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Sample records for survival reproductive potential

  1. Survival and reproduction of radio-marked adult spotted owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.C. Foster; E.D. Forsman; E.C. Meslow; G.S. Miller; J.A. Reid; F.F. Wagner; A.B. Carey; J.B. Lint

    1992-01-01

    We compared survival, reproduction, and body mass of radio-marked and non radio-marked spotted owls (Strix occidentalis) to determine if backpack radios influenced reproduction or survival. In most study areas and years, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in survival of males and females or in survival of radio-marked versus banded owls. There...

  2. Effect Of Permethrin On Survival And Reproduction Of Bulinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of permethrin on reproduction and survival of Bulinus globosus and Bulinus Truncatus are reported. Serial dilutons of the chemical were used in 96 h exposure tests on the molluscs, followed by postexposure maintenance in the laboratory for 8 weeks. There was significant decrease in oviposition with increase ...

  3. Survival and reproduction of small hive beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) on commercial pollen substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An assay was developed to investigate the small hive beetle’s (Aethina tumida) potential for survival and reproduction when providing artificial food resources in managed European honey bees (Apis mellifera). Supplemental feeding is done to maintain the health of the hive, initiate comb building, ex...

  4. Reproduction, preweaning survival, and survival of adult sea otters at Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Daniel H.; DeGange, Anthony R.

    1995-01-01

    Radiotelemetry methods were used to examine the demographic characteristics of sea otters inhabiting the leading edge of an expanding population on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Fifteen male and 30 female sea otters were instrumented and followed from 1986 to 1990. Twenty-one percent of females were sexually mature (had pupped) at age 2, 57% by age 3, 88% by age 4, and 100% by age 5. Fifteen females produced 26 pups, an overall reproduction rate of 94% for mature females. The reproduction rate was 17, 45, 66, and 100% for 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, respectively. Eighty-five percent of observed pups survived to weaning (120 days), and the percentage of pups weaned ranged from 34% for pups of 2-year-olds to 100% for pups of 5-year-olds. At least three of four known pup losses occurred within a month of parturition. The mean pup dependency period for weaned pups was 153 days and the mean gestation period was 218 days. No synchrony in pupping activity was observed. Mean annual survival of adults was high. Estimates of survival ranged from 89 to 96% for females and 86 to 91% for males. Human harvest was the primary source of known mortality of adults. Our estimates of reproductive rates and survival of adults are at the high end of those reported for sea otters, but preweaning survival stands out as being particularly high. Abundant food resources and the availability of protected water presumably contributed to the high reproductive success observed in this recently established sea otter population.

  5. Toxic effects on survival and reproduction, a process oriented approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedaux, J.J.M.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Theoretical Biology

    1995-12-31

    The authors present a new analysis of survival and reproduction data from toxicity tests. The analysis is based on the Dynamic Energy Budget theory for feeding, growth and reproduction, and a one-compartment kinetics for the toxic compound. The toxic effect size depends on the internal concentration. Effects on survival occur via the hazard rate, which is set equal to the killing rate times the internal concentration that exceeds a threshold value. Effects on reproduction depend on the mode of action of the toxicant: direct effects (mortality during oogenesis or energy costs per egg), or indirect effects (via growth, maintenance or assimilation). The effects on energetic parameters are quantified by the ratio between the internal concentration that exceeds a threshold value, and the tolerance concentration. The process-based models quantify effects as functions of exposure time and (external) concentration on a mechanistic basis. The parameters (no effect concentration, killing rate, tolerance concentration and elimination rate) are independent from the chosen exposure time of the toxicity test. The standard log-logistic models are purely descriptive, have more parameters and are sensitive to the chosen exposure time. The estimation of no-effect concentrations (NOEC`s as well as parametric NEC`S) in standard statistical analyses is problematic. Application to ring test data for chronic tests on Daphnia magna and other toxicity data reveals that these problems do not occur with the analysis, due to the absence of free gradient parameters. It is possible to obtain estimates for the standard model parameters from the new parameters, but not vice versa. The authors believe that the analysis provides a better basis for risk assessment and QSAR studies than the standard one.

  6. Age-specific survival and reproductive probabilities: evidence for senescence in male fallow deer (Dama dama)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. G. McElligott; R. Altwegg; T. J. Altwegg

    2002-01-01

    ...–fitting model revealed that fallow bucks have four life–history stages: yearling, pre–reproductive, prime–age and senescent. Pre–reproductive males (2 and 3 years old) had the highest survival...

  7. Effects of surgically implanted transmitters on reproduction and survival in mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Jennifer; Arnold, Todd W.; Amundson, Courtney L.; Klee, David

    2017-01-01

    Abdominally implanted radiotransmitters have been widely used in studies of waterbird ecology; however, the longer handling times and invasiveness of surgical implantation raise important concerns about animal welfare and potential effects on data quality. Although it is difficult to assess effects of handling and marking wild animals by comparing them with unmarked controls, insights can often be obtained by evaluating variation in handling or marking techniques. Here, we used data from 243 female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and mallard–grey duck hybrids (A. platyrhynchos × A. superciliosa) equipped with fully encapsulated abdominally implanted radiotransmitters from 2 study sites in New Zealand during 2014–2015 to assess potential marking effects. We evaluated survival, dispersal, and reproductive effort (e.g., breeding propensity, nest initiation date, clutch size) in response to 3 different attributes of handling duration and procedures: 1) processing time, including presurgery banding, measurements, and blood sampling of unanaesthetized birds; 2) surgery time from initiation to cessation of anesthetic; and 3) total holding time from first capture until release. We found no evidence that female survival, dispersal probability, or reproductive effort were negatively affected by holding, processing, or surgery time and concluded that we collected reliable data without compromising animal welfare. Our results support previous research that techniques using fully encapsulated abdominal-implant radiotransmitters are suitable to enable researchers to obtain reliable estimates of reproductive performance and survival

  8. Consequences of a short pulse of pesticide exposure for survival and reproduction of Gammarus pulex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold, Anders; Forbes, Valery E

    2004-04-28

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a short and environmentally realistic pulse exposure of different life stages of the freshwater amphipod, Gammarus pulex, to the pyrethroid insecticide, esfenvalerate. We were particularly interested in determining the extent to which detectable effects on key life-history traits persisted following cessation of a brief exposure to this pesticide. Our results indicate that environmentally realistic exposure concentrations of this widely used insecticide can have a significant effect on the survival and reproduction of Gammarus pulex. Comparison of LC(50) values indicates that G. pulex has a similar sensitivity to esfenvalerate as the standard test invertebrate, Daphnia magna and is more sensitive than other common stream invertebrates. Despite 100% survival during pulses of up to 2 microg l(-1), mortality increased, in some cases markedly, following transfer to clean conditions. Pulse exposure to esfenvalerate at concentrations in the range 0.1-0.6 microg l(-1) for as little as 1h can have effects on G. pulex survival, pairing behaviour, and reproductive output that can still be detected at least 2 weeks following the pulse. Reproductive traits were very sensitive to esfenvalerate, and exposure to 0.05 microg l(-1) for 1h led to immediate disruption of reproducing pairs, release of eggs or offspring from the brood pouch, and substantial delays in pair formation and subsequent reproduction following transfer to clean water. The kinds of effects on reproductive behaviour observed in this study could potentially impact the population dynamics of G. pulex in the field. Whether such effects occur will depend on the frequency, duration, timing, and spatial extent of pesticide exposure in freshwater stream ecosystems, about which relatively little is known. Such information is essential if effects on non-target aquatic species are to be more accurately assessed.

  9. Life-history strategies of North American elk: trade-offs associated with reproduction and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrina Morano; Kelley M. Stewart; James S. Sedinger; Christopher A. Nicolai; Marty Vavra

    2013-01-01

    The principle of energy allocation states that individuals should attempt to maximize fitness by allocating resources optimally among growth, maintenance, and reproduction. Such allocation may result in trade-offs between survival and reproduction, or between current and future reproduction. We used a marked population of North American elk (Cervus elaphus...

  10. Reproduction and survival of tawny owls in relation to persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoccoz, Nigel G; Bustnes, Jan O; Bangjord, Georg; Skaare, Jannech Utne

    2009-01-01

    The potential effects of organochlorines (OCs) and brominated flame retardants on reproduction and survival were studied in tawny owls (Strix aluco) in Central Norway over a period of 19 years (1986-2004). Concentrations of 14 OCs and five polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in eggs (n=104), and Principal Component Analysis was used to produce composite measurements of pollutants; i.e. PC1 and PC2, which accounted for 85% of the variation in contaminant concentrations. There was no evidence for adverse associations between pollutants (PC scores) and life-history traits such as clutch size, probability of producing fledglings and survival, when controlling for potentially confounding variables. Moreover, there was no evidence for interactions between pollutants and vole abundance suggesting no synergistic effects of food stress and pollutants on these life-history traits. There was, however, some evidence for a non-linear negative association between p,p'-DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene) and eggshell thickness. This suggests that the concentrations of pollutants in this ecosystem were too low to affect reproduction and survival in an owl predominantly consuming prey at low trophic levels, but may be sufficient to cause eggshell thinning at the highest concentrations.

  11. Dominance, reproduction and survival in banded mongooses: towards an egalitarian social system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, D. W.; Ginsberg, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    The banded mongoose, Mungos mungo, is a social species that forms multimale and multifemale family groups. Earlier studies suggest these family groups are relatively egalitarian with small differences in reproductive opportunities among individuals of different rank. In contrast, previous studies of other social mongooses have focused on species with more despotic control of reproduction (meerkats, Suricata suricatta, dwarf mongooses, Helogale parvula). In these species, the distribution of reproductive opportunities amongst individuals of different rank has met the predictions of reproductive skew theory: dominant individuals accrue greater reproductive benefits than subordinates, with subordinates breeding less often than dominants. In this paper we test how well two predictions of reproductive skew theory explain variance in measures of reproductive effort, and its correlates, in a wild population of banded mongooses in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. We measure dominance rank in males and females, and we investigate whether individuals of higher social rank accrue greater benefits than subordinates in terms of survival and reproduction. Banded mongoose dominance hierarchies showed linearity, but low reproductive skew. Rank was not significantly correlated with age. Furthermore, there were only small effects of dominance rank on nutritional levels, and no effects on reproduction and survival, suggesting that banded mongoose societies are indeed relatively egalitarian. No evidence of reproductive suppression was found and other forms of reproductive control were not observed. However, we do not exclude the possibility of increased reproductive competition in circumstances of higher ecological constraints. These findings show that reproductive skew theory is equally useful in explaining variation in reproduction in societies with low reproductive skew, as it is in explaining the allocation of reproductive effort in despotic social systems. Copyright 2001

  12. The forms and fitness cost of senescence : Age-specific recapture, survival, reproduction, and reproductive value in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, Sandra; Choquet, Remi; Sheldon, Ben C.; Verhulst, Simon

    Longitudinal studies of senescence accumulate rapidly from natural populations. However, it is largely unknown whether different fitness components senesce in parallel, how reproductive and survival senescence contribute to declines in reproductive value, and how large the fitness cost of senescence

  13. Bill redness is positively associated with reproduction and survival in male and female zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirre J P Simons

    Full Text Available Sexual traits can serve as honest indicators of phenotypic quality when they are costly. Brightly coloured yellow to red traits, which are pigmented by carotenoids, are relatively common in birds, and feature in sexual selection. Carotenoids have been linked to immune and antioxidant function, and the trade-off between ornamentation and these physiological functions provides a potential mechanism rendering carotenoid based signals costly. Mutual ornamentation is also common in birds and can be maintained by mutual mate choice for this ornament or by a correlated response in one sex to selection on the other sex. When selection pressures differ between the sexes this can cause intralocus sexual conflict. Sexually antagonistic selection pressures have been demonstrated for few sexual traits, and for carotenoid-dependent traits there is a single example: bill redness was found to be positively associated with survival and reproductive output in male zebra finches, but negatively so in females. We retested these associations in our captive zebra finch population without two possible limitations of this earlier study. Contrary to the earlier findings, we found no evidence for sexually antagonistic selection. In both sexes, individuals with redder bills showed higher survival. This association disappeared among the females with the reddest bills. Furthermore, females with redder bills achieved higher reproductive output. We conclude that bill redness of male and female zebra finches honestly signals phenotypic quality, and discuss the possible causes of the differences between our results and earlier findings.

  14. Tebufenozide effects on the reproductive potentials of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... Degheele, 1994a,b; Knight, 2000) and males (Carpenter and Chandler, 1994; Sun et al., 2000). However, it is important to mention that this analogue affects the reproductive potential of the two sexes of species where the role of the ecdysone in the reproduction was not necessarily shown. In order to ...

  15. Simulating the effects of fluctuating dissolved oxygen on growth, reproduction, and survival of fish and shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller Neilan, Rachael; Rose, Kenneth

    2014-02-21

    Individuals are commonly exposed to fluctuating levels of stressors, while most laboratory experiments focus on constant exposures. We develop and test a mathematical model for predicting the effects of low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) on growth, reproduction, and survival using laboratory experiments on fish and shrimp. The exposure-effects model simulates the hourly reductions in growth and survival, and the reduction in reproduction (fecundity) at times of spawning, of an individual as it is exposed to constant or hourly fluctuating dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. The model was applied to seven experiments involving fish and shrimp that included constant and fluctuating DO exposures, with constant exposures used for parameter estimation and the model then used to simulate the growth, reproduction, and survival in the fluctuating treatments. Cumulative effects on growth, reproduction, and survival were predicted well by the model, but the model did not replay the observed episodic low survival days. Further investigation should involve the role of acclimation, possible inclusion of repair effects in reproduction and survival, and the sensitivity of model predictions to the shape of the immediate effects function. Additional testing of the model with other taxa, different patterns of fluctuating exposures, and different stressors is needed to determine the model's generality and robustness. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reproductive potential of Chrysoperla externa maintained in different cage sizes in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Magalhães Borges Battel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study investigated the influence of cage sizes on the survival and reproductive potential of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen. Size of breeding cages significantly affected the reproductive potential of C. externa . Our results indicated that in cages smaller (7.5cm of diameter than those usually recommended for the rearing of this insect (10cm diameter, females showed higher rates of oviposition. Reduction of space for rearing natural enemies in the laboratory is very important for developing biological control programs.

  17. Survival and Reproductive Strategies in Two-Spotted Spider Mites: Demographic Analysis of Arrhenotokous Parthenogenesis of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Yang, Chung-Ming; Atlihan, Remzi; Saska, Pavel; Chi, Hsin

    2016-04-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch is a cosmopolitan pest whose rapid developmental rate enables it to produce colonies of thousands of individuals within a short time period. When a solitary virgin female colonizes a new host plant, it is capable of producing male offspring through the arrhenotokous parthenogenesis; once her sons mature, oedipal mating occurs and the female will produce bisexual offspring. To analyze the effect of arrhenotokous reproduction on population growth, we devised and compared separate life tables for arrhenotokous and bisexual populations of T. urticae using the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. For the cohort with bisexual reproduction, the intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate (λ), net reproductive rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were 0.2736 d(−1), 1.3146 d(−1), 44.66 offspring, and 13.89 d, respectively. Because only male eggs were produced during the first 8 d of the oviposition period and the cohort would soon begin bisexual reproduction, it would be theoretically wrong to calculate the population parameters using the survival rate and fecundity of an arrhenotokous cohort. We demonstrated that the effect of arrhenotokous reproduction could be accurately described and evaluated using the age-stage, two-sex life table. We also used population projection based on life table data, quantitatively showing the effect that arrhenotokous reproduction has on the growth potential and management of T. urticae.

  18. Survival of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in fresh pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Helena; Moura, Junior; Cox, Ryan B; Goyal, Sagar M; Patnayak, Devi P

    2014-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remains one of the most economically important diseases of pigs. Transmission of PRRS virus has been reported through many routes, with aerosol route being the most predominant. There may also be a potential risk of transmission through contami-nated pork, but this has never been investigated. The purpose of this study was to experimentally contaminate fresh pork with three different concentrations of PRRSV and to study virus survival at ambient (25 °C), refrigerated (4 °C), and frozen (-20 °C) temperatures. Concentrations of virus representing natural infectivity level and 'worst case scenario' were studied. The virus was detected in fresh pork at all three virus concentrations for up to 48 h at ambient temperature. At 4 °C, the virus survived for 6 days in pork inoculated with the higher virus concentration and for 3 days in pork inoculated at the lower concentration. At frozen temperature, PRRSV was detected for up to 60 days in pork inoculated at the higher concentration and for 7 days in pork inoculated at the lower concentration. These results suggest that fresh pork has the potential to be a vehicle for virus dissemination depending upon temperature and time of storage.

