlan, B.Y.; Goode, E.L.; Kjaer, S.K.; Hogdall, E.; Schildkraut, J.M.; Terry, K.L.; Cramer, D.W; Bandera, E.V.; Paddock, L.E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Sutphen, R.; Anton-Culver, H.; Ziogas, A.; Menon, U.; Gayther, S.A.; Ramus, S.J.; Gentry-Maharaj, A.; Pearce, C.L.; Wu, A.H.; Kupryjanczyk, J.; Jensen, A.; Webb, P.M.; Moysich, K.B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Comorbidities can affect survival of ovarian cancer patients by influencing treatment efficacy. However, little evidence exists on the association between individual concurrent comorbidities and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients.Methods: Among patients diagnosed with invasive ovarian

  1. Obesity and survival among women with ovarian cancer: results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Nagle, CM; Dixon, SC; Jensen, A; Kjaer, SK; Modugno, F; DeFazio, A; Fereday, S; Hung, J.; Johnatty, SE; Fasching, PA; Beckmann, MW; Lambrechts, D; Vergote, I.; Van Nieuwenhuysen, E.; Lambrechts, S

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved. Background: Observational studies have reported a modest association between obesity and risk of ovarian cancer; however, whether it is also associated with survival and whether this association varies for the different histologic subtypes are not clear. We undertook an international collaborative analysis to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), assessed shortly before diagnosis, progression-free survival (PFS), ovarian cancer-s...

  2. Demonstrating Tools and Results of a Measurement Campaign for Indoor GPS Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Blunck, Henrik; Godsk, Torben

    It has been considered a fact that GPS performs too poorly inside buildings to provide usable indoor positioning. We demo raw measurements and results from a measurement campaign which show that using state-of-the-art receivers GPS availability is good in many buildings with standard material walls...... and roofs: The root mean squared accuracy of the measured positions is below five meters in wooden buildings and below ten meters in most of the investigated brick and concrete buildings. Lower accuracies, where observed, can be linked to either low signal-to-noise ratios, multipath phenomena or bad...

  3. Cancer survival in adult patients in Spain. Results from nine population-based cancer registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirlaque, M D; Salmerón, D; Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Mateos, A; Torrella, A; Jiménez, R; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Ardanaz, E; Sant, M; Minicozzi, P; Navarro, C; Sánchez, M J

    2017-07-17

    With the aim of providing cancer control indicators, this work presents cancer survival in adult (≥15 years) patients in Spain diagnosed during the period 2000-2007 from Spanish cancer registries participating in the EUROCARE project. Cancer cases from nine Spanish population-based cancer registries were included and analysed as a whole. All primary malignant neoplasms diagnosed in adult patients were eligible for the analysis. Cancer patients were followed until 31 December 2008. For each type of cancer, 1-, 3- and 5-year observed and relative survival were estimated by sex, age and years from diagnosis. Furthermore, age-standardized 5-year relative survival for the period 2000-2007 has been compared with that of the period 1995-1999. Skin melanoma (84.6 95% CI 83.0-86.2), prostate (84.6% 95% CI 83.6-85.6) and thyroid (84.2% CI 95% 82.0-86.6) cancers showed the highest 5-year relative survival, whereas the worst prognosis was observed in pancreatic (6% 95% CI 5.1-7.0) and oesophageal (9.4% 95% CI 7.9-11.1) cancers. Overall, survival is higher in women (58.0%) than in men (48.9%). The absolute difference in relative survival between 2000-2007 and 1995-1999 was positive for all cancers as a whole (+4.8% in men, +1.6% in women) and for most types of tumours. Survival increased significantly for chronic myeloid leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rectum cancer in both sexes, and for acute lymphoid leukaemia, prostate, liver and colon cancers in men and Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast cancer in women. Survival patterns by age were similar in Europe and Spain. A decline in survival by age was observed in all tumours, being more pronounced for ovarian, corpus uteri, prostate and urinary bladder and less for head and neck and rectum cancers. High variability and differences have been observed in survival among adults in Spain according to the type of cancer diagnosed, from above 84% to below 10%, reflecting high heterogeneity. The differences in prognosis by age, sex

  4. CLINICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL DATA AND SURVIVAL IN DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY: THREE-YEAR OBSERVATION RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zotova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim — to assess survival of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM in 3‑year follow-up based on clinical history, clinical symptoms, indicators of instrumental methods of examination and tactics of the patients.Materials and methods. 105 patients with diagnosed cardiomyopathy were included in prospective single-center study. Follow‑up period was 3 years or until achieving primary endpoint. Complaints were collected, general clinical research, 6-minute walk test, electrocardiography in 12‑lead were performed annually. Also scale of evaluation of clinical status in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF in the modification of V.Y. Mareev and assessment of adherence were used annualy.Results. The group of patients with DCM was represented primarily by man, severe heart failure (III–IV functional class was originally diagnosed in almost 80 % of patients. During the 3 years of follow-up progression of heart failure, worsening of hemodynamic indices were identified in survivors. When evaluating recommended therapy with found that it meets the current guidelines of treatment of heart failure,however, low adherence to treatment of patients was revealed with statistically significant difference between groups of survivors and deceased patients. The annual mortality rate was 20 % and had no significant fluctuations. The main cause of death was heart failure decompensation.Conclusion. Progression of CHF in patients with DCM was confirmed .The most reliable method of assessing the progressive course of heart failure is 6‑minute walk test. The annual high mortality (20 % indicates an extremely poor prognosis for this disease. The major causes of death were progression of heart failure and sudden cardiac death.

  5. Survival of porcelain laminate veneers with different degrees of dentin exposure: 2-year clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Elif; Bolay, Sükran

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical performance of porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs) after 2 years. Twenty-eight patients were treated with 125 PLVs. The experimental variables were preparation design (incisal overlap [IO] and incisal bevel [IB]) and adhesion surface (enamel [E], enamel with minimal dentin exposure [MDE], and enamel with severe dentin exposure (SDE)]. Marginal adaptation, marginal discoloration, secondary caries, postoperative sensitivity, and patient satisfaction were assessed according to the modified United States Public Health Service criteria. Each restoration was examined for fractures and debonding. In addition, gingival tissue health by gingival plaque, bleeding, and recession was recorded. An experienced clinician evaluated the restorations at baseline and after 6, 12, and 24 months, and survival rates evaluating relative and absolute failures were calculated (p = 0.05). Eleven (8.8%) veneers failed, and the overall cumulative survival rate was 91.2% after 2 years of followup. IB and IO preparation designs exhibited survival rates of 94% and 85.7%, respectively, but this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). PLVs bonded to SDE were more likely to fail than those bonded to E and MDE (p bonded to E and those bonded to MDE (p > 0.05). PLVs have high survival rates when bonded to enamel only, as well as to enamel with minimal dentin exposure. However, extensive dentin exposure should be avoided during the preparation.

  6. Immune clearance of attenuated rabies virus results in neuronal survival with altered gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Gomme

    Full Text Available Rabies virus (RABV is a highly neurotropic pathogen that typically leads to mortality of infected animals and humans. The precise etiology of rabies neuropathogenesis is unknown, though it is hypothesized to be due either to neuronal death or dysfunction. Analysis of human brains post-mortem reveals surprisingly little tissue damage and neuropathology considering the dramatic clinical symptomology, supporting the neuronal dysfunction model. However, whether or not neurons survive infection and clearance and, provided they do, whether they are functionally restored to their pre-infection phenotype has not been determined in vivo for RABV, or any neurotropic virus. This is due, in part, to the absence of a permanent "mark" on once-infected cells that allow their identification long after viral clearance. Our approach to study the survival and integrity of RABV-infected neurons was to infect Cre reporter mice with recombinant RABV expressing Cre-recombinase (RABV-Cre to switch neurons constitutively expressing tdTomato (red to expression of a Cre-inducible EGFP (green, permanently marking neurons that had been infected in vivo. We used fluorescence microscopy and quantitative real-time PCR to measure the survival of neurons after viral clearance; we found that the vast majority of RABV-infected neurons survive both infection and immunological clearance. We were able to isolate these previously infected neurons by flow cytometry and assay their gene expression profiles compared to uninfected cells. We observed transcriptional changes in these "cured" neurons, predictive of decreased neurite growth and dysregulated microtubule dynamics. This suggests that viral clearance, though allowing for survival of neurons, may not restore them to their pre-infection functionality. Our data provide a proof-of-principle foundation to re-evaluate the etiology of human central nervous system diseases of unknown etiology: viruses may trigger permanent neuronal

  7. Climatic effects on Salmonella survival in plant and soil irrigated with artificially inoculated wastewater: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, M P; Lupiola, P; Tejedor, M T; Del-Nero, E; Pardo, A; Pita, L

    2001-01-01

    The use of wastewater to replace other water resources for irrigation is highly dependent on whether the health risk and environmental impacts entailed are acceptable or not. Total count and species of microorganisms found in wastewater vary widely because of climatic conditions, season, population sanitary habits and disease incidence. Salmonella, one of the genera associated with waterborne diseases, lives in the intestine. Thus, it is widely accepted that they have a limited survival period under environmental conditions. Wastewater management practices and the ability of Salmonella to survival under field conditions would determine the health risk associated with its presence in wastewater. Although chlorination is widely used, there are situations in which Salmonella is able to survive the sudden stress imposed by this technique. The aim of this experiment was to contribute to the study of the climatic and soil effects on pathogen survival under agricultural field conditions in order to assess which were the best wastewater management practices from both health and economic points of view. Five pots filled with soil seeded with Medicago sativa and an automatic weather station were used. A secondary effluent was artificially inoculated with Salmonella. In addition, open plates (filled with sterilised soil) and ultraviolet radiation isolated plates (filled with non-sterilised soil) were used. As soil heat emission contributes to the environmental conditions around the bacteria, standardised meteorological temperature data had to be carefully used in the bacterial survival studies under agricultural conditions. Radiation was the main cause of Salmonella mortality as its effect was more important than natural soil bacteria competence. Higher reduction of Salmonella counts could have been associated with longer spring days. Soil was able to effectively remove Salmonella. Subsurface drip irrigation methods could provide an effective tool to prevent health risk

  8. Effect of VDRA on survival in incident hemodialysis patients: results of the FARO-2 observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messa, Piergiorgio; Cozzolino, Mario; Brancaccio, Diego; Cannella, Giuseppe; Malberti, Fabio; Costanzo, Anna Maria; di Luzio Paparatti, Umberto; Festa, Vincenzo; Gualberti, Giuliana; Mazzaferro, Sandro

    2015-02-06

    Mortality rate among patients with stage five chronic kidney disease (CKD) maintained on hemodialysis (HD) is high. Although evidence suggests that use of Vitamin D Receptor Activators (VDRA) in CKD patients increases survival, few studies have examined the effect of VDRA in incident HD patients. The FARO-2 study evaluated the clinical outcome of VDRA therapy on mortality in incident HD patients. FARO-2 was a longitudinal epidemiological study performed on 568 incident HD patients followed prospectively from 26 dialysis centers over a 3-year period. Data were collected every 6 months using a questionnaire, obtaining clinical, biochemical and therapeutic parameters. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine cumulative probability of time-to-death and adjusted hazard ratios. 568 patients (68% male) with an average age of 65.5 years were followed up. Mean dialysis duration at study entry was 3 months. VDRA use increased from 46% at 6 months to 54.7% at 36 months of follow-up (p = 0.08). No difference was observed in the presence of comorbid diseases at baseline in patients with and without VDRA therapy. Cumulative probability of survival at 24 months was 74.5% (95% CI: 70.2-78.3). Patients receiving VDRA therapy showed a significant increase in survival at 24 months (80.7%; 95% CI: 75.7-84.8) compared to those without (63.3%; 95% CI: 54.8-70.7, p FARO-2 indicate that in incident HD patients VDRA therapy was associated with increased survival.

  9. Trends in Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma Incidence and Survival: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program at the National Cancer Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hance, Kenneth W.; Anderson, William F.; Devesa, Susan S.; Young, Heather A.; Levine, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) appears to be a clinicopathologic entity distinct from noninflammatory locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). We examined incidence and survival trends for IBC in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program data with a case definition designed to capture many of its unique clinical and pathologic characteristics. Methods We analyzed breast cancer cases diagnosed in the SEER 9 Registries (n = 180 224), between 1988 and 2000. Breast cancer cases were categorized using SEER’s “ Extent of Disease” codes in combination with International Classification of Diseases for Oncology morphology code 8530/3 and classified as IBC (n = 3648), LABC (n = 3636), and non-T4 breast cancer (n = 172 940). We compared changes in incidence rates over 3-year intervals by breast cancer subtype and race using SEER*Stat. Survival differences by breast cancer subtype and race were assessed using Kaplan–Meier curves and log-rank statistics. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Between 1988 and 1990 and 1997 and 1999, IBC incidence rates (per 100 000 woman-years) increased from 2.0 to 2.5 (P10 years, P<.0001). Black women with IBC or LABC had poorer survival than white women with IBC or LABC, respectively (log-rank test, P<.001). Conclusions Throughout the 1990s, IBC incidence rose, and survival improved modestly. Substantial racial differences were noted in age at diagnosis, age-specific incidence rates, and survival outcomes. PMID:15998949

  10. Very prolonged stay in the intensive care unit after cardiac operations: early results and late survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Shuli; Bitran, Daniel; Fink, Daniel; Tauber, Rachel; Merin, Ofer

    2013-07-01

    Prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay is a surrogate for advanced morbidity or perioperative complications, and resource utilization may become an issue. It is our policy to continue full life support in the ICU, even for patients with a seemingly grim outlook. We examined the effect of duration of ICU stay on early outcomes and late survival. Between 1993 and 2011, 6,385 patients were admitted to the ICU after cardiac surgery. Patients were grouped according to length of stay in the ICU: group 1, 2 days or less (n = 4,631; 73%); group 2, 3 to 14 days (n = 1,423; 22%); group 3, more than 14 days (n = 331; 5%). Length of stay in ICU for group 3 patients was 38 ± 24 days (range, 15 to 160; median 31). Clinical profile and outcomes were compared between groups. Patients requiring prolonged ICU stay were older, underwent more complex surgery, had greater comorbidity, and a higher predicted operative mortality (p Operative mortality as well as late survival of discharged patients was proportional to duration of ICU stay. Current technology enables keeping sick patients alive for extended periods of time. Nearly two thirds of patients requiring prolonged ICU leave hospital, and of these, 50% attain 5-year survival. These data support offering full and continued support even for patients requiring very prolonged ICU stay. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. RESULTS FROM A DEMONSTRATION OF RF-BASED UF6 CYLINDER ACCOUNTING AND TRACKING SYSTEM INSTALLED AT A USEC FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, Chris A [ORNL; Kovacic, Donald N [ORNL; Morgan, Jim [Innovative Solutions; Younkin, James R [ORNL; Carrick, Bernie [USEC, Inc.; Ken, Whittle [USEC, Inc.; Johns, R E [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2008-09-01

    add tamper-indicating and data authentication features to some of the pertinent system components. Future efforts will focus on these needs along with implementing protocols relevant to IAEA safeguards. The work detailed in this report demonstrates the feasibility of constructing RF devices that can survive the operational rigors associated with the transportation, storage, and processing of UF6 cylinders. The system software specially designed for this project is called Cylinder Accounting and Tracking System (CATS). This report details the elements of the CATS rules-based architecture and its use in safeguards-monitoring and asset-tracking applications. Information is also provided on improvements needed to make the technology ready, as well as options for improving the safeguards aspects of the technology. The report also includes feedback from personnel involved in the testing, as well as individuals who could utilize an RF-based system in supporting the performance of their work. The system software was set up to support a Mailbox declaration, where a declaration can be made either before or after cylinder movements take place. When the declaration is made before cylinders move, the operators must enter this information into CATS. If the IAEA then shows up unexpectedly at the facility, they can see how closely the operational condition matches the declaration. If the declaration is made after the cylinders move, this provides greater operational flexibility when schedules are interrupted or are changed, by allowing operators to declare what moves have been completed. The IAEA can then compare where cylinders are with where CATS or the system says they are located. The ability of CATS to automatically generate Mailbox declarations is seen by the authors as a desirable feature. The Mailbox approach is accepted by the IAEA but has not been widely implemented (and never in enrichment facilities). During the course of this project, we have incorporated alternative

  12. Severe Obesity Impacts Recurrence-Free Survival of Women with High-Risk Endometrial Cancer: Results of a French Multicenter Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canlorbe, Geoffroy; Bendifallah, Sofiane; Raimond, Emilie; Graesslin, Olivier; Hudry, Delphine; Coutant, Charles; Touboul, Cyril; Bleu, Géraldine; Collinet, Pierre; Darai, Emile; Ballester, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Studies focusing on the impact of obesity on survival in endometrial cancer (EC) have reported controversial results and few data exist on the impact of obesity on recurrence rate and recurrence-free survival (RFS...

  13. Cigarette smoking is associated with adverse survival among women with ovarian cancer: Results from a pooled analysis of 19 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praestegaard, Camilla; Jensen, Allan; Jensen, Signe M; Nielsen, Thor S S; Webb, Penelope M; Nagle, Christina M; DeFazio, Anna; Høgdall, Estrid; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A; Wicklund, Kristine G; Goodman, Marc T; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten; Ness, Roberta B; Edwards, Robert; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Goode, Ellen L; Winham, Stacey J; Fridley, Brooke L; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Berchuck, Andrew; Bandera, Elisa V; Paddock, Lisa E; Massuger, Leon F; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Pharoah, Paul; Song, Honglin; Whittemore, Alice; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Rothstein, Joseph; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Gentry-Maharaj, Alexandra; Wu, Anna H; Pearce, Celeste L; Pike, Malcolm; Lee, Alice W; Sutphen, Rebecca; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Risch, Harvey A; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2017-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing mucinous ovarian tumors but whether it is associated with ovarian cancer survival overall or for the different histotypes is unestablished. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the association between cigarette smoking and survival differs according to strata of ovarian cancer stage at diagnosis. In a large pooled analysis, we evaluated the association between various measures of cigarette smoking and survival among women with epithelial ovarian cancer. We obtained data from 19 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC), including 9,114 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted study-specific hazard ratios (HRs), which were combined into pooled hazard ratios (pHR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) under random effects models. Overall, 5,149 (57%) women died during a median follow-up period of 7.0 years. Among women diagnosed with ovarian cancer, both current (pHR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.08-1.28) and former smokers (pHR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.18) had worse survival compared with never smoking women. In histotype-stratified analyses, associations were observed for mucinous (current smoking: pHR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.01-3.65) and serous histotypes (current smoking: pHR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.00-1.23; former smoking: pHR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.04-1.20). Further, our results suggested that current smoking has a greater impact on survival among women with localized than disseminated disease. The identification of cigarette smoking as a modifiable factor associated with survival has potential clinical importance as a focus area to improve ovarian cancer prognosis. © 2017 UICC.

  14. Results after replantation of avulsed permanent teeth. III. Tooth loss and survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Yango; Wahl, Gerhard; Filippi, Andreas; Kirschner, Horst

    2005-04-01

    Avulsed permanent teeth were replanted following immediate extraoral endodontic treatment by insertion of posts from a retrograde direction. Some teeth were rescued in a physiologic environment (tissue culture medium contained in a tooth rescue box), and in some cases antiresorptive-regenerative therapy (ART) was used. The aim of the study was to identify variables that influence the incidence of tooth loss and the survival of avulsed and replanted permanent incisors. Twenty-eight permanent teeth in 24 patients aged 7-17 years were investigated. In all teeth extraoral endodontic treatment by retrograde insertion of posts was performed. All nine teeth with functional healing (FH) were in situ. Of the 19 teeth with non-FH, seven were removed to allow transplantations. Two teeth were removed due to severe infrapositions. One tooth was lost following a new trauma. No tooth was lost due to acute infections. In descriptive statistics the incidence of tooth loss was significantly related to healing (P = 0.0098, Fisher's exact test), to treatment planning, i.e. consecutive replantation of premolars and primary canines (P = 0.0001, Fisher's exact test) and to immediate physiologic rescue (P = 0.0394). ART was related to tooth loss when tested in teeth with a compromised periodontal ligament (P = 0.0389). No influence could be found for the parameters maturity, age and all other factors. In a regression analysis treatment planning was the only factor left which had a significant influence (P = 0.0002). The estimated mean survival time (Kaplan-Meier analysis) for all teeth was 57.3 months. The survival was significantly reduced (P = 0.0002, log rank test) when consecutive transplantations were intended and performed. No influence could be found for maturity, age and all other factors. The different findings to previous studies can be explained by the prevention of complications related to conventional endodontic treatment approaches. Statistics have to be carefully

  15. Long-term regional chemotherapy for patients with epithelial malignant peritoneal mesothelioma results in improved survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, P H; Chang, D

    2017-07-01

    Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare disease with about 300 new cases per year in the USA. Its natural history is described as local progression within the peritoneal space in the absence of liver metastases or systemic disease. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) is a series of peritonectomy procedures and visceral resections with a goal of complete removal of all visible disease from the abdomen and pelvis. Over 20 years, three protocols investigating increasing efficacy of additional chemotherapy treatments added to CRS have been initiated. Initially, hyperthermic perioperative chemotherapy (HIPEC) with doxorubicin and cisplatin was used in the operating room. Then, early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (EPIC) with paclitaxel was added for the first 5 days after CRS. The third protocol employed HIPEC, then EPIC, and then long-term intraperitoneal (IP) paclitaxel or IP pemetrexed plus intravenous (IV) cisplatin as a adjuvant normothermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (NIPEC). The 5-year survival of 42 patients treated with CRS and HIPEC was 44%, for 58 patients treated with EPIC and HIPEC was 52% and 29 patients who received HIPEC, EPIC, and NIPEC was 75% (p = 0.0374). Prognostic variables of age, gender, treatment administered, peritoneal cancer index (PCI) and completeness of cytoreduction were significant by univariate analysis and treatments administered and completeness of cytoreduction significant by multivariate analysis. Long-term regional chemotherapy was associated with improved survival in patients with MPM. In this rare disease, additional phase 2 investigations are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  16. The interaction between Candida krusei and murine macrophages results in multiple outcomes, including intracellular survival and escape from killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodas, Rocío; González-Camacho, Fernando; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Zaragoza, Oscar

    2011-06-01

    Candida krusei is a fungal pathogen of interest for the scientific community for its intrinsic resistance to fluconazole. Little is known about the interaction of this yeast with host immune cells. In this work, we have characterized the outcome of the interaction between C. krusei and murine macrophages. Once C. krusei was internalized, we observed different phenomena. In a macrophage-like cell line, C. krusei survived in a significant number of macrophages and induced filamentation and macrophage explosion. Phagocytosis of C. krusei led to actin polymerization around the yeast cells at the site of entry. Fluorescent specific staining with anti-Lamp1 and LysoTracker indicated that after fungal internalization, there was a phagolysosome maturation defect, a phenomenon that was more efficient when the macrophages phagocytosed killed yeast cells. Using cell line macrophages, we also observed macrophage fusion after cell division. When we used primary resident peritoneal macrophages in addition to macrophage explosion, we also observed a strong chemotaxis of uninfected macrophages to regions where C. krusei-infected macrophages were present. We also noticed yeast transfer phenomena between infected macrophages. Primary macrophages inhibited pseudohypha elongation more efficiently than the macrophage-like cell line, suggesting that C. krusei infection was better controlled by the former macrophages. Primary macrophages induced more tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) than the macrophage-like cell line. Our results demonstrate that C. krusei can exploit the macrophages for replication, although other different outcomes are also possible, indicating that the interaction of this pathogen with phagocytic cells is very complex and regulated by multiple factors.

  17. Prognostic model for survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: results from the international kidney cancer working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manola, Judith; Royston, Patrick; Elson, Paul; McCormack, Jennifer Bacik; Mazumdar, Madhu; Négrier, Sylvie; Escudier, Bernard; Eisen, Tim; Dutcher, Janice; Atkins, Michael; Heng, Daniel Y C; Choueiri, Toni K; Motzer, Robert; Bukowski, Ronald

    2011-08-15

    To develop a single validated model for survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) using a comprehensive international database. A comprehensive database of 3,748 patients including previously reported clinical prognostic factors was established by pooling patient-level data from clinical trials. Following quality control and standardization, descriptive statistics were generated. Univariate analyses were conducted using proportional hazards models. Multivariable analysis using a log-logistic model stratified by center and multivariable fractional polynomials was conducted to identify independent predictors of survival. Missing data were handled using multiple imputation methods. Three risk groups were formed using the 25th and 75th percentiles of the resulting prognostic index. The model was validated using an independent data set of 645 patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. Median survival in the favorable, intermediate and poor risk groups was 26.9 months, 11.5 months, and 4.2 months, respectively. Factors contributing to the prognostic index included treatment, performance status, number of metastatic sites, time from diagnosis to treatment, and pretreatment hemoglobin, white blood count, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and serum calcium. The model showed good concordance when tested among patients treated with TKI therapy (C statistic = 0.741, 95% CI: 0.714-0.768). Nine clinical factors can be used to model survival in mRCC and form distinct prognostic groups. The model shows utility among patients treated in the TKI era. ©2011 AACR.

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Modulates miR-106b-5p to Control Cathepsin S Expression Resulting in Higher Pathogen Survival and Poor T-Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pires

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of tuberculosis (TB bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, relies on the ability to survive in host cells and escape to immune surveillance and activation. We recently demonstrated that Mtb manipulation of host lysosomal cathepsins in macrophages leads to decreased enzymatic activity and pathogen survival. In addition, while searching for microRNAs (miRNAs involved in posttranscriptional gene regulation during mycobacteria infection of human macrophages, we found that selected miRNAs such as miR-106b-5p were specifically upregulated by pathogenic mycobacteria. Here, we show that miR-106b-5p is actively manipulated by Mtb to ensure its survival in macrophages. Using an in silico prediction approach, we identified miR-106b-5p with a potential binding to the 3′-untranslated region of cathepsin S (CtsS mRNA. We demonstrated by luminescence-based methods that miR-106b-5p indeed targets CTSS mRNA resulting in protein translation silencing. Moreover, miR-106b-5p gain-of-function experiments lead to a decreased CtsS expression favoring Mtb intracellular survival. By contrast, miR-106b-5p loss-of-function in infected cells was concomitant with increased CtsS expression, with significant intracellular killing of Mtb and T-cell activation. Modulation of miR-106b-5p did not impact necrosis, apoptosis or autophagy arguing that miR-106b-5p directly targeted CtsS expression as a way for Mtb to avoid exposure to degradative enzymes in the endocytic pathway. Altogether, our data suggest that manipulation of miR-106b-5p as a potential target for host-directed therapy for Mtb infection.

  19. Extracorporeal life support with left ventricular decompression—improved survival in severe cardiogenic shock: results from a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Schmack

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Extracorporeal life support (ECLS is a life-saving procedure used in the treatment of severe cardiogenic shock. Within this retrospective single centre study, we examined our experience in this critically ill patient cohort to assess outcomes and clinical parameters by comparison of ECLS with or without selective left ventricular decompression. Methods Between 2004 and 2014 we evaluated 48 adult patients with INTERMACS level 1 heart failure (age 49.7 ± 19.5 years, who received either central ECLS with (n = 20, 41.7% or ECLS without (n = 28, 58.3%, including 10 peripheral ECLS integrated left ventricular vent in our retrospective single centre trial. Results Follow up was 100% with a mean of 0.83 ± 1.85 years. Bridge to ventricular assist device was feasible in 29.2% (n = 14, bridge to transplant in 10.4% (n = 5 and bridge to recovery in 8.3% (n = 4. Overall 30-day survival was 37.5%, 6-month survival 27.1% and 1-year survival 25.0%. ECLS support with left ventricular decompression showed favourable 30-day survival compared to ECLS without left ventricular decompression (p = 0.034. Thirty-day as well as long-term survival did not differ between the subgroups (central ECLS with vent, ECLS without vent and peripheral ECLS without vent. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age and gender revealed ECLS without vent as independent factor influencing 30-day survival. Conclusion ECLS is an established therapy for patients in severe cardiogenic shock. Independent of the ECLS approach, 30-day mortality is still high but with superior 30-day survival for patients with ECLS and left ventricular venting. Moreover, by unloading the ventricle, left ventricular decompression may provide an important time window for recovery or further treatment, such as bridge to bridge or bridge to transplant.

  20. Osteosarcoma incidence and survival rates from 1973 to 2004: data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabello, Lisa; Troisi, Rebecca J; Savage, Sharon A

    2009-04-01

    Osteosarcoma, which is the most common primary bone tumor, occurs most frequently in adolescents, but there is a second incidence peak among individuals aged > 60 years. Most osteosarcoma epidemiology studies have been embedded in large analyses of all bone tumors or focused on cases occurring in adolescence. Detailed descriptions of osteosarcoma incidence and survival with direct comparisons among patients of all ages and ethnicities are not available. Frequency, incidence, and survival rates for 3482 patients with osteosarcoma from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program between 1973 and 2004 were investigated by age (ages 0-24 years, 25-59 years, and 60 to > or = 85 years), race, sex, pathology subtype, stage, and anatomic site. There were large differences in incidence and survival rates by age. There was a high percentage of osteosarcoma with Paget disease and osteosarcoma as a second or later cancer among the elderly. There was a high percentage of osteosarcoma among patients with Paget disease and osteosarcoma as a second or later cancer among the elderly. Tumor site differences among age groups were noted. Survival rates varied by anatomic site and disease stage and did not improve significantly from 1984 to 2004. This comprehensive, population-based description of osteosarcoma, identified important differences in incidence, survival, pathologic subtype, and anatomic site among age groups, and quantified the impact of osteosarcoma in patients with Paget disease or as a second cancer on incidence and mortality rates. These findings may have implications in understanding osteosarcoma biology and epidemiology. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society

  1. Squamous Cancers of the Rectum Demonstrate Poorer Survival and Increased Need for Salvage Surgery Compared With Squamous Cancers of the Anus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaylat, Audrey S; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Stewart, David B

    2017-09-01

    Squamous cell cancers of the anus are rare GI malignancies for which neoadjuvant chemoradiation is the first-line treatment for nonmetastatic disease. Squamous cancers of the rectum are far less common, and it is unclear to what degree chemoradiotherapy improves their outcomes. The purpose of this study was to compare stage-specific survival for anal and rectal squamous cancers stratified by treatment approach. This was a retrospective cohort study. The study was conducted at Commission on Cancer designated hospitals. Patients (2006-2012) identified in the National Cancer Database with pretreatment clinical stage I to III cancers who underwent chemoradiotherapy, with and without subsequent salvage surgical resection (low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection), ≥12 weeks after chemoradiotherapy were included in the study. Overall survival and the need for salvage surgery were measured. Anal cancers (n = 11,224) typically presented with stage II (45.7%) or III (36.3%) disease, whereas rectal cancer stages (n = 1049) were more evenly distributed (p cancer underwent low anterior or abdominoperineal resections 12 weeks or later after chemoradiotherapy versus those undergoing abdominoperineal resection for anal cancer (3.8% versus 1.2%; p cancer was associated with poorer survival compared with anal cancer (stage I, p = 0.017; stage II, p cancer was associated with worse survival for stage I to III cancers; salvage surgery did not significantly affect survival for rectal cancer. This was a retrospective study without cancer-specific survival measures. Squamous rectal cancers are associated with significantly worse survival than squamous cancers of the anus for clinical stage I and II disease. Despite both cancers exhibiting squamous histology, rectal cancers may be less radiosensitive than anal cancers, as suggested by the greater incidence of salvage surgery that does not appear to significantly improve overall survival. See Video Abstract at http

  2. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1: Results of treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.; Cline, S.R.; Bogle, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Tixier, J.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993 to apply in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was later extended to include all of Pit 1 and was performed to support a possible Interim Record of Decision or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches beginning as early as FY 1997. This treatability study was carried out to establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlap of melt settings which will be necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. In April 1996 an expulsion of an estimated 10% of the 196 Mg (216 tons) melt body occurred resulting in significant damage to ISV equipment and, ultimately, led to an indefinite suspension of further ISV operations at Pit 1. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and status of the project in fulfilling these objectives through September 1997.

  3. Survival after surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with multiple intracranial metastases: results of a single-center retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy R; Lall, Rohan R; Lall, Rishi R; Abecassis, Isaac Josh; Arnaout, Omar M; Marymont, MaryAnne H; Swanson, Kristin R; Chandler, James P

    2014-10-01

    -year survival for patients in this cohort was 52%, and the 1-year local control rate was 77%. The median (±standard error) overall survival was 13.2 ± 1.9 months. There was no difference in survival between patients with a single lesion and those with multiple lesions (p = 0.319) after controlling for age, sex, and histology of primary tumor. Patients with primary breast histology had the greatest overall median survival (22.9 ± 6.2 months); patients with colorectal cancer had the shortest overall median survival (5.3 ± 1.8 months). The most common cause of death in this series was systemic progression (79%). These results confirm that 1-year survival for patients with multiple intracranial metastases treated with resection followed by SRS to both the tumor bed and synchronous lesions is similar to established outcomes for patients with a single intracranial metastasis.

  4. Summary Report on Phase I Results from the 3D Printing in Zero G Technology Demonstration Mission, Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, T. J.; Bean, Q. A.; Beshears, R. D.; Rolin, T. D.; Werkheiser, N. J.; Ordonez, E. A.; Ryan, R. M.; Ledbetter, F. E., III

    2016-01-01

    Human space exploration to date has been confined to low-Earth orbit and the Moon. The International Space Station (ISS) provides a unique opportunity for researchers to prove out the technologies that will enable humans to safely live and work in space for longer periods of time and venture beyond the Earth/Moon system. The ability to manufacture parts in-space rather than launch them from Earth represents a fundamental shift in the current risk and logistics paradigm for human spaceflight. In September 2014, NASA, in partnership with Made In Space, Inc., launched the 3D Printing in Zero-G technology demonstration mission to explore the potential of additive manufacturing for in-space applications and demonstrate the capability to manufacture parts and tools on orbit using fused deposition modeling. This Technical Publication summarizes the results of testing to date of the ground control and flight prints from the first phase of this ISS payload.

  5. Effect of positive surgical margins on biochemical failure, biochemical recurrence-free survival, and overall survival after radical prostatectomy: median long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huri, Emre; Aydogmus, Yasin; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Dadali, Mumtaz; Karakan, Tolga; Emir, Levent; Germiyanoglu, Cankon

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the median long-term effects of positive surgical margin (PSM) and other prognostic factors on biochemical recurrence-free survival, overall survival, and biochemical failure in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. Our study included 121 patients with pT2-3N0 disease treated between March 2006 and August 2012. The patients were divided into two groups: those with PSM and those with negative surgical margin (NSM). We analyzed the age, clinical and pathological stages, preoperative and postoperative Gleason scores, duration of the follow-up, adjuvant chemo-/radiotherapy, biochemical failure, biochemical recurrence-free survival, and overall survival in these patients. PSM was found in 25 (20%) patients, whereas 96 patients had NSM. The median follow-up time was 46.6 months (range 12-72 months) for the PSM group and 48.3 months (range 7-149 months) for the NSM group. The biochemical failure rate was 24% in the PSM group and 8.3% in the NSM group (p = 0.029). The biochemical recurrence-free survival was found as 76% in the PSM group and 91.7% in the NSM group. The difference between the groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). The overall survival was 100% in both groups. The surgical margins of the radical prostatectomy material is an important pathological indicator for biochemical failure at mid long-term follow-up. We did not find any effect of PSM on overall survival or biochemical recurrence-free survival. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  6. Development of the standard hospice and palliative care education program in Korea: results from the demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jina; Koh, Su Jin; Yoo, Yang Sook; Choi, Young Sim; Choi, Jin Young; Chang, Yoon Jung; Park, Eun Cheol; Shin, Dong Wook

    2010-06-01

    To describe development of the Standard Hospice & Palliative Care Education Program in Korea, a basic training program for hospice & palliative care professionals, and to report preliminary results from the 2008-2009 demonstration project at 2 sites that support its effectiveness. We developed the Standard Hospice & Palliative Care Education Program, consisting of 19 modules, under the initiative and financial support of the Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Family Affairs. We adapted the train-the-trainer model and benchmarked the EPEC (Education in Palliative and End-of-life Care) course. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the program, session evaluation, pre-post test of knowledge, and overall course evaluation were assessed by participants. The demonstration program included a total of 105 participants. Overall rating by participants was 4.1 for relevance and usefulness of program contents (range, 4.1-4.2; 1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree) and 4.1 for the trainer's teaching skills (range, 4.0-4.2). Participants demonstrated significant improvement in their knowledge on the pre-post test for 6 of the 17 modules, and reported that they had gained confidence in their ability to perform palliative care practices (overall mean ratings, 4.0, range; 3.6-4.3; 1 = very low, 5 = very high). Overall evaluation of the program was very high (very satisfied or satisfied; 86%). Development of the Standard Hospice & Palliative Care Education Program was successful, and its preliminary effectiveness was shown by the demonstration program. Comments on our experience in Korea would be helpful to efforts in other countries, particularly those with limited resources for hospice and palliative care.

  7. Survival advantage of marriage in uterine cancer patients contrasts poor outcome for widows: a Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, William J; Stany, Michael P; Phippen, Neil T; Bunch, Kristen P; Oliver, Kate E; Tian, Chunqiao; Maxwell, G Larry; Darcy, Kathleen M; Hamilton, Chad A

    2015-02-01

    Marriage confers a survival advantage for many cancers but has yet to be evaluated in uterine cancer patients. We sought to determine whether uterine cancer survival varied by self-reported relationship status. Data were downloaded from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program for women diagnosed with uterine cancer (between 1991 and 2010 in nine geographic regions). Patients with complete clinical data for analysis were categorized as married, single, widowed or other (divorced or separated). Differences in distributions were evaluated using Chi-square, exact and/or Mantel-Haenszel test. Uterine cancer survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Of 47,420 eligible patients, 56% were married, 15% were single and 19% were widows. Married vs. non-married women had a higher likelihood of having low risk (grade 1/2 endometrioid) endometrial cancer and local disease (pmarriage. This report identifies widows as a new high-risk subpopulation with significantly inferior outcomes potentially benefiting from personalized care and social support. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Measuring adult mortality using sibling survival: a new analytical method and new results for 44 countries, 1974-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Obermeyer

    2010-04-01

    probability of a 15-y old dying before his or her 60th birthday-for 44 countries with DHS sibling survival data. Our findings suggest that levels of adult mortality prevailing in many developing countries are substantially higher than previously suggested by other analyses of sibling history data. Generally, our estimates show the risk of adult death between ages 15 and 60 y to be about 20%-35% for females and 25%-45% for males in sub-Saharan African populations largely unaffected by HIV. In countries of Southern Africa, where the HIV epidemic has been most pronounced, as many as eight out of ten men alive at age 15 y will be dead by age 60, as will six out of ten women. Adult mortality levels in populations of Asia and Latin America are generally lower than in Africa, particularly for women. The exceptions are Haiti and Cambodia, where mortality risks are comparable to many countries in Africa. In all other countries with data, the probability of dying between ages 15 and 60 y was typically around 10% for women and 20% for men, not much higher than the levels prevailing in several more developed countries.Our results represent an expansion of direct knowledge of levels and trends in adult mortality in the developing world. The CSS method provides grounds for renewed optimism in collecting sibling survival data. We suggest that all nationally representative survey programs with adequate sample size ought to implement this critical module for tracking adult mortality in order to more reliably understand the levels and patterns of adult mortality, and how they are changing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  9. Sociodemographic Predictors of Survival in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Results from the SEER Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lily E; Tran Cao, Hop S; Chang, David C; Bouvet, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is prognosticated upon a combination of tumor characteristics, such as histology and stage, and patient age. DTC is also notable for having a strong female predominance. Using a nationwide database with long follow-up times, we explored the interplay between tumor biology and patient characteristics in predicting mortality. Methods. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry data 1973-2005 was examined for patients with DTC as their only known malignancy. Cox multivariate analyses were used to generate mortality hazard ratios to evaluate the effects of age, gender, ethnicity, and marital status. Results. We identified 55,995 patients with DTC as their only malignancy. Consistent with the existing literature, the tumors are primarily diagnosed in women (77.5%), and predominantly affect Caucasians (78.3%). Female gender had a protective effect resulting in a 37% decrease in mortality. Age at diagnosis predicted mortality over age 40. Black ethnicity was associated with a 51% increase in mortality compared to Caucasians. Conclusion. Multiple demographic factors predict mortality in patients with DTC after adjusting for tumor characteristics, and they appear to have complex interactions. Recognizing the importance of these factors may enable clinicians to better tailor therapy.

  10. FY16 Status of Immersion Phased Array Ultrasonic Probe Development and Performance Demonstration Results for Under Sodium Viewing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Aaron A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chamberlin, Clyde E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Edwards, Matthew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hagge, Tobias J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hughes, Michael S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larche, Michael R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mathews, Royce A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neill, Kevin J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Prowant, Matthew S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This section of the Joint summary technical letter report (TLR) describes work conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) during FY 2016 (FY16) on the under-sodium viewing (USV) PNNL project 58745, work package AT-16PN230102. This section of the TLR satisfies PNNL’s M3AT-16PN2301025 milestone and is focused on summarizing the design, development, and evaluation of two different phased-array ultrasonic testing (PA-UT) probe designs—a two-dimensional (2D) matrix phased-array probe, and two one-dimensional (1D) linear array probes, referred to as serial number 4 (SN4) engineering test units (ETUs). The 2D probe is a pulse-echo (PE), 32×2, 64-element matrix phased-array ETU. The 1D probes are 32×1 element linear array ETUs. This TLR also provides the results from a performance demonstration (PD) of in-sodium target detection trials at 260°C using both probe designs. This effort continues the iterative evolution supporting the longer term goal of producing and demonstrating a pre-manufacturing prototype ultrasonic probe that possesses the fundamental performance characteristics necessary to enable the development of a high-temperature sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) inspection system for in-sodium detection and imaging.

  11. Whole lichen thalli survive exposure to space conditions: results of Lithopanspermia experiment with Aspicilia fruticulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggio, J; Pintado, A; Ascaso, C; De La Torre, R; De Los Ríos, A; Wierzchos, J; Horneck, G; Sancho, L G

    2011-05-01

    The Lithopanspermia space experiment was launched in 2007 with the European Biopan facility for a 10-day spaceflight on board a Russian Foton retrievable satellite. Lithopanspermia included for the first time the vagrant lichen species Aspicilia fruticulosa from Guadalajara steppic highlands (Central Spain), as well as other lichen species. During spaceflight, the samples were exposed to selected space conditions, that is, the space vacuum, cosmic radiation, and different spectral ranges of solar radiation (λ ≥ 110, ≥200, ≥290, or ≥400 nm, respectively). After retrieval, the algal and fungal metabolic integrity of the samples were evaluated in terms of chlorophyll a fluorescence, ultrastructure, and CO(2) exchange rates. Whereas the space vacuum and cosmic radiation did not impair the metabolic activity of the lichens, solar electromagnetic radiation, especially in the wavelength range between 100 and 200 nm, caused reduced chlorophyll a yield fluorescence; however, there was a complete recovery after 72 h of reactivation. All samples showed positive rates of net photosynthesis and dark respiration in the gas exchange experiment. Although the ultrastructure of all flight samples showed some probable stress-induced changes (such as the presence of electron-dense bodies in cytoplasmic vacuoles and between the chloroplast thylakoids in photobiont cells as well as in cytoplasmic vacuoles of the mycobiont cells), we concluded that A. fruticulosa was capable of repairing all space-induced damage. Due to size limitations within the Lithopanspermia hardware, the possibility for replication on the sun-exposed samples was limited, and these first results on the resistance of the lichen symbiosis A. fruticulosa to space conditions and, in particular, on the spectral effectiveness of solar extraterrestrial radiation must be considered preliminary. Further testing in space and under space-simulated conditions will be required. Results of this study indicate

  12. FY15 Status of Immersion Phased Array Ultrasonic Probe Development and Performance Demonstration Results for Under Sodium Viewing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Aaron A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larche, Michael R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mathews, Royce [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neill, Kevin J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baldwin, David L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Prowant, Matthew S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Edwards, Matthew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chamberlin, Clyde E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This Technical Letter Report (TLR) describes work conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) during FY 2015 on the under-sodium viewing (USV) PNNL project 58745, Work Package AT-15PN230102. This TLR satisfies PNNL’s M3AT-15PN2301027 milestone, and is focused on summarizing the design, development, and evaluation of a two-dimensional matrix phased-array probe referred to as serial number 3 (SN3). In addition, this TLR also provides the results from a performance demonstration of in-sodium target detection trials at 260°C using a one-dimensional 22-element linear array developed in FY14 and referred to as serial number 2 (SN2).

  13. Flexible survival strategies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilms result in increased fitness compared with Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purschke, Frauke Gina; Hiller, Ekkehard; Trick, Iris; Rupp, Steffen

    2012-12-01

    The majority of microorganisms persist in nature as surface-attached communities often surrounded by an extracellular matrix, called biofilms. Most natural biofilms are not formed by a single species but by multiple species. Microorganisms not only cooperate as in some multispecies biofilms but also compete for available nutrients. The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans are two opportunistic pathogens that are often found coexisting in a human host. Several models of mixed biofilms have been reported for these organisms showing antagonistic behavior. To investigate the interaction of P. aeruginosa and C. albicans in more detail, we analyzed the secretome of single and mixed biofilms of both organisms using MALDI-TOF MS/MS at several time points. Overall 247 individual proteins were identified, 170 originated from P. aeruginosa and 77 from C. albicans. Only 39 of the 131 in mixed biofilms identified proteins were assigned to the fungus whereby the remaining 92 proteins belonged to P. aeruginosa. In single-species biofilms, both organisms showed a higher diversity of proteins with 73 being assigned to C. albicans and 154 to P. aeruginosa. Most interestingly, P. aeruginosa in the presence of C. albicans secreted 16 proteins in significantly higher amounts or exclusively among other virulence factors such as exotoxin A and iron acquisition systems. In addition, the high affinity iron-binding siderophore pyoverdine was identified in mixed biofilms but not in bacterial biofilms, indicating that P. aeruginosa increases its capability to sequester iron in competition with C. albicans. In contrast, C. albicans metabolism was significantly reduced, including a reduction in detectable iron acquisition proteins. The results obtained in this study show that microorganisms not only compete with the host for essential nutrients but also strongly with the present microflora in order to gain a competitive advantage.

  14. Flexible Survival Strategies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Biofilms Result in Increased Fitness Compared with Candida albicans *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purschke, Frauke Gina; Hiller, Ekkehard; Trick, Iris; Rupp, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    The majority of microorganisms persist in nature as surface-attached communities often surrounded by an extracellular matrix, called biofilms. Most natural biofilms are not formed by a single species but by multiple species. Microorganisms not only cooperate as in some multispecies biofilms but also compete for available nutrients. The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans are two opportunistic pathogens that are often found coexisting in a human host. Several models of mixed biofilms have been reported for these organisms showing antagonistic behavior. To investigate the interaction of P. aeruginosa and C. albicans in more detail, we analyzed the secretome of single and mixed biofilms of both organisms using MALDI-TOF MS/MS at several time points. Overall 247 individual proteins were identified, 170 originated from P. aeruginosa and 77 from C. albicans. Only 39 of the 131 in mixed biofilms identified proteins were assigned to the fungus whereby the remaining 92 proteins belonged to P. aeruginosa. In single-species biofilms, both organisms showed a higher diversity of proteins with 73 being assigned to C. albicans and 154 to P. aeruginosa. Most interestingly, P. aeruginosa in the presence of C. albicans secreted 16 proteins in significantly higher amounts or exclusively among other virulence factors such as exotoxin A and iron acquisition systems. In addition, the high affinity iron-binding siderophore pyoverdine was identified in mixed biofilms but not in bacterial biofilms, indicating that P. aeruginosa increases its capability to sequester iron in competition with C. albicans. In contrast, C. albicans metabolism was significantly reduced, including a reduction in detectable iron acquisition proteins. The results obtained in this study show that microorganisms not only compete with the host for essential nutrients but also strongly with the present microflora in order to gain a competitive advantage. PMID

  15. Radiation Therapy in Addition to Gross Total Resection of Retroperitoneal Sarcoma Results in Prolonged Survival: Results from a Single Institutional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Zagar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Typical treatment of retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPSs is surgery with or without radiation therapy for localized disease. With surgery alone, local failure rates are as high as 90%; this led to radiation therapy playing an important role in the treatment of RPSs. Methods. Thirty-one patients with retroperitoneal sarcoma treated with gross total resection and radiation therapy make up this retrospective analysis. Nineteen were treated preoperatively and 12 postoperatively (median dose, 59.4 Gy—sixteen also received intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT (median dose, 11 Gy. Patients were followed with stringent regimens, including frequent CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Results. With a median follow-up of 19 months (range 1–66 months, the 2-year overall survival (OS rate is 70% (median, 52 months. The 2-year locoregional control (LRC rate is 77% (median, 61.6 months. The 2-year distant disease free survival (DDFS rate is 70% (median not reached. There were no differences in radiation-related acute and late toxicities among patients treated pre- versus postoperatively, whether with or without IORT. Conclusions. Compared to surgery alone, neoadjuvant or adjuvant radiation therapy offers patients with RPS an excellent chance for long-term LRC, DDS, and OS. The integration of modern treatment planning for external beam radiation therapy and IORT allows for higher doses to be delivered with acceptable toxicities.