  19. Triorganotin as a compound with potential reproductive toxicity in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Delgado Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organotin compounds are typical environmental contaminants and suspected endocrine-disrupting substances, which cause irreversible sexual abnormality in female mollusks, called "imposex". However, little is known about the capability of triorganotin compounds, such as tributyltin and triphenyltin, to cause disorders in the sexual development and reproductive functions of mammals, including humans and rodents. Moreover, these compounds can act as potential competitive inhibitors of aromatase enzyme and other steroidogenic enzymes, affecting the reproductive capacity of male and female mammals. In this review, we discuss the cellular, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms by which triorganotin compounds induce adverse effects in the mammalian reproductive function.

  20. Impact of Bacillus thuringiensis strains on survival, reproduction and foraging behaviour in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, Veerle; Jans, Kris; Smagghe, Guy

    2010-05-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and its protein crystals are used worldwide, either as a spray or when expressed in transgenic crops, for the control of pest insects. However, owing to their intensive use, there exists a debate regarding the involvement of this microbial insecticide in bee colony losses. In this study, in a tiered approach using laboratory microcolonies, an evaluation was made of the potential lethal and sublethal hazards on colony reproduction and foraging behaviour of workers of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (L.) of two commercial Bt strains: kurstaki (Dipel) and aizawai (Xentari). Bumblebees, like honey bees, are intensively used in modern agriculture for pollination and fulfil a crucial role in the natural ecosystem. Exposure of bumblebees dermally or via treated pollen to either of the two Bt formulations at their field recommended rates (0.1%) caused no reduction in survival. However, when applied in the feeding sugar water, aizawai killed all workers at a concentration of 0.1%, but this lethal effect was lost at 0.01%. With respect to reproductive effects, kurstaki was harmless, while aizawai at 0.1% delivered in the feeding sugar water and pollen reduced reproduction by 100 and 31% respectively. Lower doses of 0.01% aizawai in the sugar water showed no more effect. In addition, kurstaki at 0.1% and aizawai at 0.01% in the feeding sugar water did not impair the foraging behaviour, resulting in normal nest colony performance. The results with kurstaki and aizawai demonstrated that, in general, the Bt strains are safe to B. terrestris bumblebees, although in some cases there were detrimental effects that depended on strain and route of exposure. In addition, the authors believe that to draw firm conclusions regarding the hazards of Bt to bumblebees would require more information on relevant concentrations of Bt products in the environment. Hence, routine testing for lethal and sublethal effects is recommended to ascertain combined use of Bt

  1. Effects of a constructed Technosol on mortality, survival and reproduction of earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, Benjamin; Cortet, Jerome; Capowiez, Yvan; Mignot, Lenaic; Nahmani, Johanne; Watteau, Francoise; Schwartz, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    Soils, whose properties and pedogenesis are dominated by artificial materials or transported materials, are classified as Technosols. Some of these Technosols are used in soil engineering, which is the voluntary action to combine technical materials in a given objective to restore an ecosystem. Primary by products that are used to build these Technosols need to be assessed on an ecotoxicological point of view. The following study aims to assess the effects of a constructed Technosol made from different primary by-products on the mortality, survival and reproductions of two earthworm species. The model of Technosol used here is a combination of green-waste compost (GWC) and papermill sludge (PS) mixed with thermally treated industrial soil (TIS). OECD soil is used as a control soil. Three different experiments have been managed: i) the first, to assess the potential toxicity effect on Eisenia foetida biomass (28 days) and reproduction (56 days), ii) the second to assess the short-term effect (7 days) on Lumbricus terrestris biomass, iii) and the third to assess the medium-term effect (30 days) on L. terrestris biomass. Reproduction of E. foetida is enhanced with high proportions of GWC. For biomass, GWC seems to improve body mass contrary to other materials which lead to losses of body mass. Thus, for E. foetida, GWC seems to be a high-quality and long-term source of food. Body mass of L. terrestris decreased with GWC and OECD. At short-term only, TIS/PS leads to a gain of body mass. Only equilibrium of 25% GWC - 75% TIS/PS allows a gain of body mass at medium term. TIS/PS appears to be a low-quality and short-term food resource but an excellent water tank. It can be concluded that the constructed Technosol is not toxic for fauna but some differences appear between different tested material combinations, depending on nature, proportion and trophic properties of materials.

  2. Water fleas require microbiota for survival, growth and reproduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Sison-Mangus Marilou P; Mushegian Alexandra A; Ebert Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Microbiota have diverse roles in the functioning of their hosts; experiments using model organisms have enabled investigations into these functions. In the model crustacean Daphnia little knowledge exists about the effect of microbiota on host well being. We assessed the effect of microbiota on Daphnia magna by experimentally depriving animals of their microbiota and comparing their growth survival and fecundity to that of their bacteria bearing counterparts. We tested Daphnia coming from bot...

  3. Water fleas require microbiota for survival, growth and reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Sison-Mangus, Marilou P.; Mushegian, Alexandra A; Ebert, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Microbiota have diverse roles in the functioning of their hosts; experiments using model organisms have enabled investigations into these functions. In the model crustacean Daphnia, little knowledge exists about the effect of microbiota on host well being. We assessed the effect of microbiota on Daphnia magna by experimentally depriving animals of their microbiota and comparing their growth, survival and fecundity to that of their bacteria-bearing counterparts. We tested Daphnia coming from b...

  4. Survival and reproductive success of black ducks fed methyl mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, M.T.; Stendell, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A diet containing 3 ppm mercury was fed to black ducks (Anas rubripes) for periods of 28 weeks during two consecutive breeding seasons. Clutch size, egg production, number of eggs incubated, hatchability and survival of ducklings were lower during both years in hens fed mercury. Reduced hatchability and poor duckling survival were the most harmful effects. During 2 years, 13 pairs of breeders fed mercury produced only 16 ducklings that survived 1 week compared with 73 ducklings from 13 pairs of controls. Mercury residues in eggs, embryos and ducklings averaged about 30% lower during the second breeding season compared with first year results. Third eggs laid by treated hens contained a mean of 6?14 and 3?86 ppm mercury during the first and second years. Whole embryos that failed to hatch contained means of 9?62 and 6?08 ppm mercury during the first and second years. Brains of dead ducklings contained between 3?25 and 6?98 ppm mercury and exhibited lesions characteristic of mercury poisoning. Relative tissue mercury levels for treated adult breeders were: feathers > liver > kidney > breast muscle > brain. Mercury levels in males and females did not differ.

  5. Survival to reproductive cessation drives variation in post-reproductive lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proske, Beate; Burger, Oskar; Levitis, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    the majority of variation in PrR among a group of small cohorts of rotifers, and among several historical Swedish cohorts. We emphasize that women are distinct from other primates in the proportion reaching reproductive cessation, but not in the proportion of adult life-expectancy that is post...

  6. Survival in women with NSCLC: the role of reproductive history and hormone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katcoff, Hannah; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Schwartz, Ann G

    2014-03-01

    Although lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women, few studies have investigated the hormonal influence on survival after a lung cancer diagnosis and results have been inconsistent. We evaluated the role of reproductive and hormonal factors in predicting overall survival in women with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Population-based lung cancer cases diagnosed between November 1, 2001 and October 31, 2005 were identified through the Metropolitan Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry. Interview and follow-up data were collected for 485 women. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine hazard ratios (HRs) for death after an NSCLC diagnosis associated with reproductive and hormonal variables. Use of hormone therapy (HT) was associated with improved survival (HR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.89), adjusting for stage, surgery, radiation, education level, pack-years of smoking, age at diagnosis, race, and a multiplicative interaction between stage and radiation. No other reproductive or hormonal factor was associated with survival after an NSCLC diagnosis. Increased duration of HT use before the lung cancer diagnosis (132 months or longer) was associated with improved survival (HR, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.78), and this finding remained significant in women taking either estrogen alone or progesterone plus estrogen, never smokers, and smokers. These findings suggest that HT use, in particular use of estrogen plus progesterone, and long-term HT use are associated with improved survival of NSCLC.

  7. The influence of thymol+DMSO on survival, growth and reproduction of Bradybaena similaris (Mollusca: Bradybaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821, commonly known as the Asian trampsnail, is a terrestrial snail native to Asia, introduced in other regions of the world. In Brazil, populations of this land snail are distributed from the state of Amapá in the North to Rio Grande do Sul in the South. This species acts as an intermediate host for parasites and is a difficult-to-control agricultural pest as well, causing great losses to crops and ornamental plant cultivation. This land snail is easily reared in the laboratory and has been successfully used as a biological model in studies that aim at verifying molluscicidal effects of plant extracts. Several studies have demonstrated that B. similaris, like many other species of land and freshwater snails, is physiologically adapted to survival over transitory unfavorable environmental conditions. Moreover, this species seems to have a life history strategy characterized by a short life span and a maximal opportunistic reproductive effort during transient favorable periods. Such biological features may potentially lead to the inefficacy of control attempts and, simultaneously, make this species able to repopulate sites previously treated with biocides. For this reason, studies that aim at verifying the effect of molluscicides on the reproduction, growth and survival of molluscs are greatly required. Molluscicides of plant origin may represent a safe and effective way of controlling these animals. Thymol is a substance of plant origin which has bactericidal, fungicidal and anti-inflammatory properties and has been presented as a promissory biocide of mollusc species. The aim of this work was to assess the molluscicidal property of thymol in combination with DMSO against eggs and adults of B. similaris. During 120 days, we evaluated the effect of thymol+DMSO at different concentrations (2.5 g/L and 5 g/L on the hatching success, hatchling survival, growth and reproduction of B. similaris under laboratory

  8. Effects of temperature on development, survival and reproduction of insects: Experimental design, data analysis and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques Regniere; James Powell; Barbara Bentz; Vincent Nealis

    2012-01-01

    The developmental response of insects to temperature is important in understanding the ecology of insect life histories. Temperature-dependent phenology models permit examination of the impacts of temperature on the geographical distributions, population dynamics and management of insects. The measurement of insect developmental, survival and reproductive responses to...

  9. Effect of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBˈs) on Survival and Reproduction of Daphnia, Gammarus, and Tanytarsus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nebeker, Alan V; Puglisi, Frank A

    1974-01-01

    Continuous‐flow and static bioassays were conducted at 18 C, with survival and reproduction as measures of relative toxicity of eight PCBˈs, Aroclor 1221 (A‐1221), A‐1232, A‐1242, A‐1248, A‐1254, A‐1260, A‐1262, and A‐1268. Three PCB...

  10. Always follow your nose: the functional significance of social chemosignals in human reproduction and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübke, Katrin T; Pause, Bettina M

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction" Across phyla, chemosensory communication is crucial for mediating a variety of social behaviors, which form the basis for ontogenetic and phylogenetic survival. In the present paper, evidence on chemosensory communication in humans, with special reference to reproduction and survival, will be presented. First, the impact of chemosignals on human reproduction will be reviewed. Work will be presented, showing how chemosensory signals are involved in mate choice and partnership formation by communicating attractiveness and facilitating a partner selection, which is of evolutionary advantage, and furthermore providing information about the level of sexual hormones. In addition to direct effects on phylogenetic survival, chemosignals indirectly aid reproductive success by fostering harm protection. Results will be presented, showing that chemosensory communication aids the emotional bond between mother and child, which in turn motivates parental caretaking and protection, leading to infant survival. Moreover, the likelihood of group survival can be increased through the use of stress-related chemosignals. Stress-related chemosignals induce a stress-related physiology in the perceiver, thereby priming a fight-flight-response, which is necessary for an optimum adaption to environmental harm. Finally, effects of sexual orientation on chemosensory communication will be discussed in terms of their putative role in stabilizing social groups, which might indirectly provide harm protection and foster survival. An integrative model of the presented data will be introduced. In conclusion, an outlook, focusing on the involvement of chemosensory communication in human social behavior and illustrating a novel approach to the significance of chemosensory signals in human survival, will be given. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Potential of Nanotechnology in Medically Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana H. Remião

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive medicine is a field of science which searches for new alternatives not only to help couples achieve pregnancy and preserve fertility, but also to diagnose and treat diseases which can impair the normal operation of the reproductive tract. Assisted reproductive technology (ART is a set of methodologies applied to cases related to infertility. Despite being highly practiced worldwide, ART presents some challenges, which still require special attention. Nanotechnology, as a tool for reproductive medicine, has been considered to help overcome some of those impairments. Over recent years, nanotechnology approaches applied to reproductive medicine have provided strategies to improve diagnosis and increase specificity and sensitivity. For in vitro embryo production, studies in non-human models have been used to deliver molecules to gametes and embryos. The exploration of nanotechnology for ART would bring great advances. In this way, experiments in non-human models to test the development and safety of new protocols using nanomaterials are very important for informing potential future employment in humans. This paper presents recent developments in nanotechnology regarding impairments still faced by ART: ovary stimulation, multiple pregnancy, and genetic disorders. New perspectives for further use of nanotechnology in reproductive medicine studies are also discussed.

  12. Water fleas require microbiota for survival, growth and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sison-Mangus, Marilou P; Mushegian, Alexandra A; Ebert, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Microbiota have diverse roles in the functioning of their hosts; experiments using model organisms have enabled investigations into these functions. In the model crustacean Daphnia, little knowledge exists about the effect of microbiota on host well being. We assessed the effect of microbiota on Daphnia magna by experimentally depriving animals of their microbiota and comparing their growth, survival and fecundity to that of their bacteria-bearing counterparts. We tested Daphnia coming from both lab-reared parthenogenetic eggs of a single genotype and from genetically diverse field-collected resting eggs. We showed that bacteria-free hosts are smaller, less fecund and have higher mortality than those with microbiota. We also manipulated the association by exposing bacteria-free Daphnia to a single bacterial strain of Aeromonas sp., and to laboratory environmental bacteria. These experiments further demonstrated that the Daphnia-microbiota system is amenable to manipulation under various experimental conditions. The results of this study have implications for studies of D. magna in ecotoxicology, ecology and environmental genomics.