  16. Postoperative Survival for Patients with Thymoma Complicating Myasthenia Gravis
- Preliminary Retrospective Results of the ChART Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangrui WANG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It is so far not clear that how myasthenia gravis (MG affected the prognosis of thymoma patients. The aim of this assay is to compare the postoperative survival between patients with thymoma only and those with both thymoma and MG. Methods The Chinese Alliance for Research in Thymomas (ChART registry recruited patients with thymoma from 18 centers over the country on an intention to treat basis from 1992 to 2012. Two groups were formed according to whether the patient complicated MG. Demographic and clinical data were reviewed, Patients were followed and their survival status were analyzed. Results There were 1,850 patients included in this study, including 421 with and 1,429 without MG. Complete thymectomy were done in 91.2% patients in MG group and 71.0% in non-MG group (P<0.05. There were more percentage of patients with the histology of thymoma AB, B1, or B2 (P<0.05 in MG group, and more percentage of patients with MG were in Masaoka stage I and II. The 5 year and 10 year OS rates were both higher in MG group (93% vs 88%; 83% vs 81%, P=0.034 respectively. The survival rate was significantly higher in patients with MG when the Masaoka staging was III/IV (P=0.003. Among patients with advanced stage thymoma (stage III, IVa, IVb, the constituent ratios of III, IVa, IVb were similar between MG and Non-MG group. Histologically, however, there were significantly more proportion of AB/B1/B2/B3 in the MG group while there were more C in the non-MG group (P=0.000. Univariate analyses for all patients showed that MG, WHO classification, Masaoka stage, surgical approach, chemotherapy and radiotherapy and resectability were significant factors, and multivariate analysis showed WHO Classification, Masaoka stage, and resectability were strong independent prognostic indicators. Conclusion Although MG is not an independent prognostic factor, the survival of patients with thymoma was superior when MG was present, especially in late

  17. Molecular analyses of unselected head and neck cancer cases demonstrates that human papillomavirus transcriptional activity is positively associated with survival and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Masterson, Liam; Winder, David M; Ball, Siolian L. R.; Vaughan, Katie; Lehmann, Martin; Scholtz, Lars-Uwe; Sterling, Jane C; Sudhoff, Holger H; Goon, Peter K C

    2016-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus DNA detection in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has been linked to improved patient prognosis. The main aims of the study was to test the hypotheses that HPV16 E6/E7 oncogene and p53 function within tumours were associated with the widely reported improved patient survival and prognosis in head and neck cancer. Methods HPV16 DNA, mRNA and p53 mRNA presence were analysed in a prospective study of 42 unselected HNSCC patients; correlating the data with pat...

  18. MR 201104: Evaluation of Discrimination Technologies and Classification Results and MR 201157: Demonstration of MetalMapper Static Data Acquisition and Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    Discrimination Technologies and Classification Results) and ESTCP MR-201157 (Demonstration of MetalMapper Static Data Acquisition and Data Analysis ... Discrimination Technologies and Classification Results) and ESTCP MR-201157 (Demonstration of MetalMapper Static Data Acquisition and Data Analysis ). All...MR-201104 and MR-201157) MR-201104: Evaluation of Discrimination Technologies and Classification Results MR-201157: Demonstration of MetalMapper

  19. Duration of adjuvant trastuzumab in HER2 positive breast cancer: Overall and disease free survival results from meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Niraula, Saroj

    2017-11-01

    One year of trastuzumab, chosen empirically, improves survival of women with early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer but also adds substantially to cost, toxicity, and inconvenience. Longer treatment does not improve outcomes, but potentiates toxicities. Medline, Embase, and major conference proceedings were searched systematically in June 2017 to identify Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) comparing one year versus shorter durations of trastuzumab in adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Reported Hazard-Ratios (HR) for Overall Survival (OS) and Disease-Free Survival (DFS), and Odds-Ratio for cardiac events, with respective 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) from each study was weighted using generic inverse-variance, and pooled in a meta-analysis. Inter-study heterogeneity and sub-group difference (based on hormone-receptors and node-positivity) were assessed using I 2 , and chi 2 statistics, respectively. Four studies (n=7614) satisfied inclusion criteria. Individual RCTs had diverse pre-specified upper-limits of 95% CI for declaring non-inferiority (range: <1.15 to <1.53). Pooled results demonstrated significant improvements in OS (HR 1.28, p=0.04), and DFS (HR 1.24, p=0.005) with 1year of trastuzumab compared to shorter durations. Absence of multiplicity argument allowed for declaring superiority of 1year of trastuzumab based on our results despite non-inferiority designs of individual trials. No influence on overall effect by duration of trastuzumab in experimental arm (9weeks versus 6months) was noted. No statistical interaction by hormone-receptor status and node-positivity on overall results was noticed [p(sub-group difference) 0.73, and 0.52, respectively]. Odds-Ratio for cardiac events was 2.65 (p<0.001) favoring shorter duration. One year of trastuzumab prolongs overall, and disease-free survivals in women with early-stage HER2 positive breast cancer compared to shorter durations and this should remain as the standard of care. Cardiotoxicity increased

  20. Hermod: optical payload technology demonstrator flying on PROBA-V: overview of the payload development, testing and results after 1 year in orbit exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, S.; Blasco, J.; Henriksen, V.; Samuelsson, H.; Navasquillo, O.; Grimsgaard, M.; Mellab, K.

    2017-11-01

    and environmental tests before the integration in a very limited time. The telemetry data is currently sent to ground on daily basis. All the channels have survived the launch and no BER has been measured with the exception of channel 2, currently recording a BER of 3.06*10-16, that exhibits from time to time a burst of errors due to synchronizing issues of the initial data frame. It is expected to observe during the operating life of the payload the first errors within the channel 4 which was designed on purpose with reduced power margin. This paper will present the full overview of the HERMOD technology demonstrator including the development, testing, validation activity, integration, commissioning and 1 year in-orbit exploitation results.

  1. Cigarette smoking is associated with adverse survival among women with ovarian cancer: Results from a pooled analysis of 19 studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praestegaard, C.; Jensen, A.; Jensen, S.M.; Nielsen, T.S.; Webb, P.M.; Nagle, C.M.; Defazio, A.; Hogdall, E.; Rossing, M.A.; Doherty, J.A.; Wicklund, K.G.; Goodman, M.T.; Modugno, F.; Moysich, K.; Ness, R.B.; Edwards, R.; Matsuo, K.; Hosono, S.; Goode, E.L.; Winham, S.J.; Fridley, B.L.; Cramer, D.W; Terry, K.L.; Schildkraut, J.M.; Berchuck, A.; Bandera, E.V.; Paddock, L.E.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Wentzensen, N.; Pharoah, P.; Song, H.; Whittemore, A.; McGuire, V.; Sieh, W.; Rothstein, J.; Anton-Culver, H.; Ziogas, A.; Menon, U.; Gayther, S.A.; Ramus, S.J.; Gentry-Maharaj, A.; Wu, A.H.; Pearce, C.L.; Pike, M.; Lee, A.W.; Sutphen, R.; Chang-Claude, J.; Risch, H.A.; Kjaer, S.K.

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing mucinous ovarian tumors but whether it is associated with ovarian cancer survival overall or for the different histotypes is unestablished. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the association between cigarette smoking and survival

  2. Survival in HIV-infected patients after a cancer diagnosis in the cART Era: results of an italian multicenter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Gotti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We studied survival and associated risk factors in an Italian nationwide cohort of HIV-infected individuals after an AIDS-defining cancer (ADC or non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC diagnosis in the modern cART era. METHODS: Multi-center, retrospective, observational study of HIV patients included in the MASTER Italian Cohort with a cancer diagnosis from January 1998 to September 2012. Malignancies were divided into ADC or NADC on the basis of the Centre for Disease Control-1993 classification. Recurrence of cancer and metastases were excluded. Survivals were estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and compared according to the log-rank test. Statistically significant variables at univariate analysis were entered in a multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS: Eight hundred and sixty-six cancer diagnoses were recorded among 13,388 subjects in the MASTER Database after 1998: 435 (51% were ADCs and 431 (49% were NADCs. Survival was more favorable after an ADC diagnosis than a NADC diagnosis (10-year survival: 62.7%±2.9% vs. 46%±4.2%; p = 0.017. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma had lower survival rates than patients with Kaposi sarcoma or cervical cancer (10-year survival: 48.2%±4.3% vs. 72.8%±4.0% vs. 78.5%±9.9%; p<0.001. Regarding NADCs, breast cancer showed better survival (10-year survival: 65.1%±14% than lung cancer (1-year survival: 28%±8.7%, liver cancer (5-year survival: 31.9%±6.4% or Hodgkin lymphoma (10-year survival: 24.8%±11.2%. Lower CD4+ count and intravenous drug use were significantly associated with decreased survival after ADCs or NADCs diagnosis. Exposure to cART was found to be associated with prolonged survival only in the case of ADCs. CONCLUSIONS: cART has improved survival in patients with an ADC diagnosis, whereas the prognosis after a diagnosis of NADCs is poor. Low CD4+ counts and intravenous drug use are risk factors for survival following a diagnosis of ADCs and Hodgkin lymphoma in the NADC group.

  3. Survival results in five malignant neoplasms separated by a decade at Institut Català d'Oncologia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germá-Lluch, José Ramón; Petriz, Lourdes; Lopez, Pau; Asensio, Esther

    2018-02-23

    Five years' data relative survival (RS) is presented in 3 solid tumours: breast, colorectal (CRC) and lung and 2 haematologic neoplasms: large B cell lymphoma (NHL-B) and multiple myeloma (MM) treated at Institut Català d'Oncologia between 2010-2011 in comparison with the results obtained in a historical special cohort from 1998-1999. A database was created in a common safe and accessible repository. We have introduced more than 5,000 medical records. To analyse the results the statistical package R ® was used for RS. The overall RS at 5 years for 2010-2011 was: CRC 67%, breast 93.6%, lung 28%, NHL-B 68% and MM 62%, while for 1998-1999 is was: CRC 61.8%, breast 88.8%, lung 23.1%, NHL-B 67.7%, and MM 43.4%. Comparative results have shown a 5% overall improvement in RS for the 3 solid tumours, a significant increase in MM and a stabilisation in the NHL-B. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Results from a multi aperture Fizeau interferometer ground testbed: demonstrator for a future space-based interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccichet, Nicola; Caillat, Amandine; Rakotonimbahy, Eddy; Dohlen, Kjetil; Savini, Giorgio; Marcos, Michel

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of the European FP7-FISICA (Far Infrared Space Interferometer Critical Assessment) program, we developed a miniaturized version of the hyper-telescope to demonstrate multi-aperture interferometry on ground. This setup would be ultimately integrated into a CubeSat platform, therefore providing the first real demonstrator of a multi aperture Fizeau interferometer in space. In this paper, we describe the optical design of the ground testbed and the data processing pipeline implemented to reconstruct the object image from interferometric data. As a scientific application, we measured the Sun diameter by fitting a limb-darkening model to our data. Finally, we present the design of a CubeSat platform carrying this miniature Fizeau interferometer, which could be used to monitor the Sun diameter over a long in-orbit period.

  5. Results of a demonstration experiment: Hydrogenation of pyrolysis oils from biomass; Ergebnisse eines Demonstrationsversuchs zur Hydrierung von Pyrolyseoelen aus Biomassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, M. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Sump phase hydrogenation is a technique specially developed for coal liquefaction; it provides a possibility of processing the liquid products of biomass pyrolyis into high-grade carburettor fuels. A demonstration experiment was carried out at the hydrogenation plant of DMT. The plant has a capacity of 10 kg/h. The technical feasibility of hydrogenation of biomass oils was demonstrated in a continuous experiment. The contribution describes the experimental conditions, yields, and product qualities. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die fuer die Kohleverfluessigung entwickelte Sumpfphasenhydrierung bietet die Moeglichkeit, die Fluessigprodukte der Pyrolyse von Biomassen zu hochwertigen Vergaserkraftstoffen zu veredeln. Im Hydriertechnikum der DMT wurde hierzu ein Demonstrationsversuch durchgefuehrt. Die Anlage ist fuer einen Kohledurchsatz von 10 kg/h ausgelegt. In einem kontinuierlichen Versuchslauf wurde mit dieser Anlage die technische Machbarkeit der Hydrierung von Bio-Oelen demonstriert. In dem vorliegenden Beitrag werden die Versuchsbedingungen, Ausbeuten und Produktqualitaeten vorgestellt. (orig.)

  6. Prediction of survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: results of a community-based study in Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, G B; Gruska, M; Titscher, G; Blazek, G; Havelec, L; Marktl, W; Muellner, W; Kaff, A

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this study was the assessment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and the definition of possible predictive factors for final hospital discharge. Out of a database of 89,557 consecutive missions of the Vienna emergency medical system (EMS) during 1990, there were 623 missions due to a collapse of non-traumatic origin: in 374 cases (60.0%) the patients were declared dead without further attempts at resuscitation. The remaining 249 patients were analysed for predictive factors at site. Survival to hospital admission: 109 patients survived to hospital admission (43.7%); bystander support had a small impact (P < 0.05) on survival to hospital arrival whereas age and gender had no predictive power. Most patients with ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF) survived primarily (69 of 117, i.e. 59.0%). Survival to hospital discharge: 27 patients were discharged from hospital care (10.8%). ECG findings on arrival of the EMS physician at the site proved to be the only powerful predictor for survival: 24 of 117 patients with VT/VF survived compared with only one of 81 with primary asystole, two of 39 with severe bradycardia, and no patient with electromechanical dissociation.

  7. A Comparative Study of Defibrillator Leads at a Large-Volume Implanting Hospital: Results From the Pacemaker and Implantable Defibrillator Leads Survival Study ("PAIDLESS").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Todd J; Asheld, Wilbur J; Germano, Joseph; Islam, Shahidul; Patel, Dhimesh

    2015-06-01

    .35% failure rate); none were recalled. Kaplan Meier analysis also showed lead failure occurred sooner in the recalled leads (P=.01). A total of 1493 patients died during the study (mechanism of death was largely unknown). There was a significant increase in mortality in the recalled lead group as compared with non-recalled leads (P=.01), but no significant difference in survival when comparing recalled leads from Medtronic with St. Jude Medical (P=.67). A multivariable Cox regression model revealed younger age, history of percutaneous coronary intervention, baseline rhythm other than atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, combination polyurethane and silicone lead insulation, a second defibrillation coil, and recalled lead status all contributed to lead failure. This study demonstrated a significantly improved lead performance in the Boston Scientific and St. Jude leads as compared with Medtronic leads. Some lead construction variables (insulation and number of coils) also had a significant impact on lead failure, which was independent of the manufacturer. Recalled St. Jude leads performed better than recalled Medtronic leads in our study. Recalled St. Jude leads had no significant difference in lead failure when compared with the other manufacturer's non-recalled leads. Defibrillator recalled lead status was associated with an increased mortality as compared with non-recalled leads. This correlation was independent of the lead manufacturer and clinically significant even when considering known mortality risk factors. These results must be tempered by the largely unknown mechanism of death in these patients.

  8. Demonstration of high coincidence of pituitary adenoma in patients with ruptured Rathke's cleft cyst: Results of a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Ohhashi, Genichiro

    2015-12-01

    Repeated chronic inflammation, such as under circumstances of ruptured Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC), is known as the fundamental basis of various pathological changes including neoplastic change, therefore to examine accurate incidence of pituitary adenomas is important for the preventive medicine. As a prospective study, patients were initially screened by the symptoms such as periodic headache and dizziness together with the abnormal findings such as seller floor bone defect on 3D-CT. Those screened patients who showed abnormal basal pituitary hormone values were additionally examined by several loading test and 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by three-dimensional reconstructions of Flair cube images. The presence of pituitary adenomas was evaluated by composite 3T MRI and (11)C methionine MET positron-emission tomography imaging. Immunohistochemical studies were employed for surgical biopsy specimens to demonstrate hormone production. 308 cases of RCC were diagnosed by both radiologic and intraoperative findings. Pathological examination confirmed 111 pituitary adenomas in 106 patients with ruptured RCC, therefore the rate of coincidence was revealed 34%. In 78 patients with abnormalities of pituitary hormone secretion, MET uptake was observed in the pituitary gland and verified pituitary adenoma pathologically. In addition, 28 adenomas were verified without MET-PET study on pathological examination only, for a total of 106 cases. High coincidence (34%) of ruptured RCC and pituitary adenomas was demonstrated, which is a proof that ruptured RCC is contributed to a risk factor of pituitary adenoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A clinical review of treatment outcomes in glioblastoma multiforme - the validation in a non-trial population of the results of a randomised Phase III clinical trial: has a more radical approach improved survival?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rock, K

    2012-01-03

    Objective: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) accounts for up to 60% of all malignant primary brain tumours in adults, occurring in 2-3 cases per 100 000 in Europe and North America. In 2005, a Phase III clinical trial demonstrated a significant improvement in survival over 2, and subsequently, 5 years with the addition of concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) to radical radiotherapy (RT) (Stupp R, Hegi M, van den Bent M, et al. Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial. Lancet Oncol 2009:10:459-66). The aim of this study was to investigate if the demonstrated improved survival in the literature translated to clinical practice.Methods: This was a retrospective study including all patients with histologically proven GBM diagnosed from 1999 to 2008 and treated with adjuvant RT at our institution. A total of 273 patients were identified. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS v18.Results: The median survival for the whole group (n = 273) over the 10-year period was 7.6 months (95% confidence interval 6.7-8.4 months). Overall, the cumulative probability of survival at 1 and 2 years was 31.5 and 9.4%, respectively. In total, 146 patients received radical RT. 103 patients were treated with radical RT and TMZ and 43 patients received radical RT alone. The median survival for patients receiving radical RT with TMZ was 13.4 months (95% CI 10.9-15.8 months) vs 8.8 months for radical RT alone (95% CI 6.9 - 10.7 months, p = 0.006). 2-year survival figures were 21.2 vs 4.7%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of survival included KPS, RT dose, TMZ and extent of surgery. The strongest predictors of poorer outcome based on the hazard ratio were palliative RT, followed by not receiving TMZ chemotherapy, then KPS <90 and a biopsy only surgical approach.Conclusion: This paper demonstrates

  10. A clinical review of treatment outcomes in glioblastoma multiforme - the validation in a non-trial population of the results of a randomised Phase III clinical trial: has a more radical approach improved survival?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Objective: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) accounts for up to 60% of all malignant primary brain tumours in adults, occurring in 2-3 cases per 100 000 in Europe and North America. In 2005, a Phase III clinical trial demonstrated a significant improvement in survival over 2, and subsequently, 5 years with the addition of concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) to radical radiotherapy (RT) (Stupp R, Hegi M, van den Bent M, et al. Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial. Lancet Oncol 2009:10:459-66). The aim of this study was to investigate if the demonstrated improved survival in the literature translated to clinical practice.Methods: This was a retrospective study including all patients with histologically proven GBM diagnosed from 1999 to 2008 and treated with adjuvant RT at our institution. A total of 273 patients were identified. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS v18.Results: The median survival for the whole group (n = 273) over the 10-year period was 7.6 months (95% confidence interval 6.7-8.4 months). Overall, the cumulative probability of survival at 1 and 2 years was 31.5 and 9.4%, respectively. In total, 146 patients received radical RT. 103 patients were treated with radical RT and TMZ and 43 patients received radical RT alone. The median survival for patients receiving radical RT with TMZ was 13.4 months (95% CI 10.9-15.8 months) vs 8.8 months for radical RT alone (95% CI 6.9 - 10.7 months, p = 0.006). 2-year survival figures were 21.2 vs 4.7%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of survival included KPS, RT dose, TMZ and extent of surgery. The strongest predictors of poorer outcome based on the hazard ratio were palliative RT, followed by not receiving TMZ chemotherapy, then KPS <90 and a biopsy only surgical approach.Conclusion: This paper demonstrates improved

  11. KEA-144: Final Results of the Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, William; Fesmire, James; Swanger, Adam; Jumper, Kevin; Johnson, Wesley; Tomsik, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    GODU-LH2 system has successfully met all test objectives at the 33%, 67%, and 100% tank fill level. Complete control over the state of the fluid has been demonstrated using Integrated Refrigeration and Storage (IRAS). Almost any desired point along the H2saturation curve can essentially be "dialed in" and maintained indefinitely. System can also be used to produce densified hydrogen in large quantities to the triple point. Exploring multiple technology infusion paths. Studying implementation of IRAS technology into new LH2sphere for EM-2 at LC39B. Technical interchange also occurring with STMD, LSP, ULA, DoE, KIST, Kawasaki, Shell Oil, SpaceX, US Coast Guard, and Virgin Galactic.

  12. Effect of distal venous drainage on the survival of four-territory flaps with no pedicle vein: Results from a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Oh; Cho, Jeongmok; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Chang, Hak

    2018-03-01

    Venous super-drainage can improve flap survival not only because it prevents congestion, but also because it affects the dominant circulation in multi-territory thin skin flaps. We aimed to evaluate the survival of various flap areas and detect vascular changes in artery-based, four-territory skin flaps after different distal venous drainage procedures. 4 x 12 cm sized flaps were elevated based only on the deep circumflex iliac artery. Fifty rats were divided into five groups, as follows: group 1, flaps drained with the deep circumflex iliac vein; group 2, flaps drained with the ipsilateral superficial inferior epigastric vein; group 3, flaps drained with the contralateral superficial inferior epigastric vein; group 4, flaps drained with the contralateral deep circumflex iliac vein; and group 5, flaps super-drained with the contralateral deep circumflex iliac vein. On the fourth postoperative day, the survival of the flaps was assessed by measuring the necrotic and surviving areas, and vascular changes were evaluated angiographically. Compared to flaps with only arterial-based pedicles, most flaps with distant drainage showed significantly greater survival. The flap survival area percentages were 37.82 ± 5.01%, 49.23 ± 10.47%, 68.22 ± 9.24%, 83.90 ± 12.03%, and 89.17 ± 10.42% for groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Furthermore, distal vein drainage above the ventral midline resulted in significantly better flap survival. Super-drainage and drainage via the most distal vein resulted in similar flap survival. Distal vein drainage is effective for increasing survival in artery-based flaps. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improved Survival With Radiation Therapy in Stage I-II Primary Mediastinal B Cell Lymphoma: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Database Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Matthew W., E-mail: matthew.jackson@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Rusthoven, Chad G.; Jones, Bernard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Kamdar, Manali [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is an uncommon lymphoma for which trials are few with small patient numbers. The role of radiation therapy (RT) after standard immunochemotherapy for early-stage disease has never been studied prospectively. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to evaluate PMBCL and the impact of RT on outcomes. Methods and Materials: We queried the SEER database for patients with stage I-II PMBCL diagnosed from 2001 to 2011. Retrievable data included age, gender, race (white/nonwhite), stage, extranodal disease, year of diagnosis, and use of RT as a component of definitive therapy. Kaplan-Meier overall survival (OS) estimates, univariate (UVA) log-rank and multivariate (MVA) Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed. Results: Two hundred fifty patients with stage I-II disease were identified, with a median follow-up time of 39 months (range, 3-125 months). The median age was 36 years (range, 18-89 years); 61% were female; 76% were white; 45% had stage I disease, 60% had extranodal disease, and 55% were given RT. The 5-year OS for the entire cohort was 86%. On UVA, OS was improved with RT (hazard ratio [HR] 0.446, P=.029) and decreased in association with nonwhite race (HR 2.70, P=.006). The 5-year OS was 79% (no RT) and 90% (RT). On MVA, white race and RT remained significantly associated with improved OS (P=.007 and .018, respectively). The use of RT decreased over time: 61% for the 67 patients whose disease was diagnosed from 2001 to 2005 and 53% in the 138 patients treated from 2006 to 2010. Conclusion: This retrospective population-based analysis is the largest PMBCL dataset to date and demonstrates a significant survival benefit associated with RT. Nearly half of patients treated in the United States do not receive RT, and its use appears to be declining. In the absence of phase 3 data, the use of RT should be strongly considered for its survival benefit in early

  14. Does mycorrhizal inoculation benefit plant survival, plant development and small-scale soil fixation? Results from a perennial eco-engineering field experiment in the Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Alexander; Grimm, Maria; Graf, Frank; Baumhauer, Roland; Gärtner, Holger

    2015-04-01

    aggregate stabilization relative to the non-inoculated site but resulted in a significantly higher aggregate stability compared to the control and the non-inoculated site at the end of the third growing season. (ii) Plant survival was significantly improved by the inoculation. Fine-root development was stimulated but not immediately. At the end of the third growing season, root length density tended to be higher and mean root diameter was significantly increased at the mycorrhizal treated site. (iii) Analyses on plant performance of Alnus and Salix demonstrated that the inoculated saplings achieved significantly higher survival rates. There was no treatment effect on plant growth properties except in 2010, where plant height and main stem diameter of Alnus was increased at the mycorrhizal treated site. The estimated total biomass of Alnus and Salix was higher at the mycorrhizal treated site. (iv) There was a positive correlation between root length density and aggregate stability, whereas roots effects tested in greenhouse/laboratory and the presented field experiment. However, the application of a commercial mycorrhizal inoculum in eco-engineering measures is a beneficial promoter to mitigate slope instability and surface erosion but needs to be tested at other sites. The contribution is mainly based on Bast (2014) and was funded by the Wolfermann Nägeli Stiftung Zürich and the Swiss Federal Office for Environment (BAFU No.: 09.0027.PJ/I211-3446). Bast, A. (2014): Mycorrhizal inoculation as a promoter for sustainable eco-engineering measures in steep alpine environments? Results of a three-year field experiment in the Arieschbach catchment, Fideris, eastern Swiss Alps. PhD Thesis. University of Berne: 149pp.

  15. Results of Tank-Leak Detection Demonstration Using Geophysical Techniques at the Hanford Mock Tank Site-Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D BRENT.; Gee, Glendon W.; Sweeney, Mark D.

    2002-03-01

    During July and August of 2001, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), hosted researchers from Lawrence Livermore and Lawrence Berkeley National laboratories, and a private contractor, HydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc., for deployment of the following five geophysical leak-detection technologies at the Hanford Site Mock Tank in a Tank Leak Detection Demonstration (TLDD): (1) Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT); (2) Cross-Borehole Electromagnetic Induction (CEMI); (3) High-Resolution Resistivity (HRR); (4) Cross-Borehole Radar (XBR); and (5) Cross-Borehole Seismic Tomography (XBS). Under a ''Tri-party Agreement'' with Federal and state regulators, the U.S. Department of Energy will remove wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) and other miscellaneous underground tanks for storage in the double-shell tank system. Waste retrieval methods are being considered that use very little, if any, liquid to dislodge, mobilize, and remove the wastes. As additional assurance of protection of the vadose zone beneath the SSTs, tank wastes and tank conditions may be aggressively monitored during retrieval operations by methods that are deployed outside the SSTs in the vadose zone.

  16. Results of a Demonstration Assessment of Passive System Reliability Utilizing the Reliability Method for Passive Systems (RMPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucknor, Matthew; Grabaskas, David; Brunett, Acacia; Grelle, Austin

    2015-04-26

    Advanced small modular reactor designs include many advantageous design features such as passively driven safety systems that are arguably more reliable and cost effective relative to conventional active systems. Despite their attractiveness, a reliability assessment of passive systems can be difficult using conventional reliability methods due to the nature of passive systems. Simple deviations in boundary conditions can induce functional failures in a passive system, and intermediate or unexpected operating modes can also occur. As part of an ongoing project, Argonne National Laboratory is investigating various methodologies to address passive system reliability. The Reliability Method for Passive Systems (RMPS), a systematic approach for examining reliability, is one technique chosen for this analysis. This methodology is combined with the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) approach to assess the reliability of a passive system and the impact of its associated uncertainties. For this demonstration problem, an integrated plant model of an advanced small modular pool-type sodium fast reactor with a passive reactor cavity cooling system is subjected to a station blackout using RELAP5-3D. This paper discusses important aspects of the reliability assessment, including deployment of the methodology, the uncertainty identification and quantification process, and identification of key risk metrics.

  17. Extracorporeal life support with left ventricular decompression-improved survival in severe cardiogenic shock: results from a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmack, Bastian; Seppelt, Philipp; Weymann, Alexander; Alt, Christina; Farag, Mina; Arif, Rawa; Doesch, Andreas O; Raake, Philip W; Kallenbach, Klaus; Mansur, Ashham; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Karck, Matthias; Ruhparwar, Arjang

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a life-saving procedure used in the treatment of severe cardiogenic shock. Within this retrospective single centre study, we examined our experience in this critically ill patient cohort to assess outcomes and clinical parameters by comparison of ECLS with or without selective left ventricular decompression. Between 2004 and 2014 we evaluated 48 adult patients with INTERMACS level 1 heart failure (age 49.7 ± 19.5 years), who received either central ECLS with (n = 20, 41.7%) or ECLS without (n = 28, 58.3%, including 10 peripheral ECLS) integrated left ventricular vent in our retrospective single centre trial. Follow up was 100% with a mean of 0.83 ± 1.85 years. Bridge to ventricular assist device was feasible in 29.2% (n = 14), bridge to transplant in 10.4% (n = 5) and bridge to recovery in 8.3% (n = 4). Overall 30-day survival was 37.5%, 6-month survival 27.1% and 1-year survival 25.0%. ECLS support with left ventricular decompression showed favourable 30-day survival compared to ECLS without left ventricular decompression (p = 0.034). Thirty-day as well as long-term survival did not differ between the subgroups (central ECLS with vent, ECLS without vent and peripheral ECLS without vent). Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age and gender revealed ECLS without vent as independent factor influencing 30-day survival. ECLS is an established therapy for patients in severe cardiogenic shock. Independent of the ECLS approach, 30-day mortality is still high but with superior 30-day survival for patients with ECLS and left ventricular venting. Moreover, by unloading the ventricle, left ventricular decompression may provide an important time window for recovery or further treatment, such as bridge to bridge or bridge to transplant.

  18. A school-based human papillomavirus vaccination program in barretos, Brazil: final results of a demonstrative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro Fregnani

    Full Text Available The implementation of a public HPV vaccination program in several developing countries, especially in Latin America, is a great challenge for health care specialists.To evaluate the uptake and the three-dose completion rates of a school-based HPV vaccination program in Barretos (Brazil.THE STUDY INCLUDED GIRLS WHO WERE ENROLLED IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS AND WHO REGULARLY ATTENDED THE SIXTH AND SEVENTH GRADES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL (MEAN AGE: 11.9 years. A meeting with the parents or guardians occurred approximately one week before the vaccination in order to explain the project and clarify the doubts. The quadrivalent vaccine was administered using the same schedule as in the product package (0-2-6 months. The school visits for regular vaccination occurred on previously scheduled dates. The vaccine was also made available at Barretos Cancer Hospital for the girls who could not be vaccinated on the day when the team visited the school.Among the potential candidates for vaccination (n = 1,574, the parents or guardians of 1,513 girls (96.1% responded to the invitation to participate in the study. A total of 1,389 parents or guardians agreed to participate in the program (acceptance rate = 91.8%. The main reason for refusing to participate in the vaccination program was fear of adverse events. The vaccine uptake rates for the first, second, and third doses were 87.5%, 86.3% and 85.0%, respectively. The three-dose completion rate was 97.2%.This demonstrative study achieved high rates of vaccination uptake and completion of three vaccine doses in children 10-16 years old from Brazil. The feasibility and success of an HPV vaccination program for adolescents in a developing country may depend on the integration between the public health and schooling systems.

  19. Tetranectin positive expression in tumour tissue leads to longer survival in Danish women with ovarian cancer. Results from the 'Malova' ovarian cancer study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeran, Mel C; Rask, Lene; Høgdall, Claus K

    2015-01-01

    of the disease. Using tissue arrays we analysed the expression levels in tissues from 166 women with borderline ovarian tumours (BOTs) and 592 women with ovarian cancer (OC). A panel of three antibodies was used for immunohistochemistry: a polyclonal and two monoclonal antibodies. Serum TN was measured using......The primary objective of this study was to analyse Tetranectin (TN) expression in tumour tissues and TN serum concentration in 758 women with epithelial ovarian tumours. The second was to evaluate, whether TN tissue expression levels correlate with clinico-pathological parameters and prognosis...... the polyclonal antibody A-371. Univariate survival analyses stratified for chemotherapy showed that positive tissue TN as demonstrated by the polyclonal antibody indicated a significantly longer overall survival (OS) (p = 0.0001) as well as cancer specific survival (CSS) (p

  20. Sustainable Permaculture systems demonstration in the high mountain desert region of New Mexico -- results of five years practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, V. [Apache Creek Ranch, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on five years of results in the Permaculture restoration of a mountain drylands ranch outside Santa Fe, New Mexico. Dramatic results have been produced in the areas of erosion control, pastureland restoration, wild species propagation, aquaculture, riparian zone (wetland) restoration, edible landscape design and installation methodologies. Recently completed work includes a grant-financed (US Fish and Wildlife Service Partners for Wildlife Program) replanting and redevelopment of the entire riparian zone of the ranch and the design and development of a trout-spawning pond system that is self contained and self-purifying, with circulation through a structured wetland provided by a photovoltaic pumping system. The paper presents the design philosophy, overall design strategy and significant details of specific strategies, projects, and systems.

  1. Sustainable permaculture systems demonstration in the high mountain desert region of New Mexico -- results of three years practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, V. [EarthLink, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This paper reports on three years of results in the Permaculture restoration of a mountain drylands ranch outside Santa Fe, New Mexico which receives less than 11 inches rainfall/year. Dramatic results have been produced in the areas of erosion control, pastureland restoration, wild species propagation, aquaculture, riparian zone (wetland) restoration, edible landscape design and installation methodologies. Additionally, significant work has been performed in the area of youth education and community development. Current work includes a grant-financed (US Fish and Wildlife Service ``Partners for Wildlife`` Program) replanting and redevelopment of the entire riparian zone of the ranch and the design and development of a trout-spawning pond system that is self contained and self-purifying, with circulation through a structured wetland provided by a photovoltaic pumping system. This paper presents the design philosophy, overall design strategy and significant details of specific strategies, projects, and systems.

  2. Instrumentation and First Results of the Reflected Solar Demonstration System for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkel, Joel; Thome, Kurtis; Hair, Jason; McAndrew, Brendan; Jennings, Don; Rabin, Douglas; Daw, Adrian; Lundsford, Allen

    2012-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission key goals include enabling observation of high accuracy long-term climate change trends, use of these observations to test and improve climate forecasts, and calibration of operational and research sensors. The spaceborne instrument suites include a reflected solar spectroradiometer, emitted infrared spectroradiometer, and radio occultation receivers. The requirement for the RS instrument is that derived reflectance must be traceable to Sl standards with an absolute uncertainty of instrument, and presents initial calibration and characterization methods and results. SOLARIS is an Offner spectrometer with two separate focal planes each with its own entrance aperture and grating covering spectral ranges of 320-640, 600-2300 nm over a full field-of-view of 10 degrees with 0.27 milliradian sampling. Results from laboratory measurements including use of integrating spheres, transfer radiometers and spectral standards combined with field-based solar and lunar acquisitions are presented. These results will be used to assess the accuracy and repeatability of the radiometric and spectral characteristics of SOLARIS, which will be presented against the sensor-level requirements addressed in the CLARREO RS instrument error budget.

  3. Mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark: Results from the Danish Lung Cancer Group 2000-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Green, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background In the 1990s outcomes in Danish lung cancer patients were poor compared with the other Nordic countries. The five-year survival was only about 5%, only 10% of patients were operated on and less than 60% received active surgical or oncologic treatment. This paper describes trends...... in mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. Methods The study population comprised 52 435 patients with a diagnosis of cancer of the trachea and the lung, primarily ascertained from the Danish Lung Cancer Register and grouped into three cohorts by year of diagnosis. The outcome...... for all strata by gender, comorbidity, stage and surgery status and was accompanied by corresponding improvements in both absolute and relative survival. Conclusions The mortality has been significantly declining and the prognosis correspondingly improving in lung cancer in Denmark since the turn...

  4. Survival and cause of death in multiple sclerosis: results from a 50-year follow-up in Western Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten Torkildsen, N; Lie, S A; Aarseth, J H; Nyland, H; Myhr, K M

    2008-11-01

    Survival time among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has varied considerably according to previous reports. Survival and cause of death were analyzed among all patients with MS (878) with onset of MS in Hordaland County, Western Norway during 1953-2003, of whom 198 were dead at follow-up on January 1, 2005. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and relative mortality ratios (RMRs) were calculated based on observed mortality in MS and expected mortality. Median survival from onset was 41 years versus 49 years in the corresponding population, and mortality (SMR) was 2.7-fold increased in MS. The median survival was 43 years among women and 36 years among men, but women had higher relative mortality, when compared with the corresponding population, than men (RMR = 1.40). The median survival time was 45 years among young-onset patients (21-30 years) and 23 years among older-onset patients (51-60 years), but young-onset patients had higher relative mortality than older-onset patients, as shown by a significant reduction by 10-year interval of age at onset (RMR = 0.65). Median survival from onset was longer (43 years) among relapsing-remitting MS than primary progressive MS ([PPMS]; 49 years), and the relative mortality was higher in the PPMS group, (RMR = 1.55). According to death certificates, 57% died from MS. Female patients and patients with young onset had longer median time to death but higher relative risk of dying compared with the corresponding population. PPMS had both shorter median time to death from onset and a higher relative risk of dying.

  5. [Demonstration of the impossibility of simultaneous Dupuytren and Destot fractures in the result of the car-pedestrian collision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusarov, A A; Fetisov, V A; Kucheryavets, Yu O

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the results of the commission forensic medical expertise undertaken to evaluate the possibility of severe injury to the ankle joint resulting from the road traffic accident as exemplified by the collision of a VAS 21043 car moving backward with a pedestrian. It was shown that the injury to the victim's right lower leg included the tear of the right crural deltoid ligament, the open communicated fracture of the lower third of fibular diaphysis with the displacement of the distal fragment, the lacerated wound in the lower third of the right leg, the rupture of distal tibiofibular synedesmosis, the closed communicated fracture of the posterior edge of the tibia without displacement, and outward subluxation of the right foot. According to the classification accepted in orthopedics , this variant of the injury to the ankle joint is a combination of the classical «complete» Dupuytren fracture and the Destot-type fracture. The analysis of the mechanism underlying formation of such injury has shown that it was a consequence of the indirect injurious action in the absence of the primary impact without the car running over the victim's leg.

  6. Results of a Study Demonstrating Automated Techniques for Waveform Correlation Applied to Regional Monitoring of Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundermier, A.; Slinkard, M.; Perry, J.; Schaff, D. P.; Young, C. J.; Richards, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    Waveform correlation techniques have proven effectiveness detecting repeated events from large aftershock sequences; however, application for monitoring a large region over a long time period has yet to be adequately explored. We applied waveform correlation to six years of continuous waveform data at eleven stations spread through Eastern Asia, using automatically generated templates from historical archives going back to the time of station installation, in some cases as far back as 1986. Our study region includes the countries of China, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and parts of Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam. We used nine China Digital Network (CD/IC) and two other available stations which had continuous coverage from 2006-2012; this yielded 11 stations which spanned 40 degrees in latitude and 70 degrees in longitude with an average nearest-neighbor distance between stations of 842 km. To declare a detected event, we require coincident correlations at 2 or more stations, so station spacing has a strong effect on our detection threshold. We compare our detection results to the ISC catalog to analyze the effectiveness and challenges associated with applying waveform correlation on a broad regional and multi-year scale. Our best results were obtained in the vicinity of the 2008 Wenchuan aftershock sequence where each station had two other stations within a 1000 km radius. We include analysis of the impact of network geometry, historical template library span and size, and template phase to provide direction for future regional studies using waveform correlation.

  7. Effect of mechanical site preparation treatments on oak survival in a retired field afforestation effort -- first-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Self; Andrew W. Ezell; Damon B. Hollis; Derek. Alkire

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical site preparation is frequently proposed to alleviate poor soil conditions when afforesting retired agricultural fields. Without management of soil problems, oak seedlings planted in these areas may exhibit poor survival. While mechanical site preparation methods currently employed in hardwood afforestation are proven, there is a substantial void in research...

  8. Influence of the experience of operator and assistant on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations: two-year results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Opinya, G.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The objective of the study was to determine the influence of the experience of the operator and the assistant on the survival rate of proximal ART- restorations after 2 years when placed using two methods of tooth-isolation and three glass ionomer cement-brands. STUDY DESIGN: A clinical

  9. Survival in Malnourished Older Patients Receiving Post-Discharge Nutritional Support; Long-Term Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelemaat, F; van Keeken, S; Langius, J A E; de van der Schueren, M A E; Thijs, A; Bosmans, J E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous analyses have shown that a post-discharge individualized nutritional intervention had positive effects on body weight, lean body mass, functional limitations and fall incidents in malnourished older patients. However, the impact of this intervention on survival has not yet been

  10. Differences in management of older women influence breast cancer survival: results from a population-based database in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Eaker

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several reports have shown that less aggressive patterns of diagnostic activity and care are provided to elderly breast carcinoma patients. We sought to investigate whether differences in the management of older women with breast cancer are associated with survival. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In an observational study using a population-based clinical breast cancer register of one health-care region in Sweden, we identified 9,059 women aged 50-84 y diagnosed with primary breast cancer between 1992 and 2002. The 5-y relative survival ratio was estimated for patients classified by age group, diagnostic activity, tumor characteristics, and treatment. The 5-y relative survival for breast cancer patients was lower (up to 13% in women 70-84 y of age compared to women aged 50-69 y, and the difference was most pronounced in stage IIB-III and in the unstaged. Significant differences in disease management were found, as older women had larger tumors, had fewer nodes examined, and did not receive treatment by radiotherapy or by chemotherapy as often as the younger women. Adjustment for diagnostic activity, tumor characteristics, and treatment diminished the relative excess mortality in stages III and in the unstaged, whereas the excess mortality was only marginally affected in stage IIB. CONCLUSIONS: Less diagnostic activity, less aggressive treatment, and later diagnosis in older women are associated with poorer survival. The large differences in treatment of older women are difficult to explain by co-morbidity alone.

  11. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS FOR SURVIVAL OF MEN1 PATIENTS WITH DUODENOPANCREATIC TUMORS METASTATIC TO THE LIVER : RESULTS FROM THE DMSG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conemans, Elfi B.; Nell, Sjoerd; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; de Herder, Wouter W.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Hermus, Ad R.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Drent, Madeleine L.; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    Objective: Duodenopancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (DP-NETs) develop in a majority of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and are the leading cause of death. Overall survival (OS) and prognostic factors for patients with liver metastases from DP-NETs are not known. Methods: This

  12. Pristimerin demonstrates anticancer potential in colorectal cancer cells by inducing G1 phase arrest and apoptosis and suppressing various pro-survival signaling proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Bashir A; Guerram, Mounia; Hassan, Hozeifa M; Hamdi, Aida M; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Jiang, Zhen-Zhou

    2016-02-01

    Pristimerin is a naturally occurring triterpenoid that has a cytotoxic effect on several cancer cell lines. However, the cytotoxic effects of pristimerin as well as its molecular mechanisms of action against colorectal cancer have never been explored. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer potential of pristimerin, and examined the different signaling pathways affected by its action in three colon cancer cell lines namely HCT-116, COLO-205 and SW-620. Pristimerin was found to possess potent cytotoxic and proliferation inhibitory effects against these cell lines. Cell cycle analysis revealed G1 phase arrest, which was strongly associated with decreased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinases (cdk4 and cdk6) with concomitant induction of p21. Pristimerin also induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Cell plasma membrane alterations studied by Annexin V/PI double staining, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), measurements of caspase activities and the inhibitory effect of Z-VAD-FMK (a caspase inhibitor) confirmed the apoptotic effect of pristimerin. Moreover, western blot data showed that apoptotic induction was associated with activated caspase-3 and -8, PARP-1 cleavage and modulation of the expression levels of Bcl-2 family proteins. Additionally, pristimerin treatment downregulated the phosphorylated forms of EGFR and HER2 proteins, and subsequently caused a decrease in the phosphorylated forms of Erk1/2, Akt, mTOR and NF-κB proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that pristimerin may have potential as a new targeting therapeutic strategy for the treatment of colon cancer.

  13. Survival of the Scandinavian total ankle replacement (STAR): results of ten to nineteen years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigg, Arno; Germann, Ursula; Huber, Martin; Horisberger, Monika

    2017-07-26

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate survival and clinical outcome of the Scandinavian total ankle replacement (STAR) prosthesis after a minimum of ten years up to a maximum of 19 years. Fifty STAR prostheses in 46 patients with end stage ankle osteoarthritis operated between 1996 and 2006 by the same surgeon (MH) were included. Minimal follow-up was ten years (median 14.6 years, 95% confidence interval [CI] 12.9-16.4). Clinical (Kofoed score) and radiological assessments were taken before the operation and at one, ten (+2), and 16 (±3) years after implantation. The primary endpoint was defined as exchange of the whole prosthesis or conversion to arthrodesis (def. 1), exchange of at least one metallic component (def. 2), or exchange of any component including the inlay (due to breakage or wear) (def. 3). Survival was estimated according to Kaplan-Meier. Further reoperations related to STAR were also recorded. The ten year survival rate was (def. 1) 94% (CI 82-98%), (def. 2) 90% (CI, 77-96%), and (def. 3) 78% (CI 64-87%). The 19-year survival rate was (def. 1) 91% (CI 78-97%), (def. 2) 75% (CI 53-88%), and (def. 3) 55% (CI 34-71%). Considering any re-operations related to STAR, 52% (26/50) of prostheses were affected by re-operations. Mean pre-operative Kofoed score was 49, which improved to 84 after one year (n = 50), to 90 after ten years (n = 46), and to 89 after 16 years (n = 28). The survival rate for def. 1 and 2 was high. However, re-operations occurred in 52% of all STAR prosthesis. Retrospective cohort study, evidence Level 4.

  14. Testing Romanian seed sources of Norway spruce (Picea abies: results on growth traits and survival at age 30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Budeanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth traits and survival rate were evaluated in two field trialsconsisting of 33 provenances (seed stands spread across the entire natural distribution range of Norway spruce in Romania. Total tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH and survival rate were measured at 30 years after planting. Both growth and adaptation traits show substantial genetic variation among the tested seed stands. The amplitude of variation depends markedly on trait and testing site. This fact suggests that the best performing seed stands for growth and adaptation traits at each testing site can be selected. Two groups of valuable populations from Romanian Carpathians - the Northern and Western part (Apuseni Mountains - were identified. Survival rate was negatively correlated with growth traits, the average values in the two field trials were 68% and 70%. By analyzing growth and adaptation traits together with stem and wood qualitative traits, the best performing populations will be considered as tested seed sourcesand the forest reproductive material they can provide will be recommended for use in the regions of provenance where the two field trials are located.

  15. Mammographic Density Reduction as a Prognostic Marker for Postmenopausal Breast Cancer: Results Using a Joint Longitudinal-Survival Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Therese M-L; Crowther, Michael J; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Humphreys, Keith

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have linked reductions in mammographic density after a breast cancer diagnosis to an improved prognosis. These studies focused on short-term change, using a 2-stage process, treating estimated change as a fixed covariate in a survival model. We propose the use of a joint longitudinal-survival model. This enables us to model long-term trends in density while accounting for dropout as well as for measurement error. We studied the change in mammographic density after a breast cancer diagnosis and its association with prognosis (measured by cause-specific mortality), overall and with respect to hormone replacement therapy and tamoxifen treatment. We included 1,740 women aged 50-74 years, diagnosed with breast cancer in Sweden during 1993-1995, with follow-up until 2008. They had a total of 6,317 mammographic density measures available from the first 5 years of follow-up, including baseline measures. We found that the impact of the withdrawal of hormone replacement therapy on density reduction was larger than that of tamoxifen treatment. Unlike previous studies, we found that there was an association between density reduction and survival, both for tamoxifen-treated women and women who were not treated with tamoxifen. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  16. Survival and success rates of immediately and early loaded implants: 12-month results from a multicentric randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Tommaso; Garuti, Giovanna; Guazzi, Paolo; Tarabini, Luciano; Forabosco, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Our objective was to compare survival and peri-implant bone levels of immediately nonocclusally vs early loaded implants in partially edentulous patients up to 12 months after implant placement. Eighty patients (inclusion criteria: general good health, good oral hygiene, 30-65 years old; exclusion criteria: head and neck irradiation/cancer, pregnancy, uncontrolled diabetes, substance abuse, bruxism, lack of opposing occluding dentition, smokers >10 cigarettes/day, need for bone augmentation procedures) were selected in 5 Italian study centers and randomized into 2 groups: 40 patients in the immediately loaded group (minimal insertion torque 30 Ncm) and 40 patients in the early loaded group. Immediately loaded implants were provided with nonoccluding temporary restorations. Final restorations were provided 2 months later. Early loaded implants were provided with a definitive restoration after 2 months. Peri-implant bone resorption was evaluated radiographically with software (ImageJ 1.42). No dropout occurred. Both groups gradually lost peri-implant bone. After 12 months, patients of both groups lost an average of 0.4 mm of peri-implant bone. There were no statistically significant differences (evaluated with t test) between the 2 loading strategies for peri-implant bone level changes at 2 (P = .6730), 6 (P = .6613) and 12 (P = .5957) months or for survival rates (100% in both groups). If adequate primary stability is achieved, immediate loading of dental implants can provide similar success rates, survival rates, and peri-implant bone resorption as compared with early loading, as evaluated in the present study.