  13. Leptin and its potential interest in assisted reproduction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catteau, A; Caillon, H; Barrière, P; Denis, M G; Masson, D; Fréour, T

    2016-04-01

    Leptin, an adipose hormone, has been shown to control energy homeostasis and food intake, and exert many actions on female reproductive function. Consequently, this adipokine is a pivotal factor in studies conducted on animal models and humans to decipher the mechanisms behind the infertility often observed in obese women. A systematic PubMed search was conducted on all articles, published up to January 2015 and related to leptin and its actions on energy balance and reproduction, using the following key words: leptin, reproduction, infertility, IVF and controlled ovarian stimulation. The available literature was reviewed in order to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the physiological roles of leptin, its involvement in female reproductive function and its potential interest as a prognostic marker in IVF cycles. Animal and human studies show that leptin communicates nutritional status to the central nervous system and emerging evidence has demonstrated that leptin is involved in the control of reproductive functions by acting both directly on the ovaries and indirectly on the central nervous system. With respect to the clinical use of leptin as a biomarker in IVF cycles, a systematic review of the literature suggested its potential interest as a predictor of IVF outcome, as high serum and/or follicular fluid leptin concentrations have correlated negatively with cycle outcome. However, these preliminary results remain to be confirmed. Leptin regulates energy balance and female reproductive function, mainly through its action on hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function, whose molecular and cellular aspects are progressively being deciphered. Preliminary studies evaluating leptin as a biomarker in human IVF seem promising but need further confirmation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Heat shock protein expression in relation to reproductive cycle in land snails: Implications for survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Tal; Heller, Joseph; Goldenberg, Shoshana; Arad, Zeev

    2011-10-01

    Land snails are subject to daily and seasonal variations in temperature and in water availability and use heat shock proteins (HSPs) as part of their survival strategy. We tested whether the reproductive cycle of land snails affects the endogenous levels of HSPs, and their involvement in the reproductive process. We examined HSP levels in the foot tissue of two Sphincterochila species, S. cariosa and S. zonata, before and after laying eggs, and analyzed the albumen gland (reproductive organ) of both species and eggs of S. cariosa for the presence and quantity of various HSPs. Our study shows reduction in the expression level of Hsp70 isoforms and Hsp90 in S. zonata foot and of Hsp74 in S. cariosa foot during the period preceding egg laying compared to the post-reproductive stage. Hsp70 isoforms and Hsp25 were highly expressed in both large albumen glands and in freshly laid eggs of S. cariosa, whereas large albumen glands of S. zonata expressed mainly Hsp70 isoforms. We conclude that a trade-off between survival and fertility is responsible for the expression level of HSPs in the foot tissue of Sphincterochila snails. Our study shows that HSPs are involved in the reproductive process. We propose that parental provision of HSPs may be part of a "be prepared" strategy of Sphincterochila snails, and that HSPs may play important roles in the survival strategy of land snails during the early life stages. Our observations also highlight the importance of the reproductive status in study of whole organisms, especially when assessing the HSP response to stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tumor subtype-specific associations of hormone-related reproductive factors on breast cancer survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Song

    Full Text Available It is inconclusive whether reproductive factors, which are known as risk factors of breast cancer, also influence survival. We investigated overall and subtype-specific associations between reproductive factors and breast cancer survival.Among 3,430 incident breast cancer patients who enrolled in the Seoul Breast Cancer Study, 269 patients (7.8% died and 528 patients (15.4% recurred. The overall and subtype-specific associations of reproductive factors including age at menarche and menopause, duration of estrogen exposure, menstrual cycle, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy, number of children, age at last birth, time since the last birth, and duration of breastfeeding, on overall and disease-free survival (OS and DFS were estimated by hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs using a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model.An older age at menarche (HR for OS=1.10, 95% CI=1.03-1.19, a greater number of children (≥ 4 vs. 2, HR for DFS=1.58, 95% CI=1.11-2.26, and a shorter time since last birth (<5 vs. ≥ 20 years, HR for DFS=1.67, 95% CI=1.07-2.62 were associated with worse survival while longer duration of estrogen exposure with better survival (HR for DFS=0.97, 95% CI=0.96-0.99. In the stratified analyses by subtypes, those associations were more pronounced among women with hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor 2 positive (HR+ HER2+ tumors.It is suggested that reproductive factors, specifically age at menarche, number of children, time since last birth, and duration of estrogen exposure, could influence breast tumor progression, especially in the HR+ HER2+ subtype.

  16. Survival benefits select for group living in a social spider despite reproductive costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilde, T; Coates, K S; Birkhofer, K; Bird, T; Maklakov, A A; Lubin, Y; Avilés, L

    2007-11-01

    The evolution of cooperation requires benefits of group living to exceed costs. Hence, some components of fitness are expected to increase with increasing group size, whereas others may decrease because of competition among group members. The social spiders provide an excellent system to investigate the costs and benefits of group living: they occur in groups of various sizes and individuals are relatively short-lived, therefore life history traits and Lifetime Reproductive Success (LRS) can be estimated as a function of group size. Sociality in spiders has originated repeatedly in phylogenetically distant families and appears to be accompanied by a transition to a system of continuous intra-colony mating and extreme inbreeding. The benefits of group living in such systems should therefore be substantial. We investigated the effect of group size on fitness components of reproduction and survival in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola in two populations in Namibia. In both populations, the major benefit of group living was improved survival of colonies and late-instar juveniles with increasing colony size. By contrast, female fecundity, female body size and early juvenile survival decreased with increasing group size. Mean individual fitness, estimated as LRS and calculated from five components of reproduction and survival, was maximized for intermediate- to large-sized colonies. Group living in these spiders thus entails a net reproductive cost, presumably because of an increase in intra-colony competition with group size. This cost is traded off against survival benefits at the colony level, which appear to be the major factor favouring group living. In the field, many colonies occur at smaller size than expected from the fitness curve, suggesting ecological or life history constraints on colony persistence which results in a transient population of relatively small colonies.

  17. Flexibility in the duration of parental care: Female leopards prioritise cub survival over reproductive output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, Guy A; Robinson, Hugh S; Pitman, Ross T; Hunter, Luke T B

    2017-09-01

    Deciding when to terminate care of offspring is a key consideration for parents. Prolonging care may increase fitness of current offspring, but it can also reduce opportunities for future reproduction. Despite its evolutionary importance, few studies have explored the optimal duration of parental care, particularly among large carnivores. We used a 40-year dataset to assess the trade-offs associated with the length of maternal care in leopards in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa. We compared the costs imposed by care on the survival and residual reproductive value of leopard mothers against the benefits derived from maternal care in terms of increased offspring survival, recruitment and reproduction. We also examined the demographic and ecological factors affecting the duration of care in the light of five explanatory hypotheses: litter size, sex allocation, resource limitation, timing of independence and terminal investment. Duration of care exhibited by female leopards varied markedly, from 9 to 35 months. Mothers did not appear to suffer any short- or long-term survival costs from caring for cubs, but extending care reduced the number of litters that mothers could produce during their lifetimes. Interestingly, the duration of care did not appear to affect the post-independence survival or reproductive success of offspring (although it may have indirectly affected offspring survival by influencing dispersal distance). However, results from generalised linear mixed models showed that mothers prolonged care during periods of prey scarcity, supporting the resource limitation hypothesis. Female leopards also cared for sons longer than daughters, in line with the sex-allocation hypothesis. Cub survival is an important determinant of the lifetime reproductive success in leopards. By buffering offspring against environmental perturbation without jeopardising their own survivorship, female leopards apparently "hedge their bets" with current offspring rather than

  18. Effects of the artificial sweetener sucralose on Daphnia magna and Americamysis bahia survival, growth and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggett, D B; Stoddard, K I

    2011-10-01

    The artificial sweetener sucralose has been detected in municipal wastewater effluent and surface waters at concentrations ranging from ng/L to low μg/L. Few chronic ecotoxicological data are available in the peer reviewed literature with respect to sucralose. To address this data gap, 21 d Daphnia magna and 28 d Americamysis bahia (mysid shrimp) studies were conducted to assess the effects of sucralose on the survival, growth and reproduction of these organisms. Concentrations ⩽1800mg/L resulted in no statistically significant reduction in D. magna survival or reproduction. Survival, growth and reproduction of mysid shrimp were unaffected by ⩽93mg/L sucralose. The no observable effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) for the D. magna study were 1800 and >1800mg/L, respectively. The NOEC and LOEC for the mysid study were 93 and >93mg/L, respectively. Collectively, these data suggest that the concentrations of sucralose detected in the environment are well below those required to elicit chronic effects in freshwater or marine invertebrates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Size does matter: An assessment of reproductive potential in seahorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Filipa; Almeida, Armando J; Ré, Pedro; Narciso, Luís

    2016-07-01

    In most animals, the mother plays the key role in reproduction, but male pregnancy in seahorses raises the question of whether the female still is the only determinant of offspring size or if she shares some responsibility with the male. This study evaluates the effects of both male and female size on the reproductive output of the long-snouted seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus. Results demonstrated that, with regard to reproductive potential, the bigger the better. Seahorses preferred similar-sized or larger mates. Larger females produced bigger eggs with larger yolk reserves. Larger males had larger brood pouches, but did not produced larger broods. Male size was negatively correlated with embryo density and positively correlated with juvenile size. Both parents proved to play a decisive role in the reproductive output of this species. Newborn juveniles from the same parents were 15% bigger and 30% heavier when incubated in smaller and lower-density broods. This trade-off between the number and size of embryos inside the brood pouch clearly indicates a limited carrying capacity of the male, and demonstrates that the size of newborn seahorses can be, in part, paternally determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of temperature on development, survival and reproduction of insects: experimental design, data analysis and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Régnière, Jacques; Powell, James; Bentz, Barbara; Nealis, Vincent

    2012-05-01

    The developmental response of insects to temperature is important in understanding the ecology of insect life histories. Temperature-dependent phenology models permit examination of the impacts of temperature on the geographical distributions, population dynamics and management of insects. The measurement of insect developmental, survival and reproductive responses to temperature poses practical challenges because of their modality, variability among individuals and high mortality near the lower and upper threshold temperatures. We address this challenge with an integrated approach to the design of experiments and analysis of data based on maximum likelihood. This approach expands, simplifies and unifies the analysis of laboratory data parameterizing the thermal responses of insects in particular and poikilotherms in general. This approach allows the use of censored observations (records of surviving individuals that have not completed development after a certain time) and accommodates observations from temperature transfer treatments in which individuals pass only a portion of their development at an extreme (near-threshold) temperature and are then placed in optimal conditions to complete their development with a higher rate of survival. Results obtained from this approach are directly applicable to individual-based modeling of insect development, survival and reproduction with respect to temperature. This approach makes possible the development of process-based phenology models that are based on optimal use of available information, and will aid in the development of powerful tools for analyzing eruptive insect population behavior and response to changing climatic conditions. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Survival, growth and reproduction of cryopreserved larvae from a marine invertebrate, the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Suquet

    Full Text Available This study is the first demonstration of successful post-thawing development to reproduction stage of diploid cryopreserved larvae in an aquatic invertebrate. Survival, growth and reproductive performances were studied in juvenile and adult Pacific oysters grown from cryopreserved embryos. Cryopreservation was performed at three early stages: trochophore (13±2 hours post fertilization: hpf, early D-larvae (24±2 hpf and late D-larvae (43±2 hpf. From the beginning (88 days at the end of the ongrowing phase (195 days, no mortality was recorded and mean body weights did not differ between the thawed oysters and the control. At the end of the growing-out phase (982 days, survival of the oysters cryopreserved at 13±2 hpf and at 43±2 hpf was significantly higher (P<0.001 than those of the control (non cryopreserved larvae. Only the batches cryopreserved at 24±2 hpf showed lower survival than the control. Reproductive integrity of the mature oysters, formely cryopreserved at 13±2 hpf and 24±2 hpf, was estimated by the sperm movement and the larval development of their offspring in 13 crosses gamete pools (five males and five females in each pool. In all but two crosses out of 13 tested (P<0.001, development rates of the offspring were not significantly different between frozen and unfrozen parents. In all, the growth and reproductive performances of oysters formerly cryopreserved at larval stages are close to those of controls. Furthermore, these performances did not differ between the three initial larval stages of cryopreservation. The utility of larvae cryopreservation is discussed and compared with the cryopreservation of gametes as a technique for selection programs and shellfish cryobanking.

  2. Effects of environmental mercury exposure on reproduction, health and survival of wading birds in the Florida Everglades

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents the results of investigations of the effects of environmental methylmercury on the health, development, survival, and reproduction of...

  3. Potential imaging findings following assisted reproduction: complications and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anuradha

    2018-02-01

    Recent rapid advances in assisted reproduction (ART) have led to global increase in usage of in vitro fertilization. This in turn has resulted in clinicians and imaging specialists encountering increase in complications associated with ART. The specialists dealing with infertility should be aware of potential complications associated with ART. Early diagnosis of these problems is based on clinician's suspicion and radiologist's awareness of these complications. Many of these conditions may be life threatening. Hence, early diagnosis and treatment of these complications can safeguard the fetal and maternal health.

  4. Female reproductive success and calf survival in a North Sea coastal bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kevin P; Sim, Texa M C; Culloch, Ross M; Bean, Thomas S; Cordoba Aguilar, Isabel; Eisfeld, Sonja M; Filan, Miranda; Haskins, Gary N; Williams, Genevieve; Pierce, Graham J

    2017-01-01

    Between-female variation in reproductive output provides a strong measure of individual fitness and a quantifiable measure of the health of a population which may be highly informative to management. In the present study, we examined reproductive traits in female bottlenose dolphins from the east coast of Scotland using longitudinal sightings data collected over twenty years. From a total of 102 females identified between 1997 and 2016, 74 mothers produced a collective total of 193 calves. Females gave birth from 6 to 13 years of age with a mean age of 8. Calves were produced during all study months, May to October inclusive, but showed a seasonal birth pulse corresponding to the regional peak in summer water temperatures. Approximately 83% (n = 116) of the calves of established fate were successfully raised to year 2-3. Of the known mortalities, ~45% were first-born calves. Calf survival rates were also lower in multiparous females who had previously lost calves. A mean inter-birth interval (IBI) of 3.80 years (n = 110) and mean fecundity of 0.16 was estimated for the population. Calf loss resulted in shortened IBIs, whilst longer IBIs were observed in females assumed to be approaching reproductive senescence. Maternal age and size, breeding experience, dominance, individual associations, group size and other social factors, were all concluded to influence reproductive success (RS) in this population. Some females are likely more important than others for the future viability of the population. Consequently, a better knowledge of the demographic groups containing those females showing higher reproductive success would be highly desirable for conservation efforts aimed at their protection.

  5. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 Outfall) ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, Test date: September 18, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area at Savannah River Plant affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the test organisms (Ceriodaphnia) to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher`s Exact Test and Trimmed Spearman Karber Analysis to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p=0.5) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among distribution to determine the appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions.

  6. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 Outfall) ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, Test date: September 18, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area at Savannah River Plant affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the test organisms (Ceriodaphnia) to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher's Exact Test and Trimmed Spearman Karber Analysis to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p=0.5) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among distribution to determine the appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions.

  7. [Simulation experiment of survival and reproduction of artificially imported Oncomelania snails in Qingpu District, Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jian-Guo; Li, Gui-Fu; Li, Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Jin, Yan-Jun; Cai, Li; Peng, Li-Xia; Xu, Hai-Yan; Xu, Rui-Fang

    2013-06-01

    To understand the survival of imported Oncomelania snails in new environments with different densities in waterway net region, Qingpu District, Shanghai. The snails collected from Guichi, Anhui Province were put into the ponds of 4 square meters and each had 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 pairs of snails, respectively. During the next 2 years, the temperature, humidity, the activities of snails and their second birth snails were investigated each day. All the data were analyzed statistically. The highest number of snails appeared from May to June on the surface of soils in different densities. The average numbers of snails were 2.0%-12.7% of whole put in snails, and the numbers of offspring were less than 2% of the whole put in snails. The survival and reproduction of artificially imported Oncomelania snails from Guichi, Anhui Province is not good in Qingpu District, Shanghai.

  8. Optimal resource allocation to survival and reproduction in parasitic wasps foraging in fragmented habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Wajnberg

    Full Text Available Expansion and intensification of human land use represents the major cause of habitat fragmentation. Such fragmentation can have dramatic consequences on species richness and trophic interactions within food webs. Although the associated ecological consequences have been studied by several authors, the evolutionary effects on interacting species have received little research attention. Using a genetic algorithm, we quantified how habitat fragmentation and environmental variability affect the optimal reproductive strategies of parasitic wasps foraging for hosts. As observed in real animal species, the model is based on the existence of a negative trade-off between survival and reproduction resulting from competitive allocation of resources to either somatic maintenance or egg production. We also asked to what degree plasticity along this trade-off would be optimal, when plasticity is costly. We found that habitat fragmentation can indeed have strong effects on the reproductive strategies adopted by parasitoids. With increasing habitat fragmentation animals should invest in greater longevity with lower fecundity; yet, especially in unpredictable environments, some level of phenotypic plasticity should be selected for. Other consequences in terms of learning ability of foraging animals were also observed. The evolutionary consequences of these results are discussed.

  9. Effects of lithium on the survival, growth, and reproduction of Daphniopsis tibetana Sars (Crustacea: Cladocera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen; Huo, Yuanzi; Zhang, Tianmin; Wang, Shan; Shi, Tingting

    2017-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of lithium on the survival, growth, and reproduction of D. tibetana in the laboratory. The safe concentration value was 69.3 mg/L. The time to first brood was significant lower for individuals reared in 5 and 10 mg/L (24.4 and 24.0 d, respectively) compared with individuals reared in 20, 40, or 60 mg/L. Females reared in 5 mg/L lithium produced a mean of 16.5 neonates/brood and had the highest number of broods (3.0±1.95). The rate of egg production ( a), the intrinsic rate of increase ( r m ), net reproduction rate ( R 0), and finite rate of increase ( λ) were highest for D. tibetana reared at 5 and 10 mg/L lithium, and the duration of development was shorter than for the remaining groups. The results indicated that rearing in 5-10 mg/L lithium can accelerate the growth and reproduction of D. tibetana.