  17. Risk of Early Onset Substance Use among Students with and without Mild Academic Disabilities: Results of a Discrete-Time Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepper, Annelies; Koning, Ina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Monshouwer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the age of onset of substance use among 536 students with mild academic disabilities and 906 students without academic disabilities, and the extent to which emotional, conduct, and hyperactivity problems explain the differences between these two groups. Using discrete-time survival analysis, the results of this study showed…

  18. Adjuvant Sunitinib for High-risk Renal Cell Carcinoma After Nephrectomy: Subgroup Analyses and Updated Overall Survival Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motzer, Robert J; Ravaud, Alain; Patard, Jean-Jacques

    2018-01-01

    the relationship between baseline factors and DFS, pattern of recurrence, and updated overall survival (OS). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data for 615 patients randomized to sunitinib (n=309) or placebo (n=306) in the S-TRAC trial. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Subgroup DFS analyses...... by baseline risk factors were conducted using a Cox proportional hazards model. Baseline risk factors included: modified University of California Los Angeles integrated staging system criteria, age, gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS), weight, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio...

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the following chemistry lecture demonstrations and experiments: (1) a versatile kinetic demonstration; (2) the Bakelite Demonstration; (3) applying Beer's law; and (4) entropy calculations. (HM)

  20. Post-diagnosis hemoglobin change associates with overall survival of multiple malignancies - results from a 14-year hospital-based cohort of lung, breast, colorectal, and liver cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shaogui; Lai, Yinzhi; Myers, Ronald E; Li, Bingshan; Palazzo, Juan P; Burkart, Ashlie L; Chen, Guokai; Xing, Jinliang; Yang, Hushan

    2013-07-10

    Anemia refers to low hemoglobin (Hb) level and is a risk factor of cancer patient survival. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network recently suggested that post-diagnosis Hb change, regardless of baseline Hb level, indicates the potential presence of anemia. However, there is no epidemiological study evaluating whether Hb change has direct prognostic values for cancer patients at the population level. We identified 6675 patients with a diagnosis of primary lung, breast, colorectal, or liver cancer who visited the Kimmel Cancer Center at the Thomas Jefferson University from 1998 to 2011. All patients had at least two Hb measurements within the first six months after diagnosis. We analyzed the main, dose-dependent, and time-dependent effects of Hb changes on patient survival. Compared to patients with a low Hb change (|∆Hb|≤2.6), those having a |∆Hb|>2.6 exhibited a significantly shorter survival (hazard ratio=1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.31-1.50, P=4.5 × 10(-22), Plog rank=1.6 × 10(-39)). This association remained significant across the four cancer types. Bootstrap resampling validated these findings 100% of the time with P<0.01 in all patients and in patients of individual cancers. The association exhibited an apparent U-shape dose-dependent pattern. Time-dependent modeling demonstrated that the effect of Hb change on the survival of the overall patient population persisted for approximately 4.5 years after diagnosis. Post-diagnosis Hb change associates with the survival of multiple cancers and may have clinical values in tailoring anti-anemia treatments. Because Hb level is frequently measured during cancer treatment, Hb changes may be a potentially important variable in building cancer prognosis models.

  1. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport- Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Fuel Performance Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geelhood, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bignell, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flores, Gregg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Jy-An [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sanborn, Scott [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Spears, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Klymyshyn, Nick [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This document addresses Oak Ridge National Laboratory milestone M2FT-13OR0822015 Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Nuclear Fuel Performance Characterization. This report provides results of the initial demonstration of the modeling capability developed to perform preliminary deterministic evaluations of moderate-to-high burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) mechanical performance under normal conditions of storage (NCS) and normal conditions of transport (NCT) conditions. This report also provides results from the sensitivity studies that have been performed. Finally, discussion on the long-term goals and objectives of this initiative are provided.

  2. The role of early magnetic resonance imaging in predicting survival on bevacizumab for recurrent glioblastoma: Results from a prospective clinical trial (CABARET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Kathryn M; Phal, Pramit M; Fitt, Greg; Goh, Christine; Nowak, Anna K; Rosenthal, Mark A; Simes, John; Barnes, Elizabeth H; Sawkins, Kate; Cher, Lawrence M; Hovey, Elizabeth J; Wheeler, Helen

    2017-09-15

    Bevacizumab has been associated with prolonged progression-free survival for patients with recurrent glioblastoma; however, not all derive a benefit. An early indicator of efficacy or futility may allow early discontinuation for nonresponders. This study prospectively assessed the role of early magnetic resonance imaging (eMRI) and its correlation with subsequent routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results and survival. Patients were part of a randomized phase 2 clinical trial (CABARET) comparing bevacizumab with bevacizumab plus carboplatin for recurrent glioblastoma. eMRI was conducted after 4 weeks in the trial (after 2 treatments with bevacizumab [10 mg/kg every 2 weeks]). The results were compared with the results of the subsequent 8-week MRI standard. For 119 of 122 patients, eMRI was available, and 111 had subsequent MRI for comparison. Thirty-six (30%) had an early radiological response, and 17 (14%) had progressive disease. The concordance between eMRI and 8-week MRI was moderate (κ = 0.56), with most providing the same result (n = 79 [71%]). There was strong evidence that progression-free survival and overall survival were predicted by the eMRI response (both P values < .001). The median survival was 8.6 months for an eMRI response, 6.6 months for stable disease, and 3.7 months for progressive disease; the hazard ratio (progressive disease vs stable disease) was 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.9-6.0). Landmark analyses showed that eMRI progression was a strong predictor of mortality independent of other potential baseline predictors. In this study, early progression on MRI appears to be a robust marker of a poor prognosis for patients on bevacizumab. Cancer 2017;123:3576-82. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  3. Breast Milk from Smokers Contains Less Cholesterol and Protein and Smaller Size of Apolipoprotein A-I Resulting in Lower Zebrafish Embryo Survivability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Suk-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    To determine the quality of breast milk (BM), we compared the functions of BM from ex-smokers and nonsmokers. We analyzed the contents of lipids, glucose, and protein in BM from ex-smokers (10 cigarettes/day for 13 ± 3 years) as well as infant formula. Nonsmokers' BM showed 2.4- and 1.4-fold higher cholesterol and protein contents, respectively, than BM from smokers. Infant formula contained almost no cholesterol, but did show remarkably higher glucose and triglyceride levels than BM. Microinjection of BM (50 nL) from nonsmokers and smokers into zebrafish embryos resulted in 59% and 44% survival, respectively, whereas formula injection resulted in 31% survival. The higher cholesterol and protein contents of BM were directly correlated with higher embryo survivability, suggesting that cholesterol content is directly and critically associated with growth of neonate infants. Smokers' BM contained smaller-sized apolipoproteinA-I (apoA-I) (24.4 ± 0.2 kDa) than BM from nonsmokers (26.7 ± 0.4 kDa), suggesting that putative modification and cleavage occurred in apoA-I. BM containing higher molecular weight apoA-I resulted in higher embryo survivability. Smoking before pregnancy can affect the composition and quality of BM, resulting in almost complete loss of cholesterol and protein, especially lactoferrin, lactalbumin, and apoA-I, accompanied by proteolytic degradation. These impairment effects of BM are associated with elevation of oxidative stress and lower embryo survivability.

  4. Marital status and colon cancer outcomes in US Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registries: does marriage affect cancer survival by gender and stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Wilson, Sven E; Stewart, David B; Hollenbeak, Christopher S

    2011-10-01

    Marital status has been associated with outcomes in several cancer sites including breast cancer in the literature, but little is known about colon cancer, the fourth most common cancer in the US. A total of 127,753 patients with colon cancer were identified who were diagnosed between 1992 and 2006 in the US Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. Marital status consisted of married, single, separated/divorced and widowed. Chi-square tests were used to examine the association between marital status and other variables. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival curves. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to estimate the effect of marital status on survival. Married patients were more likely to be diagnosed at an earlier stage (and for men also at an older age) compared with single and separated/divorced patients, and more likely to receive surgical treatment than all other marital groups (all pfive-year survival rate for the single was six percentage points lower than the married for both men and women. After controlling for age, race, cancer stage and surgery receipt, married patients had a significantly lower risk of death from cancer (for men, HR: 0.86, CI: 0.82-0.90; for women, HR: 0.87, CI: 0.83-0.91) compared with the single. Within the same cancer stage, the survival differences between the single and the married were strongest for localized and regional stages, which had overall middle-range survival rates compared to in situ or distant stage so that support from marriage could make a big difference. Marriage was associated with better outcomes of colon cancer for both men and women, and being single was associated with lower survival rate from colon cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CD14+ cells from peripheral blood positively regulate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell survival resulting in increased erythroid yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heideveld, Esther; Masiello, Francesca; Marra, Manuela; Esteghamat, Fatemehsadat; Yağcı, Nurcan; von Lindern, Marieke; Migliaccio, Anna Rita F.; van den Akker, Emile

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of erythroblasts from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells is 4- to 15-fold more efficient than that of CD34+ cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, purified CD34+ and CD34− populations from blood do not reconstitute this erythroid yield, suggesting a role for feeder cells present in blood mononuclear cells that increase hematopoietic output. Immunodepleting peripheral blood mononuclear cells for CD14+ cells reduced hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell expansion. Conversely, the yield was increased upon co-culture of CD34+ cells with CD14+ cells (full contact or transwell assays) or CD34+ cells re-constituted in conditioned medium from CD14+ cells. In particular, CD14++CD16+ intermediate monocytes/macrophages enhanced erythroblast outgrowth from CD34+ cells. No effect of CD14+ cells on erythroblasts themselves was observed. However, 2 days of co-culturing CD34+ and CD14+ cells increased CD34+ cell numbers and colony-forming units 5-fold. Proliferation assays suggested that CD14+ cells sustain CD34+ cell survival but not proliferation. These data identify previously unrecognized erythroid and non-erythroid CD34− and CD34+ populations in blood that contribute to the erythroid yield. A flow cytometry panel containing CD34/CD36 can be used to follow specific stages during CD34+ differentiation to erythroblasts. We have shown modulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell survival by CD14+ cells present in peripheral blood mononuclear cells which can also be found near specific hematopoietic niches in the bone marrow. PMID:26294724

  6. Transplantation and survival of mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy of hearing-impaired guinea pigs: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, L C M; Lezirovitz, K; Zanatta, D B; Strauss, B E; Mingroni-Netto, R C; Oiticica, J; Haddad, L A; Bento, R F

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, damage to sensory receptor cells (hair cells) of the inner ear results in permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we investigated whether postnatal mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells (mIESCs) are viable after transplantation into the basal turns of neomycin-injured guinea pig cochleas. We also examined the effects of mIESC transplantation on auditory functions. Eight adult female Cavia porcellus guinea pigs (250-350 g) were deafened by intratympanic neomycin delivery. After 7 days, the animals were randomly divided in two groups. The study group (n=4) received transplantation of LacZ-positive mIESCs in culture medium into the scala tympani. The control group (n=4) received culture medium only. At 2 weeks after transplantation, functional analyses were performed by auditory brainstem response measurement, and the animals were sacrificed. The presence of mIESCs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of sections of the cochlea from the study group. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. Intratympanic neomycin delivery damaged hair cells and increased auditory thresholds prior to cell transplantation. There were no significant differences between auditory brainstem thresholds before and after transplantation in individual guinea pigs. Some mIESCs were observed in all scalae of the basal turns of the injured cochleas, and a proportion of these cells expressed the hair cell marker myosin VIIa. Some transplanted mIESCs engrafted in the cochlear basilar membrane. Our study demonstrates that transplanted cells survived and engrafted in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy.

  7. Transplantation and survival of mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy of hearing-impaired guinea pigs: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.M. Barboza Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, damage to sensory receptor cells (hair cells of the inner ear results in permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we investigated whether postnatal mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells (mIESCs are viable after transplantation into the basal turns of neomycin-injured guinea pig cochleas. We also examined the effects of mIESC transplantation on auditory functions. Eight adult female Cavia porcellus guinea pigs (250-350g were deafened by intratympanic neomycin delivery. After 7 days, the animals were randomly divided in two groups. The study group (n=4 received transplantation of LacZ-positive mIESCs in culture medium into the scala tympani. The control group (n=4 received culture medium only. At 2 weeks after transplantation, functional analyses were performed by auditory brainstem response measurement, and the animals were sacrificed. The presence of mIESCs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of sections of the cochlea from the study group. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. Intratympanic neomycin delivery damaged hair cells and increased auditory thresholds prior to cell transplantation. There were no significant differences between auditory brainstem thresholds before and after transplantation in individual guinea pigs. Some mIESCs were observed in all scalae of the basal turns of the injured cochleas, and a proportion of these cells expressed the hair cell marker myosin VIIa. Some transplanted mIESCs engrafted in the cochlear basilar membrane. Our study demonstrates that transplanted cells survived and engrafted in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy.

  8. The Impact of Nursing Home Pay-for-Performance on Quality and Medicare Spending: Results from the Nursing Home Value-Based Purchasing Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, David C; Stevenson, David G; Caudry, Daryl J; O'Malley, A James; Green, Lisa H; Doherty, Julia A; Frank, Richard G

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of the Nursing Home Value-Based Purchasing demonstration on quality of care and Medicare spending. Administrative and qualitative data from Arizona, New York, and Wisconsin nursing homes over the base-year (2008-2009) and 3-year (2009-2012) demonstration period. Nursing homes were randomized to the intervention in New York, while the comparison facilities were constructed via propensity score matching in Arizona and Wisconsin. We used a difference-in-difference analysis to compare outcomes across the base-year relative to outcomes in each of the three demonstration years. To provide context and assist with interpretation of results, we also interviewed staff members at participating facilities. Medicare savings were observed in Arizona in the first year only and Wisconsin for the first 2 years; no savings were observed in New York. The demonstration did not systematically impact any of the quality measures. Discussions with nursing home administrators suggested that facilities made few, if any, changes in response to the demonstration, leading us to conclude that the observed savings likely reflected regression to the mean rather than true savings. The Federal nursing home pay-for-performance demonstration had little impact on quality or Medicare spending. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  9. Reflectance Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Presents a demonstration in which a mirror "disappears" upon rotation. The author has used the demonstration with students from fourth grade up through college. Suggestions are given for making the demonstration into a permanent hallway display. (MVL)

  10. Gender and survival in patients with heart failure: interactions with diabetes and aetiology. Results from the MAGGIC individual patient meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sellés, Manuel; Doughty, Robert N; Poppe, Katrina; Whalley, Gillian A; Earle, Nikki; Tribouilloy, Christophe; McMurray, John J V; Swedberg, Karl; Køber, Lars; Berry, Colin; Squire, Iain

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gender and survival of patients with heart failure, using data from both randomized trials and observational studies, and the relative contribution of age, left ventricular systolic function, aetiology, and diabetes to differences in prognosis between men and women. Data from 31 studies (41 949 patients; 28 052 men, 13 897 women) from the Meta-Analysis Global Group In Chronic Heart Failure (MAGGIC) individual patient meta-analysis were used. We performed survival analysis to assess the association of gender with mortality, adjusting for predictors of mortality, including age, reduced or preserved ejection fraction (EF), and ischaemic or non-ischaemic aetiology. Women were older [70.5 ( standard deviation 12.1) vs. 65.6 (standard deviation 11.6) years], more likely to have a history of hypertension (49.9% vs. 40.0%), and less likely to have a history of ischaemic heart disease (46.3% vs. 58.7%) and reduced EF (62.6% vs. 81.6%) compared with men. During 3 years follow-up, 3521 (25%) women and 7232 (26%) men died. After adjustment, male gender was an independent predictor of mortality, and the better prognosis associated with female gender was more marked in patients with heart failure of non-ischaemic, compared with ischaemic, aetiology (P-value for interaction = 0.03) and in patients without, compared with those with, diabetes (P-value for interaction <0.0001). This large, individual patient data meta-analysis has demonstrated that survival is better for women with heart failure compared with men, irrespective of EF. This survival benefit is slightly more marked in non-ischaemic heart failure but is attenuated by concomitant diabetes.

  11. Benefits from flywheel energy storage for area regulation in California - demonstration results : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)

    2009-10-01

    This report documents a high-level analysis of the benefit and cost for flywheel energy storage used to provide area regulation for the electricity supply and transmission system in California. Area regulation is an 'ancillary service' needed for a reliable and stable regional electricity grid. The analysis was based on results from a demonstration, in California, of flywheel energy storage developed by Beacon Power Corporation (the system's manufacturer). Demonstrated was flywheel storage systems ability to provide 'rapid-response' regulation. Flywheel storage output can be varied much more rapidly than the output from conventional regulation sources, making flywheels more attractive than conventional regulation resources. The performance of the flywheel storage system demonstrated was generally consistent with requirements for a possible new class of regulation resources - 'rapid-response' energy-storage-based regulation - in California. In short, it was demonstrated that Beacon Power Corporation's flywheel system follows a rapidly changing control signal (the ACE, which changes every four seconds). Based on the results and on expected plant cost and performance, the Beacon Power flywheel storage system has a good chance of being a financially viable regulation resource. Results indicate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.5 to 1.8 using what may be somewhat conservative assumptions. A benefit/cost ratio of one indicates that, based on the financial assumptions used, the investment's financial returns just meet the investors target.

  12. Overall survival and final efficacy and safety results from a Japanese phase II study of axitinib in cytokine-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Masatoshi; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Tomita, Yoshihiko; Kanayama, Hiroomi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Kamei, Yoichi; Fujii, Yosuke; Umeyama, Yoshiko; Ozono, Seiichiro; Naito, Seiji; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    In an open-label, multicenter phase II study of Japanese patients with cytokine-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma, axitinib showed substantial antitumor activity with an acceptable safety profile. Here, we report overall survival and updated efficacy and safety results. Sixty-four Japanese patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma following prior therapy with cytokines were treated with axitinib at a starting dose of 5 mg b.i.d. Following median treatment duration of 14.2 months, median overall survival was 37.3 months (95% CI, 28.6–49.9). The objective response rate, the primary endpoint of the study, was 51.6% (95% CI, 38.7–64.2); the median duration of response, 11.1 months (95% CI, 8.2–13.7); and the median progression-free survival was 11.0 months (95% CI, 9.2–12.0), assessed by the independent review committee. Common treatment-related all-grade adverse events were hypertension (88%), hand-foot syndrome (75%), diarrhea (66%), proteinuria (63%), fatigue (55%) and dysphonia (53%). In an exploratory analysis, median overall survival was found to be significantly longer in patients who had greater decreases in plasma levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 during the first cycle of treatment. In conclusion, the present study showed axitinib to be effective, and toxicities with long-term treatment were generally controllable with axitinib dose modification and/or standard medications in these Japanese patients. Some frequently reported adverse events warrant close monitoring and management. Changes in the plasma levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 may be used as a prognostic factor for overall survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma following axitinib treatment. This study is registered at http://ClinicalTrial.gov (identifier NCT00569946). PMID:25283266

  13. Conditional survival in pediatric malignancies: analysis of data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Ann C; Yong, Jian; Dietz, Andrew C; Kreiter, Erin; Yasui, Yutaka; Bleyer, Archie; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Long-term survivors of pediatric cancer are at risk of life-threatening late effects of their cancer. Previous studies have shown excesses in long-term mortality within high-risk groups defined by demographic and treatment characteristics. To investigate conditional survival in a pediatric cancer population, the authors performed an analysis of conditional survival in the original Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database registry. The overall probability of death for patients at 5 years and 10 years after they survived 5, 10, 15, and 20 years since cancer diagnosis and cause-specific death in 10 years for 5-year survivors were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Among patients in the CCSS and SEER cohorts who were alive 5 years after their cancer diagnosis, within each diagnosis group at least 92% were alive in the subsequent 5 years, except for patients with leukemia, of whom only 88% of 5-year survivors remained alive in the subsequent 5 years. The probability of all-cause mortality in the next 10 years among patients who survived at least 5 years after diagnosis was 8.8% in CCSS and 10.6% in SEER, approximately 75% of which was due to neoplasms as the cause of death. The risk of death among survivors of pediatric cancer in 10 years can vary between diagnosis groups by at most 12%, even up to 20 years after diagnosis. This information is clinically significant when counseling patients regarding their conditional survival, particularly when survivors are seen in long-term follow-up. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  14. Long-term survival results of a randomized trial comparing gemcitabine/cisplatin and methotrexate/vinblastine/doxorubicin/cisplatin in patients with locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, J T; von der Maase, H; Sengeløv, L

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare long-term survival in patients with locally advanced and metastatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urothelium treated with gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GC) or methotrexate/vinblastine/doxorubicin/cisplatin (MVAC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Efficacy data from a large....... These results strengthen the role of GC as a standard of care in patients with locally advanced and metastatic transitional-cell carcinoma (TCC)....

  15. Alcohol use at time of injury and survival following traumatic brain injury: results from the National Trauma Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiung M; Yi, Hsiao-Ye; Yoon, Young-Hee; Dong, Chuanhui

    2012-07-01

    Premised on biological evidence from animal research, recent clinical studies have, for the most part, concluded that elevated blood alcohol concentration levels are independently associated with higher survival or decreased mortality in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aims to provide some counterevidence to this claim and to further future investigations. Incident data were drawn from the largest U.S. trauma registry, the National Trauma Data Bank, for emergency department admission years 2002-2006. TBI was identified according to the National Trauma Data Bank's definition using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), codes. To eliminate confounding, the exact matching method was used to match alcohol-positive with alcohol-negative incidents on sex, age, race/ethnicity, and facility. Logistic regression compared in-hospital mortality between 44,043 alcohol-positive and 59,817 matched alcohol-negative TBI incidents, with and without causes and intents of TBI and Injury Severity Score as covariates. A sensitivity analysis was performed within a subsample of isolated moderate to severe TBI incidents. Alcohol use at the time of injury was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk for TBI. Including varied causes and intents of TBI and Injury Severity Score as potential confounders in the regression model explained away the statistical significance of the seemingly protective effect of alcohol against TBI mortality for all TBIs and for isolated moderate to severe TBIs. The null finding shows that the purported reduction in TBI mortality attributed to positive blood alcohol likely is attributable to residual confounding. Accordingly, the risk of TBI associated with alcohol use should not be overlooked.

  16. Patterns of care and survival outcomes after treatment for uveal melanoma in the post-coms era (2004-2013: a surveillance, epidemiology, and end results analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan James Rao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS established modern treatment recommendations for uveal melanoma. We aim to evaluate patterns of care and survival outcomes in the time after COMS. Material and methods : The retrospective study population includes 2,611 patients in the SEER database treated for uveal melanoma between 2004-2013. Patients stage were T1-4N0M0. Data analyzed included age, clinical stage, tumor size, race, and treatment. Treatments included enucleation (EN and globe preserving therapy (GPT, which consisted of limited surgical resection or ablation (LSRA, external beam radiation (EBRT, or brachytherapy (BT. Patients treated with radiation may receive radiation therapy alone (RTA or radiation therapy and supplemental laser therapy (RT+SLT. We evaluated disease specific survival (DSS and overall survival (OS using log-rank statistics, and Cox univariate and multivariate analysis. Results : The median follow-up was 44 months. Treatment strategy was EN in 538 (20.6% patients, LSRA in 80 (3.1%, EBRT in 609 (23.3%, and BT in 1,384 (53.0%. 1,876 patients received RTA and 117 received RT+SLT. Enucleation was associated with inferior DSS and OS compared to GPT in multivariate analysis (MVA (p < 0.01. Limited surgical resection or ablation and radiation had similar DSS and OS. Brachytherapy and EBRT had similar DSS and OS. Radiation therapy and supplemental laser therapy was associated with improved DSS compared to RTA in UVA (p = 0.03, but not MVA. The 5-year DSS for enucleation, RTA, and RT+SLT were 66.7%, 87.0%, and 94.7% (p < 0.01, respectively. Conclusions : Globe preserving treatments such as limited surgery or radiation are commonly utilized alternatives to enucleation, and resulted in favorable survival outcomes. Additional research is required to compare the outcomes of the various globe preserving treatment strategies.

  17. Which is the Role of Pneumonectomy in the Era of Parenchymal-Sparing Procedures? Early/Long-Term Survival and Functional Results of a Single-Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janet-Vendroux, Aurélie; Loi, Mauro; Bobbio, Antonio; Lococo, Filippo; Lupo, Audrey; Ledinot, Pauline; Magdeleinat, Pierre; Roche, Nicolas; Damotte, Diane; Regnard, Jean-François; Alifano, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Despite the increasing adoption of parenchymal-sparing procedures, pneumonectomy is still necessary in several pleural and pulmonary (benign or malignant) diseases. We reviewed clinical data of a large cohort of patients treated by pneumonectomy with the aim of better define its impact on early and long-term results. Clinical and pathological characteristics of all consecutive patients treated by pneumonectomy between January 2005 and May 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty- and 90-day mortality, as well as long-term survival was assessed. Factors associated to long-term survival were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Evaluation of quality of life was carried out by a standard questionnaire (SF-12) administrated by phone to patients surviving beyond 1 year. A total of 398 patients (293 men; mean age 61 ± 10.9 years) were operated on in the study period. Indication was malignancy in 380 patients (350 primary lung cancers). Thirty-day mortality was 9 % (right: 12.6 % vs. left: 6.3 %, p = 0.013), significantly correlating with age (p = 0.021), comorbidities (p = 0.034), PS > 1 (p = 0.018), preoperative dyspnea (p = 0.0013), and FEV1 (p = 0.0071). Overall 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates were 76.6, 46.6, 34.4, and 29.2 %. In case of primary lung cancer, these figures were 76.8, 46.4, 34.5, and 29.7 %. At univariate analysis, a less favorable survival was associated to PS > 1 (p = 0.0078), right side (p = 0.044), occurrence of postoperative complications (p = 0.00079), and T3-4 status (p = 0.013). At multivariate analysis, PS > 1, right side, and occurrence of postoperative complications were identified as independent worse prognostic factors. SF12 physical score was 39.1 ± 9.0 and was correlated to the presence of preoperative symptoms (p = 0.013). Mental score was 50.68 ± 9.63 and was correlated to preoperative FEV1/FVC ratio (p = 0.023) and side of disease (p = 0.023). In current practice, pneumonectomy is still performed for malignancy

  18. The roles of herbal remedies in survival and quality of life among long-term breast cancer survivors - results of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan-Halley Jane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data exist on survival or health-related quality of life (QOL related to herbal remedy use among long-term breast cancer survivors. The objective of this report is to examine whether herbal remedy use is associated with survival or the health-related QOL of these long-term breast cancer survivors. Methods In 1999-2000, we collected the information of herbal remedy use and QOL during a telephone interview with 371 Los Angeles Non-Hispanic/Hispanic white women who had survived more than 10 years after breast cancer diagnosis. QOL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36 questionnaire. Patients were followed for mortality from the baseline interview through 2007. 299 surviving patients completed a second telephone interview on QOL in 2002-2004. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards methods to estimate relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for mortality and applied multivariable linear regression models to compare average SF-36 change scores (follow-up - baseline between herbal remedy users and non-users. Results Fifty-nine percent of participants were herbal remedy users at baseline. The most commonly used herbal remedies were echinacea, herbal teas, and ginko biloba. Herbal remedy use was associated with non-statistically significant increases in the risks for all-cause (44 deaths, RR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.62-2.64 and breast cancer (33 deaths, RR = 1.78, 95% CI = 0.72-4.40 mortality. Both herbal remedy users' and non-users' mental component summary scores on the SF-36 increased similarly from the first survey to the second survey (P = 0.16, but herbal remedy users' physical component summary scores decreased more than those of non-users (-5.7 vs. -3.2, P = 0.02. Conclusions Our data provide some evidence that herbal remedy use is associated with poorer survival and a poorer physical component score for health-related QOL among women who have survived breast cancer for at least

  19. Mesothelioma in the United States: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER–Medicare investigation of treatment patterns and overall survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beebe-Dimmer JL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer L Beebe-Dimmer,1,2 Jon P Fryzek,3 Cecilia L Yee,1,2 Tapashi B Dalvi,4 David H Garabrant,3 Ann G Schwartz,1,2 Shirish Gadgeel1,2 1Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 2Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, 3EpidStat Institute, Ann Arbor, MI, 4AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA Introduction: Mesothelioma is a rare malignancy typically associated with exposure to asbestos and poor survival. The purpose of this investigation was to describe mesothelioma patient characteristics, treatment patterns, and overall survival (OS utilizing the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare database. Materials and methods: Patients in this study were diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma of the pleura or peritoneum between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009 with follow-up for survival through December 31, 2010. We examined both patient and tumor characteristics at time of diagnosis and subsequent treatment patterns (surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Among patients treated with chemotherapy, we determined chemotherapy regimen and OS by line of therapy. Results: Of the 1,625 patients considered eligible for this investigation, the median age at diagnosis was 78 years. Nearly a third of patients (30% had surgery as part of their treatment and 45% were given chemotherapy. The median OS was 8 months (range 1–69 months. Among chemotherapy patients, the most commonly (67% prescribed regimen for first-line therapy was cisplatin or carboplatin (Ca/Ci combined with pemetrexed (Pe. Among those prescribed Ca/Ci + Pe as first-line therapy, retreatment with Ca/Ci + Pe (28% or treatment with gemcitabine (30% were the most common second-line therapies. Median OS for those receiving first-line chemotherapy was 7 months, and among those receiving second-line therapy median OS was extended an additional 5 months. Conclusion: Irrespective of surgical resection, mesothelioma patients

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations; "Heat of Solution and Colligative Properties: An Illustration of Enthalpy and Entropy," and "A Vapor Pressure Demonstration." Included are lists of materials and experimental procedures. Apparatus needed are illustrated. (CW)

  1. Does a groin node dissection in vulvar cancer affect groin recurrence and overall survival?: Results from a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gien, Lilian T; Sutradhar, Rinku; Thomas, Gillian; Covens, Allan; Elit, Laurie; Rakovitch, Eileen; Fyles, Anthony; Khalifa, Mahmoud A; Liu, Ying; Barbera, Lisa

    2017-02-01

    To determine, in a population-based cohort of vulvar cancer patients, if groin node dissection (GND) decreases the risk of groin recurrence and increases overall survival. This population-based retrospective cohort study includes all cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma identified in a provincial cancer registry from 1998 to 2007. Data collection was completed for all clinical and pathologic factors by chart abstraction. Cumulative incidence functions for recurrence were estimated, accounting for death before recurrence as a competing risk. Multivariable Cox regression models examined the associations between GND and groin recurrence, and overall survival. Clinical and pathologic data were collected for 1109 patients, of which 1038 patients were eligible for GND. 647 patients (62%) had a GND, while 391 patients (38%) did not. Median follow-up was 2.8years. Cumulative incidence plots demonstrate that the risk of death without recurrence was consistently higher than groin recurrence in each year after diagnosis. On multivariate analysis, GND was not significantly associated with decreased groin recurrence (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.58-1.44, p=0.70). The hazard of death was 15% lower for women who received GND (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.63-1.16, p=0.32), but this difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in groin recurrence or overall survival in those with or without GND in this population-based cohort, raising questions whether a subgroup of patients may not benefit from GND. Patients had a higher probability of dying before groin recurrence could occur. Future trial design should consider death as a competing risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Severe Obesity Impacts Recurrence-Free Survival of Women with High-Risk Endometrial Cancer: Results of a French Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canlorbe, Geoffroy; Bendifallah, Sofiane; Raimond, Emilie; Graesslin, Olivier; Hudry, Delphine; Coutant, Charles; Touboul, Cyril; Bleu, Géraldine; Collinet, Pierre; Darai, Emile; Ballester, Marcos

    2015-08-01

    Studies focusing on the impact of obesity on survival in endometrial cancer (EC) have reported controversial results and few data exist on the impact of obesity on recurrence rate and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of obesity on surgical staging and RFS in EC according to the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) risk groups. Data of 729 women with EC who received primary surgical treatment between January 2000 and December 2012 were abstracted from a multicenter database. RFS distributions according to body mass index (BMI) in each ESMO risk group were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Survival was evaluated using the log-rank test, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine influence of multiple variables. Distribution of the 729 women with EC according to BMI was BMI obese women in the low-/intermediate-risk groups, but a BMI ≥ 35 was independently correlated to a poorer RFS (hazard ratio 12.5; 95 % confidence interval 3.1-51.3) for women in the high-risk group. Severe obesity negatively impacts RFS in women with high-risk EC, underlining the importance of complete surgical staging and adapted adjuvant therapies in this subgroup of women.

  3. Final overall survival results of phase III GCIG CALYPSO trial of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and carboplatin vs paclitaxel and carboplatin in platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U; Marth, C; Largillier, R; Kaern, J; Brown, C; Heywood, M; Bonaventura, T; Vergote, I; Piccirillo, M C; Fossati, R; Gebski, V; Lauraine, E P

    2012-01-01

    Background: The CALYPSO phase III trial compared CD (carboplatin-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD)) with CP (carboplatin-paclitaxel) in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC). Overall survival (OS) data are now mature. Methods: Women with ROC relapsing >6 months after first- or second-line therapy were randomised to CD or CP for six cycles in this international, open-label, non-inferiority trial. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The OS analysis is presented here. Results: A total of 976 patients were randomised (467 to CD and 509 to CP). With a median follow-up of 49 months, no statistically significant difference was observed between arms in OS (hazard ratio=0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.85, 1.16); log-rank P=0.94). Median survival times were 30.7 months (CD) and 33.0 months (CP). No statistically significant difference in OS was observed between arms in predetermined subgroups according to age, body mass index, treatment-free interval, measurable disease, number of lines of prior chemotherapy, or performance status. Post-study cross-over was imbalanced between arms, with a greater proportion of patients randomised to CP receiving post-study PLD (68%) than patients randomised to CD receiving post-study paclitaxel (43% P<0.001). Conclusion: Carboplatin-PLD led to delayed progression and similar OS compared with carboplatin-paclitaxel in platinum-sensitive ROC. PMID:22836511

  4. Down-regulated E-cadherin expression is associated with poor five-year overall survival in bone and soft tissue sarcoma: results of a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    Full Text Available To conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic role of E-cadherin expression in bone and soft tissue sarcomas.The PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched using terms related to E-cadherin, sarcoma, and prognosis for all articles published in English before March 2014. Pooled effect was calculated from the available data to evaluate the association between negative E-cadherin expression and 5-year overall survival and tumor clinicopathological features in sarcoma patients. Pooled odds ratios (OR and risk ratios (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using a fixed-effects model.Eight studies met the selection criteria and reported on 812 subjects. A total of 496 subjects showed positive E-cadherin expression (59.9%. Negative E-cadherin expression in bone and soft tissue sarcomas was correlated with lower 5-year overall survival (OR = 3.831; 95% CI: 2.246-6.534, and was associated with higher clinical stage (RR = 1.446; 95% CI: 1.030-2.028 and with male sex (RR = 0.678; 95% CI: 0.493-0.933.In the E-cadherin negative group, 5-year overall survival was significantly worse than in the E-cadherin positive group. However, further studies are required to confirm these results.

  5. Patterns of care and survival outcomes after treatment for uveal melanoma in the post-coms era (2004-2013): a surveillance, epidemiology, and end results analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yuan James; Sein, Julia; Badiyan, Shahed; Schwarz, Julie K; DeWees, Todd; Grigsby, Perry; Rao, Prabakar Kumar

    2017-10-01

    The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) established modern treatment recommendations for uveal melanoma. We aim to evaluate patterns of care and survival outcomes in the time after COMS. The retrospective study population includes 2,611 patients in the SEER database treated for uveal melanoma between 2004-2013. Patients stage were T1-4N0M0. Data analyzed included age, clinical stage, tumor size, race, and treatment. Treatments included enucleation (EN) and globe preserving therapy (GPT), which consisted of limited surgical resection or ablation (LSRA), external beam radiation (EBRT), or brachytherapy (BT). Patients treated with radiation may receive radiation therapy alone (RTA) or radiation therapy and supplemental laser therapy (RT+SLT). We evaluated disease specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) using log-rank statistics, and Cox univariate and multivariate analysis. The median follow-up was 44 months. Treatment strategy was EN in 538 (20.6%) patients, LSRA in 80 (3.1%), EBRT in 609 (23.3%), and BT in 1,384 (53.0%). 1,876 patients received RTA and 117 received RT+SLT. Enucleation was associated with inferior DSS and OS compared to GPT in multivariate analysis (MVA) (p < 0.01). Limited surgical resection or ablation and radiation had similar DSS and OS. Brachytherapy and EBRT had similar DSS and OS. Radiation therapy and supplemental laser therapy was associated with improved DSS compared to RTA in UVA (p = 0.03), but not MVA. The 5-year DSS for enucleation, RTA, and RT+SLT were 66.7%, 87.0%, and 94.7% (p < 0.01), respectively. Globe preserving treatments such as limited surgery or radiation are commonly utilized alternatives to enucleation, and resulted in favorable survival outcomes. Additional research is required to compare the outcomes of the various globe preserving treatment strategies.

  6. Fermentation Results in Quantitative Changes in Milk-Derived Exosomes and Different Effects on Cell Growth and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Siran; Zhao, Zhehao; Sun, Liming; Li, Ping

    2017-02-15

    The discovery of microRNAs encapsulated in milk-derived exosomes has revealed stability under extreme conditions reflecting the protection of membranes. We attempted to determine the variations in nanoparticles derived from milk after fermentation, and provide evidence to determine the effects of these exosomes on cells with potential bioactivity. Using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, we compared the morphology and particle size distribution of exosomes from yogurt fermented with three different combinations of strains with those from raw milk. The protein content of the exosome was significantly reduced in fermented milk. The cycle threshold showed that the expression of miR-29b and miR-21 was relatively high in raw milk, indicating a loss of microRNA after fermentation. Milk-derived exosomes could promote cell growth and activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These findings demonstrated biological functions in milk exosomes and provided new insight into the nutrient composition of dairy products.

  7. Survival Rates and Bone and Soft Tissue Level Changes Around One-Piece Dental Implants Placed with a Flapless or Flap Protocol: 8.5-Year Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froum, Stuart J; Khouly, Ismael

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the survival rates and to measure marginal bone changes and peri-implant conditions 8.5 years after placement of one-piece implants with an anodically oxidized surface (AOS). A total of 52 subjects who received a one-piece implant with an AOS using a flapless or flap protocol and completed a previous randomized clinical trial were contacted for a recall visit 8.5 years after implant placement (T8.5). Implant success and survival rates, probing pocket depth (PPD), presence of bleeding on probing (BoP), papilla level, and incidence of complications and peri-implant disease were assessed by a single, blinded examiner. A second blinded examiner evaluated marginal bone level changes. Results for 8.5 years were compared to those at the time of implant placement, implant loading (0.5 year), and 1 and 1.5 years follow-up. The results based on 28 patients who attended the follow-up visit (half had flapless and half a flap protocol) showed a 100% implant survival rate and a 96.4% implant success rate 8.5 years after implant placement using one-piece implants, with no difference in survival and success rates between the flapless and the flap protocol. During the same follow-up period, a significant increase in crestal bone height from 1.5 to 8.5 years was observed. Analysis suggested decreasing mean levels of bone loss with time (P rates of BoP (22.8% vs 17.9%, respectively). Papilla levels increased during the first year after implant loading. However, there was little additional change between 1.5 and 8.5 years. A total of eight fractured porcelain crowns and three crown loosenings were reported. One-piece implants with an AOS showed high survival rates and stable marginal bone and periimplant soft tissue levels regardless of whether a flapless or flap protocol was used.

  8. Uncontrolled non-heartbeating donors (types i-ii) with normothermic recirculation vs. heartbeating donors: evaluation of functional results and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Utrera, N; Medina-Polo, J; Pamplona-Casamayor, M; Passas-Martínez, J B; Rodríguez-Antolín, A; de la Rosa Kehrmann, F; Duarte-Ojeda, J M; Tejido-Sánchez, A; Villacampa Aubá, F; Andrés Belmonte, A

    2015-09-01

    Non-heartbeating donors (NHBD) are an alternative to heartbeating donors (HBD). Our objective was to compare functional results and kidney survival from NHBDs and HBDs. A retrospective study comparing the results of 236 normothermically preserved kidneys from type i and ii type NHBDs with the results of 250 from HBDs that were transplanted in our center between 2005 and 2012. Homogeneity between groups was tested and we evaluated the presence of delayed graft function (DGF) associated with pretransplant variables of the donor and recipient. Both groups show homogeneity in pretransplant characteristics in terms of: age, HLA incompatibilities, and recipient hemodialysis time. Average follow-up time was 33 months (range 0-87) for NHBDs and 38 months (range 0-90) for HBDs. 5.5% of NHBDs showed primary non-function (PNF) vs. 4% of HBDs (P=.42) and 80.9% of DGF vs. 46.8% of HBDs (P<.001). At the end of the follow-up, there were no statistically significant differences in the survival of grafts (92.8% for NHBD vs. 93.6% for HBD, P=.71) and recipients (99.1% NHBD vs. 98.6% HBD, P=.28). Although the DGF percentage was greater for NHBDs, final creatinine as well as graft and recipient survival were similar for both groups. Therefore, in our experience, kidneys from NHBDs have similar results to those from HBDs and are an excellent source of organs for transplantation. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Red Blood Cell Transfusion Dependency and Hyperferritinemia Are Associated with Impaired Survival in Patients Diagnosed with Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Results from the First Polish MDS-PALG Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszczuk-Gajda, Anna; Mądry, Krzysztof; Machowicz, Rafał; Drozd-Sokołowska, Joanna; Stella-Hołowiecka, Beata; Mital, Andrzej; Obara, Agata; Szmigielska-Kapłon, Anna; Sikorska, Anna; Subocz, Edyta; Jędrzejczak, Wiesław W; Dwilewicz-Trojaczek, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, cytopenias and a risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Anemia is the most frequent cytopenia diagnosed in patients with MDS. Regular RBC transfusions are the only treatment option for about 40% of patients. Transfusion-dependent patients develop secondary iron overload. The influence of serum ferritin (SF) concentration on survival and acute myeloid leukemia transformation in MDS patients remains controversial. The data for the Central European population is scarce and so far there is no description for Poland. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the relationship of SF concentration with red blood cell transfusion dependency, survival and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. We retrospectively evaluated the data of the 819 MDS patients (58% male; median age 70 years) included in the MDS Registry of the MDS Section of the Polish Adult Leukemia Group (PALG). Analyses were performed on 190 patients diagnosed with MDS, maximal 6 months before inclusion to the registry in order to avoid selection bias (a shorter survival of higher risk MDS patients). Patients with hyperferritinemia higher than 1000 ng/L vs. patients with SF concentration lower than 1000 ng/L had a median survival of 320 days vs. 568 days, respectively (p log-rank = 0.014). The following factors were found to significantly worsen survival: RBC-transfusion dependence (p = 0.0033; HR 2.67L), platelet transfusion dependence (p = 0.0071; HR 3.321), hemoglobin concentration lower than 10 g/dL (p = 0.0036; HR 2.97), SF concentration higher than 1000 ng/L (p = 0.0023; HR = 2.94), platelet count lower than 10 G/L (p = 0.0081 HR = 5.04), acute leukemia transformation (p = 0.0081; HR 1.968). Taking into account the relatively low number of patients in previous studies exploring hyperferritinemia in MDS, the results of the first Polish

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. The first (useful as an introduction to kinetics) shows how the rate of a reaction is fast at first and then gradually decreases to zero when one reactant has been used up. The second is a gas density demonstration using 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro ethane. (JN)

  11. Military medical advances resulting from the conflict in Korea, Part I: Systems advances that enhanced patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael S

    2012-04-01

    The Korean War started several years after the World War II had ended and no recognition of the threat or preparation was made for this possibility. The military and its medical service had been downsized after World War II and had to quickly ramp up to meet the surprise attack. The war provided the laboratory for trials and experimentation with the new technological developments of the era. The Korean conflict led to numerous advances in medical systems and patient care. The Mobile Army Surgical Hospital came of age, and was instrumental in saving many lives. Helicopters saw their first regular use as flying ambulances to take the injured to definitive care in a timely fashion. The national blood banking program was rapidly geared up and new techniques such as plastic bags for collection and delivery resulted. Body armor was developed that would allow mobility while offering protection and was widely used for the first time. Each of these systems improvements saved the lives of soldiers in combat and were soon to be used in the civilian sector to save and improve lives around the world.

  12. Disparities by race, age, and sex in the improvement of survival for major cancers: Results from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program in United States, 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chenjie; Wen, Wanqing; Morgans, Alicia K.; Pao, William; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Substantial progress has been made in cancer diagnosis and treatment, resulting in a steady improvement in cancer survival. The degree of improvement by age, race and sex remains unclear. OBJECTIVE to quantify the degree of survival improvement over time by age, race and sex in the United States. DESIGN Longitudinal analyses of cancer follow-up data. SETTING Cancer diagnosis data for 1990–2009 and follow-up data to 2010 from nine population-based registries, part of the NCI Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. PARTICIPANTS Approximately 1.02 million patients from SEER registries diagnosed with cancer of the colon/rectum, breast, prostate, lung, liver, pancreas, or ovary from 1990–2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific death were estimated for patients diagnosed with any of these cancers during, 1995–1999, 2000–2004, and 2005–2009, compared diagnoses in 1990–1994. RESULTS Significant improvements in survival were found for cancers of the colon/rectum, breast, prostate, lung, and liver. Improvements were more pronounced for younger patients. For example, for patients aged 50–64 and diagnosed between 2005–2009, adjusted HRs (95%CI) were 0.57 (0.55–0.60), 0.48 (0.45–0.51), 0.61 (0.57–0.68), and 0.32 (0.30–0.36), for cancer of the colon/rectum, breast, liver and prostate, respectively, compared with the same age group of patients diagnosed during 1990–94. However, the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) for elderly patients (aged 75–85) were only 0.88 (0.84–0.82), 0.88 (0.84–0.92), 0.76 (0.69–0.84), and 0.65 (0.61–0.70), for the same four cancer sites, respectively. A similar, although weaker, age-related period effect was observed for lung and pancreatic cancers. The adjusted HRs (95%CIs) for lung cancer were 0.75 (95%CI, 0.73–0.77) and 0.84 (95%CI, 0.81–0.86), respectively, for patients aged 50 to 64 years and 75 to 85 years diagnosed

  13. Effect of radiotherapy on survival of women with locally excised ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian GW

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guo-Wei Qian,1,* Xiao-Jian Ni,1,* Zheng Wang,2 Yi-Zhou Jiang,1 Ke-Da Yu,1 Zhi-Ming Shao1 1Department of Breast Surgery, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Cancer Center and Cancer Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Although it has been previously reported that radiotherapy (RT effectively reduced the incidence of local recurrence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS following breast-conserving surgery (BCS, little is known about the effect of RT on survival of patients with locally excised DCIS. Patients and methods: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry data, we selected 56,968 female DCIS patients treated with BCS between 1998 and 2007. Overall survival (OS and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS were compared among patients who received RT or no RT using the Kaplan–Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: Median follow-up was 91 months. In the multivariable model, patients receiving postoperative RT had better OS than those undergoing BCS alone (hazard ratio [HR] 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53–0.67, P<0.001. This pattern remained after stratification by estrogen receptor (ER status and age. In contrast, RT delivery was not significantly associated with improved BCSS (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.48–1.03, P=0.073. However, after stratifying by the above two variables, RT contributed to better BCSS in ER-negative/borderline patients (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19–0.88, P=0.023 and younger patients (≤50 years old; HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15–0.91, P=0.030. Conclusion: Our analysis confirms the beneficial effect of RT on OS in women with locally excised DCIS and reveals the specific protective effect of RT on BCSS in ER-negative/borderline and younger patients. Keywords: ductal carcinoma in situ, breast cancer, breast-conserving surgery, radiotherapy, survival

  14. Correlations between ankle circumference, symptoms, and quality of life demonstrate the clinical relevance of minimal leg swelling reduction: results of a study in 1,036 Argentinean patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex, Jean Jerome; Enrici, Ermenegildo; Boussetta, Sami; Avril, Lucienne; Lis, Camilo; Taieb, Charles

    2008-12-01

    Clinical classification (C) of patients suffering from chronic venous disorders according to the Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, and Pathophysiology Classification takes into account signs and symptoms, but the C3 (venous edema) class has been identified as poorly specific. Patients in whom physicians fail to observe significant edema (sign) frequently report a feeling of swelling (symptom). Previous studies of venoactive drugs have demonstrated significant reduction in leg volume, but the correlation with a clinical improvement was lacking. To describe the clinical status of a sample of Argentinean patients presenting with venous symptoms and signs. To demonstrate the relationship between the reduction of leg swelling and the improvement of symptoms of chronic venous disorders (CVDs) and quality of life (QoL) in patients with CVD. One thousand thirty-six patients were included prospectively and submitted to medical interrogation and examination and specific and generic self-questionnaires. Patients included were reassessed using the same tools after phlebotropic treatment (Ruscus+hesperidin+ascorbic acid), the prescription of which was expected to induce variations in clinical status. Significant correlations were observed between ankle circumference reduction and improvement of all symptoms in C2 to C3 patients: heaviness, pain, paraesthesia, and cramps. Such correlations were found in C0 to C1 patients. There was a correlation between improvement attained in QoL and the physical dimension of the Chronic Venous Insufficiency Questionnaire. Our results demonstrate the relevance of moderate ankle swelling, which is not usually described clinically as edema and is probably a typical symptom of chronic venous disorders. Future studies should focus on this insufficiently analyzed clinical feature and put to better use more specific QoL questionnaires.

  15. Bronchial sleeve resection or pneumonectomy for non-small cell lung cancer: a propensity-matched analysis of long-term results, survival and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Saana E M; Rauma, Ville H S; Sihvo, Eero I; Räsänen, Jari V; Ilonen, Ilkka K; Salo, Jarmo A

    2015-10-01

    No randomized studies exist comparing pneumonectomy (PN) and sleeve lobectomy (SL). We evaluated surgical results and long-term quality of life in patients operated on for central non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using either SL or PN. A total of 641 NSCLC patients underwent surgery 2000-2010. SL was performed in 40 (6.2%) and PN in 67 (10.5%). In 2011, all surviving patients were sent a 15D Quality of Life Questionnaire which 83% replied. Propensity-score-matching analysis was utilized to compare the groups. Thirty-two bronchial (18 right/14 left), seven vasculobronchial (3 right/4 left), one right wedge SL, and 18 right and 22 left PN were performed. Preoperatively, the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and diffusion capacity did not differ between groups. The perioperative complication rate and pattern were similar, but SL group had less major complications (P<0.027). One perioperative death (2.5%) occurred in SL group and four (6%) in PN. The 90-day mortality rate was 5% (n=2) for SL and 7.5% (n=5) for PN. In the follow-up total cancer recurrence did not differ (P=0.187). Quality of life measured by 15D showed no significant difference in separate dimensions or total score, except tendency to favor SL in moving or breathing. The 5-year survival did not differ between groups (P=0.458), but no deaths were observed in SL group after 5 years. Due to less major operative complications and better long-term survival, we would advocate using SL when feasible, but in patients tolerating PN it should be considered if SL seems not to be oncologically sufficiently radical.

  16. Family history of colorectal cancer and its impact on survival in patients with resected stage III colon cancer: results from NCCTG Trial N0147 (Alliance)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson-Knodell, Claire L.; Foster, Nathan R.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Limburg, Paul J.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Sinicrope, Frank A.; Jahagirdar, Balkrishna; Goldberg, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Family history of colon cancer often portends increased risk of disease development; however, the prognostic significance of family history related to disease and survival outcomes is unclear. Methods To investigate the relationship between family history of colorectal cancer and survival outcomes in stage III colon cancer patients, a prospective cohort of 1,935 patients with resected stage III colon cancer enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (N0147), comparing the standard of care FOLFOX to FOLFOX with cetuximab, was studied. Patients completed a baseline questionnaire on family history and were followed every 6 months until death or 5 years after randomization. Results We examined the endpoints of disease-free survival (DFS), time to recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS), comparing patients with a positive versus negative family history of colorectal cancer. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for patients with a positive family history were 0.95 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78–1.16] for DFS, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.76–1.16) for TTR, and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.74–1.15) for OS (all adjusted P>0.47). A non-significant trend toward improved DFS (P=0.17; adjusted P=0.34) was observed when 2 or more relatives were affected as compared to 0 relatives (multivariate HR: 0.72; 95% CI, 0.45–1.15), whereas subjects with histories of 0 or 1 affected relatives had similar DFS (multivariate HR for 1 vs. 0: 1.00; 95% CI, 0.81–1.24). Interactions of the molecular factors KRAS, BRAF, and MMR with family history were also explored. The only significant interaction was for deficient MMR (dMMR) and first-degree relatives with a family history of colorectal cancer (0 vs. 1 vs. 2+ relatives) for a benefit on OS (univariate P=0.001), which remained significant after adjusting for other factors (P=0.029). Conclusions Among patients with stage III resected colon cancer treated with adjuvant FOLFOX, a family history of colorectal cancer did not significantly impact DFS

  17. Innovations’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovations currently represent a tool of maintaining the going concern of a business entity and its competitiveness. However, effects of innovations are not infinite and if an innovation should constantly preserve a life of business entity, it has to be a continual chain of innovations, i.e. continual process. Effective live of a single innovation is limited while the limitation is derived especially from industry. The paper provides the results of research on innovations effects in the financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Objective of this paper is to determine the length and intensity of the effects of technical innovations in company’s financial performance. The economic effect of innovations has been measured at application of company’s gross production power while the Deviation Analysis has been applied for three years’ time series. Subsequently the Survival Analysis has been applied. The analyses are elaborated for three statistical samples of SMEs constructed in accordance to the industry. The results obtained show significant differences in innovations’ survival within these three samples of enterprises then. The results are quite specific for the industries, and are confronted and discussed with the results of authors’ former research on the issue.

  18. Long Term Survival Results of Surgery Alone versus Surgery plus 5-Fluorouracil and Leucovorin for Stage II and Stage III Colon Cancer: Pooled Analysis of NSABP C-01 through C-05 Baseline from Which to Compare Modern Adjuvant Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Neal W.; Yothers, Greg; Lopa, Samia; Costantino, Joseph P.; Petrelli, Nicholas J.; Wolmark, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to conduct a pooled analysis of National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) colon trials involving surgery and surgery plus 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (5-FU/LV) to compare survival and establish a baseline from which to evaluate future studies. Methods All patients enrolled in NSABP adjuvant trials C-01 through C-05 with stage II and III disease who were treated with surgery or with surgery plus 5-FU/LV were examined for overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS), and recurrence free interval (RFI). Time-to-event by treatment group was examined using adjusted Kaplan-Meier estimates and multivariable Cox regression analysis. Results There were 2,966 eligible patients: 693 (23%) surgery and 2,273 (77%) surgery plus 5-FU/LV; 1,255 (42%) stage II and 1,711 (58%) stage III. Age ≥ 60 years {hazard ratio (HR)=1.36, P<0.000], male gender (HR=1.20, P=0.0012), and more nodes positive or fewer nodes examined (P< 0.0001) were associated with worse survival. At 5 years, the adjusted OS was 0.62 [confidence interval (CI)= 0.60-0.63] in the surgery group and 0.76 (CI= 0.74- 0.78) in the surgery plus 5-FU/LV group. Treatment with 5-FU/LV was associated with improved outcome compared with surgery: OS (HR=0.62, P<0.0001), DFS (HR=0.66, P<0.0001) and RFI (HR=0.64, P<0.0001). Improved OS with adjuvant treatment was seen in both stage II (HR=0.58, 95% CI=0.48-0.71) and stage III disease (HR=0.65, 95% CI=0.55-0.75). Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that treatment of colon cancer patients with 5-FU/LV following surgery provides benefit over surgery alone and can provide anticipated survival outcomes from which to compare modern adjuvant trials. PMID:20082144

  19. RNAi-mediated knockdown of catalase causes cell cycle arrest in SL-1 cells and results in low survival rate of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Zhao

    Full Text Available Deregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS production can lead to the disruption of structural and functional integrity of cells as a consequence of reactive interaction between ROS and various biological components. Catalase (CAT is a common enzyme existing in nearly all organisms exposed to oxygen, which decomposes harmful hydrogen peroxide, into water and oxygen. In this study, the full length sequence that encodes CAT-like protein from Spodoptera litura named siltCAT (GenBank accession number: JQ_663444 was cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence alignment showed siltCAT shared relatively high conservation with other insect, especially the conserved residues which defined heme and NADPH orientation. Expression pattern analysis showed that siltCAT mRNA was mainly expressed in the fat body, midgut, cuticle and malpighian tube, and as well as over last instar larvae, pupa and adult stages. RNA interference was used to silence CAT gene in SL-1 cells and the fourth-instar stage of S. litura larvae respectively. Our results provided evidence that CAT knockdown induced ROS generation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SL-1 cells. It also confirmed the decrease in survival rate because of increased ROS production in experimental groups injected with double-stranded RNA of CAT (dsCAT. This study implied that ROS scavenging by CAT is important for S. litura survival.

  20. Earthworm survival and behavior results from a Clark Fork River Superfund site: Grant-Kohrs Ranch N.H.S., Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, B.R.; Nimmo, D.R.; Chapman, P.L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and soils deposited along the floodplain of the Clark Fork River, within the boundaries of the Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, have exceeded those typically found in uncontaminated soils. Upstream mining activities along the Clark Fork River in the Deer Lodge Valley, Montana, have produced substantial quantities of mine waste which have been deposited throughout the watershed. Releases and re-releases of these contaminated substances continue to occur, and appear to be preventing the germination and establishment of critical riparian plant species and depressing soil microbe activity. Slickens, bare spots devoid of all vegetation, occur frequently in the floodplain along the Clark Fork River. This research investigates the toxicity of slicken soils using a series of earthworm (Eisenia foetida andrei) survival and behavior tests. In dilution tests, earthworm survival was reduced significantly in as little as 12.5% slicken soil. Results from earthworm behavior tests currently being conducted using non-lethal slicken soil dilutions will also be presented.

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations that require almost no preparation time, are visually stimulating, and present a variety of material for class discussion (with sample questions provided). The first involves a sodium bicarbonate hydrochloric acid volcano; the second involves a dissolving polystyrene cup. Procedures used and information on…

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides instructions and a list of materials needed to demonstrate: (1) a model of the quantum mechanical atom; (2) principles involved in metal corrosion and in the prevention of this destructive process by electrochemical means; and (3) a Thermit reaction, modified to make it more dramatic and interesting for students. (SK)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  4. Disparities by Race, Age, and Sex in the Improvement of Survival for Major Cancers: Results From the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program in the United States, 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chenjie; Wen, Wanqing; Morgans, Alicia K; Pao, William; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Substantial progress has been made in cancer diagnosis and treatment, resulting in a steady improvement in cancer survival. The degree of improvement by age, race, and sex remains unclear. To quantify the degree of survival improvement over time by age, race, and sex in the United States. Longitudinal analyses of cancer follow-up data from 1990 to 2010, from 1.02 million patients who had been diagnosed as having cancer of the colon or rectum, breast, prostate, lung, liver, pancreas, or ovary from 1990 to 2009 and who were included in 1 of 9 population-based registries of the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for cancer-specific death were estimated for patients diagnosed as having any of these cancers during 1995 to 1999, 2000 to 2004, and 2005 to 2009, compared with those diagnosed in 1990 to 1994. Significant improvements in survival were found for cancers of the colon or rectum, breast, prostate, lung, and liver. Improvements were more pronounced for younger patients. For patients aged 50 to 64 years and diagnosed from 2005 to 2009, adjusted HRs (95% CIs) were 0.57 (95% CI, 0.55-0.60), 0.48 (95% CI, 0.45-0.51), 0.61 (95% CI, 0.57-0.69), and 0.32 (95% CI, 0.30-0.36), for cancer of the colon or rectum, breast, liver, and prostate, respectively, compared with the same age groups of patients diagnosed during 1990 to 1994. However, the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) for elderly patients (those 75-85 years old) were only 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92), 0.88 (95% CI, 0.82-0.95), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.69-0.84), and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.61-0.70), for the same 4 cancer sites, respectively. A similar, although weaker, age-related period effect was observed for lung and pancreatic cancers. The adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for lung cancer were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.73-0.77) and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.81-0.86), respectively, for patients aged 50 to 64 years and 75 to 85 years diagnosed between 2005 and 2009, compared with the same

  5. Nation-Scale Adoption of Shorter Breast Radiation Therapy Schedules Can Increase Survival in Resource Constrained Economies: Results From a Markov Chain Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Atif J., E-mail: atif.j.khan@rutgers.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School/Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Rafique, Raza [Suleman Dawood School of Business, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore (Pakistan); Zafar, Waleed [Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore (Pakistan); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School/Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Vicini, Frank [Michigan HealthCare Professionals, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States); Jamshed, Arif [Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore (Pakistan); Zhao, Yao [Rutgers University School of Business, Newark, New Jersey (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) offer women options for shorter courses of breast radiation therapy. The impact of these shorter schedules on the breast cancer populations of emerging economies with limited radiation therapy resources is unknown. We hypothesized that adoption of these schedules would improve throughput in the system and, by allowing more women access to life-saving treatments, improve patient survival within the system. Methods and Materials: We designed a Markov chain model to simulate the different health states that a postlumpectomy or postmastectomy patient could enter over the course of a 20-year follow-up period. Transition rates between health states were adapted from published data on recurrence rates. We used primary data from a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, to populate the model with proportional use of mastectomy versus breast conservation and to estimate the proportion of patients suitable for APBI. Sensitivity analyses on the use of APBI and relative efficacy of APBI were conducted to study the impact on the population. Results: The shorter schedule resulted in more women alive and more women remaining without evidence of disease (NED) compared with the conventional schedule, with an absolute difference of about 4% and 7% at 15 years, respectively. Among women who had lumpectomies, the chance of remaining alive and with an intact breast was 62% in the hypofractionation model and 54% in the conventional fractionation model. Conclusions: Increasing throughput in the system can result in improved survival, improved chances of remaining without evidence of disease, and improved chances of remaining alive with a breast. These findings are significant and suggest that adoption of hypofractionation in emerging economies is not simply a question of efficiency and cost but one of access to care and patient survivorship.

  6. Greenhouse gas profiling by infrared-laser and microwave occultation: retrieval algorithm and demonstration results from end-to-end simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proschek, V.; Kirchengast, G.; Schweitzer, S.

    2011-10-01

    Measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) profiles with global coverage and high accuracy and vertical resolution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) is key for improved monitoring of GHG concentrations in the free atmosphere. In this respect a new satellite mission concept adding an infrared-laser part to the already well studied microwave occultation technique exploits the joint propagation of infrared-laser and microwave signals between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. This synergetic combination, referred to as LEO-LEO microwave and infrared-laser occultation (LMIO) method, enables to retrieve thermodynamic profiles (pressure, temperature, humidity) and accurate altitude levels from the microwave signals and GHG profiles from the simultaneously measured infrared-laser signals. However, due to the novelty of the LMIO method, a retrieval algorithm for GHG profiling is not yet available. Here we introduce such an algorithm for retrieving GHGs from LEO-LEO infrared-laser occultation (LIO) data, applied as a second step after retrieving thermodynamic profiles from LEO-LEO microwave occultation (LMO) data. We thoroughly describe the LIO retrieval algorithm and unveil the synergy with the LMO-retrieved pressure, temperature, and altitude information. We furthermore demonstrate the effective independence of the GHG retrieval results from background (a priori) information in discussing demonstration results from LMIO end-to-end simulations for a representative set of GHG profiles, including carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), methane (CH4), and ozone (O3). The GHGs except for ozone are well retrieved throughout the UTLS, while ozone is well retrieved from about 10 km to 15 km upwards, since the ozone layer resides in the lower stratosphere. The GHG retrieval errors are generally smaller than 1% to 3% r.m.s., at a vertical resolution of about 1 km. The retrieved profiles also appear unbiased, which points to the climate benchmarking capability of the LMIO

  7. Nation-Scale Adoption of Shorter Breast Radiation Therapy Schedules Can Increase Survival in Resource Constrained Economies: Results From a Markov Chain Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Atif J; Rafique, Raza; Zafar, Waleed; Shah, Chirag; Haffty, Bruce G; Vicini, Frank; Jamshed, Arif; Zhao, Yao

    2017-02-01

    Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) offer women options for shorter courses of breast radiation therapy. The impact of these shorter schedules on the breast cancer populations of emerging economies with limited radiation therapy resources is unknown. We hypothesized that adoption of these schedules would improve throughput in the system and, by allowing more women access to life-saving treatments, improve patient survival within the system. We designed a Markov chain model to simulate the different health states that a postlumpectomy or postmastectomy patient could enter over the course of a 20-year follow-up period. Transition rates between health states were adapted from published data on recurrence rates. We used primary data from a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, to populate the model with proportional use of mastectomy versus breast conservation and to estimate the proportion of patients suitable for APBI. Sensitivity analyses on the use of APBI and relative efficacy of APBI were conducted to study the impact on the population. The shorter schedule resulted in more women alive and more women remaining without evidence of disease (NED) compared with the conventional schedule, with an absolute difference of about 4% and 7% at 15 years, respectively. Among women who had lumpectomies, the chance of remaining alive and with an intact breast was 62% in the hypofractionation model and 54% in the conventional fractionation model. Increasing throughput in the system can result in improved survival, improved chances of remaining without evidence of disease, and improved chances of remaining alive with a breast. These findings are significant and suggest that adoption of hypofractionation in emerging economies is not simply a question of efficiency and cost but one of access to care and patient survivorship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-term survival among older patients with myocardial infarction differs by educational level: results from the MONICA/KORA myocardial infarction registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic disparities in survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have been found in many countries. However, population-based results from Germany are lacking so far. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the association between educational status and long-term mortality in a population-based sample of people with AMI. Methods The sample consisted of 2,575 men and 844 women, aged 28–74 years, hospitalized with a first-time AMI between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, recruited from a population-based AMI registry. Patients were followed up until December 2011. Data on education, risk factors and co-morbidities were collected by individual interviews; data on clinical characteristics and AMI treatment by chart review. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the relationship between educational status and long-term mortality. Results During follow-up, 19.1% of the patients with poor education died compared with 13.1% with higher education. After adjustment for covariates, no effect of education on mortality was found for the total sample and for patients aged below 65 years. In older people, however, low education level was significantly associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.98, p = 0.023). Stratified analyses showed that women older than 64 years with poor education were significantly more likely to die than women in the same age group with higher education (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.02–2.41, p = 0.039). Conclusions Elderly, poorly educated patients with AMI, and particularly women, have poorer long-term survival than their better educated peers. Further research is required to illuminate the reasons for this finding. PMID:24552463

  9. Single-Fraction Versus 5-Fraction Radiation Therapy for Metastatic Epidural Spinal Cord Compression in Patients With Limited Survival Prognoses: Results of a Matched-Pair Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany); Huttenlocher, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany); Šegedin, Barbara; Perpar, Ana [Department of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Conde, Antonio J.; Garcia, Raquel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Consorcio Hospital Provincial de Castellón, Castellón (Spain); Veninga, Theo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr Bernard Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands); Stalpers, Lukas J.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cacicedo, Jon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, Vizcaya (Spain); Rudat, Volker [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saad Specialist Hospital, Al Khobar (Saudi Arabia); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: This study compared single-fraction to multi-fraction short-course radiation therapy (RT) for symptomatic metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) in patients with limited survival prognosis. Methods and Materials: A total of 121 patients who received 8 Gy × 1 fraction were matched (1:1) to 121 patients treated with 4 Gy × 5 fractions for 10 factors including age, sex, performance status, primary tumor type, number of involved vertebrae, other bone metastases, visceral metastases, interval between tumor diagnosis and MESCC, pre-RT ambulatory status, and time developing motor deficits prior to RT. Endpoints included in-field repeated RT (reRT) for MESCC, overall survival (OS), and impact of RT on motor function. Univariate analyses were performed with the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test for in-field reRT for MESCC and OS and with the ordered-logit model for effect of RT on motor function. Results: Doses of 8 Gy × 1 fraction and 4 Gy × 5 fractions were not significantly different with respect to the need for in-field reRT for MESCC (P=.11) at 6 months (18% vs 9%, respectively) and 12 months (30% vs 22%, respectively). The RT regimen also had no significant impact on OS (P=.65) and post-RT motor function (P=.21). OS rates at 6 and 12 months were 24% and 9%, respectively, after 8 Gy × 1 fraction versus 25% and 13%, respectively, after 4 Gy × 5 fractions. Improvement of motor function was observed in 17% of patients after 8 Gy × 1 fraction and 23% after 4 Gy × 5 fractions, respectively. Conclusions: There were no significant differences with respect to need for in-field reRT for MESCC, OS, and motor function by dose fractionation regimen. Thus, 8 Gy × 1 fraction may be a reasonable option for patients with survival prognosis of a few months.

  10. Superior survival with capecitabine plus docetaxel combination therapy in anthracycline-pretreated patients with advanced breast cancer: phase III trial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Joyce; Miles, David; Vukelja, Svetislava; Moiseyenko, Vladimir; Ayoub, Jean-Pierre; Cervantes, Guadalupe; Fumoleau, Pierre; Jones, Stephen; Lui, Wing-Yiu; Mauriac, Louis; Twelves, Chris; Van Hazel, Guy; Verma, Shailendra; Leonard, Robert

    2002-06-15

    Docetaxel and capecitabine, a tumor-activated oral fluoropyrimidine, show high single-agent efficacy in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and synergy in preclinical studies. This international phase III trial compared efficacy and tolerability of capecitabine/docetaxel therapy with single-agent docetaxel in anthracycline-pretreated patients with MBC. Patients were randomized to 21-day cycles of oral capecitabine 1,250 mg/m(2) twice daily on days 1 to 14 plus docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) on day 1 (n = 255) or to docetaxel 100 mg/m(2) on day 1 (n = 256). Capecitabine/docetaxel resulted in significantly superior efficacy in time to disease progression (TTP) (hazard ratio, 0.652; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.545 to 0.780; P =.0001; median, 6.1 v 4.2 months), overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.775; 95% CI, 0.634 to 0.947; P =.0126; median, 14.5 v 11.5 months), and objective tumor response rate (42% v 30%, P =.006) compared with docetaxel. Gastrointestinal side effects and hand-foot syndrome were more common with combination therapy, whereas myalgia, arthralgia, and neutropenic fever/sepsis were more common with single-agent docetaxel. More grade 3 adverse events occurred with combination therapy (71% v 49%, respectively), whereas grade 4 events were slightly more common with docetaxel (31% v 25% with combination). The significantly superior TTP and survival achieved with the addition of capecitabine to docetaxel 75 mg/m(2), with the manageable toxicity profile, indicate that this combination provides clear benefits over single-agent docetaxel 100 mg/m(2). Docetaxel/capecitabine therapy is an important treatment option for women with anthracycline-pretreated MBC.

  11. Long-term survival among older patients with myocardial infarction differs by educational level: results from the MONICA/KORA myocardial infarction registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchberger, Inge; Meisinger, Christa; Golüke, Hildegard; Heier, Margit; Kuch, Bernhard; Peters, Annette; Quinones, Philip A; von Scheidt, Wolfgang; Mielck, Andreas

    2014-02-19

    Socioeconomic disparities in survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have been found in many countries. However, population-based results from Germany are lacking so far. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the association between educational status and long-term mortality in a population-based sample of people with AMI. The sample consisted of 2,575 men and 844 women, aged 28-74 years, hospitalized with a first-time AMI between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, recruited from a population-based AMI registry. Patients were followed up until December 2011. Data on education, risk factors and co-morbidities were collected by individual interviews; data on clinical characteristics and AMI treatment by chart review. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the relationship between educational status and long-term mortality. During follow-up, 19.1% of the patients with poor education died compared with 13.1% with higher education. After adjustment for covariates, no effect of education on mortality was found for the total sample and for patients aged below 65 years. In older people, however, low education level was significantly associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.98, p = 0.023). Stratified analyses showed that women older than 64 years with poor education were significantly more likely to die than women in the same age group with higher education (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.02-2.41, p = 0.039). Elderly, poorly educated patients with AMI, and particularly women, have poorer long-term survival than their better educated peers. Further research is required to illuminate the reasons for this finding.

  12. GASIS demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidas, E.H. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  13. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and early antiretroviral treatment among female sex workers in South Africa: Results from a prospective observational demonstration project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Eakle

    2017-11-01

    . There were no seroconversions on PrEP and 7 virological failures on early ART among women remaining in the study. Reported adherence to PrEP varied over time between 70% and 85%, whereas over 90% of participants reported taking pills daily while on early ART. Data on provider-side costs were also collected and analysed. The total cost of service delivery was approximately US$126 for PrEP and US$406 for early ART per person-year. The main limitations of this study include the lack of a control group, which was not included due to ethical considerations; clinical study requirements imposed when PrEP was not approved through the regulatory system, which could have affected uptake; and the timing of the implementation of a national sex worker HIV programme, which could have also affected uptake and retention.PrEP and early ART services can be implemented within FSW routine services in high prevalence, urban settings. We observed good uptake for both PrEP and early ART; however, retention rates for PrEP were low. Retention rates for early ART were similar to retention rates for the current standard of care. While the cost of the interventions was higher than previously published, there is potential for cost reduction at scale. The TAPS Demonstration Project results provided the basis for the first government PrEP and early ART guidelines and the rollout of the national sex worker HIV programme in South Africa.

  14. Long-term disability and survival in traumatic brain injury: results from the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jordan C; Strauss, David J; Shavelle, Robert M; Paculdo, David R; Hammond, Flora M; Harrison-Felix, Cynthia L

    2013-11-01

    To document long-term survival in 1-year survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI); to compare the use of the Disability Rating Scale (DRS) and FIM as factors in the estimation of survival probabilities; and to investigate the effect of time since injury and secular trends in mortality. Cohort study of 1-year survivors of TBI followed up to 20 years postinjury. Statistical methods include standardized mortality ratio, Kaplan-Meier survival curve, proportional hazards regression, and person-year logistic regression. Postdischarge from rehabilitation units. Population-based sample of persons (N=7228) who were admitted to a TBI Model Systems facility and survived at least 1 year postinjury. These persons contributed 32,505 person-years, with 537 deaths, over the 1989 to 2011 study period. Not applicable. Survival. Survival was poorer than that of the general population (standardized mortality ratio=2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-2.3). Age, sex, and functional disability were significant risk factors for mortality (Pmodels had comparable predictive performance (C index: .80 vs .80; Akaike information criterion: 11,005 vs 11,015). Time since injury and current calendar year were not significant predictors of long-term survival (both P>.05). Long-term survival prognosis in TBI depends on age, sex, and disability. FIM and DRS are useful prognostic measures with comparable statistical performance. Age- and disability-specific mortality rates in TBI have not declined over the last 20 years. A survival prognosis calculator is available online (http://www.LifeExpectancy.org/tbims.shtml). Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  16. Comorbidity and survival after early breast cancer. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Lotte Holm; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Jørgensen, Trine Lembrecht

    2011-01-01

    : A search in Pubmed with keywords, breast neoplasm, comorbidity, and survival, was performed. A total of 18 studies published between 2000 and August 2010 was included in this review. RESULTS: All 18 studies demonstrated that comorbidity had a significant impact on survival after breast cancer with poorer...

  17. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Glioblastoma Multiforme-Assessing Risk and Survival: Results of a Large Retrospective Study and Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barami, Kaveh; Lyon, Liisa; Conell, Carol

    2017-10-01

    Despite studies showing a positive correlation between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), a modifiable risk factor, and various cancer types, the link remains controversial in the setting of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In this study, we assessed whether DM2 and DM2-associated factors were associated with a higher risk of developing GBM and also determined if DM2 affected the survival of patients with GBM. A cross-sectional case-control study of 1144 GBM cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2013 of which 969 patients matched for age and sex was performed to assess the association between DM2, hyperlipidemia, and obesity with the incidence of GBM. A longitudinal study of the patients with GBM was also performed to assess the association between the effect of DM2 and GBM survival. No association was seen between DM2, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and GBM. DM2 was associated with poorer survival in univariate testing yet not in multivariate testing. Diabetic patients with GBM had good glycemic control. Older patients had poorer survival and overall survival improved over years of study. DM2, hyperlipidemia, and obesity were not associated with increased risk of developing GBM, and DM2 itself does not seem to influence survival among these patients. This finding might be related to good glycemic control in this cohort. Survey of the literature consistently shows that hyperglycemia is associated with poorer survival. Our findings suggest that rather than the presence or absence of DM2, glycemic control seems to be more important in the survival of patients with GBM, which warrants future investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term Survival Outcomes Following Internal Mammary Node Irradiation in Stage II-III Breast Cancer: Results of a Large Retrospective Study With 12-Year Follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jee Suk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Bae; Lee, Ik Jae; Keum, Ki Chang; Lee, Chang Geol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Doo Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Chang-Ok, E-mail: cosuh317@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Seung Jae, E-mail: sjhuh@smc.samsung.co.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of internal mammary node irradiation (IMNI) on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in breast cancer patients treated with modified radical mastectomy and postoperative radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1994 and 2002, 396 patients with stage II-III breast cancer were treated with postmastectomy radiation therapy with (n=197) or without (n=199) IMNI. Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. IMNI was administered at the clinical discretion of the treating physician. Median RT dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 45.0-59.4 Gy) in 28 fractions, with inclusion of the supraclavicular fossa in 96% of patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 99.7% of the patients and endocrine therapy to 53%. Results: The median follow-up was 149 months (range, 124-202). IMNI patients had more advanced nodal stage and non-high grade tumors than those without IMNI (P<.001). Otherwise, disease and treatment characteristics were well balanced. The 10-year DFS with and without IMNI was 65% and 57%, respectively (P=.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that IMNI was an independent, positive predictor of DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; P=.02). Benefits of IMNI in DFS were seen most apparently in N2 patients (HR, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.74) and inner/central tumors (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.90). The 10-year OS with and without IMNI was 72% and 66%, respectively (P=.62). The 10-year DFS and OS were 61%, and 69%, respectively. Conclusions: Internal mammary node irradiation significantly improved DFS in postmastectomy breast cancer patients. Pending long-term results from randomized trials, treatment of internal mammary nodes should be considered in postmastectomy radiation therapy.

  19. Plant Survival and Mortality during Drought Can be Mediated by Co-occurring Species' Physiological and Morphological Traits: Results from a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, X.; Mackay, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Interactions among co-occurring species are mediated by plant physiology, morphology and environment. Without proper mechanisms to account for these factors, it remains difficult to predict plant mortality/survival under changing climate. A plant ecophysiological model, TREES, was extended to incorporate co-occurring species' belowground interaction for water. We used it to examine the interaction between two commonly co-occurring species during drought experiment, pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma), with contrasting physiological traits (vulnerability to cavitation and leaf water potential regulation). TREES was parameterized and validated using field-measured plant physiological traits. The root architecture (depth, profile, and root area to leaf area ratio) of juniper was adjusted to see how root morphology could affect the survival/mortality of its neighboring pine under both ambient and drought conditions. Drought suppressed plant water and carbon uptake, as well increased the average percentage loss of conductivity (PLC). Pine had 59% reduction in water uptake, 48% reduction in carbon uptake, and 38% increase in PLC, while juniper had 56% reduction in water uptake, 50% reduction in carbon and 29% increase in PLC, suggesting different vulnerability to drought as mediated by plant physiological traits. Variations in juniper root architecture further mediated drought stress on pine, from negative to positive. Different juniper root architecture caused variations in response of pine over drought (water uptake reduction ranged 0% ~63%, carbon uptake reduction ranged 0% ~ 70%, and PLC increase ranged 2% ~ 91%). Deeper or more uniformly distributed roots of juniper could effectively mitigate stress experienced by pine. In addition, the total water and carbon uptake tended to increase as the ratio of root area to leaf area increased while PLC showed non-monotonic response, suggesting the potential trade-off between maximizing resource uptake and

  20. High Expression of DARPP-32 in Colorectal Cancer Is Associated With Liver Metastases and Predicts Survival for Dukes A and B Patients: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopljar, Mario; Patrlj, Leonardo; Korolija-Marinic, Dragan; Horzic, Matija; Cupurdija, Kristijan; Bakota, Bore

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate prognostic significance of Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated neuronal Phosphoprotein 32 (DARPP-32) expression in primary colorectal cancer. The study material consisted of clinical and histopathological data of 100 patients operated for colorectal cancer between 1994 and 1997. For immunohistochemical analysis, specific rabbit antibodies for DARPP-32 were used and the percentage of stained tumor cells was calculated under gross magnification (400 times) on a sample of 500 tumor cells. DARPP-32 expression in the primary tumor was significantly greater in patients with distant metastases compared to patients with no distant metastases (p=0.002). In multivariate regression analysis, DARPP-32 expression in the primary tumor was a significant predictor of distant metastases. With a cut-off point of 76.5%, DARPP-32 expression in the primary tumor significantly influenced both overall and disease free survival, especially for Dukes A and B patients (p=0.037). The results of this study indicate that DARPP-32 may be a potential marker of worse prognosis and a valuable tool for managing further adjuvant treatment in patients with stages Dukes A and B colorectal cancer.

  1. Prognostic factors for remission of and survival in acquired hemophilia A (AHA): results from the GTH-AH 01/2010 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, Andreas; Klamroth, Robert; Scharf, Rüdiger E; Trappe, Ralf U; Holstein, Katharina; Huth-Kühne, Angela; Gottstein, Saskia; Geisen, Ulrich; Schenk, Joachim; Scholz, Ute; Schilling, Kristina; Neumeister, Peter; Miesbach, Wolfgang; Manner, Daniela; Greil, Richard; von Auer, Charis; Krause, Manuela; Leimkühler, Klaus; Kalus, Ulrich; Blumtritt, Jan-Malte; Werwitzke, Sonja; Budde, Eva; Koch, Armin; Knöbl, Paul

    2015-02-12

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is caused by autoantibodies against factor VIII (FVIII). Immunosuppressive treatment (IST) results in remission of disease in 60% to 80% of patients over a period of days to months. IST is associated with frequent adverse events, including infections as a leading cause of death. Predictors of time to remission could help guide IST intensity but have not been established. We analyzed prognostic factors in 102 prospectively enrolled patients treated with a uniform IST protocol. Partial remission (PR; defined as no active bleeding, FVIII restored >50 IU/dL, hemostatic treatment stopped >24 hours) was achieved by 83% of patients after a median of 31 days (range 7-362). Patients with baseline FVIII <1 IU/dL achieved PR less often and later (77%, 43 days) than patients with ≥1 IU/dL (89%, 24 days). After adjustment for other baseline characteristics, low FVIII remained associated with a lower rate of PR (hazard ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.33-0.81, P < .01). In contrast, PR achieved on steroids alone within ≤21 days was more common in patients with FVIII ≥1 IU/dL and inhibitor concentration <20 BU/mL (odds ratio 11.2, P < .0001). Low FVIII was also associated with a lower rate of complete remission and decreased survival. In conclusion, presenting FVIII and inhibitor concentration are potentially useful to tailor IST in AHA. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. New Technology Demonstration Program - Results of an Attempted Field Test of Full-Spectrum Polarized Lighting in a Mail Processing/Office Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.

    2001-06-14

    An assessment of the potential energy savings associated with the use of full-spectrum polarized lighting in a work space was initiated as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP) in 1997. This project was intended to provide information on the effectiveness and application of this technology that could help federal energy managers and other interested individuals determine whether this technology had benefits for their occupied spaces. The use of an actual mail processing/office work area provided the capability of evaluating the technologies effectiveness in the real world.

  3. New Technology Demonstration Program - Results of an Attempted Field Test of Multi-Layer Light Polarizing Panels in an Office Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.

    2001-06-14

    An assessment of the potential energy savings associated with the use of multi-layer light polarizing panels in an office space was initiated as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP) in 1997. This project was intended to provide information on the effectiveness and application of this technology that could help federal energy managers and other interested individuals determine whether this technology had benefits for their occupied spaces. The use of an actual working office area provided the capability of evaluating the technology's effectiveness in the real world.

  4. First Results of the Expedition to the Highest Lake on Earth: Studying a Martian Paleolake in Bolivia and the Survival Strategies Developed by Living Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; McKay, C. P.; Friedmann, I.; Diaz, D. Chong; Demergasso, C.; Kisse, K.; Grigorszky, I.; Friedmann, R. Ocampo; Murbach, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    Between October 16th and November 9th 2002, the first NASA Ames DDF Licancabur multidisciplinary expedition initiated the investigation of the biology and environment for life in the highest lake on Earth located at the summit of the Licancabur volcano (6017 m/20,056 ft) at the boundary of Chile and Bolivia. The low oxygen, low atmospheric pressure, high-UV radiation, average temperature, volcano-tectonic and hydrothermal environment make the site a close analog to Martian paleolakes 3.5 billion years ago. The overall goal of the project is to understand through a series of high altitude scientific expeditions what strategies life is using to defend itself against killer-level UV radiation and environmental extreme conditions at this altitude. Several other lakes are located at 4300 m at the foot of the Licancabur volcano (hereafter named laguna Blanca and Laguna Verde). They were also investigated using identical experiments and methods as for the summit lake in order to compare the results and better understand the evolution of survival strategies at transitioning elevations. The lagunas are geothermally heated and many springs provide water at various temperatures. Sources of heat are also suspected for the summit lake as its surface water temperature was measured during the successful ascent at +6 C in a -9 C ambient crater environment (with a wind chill factor of -25 C with a wind blowing almost constantly). Results of this project are expected to provide critical keys to help searching and identifying potential sites for life (extant/extinct) on Mars and developing instruments, experiments and technologies for future missions.

  5. The impact of personalized medicine on survival: comparisons of results in metastatic breast, colorectal and non-small-cell lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Antonio; Torri, Valter; Garassino, Marina Chiara; Porcu, Luca; Galetta, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    Breast, colorectal and lung cancers represent the three most incident forms of cancer worldwide. Among these three "big killers", lung cancer is considered the one with the worst prognosis due to its high mortality even in early stages. Due to their more favorable prognosis, breast and colorectal cancers might appear to have benefited from major advances. Most oncologists who are faced with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) find the reported results very frustrating when compared with those for metastatic breast (MBC) and colorectal cancers (MCRC). The aim of this analysis was to quantify and compare the relative magnitude of overall survival (OS) improvements in the first-line approaches in metastatic NSCLC, MBC and MCRC through the analysis of the main landmark meta-analyses and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of commercially available drugs. Five items were considered and analyzed for each cancer. Moreover we evaluated the real clinical impact of the results reported by each item on the entire population; for each "big killer" an overall hazard ratio (HR) was estimated: 0.88 (95%(+) CI: 0.72-1.07) for MBC, 0.94 (95%(+) CI: 0.82-1.07) for MCRC, and about 0.80 (95%(+) CI: 0.73-0.90) for advanced NSCLC. We showed that, in the last decades, these three tumors had important and constant OS improvements reached step by step. The relative magnitude of OS improvement seems higher in metastatic NSCLC than MBC and MCRC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Employers' role in helping Latino workers obtain access to health care services: results of a community-based pilot demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembe, Allard E; Biehl, Jeffrey M; Smith, Alicia D; Garcia de Gutierrez, Teresa

    2013-06-01

    A coalition of employers in the hotel and restaurant industries collaborated with community-based organizations to undertake a unique demonstration project, called the Employed Latino Health Initiative, aimed at improving access to basic health care services for low-wage Latino workers in Columbus, Ohio. With grant funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the project developed and tested protocols allowing Latino workers from participating companies to obtain basic health care screenings, referrals to medical providers, health education training, and the services of a qualified community health navigator. Data from the pilot project indicated high screening participation rates, extensive referrals to providers for follow-up care, and a substantial need for facilitation services by community health navigators. The project provides a model for how employers can potentially promote their own interests in boosting work productivity through facilitating expanded access to basic medical services among vulnerable workers, despite the absence of conventional health insurance coverage.

  7. Demonstrating managed aquifer recharge as a solution for climate change adaptation: results from Gabardine project and asemwaterNet coordination action in the Algarve region (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Lobo Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Algarve southern Portugal region, Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR research activities have been developed to provide not only water surplus storage in aquifers during wet years, focusing in the Querença-Silves aquifer (FP6 ASEMWATERNet Coordination Action, but also groundwater quality rehabilitation in the Campina de Faro aquifer (FP6 Gabardine Project. Following MAR research potentialities in southern Portugal, this paper describes the objectives, conceptual demonstration, background and capabilities of one of the selected Circum-Mediterranean pilot sites (in Portugal that will be researched in the new FP7-ENV-2013-WATER-INNO-DEMO MARSOL project, which started Dec. 1st, 2013. In the Algarve pilot site, several case-study areas will be located in the Querença-Silves aquifer and in the Campina de Faro aquifer.

  8. The dChip survival analysis module for microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minvielle Stéphane

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide expression signatures are emerging as potential marker for overall survival and disease recurrence risk as evidenced by recent commercialization of gene expression based biomarkers in breast cancer. Similar predictions have recently been carried out using genome-wide copy number alterations and microRNAs. Existing software packages for microarray data analysis provide functions to define expression-based survival gene signatures. However, there is no software that can perform survival analysis using SNP array data or draw survival curves interactively for expression-based sample clusters. Results We have developed the survival analysis module in the dChip software that performs survival analysis across the genome for gene expression and copy number microarray data. Built on the current dChip software's microarray analysis functions such as chromosome display and clustering, the new survival functions include interactive exploring of Kaplan-Meier (K-M plots using expression or copy number data, computing survival p-values from the log-rank test and Cox models, and using permutation to identify significant chromosome regions associated with survival. Conclusions The dChip survival module provides user-friendly way to perform survival analysis and visualize the results in the context of genes and cytobands. It requires no coding expertise and only minimal learning curve for thousands of existing dChip users. The implementation in Visual C++ also enables fast computation. The software and demonstration data are freely available at http://dchip-surv.chenglilab.org.

  9. Residual disease detected by flow cytometry is an independent predictor of survival in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia; results of the NOPHO-AML 2004 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierens, Anne; Bjørklund, Elizabeth; Siitonen, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Early response after induction is a prognostic factor for disease outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Residual disease (RD) detection by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) was performed at day 15 and before consolidation therapy in 101 patients enrolled in the Nordic Society...... of Paediatric Haemato-Oncology AML 2004 study. A multicentre laboratory approach to RD analysis was used. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) was significantly different in patients with and without RD at both time points, using a 0·1% RD cut-off level. RD-negative and -positive patients after...

  10. Age and case mix-standardised survival for all cancer patients in Europe 1999–2007: Results of EUROCARE-5, a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baili, Paolo; Di Salvo, Francesca; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Siesling, Sabine; Mallone, Sandra; Santaquilani, Mariano; Micheli, Andrea; Lillini, Roberto; Francisci, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background Overall survival after cancer is frequently used when assessing a health care service’s performance as a whole. It is mainly used by the public, politicians and the media, and is often dismissed by clinicians because of the heterogeneous mix of different cancers, risk factors and

  11. Salivary gland carcinoma : Independent prognostic factors for locoregional control, distant metastases, and overall survival: Results of the Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terhaard, CHJ; Lubsen, H; Van der Tweel, [No Value; Hilgers, FJM; Eijkenboom, WMH; Marres, HAM; Tjho-Heslinga, RE; de Jong, JMA; Roodenburg, JLN

    Background. We analyzed the records of patients with malignant salivary gland tumors, as diagnosed in centers of the Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group, in search of independent prognostic factors for locoregional control, distant metastases, and overall survival. Methods. In 565

  12. Improved overall survival after implementation of targeted therapy for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Results from the Danish Renal Cancer Group (DARENCA) study-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne V.; Donskov, Frede; Hermann, Gregers G.

    2014-01-01

    AbstractAim To evaluate the implementation of targeted therapy on overall survival (OS) in a complete national cohort of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Methods All Danish patients with mRCC referred for first line treatment with immunotherapy, TKIs or mTOR-inhibitors between...

  13. Pneumonia, Intake Problems, and Survival Among Nursing Home Residents With Variable Stages of Dementia in the Netherlands: Results From a Prospective Observational Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Gageldonk-Lafeber, A.B. van; Galindo-Garre, F.; Schipper, M.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.; Steen, J.T. van der

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We explored how pneumonia and intake problems affect survival in nursing home residents in variable stages of dementia. METHODS: In a longitudinal observational study (372 residents) with up to 3.5 years of follow-up, we examined relationships between dementia severity, the development

  14. Clinical response, drug survival and predictors thereof in 432 patients with ankylosing spondylitis switching anti tumor necrosis factor α therapy: Results from the Danish nationwide Danbio registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Østergaard, Mikkel; Krogh, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequencies and reasons for switching, treatment responses and drug survival in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) switching tumour-necrosis-factor-α inhibitor (TNFi) treatment in routine clinical care. METHODS: AS patients were identified in the Danish nationwide...

  15. [(90)Yttrium-DOTA]-TOC response is associated with survival benefit in iodine-refractory thyroid cancer: long-term results of a phase 2 clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iten, Fabienne; Muller, Beat; Schindler, Christian; Rasch, Helmut; Rochlitz, Christoph; Oertli, Daniel; Maecke, Helmut R; Muller-Brand, Jan; Walter, Martin A

    2009-05-15

    The authors aimed to explore the efficacy of (90)Yttrium-1,4,7,10-tetra-azacyclododecane N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid [(90)Y-DOTA]-Tyr(3)-octreotide (TOC) in advanced iodine-refractory thyroid cancer. In a phase 2 trial, the authors investigated biochemical response (assessed by serum thyroglobulin levels), survival, and the long-term safety profile of systemic [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment in metastasized iodine-refractory thyroid cancer. Adverse events were assessed according to the National Cancer Institute criteria. Survival analyses were performed by using multiple regression models. A total of 24 patients were enrolled. A median cumulative activity of 13.0 GBq (range, 1.7-30.3 GBq) was administered. Response was found in 7 (29.2%) patients. Eight (33.3%) patients developed hematologic toxicity grade 1-3, and 4 (16.7%) patients developed renal toxicity grade 1-4. The median survival was 33.4 months (range, 3.6-126.8 months) from time of diagnosis and 16.8 months (range, 1.8-99.1 months) from time of first [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment. Response to treatment was associated with longer survival from time of diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR], 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03-0.92; P = .04) and from time of first [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC therapy (HR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.04-0.94; P = .04). The visual grade of scintigraphic tumor uptake was not associated with treatment response (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% CI, 0.26-3.14; P = 1.00). Response to [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC in metastasized iodine-refractory thyroid cancer was associated with longer survival. Upcoming trials should aim to increase the number of treatment cycles.