  10. Immune investment impairs growth, female reproduction and survival in the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuñán-García, Ana Priscila; Lara, Carlos; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex

    2010-02-01

    We investigated whether an immune response is associated with growth, female reproduction and survival costs in the house cricket. Using different intensities of challenge immune (implantation of one piece of nylon (1N) and two nylons (2N), with their respective sham-challenge and control groups) with body size and exoskeleton thickness as response variables, growth costs were determined for both sexes. A similar methodology was followed for reproduction costs, in which egg number and size, and female survival were measured as response variables. It was also determined whether mated and virgin females showed different immune responses. Body size decreased with immune challenge but only in the 2N treatment. Exoskeleton thickness increased in both sham-challenge groups and the 1N group but decreased in the 2N group. Egg number decreased more in the sham-challenge groups followed by the 1N and 2N groups. The 2N group showed the largest egg size at the end of the experiment. In these females, 2N group died first followed by the 1N, two nylon sham and one nylon sham groups. Finally, mated females showed a lower immune response than virgin females. These results are consistent with ecological immunity theory. The discovery of exoskeleton-related costs of immunity and injury may have important implications for experimental design in studies of the cost of immunity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Kisspeptins and the reproductive axis: potential applications to manage reproduction in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraty, A; Decourt, C; Briant, C; Beltramo, M

    2012-08-01

    Kisspeptins (Kp) are a family of neuropeptides produced mainly by two hypothalamic neuronal cell populations. They have recently emerged as a major regulator of the gonadotropin axis and their action is located upstream of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) cell population. In less than 10 yr a growing body of literature has demonstrated the involvement of these peptides in most, if not all, aspects of reproductive axis maturation and function. In contrast to these abundant basic research studies, few experiments have evaluated the potential application of Kp as tools to manipulate reproduction in domestic animals. In mammals, exogenous Kp administration potently stimulates gonadotropin secretion. This action is exerted mainly, if not exclusively, through the stimulation of GnRH release. Intravenous, intraperitoneal, or subcutaneous administration of Kp induced a robust and rapid increase in plasma gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone [LH] and follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]). However, this stimulatory effect is of short duration. Prolonged LH and FSH release over several hours can be achieved only when Kp are given as repeated multiple bolus or as an infusion. Kp administration was used in two experimental models, ewe and pony mare, with the aim of inducing well-timed and synchronized ovulations. During the breeding season, progesterone-synchronized ewes were given an intravenous infusion of Kp starting 30 h after the removal of progesterone implants. An LH surge was induced in all Kp-treated animals within 2 h of infusion onset. In contrast, in pony mares a constant infusion of Kp for 3 d in the the late follicular phase was unable to induce synchronized ovulation. Another set of studies showed that Kp could be used to activate reproductive function in acyclic animals. Pulsatile administration of Kp in prepubertal ewe lambs was shown to activate ovarian function, leading to enhanced ovarian steroidogenesis, stimulation of LH preovulatory surge, and

  12. Reproductive tactics optimizing the survival of the offspring of Cichlasoma orientale (Perciformes: Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussiara Candeira Spíndola Linhares

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High mortality rates have been observed in Teleost during early developmental stages, as well as great variations in reproductive tactics, which are related to adaptations towards environmental conditions and ecological niches for which different species have a specific response. The objective of this study was to describe reproductive tactics related to the survival of Cichlasoma orientale offspring, including aspects of body size, parental care, fecundity, oocyte size and spawning patterns. Samples were performed monthly from August 2011 to July 2013, in lentic and lotic environments at Curu river basin, Brazilian Northeastern semiarid region. Individual behavior (n=113 was observed underwater for over 50 hours by ad libitum sampling and focal-animal sampling. Collected individuals (males n=185, females n=95 were evaluated regarding the standard length, batch fecundity, oocyte size and spawning pattern. In females with mature ovaries, oocyte groups at different developmental stages were observed, these cells were counted and measured, and fecundity was estimated by the gravimetric method. Our results showed that the species displayed biparental care behavior and, on average, males were larger than females. Based on 46 ovaries, the average batch fecundity was 2 052±849 (range: 254-3 389. Standard length and batch fecundity were positively correlated, but no correlation was found between oocyte size and standard length. The maximum diameter observed in the most developed oocytes was 1.8mm. The observed distribution of oocyte size classes indicated synchronous oocyte development in three groups: previtellogenic, vitellogenic and mature, showing that C. orientale is a multiple spawner. Differences in the amount of oocytes among the three groups were observed, with the most developed group showing the smallest number of oocytes. The combination of low fecundity and large egg size is characteristic of demersal spawners due to a greater

  13. Survival, growth and reproduction of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758). I. Physiological capabilities in various temperatures and salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Peterson, Mark S.; Lowe, Michael R.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Slack, William T.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological tolerances of non-native fishes is an integral component of assessing potential invasive risk. Salinity and temperature are environmental variables that limit the spread of many non-native fishes. We hypothesised that combinations of temperature and salinity will interact to affect survival, growth, and reproduction of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, introduced into Mississippi, USA. Tilapia withstood acute transfer from fresh water up to a salinity of 20 and survived gradual transfer up to 60 at typical summertime (30°C) temperatures. However, cold temperature (14°C) reduced survival of fish in saline waters ≥10 and increased the incidence of disease in freshwater controls. Although fish were able to equilibrate to saline waters in warm temperatures, reproductive parameters were reduced at salinities ≥30. These integrated responses suggest that Nile tilapia can invade coastal areas beyond their point of introduction. However, successful invasion is subject to two caveats: (1) wintertime survival depends on finding thermal refugia, and (2) reproduction is hampered in regions where salinities are ≥30. These data are vital to predicting the invasion of non-native fishes into coastal watersheds. This is particularly important given the predicted changes in coastal landscapes due to global climate change and sea-level rise.

  14. Survival benefits select for group living in a social spider despite reproductive costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Coates, K.S.; Birkhofer, K.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation requires benefits of group living to exceed costs. Hence, some components of fitness are expected to increase with increasing group size, whereas others may decrease because of competition among group members. The social spiders provide an excellent system to investig......The evolution of cooperation requires benefits of group living to exceed costs. Hence, some components of fitness are expected to increase with increasing group size, whereas others may decrease because of competition among group members. The social spiders provide an excellent system...... to investigate the costs and benefits of group living: they occur in groups of various sizes and individuals are relatively short-lived, therefore life history traits and Lifetime Reproductive Success (LRS) can be estimated as a function of group size. Sociality in spiders has originated repeatedly...... and survival in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola in two populations in Namibia. In both populations, the major benefit of group living was improved survival of colonies and late-instar juveniles with increasing colony size. By contrast, female fecundity, female body size and early juvenile survival...

  15. The effect of exposure to imidacloprid on Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) survival and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugine, Todd A; Gardescu, Sana; Hajek, Ann E

    2011-12-01

    The effect of imidacloprid delivery method and application rate on survival of adult Asian longhorned beetles, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), was studied, along with the effect of repeated daily ingestion of imidacloprid on the survival and reproductive capacity of adult females. Beetles exposed repeatedly to 50 ppm imidacloprid died in Beetles given 1 microl of 50 ppm imidacloprid daily for two, three, four, or five consecutive days died sooner with increasing consecutive days: the beetles treated for 5 d all died within 15 d, while 80% of beetles treated for only 2 d lived > 8 wk. For females given 1 microl daily, across a range of doses from 2 to 50 ppm imidacloprid, the total number of viable eggs laid was reduced with increasing dosage, but percentage egg viability was not affected. Survival of females at dosages of 10 or 30 ppm/d was not significantly reduced compared with controls but these females laid 23-38% fewer viable eggs, suggesting a sublethal effect of imidacloprid. Female beetles given 1 microl/d of 40 or 50 ppm imidacloprid died more quickly than controls and viable egg production was reduced 82-93%, because of a combination of lethal and sublethal effects of intoxication.

  16. Toxicity of four veterinary pharmaceuticals on the survival and reproduction of Folsomia candida in tropical soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortéa, Talyta; Segat, Julia C; Maccari, Ana Paula; Sousa, José Paulo; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Baretta, Dilmar

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of veterinary pharmaceuticals (VPs) used to control endo- and ectoparasites in ruminants, on the survival and reproduction of the collembolan species Folsomia candida. Standard ecotoxicological tests were conducted in Tropical Artificial Soil and the treatments consisted of increasing dosages of four commercial products with different active ingredients: ivermectin, fipronil, fluazuron and closantel. Ecotoxicological effects were related to the class and mode of action of the different compounds. Fipronil and ivermectin were the most toxic compounds causing a significant reduction in the number of juveniles at the lowest doses tested (LOECreprod values of 0.3 and 0.2 mg kg-1 of dry soil, respectively) and similar low EC50 values (fipronil: 0.19 mg kg-1 dry soil, CL95% 0.16-0.22; ivermectin: 0.43 mg kg-1 dry soil, CL95% 0.09-0.77), although the effects observed in the former compound were possibly related to a low adult survival (LC50 of 0.62 mg kg-1 dry soil; CL95%: 0.25-1.06). For the latter compound no significant lethal effects were observed. Fluazuron caused an intermediate toxicity (EC50 of 3.07 mg kg-1 dry soil, CL95%: 2.26-3.87), and also here a decrease in adult survival could explain the effects observed at reproduction. Closantel, despite showing a significant reduction on the number of juveniles produced, no dose-response relationship nor effects higher than 50% were observed. Overall, all tested compounds, especially ivermectin, when present in soil even at sub-lethal concentrations, can impair the reproduction of collembolans and possibly other arthropods. However, the actual risk to arthropod communities should be further investigated performing tests under a more realistic exposure (e.g., by testing the dung itself as the contaminated matrix) and by deriving ecotoxicologically relevant exposure concentration in soil derived from the presence of cattle dung. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Reproductive outcome and survival of common bottlenose dolphins sampled in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Suzanne M; Smith, Cynthia R; Mitchell, Jason; Balmer, Brian C; Barry, Kevin P; McDonald, Trent; Mori, Chiharu S; Rosel, Patricia E; Rowles, Teresa K; Speakman, Todd R; Townsend, Forrest I; Tumlin, Mandy C; Wells, Randall S; Zolman, Eric S; Schwacke, Lori H

    2015-11-07

    Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabit bays, sounds and estuaries across the Gulf of Mexico. Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, studies were initiated to assess potential effects on these ecologically important apex predators. A previous study reported disease conditions, including lung disease and impaired stress response, for 32 dolphins that were temporarily captured and given health assessments in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA. Ten of the sampled dolphins were determined to be pregnant, with expected due dates the following spring or summer. Here, we report findings after 47 months of follow-up monitoring of those sampled dolphins. Only 20% (95% CI: 2.50-55.6%) of the pregnant dolphins produced viable calves, as compared with a previously reported pregnancy success rate of 83% in a reference population. Fifty-seven per cent of pregnant females that did not successfully produce a calf had been previously diagnosed with moderate-severe lung disease. In addition, the estimated annual survival rate of the sampled cohort was low (86.8%, 95% CI: 80.0-92.7%) as compared with survival rates of 95.1% and 96.2% from two other previously studied bottlenose dolphin populations. Our findings confirm low reproductive success and high mortality in dolphins from a heavily oiled estuary when compared with other populations. Follow-up studies are needed to better understand the potential recovery of dolphins in Barataria Bay and, by extension, other Gulf coastal regions impacted by the spill. © 2015 The Authors.

  18. Effects of reproduction on growth and survival in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, assessed by comparison to triploids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trippel, Edward A.; Butts, Ian; Babin, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    in captive iteroparous, batch-spawning Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), utilizing diploids and triploids, knowing that triploid females invest little to no energy into gametogenesis. Based on annual specific growth rate, there was no evidence for a somatic cost of reproduction at ages 2 (virgin year) and 4....... years, but there was at age 3. years. At age 2. years, low investment in reproduction likely accounted for the lack of a somatic cost of reproduction, whereas at age 4 the absence was associated with heightened growth post-spawning enabling mature fish to catch up to immature fish. At age 3......, compensatory growth during post-spawning was below that of immature fish. Survival represented a significant component of the cost of reproduction. Laboratory experiments examining the cost of reproduction have traditionally focused on shorter time periods, commonly spanning several months, whereas ours...

  19. Effects of food stress on survival and reproductive performance of seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Kitaysky, Sasha

    2001-01-01

    Traditional field methods of assessing effects of fluctuations in food supply on the survival and reproductive performance of seabirds may give equivocal results. In this project we applied an additional tool: The measure of stress hormones in free-ranging seabirds. Food stress can be quantified by measuring base levels of stress hormones such as corticosterone in the blood of seabirds, or the rise in blood levels of corticosterone in response to a standardized stressor: capture, handling and restraint. We applied these techniques to seabirds breeding in Lower Cook Inlet and also used captive birds for controlled experiments. This study provided a unique opportunity for a concurrent field and captive study of the behavioral and physiological consequences of stress in seabirds. Moreover, this study provides the basis for management of seabird populations in the areas affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill, which will have broader applications for seabird monitoring programs. This year represents production of a synthesis of the project.

  20. Growing more positive with age: The relationship between reproduction and survival in aging flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Joost; Zandveld, Jelle; Brakefield, Paul M; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Shanley, Daryl P; Zwaan, Bas J

    2017-04-01

    Populations of laboratory animals that are selected for increased lifespan often show negative correlated responses in early fecundity. However, late fecundity and/or total lifetime fecundity can be higher in the populations selected for increased lifespan. This has been interpreted by some as being at odds with the disposable soma theory, which predicts decreased lifespan to increase total reproductive output. Alternatively, the Y-model explores the effects of variation in resource allocation and acquisition on life histories. In this model, a negative relationship between lifespan and reproduction can be viewed as variation in allocation, whereas a positive relationship is the result of variation in acquisition. However, a frequently neglected complication of the Y-model is that older individuals often show a decline in resource acquisition. Therefore, differential allocation to maintenance and survival might affect this decline in late-life acquisition which will affect resource availability across the whole lifespan. In this paper we show that a model which incorporates the ideas of the Y-model, the disposable soma theory, and an age-related decrease in resource acquisition, i.e. feeding senescence, can explain how the relationship between fecundity and lifespan changes with age. Furthermore, by modeling environments with contrasting extrinsic mortality rates, we explored how the outcome of the model depended on the relative importance of early and late-life reproduction. In high mortality environments a relatively higher early fecundity, lower late fecundity, and lower lifespans were more optimal, whereas the opposite was true for low mortality environments. We applied predictions from the model to a cohort of individually-housed female Drosophila melanogaster flies for which we measured age specific fecundity and lifespan. Early fecundity was negatively associated with lifespan, while late fecundity related positively with lifespan in the same cohort. This

  1. Effect of gossypol on survival and reproduction of the zoophytophagous stinkbug Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S. Evangelista Junior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of gossypol on survival and reproduction of the zoophytophagous stinkbug Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas. Gossypol is a sesquiterpene aldehyde found in cotton plants conferring resistance against herbivory. Although the effect of this sesquiterpenoid on insect pests of cotton is known, the interaction of this compound with zoophytophagous predators such as Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae has not been studied so far. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the purified gossypol on nymphs and adults of P. nigrispinus. Nymphs and adults of this predator were fed on Tenebrio molitor pupae and supplemented with solutions of gossypol at concentrations of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20% (w/v during the nymphal and adult stages or, only during the adult stage of P. nigrispinus. The nymphal stage of the predator was, on average, two days longer when suplemmented with gossypol. Emerged adults had lower fecundity and egg hatching, especially at the highest gossypol concentration (0.20% ingested during the nymphal and adult stages. However, this predator was not affected when it ingested the compound only during the adult stage. P. nigrispinus can have delayed nymphal development and lower reproductive performance when ingesting the gossypol during the nymphal and adult stages, but only at higher concentrations of gossypol than that produced by cotton plants.

  2. Neural Circuitry That Mediates Behavior Governing the Tradeoffs Between Survival and Reproduction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Scott W

    2017-12-01

    In all outcrossing sexual species there is a mechanism that brings two parents together. For animals, this reproductive requirement may at times conflict with other needs, such as foraging for food. This tension has been studied using the tiny (1 mm) nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans. In a trade off between certainty of survival and possibility of reproduction, the C. elegans male will abandon a food patch lacking mates and explore its environment to find one where mates are present. A quantitative behavioral assay has been used to study the behavioral mechanism of mate searching and nutritional, sexual, and neurohormonal pathways that influence the underlying drive state. Taking advantage of the known connectivity of the C. elegans nervous system, neural pathways have been identified that influence the male's behavior in the presence of food with and without mates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The Potential of Nanotechnology in Medically Assisted Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Remião, Mariana H.; Segatto, Natalia V.; Pohlmann, Adriana; Guterres, Silvia S.; Seixas, Fabiana K.; Collares, Tiago

    2018-01-01

    Reproductive medicine is a field of science which searches for new alternatives not only to help couples achieve pregnancy and preserve fertility, but also to diagnose and treat diseases which can impair the normal operation of the reproductive tract. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is a set of methodologies applied to cases related to infertility. Despite being highly practiced worldwide, ART presents some challenges, which still require special attention. Nanotechnology, as a tool fo...