  16. VDRA therapy is associated with improved survival in dialysis patients with serum intact PTH ≤ 150 pg/mL: results of the Italian FARO Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Mario; Brancaccio, Diego; Cannella, Giuseppe; Messa, Piergiorgio; Gesualdo, Loreto; Marangella, Martino; LoDeserto, Cosimo; Pozzato, Marco; Rombolà, Giuseppe; Costanzo, Anna Maria; di Luzio Paparatti, Umberto; Mazzaferro, Sandro

    2012-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients affected by mineral bone disorders (MBD) have higher rates of all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality. Approximately, one-third of dialysis patients have low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (≤ 150 pg/mL). However, the reason why these patients have higher mortality compared to patients with normal PTH levels has not yet been fully elucidated. The FARO study was performed on 2453 Italian patients followed prospectively from 28 dialysis centres over a 2-year period. Data were collected every 6 months and end points included time-to-death cumulative probability in patients with serum intact PTH (iPTH) ≤ 150 pg/mL and the effect of vitamin D receptor activation (VDRA) therapy. Kaplan-Meier curves and proportional hazards regression models stratified by PTH levels (i.e. ≤ 150 and >150 pg/mL) were used to determine cumulative probability of time-to-death and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for demographic, clinical and CKD-MBD treatment characteristics. The cumulative probability of death was higher (P < 0.01) for patients with serum iPTH levels ≤ 150 pg/mL [25.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 22.1-28.5 at 18 months] versus those with serum iPTH levels within the normal range (18.0%, 95% CI: 16.1-20.1). In a model with time-dependent covariates restricted to time periods when patients had iPTH levels ≤ 150 pg/mL, lower mortality was observed in patients treated with VDRA [i.e. HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.42-0.92 for oral or intravenous (IV) calcitriol; HR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.04-0.8 for IV paricalcitol] versus those not receiving any VDRA (P < 0.01) independently of other variables. Patients who received IV paricalcitol, compared with either oral or IV calcitriol, showed reduced mortality, but this was not statistically significant (HR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.07-1.31, P = 0.11). Results from this observational study suggest that VDRA therapy was associated with improved survival in dialysis patients, even with low serum i

  17. Allelic variants of the amylose extender mutation of maize demonstrate phenotypic variation in starch structure resulting from modified protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fushan; Ahmed, Zaheer; Lee, Elizabeth A; Donner, Elizabeth; Liu, Qiang; Ahmed, Regina; Morell, Matthew K; Emes, Michael J; Tetlow, Ian J

    2012-02-01

    Amylose extender (ae(-)) starches characteristically have modified starch granule morphology resulting from amylopectin with reduced branch frequency and longer glucan chains in clusters, caused by the loss of activity of the major starch branching enzyme (SBE), which in maize endosperm is SBEIIb. A recent study with ae(-) maize lacking the SBEIIb protein (termed ae1.1 herein) showed that novel protein-protein interactions between enzymes of starch biosynthesis in the amyloplast could explain the starch phenotype of the ae1.1 mutant. The present study examined an allelic variant of the ae(-) mutation, ae1.2, which expresses a catalytically inactive form of SBEIIb. The catalytically inactive SBEIIb in ae1.2 lacks a 28 amino acid peptide (Val272-Pro299) and is unable to bind to amylopectin. Analysis of starch from ae1.2 revealed altered granule morphology and physicochemical characteristics distinct from those of the ae1.1 mutant as well as the wild-type, including altered apparent amylose content and gelatinization properties. Starch from ae1.2 had fewer intermediate length glucan chains (degree of polymerization 16-20) than ae1.1. Biochemical analysis of ae1.2 showed that there were differences in the organization and assembly of protein complexes of starch biosynthetic enzymes in comparison with ae1.1 (and wild-type) amyloplasts, which were also reflected in the composition of starch granule-bound proteins. The formation of stromal protein complexes in the wild-type and ae1.2 was strongly enhanced by ATP, and broken by phosphatase treatment, indicating a role for protein phosphorylation in their assembly. Labelling experiments with [γ-(32)P]ATP showed that the inactive form of SBEIIb in ae1.2 was phosphorylated, both in the monomeric form and in association with starch synthase isoforms. Although the inactive SBEIIb was unable to bind starch directly, it was strongly associated with the starch granule, reinforcing the conclusion that its presence in the granules

  18. Allelic variants of the amylose extender mutation of maize demonstrate phenotypic variation in starch structure resulting from modified protein–protein interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fushan; Ahmed, Zaheer; Lee, Elizabeth A.; Donner, Elizabeth; Liu, Qiang; Ahmed, Regina; Morell, Matthew K.; Emes, Michael J.; Tetlow, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    amylose extender (ae−) starches characteristically have modified starch granule morphology resulting from amylopectin with reduced branch frequency and longer glucan chains in clusters, caused by the loss of activity of the major starch branching enzyme (SBE), which in maize endosperm is SBEIIb. A recent study with ae− maize lacking the SBEIIb protein (termed ae1.1 herein) showed that novel protein–protein interactions between enzymes of starch biosynthesis in the amyloplast could explain the starch phenotype of the ae1.1 mutant. The present study examined an allelic variant of the ae− mutation, ae1.2, which expresses a catalytically inactive form of SBEIIb. The catalytically inactive SBEIIb in ae1.2 lacks a 28 amino acid peptide (Val272–Pro299) and is unable to bind to amylopectin. Analysis of starch from ae1.2 revealed altered granule morphology and physicochemical characteristics distinct from those of the ae1.1 mutant as well as the wild-type, including altered apparent amylose content and gelatinization properties. Starch from ae1.2 had fewer intermediate length glucan chains (degree of polymerization 16–20) than ae1.1. Biochemical analysis of ae1.2 showed that there were differences in the organization and assembly of protein complexes of starch biosynthetic enzymes in comparison with ae1.1 (and wild-type) amyloplasts, which were also reflected in the composition of starch granule-bound proteins. The formation of stromal protein complexes in the wild-type and ae1.2 was strongly enhanced by ATP, and broken by phosphatase treatment, indicating a role for protein phosphorylation in their assembly. Labelling experiments with [γ-32P]ATP showed that the inactive form of SBEIIb in ae1.2 was phosphorylated, both in the monomeric form and in association with starch synthase isoforms. Although the inactive SBEIIb was unable to bind starch directly, it was strongly associated with the starch granule, reinforcing the conclusion that its presence in the

  19. Demonstration of safety in Alzheimer's patients for intervention with an anti-hypertensive drug Nilvadipine: results from a 6-week open label study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, S P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Nilvadipine may lower rates of conversion from mild-cognitive impairment to Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD), in hypertensive patients. However, it remains to be determined whether treatment with nilvadipine is safe in AD patients, given the higher incidence of orthostatic hypotension (OH) in this population, who may be more likely to suffer from symptoms associated with the further exaggeration of a drop in BP. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and tolerability of nilvadipine in AD patients. METHODS: AD patients in the intervention group (n = 56) received nilvadipine 8 mg daily over 6-weeks, compared to the control group (n = 30) who received no intervention. Differences in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, before and after intervention, was assessed using automated sphygmomanometer readings and ambulatory BP monitors (ABP), and change in OH using a finometer. Reporting of adverse events was monitored throughout the study. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in the SBP of treated patients compared to non-treated patients but no significant change in DBP. Individuals with higher initial blood pressure (BP) had greater reduction in BP but individuals with normal BP did not experience much change in their BP. While OH was present in 84% of the patients, there was no further drop in BP recorded on active stand studies. There were no significant differences in adverse event reporting between groups. CONCLUSION: Nilvadipine was well tolerated by patients with AD. This study supports further investigation of its efficacy as a potential treatment for AD.

  20. Skipping of exon 30 in C5 gene results in complete human C5 deficiency and demonstrates the importance of C5d and CUB domains for stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Ramirez, P; Reis, E S; Florido, M P C; Barbosa, A S; Farah, C S; Costa-Carvalho, B T; Isaac, L

    2009-06-01

    The deficiency of complement C5 is rare and frequently associated with severe and recurrent infections, especially caused by Neisseria spp. We observed the absence of component C5 in the serum of 3 siblings from a Brazilian family with history of consanguinity. The patients had suffered from recurrent episodes of meningitis and other less severe infections. Sera from these patients were unable to mediate hemolytic activity either by the classical or alternative pathways and presented extremely low levels of C5 protein (1.3, 0.9 and 1.0 microg/ml-normal range: 45-190 microg/ml). Hemolytic activity could be restored by the addition of purified C5 to deficient serum. Sequencing of sibling C5 cDNA revealed a homozygous 153 bp deletion that corresponds precisely to exon 30. The parents carried the same deletion but only in one allele. Sequencing of the corresponding region in the genomic DNA revealed a C to G substitution within intron 30 and, most significantly, the substitution of GAG(4028) for GAA(4028) at the 3' end of exon 30 which is most likely responsible for skipping of exon 30. The resulting in-frame deletion in the C5 mRNA codes for a mutant C5 protein lacking residues 1289-1339. These residues map to the CUB and C5d domains of the C5 alpha chain. This deletion is expected to produce a non-functional and unstable C5 protein which is more susceptible to degradation.

  1. Beneficial impact of multidisciplinary team management on the survival in different stages of oral cavity cancer patients: results of a nationwide cohort study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Chen; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Wang, Shih-Ting; Huang, Kuang-Hua; Liu, Shih-An

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between multidisciplinary team (MDT) management and survival of oral cavity cancer patients using a nationwide database in Taiwan. A nationwide cohort study was conducted between 2005 and 2008. The follow-up end point was 2010. Claims data of oral cavity cancer patients were retrieved from the Taiwan Cancer Registry Database. Secondary data were obtained from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Among 19,766 newly diagnosed oral cavity cancer patients, we identified 16,991 patients who underwent treatment between 2004 and 2008 for further analyses. Overall survival was compared between patients who received MDT management (n=3324) and those who did not (n=13,367). Hazard ratios (HR) of death in patients with MDT management were also analyzed. Patients with MDT management had a lower risk of death when compared with that of patients without MDT management (HR: 0.94, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.89-1.00; P=0.032). The effect of MDT management on survival was stronger for male patients than for female patients (HR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-1.00; P=0.040 versus HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.75-1.27; P=0.866). In addition, the effect of MDT management was strong among patients with a Charlson Comorbidity Index between 4 and 6, in those without coexisting catastrophic illness/injury, and in patients with stage IV diseases. Survival rates in oral cavity cancer patients with MDT management appeared to be marginally better than those of patients without MDT management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term survival results of a randomized trial comparing gemcitabine plus cisplatin, with methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, plus cisplatin in patients with bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maase, Hans von der; Sengeløv, Lisa; Roberts, James T.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare long-term survival in patients with locally advanced       or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urothelium treated       with gemcitabine/cisplatin (GC) or       methotrexate/vinblastine/doxorubicin/cisplatin (MVAC). PATIENTS AND       METHODS: Efficacy data...... in patients with locally advanced or       metastatic TCC...

  3. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  4. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates...

  5. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-27

    Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate its fleet of Proterra battery electric buses (BEBs) in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This report provides data on the buses from April 2014 through July 2015. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  6. Association between smoking at diagnosis and cause-specific survival in patients with rectal cancer: Results from a population-based analysis of 10,794 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Linda; McDevitt, Joseph; Brown, Christopher; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Comber, Harry

    2017-07-01

    Currently, the 5-year survival rate for rectal cancer remains at associations between smoking and survival in rectal cancer; however, the evidence is inconsistent, and most of these studies were relatively small. In a large population-based cohort study, we investigated whether smoking at diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific survival in rectal cancer and whether the association varies by sex, age, or treatment. Rectal cancers (ICD10 C19-20) diagnosed between 1994 and 2012 were abstracted from the National Cancer Registry Ireland and classified by smoking status at diagnosis. Follow-up was for 5 years or until December 31, 2012. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare cancer-specific death rates in current smokers, ex-smokers, and never smokers. Subgroup analyses by age at diagnosis, sex, and treatment were conducted. A total of 10,794 rectal cancers were diagnosed. At diagnosis, 25% were current smokers, 24% were ex-smokers, and 51% were never smokers. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a significantly greater rate of death from cancer (multivariable hazard ratio [HR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.24), but ex-smokers did not (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94-1.11). The association was slightly stronger in men (current versus never smokers: HR = 1.13, 95% CI, 1.02-1.24) than females (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.90-1.23), but the test for interaction was not significant (P = .75). The effect of smoking was not modified by age or receipt of tumor-directed surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy. Rectal cancer patients who smoke at diagnosis have a statistically significant increased cancer death rate. Elucidation of the underlying mechanisms is urgently required. Cancer 2017;123:2543-50. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  7. Family history of colorectal cancer and its impact on survival in patients with resected stage III colon cancer: results from NCCTG Trial N0147 (Alliance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson-Knodell, Claire L; Foster, Nathan R; Sargent, Daniel J; Limburg, Paul J; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Smyrk, Thomas C; Sinicrope, Frank A; Jahagirdar, Balkrishna; Goldberg, Richard M; Alberts, Steven R

    2017-02-01

    Family history of colon cancer often portends increased risk of disease development; however, the prognostic significance of family history related to disease and survival outcomes is unclear. To investigate the relationship between family history of colorectal cancer and survival outcomes in stage III colon cancer patients, a prospective cohort of 1,935 patients with resected stage III colon cancer enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (N0147), comparing the standard of care FOLFOX to FOLFOX with cetuximab, was studied. Patients completed a baseline questionnaire on family history and were followed every 6 months until death or 5 years after randomization. We examined the endpoints of disease-free survival (DFS), time to recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS), comparing patients with a positive versus negative family history of colorectal cancer. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for patients with a positive family history were 0.95 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78-1.16] for DFS, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.76-1.16) for TTR, and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.74-1.15) for OS (all adjusted P>0.47). A non-significant trend toward improved DFS (P=0.17; adjusted P=0.34) was observed when 2 or more relatives were affected as compared to 0 relatives (multivariate HR: 0.72; 95% CI, 0.45-1.15), whereas subjects with histories of 0 or 1 affected relatives had similar DFS (multivariate HR for 1 vs. 0: 1.00; 95% CI, 0.81-1.24). Interactions of the molecular factors KRAS, BRAF, and MMR with family history were also explored. The only significant interaction was for deficient MMR (dMMR) and first-degree relatives with a family history of colorectal cancer (0 vs. 1 vs. 2+ relatives) for a benefit on OS (univariate P=0.001), which remained significant after adjusting for other factors (P=0.029). Among patients with stage III resected colon cancer treated with adjuvant FOLFOX, a family history of colorectal cancer did not significantly impact DFS, TTR, or OS outcomes, with the exception of

  8. Comparing street demonstrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klandermans, P.G.; van Stekelenburg, J.; Walgrave, S.

    2014-01-01

    This introductory article provides a short account of the theoretical framework and the methodological set-up of a comparative study of street demonstrations. The following articles in this issue report results from this study. The data on over 90 street demonstrations and more than 17,000

  9. Survival rate of one-piece dental implants placed with a flapless or flap protocol--a randomized, controlled study: 12-month results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froum, Stuart J; Cho, Sang Choon; Elian, Nicholas; Romanos, George; Jalbout, Ziad; Natour, Mazen; Norman, Robert; Neri, Dinah; Tarnow, Dennis P

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized controlled clinical study was to compare the survival of a one-piece anodically oxidized surface implant when placed with a flapless or flap protocol. Bone loss measurements on radiographs and changes in clinical probing depths 1 year post-definitive restoration placement were recorded and compared. Fifty-two of 60 patients (implants) remained in the study at the 1-year follow-up. At the time of final evaluation, no implant was lost in either group. At the time of placement of the definitive restoration, there was a mean mesial and distal bone gain in both groups compared to bone levels present at the time of implant insertion. There were no significant changes in bone levels between placement of the definitive restoration and those recorded 12 months later, and no significant differences in bone levels between the flap or flapless group at 6 or 12 months were noted. No significant differences were seen either in pocket depth or change in pocket depth at 6 and 12 months in the flapless and flap groups. It was therefore concluded that one-piece anodically oxidized surface implants, 1 year post-definitive restoration insertion, had high survival rates (100%) and stable marginal bone and probing depth levels whether a flapless or flap protocol was used for implant insertion.

  10. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  11. Malignant central nervous system tumors among adolescents and young adults (15-39 years old) in 14 Southern-Eastern European registries and the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program: Mortality and survival patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Marios K; Papathoma, Paraskevi; Ryzhov, Anton; Zivkovic-Perisic, Snezana; Eser, Sultan; Taraszkiewicz, Łukasz; Sekerija, Mario; Žagar, Tina; Antunes, Luis; Zborovskaya, Anna; Bastos, Joana; Florea, Margareta; Coza, Daniela; Demetriou, Anna; Agius, Domenic; Strahinja, Rajko M; Themistocleous, Marios; Tolia, Maria; Tzanis, Spyridon; Alexiou, George A; Papanikolaou, Panagiotis G; Nomikos, Panagiotis; Kantzanou, Maria; Dessypris, Nick; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Petridou, Eleni T

    2017-11-15

    Unique features and worse outcomes have been reported for cancers among adolescents and young adults (AYAs; 15-39 years old). The aim of this study was to explore the mortality and survival patterns of malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors among AYAs in Southern-Eastern Europe (SEE) in comparison with the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Malignant CNS tumors diagnosed in AYAs during the period spanning 1990-2014 were retrieved from 14 population-based cancer registries in the SEE region (n = 11,438). Age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated and survival patterns were evaluated via Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analyses, and they were compared with respective 1990-2012 figures from SEER (n = 13,573). Mortality rates in SEE (range, 11.9-18.5 deaths per million) were higher overall than the SEER rate (9.4 deaths per million), with decreasing trends in both regions. Survival rates increased during a comparable period (2001-2009) in SEE and SEER. The 5-year survival rate was considerably lower in the SEE registries (46%) versus SEER (67%), mainly because of the extremely low rates in Ukraine; this finding was consistent across age groups and diagnostic subtypes. The highest 5-year survival rates were recorded for ependymomas (76% in SEE and 92% in SEER), and the worst were recorded for glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas (28% in SEE and 37% in SEER). Advancing age, male sex, and rural residency at diagnosis adversely affected outcomes in both regions. Despite definite survival gains over the last years, the considerable outcome disparities between the less affluent SEE region and the United States for AYAs with malignant CNS tumors point to health care delivery inequalities. No considerable prognostic deficits for CNS tumors are evident for AYAs versus children. Cancer 2017;123:4458-71. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. The survival of Coxiella burnetii in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstigneeva, A. S.; Ul'Yanova, T. Yu.; Tarasevich, I. V.

    2007-05-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a pathogen of Q-fever—a widespread zoonosis. The effective adaptation of C. burnetii to intracellular existence is in contrast with its ability to survive in the environment outside the host cells and its resistance to chemical and physical agents. Its mechanism of survival remains unknown. However, its survival appears to be related to the developmental cycle of the microorganism itself, i.e., to the formation of its dormant forms. The survival of Coxiella burnetii was studied for the first time. The pathogenic microorganism was inoculated into different types of soil and cultivated under different temperatures. The survival of the pathogen was verified using a model with laboratory animals (mice). Viable C. burnetii were found in the soil even 20 days after their inoculation. The relationship between the organic carbon content in the soils and the survival of C. burnetii was revealed. Thus, the results obtained were the first to demonstrate that the soil may serve as a reservoir for the preservation and further spreading of the Q-fever pathogen in the environment, on the one hand, and reduce the risk of epidemics, on the other.

  13. Implant survival and success rates in patients with risk factors: results from a long-term retrospective study with a 10 to 18 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, F; Papi, P; Mencio, F; Rosella, D; Di Carlo, S; Pompa, G

    2017-02-01

    Risk factors for implant therapy are represented by all general and local conditions that through various mechanisms can increase either short-term and long-term failure risk. The aim of this study is to assess the implant survival and implant success rates with single and multiple risk factors. To address the research purpose, a retrospective cohort study was designed and implemented, including a sample of 225 patients with a total of 871 implants placed. The following risk factors were considered: smoking, bruxism, bone augmentation procedures and the presence of load risk (implants with crown/implant relation > 0.8; angulation > 25°; presence of cantilever). Follow-up ranged from 10 years to 18 years (average follow-up 13.6 years). Failures were subdivided into short-term failures, before the prosthetic phase, and long-term failures, after definitive prosthesis. The success criteria published by Albrektsson and Zarb were adopted. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to calculate hazard ratio, with a statistically significant p-value implants placed, 138 did not meet the success criteria, (success rate 84.16%), sixty (43.47%) were classified as "early failure" and seventy-eight as "late failure" (56.53%). A total of 70 dental implants were removed, with a survival rate of 91.96%. The presence of a single risk factor does not imply a marked increase of failure risk. Among the analyzed factors, the one that proved to be the most dangerous was bruxism, even when presented as the only risk factor. Bruxism with load risk proved to be the most dangerous association (success rate 69.23%) and could be included among the absolute contraindications for implant treatment.

  14. ABO blood groups and pancreatic cancer risk and survival: results from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzato, Cosmeri; Campa, Daniele; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Soucek, Pavel; Greenhalf, William; Capurso, Gabriele; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Heller, Anette; Jamroziak, Krzysztof; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Tim J; Bambi, Franco; Landi, Stefano; Mohelnikova-Duchonova, Beatrice; Vodickova, Ludmila; Büchler, Markus W; Bugert, Peter; Vodicka, Pavel; Neoptolemos, John P; Werner, Jens; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Bauer, Andrea S; Giese, Nathalia; Canzian, Federico

    2013-04-01

    There is strong epidemiologic evidence indicating that common genetic variability could be implicated in pancreatic cancer risk and, to date, various loci have been proposed. In particular, there is increasing evidence of the involvement of ABO gene variability and pancreatic cancer risk. In a large multicentric study of 1,028 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cases and 2,257 controls in the context of the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium, we investigated the suggested association with increased risk for carriers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) determining the A or B allele in comparison with the O allele, which encodes for a non-functional enzyme. Since glycosyltransferase activity, encoded by ABO, is higher for the A1 variant compared with the A2 variant, we investigated the hypothesis that A1 carriers were at an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. In our analysis, carriers of the A1 were indeed at greater risk of developing the disease. In addition, we investigated the possible influence that genetic variability at the ABO locus may have in pancreatic cancer survival, but we observed no effect in our population.

  15. Low remission rates but long drug survival in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with infliximab or etanercept: results from the nationwide Danish DANBIO database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unkerskov, J; Linde, L; Krogh, N S

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Since estrogen receptors (ER-alpha/ER-beta) were identified in human chondrocytes, animal and experimental studies have demonstrated the importance of continued estrogen production for the integrity of articular cartilage. However, human epidemiological support of the hypothesis has be...

  16. Tumor expression of calcium sensing receptor and colorectal cancer survival: Results from the nurses' health study and health professionals follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Masugi, Yohei; Qian, Zhi Rong; Nishihara, Reiko; Liu, Li; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Keum, NaNa; Zhang, Lanjing; Tchrakian, Nairi; Nowak, Jonathan A; Yang, Wanshui; Ma, Yanan; Bowden, Michaela; da Silva, Annacarolina; Wang, Molin; Fuchs, Charles S; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Ng, Kimmie; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward; Ogino, Shuji; Zhang, Xuehong

    2017-12-15

    Although experimental evidence suggests calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) as a tumor-suppressor, the prognostic role of tumor CASR expression in colorectal carcinoma remains unclear. We hypothesized that higher tumor CASR expression might be associated with improved survival among colorectal cancer patients. We evaluated tumor expression levels of CASR by immunohistochemistry in 809 incident colorectal cancer patients within the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate multivariable hazard ratio (HR) for the association of tumor CASR expression with colorectal cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. We adjusted for potential confounders including tumor biomarkers such as microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, LINE-1 methylation level, expressions of PTGS2, VDR and CTNNB1 and mutations of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA. There were 240 colorectal cancer-specific deaths and 427 all-cause deaths. The median follow-up of censored patients was 10.8 years (interquartile range: 7.2, 15.1). Compared with patients with no or weak expression of CASR, the multivariable HRs for colorectal cancer-specific mortality were 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55-1.16] in patients with moderate CASR expression and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.32-0.79) in patients with intense CASR expression (p-trend = 0.003). The corresponding HRs for overall mortality were 0.85 (0.64-1.13) and 0.81 (0.58-1.12), respectively. Higher tumor CASR expression was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer-specific mortality. This finding needs further confirmation and if confirmed, may lead to better understanding of the role of CASR in colorectal cancer progression. © 2017 UICC.

  17. Effects of coal combustion residues on survival, antioxidant potential, and genotoxicity resulting from full-lifecycle exposure of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio Holthius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmick, Danika M; Mitchelmore, Carys L; Hopkins, William A; Rowe, Christopher L

    2007-02-01

    Coal combustion residues (CCRs), largely derived from coal-fired electrical generation, are rich in numerous trace elements that have the potential to induce sublethal effects including oxidative stress, alterations in antioxidant status and DNA single strand breaks (SSB). CCRs are frequently discharged into natural and man-made aquatic systems. As the effects of CCRs have received relatively little attention in estuarine systems, the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was chosen for this study. Grass shrimp were exposed in the laboratory to CCR-enriched sediments and food over a full life cycle. Survival to metamorphosis was significantly reduced in CCR-exposed larvae (17+/-4 versus 70+/-13% in the controls) but not in the juveniles or adults. The COMET assay, a general but sensitive assay for genotoxicity, was used to quantify DNA SSB in the adults. Total antioxidant potential was examined to assess the overall antioxidant scavenging capacity of CCR-exposed and non-exposed adult grass shrimp. Grass shrimp exposed to CCR significantly accumulated selenium and cadmium compared to unexposed shrimp, although an inverse relationship was seen for mercury accumulation. Chronic CCR exposure caused DNA SSB in hepatopancreas cells, as evidenced by the significantly increased percent tail DNA, tail moment, and tail length as compared to reference shrimp. However, no significant difference was observed in total antioxidant potential. Our findings suggest that genotoxicity may be an important mode of toxicity of CCR, and that DNA SSB may serve as a useful biomarker of exposure and effect of this very common, complex waste stream.

  18. Final overall survival results and effect of prolonged (≥ 1 year) first-line bevacizumab-containing therapy for metastatic breast cancer in the ATHENA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ian; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Biganzoli, Laura; Cortes-Funes, Hernan; Thomssen, Christoph; Saracchini, Silvana; Nisenbaum, Bella; Pelaez, Ignacio; Duenne, Anja-Alexandra; Pritchard, Kathleen I

    2011-11-01

    The ATHENA study expanded on the safety and efficacy data derived from first-line trials of bevacizumab combined with standard chemotherapy for locally recurrent/metastatic breast cancer (LR/mBC). In ATHENA, 2,264 patients received first-line bevacizumab-containing therapy in routine oncology practice. Overall survival (OS) data are now mature; additional analyses from this large data set can provide insights into treatment duration and the effect of prolonged bevacizumab exposure, where data are currently limited. Patients with HER2-negative LR/mBC received first-line bevacizumab with standard chemotherapy until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or physician/patient decision. We performed subgroup analyses on data from patients treated for ≥12 months and those who continued single-agent bevacizumab after stopping chemotherapy. After median follow-up of 20.1 months, median OS was 25.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 24.0-26.3 months) in the entire population. Median OS was 30.0 months (95% CI 28.5-32.7 months) in 1,205 patients who continued bevacizumab after discontinuation of chemotherapy and 18.4 months (95% CI 17.2-19.7 months) in 1,058 patients who discontinued bevacizumab before or at the same time as stopping chemotherapy. Bevacizumab treatment was continued for ≥12 months in 473 patients (21%). In most, bevacizumab was administered as monotherapy for extended periods after stopping chemotherapy. In the subgroup of patients treated for ≥12 months, the median time to onset of grade 3-5 adverse events was 5.0 months. There was no evidence that first onset of adverse events of special interest, except for proteinuria, was more common in later than earlier cycles. No relationship was detected between development of hypertension and OS. Findings from these analyses suggest that patients with LR/mBC can receive bevacizumab for prolonged periods without major toxicity or progression of disease. In the absence of progression, continuation of

  19. The Number of Recalled Leads is Highly Predictive of Lead Failure: Results From the Pacemaker and Implantable Defibrillator Leads Survival Study ("PAIDLESS").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Daniel J; Yi, Jinju; Feldman, Alyssa M; Brahmbhatt, Kunal; Asheld, Wilbur J; Germano, Joseph; Islam, Shahidul; Cohen, Todd J

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if implantation of multiple recalled defibrillator leads is associated with an increased risk of lead failure. The authors of the Pacemaker and Implantable Defibrillator Leads Survival Study ("PAIDLESS") have previously reported a relationship between recalled lead status, lead failure, and patient mortality. This substudy analyzes the relationship in a smaller subset of patients who received more than one recalled lead. The specific effects of having one or more recalled leads have not been previously examined. This study analyzed lead failure and mortality of 3802 patients in PAIDLESS and compared outcomes with respect to the number of recalled leads received. PAIDLESS includes all patients at Winthrop University Hospital who underwent defibrillator lead implantation between February 1, 1996 and December 31, 2011. Patients with no recalled ICD leads, one recalled ICD lead, and two recalled ICD leads were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Sidak adjustment method was used to correct for multiple comparisons. All calculations were performed using SAS 9.4. P-values leads implanted during the trial period. There were 2400 leads (59%) in the no recalled leads category, 1620 leads (40%) in the one recalled lead category, and 58 leads (1%) in the two recalled leads category. No patient received more than two recalled leads. Of the leads categorized in the two recalled leads group, 12 experienced lead failures (21%), which was significantly higher (Pleads group (60 failures, 2.5%) and one recalled lead group (81 failures; 5%). Multivariable Cox's regression analysis found a total of six significant predictive variables for lead failure including the number of recalled leads (Pleads group). The number of recalled leads is highly predictive of lead failure. Lead-based multivariable Cox's regression analysis produced a total of six predictive variable categories for lead failure, one of which was the number

  20. A comparison of the demographics, clinical features, and survival of patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma of major and minor salivary glands versus less common sites within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Xu, Li; Zhao, Hui; El-Naggar, Adel K; Sturgis, Erich M

    2012-08-15

    The scientific literature to date lacks population-based studies on the demographics, clinical features, and survival of patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of different anatomic sites. The authors identified 5349 patients who had ACC of the major salivary glands (N = 1850), minor salivary glands (N = 2077), breast (N = 696), skin (N = 291), lung and bronchus (N = 203), female genital system (N = 132), and eye and orbit (N = 100) from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. Differences in demographics, clinical features, and survival of patients were assessed. ACC of the eye and orbit was associated with younger age at presentation (mean age,49.9 years). ACC of the skin or breast tended to present with less aggressive prognostic features, whereas ACC of the lung and bronchus or eye and orbit tended to present with more aggressive prognostic features. In a multivariate survival analysis of patients who presented with localized disease, patients with ACC of the breast (hazard ratio [HR], 0.40) or skin (HR, 0.40) had a significantly lower risk death than patients with ACC of the major salivary glands; whereas patients with ACC of the lung and bronchus (HR, 3.72) or the eye and orbit (HR, 3.67) had a significantly higher risk. For patients who presented with regional disease, the only clear prognostic difference in multivariate analysis was that patients with ACC of skin fared significantly better. The demographics and clinical features of patients with ACC differ by disease site. The current results indicated that site may be an important predictor of survival for patients who present with localized disease but is less important for patients who present with regional disease. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  1. Inseparable Phone Books Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation…

  2. Survivability of a metapopulation under local extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Srilena; Majhi, Soumen; Sasmal, Sourav Kumar; Ghosh, Dibakar; Rakshit, Biswambhar

    2017-12-01

    A metapopulation structure in landscape ecology comprises a group of interacting spatially separated subpopulations or patches of the same species that may experience several local extinctions. This makes the investigation of survivability (in the form of global oscillation) of a metapopulation on top of diverse dispersal topologies extremely crucial. However, among various dispersal topologies in ecological networks, which one can provide higher metapopulation survivability under local extinction is still not well explored. In this article, we scrutinize the robustness of an ecological network consisting of prey-predator patches having Holling type I functional response, against progressively extinct population patches. We present a comprehensive study on this while considering global, small-world, and scale-free dispersal of the subpopulations. Furthermore, we extend our work in enhancing survivability in the form of sustained global oscillation by introducing asymmetries in the dispersal rates of the considered species. Our findings affirm that the asynchrony among the patches plays an important role in the survivability of a metapopulation. In order to demonstrate the model independence of the observed phenomenon, we perform a similar analysis for patches exhibiting Holling type II functional response. On the grounds of the obtained results, our work is expected to provide a better perception of the influence of dispersal arrangements on the global survivability of ecological networks.

  3. Pretreatment levels of peripheral neutrophils and leukocytes as independent predictors of overall survival in patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage IV Melanoma: results of the EORTC 18951 Biochemotherapy Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik; Suciu, Stefan; Punt, Cornelis J A

    2007-01-01

    of neutrophils and leukocytes were analyzed together with other known prognostic factors: serum lactate dehydrogenase, performance status, metastatic site, and sex. Two multivariate prognostic factor analyses were carried out in the model: one with leukocyte counts and one with neutrophil counts. RESULTS......: A total of 363 patients were randomly assigned and baseline blood neutrophil and leukocyte counts were available from 316 and 350 patients, respectively. A high neutrophil count (> 7.5 x 10(9)/L) was an independent prognostic factor for short overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.1; P...... = 0.02), and a high leukocyte count (> 10 x 10(9)/L) was an independent prognostic factor of both short overall survival (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.4; P = 0.0005) and short progression-free survival (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.1; P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: A high pretreatment count of neutrophils in blood...

  4. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  5. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  6. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  7. Trends in incidence, survival, and management of uveal melanoma: a population-based study of 7,516 patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendraraj K

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Krishnaraj Mahendraraj,1 Christine SM Lau,1,2 Injoon Lee,2 Ronald S Chamberlain1–3 1Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2St George’s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies; 3Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA Introduction: Uveal melanoma (UM is the most common primary intraocular malignancy, despite comprising <5% of all melanomas. To date, relatively few case series of UM have been published. Moreover, the factors influencing survival remain largely unknown. This study sought to analyze the impact of demographics, histology, clinical presentation, and treatments on the clinical outcomes of UM in a large modern nationwide patient cohort.Methods: Demographics and clinical data were abstracted on 277,120 histologically confirmed melanoma patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database between 1973 and 2012.Results: A total of 7,516 cases of UM represented 3.2% of all recorded cases of melanoma. The mean age-adjusted incidence was 5.1 per million (95% CI 4.2–6.1 and was higher in males (5.9, CI =4.4–7.6 compared to females (4.5, CI =3.3–5.8, P<0.001. UM occurred most commonly in the sixth decade of life (61.4±15 and among Caucasians (94.7%. A total of 52.3% of cases were reported in the Western US (35.7% in California. The initial diagnoses in 65.2% of cases were by histopathology, followed by clinical diagnosis (18.8% and radiographic imaging (16.0%. The percentage of UM cases managed by surgery alone decreased by 69.4% between the 1973–1977 and 2006–2012 time periods, concomitant with a 62% increase in primary radiotherapy, P<0.001. The UM mean overall and cancer-specific 5-year relative survival rates were 79.8%±5.8% and 76%±5.3%, respectively. The mean 5-year cancer-specific survival rate (76% remained stable during the study period between 1973 and 2012. The mean survival for patients treated with

  8. Failure pattern and survival after breast conserving therapy. Long-term results of the Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) 89 TM cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngholm, C D; Laurberg, T; Alsner, J

    2016-01-01

    Based on the results from the DBCG 82 trial, breast conserving therapy (BCT) has been implemented as standard in Denmark since 1989, and today constitutes more than 70% of the primary treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the implementation of BCT as a routine procedure in patients treated according...

  9. Aircraft Survivability: Rotorcraft Survivability. Summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    protect those who serve to protect us?” The answer is a mixed bag. I am fortunate to have joined a group of dedicated men and women who represent this...and Service subject matter experts on rotorcraft safety and survivability to complete the study and report the results to the Joint Chiefs of...Operations and Support CDD TEMP DT DT/OT LUT IOT &E BLRIP TEMP TEMP LRIP Acquisition & LFT Strategies B C LFT&E Review Requirements Approve TEMPs

  10. Effect of dialyzer membrane materials on survival in chronic hemodialysis patients: Results from the annual survey of the Japanese Nationwide Dialysis Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masanori; Hamano, Takayuki; Wada, Atsushi; Nakai, Shigeru; Masakane, Ikuto

    2017-01-01

    Little information is available regarding which type of dialyzer membrane results in good prognosis in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Therefore, we conducted a cohort study from a nationwide registry of hemodialysis patients in Japan to establish the association between different dialyzer membranes and mortality rates. We followed 142,412 patients on maintenance hemodialysis (female, 39.1%; mean age, 64.8 ± 12.3 years; median dialysis duration, 7 [4-12] years) for a year from 2008 to 2009. We included patients treated with seven types of high-flux dialyzer membranes at baseline, including cellulose triacetate (CTA), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVAL), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyester polymer alloy (PEPA), polyethersulfone (PES), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and polysulfone (PS). Cox regression was used to estimate the association between baseline dialyzers and all-cause mortality as hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for 1-year mortality adjusting for potential confounders, and propensity score matching analysis was performed. The distribution of patients treated with each membrane was as follows: PS (56.0%), CTA (17.3%), PES (12.0%), PEPA (7.5%), PMMA (4.9%), PAN (1.2%), and EVAL (1.1%). When data were adjusted using basic factors, with PS as a reference group, the mortality rate was significantly higher in all groups except for the PES group. When data were further adjusted for dialysis-related factors, HRs were significantly higher for the CTA, EVAL, and PEPA groups. When the data were further adjusted for nutrition-and inflammation-related factors, HRs were significantly lower for the PMMA and PES groups compared with the PS group. After propensity score matching, HRs were significantly lower for the PMMA group than for the PS group. The results suggest that the use of different membrane types may affect mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, further long-term prospective studies are needed to clarify these findings, including whether the

  11. Dying to remember, remembering to survive: mortality salience and survival processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Daniel J; Hart, Joshua; Kramer, Melanie E; Burns, Amy D

    2014-01-01

    Processing items for their relevance to survival improves recall for those items relative to numerous other deep processing encoding techniques. Perhaps related, placing individuals in a mortality salient state has also been shown to enhance retention of items encoded after the morality salience manipulation (e.g., in a pleasantness rating task), a phenomenon we dubbed the "dying-to-remember" (DTR) effect. The experiments reported here further explored the effect and tested the possibility that the DTR effect is related to survival processing. Experiment 1 replicated the effect using different encoding tasks, demonstrating that the effect is not dependent on the pleasantness task. In Experiment 2 the DTR effect was associated with increases in item-specific processing, not relational processing, according to several indices. Experiment 3 replicated the main results of Experiment 2, and tested the effects of mortality salience and survival processing within the same experiment. The DTR effect and its associated difference in item-specific processing were completely eliminated when the encoding task required survival processing. These results are consistent with the interpretation that the mechanisms responsible for survival processing and DTR effects are overlapping.

  12. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing the SNOX innovative clean coal technology demonstration. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utilities. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study; Results presents the concentration data on HAPs in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data; and Special Topics report on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/solid distributions of HAPs. Volume 2: Appendices include quality assurance/quality control results, uncertainty analysis for emission factors, and data sheets. This study involved measurements of a variety of substances in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration (ICCT) of the Wet Sulfuric Acid-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SNOX) process. The SNOX demonstration is being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Niles Boiler No. 2 which uses cyclone burners to burn bituminous coal. A 35 megawatt slipstream of flue gas from the boiler is used to demonstrate SNOX. The substances measured at the SNOX process were the following: 1. Five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; 2. Acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); 3. Ammonia and cyanide; 4. Elemental carbon; 5. Radionuclides; 6. Volatile organic compounds (VOC); 7. Semi-volatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); and 8. Aldehydes.

  13. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  14. Inseparable phone books demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-05-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation and experiment steps are presented on how to turn a simple discrepant event into an instructional activity. Results showed the relationships between number of pages and force, as well as between amounts of interleave and force. In addition to these, the mathematical equation for the total force between all interleaved pages is derived. As a conclusion, this study demonstrated that not only can phone books be used, but also ordinary books, to investigate this discrepant event. This experiment can be conducted as an example to show the agreement between theoretical and experimental results along with the confounding variables. This discrepant event can be used to create a cognitive conflict in students’ minds about the concepts of ‘force and motion’ and ‘friction force’.

  15. Revisiting the survival mnemonic effect in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pand eirada, Josefa N S; Pires, Luísa; Soares, Sandra C

    2014-04-29

    The survival processing paradigm is designed to explore the adaptive nature of memory functioning. The mnemonic advantage of processing information in fitness-relevant contexts, as has been demonstrated using this paradigm, is now well established, particularly in young adults; this phenomenon is often referred to as the "survival processing effect." In the current experiment, we revisited the investigation of this effect in children and tested it in a new cultural group, using a procedure that differs from the existing studies with children. A group of 40 Portuguese children rated the relevance of unrelated words to a survival and a new moving scenario. This encoding task was followed by a surprise free-recall task. Akin to what is typically found, survival processing produced better memory performance than the control condition (moving). These data put on firmer ground the idea that a mnemonic tuning to fitness-relevant encodings is present early in development. The theoretical importance of this result to the adaptive memory literature is discussed, as well as potential practical implications of this kind of approach to the study of memory in children.

  16. Revisiting the Survival Mnemonic Effect in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa N. S. Pand Eirada

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The survival processing paradigm is designed to explore the adaptive nature of memory functioning. The mnemonic advantage of processing information in fitness-relevant contexts, as has been demonstrated using this paradigm, is now well established, particularly in young adults; this phenomenon is often referred to as the “survival processing effect.” In the current experiment, we revisited the investigation of this effect in children and tested it in a new cultural group, using a procedure that differs from the existing studies with children. A group of 40 Portuguese children rated the relevance of unrelated words to a survival and a new moving scenario. This encoding task was followed by a surprise free-recall task. Akin to what is typically found, survival processing produced better memory performance than the control condition (moving. These data put on firmer ground the idea that a mnemonic tuning to fitness-relevant encodings is present early in development. The theoretical importance of this result to the adaptive memory literature is discussed, as well as potential practical implications of this kind of approach to the study of memory in children.

  17. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an extensive review of the empirical evidence found for Sweden concerning plant survival. The result reveals that foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants have the lowest exit rates, followed by purely domestic-oriented plants, and that domestic MNE plants have...... the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...... exporters, but not other types of plants, improves post acquisition....

  18. Fiscal 2000 report on result of R and D of nonmetallic material recycling promotion technology (demonstration test and research, total system technology); 2000 nendo hitetsu kinzokukei sozai recycle sokushin gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Jissho shiken kenkyu, total system gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    R and D was conducted on advanced recycling technology for aluminum and base metal/rare metal based materials, with fiscal 2000 results compiled. In the research of aluminum recycling technology, on a continuous fractional crystallization process and a purification by zinc removal process, the existing facilities for each demonstrated that they could simulate an aluminum scrap melting process capacity of 1,000 t/month, with a series of initial conditions determined. In the research of total system technology, combined test facilities were completed in which a purification process and a melt cleaning process were integrated. In the research of the recycling technology for base metal/rare metal based materials, a test was carried out by demonstrative facilities, with the aim of establishing copper regeneration technology in which high grade copper is produced using metal/resin based scraps such as shredder dust of automobiles as the materials. In structuring the total system technology, a preliminary survey and environmental load measures were carried out toward the practicability of a comprehensive copper metal collection recycling system. (NEDO)

  19. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings......, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations...... of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality....

  20. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings......, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations...... of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality....

  1. Addition of docetaxel, zoledronic acid, or both to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): survival results from an adaptive, multiarm, multistage, platform randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Nicholas D; Sydes, Matthew R; Clarke, Noel W; Mason, Malcolm D; Dearnaley, David P; Spears, Melissa R; Ritchie, Alastair W S; Parker, Christopher C; Russell, J Martin; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann; Cross, William; Jones, Rob J; Thalmann, George; Amos, Claire; Matheson, David; Millman, Robin; Alzouebi, Mymoona; Beesley, Sharon; Birtle, Alison J; Brock, Susannah; Cathomas, Richard; Chakraborti, Prabir; Chowdhury, Simon; Cook, Audrey; Elliott, Tony; Gale, Joanna; Gibbs, Stephanie; Graham, John D; Hetherington, John; Hughes, Robert; Laing, Robert; McKinna, Fiona; McLaren, Duncan B; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Parikh, Omi; Peedell, Clive; Protheroe, Andrew; Robinson, Angus J; Srihari, Narayanan; Srinivasan, Rajaguru; Staffurth, John; Sundar, Santhanam; Tolan, Shaun; Tsang, David; Wagstaff, John; Parmar, Mahesh K B

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Long-term hormone therapy has been the standard of care for advanced prostate cancer since the 1940s. STAMPEDE is a randomised controlled trial using a multiarm, multistage platform design. It recruits men with high-risk, locally advanced, metastatic or recurrent prostate cancer who are starting first-line long-term hormone therapy. We report primary survival results for three research comparisons testing the addition of zoledronic acid, docetaxel, or their combination to standard of care versus standard of care alone. Methods Standard of care was hormone therapy for at least 2 years; radiotherapy was encouraged for men with N0M0 disease to November, 2011, then mandated; radiotherapy was optional for men with node-positive non-metastatic (N+M0) disease. Stratified randomisation (via minimisation) allocated men 2:1:1:1 to standard of care only (SOC-only; control), standard of care plus zoledronic acid (SOC + ZA), standard of care plus docetaxel (SOC + Doc), or standard of care with both zoledronic acid and docetaxel (SOC + ZA + Doc). Zoledronic acid (4 mg) was given for six 3-weekly cycles, then 4-weekly until 2 years, and docetaxel (75 mg/m2) for six 3-weekly cycles with prednisolone 10 mg daily. There was no blinding to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was overall survival. Pairwise comparisons of research versus control had 90% power at 2·5% one-sided α for hazard ratio (HR) 0·75, requiring roughly 400 control arm deaths. Statistical analyses were undertaken with standard log-rank-type methods for time-to-event data, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs derived from adjusted Cox models. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00268476) and ControlledTrials.com (ISRCTN78818544). Findings 2962 men were randomly assigned to four groups between Oct 5, 2005, and March 31, 2013. Median age was 65 years (IQR 60–71). 1817 (61%) men had M+ disease, 448 (15%) had N+/X M0, and 697 (24%) had N0M0. 165 (6

  2. Survival after blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Ahlgren, Martin; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    of transfusion recipients in Denmark and Sweden followed for up to 20 years after their first blood transfusion. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,118,261 transfusion recipients were identified, of whom 62.0 percent were aged 65 years or older at the time of their first...... the SMR remained significantly 1.3-fold increased. CONCLUSION: The survival and relative mortality patterns among blood transfusion recipients were characterized with unprecedented detail and precision. Our results are relevant to assessments of the consequences of possible transfusion-transmitted disease...... as well as for cost-benefit estimation of new blood safety interventions....

  3. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  4. Clustered survival data with left-truncation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Left-truncation occurs frequently in survival studies, and it is well known how to deal with this for univariate survival times. However, there are few results on how to estimate dependence parameters and regression effects in semiparametric models for clustered survival data with delayed entry...

  5. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  6. Protest Demonstrations, Political Partici

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    2015-04-14

    Apr 14, 2015 ... and, even a non terrorist demonstrating crowd is a target of terrorist whose goal is to kill and maim in high numbers. Besides, like terrorism, protest demonstration may threaten the political elite, the dominant class and the state. Protests demonstrations have therefore become contextually different in.

  7. Comparing Demonstratives in Kwa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... semantics and pragmatics of the demonstratives will be examined. We will focus on the deictic and qualitative features embedded in the demonstrative forms. Of particular interest will be what we suggest to be a grammaticalization process involving the Ewe proximal demonstrative. 182 Legan Journal of the HUMANITIES.

  8. Adolescents' Demonstrative Behavior Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfilova, Gulfiya G.; Karimova, Lilia Sh.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of demonstrative behavior is very topical among teenagers and this issue has become the subject of systematic scientific research. Demonstrative manifestations in adolescents disrupt the favorable socialization; therefore, understanding, prevention and correction of demonstrative behavior at this age is relevant and requires special…

  9. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  10. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  11. Design of survivable networks

    CERN Document Server

    Stoer, Mechthild

    1992-01-01

    The problem of designing a cost-efficient network that survives the failure of one or more nodes or edges of the network is critical to modern telecommunications engineering. The method developed in this book is designed to solve such problems to optimality. In particular, a cutting plane approach is described, based on polyhedral combinatorics, that is ableto solve real-world problems of this type in short computation time. These results are of interest for practitioners in the area of communication network design. The book is addressed especially to the combinatorial optimization community, but also to those who want to learn polyhedral methods. In addition, interesting new research problemsare formulated.

  12. Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) tail camera video

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) was a joint research project by NASA and the FAA to test a survivable aircraft impact using a remotely piloted Boeing 720 aircraft. The tail camera movie is one shot running 27 seconds. It shows the impact from the perspective of a camera mounted high on the vertical stabilizer, looking forward over the fuselage and wings.

  13. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  14. Cognitive function in families with exceptional survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barral, Sandra; Cosentino, Stephanie; Costa, Rosann

    2012-01-01

    members in the offspring generation demonstrate significantly better performance on multiple tasks requiring attention, working memory, and semantic processing when compared with individuals without a family history of exceptional survival, suggesting that cognitive performance may serve as an important...

  15. A Stellar Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the stellar demonstrator is to help explain the movement of stars. In particular, students have difficulties understanding why, if they are living in the Northern Hemisphere, they may observe starts in the Southern Hemisphere, or why circumpolar stars are not the same in different parts of Europe. Using the demonstrator, these…

  16. Long-term survival results of a randomized phase III trial of vinflunine plus best supportive care versus best supportive care alone in advanced urothelial carcinoma patients after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellmunt, J; Fougeray, R; Rosenberg, J E

    2013-01-01

    To compare long-term, updated overall survival (OS) of patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium (TCCU) treated with vinflunine plus best supportive care (BSC) or BSC alone, after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy.......To compare long-term, updated overall survival (OS) of patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium (TCCU) treated with vinflunine plus best supportive care (BSC) or BSC alone, after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy....

  17. Demonstration of SQUID Parametric Amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMPLIFIERS, *PREAMPLIFIERS, *RECEIVERS, *SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, CEPHALOPODA , ELECTROMAGNETISM, HETERODYNING, INTERFERENCE, LEVEL(QUANTITY), LIMITATIONS, MILLIMETER WAVES, NOISE, QUANTUM THEORY, RADIOFREQUENCY, SURVIVABILITY, TEMPERATURE.

  18. Demonstration of Surface Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Andrew J.

    2001-01-01

    Surface tension is a fundamental obstacle in the spontaneous formation of bubbles, droplets, and crystal nuclei in liquids. Describes a simple overhead projector demonstration that illustrates the power of surface tension that can prevent so many industrial processes. (ASK)

  19. TENCompetence tool demonstration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijfhout, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Kluijfhout, E. (2009). TENCompetence tool demonstration. Presented at Zorgacademie Parkstad (Health Academy Parkstad), Limburg Leisure Academy, Life Long Learning Limburg and a number of regional educational institutions. May, 18, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands,

  20. Land Management Research Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002, Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge became one of the first Land Management and Research Demonstration (LMRD) sites. These sites are intended to serve as...

  1. Epidemiology and Survival Analysis of Jordanian Female Breast Cancer Patients Diagnosed from 1997 to 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Sharkas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Jordanian women, yet survival data are scarce. This study aims to assess the observed five-year survival rate of breast cancer in Jordan from 1997 to 2002 and to determine factors that may influence survival. Methods: Data were obtained from the Jordan Cancer Registry (JCR, which is a population-based registry. From 1997-2002, 2121 patients diagnosed with breast cancer were registered in JCR. Relevant data were collected from JCR files, hospital medical records and histopathology reports. Patient's status, whether alive or dead, wasascertained from the Department of Civil Status using patients’ national numbers (ID. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS (version 10. Survival probabilities by age, morphology, grade, stage and other relevant variables were obtained with the Kaplan Meier method. Results: The overall five-year survival for breast cancer in Jordan, regardless of the stage or grade was 64.2%, meanwhile it was 58% in the group aged less than 30 years. The best survival was in the age group 40-49 years (69.3%. The survival for adenocarcinoma was 57.4% and for medullary carcinoma, it was 82%. The survival rate approximated 73.8% for well-differentiated, 55.6% for anaplastic, and 58% for poorly differentiated cancers. The five-year survival rate was 82.7% for stage I, 72.2% for stage II, 58.7% for stage III, and 34.6% for stage IV cancers.Conclusion: According to univariate analysis, stage, grade, age and laterality of breast cancer significantly influenced cancer survival. Cox regression analysis revealed that stage, grade and age factors correlated with prognosis, while laterality showed no significant effect on survival. Results demonstrated that overall survival was relatively poor. We hypothesized that this was due to low levels of awareness and lack of screening programs.

  2. Activated macrophage survival is coordinated by TAK1 binding proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    September R Mihaly

    Full Text Available Macrophages play diverse roles in tissue homeostasis and immunity, and canonically activated macrophages are critically associated with acute inflammatory responses. It is known that activated macrophages undergo cell death after transient activation in some settings, and the viability of macrophages impacts on inflammatory status. Here we report that TGFβ- activated kinase (TAK1 activators, TAK1-binding protein 1 (TAB1 and TAK1-binding protein 2 (TAB2, are critical molecules in the regulation of activated macrophage survival. While deletion of Tak1 induced cell death in bone marrow derived macrophages even without activation, Tab1 or Tab2 deletion alone did not profoundly affect survival of naïve macrophages. However, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated macrophages, even single deletion of Tab1 or Tab2 resulted in macrophage death with both necrotic and apoptotic features. We show that TAB1 and TAB2 were redundantly involved in LPS-induced TAK1 activation in macrophages. These results demonstrate that TAK1 activity is the key to activated macrophage survival. Finally, in an in vivo setting, Tab1 deficiency impaired increase of peritoneal macrophages upon LPS challenge, suggesting that TAK1 complex regulation of macrophages may participate in in vivo macrophage homeostasis. Our results demonstrate that TAB1 and TAB2 are required for activated macrophages, making TAB1 and TAB2 effective targets to control inflammation by modulating macrophage survival.

  3. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  4. Pancreaticopleural fistula : CT demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Jin Kyeung [Chuncheon Medical Center, ChunChon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    In patients with chronic pancreatitis, the pancreaticopleural fistula is known to cause recurrent exudative or hemorrhagic pleural effusions. These are often large in volume and require treatment, unlike the effusions in acute pancreatitis. Diagnosis can be made either by the finding of elevated pleural fluid amylase level or, using imaging studies, by the direct demonstration of the fistulous tract. We report two cases of pancreaticopleural fistula demonstrated by computed tomography.

  5. Psychology and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D P; Ruth, T E; Wagner, L M

    1993-11-06

    We examined the deaths of 28,169 adult Chinese-Americans, and 412,632 randomly selected, matched controls coded "white" on the death certificate. Chinese-Americans, but not whites, die significantly earlier than normal (1.3-4.9 yr) if they have a combination of disease and birthyear which Chinese astrology and medicine consider ill-fated. The more strongly a group is attached to Chinese traditions, the more years of life are lost. Our results hold for nearly all major causes of death studied. The reduction in survival cannot be completely explained by a change in the behaviour of the Chinese patient, doctor, or death-registrar, but seems to result at least partly from psychosomatic processes.

  6. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O. [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  7. Shaft mode shape demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, R.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic response of a rotating machine is directly influenced by its geometric configuration and all aspects of the rotor construction. These determine two significant parameters, mass distribution and stiffness, which yield a spectrum of natural frequencies and mode shapes. The mode shapes can be presented as snapshots of the characteristic amplitude/phase reponse patterns of the shaft, due to the major forcing function of unbalance, at different rotative speeds. To demonstrate the three shaft mode shapes of the rotor rig using the Shaft Mode Demonstrator and oscilloscopes. The synchronous (1X) amplitude and phase of the rotor vibration in the vertical direction from several points along the shaft is displayed on corresponding points of the demonstrator. Unfiltered vibration from vertical and horizontal probe pairs is displayed on the oscilloscopes in orbit format for a dynamic presentation of the mode shape.

  8. TRUEX hot demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

  9. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-dependent survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eFrançois

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs. However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226. We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population towards detection of environmental odorants.

  10. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-driven survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Adrien; Laziz, Iman; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Grebert, Denise; Durieux, Didier; Pajot-Augy, Edith; Meunier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226). We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population toward detection of environmental odorants. PMID:24399931

  11. High-dimensional, massive sample-size Cox proportional hazards regression for survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Sushil; Madigan, David; Burd, Randall S; Suchard, Marc A

    2014-04-01

    Survival analysis endures as an old, yet active research field with applications that spread across many domains. Continuing improvements in data acquisition techniques pose constant challenges in applying existing survival analysis methods to these emerging data sets. In this paper, we present tools for fitting regularized Cox survival analysis models on high-dimensional, massive sample-size (HDMSS) data using a variant of the cyclic coordinate descent optimization technique tailored for the sparsity that HDMSS data often present. Experiments on two real data examples demonstrate that efficient analyses of HDMSS data using these tools result in improved predictive performance and calibration.

  12. Prognostic factors for survival and for biochemical cure in medullary thyroid carcinoma: results in 899 patients. The GETC Study Group. Groupe d'étude des tumeurs à calcitonine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modigliani, E; Cohen, R; Campos, J M; Conte-Devolx, B; Maes, B; Boneu, A; Schlumberger, M; Bigorgne, J C; Dumontier, P; Leclerc, L; Corcuff, B; Guilhem, I

    1998-03-01

    Prognostic factors of sporadic or inherited medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) are still controversial and have been assessed in old and small series. A better knowledge of these factors would improve patient management. To evaluate factors involved in the prognosis of MTC in a large series of cases, using uni- and multivariate analysis. Clinical, biological, surgical and epidemiological data on 899 MTC patients, diagnosed between 1952 and 1996, were collected by the French Calcitonin Tumors Study Group (GETC) with a standardized questionnaire, and processed in a national database. Survival and biochemical cure (i.e. normal basal post-operative serum calcitonin levels) were analysed with Kaplan and Meier and log-rank test statistical procedures. Data are presented as adjusted rather than observed survival, to consider only patients who died of MTC. Cox's forward-stepping proportional hazard model was used to analyse factors with a significant influence on survival by univariate analysis. Apart from the large proportion of familial forms (43%), the general characteristics of our population were similar to those in other studies: mean age at surgery = 43.4 years; sex ratio = 1 male/1.35 female; stage I = 20.8%; stage II = 21.2%; stage III = 46.5% and stage IV = 11.5%. 863 (96%) patients underwent surgery; 43% of operated patients were biochemically cured. Adjusted survival was 85.7 +/- 1.5% at 5 years and 78.4 +/- 2.1% at 10 years. Multivariate analysis showed that age and stage were independent predictive factors of survival. Gender, type of surgery, type of familial form were predictive only in univariate analysis. Biochemical cure predicts a survival rate of 97.7% at 10 years. Authentic recurrence, that is subsequent elevation of calcitonin (CT) after post-operative normalization, was found in 4.9%. In non-cured patients (57%), survival was still good: 80.2% (+/- 2.2%) and 70.3% (+/- 2.9%) at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Similarly, prediction of biochemical cure

  13. Organic Lecture Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silversmith, Ernest F.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a listing of 35 demonstrations designed to generate interest in organic chemistry and help put points across. Topics include opening lecture; molecular structure and properties; halogenation; nucleophilic substitution, alkenes and dienes, stereochemistry, spectroscopy, alcohols and phenols, aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids, amines,…

  14. Survival of Salmonella Newport in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher M; Armstrong, Alexandra E; Evans, Sanford; Mild, Rita M; Langdon, Christopher J; Joens, Lynn A

    2011-08-02

    Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of laboratory-confirmed foodborne illness in the United States and raw shellfish consumption is a commonly implicated source of gastrointestinal pathogens. A 2005 epidemiological study done in our laboratory by Brands et al., showed that oysters in the United States are contaminated with Salmonella, and in particular, a specific strain of the Newport serovar. This work sought to further investigate the host-microbe interactions between Salmonella Newport and oysters. A procedure was developed to reliably and repeatedly expose oysters to enteric bacteria and quantify the subsequent levels of bacterial survival. The results show that 10 days after an exposure to Salmonella Newport, an average concentration of 3.7 × 10(3)CFU/g remains within the oyster meat, and even after 60 days there still can be more than 10(2)CFU/g remaining. However, the strain of Newport that predominated in the market survey done by Brands et al. does not survive within oysters or the estuarine environment better than any other strains of Salmonella we tested. Using this same methodology, we compared Salmonella Newport's ability to survive within oysters to a non-pathogenic strain of E. coli and found that after 10 days the concentration of Salmonella was 200-times greater than that of E. coli. We also compared those same strains of Salmonella and E. coli in a depuration process to determine if a constant 120 L/h flux of clean seawater could significantly reduce the concentration of bacteria within oysters and found that after 3 days the oysters retained over 10(4)CFU/g of Salmonella while the oysters exposed to the non-pathogenic strain of E. coli contained 100-times less bacteria. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that any of the clinically relevant serovars of Salmonella can survive within oysters for significant periods of time after just one exposure event. Based on the drastic differences in survivability between Salmonella and a non

  15. OBESITY IN CANCER SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Niyati; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V.

    2013-01-01

    Although obesity is a well known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of breast cancer, six studies of prostate cancer, and eight studies of colorectal cancer. We note that the evidence over-represents breast cancer survivorship research and is sparse for prostate and colorectal cancers. Overall, most studies support a relationship between body adiposity and site-specific mortality or cancer progression. However, most of the research was not specifically designed to study these outcomes and, therefore, several methodological issues should be considered before integrating their results to draw conclusions. Further research is urgently warranted to assess the long-term impact of obesity among the growing population of cancer survivors. PMID:22540252

  16. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...... and conflicting feelings may result in pathological expansion of grief characterized by extremely reduced quality of life involving severe psychical and social consequences. Suicide a subject of taboo In the 1980s WHO drafted a health policy document (‘Health for all year 2000’) with 38 targets for attaining......We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...

  17. Obesity in cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Niyati; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V

    2012-08-21

    Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of breast cancer, six studies of prostate cancer, and eight studies of colo-rectal cancer. We note that the evidence overrepresents breast cancer survivorship research and is sparse for prostate and colorectal cancers. Overall, most studies support a relationship between body adiposity and site-specific mortality or cancer progression. However, most of the research was not specifically designed to study these outcomes and, therefore, several methodological issues should be considered before integrating their results to draw conclusions. Further research is urgently warranted to assess the long-term impact of obesity among the growing population of cancer survivors.

  18. Candida survival strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polke, Melanie; Hube, Bernhard; Jacobsen, Ilse D

    2015-01-01

    Only few Candida species, e.g., Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida parapsilosis, are successful colonizers of a human host. Under certain circumstances these species can cause infections ranging from superficial to life-threatening disseminated candidiasis. The success of C. albicans, the most prevalent and best studied Candida species, as both commensal and human pathogen depends on its genetic, biochemical, and morphological flexibility which facilitates adaptation to a wide range of host niches. In addition, formation of biofilms provides additional protection from adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, in many host niches Candida cells coexist with members of the human microbiome. The resulting fungal-bacterial interactions have a major influence on the success of C. albicans as commensal and also influence disease development and outcome. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge of important survival strategies of Candida spp., focusing on fundamental fitness and virulence traits of C. albicans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The selective treatment of clinical mastitis based on on-farm culture results: II. Effects on lactation performance, including clinical mastitis recurrence, somatic cell count, milk production, and cow survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, A; Godden, S M; Bey, R; Ruegg, P L; Leslie, K

    2011-09-01

    case. In summary, the selective treatment of clinical mastitis based on on-farm culture resulted in no differences in long-term outcomes, such as recurrence of clinical mastitis in the same quarter, somatic cell count, milk production, and cow survival for the rest of the lactation after clinical mastitis. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Survival in Women with NSCLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katcoff, Hannah; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Schwartz, Ann G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women, few studies have investigated the hormonal influence on survival after a lung cancer diagnosis and results have been inconsistent. We evaluated the role of reproductive and hormonal factors in predicting overall survival in women with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Population-based lung cancer cases diagnosed between November 1, 2001 and October 31, 2005 were identified through the Metropolitan Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry. Interview and follow-up data were collected for 485 women. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine hazard ratios (HRs) for death after an NSCLC diagnosis associated with reproductive and hormonal variables. Results Use of hormone therapy (HT) was associated with improved survival (HR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.54–0.89), adjusting for stage, surgery, radiation, education level, pack-years of smoking, age at diagnosis, race, and a multiplicative interaction between stage and radiation. No other reproductive or hormonal factor was associated with survival after an NSCLC diagnosis. Increased duration of HT use before the lung cancer diagnosis (132 months or longer) was associated with improved survival (HR, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.37–0.78), and this finding remained significant in women taking either estrogen alone or progesterone plus estrogen, never smokers, and smokers. Conclusion These findings suggest that HT use, in particular use of estrogen plus progesterone, and long-term HT use are associated with improved survival of NSCLC. PMID:24496005

  1. Treatment response, drug survival, and predictors thereof in 764 patients with psoriatic arthritis treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapy: results from the nationwide Danish DANBIO registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Østergaard, Mikkel; Dreyer, Lene

    2011-01-01

    Score. Male sex, CRP level >10 mg/liter, concomitant methotrexate use, and low patient health visual analog scale score at baseline were associated with longer drug survival. Improvement was achieved by 59%, 45%, 24%, and 54% of patients according to the ACR20, ACR50, ACR70 response criteria and EULAR...

  2. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-15

    The basic goal of the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) demonstration is to extend LIMB technology development to a full-scale application on a representative wall-fired utility boiler. The successful retrofit of LIMB to an existing boiler is expected to demonstrate that (a) reductions of 50 percent or greater in SO and NO emissions can be achieved at a fraction of the cost of add-on FGD systems, (b) boiler reliability, operability, and steam production can be maintained at levels existing prior to LIMB retrofit, and (c) technical difficulties attributable to LIMB operation, such as additional slagging and fouling, changes in ash disposal requirements, and an increased particulate load, can be resolved in a cost-effective manner. The primary fuel to be used will be an Ohio bituminous coal having a nominal sulfur content of 3 percent or greater.

  3. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  4. SAMSON Technology Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    hosting the security policy. 2. A custom logic-programming based solution using the XSB Prolog engine to made decisions based on predicate calculus ...that information is stored in a manner where is cannot be disclosed through malicious means or ex- filtration : o Cryptographic Transformation Service...that a policy engine based on a predicate calculus is a better approach to creating PDPs. A simple Prolog- based PDP was created and demonstrated

  5. Statin use and kidney cancer survival outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayan, Madhur; Punjani, Nahid; Juurlink, David N; Finelli, Antonio; Austin, Peter C; Kulkarni, Girish S; Uleryk, Elizabeth; Hamilton, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Statin use has been associated with improved survival outcomes in various malignancies. Randomized controlled trials are currently underway evaluating their utility as adjunctive cancer therapies. However, studies evaluating the association between statin use and outcomes in kidney cancer yield conflicting results. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify studies evaluating the association between statin use and kidney cancer survival outcomes. We evaluated risk of bias with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We pooled hazard ratios for recurrence-free survival, progression-free survival, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival using random-effects models. We evaluated publication bias through Begg's and Egger's tests, and the trim and fill procedure. We identified 12 studies meeting inclusion criteria and summarized data from 18,105 patients. No study was considered to be at high risk of bias. Statin use was not significantly associated with recurrence-free survival (pooled HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.89-1.06) or progression-free survival (pooled HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.51-1.65); however, statin use was associated with marked improvements in cancer-specific survival (pooled HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.94) and overall survival (pooled HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.63-0.88). There was no strong evidence of publication bias for any outcome. Our results demonstrate that statin use among patients with kidney cancer is associated with significantly improved cancer-specific and overall survival. Further studies are needed to confirm the therapeutic role of statins in kidney cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship Between Metformin Use and Recurrence and Survival in Patients With Resected Stage III Colon Cancer Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy: Results From North Central Cancer Treatment Group N0147 (Alliance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preet Paul; Shi, Qian; Foster, Nathan R; Grothey, Axel; Nair, Suresh G; Chan, Emily; Shields, Anthony F; Goldberg, Richard M; Gill, Sharlene; Kahlenberg, Morton S; Sinicrope, Frank A; Sargent, Daniel J; Alberts, Steven R

    2016-12-01

    Preclinical and epidemiological data suggest that metformin might have antineoplastic properties against colon cancer (CC). However, the effect of metformin use on patient survival in stage III CC after curative resection is unknown. The survival outcomes were comparable regardless of the duration of metformin use. Before randomization to FOLFOX (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin) with or without cetuximab, 1,958 patients with stage III CC enrolled in the N0147 study completed a questionnaire with information on diabetes mellitus (DM) and metformin use. Cox models were used to assess the association between metformin use and disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and the time to recurrence (TTR), adjusting for clinical and/or pathological factors. Of the 1,958 patients, 1,691 (86%) reported no history of DM, 115 reported DM with metformin use (6%), and 152 reported DM without metformin use (8%). The adjuvant treatment arms were pooled, because metformin use showed homogeneous effects on outcomes across the two arms. Among the patients with DM (n = 267), DFS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-1.35; p = .60), OS (aHR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.65-1.49; p = .95), and TTR (aHR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56-1.35; p = .53) were not different for the metformin users compared with the nonusers after adjusting for tumor and patient factors. The survival outcomes were comparable regardless of the duration of metformin use (colon cancer receiving adjuvant FOLFOX (folinic acid, fluorouracil, oxaliplatin)-based chemotherapy. This relationship was not modified by KRAS or BRAF mutation or DNA mismatch repair status. Metformin use did not increase or decrease the likelihood of chemotherapy-related grade 3 or higher adverse events. ©AlphaMed Press.

  7. Early life triclocarban exposure during lactation affects neonate rat survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A; Lasley, Bill L; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Early Life Triclocarban Exposure During Lactation Affects Neonate Rat Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rebekah C. M.; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A.; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A.; Lasley, Bill L.; Zhao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. PMID:24803507

  9. Survival Processing Eliminates Collaborative Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysen, Matthew B; Bliss, Heather; Baker, Melissa A

    2017-04-11

    The present experiments examined the effect of processing words for their survival value, relevance to moving, and pleasantness on participants' free recall scores in both nominal groups (non-redundant pooled individual scores) and collaborative dyads. Overall, participants recalled more words in the survival processing conditions than in the moving and pleasantness processing conditions. Furthermore, nominal groups in both the pleasantness condition (Experiment 1) and the moving and pleasantness conditions (Experiment 2) recalled more words than collaborative groups, thereby replicating the oft-observed effect of collaborative inhibition. However, processing words for their survival value appeared to eliminate the deleterious effects of collaborative remembering in both Experiments 1 and 2. These results are discussed in the context of the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis and the effects of both expertise and collaborative skill on group remembering.

  10. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  11. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    , and micro combined heat and power using hydrogen. Using sociological and business economic theories of innovation, the paper discusses how early movers of innovation tend to obtain only partial success when demonstrating their products and often feel obstructed by minor details. The empirical work...... encompasses both an evaluation of the design and Construction process as well as a post-occupancy evaluation. Process experiences include the use of a multidisciplinary competence group and performance measurement. The commencement of the project was enthusiastic, but it was forced into more traditional forms...

  12. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  13. NAVAJO ELECTRIFICATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry W. Battiest

    2008-06-11

    The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year project which addresses the electricity needs of the unserved and underserved Navajo Nation, the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. The program serves to cumulatively provide off-grid electricty for families living away from the electricty infrastructure, line extensions for unserved families living nearby (less than 1/2 mile away from) the electricity, and, under the current project called NEDP-4, the construction of a substation to increase the capacity and improve the quality of service into the central core region of the Navajo Nation.

  14. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  15. Panspermia Survival Scenarios for Organisms that Survive Typical Hypervelocity Solar System Impact Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, D.

    2014-04-01

    Previous experimental studies have demonstrated the survivability of living cells during hypervelocity impact events, testing the panspermia and litho-panspermia hypotheses [1]. It has been demonstrated by the authors that Nannochloropsis Oculata Phytoplankton, a eukaryotic photosynthesizing autotroph found in the 'euphotic zone' (sunlit surface layers of oceans [2]), survive impacts up to 6.93 km s-1 (approx. shock pressure 40 GPa) [3, 4]. Also shown to survive impacts up to 5.49 km s-1 is the tardigrade species Hypsibius dujardini (a complex micro-animal consisting of 40,000 cells) [5, 6]. It has also been shown that they can survive sustained pressures up to 600 MPa using a water filled pressure capsule [7]. Additionally bacteria can survive impacts up to 5.4 km s-1 (~30 GPa) - albeit with a low probability of survival [1], and the survivability of yeast spores in impacts up to 7.4 km s-1 (~30 GPa) has also recently been demonstrated [8]. Other groups have also reported that the lichen Xanthoria elegans is able to survive shocks in similar pressure ranges (~40 GPa) [9]. Here we present various simulated impact regimes to show which scenarios are condusive to the panspermia hypothesis of the natural transfer of life (via an icy body) through space to an extraterrestrial environment.

  16. LONG TERM SURVIVAL FOLLOWING TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY: A POPULATION BASED PARAMETRIC SURVIVAL ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Gordon Ward; Ransom, Jeanine; Mandrekar, Jay; Brown, Allen W

    2017-01-01

    Background Long term mortality may be increased following traumatic brain injury (TBI); however the degree to which survival could be reduced is unknown. We aimed to model life expectancy following post-acute TBI to provide predictions of longevity and quantify differences in survivorship with the general population. Methods A population based retrospective cohort study using data from the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) was performed. A random sample of patients from Olmsted County, Minnesota with a confirmed TBI between 1987 and 2000 was identified and vital status determined in 2013. Parametric survival modelling was then used to develop a model to predict life expectancy following TBI conditional on age at injury. Survivorship following TBI was also compared with the general population and age and gender matched non-head injured REP controls. Results 769 patients were included in complete case analyses. Median follow up time was 16.1 years (IQR 9.0–20.4) with 120 deaths occurring in the cohort during the study period. Survival after acute TBI was well represented by a Gompertz distribution. Victims of TBI surviving for at least 6 months post-injury demonstrated a much higher ongoing mortality rate compared to the US general population and non-TBI controls (hazard ratio 1·47, 95% CI 1·15–1·87). US general population cohort life table data was used to update the Gompertz model’s shape and scale parameters to account for cohort effects and allow prediction of life expectancy in contemporary TBI. Conclusions Survivors of TBI have decreased life expectancy compared to the general population. This may be secondary to the head injury itself or result from patient characteristics associated with both the propensity for TBI and increased early mortality. Post-TBI life expectancy estimates may be useful to guide prognosis, in public health planning, for actuarial applications and in the extrapolation of outcomes for TBI economic models. PMID:27165161

  17. Erythrocyte survival in sheep exposed to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G.S.; Calabrese, E.J.; Labato, F.J.

    1981-07-01

    Erythrocyte survival studies in the Dorset ewe using chromium 51 were performed. The purpose of the study was to determine if ozone exposure produces decreased cell survival which may be the result of premature erythrocyte aging. This strain of sheep has an erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity that is very low, being comparable to human A-variants with G6PD deficiency. Ozone exposure may produce hemolytic effects in G6PD deficients more readily than in erythrocytes with normal activity. A decrease in hematocrit was observed in the ozone exposed groups. With respect to red cell destruction, ozone does not appear to act immediately, but rather there appears to be a delayed effect. At 0.25 ppM ozone, the group reached the 50% remaining level an average of 1 day sooner than the control group. There was no significant difference between control and exposed groups at the 0.50 ppM and 0.70 ppM levels. Also, the results demonstrate a net decrease in hematocrit which is greater for 0.25 ppM ozone than any other exposure level. (RJC)

  18. Palpability Support Demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Grönvall, Erik; Fors, David

    2007-01-01

    the situation. The concept of palpable computing, introduced by the PalCom project, denotes systems which support such understandability. In PalCom, a set of prototype scenarios provide input for an open software architecture and a conceptual framework for palpable computing. One of these prototype scenarios...... is based on the Active Surfaces concept in which therapists rehabilitate physically and mentally impaired children by means of an activity that stimulates the children both physically and cognitively. In this paper we demonstrate how palpability can be supported in a prototype of the Active Surfaces....... Services on the tiles have been developed using the PalCom service framework that allows them to be combined into PalCom assemblies. The support for palpability is shown by examples of use scenarios from the work of the therapist who can inspect and alter the runtime state of the tiles to change...

  19. Shuttle bay telerobotics demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, W.; Cogeos, P.

    1987-01-01

    A demonstration of NASA's robotics capabilities should be a balanced agenda of servicing and assembly tasks combined with selected key technical experiments. The servicing tasks include refueling and module replacement. Refueling involves the mating of special fluid connectors while module replacement requires an array of robotic technologies such as special tools, the arm of a logistics tool, and the precision mating of orbital replacement units to guides. The assembly task involves the construction of a space station node and truss structure. The technological experiments will focus on a few important issues: the precision manipulation of the arms by a teleoperator, the additional use of several mono camera views in conjunction with the stereo system, the use of a general purpose end effector versus a caddy of tools, and the dynamics involved with using a robot with a stabilizer.

  20. Secukinumab demonstrates greater sustained improvements in daily activities and personal relationships than ustekinumab in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis: 52-week results from the CLEAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauvelt, A; Reich, K; Mehlis, S; Vanaclocha, F; Sofen, H; Abramovits, W; Zhao, Y; Gilloteau, I; Davenport, E; Williams, N; Guana, A; Tyring, S

    2017-10-01

    Psoriasis can greatly impact patients' lives by influencing clothing worn as well as by impairing sexual functioning. Secukinumab, a human monoclonal antibody selectively neutralizing interleukin-17A, has demonstrated good efficacy and safety in the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis with a rapid onset of action and sustained response. This analysis using the CLEAR study, a phase 3b double-blind study comparing the efficacy and safety of secukinumab vs. ustekinumab in adults with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, evaluated the treatment effects on patient's daily activities and personal relationships. Impact on daily activities (interference with home/shopping/garden, and influence on clothes worn) and impact on personal relationships (problems with partner/others, and sexual difficulties) as well as their corresponding subscales were selected from the Dermatology Life Quality Index scale and evaluated for patients treated with secukinumab vs. ustekinumab from the CLEAR study. Treatment differences in mean scores and proportions of responders (score = 0, indicating no impact) were evaluated through 52 weeks. Time to response was evaluated through Week 16. Significant differences between secukinumab and ustekinumab were observed for daily activities and personal relationships at Week 16 and sustained through Week 52 (Week 52 response rates for daily activities: 82.9% vs. 73.5%, including interference with home/shopping/garden: 88.5% vs. 78.2%, and influence on clothes worn: 85.6% vs. 74.4%; personal relationships: 86.1% vs. 73.7%, including problems with partner/others: 86.6% vs. 74.8%, and sexual difficulties: 88.5% vs. 74.3%; all P personal relationships (both P < 0.05). Secukinumab treatment helps patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis have a more normal life faster when compared to ustekinumab, by providing greater and sustained improvement in clothing choice and sexual functioning. © 2017 European Academy of

  1. Incorporating movement patterns to improve survival estimates for juvenile bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Tracy; Budy, Phaedra

    2012-01-01

    Populations of many fish species are sensitive to changes in vital rates during early life stages, but our understanding of the factors affecting growth, survival, and movement patterns is often extremely limited for juvenile fish. These critical information gaps are particularly evident for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a threatened Pacific Northwest char. We combined several active and passive mark–recapture and resight techniques to assess migration rates and estimate survival for juvenile bull trout (70–170 mm total length). We evaluated the relative performance of multiple survival estimation techniques by comparing results from a common Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) model, the less widely used Barker model, and a simple return rate (an index of survival). Juvenile bull trout of all sizes emigrated from their natal habitat throughout the year, and thereafter migrated up to 50 km downstream. With the CJS model, high emigration rates led to an extreme underestimate of apparent survival, a combined estimate of site fidelity and survival. In contrast, the Barker model, which allows survival and emigration to be modeled as separate parameters, produced estimates of survival that were much less biased than the return rate. Estimates of age-class-specific annual survival from the Barker model based on all available data were 0.218±0.028 (estimate±SE) for age-1 bull trout and 0.231±0.065 for age-2 bull trout. This research demonstrates the importance of incorporating movement patterns into survival analyses, and we provide one of the first field-based estimates of juvenile bull trout annual survival in relatively pristine rearing conditions. These estimates can provide a baseline for comparison with future studies in more impacted systems and will help managers develop reliable stage-structured population models to evaluate future recovery strategies.

  2. Survival of Sami cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Soininen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The incidence of cancer among the indigenous Sami people of Northern Finland is lower than among the Finnish general population. The survival of Sami cancer patients is not known, and therefore it is the object of this study. Study design. The cohort consisted of 2,091 Sami and 4,161 non-Sami who lived on 31 December 1978 in the two Sami municipalities of Inari and Utsjoki, which are located in Northern Finland and are 300–500 km away from the nearest central hospital. The survival experience of Sami and non-Sami cancer patients diagnosed in this cohort during 1979–2009 was compared with that of the Finnish patients outside the cohort. Methods. The Sami and non-Sami cancer patients were matched to other Finnish cancer patients for gender, age and year of diagnosis and for the site of cancer. An additional matching was done for the stage at diagnosis. Cancer-specific survival analyses were made using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression modelling. Results. There were 204 Sami and 391 non-Sami cancer cases in the cohort, 20,181 matched controls without matching with stage, and 7,874 stage-matched controls. In the cancer-specific analysis without stage variable, the hazard ratio for Sami was 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.85–1.30 and for non-Sami 1.02 (0.86–1.20, indicating no difference between the survival of those groups and other patients in Finland. Likewise, when the same was done by also matching the stage, there was no difference in cancer survival. Conclusion. Long distances to medical care or Sami ethnicity have no influence on the cancer patient survival in Northern Finland.

  3. Naturally occurring genetic variability in expression of Gsta4 is associated with differential survival of axotomized rat motoneurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikael, Ström; Al Nimer, Faiez; Lindblom, Rickard

    2012-01-01

    A large number of molecular pathways have been implicated in the degeneration of axotomized motoneurons. We previously have demonstrated substantial differences in the survival rate of axotomized motoneurons across different rat strains. Identification of genetic differences underlying...... to regulate motoneuron survival after ventral root avulsion. The smallest genetic fragment, R5, contains 35 genes and displays a highly significant regulatory effect on motoneuron survival. Furthermore, expression profiling in a F2(DAxPVG) intercross demonstrates one single cis-regulated gene within the R5......, with a strong cytoplasmic labeling of motoneurons. These results demonstrate and map naturally occurring genetic differences in the expression of Gsta4 is associated both with a highly significant increase in the survival of axotomized motoneurons and with a trans-regulation of several molecular pathways...

  4. Demonstrating Martian Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Pirkola, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    The surface gravity on Mars is smaller than the surface gravity on Earth, resulting in longer falling times. This effect can be simulated on Earth by taking advantage of air resistance and buoyancy, which cause low density objects to fall slowly enough to approximate objects falling on the surface of Mars. We describe a computer simulation based on an experiment that approximates Martian gravity, and verify our numerical results by performing the experiment.

  5. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam

    2017-05-10

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  6. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrocco, M. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  7. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  8. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  9. Research report of FY 1996 on development of new hydrogen energy demonstration technology. 1. FY 1996 results; 1996 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Shinsuiso energy jissho gijutsu kaihatsu (1996 nendo jisshibun)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this project is to clarify the possibility of new hydrogen energy as a future energy source. The new hydrogen energy is obtained from the excess heat generation phenomenon through the electrolysis of heavy water using palladium metal as an electrode. The excess heat regeneration tests have been successively conducted using two kinds of electrolytic cells. As a result, the excess heat generation measured by one electrolytic cell in FY 1996 has been confirmed in about 35% of repeatability under the same condition. On the other hand, the excess heat over the measuring accuracy was not measured using two kinds of absolute heating value measuring systems. The electrolytic cell, by which the excess heat was measured, was used for confirming the absolute heating value as keeping its condition. When tests were conducted using the developed system, it was found that the absolute heating value can not be detected. Then, verification tests are currently conducted for determining the cause. Moreover, in order to clarify the basic characteristics of materials required for the regeneration of the excess heat generation phenomenon, observation and analysis of the materials were performed before and after the excess heat measurement. Thus, the cause of difference was revealed. 3 refs., 98 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. Neonatal appendicitis: a survival case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Linha Secco

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To report a case of neonatal appendicitis in a children’s hospital in southern Brazil, demonstrating the impact on neonatal survival. Method: Case study with data collection from medical records, approved by the Institution and Ethics Committee for Research with Human Beings. Results: The clinical picture is initially characterized by food intolerance, evolving to hypoactivity, alteration of vital signs and septicemia due to intestinal perforation. Management is exclusively surgical, since no case described in the literature was diagnosed preoperatively and the findings usually point to acute abdomen. Conclusion: A focused clinical surveillance should be established when the infant presents peritoneal irritation. Follow-up of the evolution and the worsening of the symptoms by nurses, as part of the care team in partnership with the medical team, enables an early surgical intervention, thereby avoiding complications such as septicemia and death.

  11. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison`s Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0{sub 2} removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0{sub 2} emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  12. The association of cancer survival with four socioeconomic indicators: a longitudinal study of the older population of England and Wales 1981–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Harriet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have found socioeconomic differentials in cancer survival. Previous studies have generally demonstrated poorer cancer survival with decreasing socioeconomic status but mostly used only ecological measures of status and analytical methods estimating simple survival. This study investigate socio-economic differentials in cancer survival using four indicators of socioeconomic status; three individual and one ecological. It uses a relative survival method which gives a measure of excess mortality due to cancer. Methods This study uses prospective record linkage data from The Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study for England and Wales. The participants are Longitudinal Study members, recorded at census in 1971 and 1981 and with a primary malignant cancer diagnosed at age 45 or above, between 1981 and 1997, with follow-up until end 2000. The outcome measure is relative survival/excess mortality, compared with age and sex adjusted survival of the general population. Relative survival and Poisson regression analyses are presented, giving models of relative excess mortality, adjusted for covariates. Results Different socioeconomic indicators detect survival differentials of varying magnitude and definition. For all cancers combined, the four indicators show similar effects. For individual cancers there are differences between indicators. Where there is an association, all indicators show poorer survival with lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Cancer survival differs markedly by socio-economic status. The commonly used ecological measure, the Carstairs Index, is adequate at demonstrating socioeconomic differentials in survival for combined cancers and some individual cancers. A combination of car access and housing tenure is more sensitive than the ecological Carstairs measure at detecting socioeconomic effects on survival – confirming Carstairs effects where they occur but additionally identifying

  13. Significant survival advantage of high pulmonary vein index and the presence of native pulmonary artery in pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries: results from preoperative computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qianjun; Cen, Jianzheng; Zhuang, Jian; Zhong, Xiaomei; Liu, Xiaoqing; Li, Jiahua; Liang, Changhong; Huang, Meiping

    2017-08-01

    The prognosis of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (PA-VSD-MAPCAs) after surgery shows substantial clinical heterogeneity and predictors for outcomes are lacking. This study aimed to assess the predictive value of preoperative cardiac computed tomography angiography (CTA) for survival in patients with PA-VSD-MAPCAs. We retrospectively analysed PA-VSD-MAPCA patients with preoperative CTA who underwent both right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction and MAPCA unifocalization ( n  = 24) or pulmonary artery rehabilitation ( n  = 28). The end-point was overall survival. Prognostic values of CTA were assessed using Cox univariate and multivariate analyses. The significant threshold of independent parameters was calculated using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. During a median follow-up of 1145 days, a total of 13 deaths were observed. Multivariate analysis identified a high pulmonary vein index (PVI) [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03, 0.28; P  advantage in PA-VSD-MAPCA patients. A PVI ≥438 mm 2 /m 2 may be a reliable positive prognosticator that could improve the decision-making strategy for PA-VSD-MAPCA patients.

  14. Effects of natal departure and water level on survival of juvenile snail kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreitz, V.J.; Kitchens, W.M.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Survival rate from fledging to breeding, or juvenile survival, is an important source of variation in lifetime reproductive success in birds. Therefore, determining the relationship between juvenile survival and environmental factors is essential to understanding fitness consequences of reproduction in many populations. With increases in density of individuals and depletion of food resources, quality of most habitats deteriorates during the breeding season. Individuals respond by dispersing in search of food resources. Therefore, to understand the influence of environmental factors on juvenile survival, it is also necessary to know how natal dispersal influences survival of juveniles. We examined effects of various environmental factors and natal dispersal behavior on juvenile survival of endangered Snail Kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis) in central and southern Florida, using a generalized estimating equations (GEEs) approach and model selection criteria. Our results suggested yearly effects and an influence of age and monthly minimum hydrologic levels on juvenile Snail Kite survival. Yearly variation in juvenile survival has been reported by other studies, and other reproductive components of Snail Kites also exhibit such variation. Age differences in juvenile survival have also been seen in other species during the juvenile period. Our results demonstrate a positive relationship between water levels and juvenile survival. We suggest that this is not a direct linear relationship, such that higher water means higher juvenile survival. The juvenile period is concurrent with onset of the wet season in the ecosystem we studied, and rainfall increases as juveniles age. For management purposes, we believe that inferences suggesting increasing water levels during the fledging period will increase juvenile survival may have short-term benefits but lead to long-term declines in prey abundance and possibly wetland vegetation structure.

  15. Survival after in-hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Adib Hajbaghery

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: During recent years, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in hospital has received much attention. However, the survival rate of CPR in Iran’s hospitals is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate outcome of in-hospital CPR in Kashan. Methods: A longitudinal case registry study was conducted on all cases of in-hospital CPR during 6 months at 2002. Necessary data including; age, sex, underlying disease, working shift, time from cardiac arrest until initiating of CPR and until defibrillation, duration and result of CPR, frequency of tracheal intubations and time served for it were collected in a checklist. Results: In six months study, 206 cases of cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempted. The survival rate was similar for both sexes. Short-term survival observed in19.9% of cases and only 5.3% survived to discharge. Conclusions: Duration of CPR, time of the first defibrillation, response time and the location of cardiac arrest are the key predictors of survival to hospital discharge and in-hospital CPR strategies require improvement. This study promotes a national study on post CPR survival for accurate data on our performance in attention to chain of survival. KeyWords: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR, Survival rate, Iran

  16. Inductrack demonstration model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, R.F.

    1998-02-03

    A small-scale model track of a new type of magnetic levitation system (dubbed the ``Inductrack`` system), and a passively magnetically levitated cart, has been designed, constructed and operated. The track consists of a close-packed array of rectangular levitation coils, 15 centimeters in width transversely and 20 meters in length. The array of coils is inductively loaded above and below its lower horizontal section with ferrite tiles. Paralleling the levitation coils on each side are aluminum-channel rails on which ride auxiliary wheels attached to the cart. The cart has, on its lower surface and on its sides, fore and aft, special arrays (``Halbach arrays``) of permanent magnet bars that produce a strong periodic magnetic field below the cart. This magnetic field, when the cart is in motion, induces repelling currents in the Inductrack coils, levitating it and centering it transversely. When mechanically launched (with a pulley- and-weight system) at speeds substantially above a ``transition speed`` of about 2 meters per second, the cart levitated and flew stably down the track, settling to rest on its wheels near the end of the track. In the last phase of the program an electromagnetic launching section consisting of another array of coils, connected to pulse-driver circuits, was added at the beginning of the track. Aided by an initial launch (from stretched ``bungee`` cords), this electromagnetic launching system was operated successfully, resulting again in levitation and subsequent stable flight of the cart.

  17. TIDD PFBC Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    In fluidized bed combustion, coal and sorbent (dolomite or limestone) are fed into a boiler in which air, entering from the bottom, maintains the bed material in a highly turbulent suspended state called fluidization. This turbulence creates good contact between the air and fuel, allowing for high combustion efficiency and excellent adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during the combustion process. In PFBC applications, pressurized air is supplied to the combustor. Pressurizing the air concentrates a larger quantity of oxygen per unit volume. This results in a lower velocity of air through the fuel bed. The lower velocity reduces the total height required for the bed and freeboard above the bed. Also, a smaller plan area is required for the bed area as compared to an atmospheric fluidized bed. This has the advantage of requiring a much smaller pressure vessel to contain the boiler enclosure. The mean bed temperature of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor is typically maintained in the range 1540 to 1580 F. This is well below the ash fusion temperature of coal, yet above the ignition temperature of the coal. Advantages of the low bed temperature are no slag formation and a reduction of NO{sub x} emissions to less than half that of a conventional boiler. The Tidd Plant is a combined cycle pressurized fluidized bed combustion system with a topping gas cycle and a bottoming steam cycle.

  18. Survival of children with medulloblastoma in Canada diagnosed between 1990 and 2009 inclusive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Donna L; Keene, Daniel; Kostova, Maria; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Fryer, Chris; Scheinemann, Katrin; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Fleming, Adam; Percy, Vanessa; Afzal, Samina; Wilson, Beverly; Bowes, Lynette; Zelcer, Shayna; Mpofu, Chris; Silva, Mariana; Larouche, Valerie; Brossard, Josee; Strother, Douglas; Bouffet, Eric

    2015-09-01

    The treatment of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children, has evolved over the last few decades. The objectives of this paper were to determine the survival of pediatric medulloblastoma in Canada, to determine if there has been an improvement in the survival rates between the years of 1990 and 2009, inclusive, and to determine prognostic factors for survival. All patients under the age of 18 years diagnosed with medulloblastoma from 1990 to 2009, inclusive, in Canada were included. Data collected included date of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, gender, stage, pathology, treatment, recurrence and current status. From these, survival rates were determined. Data were obtained on 628 eligible patients. The overall 5-year survival rate for the study time period was 69.2 ± 3.3 %. The survival rate increased during the interval of 1996-2000, then remained stable; 1990-1994: 60.2 ± 4.3 %; 1995-1999: 73.2 ± 3.5 %; 2000-2004: 68.8 ± 3.7 %; and 2005-2009: 72.1 ± 4.9 %, p = 0.05. Children over 14 years of age had a significantly better overall survival than those age 5-14 and those under 5 (85.7 ± 5.5 % vs 76.1 ± 2.7 % and 60.8 ± 3 % respectively, p = 0.001). Histologic medulloblastoma subtype and M stage of disease did not result in significant differences in survival. Despite changes in approaches to therapy, we demonstrate a steady survival rate for children with medulloblastoma after 1996. In our analyses, age over 14 years was associated with a higher survival rate.

  19. Attributing death to cancer: cause-specific survival estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer survival estimation is an important part of assessing the overall strength of cancer care in a region. Generally, the death of a patient is taken as the end point in estimation of overall survival. When calculating the overall survival, the cause of death is not taken into account. With increasing demand for better survival of cancer patients it is important for clinicians and researchers to know about survival statistics due to disease of interest, i.e. net survival. It is also important to choose the best method for estimating net survival. Increase in the use of computer programmes has made it possible to carry out statistical analysis without guidance from a bio-statistician. This is of prime importance in third- world countries as there are a few trained bio-statisticians to guide clinicians and researchers. The present communication describes current methods used to estimate net survival such as cause-specific survival and relative survival. The limitation of estimation of cause-specific survival particularly in India and the usefulness of relative survival are discussed. The various sources for estimating cancer survival are also discussed. As survival-estimates are to be projected on to the population at large, it becomes important to measure the variation of the estimates, and thus confidence intervals are used. Rothman′s confidence interval gives the most satisfactory result for survival estimate.

  20. Results from the Microminiature Thermionic Converter Demonstration Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.B.; Luke, J.R.; Wyant, F.J.

    1998-10-05

    Research is in progress to develop microminiature thermionic converters (MTCS) with high energy conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures using semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) fabrication methods. The use of IC techniques allows the fabrication of MTCS with cathode to anode spacing of several microns or less and with anode and cathode materials that will have work fimctions ranging from 1 eV to 3 eV. The small cathode to anode spacing and variable electrode work functions should allow the conversion of heat energy to relatively large current densities (up to tens of Amps/cmz) at relatively high conversion efficiencies ( 15-25%).

  1. Results from the microminiature thermionic converter demonstration testing program

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donald B.; Luke, James R.; Wyant, Francis J.

    1999-01-01

    Research is in progress to develop microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) with high energy conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures using semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) fabrication methods. The use of IC techniques allows the fabrication of MTCs with cathode to anode spacing of several microns or less and with anode and cathode materials that will have work functions ranging from 1 eV to 3 eV. The small cathode to anode spacing and variable electrode work functions should allow the conversion of heat energy to relatively large current densities (up to tens of Amps/cm2) at relatively high conversion efficiencies (15-25%).

  2. Results from the microminiature thermionic converter demonstration testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Donald B.; Wyant, Francis J. [International Nuclear Safety Department, Sandia National Laboratories, MS-0744, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] Luke, James R. [New Mexico Engineering Research Institute, 901 University Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Research is in progress to develop microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) with high energy conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures using semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) fabrication methods. The use of IC techniques allows the fabrication of MTCs with cathode to anode spacing of several microns or less and with anode and cathode materials that will have work functions ranging from 1 eV to 3 eV. The small cathode to anode spacing and variable electrode work functions should allow the conversion of heat energy to relatively large current densities (up to tens of Amps/cm{sup 2}) at relatively high conversion efficiencies (15{endash}25{percent}). {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Effect of ponderosa pine needle litter on grass seedling survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt R. McConnell; Justin G. Smith

    1971-01-01

    Hard fescue survival rates were followed for 6 years on four different pine needle treatment plots. Needle litter had a significant effect on initial survival of fescue seedlings, but subsequent losses undoubtedly resulted from the interaction of many factors.