  4. Effects of high dose rate gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Nakano, Eliana [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Parasitologia], e-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, e-mail: eliananakano@butantan.gov.br; Borrely, Sueli I. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes], e-mail: sborrely@ipen.br; Amaral, Ademir; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR)], e-mail: amaral@ufpe.br; Silva, Luanna R.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, e-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiations are known as mutagenic agents, causing lethality and infertility. This characteristic has motivated its application on animal biological control. In this context, the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata can be considered an excellent experimental model to study effects of ionizing radiations on lethality and reproduction. This work was designed to evaluate effects of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation at high dose rate (10.04 kGy/h) on B. glabrata. For this purpose, adult snails were selected and exposed to doses ranging from 20 to 100 Gy, with 10 Gy intervals; one group was kept as control. There was not effect of dose rate in the lethality of gamma radiation; the value of 64,3 Gy of LD{sub 50} obtained in our study was similar to that obtained by other authors with low dose rates. Nevertheless, our data suggest that there was a dose rate effect in the reproduction. On all dose levels, radiation improved the production of embryos for all exposed individuals. However, viability indexes were below 6% and, even 65 days after irradiation, fertility was not recovered. These results are not in agreement with other studies using low dose rates. Lethality was obtained in all groups irradiated, and the highest doses presented percentiles of dead animals above 50%. The results demonstrated that doses of 20 and 30 Gy were ideal for population control of B. glabrata. Further studies are needed; nevertheless, this research evidenced great potential of high dose rate gamma radiation on B. glabrata reproductive control. (author)

  5. Abdominally implanted satellite transmitters affect reproduction and survival rather than migration of large shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Gill, Robert E.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Kentie, Rosemarie; Gerritsen, Gerrit J.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Tijssen, David C.; Harwood, Christopher M.; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a common technique to investigate avian life-histories, but whether such tagging will affect fitness is a critical unknown. In this study, we evaluate multi-year effects of implanted transmitters on migratory timing and reproductive performance in shorebirds. Shorebirds increasingly are recognized as good models in ecology and evolution. That many of them are of conservation concern adds to the research responsibilities. In May 2009, we captured 56 female Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa during late incubation in The Netherlands. Of these, 15 birds were equipped with 26-g satellite transmitters with a percutaneous antenna (7.8 % ± 0.2 SD of body mass), surgically implanted in the coelom. We compared immediate nest survival, timing of migration, subsequent nest site fidelity and reproductive behaviour including egg laying with those of the remaining birds, a comparison group of 41 females. We found no effects on immediate nest survival. Fledging success and subsequent southward and northward migration patterns of the implanted birds conformed to the expectations, and arrival time on the breeding grounds in 2010–2012 did not differ from the comparison group. Compared with the comparison group, in the year after implantation, implanted birds were equally faithful to the nest site and showed equal territorial behaviour, but a paucity of behaviours indicating nests or clutches. In the 3 years after implantation, the yearly apparent survival of implanted birds was 16 % points lower. Despite intense searching, we found only three eggs of two implanted birds; all were deformed. A similarly deformed egg was reported in a similarly implanted Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus returning to breed in central Alaska. The presence in the body cavity of an object slightly smaller than a normal egg may thus lead to egg malformation and, likely, reduced egg viability. That the use of implanted satellite transmitters in these large shorebirds

  6. Reproductive parameters and cub survival of brown bears in the Rusha area of the Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozuru, Michito; Yamanaka, Masami; Nakanishi, Masanao; Moriwaki, Jun; Mori, Fumihiko; Tsujino, Masakatsu; Shirane, Yuri; Ishinazaka, Tsuyoshi; Kasai, Shinsuke; Nose, Takane; Masuda, Yasushi; Tsubota, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the reproductive characteristics of a species is essential for the appropriate conservation and management of wildlife. In this study, we investigated the demographic parameters, including age of primiparity, litter size, inter-birth interval, reproductive rate, and cub survival rate, of Hokkaido brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) in the Rusha area on the Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan, based on a long-term, individual-based monitoring survey. A total of 15 philopatric females were observed nearly every year from 2006 to 2016, and these observations were used to estimate reproductive parameters. The mean age of primiparity was 5.3 ± 0.2 (SE) years (n = 7, 95% CI = 5.0-5.6). We observed 81 cubs in 46 litters from 15 bears. Litter size ranged from one to three cubs, and averaged 1.76 ± 0.08 (SE) cubs/litter (95% CI = 1.61-1.91). Inter-birth intervals ranged from 1 to 4 years, and the mean value was estimated as 2.43 (95% CI = 2.16-2.76) and 2.53 (95% CI = 2.26-2.85) years in all litters and in litters that survived at least their first year, respectively. The reproductive rate was estimated from 0.70 to 0.76 young born/year/reproductive adult female, depending on the method of calculation. The cub survival rate between 0.5 and 1.5 years ranged from 60 to 73%. Most cub disappearances occurred in July and August, suggesting that cub mortality is mainly due to poor nutrition in the summer. All reproductive parameters observed in the Rusha area on the Shiretoko Peninsula fell within the range reported in Europe and North America, and were among the lowest or shortest age of primiparity, litter size, and inter-birth intervals, and ranked at a high level for reproductive rate.

  7. Short-term test for predicting the potential of xenobiotics to impair reproductive success in fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landner, L.; Neilson, A.H.; Soerensen, L.T.; Taernholm, A.V.; Viktor, T.

    1985-06-01

    Short-term screening tests with the zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) have been developed for predicting the potential of xenobiotics to impair reproductive success in fish. The aim was to find simple and sensitive test parameters and to simulate exposure situations typical for anadromous fish species (salmonids), which generally cross heavily polluted coastal areas or estuaries before they reach uncontaminated upstream spawning areas. Therefore, particular attention was directed to tests designed to assess adverse effects induced during gametogenesis in adult fish. The test protocol involves exposure of adults prior to, but not during, spawning and the effects are measured in the offspring as alterations in hatching frequency and hatching rate of eggs, and survival and stress tolerance of embryos and larvae. Some representative examples of the application of these tests are given, and it is shown that impairment of reproductive success can be induced by exposure of parent fish prior to spawning at concentrations of xenobiotics at least five times lower than those yielding effects during direct exposure of embryos and larvae. It is suggested that, in hazard assessment programs, tests of the effect of xenobiotics on the offspring of preexposed adults be routinely incorporated.

  8. Lifetime reproductive performance and survival of English Berkshire female pigs raised in commercial herds in subtropical Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Shiho; Koketsu, Yuzo

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare lifetime reproductive performance and survival probability of English Berkshire female pigs and crossbred females in a subtropical region of Japan. We analyzed records of 20,417 females entered into the 12 herds in Southern Japan from 2003 to 2007. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were conducted to compare the lifetime reproductive performance of the Berkshire and crossbred females. Multilevel mixed-effects models were conducted to compare the lifetime reproductive performance of the Berkshire and crossbred females. Also, a multilevel proportional hazard model was used to examine the survival probabilities for the two breeds. Berkshire gilts were 39.8 days older at first-mating than crossbred gilts (P = 0.05). The pigs born alive (PBA) in Berkshire and crossbred gilts increased from 5.8 to 6.9 pigs and from 10.7 to 11.1 pigs, respectively, as age at first-mating increased from 220 to 310 days old (P reproductive failure than crossbred gilts (7.5 vs. 3.8 %; P reproductive herd-life, and 4.2 pigs fewer average lifetime PBA than crossbred females (P < 0.05) and tended to have a lower survival probability (P = 0.05). In summary, Berkshire females had later puberty, were more sensitive to age at first-mating for increasing PBA, and had lower fertility and a lower survival probability than crossbred females in commercial herds.

  9. Post-reproductive survival in a polygamous society in rural Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, David van

    2011-01-01

    Humans have a long post-reproductive life span. In this thesis we study this post-reproductive life span from an evolutionary perspective. Why did humans evolve such a long post-reproductive life span? We tested the hypothesis that men and women after age 50 are able to contribute to their fitness

  10. Innovation Potential of the Region as a Basis of Reproduction of Economic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonenko Nelli A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of innovation potential of a region in ensuring stable social reproduction of economic potential. It identifies components of innovation potential, which characterise resources and ability to realise them, that identifies capabilities of territorial enterprises to develop in innovation manner. It underlines importance of development and adaptation of the methods of calculation of the overall development of innovativeness for Ukrainian regions with the purpose to assess the state of innovation activity in the country compared to neighbouring countries – EU members. The article offers an approach, which allows development of conceptual directions of innovation strategy of economic growth. It emphasises priority of establishment and support of the regional innovation system as a necessary factor of development of innovation infrastructure and gives proposals regarding the issue of creation of innovation structures in the region.

  11. Can soil Chytridiomycota survive and grow in different osmotic potentials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Frank H; Midgley, David J; Letcher, Peter M; McGee, Peter A

    2006-07-01

    Twenty isolates from soil in the orders Spizellomycetales, Blastocladiales and Chytridiales (Chytridiomycota) grew on complex solid media supplemented with 10 gl(-1) sodium chloride. In a synthetic liquid medium, 4.4 gl(-1) sodium chloride strongly inhibited growth in three of the five isolates, possibly because of the effect of the ions or osmolarity of the solution. The maximum concentration for growth in synthetic liquid medium with different osmotic potentials using polyethylene glycol (PEG) varied considerably amongst the isolates. Three patterns of growth with increasing concentrations of PEG were evident among isolates within the genus Rhizophydium. Up to the concentration where growth ceased, the dry weight of each isolate either decreased, remained constant, or in one case, increased. Most of the fungi survived when incubated at room temperature for 7d in complex liquid media supplemented with 35 gl(-1) sodium chloride or 300 gl(-1) PEG. These data indicate that soil Chytridiomycota can survive various osmotic potentials that may occur during the wetting and drying phases in soils.

  12. Reproductive Potential and Genetics of Triploid Pacific Oysters, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Allen, S K

    1994-12-01

    The reproductive potential and genetics of triploidy were studied in the Pacific oyster. DNA content in sperm from triploids showed a single peak at 1.5c as determined by flow cytometry. In eggs from triploids, trivalents were the dominant form of synapsed chromosomes, although the degree of synapsis varied considerably within and among females. Some eggs went through complete synapsis and formed 10 trivalents, chromosomes; most had a mixture of 11-13 trivalents, bivalents, and univalents. Factorial matings were produced from diploid (D) and triploid (T) parent oysters, creating four crosses: DD, DT, TD, and TT (female first). Gametes from triploids were fully capable of fertilization. After fertilization, eggs from triploids went through two meioses and released two polar bodies as diploid eggs did. Karyological analyses showed that average ploidy of the resultant embryos was 2.0 n for DD, 2.46 n for DT, 2.52 n for TD, and 2.88 n for TT. Survival of fertilized eggs to metamorphosis and settlement was about 21% for DD, but considerably lower on other crosses: 0.0007% for DT, 0.0463% for TD, and 0.0085% for TT. Nine months after matings, all survivors from DT crosses were diploid. Survivors from TD crosses consisted of 33% diploids, 57% triploids, and 10% tetraploids. Survivors from the TT crosses consisted of 90% triploids, 4% diploids, and 6% mosaics. We hypothesize that differences in ploidy composition between DT and TD embryos and survivors were caused by pro-egg segregations that favor the retention, rather than loss, of extra chromosomes in the egg. The reproductive potential of triploids and evolutionary implications are discussed.

  13. Comparative reproductive biology of sympatric species: Nest and chick survival of American avocets and black-necked stilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hartman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying differences in reproductive success rates of closely related and sympatrically breeding species can be useful for understanding limitations to population growth. We simultaneously examined the reproductive ecology of American avocets Recurvirostra americana and black-necked stilts Himantopus mexicanus using 1274 monitored nests and 240 radio-marked chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Although there were 1.8 times more avocet nests than stilt nests, stilts nonetheless fledged 3.3 times more chicks. Greater production by stilts than avocets was the result of greater chick survival from hatching to fledging (avocet: 6%; stilt: 40%), and not because of differences in clutch size (avocet: 3.84; stilt: 3.77), nest survival (avocet: 44%; stilt: 35%), or egg hatching success (avocet: 90%; stilt: 92%). We reviewed the literature and confirmed that nest survival and hatching success are generally similar when avocets and stilts breed sympatrically. In addition to species, chick survival was strongly influenced by age, site, and year. In particular, daily survival rates increased rapidly with chick age, with 70% of mortalities occurring ≤ 1 week after hatch. California gulls Larus californicus caused 55% of avocet, but only 15% of stilt, chick deaths. Differential use of micro-habitats likely reduced stilt chick’s vulnerability to gull predation, particularly during the first week after hatch, because stilts nested in vegetation 2.7 times more often than avocets and vegetation height was 65% taller at stilt nests compared with avocet nests. Our results demonstrate that two co-occurring and closely related species with similar life history strategies can differ markedly in reproductive success, and simultaneous studies of such species can identify differences that limit productivity.

  14. Assessment of chronic effects of tebuconazole on survival, reproduction and growth of Daphnia magna after different exposure times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, E; Villarroel, M J; Ferrando, M D

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the fungicide tebuconazole (0.41, 0.52, 0.71 and 1.14mg/L) on survival, reproduction and growth of Daphnia magna organisms was monitored using 14 and 21 days exposure tests. A third experiment was performed by exposing D. magna to the fungicide for 14 days followed by 7 days of recovery (14+7). In order to test fungicide effects on D. magna, parameters as survival, mean whole body length, mean total number of neonates per female, mean number of broods per female, mean brood size per female, time to first brood/reproduction and intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) were used. Reproduction was seriously affected by tebuconazole. All tebuconazole concentrations tested affected the number of broods per female and day to first brood. At 14-days test, number of neonates per female and body size decreased by concentrations of tebuconazole higher than 0.52mg/L, whereas at 21-days test both parameters were affected at all the concentrations tested. Survival of the daphnids after 14 days fungicide exposure did not exhibited differences among experimental and control groups. In this experiment r value was reduced (in a 22%) when animals were exposed to concentrations of 0.71mg/L and 1.14mg/L. Survival of daphnids exposed during 21 days to 1.14mg/L declined, and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) decreased in a 30 % for tebuconazole concentrations higher than 0.41mg/L. Longevity of daphnids pre-exposed to tebuconazole for 14 days and 7 days in clean water did not show differences from control values and all of them survived the 21 days of the test. However, after 7 days in fungicide free medium animals were unable to restore control values for reproductive parameters and length. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was calculated using the r values as parameter of evaluation. MATC estimations were 0.61mg/L and 0.46mg/L for 14 and 21 days, respectively. Results showed that the number of neonates per female was the highest sensitive

  15. reproduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    progress in terms of increasing healthy live births but decreasing multiple pregnancy rates.10. Development of assisted reproduction techniques. Alternatives to IVF and transcervical embryo transfer. Over the years IVF treatment has seen many modifications, and other options have been introduced. Prepared sperm may be ...

  16. reproduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examination ofHurnan Semen and Semen-Cervical Mucus. Interaction.20 Furthermore, organisations such as the. WHO and the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) now set up international training courses aiming at global standardisation. Micromanipulation of gametes and male infertility.