  4. FUEL PRICE INCREASE AND MANUFACTURING FIRMS SURVIVAL IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Atmadji

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The administered price of fuel has increased quite frequently since 1970. It has raised a concern on the survival ability of manufacturing firms that could be weakened by such policy. This research objective is for confirming whether the policy of increasing fuel price affects the survival of manufacturing firms in Indonesia. By using Instrumental Variable Probit Model, it demonstrates that increasing fuel price does not affect firms’ survival in the short-run, middle-run, as well as long-run. Nevertheless, the z-statistics increase when the period of estimation is expanded. It means that if the time span of sample observation is widened, the result might be different.Keywords: Fuel price, survival ability, instrumental variable probit modelJEL classification numbers: H27, D22AbstrakHarga bahan bakar minyak (BBM selalu meningkat sejak 1970. Kenaikan harga ini telah menimbulkan kekhawatiran pada kemampuan kelangsungan hidup perusahaan manufaktur di Indonesia yang bisa dilemahkan oleh kebijakan tersebut. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan mengonfirmasi apakah kebijakan kenaikan harga BBM mempengaruhi kelangsungan hidup perusahaan industri manufaktur di Indonesia. Dengan menggunakan Instrumental Variable Probit Model, hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan harga BBM tidak mempengaruhi kelangsungan hidupperusahaan dalam jangka pendek, menengah, serta jangka panjang. Namun demikian, z-statistik meningkat ketika periode estimasi diperluas. Ini berarti bahwa jika rentang waktu pengamatan sampel melebar, hasilnya mungkin akan berbeda.Kata kunci: Harga BBM, kemampuan bertahan hidup, instrumental variable probit modelJEL classification numbers: H27, D22

  5. Survival associated pathway identification with group Lp penalized global AUC maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhenqiu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been demonstrated that genes in a cell do not act independently. They interact with one another to complete certain biological processes or to implement certain molecular functions. How to incorporate biological pathways or functional groups into the model and identify survival associated gene pathways is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a novel iterative gradient based method for survival analysis with group Lp penalized global AUC summary maximization. Unlike LASSO, Lp (p 1. We first extend Lp for individual gene identification to group Lp penalty for pathway selection, and then develop a novel iterative gradient algorithm for penalized global AUC summary maximization (IGGAUCS. This method incorporates the genetic pathways into global AUC summary maximization and identifies survival associated pathways instead of individual genes. The tuning parameters are determined using 10-fold cross validation with training data only. The prediction performance is evaluated using test data. We apply the proposed method to survival outcome analysis with gene expression profile and identify multiple pathways simultaneously. Experimental results with simulation and gene expression data demonstrate that the proposed procedures can be used for identifying important biological pathways that are related to survival phenotype and for building a parsimonious model for predicting the survival times.

  6. The MAJORANA Demonstrator Radioassay Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P. H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Dunmore, J. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S.; Finnerty, P.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, Victor M.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Massarcyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Miller, M. L.; Orrell, John L.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan W.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Steele, David; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, K.; Vorren, Kris R.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhitnikov, I.

    2016-05-03

    The Majorana collaboration is constructing the Majorana Demonstrator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the Homestake gold mine, in Lead, SD. The apparatus will use Ge detectors, enriched in isotope 76Ge, to demonstrate the feasibility of a large-scale Ge detector experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The long half-life of this postulated process requires that the apparatus be extremely low in radioactive isotopes whose decays may produce backgrounds to the search. The radioassay program conducted by the collaboration to ensure that the materials comprising the apparatus are suffciently pure is described. The resulting measurements of the radioactiveisotope contamination for a number of materials studied for use in the detector are reported.

  7. Modelling population-based cancer survival trends using join point models for grouped survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Binbing; Huang, Lan; Tiwari, Ram C; Feuer, Eric J; Johnson, Karen A

    2009-04-01

    In the United States cancer as a whole is the second leading cause of death and a major burden to health care, thus the medical progress against cancer is a major public health goal. There are many individual studies to suggest that cancer treatment breakthroughs and early diagnosis have significantly improved the prognosis of cancer patients. To better understand the relationship between medical improvements and the survival experience for the patient population at large, it is useful to evaluate cancer survival trends on the population level, e.g., to find out when and how much the cancer survival rates changed. In this paper, we analyze the population-based grouped cancer survival data by incorporating joinpoints into the survival models. A joinpoint survival model facilitates the identification of trends with significant change points in cancer survival, when related to cancer treatments or interventions. The Bayesian Information Criterion is used to select the number of joinpoints. The performance of the joinpoint survival models is evaluated with respect to cancer prognosis, joinpoint locations, annual percent changes in death rates by year of diagnosis, and sample sizes through intensive simulation studies. The model is then applied to the grouped relative survival data for several major cancer sites from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute. The change points in the survival trends for several major cancer sites are identified and the potential driving forces behind such change points are discussed.

  8. Survival of the richest?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg-Fazlic, Nina; Sharp, Paul Richard; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    that this had to do with earlier age at marriage for women. We then turn to the likely social and economic impact of this, considering Clark's hypothesis that ‘middle-class values’ spread through English society prior to the Industrial Revolution. Through the construction of social mobility tables, we......We use data collected by the Cambridge Group to investigate and explain differences in fertility by socio-economic group in pre-industrial England. We find, in line with results presented by Greg Clark, that wealthier groups did indeed have higher fertility until the 1700s. We demonstrate...

  9. Proof-Carrying Survivability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    pp.289-302 ( Impact factor : 2.09). 2. Julic, J. and Zuo, Y. (2012). “An RFID Survivability Impact Model in the Military Domain”, Proc. of 18 th...Availability, Reliability and Security, 40(4), pp. 406-418 ( Impact factor : 2.016). 10. Zuo, Y. (2010). “A Holistic Approach for Specification of Security... Impact factor : 1.596). 20. Zuo, Y., Pimple, M. and Lande, S. (2009). “A Framework for RFID Survivability Requirement Analysis and Specification”, Proc

  10. Modeling the airborne survival of influenza virus in a residential setting: the impacts of home humidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myatt Theodore A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratory research studies indicate that aerosolized influenza viruses survive for longer periods at low relative humidity (RH conditions. Further analysis has shown that absolute humidity (AH may be an improved predictor of virus survival in the environment. Maintaining airborne moisture levels that reduce survival of the virus in the air and on surfaces could be another tool for managing public health risks of influenza. Methods A multi-zone indoor air quality model was used to evaluate the ability of portable humidifiers to control moisture content of the air and the potential related benefit of decreasing survival of influenza viruses in single-family residences. We modeled indoor AH and influenza virus concentrations during winter months (Northeast US using the CONTAM multi-zone indoor air quality model. A two-story residential template was used under two different ventilation conditions - forced hot air and radiant heating. Humidity was evaluated on a room-specific and whole house basis. Estimates of emission rates for influenza virus were particle-size specific and derived from published studies and included emissions during both tidal breathing and coughing events. The survival of the influenza virus was determined based on the established relationship between AH and virus survival. Results The presence of a portable humidifier with an output of 0.16 kg water per hour in the bedroom resulted in an increase in median sleeping hours AH/RH levels of 11 to 19% compared to periods without a humidifier present. The associated percent decrease in influenza virus survival was 17.5 - 31.6%. Distribution of water vapor through a residence was estimated to yield 3 to 12% increases in AH/RH and 7.8-13.9% reductions in influenza virus survival. Conclusion This modeling analysis demonstrates the potential benefit of portable residential humidifiers in reducing the survival of aerosolized influenza virus by controlling humidity

  11. Individual social capital and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlskov, Linda; Mortensen, Rikke N; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept of social capital has received increasing attention as a determinant of population survival, but its significance is uncertain. We examined the importance of social capital on survival in a population study while focusing on gender differences. METHODS: We used data from...... a Danish regional health survey with a five-year follow-up period, 2007-2012 (n = 9288, 53.5% men, 46.5% women). We investigated the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, performing separate analyses on a composite measure as well as four specific dimensions of social capital while...... controlling for covariates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models by which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health...

  12. Learning and adult neurogenesis: survival with or without proliferation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prickaerts, Jos; Koopmans, Guido; Blokland, Arjan; Scheepens, Arjan

    2004-01-01

    Recent high quality papers have renewed interest in the phenomenon of neurogenesis within the adult mammalian brain. Many studies now show that neurogenesis can be modulated by environmental factors including physical activity, stress, and learning. These findings have considerable implications for neuroscience in general, including the study of learning and memory, neural network plasticity, aging, neurodegeneration, and the recovery from brain injury. Although new light has been shed on this field, many contradictory findings have been reported. Here we propose two principle issues which underlie these inconsistencies, with particular focus on the interaction between learning and neurogenesis. The first issue relates to the basic methodology of measuring the generation of new brain cells, i.e., proliferation, as compared to survival of the newly made cells. Mostly, measures of neurogenesis reported are a combination of proliferation and survival, making it impossible to distinguish between these separate processes. The second aspect is in regards to the role of environmental factors which can affect both proliferation and survival independently. Especially the interaction between stress and learning is of importance since these might counteract each other in some circumstances. Reviewing the literature while taking these issues into account indicates that, in contrast to some findings, cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus as a result of learning cannot be ruled out yet. On the other hand, increased survival of granule cells in the dentate gyrus as a result of hippocampal-dependent learning has been clearly demonstrated. Moreover, this learning-induced survival of granule cells, which were born before the actual learning experience, might provide a molecular mechanism for the 'use it or lose it' principle.

  13. Survival benefits of remote ischemic conditioning in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Khalil, Mazhar; Hashmi, Ammar; Hecker, Louise; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Tang, Andrew; Friese, Randall S; Rhee, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in the surgical intensive care unit. Prior studies have demonstrated a survival benefit of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) in many disease states. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of RIC on survival in sepsis in an animal model and to assess alterations in inflammatory biochemical profiles. We hypothesized that RIC alters inflammatory biochemical profiles resulting in decreased mortality in a septic mouse model. Eight to 12 week C57BL/6 mice received intra-peritoneal injection of 12.5-mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Septic animals in the experimental group underwent RIC at 0, 2, and 6 h after LPS by surgical exploration and alternate clamping of the femoral artery. Six 4-min cycles of ischemia-reperfusion were performed. Primary outcome was survival at 5-d after LPS injection. Secondary outcome was to assess the following serum cytokine levels: interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factoralpha (TNFα) at the baseline before LPS injection, 0 hour after LPS injection, and at 2, 4, 24 hours after induction of sepsis (RIC was performed at 2 h after LPS injection). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test were used. ANOVA test was used to compare cytokine measurements. We performed experiments on 44 mice: 14 sham and 30 RIC mice (10 at each time point). Overall survival was higher in the experimental group compared to the sham group (57% versus 21%; P = 0.02), with the highest survival rate observed in the 2-hour post-RIC group (70%). On Kaplan-Meier analysis, 2-h post-RIC group had increased survival at 5 days after LPS (P = 0.04) with hazard ratio of 0.3 (95% confidence interval = 0.09-0.98). In the RIC group, serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-1β, and TNFα peaked at 2 h after LPS and then decreased significantly over 24 hours (P sepsis and has the potential for implementation in the clinical practice. Early implementation of RIC may play an

  14. Preoperative ejection fraction as a predictor of survival after coronary artery bypass grafting: comparison with a matched general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Elisabeth J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction is an established risk factor for early and late mortality after revascularization. This retrospective analysis demonstrates the effects of preoperative ejection fraction on the short-term and long-term survival of patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods Early and late mortality were determined retrospectively in 10 626 consecutive patients who underwent isolated coronary bypass between January 1998 and December 2007. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to their preoperative ejection fraction. Expected survival was estimated by comparison with a general Dutch population group described in the database of the Dutch Central Bureau for Statistics. For each of our groups with a known preoperative ejection fraction, a general Dutch population group was matched for age, sex, and year of operation. Results and Discussion One hundred twenty-two patients were lost to follow-up. In 219 patients, the preoperative ejection fraction could not be retrieved. In the remaining patients (n = 10 285, the results of multivariate logistic regression and Cox regression analysis identified the ejection fraction as a predictor of early and late mortality. When we compared long-term survival and expected survival, we found a relatively poorer outcome in all subjects with an ejection fraction of 50%, long-term survival exceeded expected survival. Conclusions The severity of left ventricular dysfunction was associated with poor survival. Compared with the survival of the matched general population, our coronary bypass patients had a worse outcome only if their preoperative ejection fraction was

  15. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  16. Education for Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of current approaches to education and concludes that none of these is sufficient to meet the challenges that now face the human race. It argues instead for a new concept of education for survival. (Contains 1 note.)

  17. Flexible survival regression modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortese, Giuliana; Scheike, Thomas H; Martinussen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Regression analysis of survival data, and more generally event history data, is typically based on Cox's regression model. We here review some recent methodology, focusing on the limitations of Cox's regression model. The key limitation is that the model is not well suited to represent time-varyi...

  18. Seeds to survive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds are important for man, either as propagation material of crops or directly for the production of foods, fodder and drinks. The natural function of seeds is dispersal of its genes to successive generations. Survival mechanisms seed have evolved sometimes interfere with those preferred by

  19. Survival After Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Clark; Youngblood, Stuart A.

    1986-01-01

    Examined survival rates after retirement in a large corporation. A regression analysis was performed to control for age, sex, job status, and type of work differences that may influence longevity. Short-term suvivors seemed to undergo a different adjustment process than long-term survivors. (Author/ABL)

  20. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry

    2004-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  1. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and the by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Scoring Committee...

  2. Coherent electron cooling demonstration experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Brutus, J.C.; Fedotov, A.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Mahler, G.; Marusic, A.; Meng, W.; McIntyre, G.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Pinayev, I.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Sheehy, B.; Tepikian, S.; Than, R.; Trbojevic, D.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Yakimenko, V.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G.; Poelker, M.; Rimmer, R.; Bruhwiler, D.; Abell, D.T.; Nieter, C.; Ranjbar, V.; Schwartz, B.; Kholopov M.; Shevchenko, O.; McIntosh, P.; Wheelhouse, A.

    2011-09-04

    Coherent electron cooling (CEC) has a potential to significantly boost luminosity of high-energy, high-intensity hadron-hadron and electron-hadron colliders. In a CEC system, a hadron beam interacts with a cooling electron beam. A perturbation of the electron density caused by ions is amplified and fed back to the ions to reduce the energy spread and the emittance of the ion beam. To demonstrate the feasibility of CEC we propose a proof-of-principle experiment at RHIC using SRF linac. In this paper, we describe the setup for CeC installed into one of RHIC's interaction regions. We present results of analytical estimates and results of initial simulations of cooling a gold-ion beam at 40 GeV/u energy via CeC. We plan to complete the program in five years. During first two years we will build coherent electron cooler in IP2 of RHIC. In parallel we will develop complete package of computer simulation tools for the start-to-end simulation predicting exact performance of a CeC. The later activity will be the core of Tech X involvement into the project. We will use these tools to predict the performance of our CeC device. The experimental demonstration of the CeC will be undertaken in years three to five of the project. The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate the cooling of ion beam and to compare its measured performance with predictions made by us prior to the experiments.

  3. Infinite mixture-of-experts model for sparse survival regression with application to breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahl Edgar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present an infinite mixture-of-experts model to find an unknown number of sub-groups within a given patient cohort based on survival analysis. The effect of patient features on survival is modeled using the Cox’s proportionality hazards model which yields a non-standard regression component. The model is able to find key explanatory factors (chosen from main effects and higher-order interactions for each sub-group by enforcing sparsity on the regression coefficients via the Bayesian Group-Lasso. Results Simulated examples justify the need of such an elaborate framework for identifying sub-groups along with their key characteristics versus other simpler models. When applied to a breast-cancer dataset consisting of survival times and protein expression levels of patients, it results in identifying two distinct sub-groups with different survival patterns (low-risk and high-risk along with the respective sets of compound markers. Conclusions The unified framework presented here, combining elements of cluster and feature detection for survival analysis, is clearly a powerful tool for analyzing survival patterns within a patient group. The model also demonstrates the feasibility of analyzing complex interactions which can contribute to definition of novel prognostic compound markers.

  4. Infinite mixture-of-experts model for sparse survival regression with application to breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background We present an infinite mixture-of-experts model to find an unknown number of sub-groups within a given patient cohort based on survival analysis. The effect of patient features on survival is modeled using the Cox’s proportionality hazards model which yields a non-standard regression component. The model is able to find key explanatory factors (chosen from main effects and higher-order interactions) for each sub-group by enforcing sparsity on the regression coefficients via the Bayesian Group-Lasso. Results Simulated examples justify the need of such an elaborate framework for identifying sub-groups along with their key characteristics versus other simpler models. When applied to a breast-cancer dataset consisting of survival times and protein expression levels of patients, it results in identifying two distinct sub-groups with different survival patterns (low-risk and high-risk) along with the respective sets of compound markers. Conclusions The unified framework presented here, combining elements of cluster and feature detection for survival analysis, is clearly a powerful tool for analyzing survival patterns within a patient group. The model also demonstrates the feasibility of analyzing complex interactions which can contribute to definition of novel prognostic compound markers. PMID:21034433

  5. Blowfly puparia in a hermetic container: survival under decreasing oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mądra-Bielewicz, Anna; Frątczak-Łagiewska, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2017-07-01

    Despite widely accepted standards for sampling and preservation of insect evidence, unrepresentative samples or improperly preserved evidence are encountered frequently in forensic investigations. Here, we report the results of laboratory studies on the survival of Lucilia sericata and Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) intra-puparial forms in hermetic containers, which were stimulated by a recent case. It is demonstrated that the survival of blowfly intra-puparial forms inside airtight containers is dependent on container volume, number of puparia inside, and their age. The survival in both species was found to increase with an increase in the volume of air per 1 mg of puparium per day of development in a hermetic container. Below 0.05 ml of air, no insect survived, and above 0.2 ml of air per 1 mg of puparium per day, survival reached its maximum. These results suggest that blowflies reveal a single, general pattern of survival under decreasing oxygen conditions and that this pattern is a product of number of developing insects, their age and the initial amount of available air. Implications for forensic entomology are discussed.

  6. Adélie penguin survival: age structure, temporal variability and environmental influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Louise; Southwell, Colin

    2011-12-01

    The driving factors of survival, a key demographic process, have been particularly challenging to study, especially for winter migratory species such as the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae). While winter environmental conditions clearly influence Antarctic seabird survival, it has been unclear to which environmental features they are most likely to respond. Here, we examine the influence of environmental fluctuations, broad climatic conditions and the success of the breeding season prior to winter on annual survival of an Adélie penguin population using mark-recapture models based on penguin tag and resight data over a 16-year period. This analysis required an extension to the basic Cormack-Jolly-Seber model by incorporating age structure in recapture and survival sub-models. By including model covariates, we show that survival of older penguins is primarily related to the amount and concentration of ice present in their winter foraging grounds. In contrast, fledgling and yearling survival depended on other factors in addition to the physical marine environment and outcomes of the previous breeding season, but we were unable to determine what these were. The relationship between sea-ice and survival differed with penguin age: extensive ice during the return journey to breeding colonies was detrimental to survival for the younger penguins, whereas either too little or too much ice (between 15 and 80% cover) in the winter foraging grounds was detrimental for adults. Our results demonstrate that predictions of Adélie penguin survival can be improved by taking into account penguin age, prior breeding conditions and environmental features.

  7. Time to recurrence is a significant predictor of cancer-specific survival after recurrence in patients with recurrent renal cell carcinoma--results from a comprehensive multi-centre database (CORONA/SATURN-Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-May, Sabine D; May, Matthias; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Novara, Giacomo; Zigeuner, Richard; Cindolo, Luca; De Cobelli, Ottavio; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Pahernik, Sascha; Wirth, Manfred P; Longo, Nicola; Simonato, Alchiede; Serni, Sergio; Siracusano, Salvatore; Volpe, Alessandro; Morgia, Giuseppe; Bertini, Roberto; Dalpiaz, Orietta; Stief, Christian; Ficarra, Vincenzo

    2013-11-01

    To assess the prognostic impact of time to recurrence (TTR) on cancer-specific survival (CSS) after recurrence in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) undergoing radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing surgery. To analyse differences in clinical and histopathological criteria between patients with early and late recurrence. Of 13,107 patients with RCC from an international multicentre database, 1712 patients developed recurrence in the follow-up (FU), at a median (interquartile range) of 50.1 (25-106) months. In all, 1402 patients had recurrence at ≤5 years (Group A) and 310 patients beyond this time (Group B). Differences in clinical and histopathological variables between patients with early and late recurrence were analysed. The influence of TTR and further variables on CSS after recurrence was assessed by Cox regression analysis. Male gender, advanced age, tumour diameter and stage, Fuhrman grade 3-4, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and pN + stage were significantly more frequent in patients with early recurrence, who had a significantly reduced 3-year CSS of 30% compared with patients in Group B (41%; P = 0.001). Age, gender, tumour histology, pT stage, and continuous TTR (hazard ratio 0.99, P = 0.006; monthly interval) independently predicted CSS. By inclusion of dichotomised TTR in the multivariable model, a significant influence of this variable on CSS was present until 48 months after surgery, but not beyond this time. Advanced age, male gender, larger tumour diameters, LVI, Fuhrman grade 3-4, pN + stage, and advanced tumour stages are associated with early recurrence. Up to 4 years from surgery, a shorter TTR independently predicts a reduced CSS after recurrence. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  8. Baseline comprehensive geriatric assessment is associated with toxicity and survival in elderly metastatic breast cancer patients receiving single-agent chemotherapy: results from the OMEGA study of the Dutch breast cancer trialists' group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, M E; Seynaeve, C; Wymenga, A N M; van Tinteren, H; Nortier, J W R; Maartense, E; de Graaf, H; de Jongh, F E; Braun, J J; Los, M; Schrama, J G; van Leeuwen-Stok, A E; de Groot, S M; Smorenburg, C H

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the association between baseline comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) or the Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI) and toxicity in elderly metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients treated with first-line palliative chemotherapy. MBC patients (≥65 years) were randomized between pegylated liposomal doxorubicine or capecitabine. CGA included instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), cognition using the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), mood using the geriatric depression scale (GDS), comorbidity using the Charlson index, polypharmacy and nutritional status using the body mass index. Frailty on CGA was defined as one or more of the following: IADL ≤ 13, MMSE ≤ 23, GDS ≥ 5, BMI ≤ 20, ≥5 medications or Charlson ≥2. The cut-off for frailty on the GFI was ≥4. Of the randomized 78 patients (median age 75.5 years, range 65.8-86.8 years), 73 were evaluable for CGA; 52 (71%) had one or more geriatric conditions. Grade 3-4 chemotherapy-related toxicity was experienced by 19% of patients without geriatric conditions compared to 56% of patients with two geriatric conditions and 80% of those with three or more (p = 0.002). Polypharmacy was the only individual factor significantly associated with toxicity (p = 0.001). GFI had a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 76% for frailty on CGA, and was not significantly associated with survival or toxicity. In this study of elderly patients with MBC, the number of geriatric conditions correlated with grade 3-4 chemotherapy-related toxicity. Therefore, in elderly patients for whom chemotherapy is being considered, a CGA could be a useful addition to the decision-making process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Challenges in the estimation of Net SURvival: The CENSUR working survival group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, R

    2016-10-01

    Net survival, the survival probability that would be observed, in a hypothetical world, where the cancer of interest would be the only possible cause of death, is a key indicator in population-based cancer studies. Accounting for mortality due to other causes, it allows cross-country comparisons or trends analysis and provides a useful indicator for public health decision-making. The objective of this study was to show how the creation and formalization of a network comprising established research teams, which already had substantial and complementary experience in both cancer survival analysis and methodological development, make it possible to meet challenges and thus provide more adequate tools, to improve the quality and the comparability of cancer survival data, and to promote methodological transfers in areas of emerging interest. The Challenges in the Estimation of Net SURvival (CENSUR) working survival group is composed of international researchers highly skilled in biostatistics, methodology, and epidemiology, from different research organizations in France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Slovenia, and Canada, and involved in French (FRANCIM) and European (EUROCARE) cancer registry networks. The expected advantages are an interdisciplinary, international, synergistic network capable of addressing problems in public health, for decision-makers at different levels; tools for those in charge of net survival analyses; a common methodology that makes unbiased cross-national comparisons of cancer survival feasible; transfer of methods for net survival estimations to other specific applications (clinical research, occupational epidemiology); and dissemination of results during an international training course. The formalization of the international CENSUR working survival group was motivated by a need felt by scientists conducting population-based cancer research to discuss, develop, and monitor implementation of a common methodology to analyze net survival in order

  10. Linking age, survival, and transit time distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Salvatore; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-10-01

    Although the concepts of age, survival, and transit time have been widely used in many fields, including population dynamics, chemical engineering, and hydrology, a comprehensive mathematical framework is still missing. Here we discuss several relationships among these quantities by starting from the evolution equation for the joint distribution of age and survival, from which the equations for age and survival time readily follow. It also becomes apparent how the statistical dependence between age and survival is directly related to either the age dependence of the loss function or the survival-time dependence of the input function. The solution of the joint distribution equation also allows us to obtain the relationships between the age at exit (or death) and the survival time at input (or birth), as well as to stress the symmetries of the various distributions under time reversal. The transit time is then obtained as a sum of the age and survival time, and its properties are discussed along with the general relationships between their mean values. The special case of steady state case is analyzed in detail. Some examples, inspired by hydrologic applications, are presented to illustrate the theory with the specific results. This article was corrected on 11 Nov 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  11. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration lessons learned: 1993 technology demonstrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.

    1994-12-31

    An integrated technology demonstration was conducted by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cold Test Pit in the summer of 1993. This program and demonstration was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The demonstration included six technologies representing a synergistic system for the characterization and retrieval of a buried hazardous waste site. The integrated technology demonstration proved very successful and a summary of the technical accomplishments is presented. Upon completion of the integrated technology demonstration, cognizant program personnel participated in a lessons learned exercise. This exercise was conducted at the Simplot Decision Support Center at Idaho State University and lessons learned activity captured additional information relative to the integration of technologies for demonstration purposes. This information will be used by BWID to enhance program planning and strengthen future technology demonstrations.

  12. Cracking the survival code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllgrabe, Jens; Heldring, Nina; Hermanson, Ola; Joseph, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Modifications of histones, the chief protein components of the chromatin, have emerged as critical regulators of life and death. While the “apoptotic histone code” came to light a few years ago, accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy, a cell survival pathway, is also heavily regulated by histone-modifying proteins. In this review we describe the emerging “autophagic histone code” and the role of histone modifications in the cellular life vs. death decision. PMID:24429873

  13. Artillery Survivability Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    experiment mode also enables users to set their own design of experiment by manipulating an editable CSV file. The second one is a real-time mode that...renders a 3D virtual environment of a restricted battlefield where the survivability movements of an artillery company are visualized . This mode...provides detailed visualization of the simulation and enables future experimental uses of the simulation as a training tool. 14. SUBJECT TERMS

  14. Prediction of survival with alternative modeling techniques using pseudo values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Ploeg (Tjeerd); F.R. Datema (Frank); R.J. Baatenburg de Jong (Robert Jan); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The use of alternative modeling techniques for predicting patient survival is complicated by the fact that some alternative techniques cannot readily deal with censoring, which is essential for analyzing survival data. In the current study, we aimed to demonstrate that pseudo

  15. Research Note Early survival and growth of vegetatively propagated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuft area differed between species. The often-invasive species E. curvula had the highest average survival rate and the largest tuft area. The often-dominant, unpalatable Aristida junciformis demonstrated surprisingly low survival and growth rates. Themeda triandra and Tristachya leucothrix, species often dominating ...

  16. The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, D.C.; Scandrol, R.O.; Statnick, R.M.; Stouffer, M.R.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Wu, M.M.; Yoon, H. (CONSOL, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration met the program objectives which were to determine Coolside SO[sub 2] removal performance, establish short-term process operability, and evaluate the economics of the process versus a limestone wet scrubber. On a flue gas produced from the combustion of 3% sulfur coal, the Coolside process achieved 70% SO[sub 2] removal using commercially-available hydrated lime as the sorbent. The operating conditions were Ca/S mol ratio 2.0, Na/Ca mol ratio 0.2, and 20[degree]F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature ([del]T). During tests using fresh plus recycle sorbent, the recycle sorbent exhibited significant capacity for additional SO[sub 2] removal. The longest steady state operation was eleven days at nominally Ca/S = 2, Na/Ca = 0.22, [del]T = 20--22[degree]F, and 70% SO[sub 2] removal. The operability results achieved during the demonstration indicate that with the recommended process modifications, which are discussed in the Coolside process economic analysis, the process could be designed as a reliable system for utility application. Based on the demonstration program, the Coolside process capital cost for a hypothetical commercial installation was minimized. The optimization consisted of a single, large humidifier, no spare air compressor, no isolation dampers, and a 15 day on-site hydrated lime storage. The levelized costs of the Coolside and the wet limestone scrubbing processes were compared. The Coolside process is generally economically competitive with wet scrubbing for coals containing up to 2.5% sulfur and plants under 350 MWe. Site-specific factors such as plant capacity factor, SO[sub 2] emission limit, remaining plant life, retrofit difficulty, and delivered sorbent cost affect the scrubber-Coolside process economic comparison.

  17. The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, D.C.; Scandrol, R.O.; Statnick, R.M.; Stouffer, M.R.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Wu, M.M.; Yoon, H. [CONSOL, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration met the program objectives which were to determine Coolside SO{sub 2} removal performance, establish short-term process operability, and evaluate the economics of the process versus a limestone wet scrubber. On a flue gas produced from the combustion of 3% sulfur coal, the Coolside process achieved 70% SO{sub 2} removal using commercially-available hydrated lime as the sorbent. The operating conditions were Ca/S mol ratio 2.0, Na/Ca mol ratio 0.2, and 20{degree}F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature ({del}T). During tests using fresh plus recycle sorbent, the recycle sorbent exhibited significant capacity for additional SO{sub 2} removal. The longest steady state operation was eleven days at nominally Ca/S = 2, Na/Ca = 0.22, {del}T = 20--22{degree}F, and 70% SO{sub 2} removal. The operability results achieved during the demonstration indicate that with the recommended process modifications, which are discussed in the Coolside process economic analysis, the process could be designed as a reliable system for utility application. Based on the demonstration program, the Coolside process capital cost for a hypothetical commercial installation was minimized. The optimization consisted of a single, large humidifier, no spare air compressor, no isolation dampers, and a 15 day on-site hydrated lime storage. The levelized costs of the Coolside and the wet limestone scrubbing processes were compared. The Coolside process is generally economically competitive with wet scrubbing for coals containing up to 2.5% sulfur and plants under 350 MWe. Site-specific factors such as plant capacity factor, SO{sub 2} emission limit, remaining plant life, retrofit difficulty, and delivered sorbent cost affect the scrubber-Coolside process economic comparison.

  18. Long-term survival results of surgery alone versus surgery plus 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin for stage II and stage III colon cancer: pooled analysis of NSABP C-01 through C-05. A baseline from which to compare modern adjuvant trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Neal W; Yothers, Greg; Lopa, Samia; Costantino, Joseph P; Petrelli, Nicholas J; Wolmark, Norman

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a pooled analysis of National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) colon trials involving surgery and surgery plus 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (5-FU/LV) to compare survival and establish a baseline from which to evaluate future studies. All patients enrolled in NSABP adjuvant trials C-01 through C-05 with stage II and III disease who were treated with surgery or with surgery plus 5-FU/LV were examined for overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and recurrence-free interval (RFI). Time-to-event by treatment group was examined using adjusted Kaplan-Meier estimates and multivariable Cox regression analysis. There were 2,966 eligible patients: 693 (23%) surgery and 2,273 (77%) surgery plus 5-FU/LV; 1,255 (42%) stage II and 1,711 (58%) stage III. Age > or =60 years [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.36, P < 0.0001], male gender (HR = 1.20, P = 0.0012), and more nodes positive or fewer nodes examined (P < 0.0001) were associated with worse survival. At 5 years, the adjusted OS was 0.62 [confidence interval (CI) = 0.60-0.63] in the surgery group and 0.76 (CI = 0.74-0.78) in the surgery plus 5-FU/LV group. Treatment with 5-FU/LV was associated with improved outcome compared with surgery: OS (HR = 0.62, P < 0.0001), DFS (HR = 0.66, P < 0.0001) and RFI (HR = 0.64, P < 0.0001). Improved OS with adjuvant treatment was seen in both stage II (HR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.48-0.71) and stage III disease (HR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.55-0.75). This analysis demonstrates that treatment of colon cancer patients with 5-FU/LV following surgery provides benefit over surgery alone and can provide anticipated survival outcomes with which to compare modern adjuvant trials.

  19. Survival analysis models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws.  Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis.Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enablin

  20. Effects of Sanguis Draconis on Perforator Flap Survival in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sanguis draconis, a resin known to improve blood circulation, relieve pain, stimulate tissue regeneration, and heal wounds, is widely used in clinical practice. In this study, we prepared an ethanol extract of sanguis draconis (EESD containing 75.08 mg/g of dracorhodin. The experiment was carried out on 20 rats that were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 10 and an EESD group (n = 10. All the rats underwent a perforator flap surgery, after which post-operative abdominal compressions of EESD were given to the EESD group for seven days, while the control group received saline. Flap survival percentages were determined after seven days, and were found to be significantly higher in the EESD group than in the control group. Results of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF showed that perforator flaps in the EESD group had higher perfusion values than those of the control group. The flap tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, followed by immunohistochemical evaluation. Superoxide dismutase (SOD expression and micro-vessel development markedly increased in the EESD group, while malondialdehyde (MDA levels decreased. This is the first study to investigate the effect of sanguis draconis on perforator flap survival. Our results demonstrate that sanguis draconis can improve perforator flap survival in rats by promoting microvessel regeneration and blood perfusion.

  1. Effects of Sanguis Draconis on Perforator Flap Survival in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Cai, Xiaobing; Shen, Lifeng; Huang, Xiaowen; Wang, Xuping; Lan, Yinan; Shou, Dan

    2016-09-26

    Sanguis draconis, a resin known to improve blood circulation, relieve pain, stimulate tissue regeneration, and heal wounds, is widely used in clinical practice. In this study, we prepared an ethanol extract of sanguis draconis (EESD) containing 75.08 mg/g of dracorhodin. The experiment was carried out on 20 rats that were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 10) and an EESD group (n = 10). All the rats underwent a perforator flap surgery, after which post-operative abdominal compressions of EESD were given to the EESD group for seven days, while the control group received saline. Flap survival percentages were determined after seven days, and were found to be significantly higher in the EESD group than in the control group. Results of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) showed that perforator flaps in the EESD group had higher perfusion values than those of the control group. The flap tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, followed by immunohistochemical evaluation. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression and micro-vessel development markedly increased in the EESD group, while malondialdehyde (MDA) levels decreased. This is the first study to investigate the effect of sanguis draconis on perforator flap survival. Our results demonstrate that sanguis draconis can improve perforator flap survival in rats by promoting microvessel regeneration and blood perfusion.

  2. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Raymond [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Howland, James [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Venkiteswaran, Prasad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  3. Factors Predicting Survival after Transarterial Chemoembolization of Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farina M. Hanif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transarterial chemoembolization is the preferred treatment for unresectable, intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. Survival after transarterial chemoembolization can be highly variable. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that predict overall survival of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma who undergo transarterial chemoembolization as the initial therapy. Methods:We included patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization from 2007 to 2012 in this study. Patient’s age, gender, cause of cirrhosis, Child-Turcotte-Pugh score, model of end-stage liver disease score, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score, Okuda stage, alpha- fetoprotein level, site, size and number of tumors were recorded. Radiological response to transarterial chemoembolization was assessed by computerized tomography scan at 1 and 3 months after the procedure. Repeat sessions of transarterial chemoembolization were performed according to the response. We performed survival assessment and all patients were assessed for survival at the last follow-up. Results: Included in this study were 71 patients of whom there were 57 (80.3 % males, with a mean age of 51.9±12.1 years (range: 18-76 years. The mean follow-up period was 12.5±10.7 months. A total of 31 (43.7% patients had only one session of transarterial chemoembolization, 17 (23.9% underwent 2 and 11 (15.5% had 3 or more sessions. On univariate analysis, significant factors that predicted survival included serum bilirubin (P=0.02, esophageal varices (P=0.002, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score (P=0.003, tumor size (P=0.005, >3 sessions of transarterial chemoembolization (P=0.006 and patient's age (P=0.001. Cox regression analysis showed that tumor size of 1 transarterial chemoembolization session (P=0.004 were associated with better survival. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that survival after transarterial chemoem- bolization is predicted by tumor size

  4. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamowski, M.; Carls, B.; Dvorak, E.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Stancari, M.; Tope, T.; Voirin, E.; Yang, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  5. Demonstration project cuts red tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Results from a demonstration project aimed at cutting red tape in federal grants for basic research at universities are "very encouraging" so far, according to Don I. Phillips, executive director of the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. The roundtable is coordinating the experimental effort, with the participation of five major federal agencies as well as the Florida state university system and the University of Miami (a private institution in Coral Gables, Fla.).Under the project, special conditions apply to grants from the participating agencies to individual researchers at the participating universities: Investigators do not have to ask the agency's permission for changes in budget allocations, purchases of permanent equipment, or foreign travel. Grant money can be spent up to a year after the grant ends without a special request. Under this plan, researchers, with agency approval, can also ask to have their entire research program covered as a single administrative entity, rather than as several individual projects.

  6. Measurement of Survival Time in Brachionus Rotifers: Synchronization of Maternal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Gen; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Gribble, Kristin E; Welch, David M; Ushio, Hideki

    2016-07-22

    Rotifers are microscopic cosmopolitan zooplankton used as models in ecotoxicological and aging studies due to their several advantages such as short lifespan, ease of culture, and parthenogenesis that enables clonal culture. However, caution is required when measuring their survival time as it is affected by maternal age and maternal feeding conditions. Here we provide a protocol for powerful and reproducible measurement of the survival time in Brachionus rotifers following a careful synchronization of culture conditions over several generations. Empirically, poor synchronization results in early mortality and a gradual decrease in survival rate, thus resulting in weak statistical power. Indeed, under such conditions, calorie restriction (CR) failed to significantly extend the lifespan of B. plicatilis although CR-induced longevity has been demonstrated with well-synchronized rotifer samples in past and present studies. This protocol is probably useful for other invertebrate models, including the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, because maternal age effects have also been reported in these species.

  7. Five-year actual survival after pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreatic head cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perysinakis, Iraklis; Avlonitis, Spyridon; Georgiadou, Despoina; Tsipras, Hercules; Margaris, Ilias

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse retrospectively the long-term results of patients who were operated for adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head and identify significant prognostic factors. Eighty patients who were surgically treated for adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head between 1995 and 2006 met the inclusion criteria and were subject to retrospective analysis. Possible prognostic factors were evaluated and independent predictors of survival were determined. A classic Whipple procedure was performed in 47 patients and a pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy in 32 patients; one patient underwent total pancreatectomy. Five-year survival rate in this group of patients was 13.6%. Median survival time was 24 months. Univariable analysis demonstrated stage of disease, tumour size and grade and nodal status as significant predictive factors of survival. Multivariable analysis indicated tumour size, nodal status and disease stage as significant prognostic indicators in terms of survival. Long-term survival in pancreatic cancer is still very low. Prognostic factors include differentiation of the tumour, disease stage and nodal status. So far, there has been no reliable method that can accurately predict which patient will mostly benefit from surgical resection. This means that pancreatic cancer resection should nearly always be attempted. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  8. Teleoperation for learning by demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukliński, Kamil; Fischer, Kerstin; Marhenke, Ilka

    2014-01-01

    Learning by demonstration is a useful technique to augment a robot's behavioral inventory, and teleoperation allows lay users to demonstrate novel behaviors intuitively to the robot. In this paper, we compare two modes of teleoperation of an industrial robot, the demonstration by means of a data...... glove and by means of a control object (peg). Experiments with 16 lay users, performing assembly task on the Cranfield benchmark objects, show that the control peg leads to more success, more efficient demonstration and fewer errors....

  9. Helicopter detection and classification demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koersel, A.C. van

    2000-01-01

    A technology demonstrator that detects and classifies different helicopter types automatically, was developed at TNO-FEL. The demonstrator is based on a PC, which receives its acoustic input from an all-weather microphone. The demonstrator uses commercial off-the-shelf hardware to digitize the

  10. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  11. MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression contributes to the inferior survival of activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and demonstrates high-risk gene expression signatures: a report from The International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shimin; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Tzankov, Alexander; Green, Tina; Wu, Lin; Balasubramanyam, Aarthi; Liu, Wei-min; Visco, Carlo; Li, Yong; Miranda, Roberto N; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Dybkaer, Karen; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L; Hsi, Eric D; Choi, William W L; Zhao, Xiaoying; van Krieken, J Han; Huang, Qin; Huh, Jooryung; Ai, Weiyun; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Zhou, Fan; Slack, Graham W; Gascoyne, Randy D; Tu, Meifeng; Variakojis, Daina; Chen, Weina; Go, Ronald S; Piris, Miguel A; Møller, Michael B; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Young, Ken H

    2013-05-16

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is stratified into prognostically favorable germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like and unfavorable activated B-cell (ABC)-like subtypes based on gene expression signatures. In this study, we analyzed 893 de novo DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). We show that MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression occurred significantly more commonly in the ABC subtype. Patients with the ABC or GCB subtype of DLBCL had similar prognoses with MYC/BCL2 coexpression and without MYC/BCL2 coexpression. Consistent with the notion that the prognostic difference between the 2 subtypes is attributable to MYC/BCL2 coexpression, there is no difference in gene expression signatures between the 2 subtypes in the absence of MYC/BCL2 coexpression. DLBCL with MYC/BCL2 coexpression demonstrated a signature of marked downregulation of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins, those involving matrix deposition/remodeling and cell adhesion, and upregulation of proliferation-associated genes. We conclude that MYC/BCL2 coexpression in DLBCL is associated with an aggressive clinical course, is more common in the ABC subtype, and contributes to the overall inferior prognosis of patients with ABC-DLBCL. In conclusion, the data suggest that MYC/BCL2 coexpression, rather than cell-of-origin classification, is a better predictor of prognosis in patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP.

  12. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  13. Role of BRCA2 mutation status on overall survival among breast cancer patients from Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisano Marina

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes have been demonstrated to increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Conversely, the impact of BRCA mutations on prognosis and survival of breast cancer patients is still debated. In this study, we investigated the role of such mutations on breast cancer-specific survival among patients from North Sardinia. Methods Among incident cases during the period 1997–2002, a total of 512 breast cancer patients gave their consent to undergo BRCA mutation screening by DHPLC analysis and automated DNA sequencing. The Hakulinen, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox regression methods were used for both relative survival assessment and statistical analysis. Results In our series, patients carrying a germline mutation in coding regions and splice boundaries of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were 48/512 (9%. Effect on overall survival was evaluated taking into consideration BRCA2 carriers, who represented the vast majority (44/48; 92% of mutation-positive patients. A lower breast cancer-specific overall survival rate was observed in BRCA2 mutation carriers after the first two years from diagnosis. However, survival rates were similar in both groups after five years from diagnosis. No significant difference was found for age of onset, disease stage, and primary tumour histopathology between the two subsets. Conclusion In Sardinian breast cancer population, BRCA2 was the most affected gene and the effects of BRCA2 germline mutations on patients' survival were demonstrated to vary within the first two years from diagnosis. After a longer follow-up observation, breast cancer-specific rates of death were instead similar for BRCA2 mutation carriers and non-carriers.

  14. Survival in common cancers defined by risk and survival of family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguang Ji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on survival between familial and sporadic cancers have been inconclusive and only recent data on a limited number of cancers are available on the concordance of survival between family members. In this review, we address these questions by evaluating the published and unpublished data from the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database and a total of 13 cancer sites were assessed. Using sporadic cancer as reference, HRs were close to 1.0 for most of the familial cancers in both the offspring and parental generations, which suggested that survival in patients with familial and sporadic cancers was equal, with an exception for ovarian cancer with a worse prognosis. Compared to offspring whose parents had a poor survival, those with a good parental survival had a decreased risk of death for most cancers and HR was significantly decreased for cancers in the breast, prostate, bladder, and kidney. For colorectal and nervous system cancers, favorable survival between the generations showed a borderline significance. These data are consistent in showing that both good and poor survival in certain cancers aggregate in families. Genetic factors are likely to contribute to the results. These observations call for intensified efforts to consider heritability in survival as one mechanism regulating prognosis in cancer patients.

  15. Clostridium difficile spore-macrophage interactions: spore survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paredes-Sabja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the main cause of nosocomial infections including antibiotic associated diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. During the course of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI, C. difficile undergoes sporulation and releases spores to the colonic environment. The elevated relapse rates of CDI suggest that C. difficile spores has a mechanism(s to efficiently persist in the host colonic environment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we provide evidence that C. difficile spores are well suited to survive the host's innate immune system. Electron microscopy results show that C. difficile spores are recognized by discrete patchy regions on the surface of macrophage Raw 264.7 cells, and phagocytosis was actin polymerization dependent. Fluorescence microscopy results show that >80% of Raw 264.7 cells had at least one C. difficile spore adhered, and that ∼60% of C. difficile spores were phagocytosed by Raw 264.7 cells. Strikingly, presence of complement decreased Raw 264.7 cells' ability to phagocytose C. difficile spores. Due to the ability of C. difficile spores to remain dormant inside Raw 264.7 cells, they were able to survive up to 72 h of macrophage infection. Interestingly, transmission electron micrographs showed interactions between the surface proteins of C. difficile spores and the phagosome membrane of Raw 264.7 cells. In addition, infection of Raw 264.7 cells with C. difficile spores for 48 h produced significant Raw 264.7 cell death as demonstrated by trypan blue assay, and nuclei staining by ethidium homodimer-1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that despite efficient recognition and phagocytosis of C. difficile spores by Raw 264.7 cells, spores remain dormant and are able to survive and produce cytotoxic effects on Raw 264.7 cells.

  16. Survival of taylorellae in the environmental amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allombert, Julie; Vianney, Anne; Laugier, Claire; Petry, Sandrine; Hébert, Laurent

    2014-03-19

    Taylorella equigenitalis is the causative agent of contagious equine metritis, a sexually-transmitted infection of Equidae characterised in infected mares by abundant mucopurulent vaginal discharge and a variable degree of vaginitis, cervicitis or endometritis, usually resulting in temporary infertility. The second species of the Taylorella genus, Taylorella asinigenitalis, is considered non-pathogenic, although mares experimentally infected with this bacterium can develop clinical signs of endometritis. To date, little is understood about the basic molecular virulence and persistence mechanisms employed by the Taylorella species. To clarify these points, we investigated whether the host-pathogen interaction model Acanthamoeba castellanii was a suitable model for studying taylorellae. We herein demonstrate that both species of the Taylorella genus are internalised by a mechanism involving the phagocytic capacity of the amoeba and are able to survive for at least one week inside the amoeba. During this one-week incubation period, taylorellae concentrations remain strikingly constant and no overt toxicity to amoeba cells was observed. This study provides the first evidence of the capacity of taylorellae to survive in a natural environment other than the mammalian genital tract, and shows that the alternative infection model, A. castellanii, constitutes a relevant alternative system to assess host-pathogen interactions of taylorellae. The survival of taylorellae inside the potential environmental reservoir A. castellanii brings new insight, fostering a broader understanding of taylorellae biology and its potential natural ecological niche.

  17. Protein kinase activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulates cytokine-dependent cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thomas

    Full Text Available The dual specificity protein/lipid kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, promotes growth factor-mediated cell survival and is frequently deregulated in cancer. However, in contrast to canonical lipid-kinase functions, the role of PI3K protein kinase activity in regulating cell survival is unknown. We have employed a novel approach to purify and pharmacologically profile protein kinases from primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells that phosphorylate serine residues in the cytoplasmic portion of cytokine receptors to promote hemopoietic cell survival. We have isolated a kinase activity that is able to directly phosphorylate Ser585 in the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin 3 (IL-3 and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF receptors and shown it to be PI3K. Physiological concentrations of cytokine in the picomolar range were sufficient for activating the protein kinase activity of PI3K leading to Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival but did not activate PI3K lipid kinase signaling or promote proliferation. Blockade of PI3K lipid signaling by expression of the pleckstrin homology of Akt1 had no significant impact on the ability of picomolar concentrations of cytokine to promote hemopoietic cell survival. Furthermore, inducible expression of a mutant form of PI3K that is defective in lipid kinase activity but retains protein kinase activity was able to promote Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival in the absence of cytokine. Blockade of p110α by RNA interference or multiple independent PI3K inhibitors not only blocked Ser585 phosphorylation in cytokine-dependent cells and primary human AML blasts, but also resulted in a block in survival signaling and cell death. Our findings demonstrate a new role for the protein kinase activity of PI3K in phosphorylating the cytoplasmic tail of the GM-CSF and IL-3 receptors to selectively regulate cell survival highlighting the importance of targeting

  18. Survival of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods Donald E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of Burkholderia pseudomallei to survive in water likely contributes to its environmental persistence in endemic regions. To determine the physiological adaptations which allow B. pseudomallei to survive in aqueous environments, we performed microarray analyses of B. pseudomallei cultures transferred from Luria broth (LB to distilled water. Findings Increased expression of a gene encoding for a putative membrane protein (BPSL0721 was confirmed using a lux-based transcriptional reporter system, and maximal expression was noted at approximately 6 hrs after shifting cells from LB to water. A BPSL0721 deficient mutant of B. pseudomallei was able to survive in water for at least 90 days indicating that although involved, BPSL0721 was not essential for survival. BPSL2961, a gene encoding a putative phosphatidylglycerol phosphatase (PGP, was also induced when cells were shifted to water. This gene is likely involved in cell membrane biosynthesis. We were unable to construct a PGP mutant suggesting that the gene is not only involved in survival in water but is essential for cell viability. We also examined mutants of polyhydroxybutyrate synthase (phbC, lipopolysaccharide (LPS oligosaccharide and capsule synthesis, and these mutations did not affect survival in water. LPS mutants lacking outer core were found to lose viability in water by 200 days indicating that an intact LPS core provides an outer membrane architecture which allows prolonged survival in water. Conclusion The results from these studies suggest that B. pseudomallei survival in water is a complex process that requires an LPS molecule which contains an intact core region.