  17. Obesity and the reproductive system disorders: epigenetics as a potential bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crujeiras, Ana B; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are significantly involved in several reproductive pathologies contributing to infertility in men and women. In addition, several cancers of the reproductive system, such as endometrial, ovarian, breast, testicular and prostate cancers, are strongly influenced by obesity. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the association between obesity and reproductive disorders remain unclear. Our proposal is to review the current scientific evidence regarding the effect of obesity-related factors as the core of the collective mechanisms directly and indirectly involved in the relationship between obesity and reproductive disorders, with a special and original focus on the effect of the obesity state microenvironment on the epigenetic profile as a reversible mechanistic link between obesity and the reproductive disorders. A PubMed search was performed using keywords related to obesity and adipose-related factors and epigenetics and associated with keywords related to reproduction. Full-text articles and abstracts in the English language published prior to 31 December 2013 were reviewed. The obesity state notably contributes to a reproductive dysfunction in both men and women, ranging from infertility to oncological outcomes. Several epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that factors secreted by the adipose tissue and gut in an obesity state can directly induce reproductive disturbances. Relevantly, these same factors are able to alter the epigenetic regulation of genes, a dynamic and reversible mechanism by which the organism responds to environmental pressures critical to the reproductive function. This review outlines the evidence showing that the association between the reproductive pathologies and obesity is not inevitable but is potentially preventable and reversible. The epigenetic marks related to obesity could constitute a therapeutic target for the reproductive disorders associated with obesity. © The Author 2014

  18. Selection of food combinations to optimize survival, growth, and reproduction of the amphipod Hyalella azteca in static-renewal, water-only laboratory exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Major, Kaley M

    2016-10-01

    Although standardized sediment toxicity testing methods have been developed for the amphipod Hyalella azteca, no standardized chronic water-only toxicity testing methods have been established. Furthermore, optimal feeding and water quality conditions for culturing and toxicity testing with this species remained unclear. The objective of the present study was to determine the food or combination of foods that best promotes survival, growth, and reproduction of the US Lab strain of Hyalella azteca under 42-d, water-only, static-renewal testing conditions. The authors conducted 7 42-d control (no toxicant) tests with various combinations of food (including Tetramin, yeast-cereal leaves-trout chow, diatoms, wheatgrass, alfalfa, and maple leaves) and substrate types (clean "unconditioned" Nitex screens vs "conditioned" Nitex screens that were colonized by live biofilms). Over all treatments, survival ranged from 18% to 96%, dry weight per individual from 0.084 mg to 1.101 mg, and reproduction from 0 young/female to 28.4 young/female. Treatments that included Tetramin tended to result in better performance than those that did not. In particular, treatments that included Tetramin and either conditioned screens or diatoms consistently had high survival, weight, and reproduction values as well as low variability among replicates (measured as coefficient of variation). A ramped Tetramin plus diatom suspension feeding regime appears to have the greatest potential to produce consistently good performance across laboratories using static-renewal systems. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2407-2415. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  19. The reproductive pattern and potential of free ranging female wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmsten, Anna; Jansson, Gunnar; Lundeheim, Nils; Dalin, Anne-Marie

    2017-08-01

    The number and spatial distribution of wild boars (Sus scrofa) has increased remarkably in Sweden as well as in other European countries. To understand the population dynamics of the wild boar, knowledge of its reproductive period, oestrus cycle and reproductive success is essential. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the seasonal reproductive pattern and reproductive potential of a wild boar population in Sweden. The study was based on findings from macroscopic examinations of the reproductive organs from 575 hunter-harvested female wild boars (>30 kg body weight). Samples were collected between December 2011 and December 2015 in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. The age of the sampled animals was determined and dressed weight was noted. The stage of the reproductive cycle was defined according to ovarian structures and in relation to the appearance of/and findings in the uterus. The crown-rump length (CRL) of the embryos/foetuses was used to calculate the oestrus/mating month and month for the expected farrowing. The macroscopic examination revealed a seasonal variation of reproductive stages, although cyclic and pregnant females were found in all seasons. Moreover, the estimated oestrus/mating and farrowing months based on the CRL showed that mating and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. The average litter size (no. of embryos or foetuses) per pregnant female was 5.4. Sow weight and age had significant effect on both the reproductive potential (ovulation rate and litter size) and pregnancy rate, respectively. The reproductive potential in the studied wild boar population was high compared to studies from other countries and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. This suggests that the environmental conditions in Sweden, including supplemental feeding, are favourable for wild boar reproduction.

  20. Effect of gossypol on survival and reproduction of the zoophytophagous stinkbug Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S. Evangelista Junior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of gossypol on survival and reproduction of the zoophytophagous stinkbug Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas. Gossypol is a sesquiterpene aldehyde found in cotton plants conferring resistance against herbivory. Although the effect of this sesquiterpenoid on insect pests of cotton is known, the interaction of this compound with zoophytophagous predators such as Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae has not been studied so far. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the purified gossypol on nymphs and adults of P. nigrispinus. Nymphs and adults of this predator were fed on Tenebrio molitor pupae and supplemented with solutions of gossypol at concentrations of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20% (w/v during the nymphal and adult stages or, only during the adult stage of P. nigrispinus. The nymphal stage of the predator was, on average, two days longer when suplemmented with gossypol. Emerged adults had lower fecundity and egg hatching, especially at the highest gossypol concentration (0.20% ingested during the nymphal and adult stages. However, this predator was not affected when it ingested the compound only during the adult stage. P. nigrispinus can have delayed nymphal development and lower reproductive performance when ingesting the gossypol during the nymphal and adult stages, but only at higher concentrations of gossypol than that produced by cotton plants.Efeito do gossipol na sobrevivência e reprodução do percevejo zoofitófago Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas. O gossipol é um aldeído sesquiterpeno produzido pelo algodoeiro que confere resistência contra a herbivoria. A interação deste sesquiterpeno com predadores zoofitófagos, como Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, é inexistente apesar do reconhecido efeito do gossipol sobre insetos pragas do algodoeiro. Assim, este estudo avaliou o efeito do extrato de gossipol sobre ninfas e adultos de P. nigrispinus. O predador foi alimentado com

  1. The potential for new methods to assess human reproductive genotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1987-09-01

    The immediate prospects are not good for practical methods for measuring the human heritable mutation rate. The methods discussed here range from speculative to impractical, and at best are sensitive enough only for large numbers of subjects. Given the rapid development of DNA methods and the current status of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, there is some hope that the intermediate prospects may be better. In contrast, the prospects for useful cellular-based male germinal methods seem more promising and immediate. Effective specific locus methods for sperm are already conceivable and may be practical in a few years. Obviously such methods will not predict heritable effects definitively, but they will provide direct information on reproductive genotoxicity and should contribute significantly to many current medical and environmental situations where genetic damage is suspected. 22 refs.

  2. Endocannabinoid signaling in female reproductive events: a potential therapeutic target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarrone, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 30 years after the discovery in 1964 of the psychoactive ingredient of cannabis (Cannabis sativa), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, its endogenous counterparts were discovered and collectively termed endocannabinoids (eCBs): N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) in 1992 and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in 1995. Since then, intense research has identified additional eCBs and an ensemble of proteins that bind, synthesize and degrade them, the so-called eCB system. Altogether, these new compounds have been recognized as key mediators of several aspects of human pathophysiology, and in particular of female fertility. Here, the main features of the eCB system are presented, in order to put in a better perspective the relevance of eCB signaling in virtually all steps of human reproduction and to highlight emerging hopes that elements of this system might indeed become novel targets to combat fertility problems.

  3. Colony age, neighborhood density and reproductive potential in harvester ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Diane; Gordon, Deborah M

    1999-05-01

    At about age 5 years, colonies of the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus, begin to produce winged, sexual forms (alates) that mate in large annual aggregations. We examined how colony age and neighborhood density affect the numbers, body mass, and body fat of alates produced by 172 colonies ranging in age from 4 to 17 years. Over one-third (36%) of all colonies produced no alates. Failure to reproduce was independent of colony age. Of those colonies that did produce alates, older colonies produced more alates than younger colonies. Older colonies produced lighter female alates (in dry mass), but the total biomass of additional alates produced by older colonies far outweighed the reduced allocation to female alate body mass. Body fat content was much higher in female alates (36.0% on average) than in males (3.7% on average). Alate body fat content was not related to colony age. The fitness of female alates may be related to their fresh body mass; that of females captured after mating and reared in the laboratory was positively correlated with egg-laying rate, although not with the total number of eggs in the first brood. Neighborhood density was not related to alate number, mass, or fat content, in contrast to the results of a 1995 study at the site, in which alate numbers were negatively related to neighborhood density. Thus the influence of crowding on reproductive output appears to vary from year to year, perhaps in response to variation in rainfall and food supply. Alate output by individual colonies was correlated among years. These results suggest that a few, older colonies dominate the pool of reproductives year after year.

  4. Development and reproductive potential of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on selected wild crucifer species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yan-Qin; Sun, Yuan-Xing; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-02-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is an oligophagous insect that primarily feeds on members of the family Cruciferae. The development, survival, and reproductive potential of P. xylostella were studied on eight wild cruciferous species: Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern, Cardamine hirsuta L., Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl, Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic, Cardamine leucantha (Tausch) O. E. Schulz, Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O. E. Schulz, Thlaspi arvense L., and Cardamine macrophylla Willd. Developmental durations of immatures from egg to adult emergence differed significantly among the plant species, with the longest period recorded on C. macrophylla (20.8 d) and the shortest on R. indica (15.8 d). The female pupae of P. xylostella reared on C. leucantha and T. arvense were lighter (4.2 and 4.3 mg/pupa) than those reared on other hosts (5.2-6.5 mg/pupa), and the male pupae from T. arvense were the lightest (3.1 mg/pupa) among all colonies. Survival from egg to adult emergence ranged from 95.7% on R. indica to 48.8% on T. arvense. The longevity (10.1 d) of P. xylostella female and the oviposition period (7.7 d) were the longest when larvae fed R. indica than those that fed on other wild hosts. Female adults of P. xylostella from O. violaceus, C. macrophylla, and Ca. bursa-pastoris had higher fecundity (305-351 eggs/female) than from other wild host plants, whereas that from R. indica had the lowest fecundity (134 eggs/female). C. hirsuta was the best wild host plant for P. xylostella because of the highest intrinsic rates of increase (rm = 0.2402), whereas T. arvense was the least favorable hosts with the lowest intrinsic rates of increase (rm = 0.1577). The results from this study will be useful for interpretation of the performance and population dynamics of P. xylostella on wild hosts and cultivated cruciferous vegetables.

  5. Potential density and tree survival: an analysis based on South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, we present a tree survival analysis, based on the Weibull distribution function, for the Nelshoogte replicated CCT study, which has been observed for almost 40 years after planting and provides information about tree survival in response to planting espacements ranging from 494 to 2 965 trees per hectare.

  6. Environmental influences on kelp performance across the reproductive period: an ecological trade-off between gametophyte survival and growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohring, Margaret B; Kendrick, Gary A; Wernberg, Thomas; Rule, Michael J; Vanderklift, Mathew A

    2013-01-01

    Most kelps (order Laminariales) exhibit distinct temporal patterns in zoospore production, gametogenesis and gametophyte reproduction. Natural fluctuations in ambient environmental conditions influence the intrinsic characteristics of gametes, which define their ability to tolerate varied conditions. The aim of this work was to document seasonal patterns in reproduction and gametophyte growth and survival of Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh in south-western Australia. These results were related to patterns in local environmental conditions in an attempt to ascertain which factors explain variation throughout the season. E. radiata was fertile (produced zoospores) for three and a half months over summer and autumn. Every two weeks during this time, gametophytes were grown in a range of temperatures (16-22 °C) in the laboratory. Zoospore densities were highly variable among sample periods; however, zoospores released early in the season produced gametophytes which had greater rates of growth and survival, and these rates declined towards the end of the reproductive season. Growth rates of gametophytes were positively related to day length, with the fastest growing recruits released when the days were longest. Gametophytes consistently survived best in the lowest temperature (16 °C), yet exhibited optimum growth in higher culture temperatures (20-22 °C). These results suggest that E. radiata releases gametes when conditions are favourable for growth, and E. radiata gametophytes are tolerant of the range of temperatures observed at this location. E. radiata releases the healthiest gametophytes when day length and temperature conditions are optimal for better germination, growth, and sporophyte production, perhaps as a mechanism to help compete against other species for space and other resources.

  7. Effects of functionalized fullerenes on bifenthrin and tribufos toxicity to Daphnia magna: Survival, reproduction, and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Kathryn A; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Philip N; Maul, Jonathan D

    2010-11-01

    Incorporation of carbon nanomaterials into industrial and consumer products is increasing, yet their impact on aquatic ecosystems alone and in chemical mixtures is largely unknown. Carbon nanomaterials may be found in the aquatic environment as mixtures with pesticides because of their proposed use in agriculture as smart delivery systems and nanosensors. The interaction effects of a functionalized fullerene ([1,2-methanofullerene C₆₀]-61-carboxylic acid) (fC₆₀) at 52.8 µg/L and the hydrophobic pesticides bifenthrin and tribufos were examined. The test organism was Daphnia magna, and response variables included 48-h survival, reproduction (bifenthrin, 70-d; tribufos, 21-d), and 10-d growth. Both pesticides reduced D. magna survival and reproduction (p Fullerenes significantly increased bifenthrin acute toxicity but did not significantly affect chronic endpoints or growth (p > 0.05). Median lethal concentrations (LC50s), median inhibition concentrations (IC50s) for days surviving, and IC50s for reproduction were 0.86, 0.55, and 0.49 µg/L for bifenthrin; 0.22, 0.39, and 0.77 µg/L for fC₆₀-bifenthrin mix; 6.63, 9.89, and 5.79 µg/L for tribufos; and 9.17, 8.17, and 6.59 µg/L for fC₆₀-tribufos mix. Mixtures did not affect instantaneous growth rate (p > 0.05). These results suggest that fC₆₀ had little effect on pesticide chronic toxicity but influenced acute toxicity. Given the widespread application of nanotechnology, the influence of nanomaterials on environmental contaminants is an important consideration. Thus, our results may be useful in the development and use of nanotechnology in agricultural practices. © 2010 SETAC.

  8. Potential Developmental and Reproductive Impacts of Triclocarban: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna R. Rochester

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Triclocarban (TCC is an antimicrobial agent used in personal care products. Although frequently studied with another antimicrobial, triclosan, it is not as well researched, and there are very few reviews of the biological activity of TCC. TCC has been shown to be a possible endocrine disruptor, acting by enhancing the activity of endogenous hormones. TCC has been banned in the US for certain applications; however, many human populations, in and outside the US, exhibit exposure to TCC. Because of the concern of the health effects of TCC, we conducted a scoping review in order to map the current body of literature on the endocrine, reproductive, and developmental effects of TCC. The aim of this scoping review was to identify possible endpoints for future systematic review and to make recommendations for future research. A search of the literature until August 2017 yielded 32 relevant studies in humans, rodents, fish, invertebrates, and in vitro. Based on the robustness of the literature in all three evidence streams (human, animal, and in vitro, we identified three endpoints for possible systematic review: estrogenic activity, androgenic activity, and offspring growth. In this review, we describe the body of evidence and make recommendations for future research.

  9. Addressing potential pitfalls of reproductive life planning with patient-centered counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, Lisa S; Aiken, Abigail R A; Dehlendorf, Christine; Cason, Patty; Borrero, Sonya

    2017-02-01

    Engaging women in discussions about reproductive goals in health care settings is increasingly recognized as an important public health strategy to reduce unintended pregnancy and improve pregnancy outcomes. "Reproductive life planning" has gained visibility as a framework for these discussions, endorsed by public health and professional organizations and integrated into practice guidelines. However, women's health advocates and researchers have voiced the concern that aspects of the reproductive life planning framework may have the unintended consequence of alienating rather than empowering some women. This concern is based on evidence indicating that women may not hold clear intentions regarding pregnancy timing and may have complex feelings about achieving or avoiding pregnancy, which in turn may make defining a reproductive life plan challenging or less meaningful. We examine potential pitfalls of reproductive life planning counseling and, based on available evidence, offer suggestions for a patient-centered approach to counseling, including building open and trusting relationships with patients, asking open-ended questions, and prioritizing information delivery based on patient preferences. Research is needed to ensure that efforts to engage women in conversations about their reproductive goals are effective in both achieving public health objectives and empowering individual women to achieve the reproductive lives they desire. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Survival of egg-laying controlling neuroendocrine cells during reproductive senescence of a mollusc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, C.

    2004-01-01

    During brain aging neuronal degradation occurs. In some neurons this may result in degeneration and cell death, still other neurons may survive and maintain their basic properties. The present study deals with survival of the egg-laying controlling neuroendocrine caudodorsal cells (CDCs) during

  11. Abdominally implanted satellite transmitters affect reproduction and survival rather than migration of large shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijmeijer, J.C.E.W.; Gill, Robert E.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Kentie, Rosemarie; Gerritsen, Gerrit J.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Tijssen, David C.; Harwood, Christopher M.; Piersma, Theunis

    Satellite telemetry has become a common technique to investigate avian life-histories, but whether such tagging will affect fitness is a critical unknown. In this study, we evaluate multi-year effects of implanted transmitters on migratory timing and reproductive performance in shorebirds.