  19. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Yaicha D.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    experienced size reductions and shape transitions from rods to cocci. In the short-term, these trends more closely resembled the response of these organisms to starvation conditions than to nutrient-rich media. Results from this experiment reproduced the physical state of cells (small cocci) in ancient halite where prokaryotes co-exist with single-celled algae. We conclude that glycerol is not the limiting factor in the survival of haloarchaea for thousands of years in fluid inclusions in halite. PMID:26569313

  20. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaicha D. Winters

    2015-11-01

    and DV582A-1 experienced size reductions and shape transitions from rods to cocci. In the short-term, these trends more closely resembled the response of these organisms to starvation conditions than to nutrient-rich media. Results from this experiment reproduced the physical state of cells (small cocci in ancient halite where prokaryotes co-exist with single-celled algae. We conclude that glycerol is not the limiting factor in the survival of haloarchaea for thousands of years in fluid inclusions in halite.

  1. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Laser Communications Relay Demonstration project will advance optical communications technology, expanding industry’s capability to produce competitive,...

  2. Survival during the Breeding Season: Nest Stage, Parental Sex, and Season Advancement Affect Reed Warbler Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Wierucka

    Full Text Available Avian annual survival has received much attention, yet little is known about seasonal patterns in survival, especially of migratory passerines. In order to evaluate survival rates and timing of mortality within the breeding season of adult reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus, mark-recapture data were collected in southwest Poland, between 2006 and 2012. A total of 612 individuals (304 females and 308 males were monitored throughout the entire breeding season, and their capture-recapture histories were used to model survival rates. Males showed higher survival during the breeding season (0.985, 95% CI: 0.941-0.996 than females (0.869, 95% CI: 0.727-0.937. Survival rates of females declined with the progression of the breeding season (from May to August, while males showed constant survival during this period. We also found a clear pattern within the female (but not male nesting cycle: survival was significantly lower during the laying, incubation, and nestling periods (0.934, 95% CI: 0.898-0.958, when birds spent much time on the nest, compared to the nest building and fledgling periods (1.000, 95% CI: 1.00-1.000, when we did not record any female mortality. These data (coupled with some direct evidence, like bird corpses or blood remains found next to/on the nest may suggest that the main cause of adult mortality was on-nest predation. The calculated survival rates for both sexes during the breeding season were high compared to annual rates reported for this species, suggesting that a majority of mortality occurs at other times of the year, during migration or wintering. These results have implications for understanding survival variation within the reproductive period as well as general trends of avian mortality.

  3. Self-organzatonal interacton as a factor of fan groups survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Baranova

    2016-06-01

    Also in this study the matter of survival of social groups is examined though the synergetic approach. Survival of the football fan groups is presented as a result of the overcoming the internal entropy of the system. In addition, in the end of the article the implementation of value basis and their functions in the self-organized football fan groups are discussed. The author demonstrates the social importance of the informal internal «code» for football fans. This s how the author defines the role of the self-organization as a factor of the football fan groups survival. Thus, the inner football fans corporate culture is seen not only as a system that is capable of self-regulation, but also as a basic condition for self-organization.

  4. Survival and growth of eucalypts clones seedlings in response to organic fertilizer application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sula Janaína de Oliveira Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effect of Fert-Bokashi® on survival and seedlings growth of two Eucalyptus urophylla clones propagated by minicutting technique. The experiment was conducted over a period of 28 days using a randomized block design and three replicates in an 6 x 2 factorial arrangement, with six Fert-Bokashi® concentrations (0.0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7% and 0.9% and two clones. Seedlings survival, height growth and shoot, root and total dry matter were evaluated. Experimental results demonstrated no significant effect of Fert- Bokashi® on survival and seedlings growth of two Eucalyptus urophylla clones.

  5. Melatonin synergized with cyclosporine A improves cardiac allograft survival by suppressing inflammation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Hong, Tao; Shao, Mengping; Chen, Zhenghang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2014-09-01

    Melatonin, a widespread physiological mediator, has been demonstrated to exhibit a dose‑dependent immunoregulatory effect in vitro and in vivo, including mediating physiological circadian rhythms, neutralizing free radicals and exerting antisenescence actions. In the present study, the efficacy and mechanism of melatonin alone or in combination with cyclosporine (CsA) in prolonging heart transplantation survival was examined. Daily treatment with melatonin (200 mg/kg/day) through a gavage, significantly prolonged the survival of cardiac grafts (mean survival time, 13.4±2.4 days; n=7; Pcardiac allograft by inhibiting inflammation‑induced apoptosis. These results provide evidence for a novel therapeutic approach for future immunosuppressive agents in organ transplantation.

  6. Combining parametric, semi-parametric, and non-parametric survival models with stacked survival models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Andrew; Connett, John; Rudser, Kyle

    2015-07-01

    For estimating conditional survival functions, non-parametric estimators can be preferred to parametric and semi-parametric estimators due to relaxed assumptions that enable robust estimation. Yet, even when misspecified, parametric and semi-parametric estimators can possess better operating characteristics in small sample sizes due to smaller variance than non-parametric estimators. Fundamentally, this is a bias-variance trade-off situation in that the sample size is not large enough to take advantage of the low bias of non-parametric estimation. Stacked survival models estimate an optimally weighted combination of models that can span parametric, semi-parametric, and non-parametric models by minimizing prediction error. An extensive simulation study demonstrates that stacked survival models consistently perform well across a wide range of scenarios by adaptively balancing the strengths and weaknesses of individual candidate survival models. In addition, stacked survival models perform as well as or better than the model selected through cross-validation. Finally, stacked survival models are applied to a well-known German breast cancer study. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  8. The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

  9. Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…

  10. In-hospital resuscitation: opioids and other factors influencing survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamarie Fecho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Karamarie Fecho1, Freeman Jackson1, Frances Smith1, Frank J Overdyk21Department of Anesthesiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA; 2Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USAPurpose: “Code Blue” is a standard term used to alertt hospital staff that a patient requires resuscitation. This study determined rates of survival from Code Blue events and the role of opioids and other factors on survival.Methods: Data derived from medical records and the Code Blue and Pharmacy databases were analyzed for factors affecting survival.Results: During 2006, rates of survival from the code only and to discharge were 25.9% and 26.4%, respectively, for Code Blue events involving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; N = 216. Survival rates for events not ultimately requiring CPR (N = 77 were higher, with 32.5% surviving the code only and 62.3% surviving to discharge. For CPR events, rates of survival to discharge correlated inversely with time to chest compressions and defibrillation, precipitating event, need for airway management, location and age. Time of week, witnessing, postoperative status, gender and opioid use did not influence survival rates. For non-CPR events, opioid use was associated with decreased survival. Survival rates were lowest for patients receiving continuous infusions (P < 0.01 or iv boluses of opioids (P < 0.05.Conclusions: One-quarter of patients survive to discharge after a CPR Code Blue event and two-thirds survive to discharge after a non-CPR event. Opioids may influence survival from non-CPR events.Keywords: code blue, survival, opioids, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, cardiac arrest, patient safety

  11. Prognostic value of DCE-MRI in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a comparison with traditional survival indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, Martin D.; Lowry, Martin; Turnbull, Lindsay W. [Hull York Medical School at University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Hull (United Kingdom); Manton, David J. [Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Radiation Physics Department, Hull (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    To determine associations between dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters and survival intervals in patients with locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), surgery, and adjuvant therapies. Further, to compare the prognostic value of DCE-MRI parameters against traditional survival indicators. DCE-MRI and MR tumour volume measures were obtained prior to treatment and post 2nd NAC cycle. To demonstrate which parameters were associated with survival, Cox's proportional hazards models (CPHM) were employed. To avoid over-parameterisation, only those MR parameters with at least a borderline significant result were entered into the final CPHM. When considering disease-free survival positive axillary nodal status (hazard ratio [HR] 6.79), younger age (HR 3.37), negative oestrogen receptor status (HR 3.24), pre-treatment Maximum Enhancement Index (MaxEI) (HR 6.51), and percentage change in MaxEI (HR 1.02) represented the retained CPHM covariates. Similarly, positive axillary nodal status (HR 11.47), negative progesterone receptor status (HR 4.37) and percentage change in AUC{sub 90} (HR 1.01) represented the retained predictive variables for overall survival. Multivariate survival analysis has demonstrated that DCE-MRI parameters obtained prior to NAC and/or post 2nd cycle can provide independent prognostic information that can complement traditional prognostic indicators available prior to treatment. (orig.)

  12. SURVIVAL ANALYSIS AND LENGTH-BIASED SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Asgharian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When survival data are colleted as part of a prevalent cohort study, the recruited cases have already experienced their initiating event. These prevalent cases are then followed for a fixed period of time at the end of which the subjects will either have failed or have been censored. When interests lies in estimating the survival distribution, from onset, of subjects with the disease, one must take into account that the survival times of the cases in a prevalent cohort study are left truncated. When it is possible to assume that there has not been any epidemic of the disease over the past period of time that covers the onset times of the subjects, one may assume that the underlying incidence process that generates the initiating event times is a stationary Poisson process. Under such assumption, the survival times of the recruited subjects are called “lengthbiased”. I discuss the challenges one is faced with in analyzing these type of data. To address the theoretical aspects of the work, I present asymptotic results for the NPMLE of the length-biased as well as the unbiased survival distribution. I also discuss estimating the unbiased survival function using only the follow-up time. This addresses the case that the onset times are either unknown or known with uncertainty. Some of our most recent work and open questions will be presented. These include some aspects of analysis of covariates, strong approximation, functional LIL and density estimation under length-biased sampling with right censoring. The results will be illustrated with survival data from patients with dementia, collected as part of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA.

  13. The impact of television fiction on public expectations of survival following inhospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation by medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bulck, Jan J M

    2002-12-01

    Research has shown that the public overestimates the survival chances of patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Other studies have suggested that demonstrably exaggerated survival rates in medical television fiction might affect these estimates. Such studies were mostly conducted in the United States, dealt with cardiopulmonary resuscitation in general, and asked respondents to indicate their source of medical information, an unreliable survey technique. To examine whether public perceptions of survival after inhospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation by physicians and nurses is related to the consumption of medical drama, without relying on respondents' self-reports of what influences them. To examine whether training in basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques mediates this relationship. A random sample of 820 third and fifth year secondary school students completed a questionnaire in which they indicated their consumption of medical television fiction, their practical knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques, and their estimates of the survival rate after inhospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A relationship was found between the consumption of medical television drama and higher estimates of cardiopulmonary resuscitation survival. Practical knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation also resulted in increased estimated survival rates. An interaction effect of drama and practical knowledge was found. Respondents with practical knowledge were less affected by television. The consumption of medical television drama is related to overestimating survival chances after inhospital resuscitation by physicians and nurses following cardiopulmonary arrest. A practical knowledge of basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques moderates but does not eliminate the television effect.

  14. Factors predicting survival in ALS: a multicenter Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Andrea; Moglia, Cristina; Lunetta, Christian; Marinou, Kalliopi; Ticozzi, Nicola; Ferrante, Gianluca Drago; Scialo, Carlo; Sorarù, Gianni; Trojsi, Francesca; Conte, Amelia; Falzone, Yuri M; Tortelli, Rosanna; Russo, Massimo; Chiò, Adriano; Sansone, Valeria Ada; Mora, Gabriele; Silani, Vincenzo; Volanti, Paolo; Caponnetto, Claudia; Querin, Giorgia; Monsurrò, Maria Rosaria; Sabatelli, Mario; Riva, Nilo; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Messina, Sonia; Fini, Nicola; Mandrioli, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this multicenter, retrospective study is to investigate the role of clinical characteristics and therapeutic intervention on ALS prognosis. The study included patients diagnosed from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013 in 13 Italian referral centers for ALS located in 10 Italian regions. Caring neurologists collected a detailed phenotypic profile and follow-up data until death into an electronic database. One center collected also data from a population-based registry for ALS. 2648 incident cases were collected. The median survival time from onset to death/tracheostomy was 44 months (SE 1.18, CI 42-46). According to univariate analysis, factors related to survival from onset to death/tracheostomy were: age at onset, diagnostic delay, site of onset, phenotype, degree of certainty at diagnosis according to revised El Escorial criteria (R-EEC), presence/absence of dementia, BMI at diagnosis, patients' provenance. In the multivariate analysis, age at onset, diagnostic delay, phenotypes but not site of onset, presence/absence of dementia, BMI, riluzole use, R-EEC criteria were independent prognostic factors of survival in ALS. We compared patients from an ALS Registry with patients from tertiary centers; the latter ones were younger, less frequently bulbar, but more frequently familial and definite at diagnosis. Our large, multicenter study demonstrated the role of some clinical and demographic factors on ALS survival, and showed some interesting differences between referral centers' patients and the general ALS population. These results can be helpful for clinical practice, in clinical trial design and to validate new tools to predict disease progression.

  15. Kidney transplant survival in pediatric and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acott Phil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a perception that kidney transplant recipients transferred from pediatric centers to adult care have an increased risk of graft loss. It is not clear whether young adults transplanted in adult centers also suffer from high graft loss rates. Methods We examined death censored graft survival in 3 cohorts of young patients transplanted at a single center. Pediatric (PED patients transplanted at the pediatric center were compared to a cohort of young adults (YAD; age 18- Results In a multivariate Cox model for death-censored graft survival, PED survival was statistically similar to the YAD (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.44, 1.7, p = 0.66, however the ADL cohort (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25, 0.82, p = 0.009 demonstrated better survival. Admitted non-adherence rates were not different among cohorts. Patients were transferred within a narrow age window (18.6 ± 1.0 age in years but at a wide range of times from the date of transplantation (5.1 ± 3.5 years and with a wide range of graft function (serum creatinine 182 ± 81 μmol/L. Conclusions The perception that pediatric transfers do poorly reflects advanced graft dysfunction in some at the time of transfer. The evidence also suggests that it is not the transfer of care that is the critical issue but rather recipients, somewhere between the ages of 11-14 and 25, are a unique and vulnerable cohort. Effective strategies to improve outcomes across this age group need to be identified and applied consistently.

  16. NAD+-Glycohydrolase Promotes Intracellular Survival of Group A Streptococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onkar Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A global increase in invasive infections due to group A Streptococcus (S. pyogenes or GAS has been observed since the 1980s, associated with emergence of a clonal group of strains of the M1T1 serotype. Among other virulence attributes, the M1T1 clone secretes NAD+-glycohydrolase (NADase. When GAS binds to epithelial cells in vitro, NADase is translocated into the cytosol in a process mediated by streptolysin O (SLO, and expression of these two toxins is associated with enhanced GAS intracellular survival. Because SLO is required for NADase translocation, it has been difficult to distinguish pathogenic effects of NADase from those of SLO. To resolve the effects of the two proteins, we made use of anthrax toxin as an alternative means to deliver NADase to host cells, independently of SLO. We developed a novel method for purification of enzymatically active NADase fused to an amino-terminal fragment of anthrax toxin lethal factor (LFn-NADase that exploits the avid, reversible binding of NADase to its endogenous inhibitor. LFn-NADase was translocated across a synthetic lipid bilayer in vitro in the presence of anthrax toxin protective antigen in a pH-dependent manner. Exposure of human oropharyngeal keratinocytes to LFn-NADase in the presence of protective antigen resulted in cytosolic delivery of NADase activity, inhibition of protein synthesis, and cell death, whereas a similar construct of an enzymatically inactive point mutant had no effect. Anthrax toxin-mediated delivery of NADase in an amount comparable to that observed during in vitro infection with live GAS rescued the defective intracellular survival of NADase-deficient GAS and increased the survival of SLO-deficient GAS. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that delivery of LFn-NADase prevented intracellular trafficking of NADase-deficient GAS to lysosomes. We conclude that NADase mediates cytotoxicity and promotes intracellular survival of GAS in host cells.

  17. National Hydrogen Learning Demonstration Status (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-02-01

    This presentation discusses U.S. DOE Learning Demonstration Project goals, fuel cell vehicle and H2 station deployment status, and technical highlights of vehicle and infrastructure analysis results and progress.

  18. IL-15 expression on RA synovial fibroblasts promotes B cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Benito-Miguel

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the role of RA Synovial Fibroblast (RASFib IL-15 expression on B cell survival. METHODS: Magnetically sorted peripheral blood memory B cells from 15 healthy subjects were cocultured with RASFib. RESULTS: RASFib constitutively expressed membrane IL-15. Survival of isolated B cells cultured for 6 days, below 5%, was extended in coculture with RASFib to 52+/-8% (p<0.001. IL-15 neutralizing agents but not isotype controls, reduced this rate to 31+/-6% (p<0.05. Interestingly, rhIL-15 had no effect on isolated B cells but significantly increased their survival in coculture with RASFib. In parallel, B cell IL-15R chains were upregulated in cocultures. BAFF and VCAM-1, that are expressed on RASFib, were tested as potential candidates involved in upregulating B cell IL-15R. Culture of B cells in the presence of rhBAFF or rhVCAM-1 resulted in significantly increased survival, together with upregulation of all three IL-15R chains; in parallel, rhIL-15 potentiated the anti-apoptotic effect of BAFF and VCAM-1. Both BAFF and VCAM-1 neutralizing agents downmodulated the effect of RASFib on B cell survival and IL-15R expression. In parallel, rhIL-15 had a lower effect on the survival of B cells cocultured with RASFib in the presence of BAFF or VCAM-1 neutralizing agents. Peripheral blood B cells from 15 early RA patients demonstrated an upregulated IL-15R and increased survival in cocultures. CONCLUSION: IL-15 expression on RASFib significantly contributes to the anti-apoptotic effect of RASFib on B cells. IL-15 action is facilitated by BAFF and VCAM-1 expressed on RASFib, through an upregulation of IL-15R chains.

  19. Offsite demonstrations for MWLID technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, R. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The goal of the Offsite Demonstration Project for Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID)-developed environmental site characterization and remediation technologies is to facilitate the transfer, use, and commercialization of these technologies to the public and private sector. The meet this goal, the project identified environmental restoration needs of mixed waste and/or hazardous waste landfill owners (Native American, municipal, DOE, and DoD); documenting potential demonstration sites and the contaminants present at each site; assessing the environmental regulations that would effect demonstration activities; and evaluating site suitability for demonstrating MWLID technologies at the tribal and municipal sites identified. Eighteen landfill sites within a 40.2-km radius of Sandia National Laboratories are listed on the CERCLIS Site/Event Listing for the state of New Mexico. Seventeen are not located within DOE or DoD facilities and are potential offsite MWLID technology demonstration sites. Two of the seventeen CERCLIS sites, one on Native American land and one on municipal land, were evaluated and identified as potential candidates for off-site demonstrations of MWLID-developed technologies. Contaminants potentially present on site include chromium waste, household/commercial hazardous waste, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum products. MWLID characterization technologies applicable to these sites include Magnetometer Towed Array, Cross-borehole Electromagnetic Imaging, SitePlanner {trademark}/PLUME, Hybrid Directional Drilling, Seamist{trademark}/Vadose Zone Monitoring, Stripping Analyses, and x-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metals.

  20. ORNL fusion power demonstration study: interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STeiner, D.; Bettis, E. S.; Huxford, T. J.

    1977-03-01

    The purpose of the ORNL Fusion Power Demonstration Study (Demo study) is to develop a plan for demonstrating, in this century, the commercial feasibility of fusion power based on the tokamak concept. The two-year study was initiated in FY 1976, and this interim report summarizes the results for FY 1976. Major results include: (1) the outline of a three-phase plan for demonstrating the commercial feasibility of tokamak fusion power in this century; (2) a parametric analysis of tokamak costs which provides the economic basis for the demonstration plan; and (3) a critical evaluation of the technological directions, design approaches, and plasma characteristics which serve as the technical basis for the demonstration plan.

  1. Long-Term Survival Outcomes of Cancer-Directed Surgery for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David B; Rice, David C; Niu, Jiangong; Atay, Scott; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Antonoff, Mara; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Walsh, Garrett L; Swisher, Stephen G; Roth, Jack A; Tsao, Anne; Gomez, Daniel; Giordano, Sharon H; Mehran, Reza; Sepesi, Boris

    2017-10-10

    Purpose Small observational studies have shown a survival advantage to undergoing cancer-directed surgery for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM); however, it is unclear if these results are generalizable. Our purpose was to evaluate survival after treatment of MPM with cancer-directed surgery and to explore the effect surgery interaction with chemotherapy or radiation therapy on survival by using the National Cancer Database. Patients and Methods Patients with microscopically proven MPM were identified within the National Cancer Database (2004 to 2014). Propensity score matching was performed 1:2 and among this cohort, a Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify predictors of survival. Median survival was calculated by using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Of 20,561 patients with MPM, 6,645 were identified in the matched cohort, among whom 2,166 underwent no therapy, 2,015 underwent chemotherapy alone, 850 underwent cancer-directed surgery alone, 988 underwent surgery with chemotherapy, and 274 underwent trimodality therapy. The remaining 352 patients underwent another combination of surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. Thirty-day and 90-day mortality rates were 6.3% and 15.5%. Cancer-directed surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy were independently associated with improved survival (hazard ratio, 0.77, 0.74, and 0.88, respectively). Stratified analysis revealed that surgery-based multimodality therapy demonstrated an improved survival compared with surgery alone, with no significant difference between surgery-based multimodality therapies; however, the largest estimated effect was when cancer-directed surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy were combined (hazard ratio, 0.52). For patients with the epithelial subtype who underwent trimodality therapy, median survival was extended from 14.5 months to 23.4 months. Conclusion MPM is an aggressive and rapidly fatal disease. Surgery-based multimodality therapy was associated with

  2. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Detwiler, Jason A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, John L.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Schmitt, C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Tedeschi, D.; Timkin, V.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2015-06-09

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing the Majorana Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular high purity Ge detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double-beta decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted hierarchy region, a major goal of the Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The current status of the Demonstrator is discussed, as are plans for its completion.

  3. Local Area Defense (LAD) Demonstration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mackenzie, Colin F

    2004-01-01

    This pilot program is funded by the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) to demonstrate a real-time detection and rapid response system for local area defense using the University of Maryland Baltimore (UMB...

  4. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  5. Prognostic value of pre-treatment DCE-MRI parameters in predicting disease free and overall survival for breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, Martin D. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.pickles@hull.ac.uk; Manton, David J. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.j.manton@hull.ac.uk; Lowry, Martin [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.lowry@hull.ac.uk; Turnbull, Lindsay W. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: l.w.turnbull@hull.ac.uk

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data, both pharmacokinetic and empirical, can predict, prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which patients are likely to have a shorter disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) interval following surgery. Traditional prognostic parameters were also included in the survival analysis. Consequently, a comparison of the prognostic value could be made between all the parameters studied. MR examinations were conducted on a 1.5 T system in 68 patients prior to the initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. DCE-MRI consisted of a fast spoiled gradient echo sequence acquired over 35 phases with a mean temporal resolution of 11.3 s. Both pharmacokinetic and empirical parameters were derived from the DCE-MRI data. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were generated for each parameter and group comparisons were made utilising logrank tests. The results from the 54 patients entered into the univariate survival analysis demonstrated that traditional prognostic parameters (tumour grade, hormonal status and size), empirical parameters (maximum enhancement index, enhancement index at 30 s, area under the curve and initial slope) and adjuvant therapies demonstrated significant differences in survival intervals. Further multivariate Cox regression survival analysis revealed that empirical enhancement parameters contributed the greatest prediction of both DFS and OS in the resulting models. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that in patients who exhibit high levels of perfusion and vessel permeability pre-treatment, evidenced by elevated empirical DCE-MRI parameters, a significantly lower disease free survival and overall survival can be expected.

  6. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume I. Demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this project is for Babcock Contractors Inc. (BCI) to provide process designs, and gasifier retort design for a fuel gas demonstration plant for Erie Mining Company at Hoyt Lake, Minnesota. The fuel gas produced will be used to supplement natural gas and fuel oil for iron ore pellet induration. The fuel gas demonstration plant will consist of five stirred, two-stage fixed-bed gasifier retorts capable of handling caking and non-caking coals, and provisions for the installation of a sixth retort. The process and unit design has been based on operation with caking coals; however, the retorts have been designed for easy conversion to handle non-caking coals. The demonstration unit has been designed to provide for expansion to a commercial plant (described in Commercial Plant Package) in an economical manner.

  7. Yo-Yo Pull Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, William

    2013-01-01

    A popular demonstration involves placing a yo-yo on a level table and gently pulling the string horizontally when it is wrapped to come out below the center of the yo-yo's axis. Students are then asked to predict which way the yo-yo will move. A similar demonstration is performed with a tricycle by pulling forward on a pedal with the pedal down in…

  8. Edison Demonstration of Smallsat Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westley, Deborah; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Edison Demonstration of Smallsat Networks (EDSN) mission is to demonstrate interactive satellite swarms capable of collecting, exchanging and transmitting multi-point scientific measurements. Satellite swarms enable a wide array of scientific, commercial and academic research not achievable with a single satellite. The EDSN satellites are scheduled to be launched into space as secondary payloads on the first flight of the Super Strypi launch vehicle no earlier than Oct. 29, 2015.

  9. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is part of RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). RESOLVE is an ISRU ground demonstration: (1) A rover to explore a permanently shadowed crater at the south or north pole of the Moon (2) Drill core samples down to 1 meter (3) Heat the core samples to 150C (4) Analyze gases and capture water and/or hydrogen evolved (5) Use hydrogen reduction to extract oxygen from regolith

  10. A Demonstration to Assess Effectiveness, Suitability, and Survivability With the Missions and Means Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    enhanced methodologies [2, 5] for stochastically estimating which vehicle components would likely be damaged by a specific ballistic interaction and...performance and effectiveness, i.e., the efficacy of an SoS. Using a football metaphor, we can describe the collective tasks as the equivalent of...Storyboard Model (SBM). The model had a small amount of randomness introduced by using stochastic methods to determine, for example, the time required to

  11. Survival assays using Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Eun H; Jung, Yoonji; Lee, Seung-Jae V

    2017-02-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model organism with many useful features, including rapid development and aging, easy cultivation, and genetic tractability. Survival assays using C. elegans are powerful methods for studying physiological processes. In this review, we describe diverse types of C. elegans survival assays and discuss the aims, uses, and advantages of specific assays. C. elegans survival assays have played key roles in identifying novel genetic factors that regulate many aspects of animal physiology, such as aging and lifespan, stress response, and immunity against pathogens. Because many genetic factors discovered using C. elegans are evolutionarily conserved, survival assays can provide insights into mechanisms underlying physiological processes in mammals, including humans.

  12. Survival and Prognosis for Malignant Tumors of Odontogenic Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sunil; Mark, Jonathan; Xie, Changchun; Ghulam, Enas; Patil, Yash

    2016-07-01

    Determine survival and factors affecting survival for patients with malignant tumors of odontogenic origin. Retrospective analysis of the National Cancer Institute's SEER database (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results). Tertiary medical center. All cases of malignant tumors of odontogenic origin were extracted from the SEER database for the period of 1973 to 2011. Demographic, tumor-specific, and survival data were tabulated and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis conducted according to histopathologic results. Cox regression analysis stratified for histopathology was conducted to determine factors that influenced survival. A total of 308 cases of malignant tumors with odontogenic origin were analyzed. Malignant ameloblastoma accounted for 59.7% of cases, followed by malignant odontogenic tumor (35.4%; including odontogenic carcinoma, odontogenic sarcoma, primary intraosseous carcinoma, and ameloblastic carcinoma) and ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (2.9%). The overall mean and median were 229 and 227 months, respectively, while the 5-year survival rate was 81% for the entire cohort. Malignant ameloblastoma exhibited the best mean survival (237 months), whereas malignant odontogenic tumor (139 months) and ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (42 months) had lower mean survival rates. Younger age, surgery with adjuvant radiation, and smaller tumor size were found to improve survival. Significantly different survival can be expected depending on individual tumor histopathology, tumor size, age at diagnosis, and treatment modality. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  13. Tested Demonstrations. Brownian Motion: A Classroom Demonstration and Student Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirksey, H. Graden; Jones, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Shows how video recordings of the Brownian motion of tiny particles may be made. Describes a classroom demonstration and cites a reported experiment designed to show the random nature of Brownian motion. Suggests a student experiment to discover the distance a tiny particle travels as a function of time. (MVL)

  14. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  15. Surviving a Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-09-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  16. Will the olympics survive?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, T.

    1977-01-01

    The United States of America dominated 58 events in athletics, field and swimming, which between them accounted for 35 per cent of all events in the Munich Olympiad. 1972; these events favour taller individuals. But, in 25 per cent of other events (1) cycling, (2) fencing, (3) gymnastics, (4) judo, (5) weightlifting and (6) Graeco Roman wrestling the U.S.A. did not win a single medal. The failure of the U.S.A. to maintain her lead in Munich was largely due to weaknesses in these other events in many of which the potential medallists can be derived from the lower half of the height distribution (events 3 to 6). These weaknesses are Russia's strength and they continued to remain unstrengthened at Montreal. Also, the domination held by the U.S.A. in swimming was seriously challenged by East Germany. The present trends indicate that the U.S.A.'s ranking is likely to slip further to the third position in Moscow 1980. Factors inhibiting the survival of the Olympics are pointed. PMID:861436

  17. FY 1998 result report on development of superconductive power application technologies. Pt. 1. Research and development of superconductive wire materials / Research of a total system / Research and development of a freezing system / Demonstration tests; 1998 nendo chodendo denryoku oyo gijutsu kaihatsu. 1. Chodendo senzai no kenkyu kaihatsu, chodendo hatsudenki no kenkyu kaihatsu, total system no kenkyu, reito system no kenkyu kaihatsu, jissho shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Superconductive technologies are introduced into electric power devices for attempts of achieving higher stabilization, density and efficiency, as well as size and weight reduction and improvement in performance of the devices. The project has been worked on since fiscal 1998 as part of the New Sunshine Project. Fiscal 1998 being the eleventh year has taken the following subjects as the research promotion policies: establishment of plans targeted at accomplishment of the goals of the project; adequate and reliable implementation of verification of technological assignments; and steady and efficient demonstration tests. Subsequent to the previous year during which site demonstration tests were completed on a low-speed responsive model machine, the site demonstration test has begun on the ultra high-speed responsive model machine as the final stage of the project. The ultra high-speed responsive model machine was coupled with a freezing system and a load synchronizing machine, and different kinds of test were carried out where good results were obtained. Researches were conducted on characteristics improvement and device element technologies aimed at achieving the practical application level by utilizing the respective features of AC metal-based wires and oxide-based wires, where sound results were obtained. Also in an improved freezing system, valuable data were attained as part of establishing the basic technologies for a superconductive power generation system. (NEDO)

  18. Demonstration of Active Combustion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Jeffrey A.; Teerlinck, Karen A.; Cohen, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate active control of combustion instabilities in a direct-injection gas turbine combustor that accurately simulates engine operating conditions and reproduces an engine-type instability. This report documents the second phase of a two-phase effort. The first phase involved the analysis of an instability observed in a developmental aeroengine and the design of a single-nozzle test rig to replicate that phenomenon. This was successfully completed in 2001 and is documented in the Phase I report. This second phase was directed toward demonstration of active control strategies to mitigate this instability and thereby demonstrate the viability of active control for aircraft engine combustors. This involved development of high-speed actuator technology, testing and analysis of how the actuation system was integrated with the combustion system, control algorithm development, and demonstration testing in the single-nozzle test rig. A 30 percent reduction in the amplitude of the high-frequency (570 Hz) instability was achieved using actuation systems and control algorithms developed within this effort. Even larger reductions were shown with a low-frequency (270 Hz) instability. This represents a unique achievement in the development and practical demonstration of active combustion control systems for gas turbine applications.

  19. Auditory demonstrations simulating Mayan architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, David

    2005-09-01

    Fascination with the ancient temples and ball court at Chichen Itza provide rich opportunities for science education. Children of all ages are delighted to learn that the sound of handclaps scattered from long temple staircases are transformed into bird chirps. Their engagement in such seemingly magical phenomena provides magic moments for teaching acoustical principals, including the picket-fence effect (PFE). PFE transforms impulsive sounds scattered from spatially periodic structures into tonal sounds. PFE is demonstrated with a computer possessing a sound card and a simple sound editing program. The inverse relationship between tonal frequency and the time interval between periodic impulses is easily demonstrated. The number of impulses needed to produce an audible tone is easily demonstrated and compared with the number of steps on the staircase. Transformation of audible tones into downward-gliding chirps is simulated by monotonically increasing the time between impulses. The Great Ball Court also provides opportunities for acoustical demonstration. Observers clapping their hands while standing between the long, tall, and parallel walls of the playing field marvel at the profound flutter echo heard for about 1.5 s. The flutter echo sonogram demonstrates the speed of sound and frequency-selective atmospheric attenuation.

  20. Multidimensional Poverty and Child Survival in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. Objectives and Methodology Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. Results The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Conclusion Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population. PMID:22046384

  1. Incidence and overall survival of malignant ameloblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Rizzitelli

    Full Text Available Malignant ameloblastoma, comprising metastasizing ameloblastoma and ameloblastic carcinoma, represents 1.6-2.2% of all odontogenic tumors. Due to its rare nature, malignant ameloblastoma has only been reported in the literature in small case series or case reports. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER database, we have performed a population-based study to determine the incidence rate and the absolute survival of malignant ameloblastoma.Using the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O codes 9310/3 and 9270/3, data from the SEER database were used to calculate the incidence rate and absolute survival rate of population with malignant ameloblastoma.The overall incidence rate of malignant ameloblastoma was 1.79 per 10 million person/year. The incidence rate was higher in males than females and also higher in black versus white population. The median overall survival was 17.6 years from the time of diagnosis and increasing age was associated with a statistically significant poorer survival.To our best knowledge, we report the largest population-based series of malignant ameloblastoma. The incidence rate was 1.79 per 10 million person/year and the overall survival was 17.6 years.

  2. Improved survival after rectal cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, S; Harling, H; Iversen, L H

    2010-01-01

    treated from 1994 to 2006. Method The study was based on the National Rectal Cancer Registry and the National Colorectal Cancer Database, supplemented with data from the Central Population Registry. The analysis included actuarial overall and relative survival. Results A total of 10 632 patients were......Objective In 1995, an analysis showed an inferior prognosis after rectal cancer in Denmark compared with the other Scandinavian countries. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) was established with the aim of improving the prognosis, and in this study we present a survival analysis of patients...

  3. Graphics and statistics for cardiology: survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Susanne; McKnight, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Reports of data in the medical literature frequently lack information needed to assess the validity and generalisability of study results. Some recommendations and standards for reporting have been developed over the last two decades, but few are available specifically for survival data. We provide recommendations for tabular and graphical representations of survival data. We argue that data and analytic software should be made available to promote reproducible research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. The relationship between patient satisfaction with service quality and survival in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Digant Gupta, Maurie Markman, Mark Rodeghier, Christopher G LisCancer Treatment Centers of America®, Schaumburg, IL, USAPurpose: Despite the recognized relevance of symptom burden in pancreatic cancer, there has been limited exploration of whether an individual patient's satisfaction with the overall quality of care received might influence outcome. We evaluated the relationship between patient satisfaction with health service quality and survival in patients with pancreatic cancer.Patients and methods: A random sample of 496 pancreatic cancer patients treated at Cancer Treatment Centers of America® (CTCA between July 2007 and December 2010. A questionnaire that covered several dimensions of patient satisfaction was administered. Items were measured on a seven-point Likert scale ranging from “completely dissatisfied” to “completely satisfied.” Patient survival was the primary end point. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between patient satisfaction and survival.Results: The response rate for this study was 72%. Of the 496 patients, 345 (69.6% reported being “completely satisfied” with the care provided. Median overall survival was 7.9 months. On univariate analysis, patients reporting they were “completely satisfied” experienced superior survival compared with patients stating they were “not completely satisfied” (hazard ratio = 0.62; 95% confidence interval: 0.50–0.77; P < 0.001. On multivariate analysis controlling for stage at diagnosis, treatment history, and specific CTCA treatment center, “completely satisfied” patients demonstrated significantly lower mortality (hazard ratio = 0.63; 95% confidence interval: 0.51–0.79; P < 0.001.Conclusion: In this exploratory analysis, patient satisfaction with health service quality was an independent predictor of survival in pancreatic cancer. Further exploration of a possible meaningful relationship between patient satisfaction with the care they have

  5. The influence of social support on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation survival: a systematic review of literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Beattie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic Stem cell Transplantation (HSCT can negatively impact the psychosocial well-being of the patient. Social support is a complex term that has been variably used to encompass perceived and objective support, including caregiver presence. Social support has been associated with superior psychosocial outcomes; however the influence of social support on HSCT survival remains unclear. We sought to summarize the literature on the influence of social support on HSCT survival. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, CINAHL, AND PSYCINFO WERE SEARCHED USING THE FOLLOWING SEARCH CATEGORIES/CONCEPTS: 1 HSCT, 2 Social support, 3 Caregiver, 4 Survival, and 5 Treatment outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 6 relevant studies: 4 publications, 1 dissertation, and 1 abstract. Three studies were retrospective and 3, prospective. Sample size ranged between 92-272 with a mean/median patient age between 30-55 yrs. The duration of follow-up ranged between 13.3-48 months. Social support was measured inconsistently: 2 by retrospective investigator assessment, 2 as patients' perceived support, 1 as caregiver presence, and 1 included caregiver presence and retrospective investigator assessment. The 4 published studies and 1 abstract demonstrate an association between better social support and survival. However, the unpublished dissertation, with the largest sample size found no association. CONCLUSIONS: There is a paucity of evidence examining social support with HSCT survival. Available studies are older, with the most recent publication in 2005. A heterogeneous group of HSCT patients were studied with variable follow-up times. Further, covariates were variably considered in HSCT survival analyses and we suggest that there may be publication bias, given the negative unpublished study with the largest sample size. Prospective studies using validated scales are necessary to better assess the influence of social support on HSCT mortality. Given the potential

  6. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  7. TRUEX hot demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

  8. Survival of ovarian cancer patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Hellen McKinnon; Noer, Mette Calundann; Sperling, Cecilie Dyg

    2016-01-01

    linked via the patients' personal identification number and the analyses included data on cancer stage, age, survival, surgery status and comorbidity. The computed outcome measures were age-adjusted mortality rates and age-adjusted overall and relative survival rates for one and five years. RESULTS: We......BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer has a high mortality rate, especially in Denmark where mortality rates have been reported higher than in adjacent countries with similar demographics. This study therefore examined recent survival and mortality among Danish ovarian cancer patients over an 18-year study...... period. METHODS: This nationwide registry-based observational study used data from the Danish Gynecology Cancer Database, Danish Pathology Registry, and Danish National Patient Registry. All patients with ovarian cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2012 were included in the study. The data sources were...

  9. Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of foreign acquisition on survival and employment growth of targets using data on Swedish manufacturing plants.We separate targeted plants into those within Swedish MNEs, Swedish exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. The results, controlling for possible...... acquisitions. We find robust positive employment growth effects only for exporters and only if the takeover is vertical....

  10. New Adaptive Optics Technique Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    First ever Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics at the VLT Achieves First Light On the evening of 25 March 2007, the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator (MAD) achieved First Light at the Visitor Focus of Melipal, the third Unit Telescope of the Very Large Telescope (VLT). MAD allowed the scientists to obtain images corrected for the blurring effect of atmospheric turbulence over the full 2x2 arcminute field of view. This world premiere shows the promises of a crucial technology for Extremely Large Telescopes. ESO PR Photo 19a/07 ESO PR Photo 19a/07 The MCAO Demonstrator Telescopes on the ground suffer from the blurring effect induced by atmospheric turbulence. This turbulence causes the stars to twinkle in a way which delights the poets but frustrates the astronomers, since it blurs the fine details of the images. However, with Adaptive Optics (AO) techniques, this major drawback can be overcome so that the telescope produces images that are as sharp as theoretically possible, i.e., approaching space conditions. Adaptive Optics systems work by means of a computer-controlled deformable mirror (DM) that counteracts the image distortion induced by atmospheric turbulence. It is based on real-time optical corrections computed from image data obtained by a 'wavefront sensor' (a special camera) at very high speed, many hundreds of times each second. The concept is not new. Already in 1989, the first Adaptive Optics system ever built for Astronomy (aptly named "COME-ON") was installed on the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, as the early fruit of a highly successful continuing collaboration between ESO and French research institutes (ONERA and Observatoire de Paris). Ten years ago, ESO initiated an Adaptive Optics program to serve the needs for its frontline VLT project. Today, the Paranal Observatory is without any doubt one of the most advanced of its kind with respect to AO with no less than 7 systems currently installed (NACO, SINFONI, CRIRES and

  11. Probability of Detection Demonstration Transferability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Bradford H.

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Propellant Tank Penetrant Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Probability of Detection (POD) Assessment (NESC activity) has surfaced several issues associated with liquid penetrant POD demonstration testing. This presentation lists factors that may influence the transferability of POD demonstration tests. Initial testing will address the liquid penetrant inspection technique. Some of the factors to be considered in this task are crack aspect ratio, the extent of the crack opening, the material and the distance between the inspection surface and the inspector's eye.

  12. HIF1-Alpha Expression Predicts Survival of Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcelo; Mercante, Ana Maria da Cunha; Louro, Iúri Drumond; Gonçalves, Antônio José; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; da Silva, Eloiza Helena Tajara; da Silva, Adriana Madeira Álvares

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma is an important cause of death and morbidity wordwide and effective prognostic markers are still to be discovered. HIF1α protein is associated with hypoxia response and neovascularization, essential conditions for solid tumors survival. The relationship between HIF1α expression, tumor progression and treatment response in head and neck cancer is still poorly understood. Patients and Methods In this study, we investigated HIF1α expression by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays and its relationship with clinical findings, histopathological results and survival of 66 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower mouth. Results Our results demonstrated that high HIF1α expression is associated with local disease-free survival, independently from the choice of treatment. Furthermore, high expression of HIF1α in patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy was associated with survival, therefore being a novel prognostic marker in squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. Additionally, our results showed that MVD was associated with HIF1α expression and local disease relapse. Conclusion These findings suggest that HIF1α expression can be used as a prognostic marker and predictor of postoperative radiotherapy response, helping the oncologist choose the best treatment for each patient. PMID:23028863

  13. Survival After Relapse of Medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschmann, Carl; Bloom, Karina; Upadhyaya, Santhosh; Geyer, J Russell; Leary, Sarah E S

    2016-05-01

    Survival after recurrence of medulloblastoma has not been reported in an unselected cohort of patients in the contemporary era. We reviewed 55 patients diagnosed with medulloblastoma between 2000 and 2010, and treated at Seattle Children's Hospital to evaluate patterns of relapse treatment and survival. Fourteen of 47 patients (30%) over the age of 3 experienced recurrent or progressive medulloblastoma after standard therapy. The median time from diagnosis to recurrence was 18.0 months (range, 3.6 to 62.6 mo), and site of recurrence was metastatic in 86%. The median survival after relapse was 10.3 months (range, 1.3 to 80.5 mo); 3-year survival after relapse was 18%. There were trend associations between longer survival and having received additional chemotherapy (median survival 12.8 vs. 1.3 mo, P=0.16) and radiation therapy (15.4 vs. 5.9 mo, P=0.20). Isolated local relapse was significantly associated with shorter survival (1.3 vs. 12.8 mo, P=0.009). Recurrence of medulloblastoma is more likely to be metastatic than reported in previous eras. Within the limits of our small sample, our data suggest a potential survival benefit from retreatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation even in heavily pretreated patients. This report serves as a baseline against which to evaluate novel therapy combinations.

  14. Phenolphthalein-Pink Tornado Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    The titration of HCl with NaOH has traditionally been used to introduce beginning chemistry students to the concepts of acid-base chemistry and stoichiometry. The demonstration described in this article utilizes this reaction as a means of providing students an opportunity to observe the dynamic motion associated with a swirling vortex and its…

  15. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  16. Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)

  17. Institutional Conditions and Student Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Peter M.; Slaughter, Ellen L.

    1971-01-01

    Data from a representative sample of four-year colleges and universities in the U. S. were analyzed to reveal the relations between the number of student demonstrations, impersonal treatment of students, institutional size, and responsiveness to reasonable student demands. (JM)

  18. A Demonstration and a Souvenir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Randy

    1978-01-01

    Describes an activity using interchangeable, preset tool holders to provide a demonstration for parents or students attending a school's open house session that produces a small souvenir (an aluminum mini-chalice) for them. A procedure sheet for the school's individual lathe and specification diagrams for making the cup are provided. (TA)

  19. SunJammer Technology Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sunjammer Project is a NASA funded contract to L?Garde Inc. to fly a solar sail demonstration for a period of approximately one year. L?Garde is also partnered...

  20. International Space Station technology demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the capability to test and demonstrate, and otherwise assist in the development and validation, of a wide range of advanced technologies. Technology tests and demonstrations for advanced communication systems, closed-loop environmental control systems, advanced power storage and generation systems, advanced electric and electromagnetic propulsion systems, and others are being assessed for inclusion in an ISS Pre-Planned Program Improvement (P3I), Technology/Improvement Roadmap. The P3I roadmap is an integrated set of technology and improvement requirements for: (1) ISS subsystem upgrades and improvements (addressing maintenance, logistics, sustainability, and enhancement functions), (2) payload hardware technology infusion, (3) ISS/Exploration technology development and tests (dual use/benefits), and (4) Engineering Research and Technology payloads. As examples of the International Space Station's technology testbed capabilities, implementation approaches for three types of propulsion technology demonstrations and research are described: (1) electric and electromagnetic propulsion technologies and systems (NASA Lewis Research Center), (2) technologies and sub-systems for a variable specific impulse (Isp), magnetoplasma rocket (VASIMR), (Advanced Propulsion Lab, Sonny Carter Training Facility, Houston, Tx), and (3) candidates for innovative, deep space propulsion technology research and demonstrations (projections based on NASA Advanced Space Transportation Program, Propulsion Research and other R.&D activities.).

  1. The orphan nuclear hormone receptor ERRβ controls rod photoreceptor survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Akishi; Peng, Guang-Hua; Poth, Erin M.; Lee, Daniel A.; Chen, Jichao; Alexis, Uel; de Melo, Jimmy; Chen, Shiming; Blackshaw, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Mutation of rod photoreceptor-enriched transcription factors is a major cause of inherited blindness. We identified the orphan nuclear hormone receptor estrogen-related receptor β (ERRβ) as selectively expressed in rod photoreceptors. Overexpression of ERRβ induces expression of rod-specific genes in retinas of wild-type as well as Nrl−/− mice, which lack rod photoreceptors. Mutation of ERRβ results in dysfunction and degeneration of rods, whereas inverse agonists of ERRβ trigger rapid rod degeneration, which is rescued by constitutively active mutants of ERRβ. ERRβ coordinates expression of multiple genes that are rate-limiting regulators of ATP generation and consumption in photoreceptors. Furthermore, enhancing ERRβ activity rescues photoreceptor defects that result from loss of the photoreceptor-specific transcription factor Crx. Our findings demonstrate that ERRβ is a critical regulator of rod photoreceptor function and survival, and suggest that ERRβ agonists may be useful in the treatment of certain retinal dystrophies. PMID:20534447

  2. Electrometallurgical treatment demonstration at ANL-West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, K. M.; Benedict, R. W.; Johnson, S. G.; Mariani, R. D.; Simpson, M. F.; Westphal, B. R.

    2000-03-20

    Electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to ready sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel for geological disposal. A demonstration of this technology was successfully completed in August 1999. EMT was used to condition irradiated EBR-II driver and blanket fuel at ANL-West. The results of this demonstration, including the production of radioactive high-level waste forms, are presented.

  3. Multivariate permutation test to compare survival curves for matched data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Galimberti, Stefania; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia

    2013-01-01

    ... for the comparison of survival curves cannot be applied in this setting. We demonstrate the validity of the proposed method with simulations, and we illustrate its application to data from an observational study for the comparison of bone marrow transplantation and chemotherapy in the treatment of paediatric leukaemia. The use of the multivariate permutation testing approach is recommended in the highly stratified context of survival matched data, especially when the proportional hazards assumption does not hold.

  4. Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration, a Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinger, Robert [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States); Irwin, Mark [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States)

    2015-12-29

    ISGD was a comprehensive demonstration that spanned the electricity delivery system and extended into customer homes. The project used phasor measurement technology to enable substation-level situational awareness, and demonstrated SCE’s next-generation substation automation system. It extended beyond the substation to evaluate the latest generation of distribution automation technologies, including looped 12-kV distribution circuit topology using URCIs. The project team used DVVC capabilities to demonstrate CVR. In customer homes, the proje