  12. Abdominally implanted satellite transmitters affect reproduction and survival rather than migration of large shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijmeijer, J.C.E.W.; Gill, R.E.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Kentie, R.; Gerritsen, G.J.; Bruinzeel, L.W.; Tijssen, D.C.; Harwood, C.M.; Piersma, T.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a common technique to investigate avian life-histories, but whether such tagging will affect fitness is a critical unknown. In this study, we evaluate multi-year effects of implanted transmitters on migratory timing and reproductive performance in shorebirds.

  13. Overwintering survival, phenology, voltinism, and reproduction among different populations of the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbrath, Lindsey R; Deloach, C Jack; Tracy, James L

    2007-12-01

    The classical biological control program for exotic saltcedars (various Tamarix species and hybrids) has involved the assessment of different populations of the leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata (Brullé) s.l. that are promising for release in areas of North America that are located south of 37 degrees N latitude. We report here the overwintering survival, phenology, and voltinism of four D. elongata populations (Tunisia, Crete, Uzbekistan, and Turpan) in eastcentral Texas. In addition, we studied their developmental and reproductive biology, which also included the previously released population from Fukang, China. Overwintering survival of the adult beetles of the Crete and Tunisia populations was 90-99 and 75%, respectively. The Uzbekistan and Turpan beetles had <31% overwintering survival. All D. elongata populations began ovipositing in late March. The Turpan beetle may produce three summer generations and ceased oviposition by September. The Crete beetle produced four summer generations plus a partial fifth generation and ceased ovipositing by mid-October. Both the Tunisia and Uzbekistan beetles produced five summer generations plus an unsuccessful partial sixth generation; oviposition extended into late November. Larval development and survival were generally similar among D. elongata populations. The Turpan and Fukang beetles had a shorter preoviposition period and produced more but smaller egg masses than the other beetle populations. However, this did not alter a female's lifetime fecundity and generally did not affect the innate capacity for increase compared with other populations. The Crete beetle seems to be the most promising for release in central Texas and points further south.

  14. Impact of Microplastic Beads and Fibers on Waterflea (Ceriodaphnia dubia) Survival, Growth, and Reproduction: Implications of Single and Mixture Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziajahromi, Shima; Kumar, Anupama; Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2017-11-03

    There is limited knowledge regarding the adverse effects of wastewater-derived microplastics, particularly fibers, on aquatic biota. In this study, we examined the acute (48 h) and chronic (8 d) effects of microplastic polyester fibers and polyethylene (PE) beads on freshwater zooplankton Ceriodaphnia dubia. We also assessed the acute response of C. dubia to a binary mixture of microplastic beads and fibers for the first time. Acute exposure to fibers and PE beads both showed a dose-dependent effect on survival. An equitoxic binary mixture of beads and fibers resulted in a toxic unit of 1.85 indicating less than additive effects. Chronic exposure to lower concentrations did not significantly affect survival of C. dubia, but a dose-dependent effect on growth and reproduction was observed. Fibers showed greater adverse effects than PE beads. While ingestion of fibers was not observed, scanning electron microscopy showed carapace and antenna deformities after exposure to fibers, with no deformities observed after exposure to PE beads. While much of the current research has focused on microplastic beads, our study shows that microplastic fibers pose a greater risk to C. dubia, with reduced reproductive output observed at concentrations within an order of magnitude of reported environmental levels.

  15. Viruses' life history: towards a mechanistic basis of a trade-off between survival and reproduction among phages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne De Paepe

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Life history theory accounts for variations in many traits involved in the reproduction and survival of living organisms, by determining the constraints leading to trade-offs among these different traits. The main life history traits of phages-viruses that infect bacteria-are the multiplication rate in the host, the survivorship of virions in the external environment, and their mode of transmission. By comparing life history traits of 16 phages infecting the bacteria Escherichia coli, we show that their mortality rate is constant with time and positively [corrected] correlated to their multiplication rate in the bacterial host. Even though these viruses do not age, this result is in line with the trade-off between survival and reproduction previously observed in numerous aging organisms. Furthermore, a multiple regression shows that the combined effects of two physical parameters, namely, the capsid thickness and the density of the packaged genome, account for 82% of the variation in the mortality rate. The correlations between life history traits and physical characteristics of virions may provide a mechanistic explanation of this trade-off. The fact that this trade-off is present in this very simple biological situation suggests that it might be a fundamental property of evolving entities produced under constraints. Moreover, such a positive correlation between mortality and multiplication reveals an underexplored trade-off in host-parasite interactions.

  16. The effects of chronic mercury exposure on the survival, reproduction, and population dynamics of Mysidopsis bahia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gentile, J.H; Gentile, S

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that M. bahia can be used as a model for evaluating the effects of chronic pollutant exposure on survival patterns, sub-lethal reprodutive responses and populatioon growth rates...

  17. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on alveolar lung macrophage survival and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Nielsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) recently emerged as an important cause of reproductive disorders and pneumonia in domestic pigs throughout the world. Acute cytocidal replication of PRRSV in alveolar lung macrophages causes the acute pneumonia; however, it remains largely....... Monitored by flow cytometric detection of intracellular PRRSV nucleocapsid protein, acute (24 h post infection) PRRSV replication did not impede the ability of alveolar macrophages to ingest fluorescently labelled Escherichia coli. At 48 h post infection, PRRSV-induced cytotoxicity (quantitated by flow...... analysis of cell size and membrane integrity) led to 40% reduction in the total number of phagocytozing cells. However, viable/uninfected macrophages in PRRSV-infected cultures exhibited normal phagocytic ability at 48 h, indicating that no soluble phagocytosis-suppressive mediators were induced by PRRSV...

  18. Linkages to Survival : : An Examination of the Reproductive and Maternal Health Continuum of Care

    OpenAIRE

    McDougal, Lotus Padma

    2014-01-01

    Background : Each year, an estimated 287,000 women and 3 million newborns in low and middle income countries die of largely preventable causes. Global organizations have adopted a continuum of care model to mitigate these deaths, in which health interventions are conceptualized as a continuous stream of services. This approach remains untested in practice, however. This research aims to explore utilization and linkages within the reproductive and maternal health continuum of care (RMH CoC), a...

  19. Effects of a freezing event during hibernation on further survival, reproduction and growth in the partially freezing tolerant land snail Helix aspersa muller (Gastropoda: helicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansart, Armelle; Vernon, Philippe; Daguzan, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Tolerance of ectothermic animals to freezing is often estimated by assessing survival a few days after the treatment. However, in the long term, ice formation in the body tissues can affect survival, as well as reproductive capability and growth. The land snail Helix aspersa survives only short durations with ice in its tissues, to a lethal limit of 40 to 60 % of its body water frozen. Adult and immature snails were treated during their winter dormancy period to a freezing event above this limit; their survival was observed both in the short and long term, as well as their ability to reproduce (adults) and grow (immature snails). Treated snails were compared with a control group, which was not frozen. No difference appeared in the survival, reproduction and growth of control and frozen snails. This study confirms partial freezing tolerance in this population of Helix aspersa.

  20. Anoxic survival potential of bivalves: (arte)facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zwaan, Albertus; Babarro, Jose M F; Monari, Marta; Cattani, Otello

    2002-03-01

    The anoxic survival time of the bivalves Chamelea gallina, Cerastoderma edule and Scapharca inaequivalvis from two different ecosystems and differing anoxia tolerances was studied in static (closed) and flow-through systems. The antibiotics chloramphenicol, penicillin and polymyxin were added, and molybdate (specific inhibitor of the process of sulfate reduction). Survival in (near) anoxic seawater of Chamelea was studied in a static system by comparing untreated seawater with autoclaved seawater and untreated clams with clams incubated in well-aerated seawater, containing the broad-spectrum antibiotic chloramphenicol, prior to the anoxic survival test. With untreated clams and natural seawater (median mortality time 2.4 days) a decrease in pH and exponential accumulation of sulfide and ammonium was observed in the anoxic medium, indicating excessive growth of (sulfate reducing) bacteria. In sterilized seawater LT50 (2.1 days) was not significantly different and again considerable amounts of ammonium and sulfide accumulated. However, pre-treatment of clams with chloramphenicol resulted in an increase of LT50 (11.0 days) by approximately fivefold. Accumulation of ammonium and sulfide was retarded, but was finally even stronger than in the medium containing untreated clams. Median mortality times were 2.5 and 2.4 days for Chamelea and 2.7 and 2.9 days for Cerastoderma for static and flow-through incubations, respectively. Addition of chloramphenicol increased strongly survival time in both systems with corresponding values of 11.0 and 16.3 days for Chamelea, and 6.4 and 6.5 days for Cerastoderma. LT50 of Scapharca in anoxic seawater was 14.4 days. Chloramphenicol and penicillin increased median survival time to 28.5 and 28.7 days, respectively, whereas polymyxin displayed no effect (LT50=13.6 days). Molybdate added to artificial sulfate free seawater blocked biotic sulfide formation, but did not improve survival time (LT50=13.7 days). Overall the results indicate

  1. Trichomonas vaginalis: pathogenicity and potential role in human reproductive failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Ewelina; Blaszkowska, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, which colonizes the genitourinary tract of men and women, is a sexually transmitted parasite causing symptomatic or asymptomatic trichomoniasis. The host-parasite relationship is very complex, and clinical symptoms cannot likely be attributed to a single pathogenic effect. Among the many factors responsible for interactions between T. vaginalis and host tissues, contact-dependent and contact-independent mechanisms are important in pathogenicity, as is the immune response. This review focuses on the potential virulence properties of T. vaginalis and its role in female and male infertility. It highlights the association between T. vaginalis infection and serious adverse health consequences experienced by women, including infertility, preterm birth and low-birth-weight infants. Long-term clinical observations and results of in vitro experimental studies indicate that in men, trichomoniasis has been also associated with infertility through inflammatory damage to the genitourinary tract or interference with sperm function. These results contribute significantly to improving our knowledge of the role of parasitic virulence factors in the development of infection and its role in human infertility.

  2. Determination of the Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms of HMX and Related Wastewater Constituents. Part 1. The Effects of Food Concentration, Animal Interactions and Water Volume on Survival Growth and Reproduction of Daphnia magna under Flow-through Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Effects of polychlorinated biphenyl’s (PCB’s) on survival and reproduction of Daphnia, Gammarus , and Tanytarsus. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 103(4) : 722-728...WASTEWATER CONSTITUENTS Ruff 1: * THE EFFECTS OF FOOD CONCENTRATION, ANIMAL INTERACTIONS AND WATER VOLUME ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF Daphnia...OF FOOD CONCENTRATION, ANIMAL INTERACTIONS AND WATER VOLUME ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF Daphnia magna UNDER FLOW-THROUGH CONDITIONS

  3. Mercury critical concentrations to Enchytraeus crypticus (Annelida: Oligochaeta) under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils - Reproduction and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Schmelz, Rüdiger M; Niva, Cintia Carla; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2017-05-01

    Soil provides many ecosystem services that are essential to maintain its quality and healthy development of the flora, fauna and human well-being. Environmental mercury levels may harm the survival and diversity of the soil fauna. In this respect, efforts have been made to establish limit values of mercury (Hg) in soils to terrestrial fauna. Soil organisms such as earthworms and enchytraeids have intimate contact with trace metals in soil by their oral and dermal routes, reflecting the potentially adverse effects of this contaminant. The main goal of this study was to obtain Hg critical concentrations under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils to Enchytraeus crypticus to order to assess if climate change may potentiate their acute and chronic toxicity effects. Tropical soils were sampled from of two Forest Conservation Units of the Rio de Janeiro State - Brazil, which has been contaminated by Hg atmospheric depositions. Worms were exposed to three moisture conditions, at 20%, 50% and 80% of water holding capacity, respectively, and in combination with different Hg (HgCl2) concentrations spiked in three types of tropical soil (two natural soils and one artificial soil). The tested concentrations ranged from 0 to 512mg Hg kg-1 dry weight. Results indicate that the Hg toxicity is higher under increased conditions of moisture, significantly affecting survival and reproduction rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Available information for estimating reproductive potential of Northwest Atlantic groundfish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Morgan, M.J.; Burnett, J.

    2003-01-01

    The availability of data to improve indices of stock reproductive potential was reviewed for 42 Northwest Atlantic groundfish stocks comprising gadoids, flatfishes, redfishes and grenadiers.For many of the stocks, information on population parameters such as stock size and size/age composition es...

  5. Research into the Conditions and Drivers of Labor Potential Reproduction in the Vologda Oblast Municipal Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andreevna Chekmareva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the reproduction of labor potential of a municipal district as a continuous renewal process of its quantitative and qualitative features, consisting of three consecutive phases: formation, distribution (including redistribution and exploitation. The research paper reveals the problems and specifics of labor potential reproduction at the municipal level on the basis of processing available statistical and sociological information on the districts of the Vologda Oblast. The materials of the territorial body of the Federal State Statistics Service in the Vologda Oblast and databases of questionnaire surveys conducted by ISEDT RAS served as an information base of the research. The analysis has allowed characterizing the modern structure of labor potential as a kind of “starter” state which largely determines future development prospects. Special attention is given to the formation, distribution and exploitation of labor potential qualitative characteristics which are assessed in the article on the basis of studies carried out by ISEDT RAS in eight municipal districts of the Vologda Oblast and the cities of Vologda and Cherepovets (sample size – 1,500 people of working age. The results of questionnaire databases’ processing with the use of a special technique help calculate physical and mental component summaries of the working age population, indices of cognitive potential, creativity, communication skills, cultural and moral levels, and the need for achievement. The study shows that the structure of labor potential and the tendencies of its reproduction in the Vologda Oblast municipal districts are extremely poor. Since 2000, working age population in half of the districts reduced by more than a quarter. There is no complete recovery and renewal of the functioning labor potential: contracted reproduction is observed. The peculiarity of labor potential reproduction in the Vologda Oblast municipal districts is a

  6. Silencing of a lipase maturation factor 2-like gene by wheat-mediated RNAi reduces the survivability and reproductive capacity of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lanjie; Hou, Qiling; Zhao, Yanjie; Lu, Lihua; Li, Baoyun; Ni, Zhongfu; Liang, Rongqi

    2017-07-01

    Lipase maturation factor (LMF) family proteins are required for the maturation and transport of active lipoprotein lipases. However, the specific roles of LMF2 remain unknown. In this study, a grain aphid lmf2-like gene fragment was cloned and was highly similar in sequence to a homologous gene in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. An RNAi vector was constructed with this fragment and used for wheat transformation. The expression of the lmf2-like gene in aphid, as well as the growth and reproduction of the aphids, was analyzed after feeding on the transgenic wheat. There were no significant differences in the expression of the lmf2-like gene over development. The expression of the lmf2-like gene was significantly reduced by 27.6% on the fifth day, and 57.6% on the 10th day after feeding. The total number of aphids produced on the transgenic plants was less than the number produced on control plants, and the difference became significant or after 2 weeks. The molting numbers were also reduced in the aphids reared on the transgenic plants. Our findings indicate that lmf2-like genes may have potential as a target gene for the control of grain aphids and show that feeding aphids with wheat expressing lmf2-like RNAi resulted in significant reductions in survival and reproduction. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Drone exposure to the systemic insecticide Fipronil indirectly impairs queen reproductive potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairo, Guillaume; Provost, Bertille; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; Ben Abdelkader, Faten; Bonnet, Marc; Cousin, Marianne; Sénéchal, Jacques; Benet, Pauline; Kretzschmar, André; Belzunces, Luc P.; Brunet, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    A species that requires sexual reproduction but cannot reproduce is doomed to extinction. The important increasing loss of species emphasizes the ecological significance of elucidating the effects of environmental stressors, such as pesticides, on reproduction. Despite its special reproductive behavior, the honey bee was selected as a relevant and integrative environmental model because of its constant and diverse exposure to many stressors due to foraging activity. The widely used insecticide Fipronil, the use of which is controversial because of its adverse effects on honey bees, was chosen to expose captive drones in hives via syrup contaminated at 0.1 μg/L and gathered by foragers. Such environmental exposure led to decreased spermatozoa concentration and sperm viability coupled with an increased sperm metabolic rate, resulting in drone fertility impairment. Subsequently, unexposed queens inseminated with such sperm exhibited fewer spermatozoa with lower viability in their spermatheca, leaving no doubt about the detrimental consequences for the reproductive potential of queens, which are key for colony sustainability. These findings suggest that pesticides could contribute to declining honey bee populations through fertility impairment, as exemplified by Fipronil. More broadly, reproductive disorders should be taken into consideration when investigating the decline of other species. PMID:27549030

  8. Drone exposure to the systemic insecticide Fipronil indirectly impairs queen reproductive potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairo, Guillaume; Provost, Bertille; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; Ben Abdelkader, Faten; Bonnet, Marc; Cousin, Marianne; Sénéchal, Jacques; Benet, Pauline; Kretzschmar, André; Belzunces, Luc P; Brunet, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-23

    A species that requires sexual reproduction but cannot reproduce is doomed to extinction. The important increasing loss of species emphasizes the ecological significance of elucidating the effects of environmental stressors, such as pesticides, on reproduction. Despite its special reproductive behavior, the honey bee was selected as a relevant and integrative environmental model because of its constant and diverse exposure to many stressors due to foraging activity. The widely used insecticide Fipronil, the use of which is controversial because of its adverse effects on honey bees, was chosen to expose captive drones in hives via syrup contaminated at 0.1 μg/L and gathered by foragers. Such environmental exposure led to decreased spermatozoa concentration and sperm viability coupled with an increased sperm metabolic rate, resulting in drone fertility impairment. Subsequently, unexposed queens inseminated with such sperm exhibited fewer spermatozoa with lower viability in their spermatheca, leaving no doubt about the detrimental consequences for the reproductive potential of queens, which are key for colony sustainability. These findings suggest that pesticides could contribute to declining honey bee populations through fertility impairment, as exemplified by Fipronil. More broadly, reproductive disorders should be taken into consideration when investigating the decline of other species.

  9. Reproductive Potentials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biosystematic uses of fern gametophytes derived from Herbarium. Specimens. American Fern Journal,. 76: 114-128. Wagner, W. Jr. 1972. Disjunctions in homosporous vascular plants. Annals. Missouri Botanical Garden,59: 203-217. Wardlaw, C.W and Sharma, D. N. 1963. Experimental and analytical studies of the.

  10. Impact of brine acidification on hatchability, survival and reproduction of Artemia parthenogenetica and Artemia franciscana in salt ponds, Bohai Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Liying; Deng, Yuangao; Wang, Jing; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Van Stappen, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    We studied the effect of pH (pH 5, 6, 7 and 8) on the hatching percentage, survival and reproduction of Artemia strains in Bohai Bay salt ponds. Strains included parthenogenetic Artemia from Bohai Bay (BHB), Artemia franciscana from San Francisco Bay, and A. franciscana artificially produced in salt ponds in Vietnam. The latter was included as a potential inoculum for biological management of salt ponds. The hatching percentage of cysts after 24 h and the survival rate of the tested Artemia strains were significantly reduced when exposed to a culture medium at pH 5 for 18 d ( PArtemia to 48 h acid exposure varied with developmental stage, increasing in the following order: juvenile, nauplii, pre-adult, with maximum tolerance in adults. All strains of Artemia tested could not reproduce at pH 5. At pH levels from pH 6-8, a higher pH generally resulted in a shorter brood interval and enhanced ovoviviparity. Hence, we suggest that brine acidification has a negative impact on Artemia populations in the Bohai Bay saltworks. Inoculation of Artemia with either local parthenogenetic Artemia or exotic A. franciscana should be feasible at pH 7-8.

  11. Reproductive Potential of Lola Snail (Trochus niloticus in Saparua Island, Central Maluku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANDY ERWIN PIER LEIMENA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Lola (Trochus niloticus is one of the largest sea snails that lives in the shallow water in Eastern Indonesia and the Pacific. In Saparua Island (Central Maluku, lola population tends to decline due to its exploitation for industrial need. The aim of this study is to determine the reproductive potential of lola snail in Saparua Island, Central Maluku. Lola snails were collected from six locations i.e Booi, Haria, Ullath, Ouw, Itawaka, and Nolloth (03.29o-03.80o LT dan 128.32o-128.43o BT. In each location a strip transect 100 x 2 m was made perpendicular to the coastline started from the lower tide level. Lola snail populations were grouped into different age classes based on the shell diameter using Bhattacharya method. The reproductive potential of lola snail was analyzed by the value of the net reproductive rate. Gonad histology analyses were made by using paraffin methods and stained by Ehrlich’s Haematoxylin-Eosin. The results showed that the net reproductive rate of lola population is 226 individuals and its generation time is 2.88 years. The histological observations showed that the oocyte consist of proliferation, early developing and mature stages.

  12. Child Survival Strategies: Assessment of Knowledge and Practice of Rural Women of Reproductive Age in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniekan Jumbo Etokidem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nigeria is one of the five countries that account for about 50% of under-five mortality in the world. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of child survival strategies among rural community caregivers in Cross River State of Nigeria. Materials and Methods. This descriptive cross-sectional survey used a pretested questionnaire to obtain information from 150 women of reproductive age. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Results. The child survival strategy known to most of the respondents was oral rehydration therapy as indicated by 98% followed by female education by 73.3% and immunization by 67.3%. Only 20% of the respondents had adequate knowledge of frequency of weighing a child while only 32.7% knew that breastfeeding should be continued even if the child had diarrhea. More respondents with nonformal education (83.3% practiced exclusive breastfeeding of their last children compared to respondents with primary education (77.3%, secondary education (74.2%, and tertiary education (72.2%. Conclusion. Although respondents demonstrated adequate knowledge and practice of most of the strategies, there was evidence of gaps, including myths and misconceptions that could mar efforts towards reducing child morbidity and mortality in the state.

  13. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  14. Congo red dye affects survival and reproduction in the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia. Effects of direct and dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zamora, Miriam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2016-12-01

    Nearly 7 00000 tons of dyes are produced annually throughout the world. Azo dyes are widely used in the textile and paper industries due to their low cost and ease of application. Their extensive use results in large volumes of wastewater being discharged into aquatic ecosystems. Large volume discharges constitute a health risk since many of these dyes, such as Congo Red, are elaborated with benzidine, a known carcinogenic compound. Information regarding dye toxicity in aquatic ecosystems is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Congo Red on survival and reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia. We determined the 48 h median lethal concentration (LC50) and evaluated the effects of sublethal concentrations in subchronic exposures by using as food either fresh algae or algae previously exposed to the dye. LC50 was 13.58 mg L(-1). In subchronic assays, survival was reduced to 80 and 55 %, and fertility to 40 and 70 %, as compared to the control, in C. dubia fed with intoxicated cells or with the mix of intoxicated + fresh algae, respectively, so the quantity and type of food had a significant effect. We determined that Congo Red is highly toxic to C. dubia since it inhibits survival and fertility in concentrations exceeding 3 mg L(-1). Our results show that this dye produces negative effects at very low concentrations. Furthermore, our findings warn of the risk associated with discharging dyes into aquatic environments. Lastly, the results emphasize the need to regulate the discharge of effluents containing azo dyes.

  15. Progression-free survival as a potential surrogate for overall survival in metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beauchemin C

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Beauchemin,1 Dan Cooper,2 Marie-Ève Lapierre,1 Louise Yelle,3 Jean Lachaine11Université de Montréal, Faculté de pharmacie, Montreal, 2Institut national d'excellence en santé et en services sociaux (INESSS, 3Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal – Hôpital Notre-Dame, Département de médecine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, CanadaBackground: Progression-free survival (PFS and time to progression (TTP are frequently used to establish the clinical efficacy of anti-cancer drugs. However, the surrogacy of PFS/TTP for overall survival (OS remains a matter of uncertainty in metastatic breast cancer (mBC. This study assessed the relationship between PFS/TTP and OS in mBC using a trial-based approach.Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review according to the PICO method: 'Population' consisted of women with mBC; 'Interventions' and 'Comparators' were standard treatments for mBC or best supportive care; 'Outcomes' of interest were median PFS/TTP and OS. We first performed a correlation analysis between median PFS/TTP and OS, and then conducted subgroup analyses to explore possible reasons for heterogeneity. Then, we assessed the relationship between the treatment effect on PFS/TTP and OS. The treatment effect on PFS/TTP and OS was quantified by the absolute difference of median values. We also conducted linear regression analysis to predict the effects of a new anti-cancer drug on OS on the basis of its effects on PFS/TTP.Results: A total of 5,041 studies were identified, and 144 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. There was a statistically significant relationship between median PFS/TTP and OS across included trials (r=0.428; P<0.01. Correlation coefficient for the treatment effect on PFS/TTP and OS was estimated at 0.427 (P<0.01. The obtained linear regression equation was ΔOS =−0.088 (95% confidence interval [CI] −1.347–1.172 + 1.753 (95% CI 1.307–2.198 × ΔPFS (R2=0.86.Conclusion: Results of

  16. Dispersal strategy of cyst nematodes (Heterodera arenaria) in the plant root zone of mobile dunes and consequences for emergence, survival and reproductive success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoel, C.D.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Root-feeding nematodes may play an important role in generating spatial and temporal variation in natural plant communities, but little is known about the performance of the nematodes in the plant root zone. We studied the emergence, survival and reproductive success of the cyst nematode Heterodera

  17. Dispersal strategy of cyst nematodes (Heterodera Arenaria) in the plant root zone of mobile dunes and consequences for emergence, survival and reproductive success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Stoel, C.D.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Root-feeding nematodes may play an important role in generating spatial and temporal variation in natural plant communities, but little is known about the performance of the nematodes in the plant root zone. We studied the emergence, survival and reproductive success of the cyst nematode Heterodera

  18. Reproductive development and survival of Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann when fed sheep dung containing ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, R J; Wardhaugh, K G; van Gerwen, A C; Whitby, W A

    1993-06-01

    When fed dung from sheep treated with ivermectin 24 h previously, Lucilia cuprina adults exhibited reduced survival, delayed ovarian development and reduced egg production. These effects were absent in dung produced 2 or more days after ivermectin treatment. Such transient toxicity is ideal to restrict the evolution of resistance to this drug. This situation may change if the current practice of oral treatment is replaced by a slow-release system of administering avermectins. The avoidance of coincidental evolution of resistance is critical to the long-term welfare of the Australian sheep industry as the avermectins represent an important, and as yet unexploited, insecticide for the treatment of flystrike caused by Lucilia cuprina.

  19. Influence of temperature on the reproductive potential of Oncholaimus oxyuris (Nematoda: Oncholaimidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heip, C.; Smol, N.; Absillis, V.

    1978-01-01

    The large nematode Oncholaimus oxyuris Ditlevsen, 1911 is a dominant predator in a shallow polyhaline brackish-water pond in Belgium. The reproductive potential of this species was calculated as the intrinsic rate of natural increase r = 1/D ln pN/sub e/, in which D is the generation time, p is the percentage of females, and N/sub e/ is the number of eggs per female. The generation time varies between 570 days at 5/sup 0/C and 101 days at 25/sup 0/C and is the main factor in the determination of r. The relationship between r and temperature is nearly linear and is given by r = 0.0013 T--0.0042. The reproductive potential O. oxyuris is much lower than would be predicted from body size; this, and the dominance of males in the population, is discussed in the light of the evolution of stable predator-prey systems.

  20. Potential therapeutic applications of human anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) analogues in reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vitaly A; Seifer, David B; Barad, David H; Sen, Aritro; Gleicher, Norbert

    2017-09-01

    Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily are key regulators of various physiological processes. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) which is also commonly known as Müllerian-inhibiting substance (MIS) is a member of the TGF-beta superfamily and an important regulator of reproductive organ differentiation and ovarian follicular development. While AMH has been used for diagnostic purposes as a biomarker for over 15 years, new potential therapeutic applications of recombinant human AMH analogues are now emerging as pharmacologic agents in reproductive medicine. Therapeutic uses of AMH in gonadal tissue may provide a unique opportunity to address a broad range of reproductive themes, like contraception, ovulation induction, onset of menopause, and fertility preservation, as well as specific disease conditions, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and cancers of the reproductive tract. This review explores the most promising therapeutic applications for a novel class of drugs known as AMH analogues with agonist and antagonist functions.

  1. Reproductive potential of male catfish treated with gel extract of Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive potential of male catfish treated with gel extract of Aloe vera plant was studied using twelve male fish weighing 500-560g.The fish were divided into 3 groups; A, B and C with four fish in each group. Group A was treated with 2% Aloe vera gel while group B was treated with 3% and Group C the control was ...

  2. The investment factor of the formation of the reproduction potential of the Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahunov Rustem Rinatovich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the main problems of economic development of the region, primarily investment, should be an important step in building a modernization strategy. A method for determining the effectiveness of investment activity at the regional level, based on the concept of reproductive potential of the region, is proposed. The authors determined that some regions with high positions in the main indicators of gross product, have a number of problems in the development of investment, in the first place, underinvestment.

  3. Surviving in isolation: genetic variation, bottlenecks and reproductive strategies in the Canarian endemic Limonium macrophyllum (Plumbaginaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Ares; Weigelt, Barbara; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Conti, Elena

    2017-02-01

    Oceanic archipelagos are typically rich in endemic taxa, because they offer ideal conditions for diversification and speciation in isolation. One of the most remarkable evolutionary radiations on the Canary Islands comprises the 16 species included in Limonium subsection Nobiles, all of which are subject to diverse threats, and legally protected. Since many of them are single-island endemics limited to one or a few populations, there exists a risk that a loss of genetic variation might limit their long-term survival. In this study, we used eight newly developed microsatellite markers to characterize the levels of genetic variation and inbreeding in L. macrophyllum, a species endemic to the North-east of Tenerife that belongs to Limonium subsection Nobiles. We detected generally low levels of genetic variation over all populations (H T = 0.363), and substantial differentiation among populations (F ST = 0.188; R ST = 0.186) coupled with a negligible degree of inbreeding (F = 0.042). Obligate outcrossing may have maintained L. macrophyllum relatively unaffected by inbreeding despite the species' limited dispersal ability and the genetic bottlenecks likely caused by a prolonged history of grazing. Although several factors still constitute a risk for the conservation of L. macrophyllum, the lack of inbreeding and the recent positive demographic trends observed in the populations of this species are factors that favour its future persistence.

  4. Development, survival and reproduction of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae with salt and amino acids solutions supplementary diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Patrícia Carneiro Freitas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of a supplementary diet with amino acids and sodium chloride solutions in addition to prey on the development, survival and reproduction of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae. Both solutions showed deleterious effects on nymph survival, adult weight, female longevity, number of egg masses, eggs per female, eggs per egg mass and nymphs per female besides egg viability of P. nigrispinus when compared with diet with water and prey. When compared with plant supplements in the diet the use of amino acids and salt solutions for mass rearing of P. nigrispinus was inferior.O presente estudo mostra o efeito da suplementação alimentar com soluções de aminoácidos e salina (NaCl no desenvolvimento, sobrevivência e reprodução de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. Ambas soluções causaram efeito deletério na sobrevivência ninfal, peso dos adultos, longevidade das fêmeas e nos números de posturas, de ovos/fêmea, de ovos/postura e de ninfas, bem como na viabilidade dos ovos de P. nigrispinus quando comparado com estes insetos que além de presa receberam água. Estes resultados são discutidos em comparação com o efeito positivo que a suplementação alimentar com plantas tem sido relatada para esses predadores e sugerem que o uso de plantas é melhor que a substituição por solução de aminoácidos em sistemas de criação em laboratório desses predadores.

  5. Field-Cage Evaluation of Survival, Reproduction, and Feeding Behavior of Adult Scymnus coniferarum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a Predator of Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, M N; McAvoy, T J; Brewster, C C; Salom, S M

    2016-12-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, is an invasive pest of eastern (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelmann) forests in the eastern United States. Scymnus (Pullus) coniferarum Crotch (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a lady beetle that preys on A. tsugae in the western United States, where A. tsugae infestations on western hemlocks are not lethal. It is thought that S. coniferarum could be an important predator that helps keep A. tsugae populations from reaching damaging levels in this region. This study assesses the potential of this predator as a biological control agent for A. tsugae in the eastern United States. S. coniferarum predation, reproductive potential, and survival were evaluated in field-cages on adelgid-infested T. canadensis at two sites in southwestern Virginia. Sampling was conducted between December 2012 and June 2014 to evaluate the impact of S. coniferarum on both generations of A. tsuage (sistens and progrediens). Adult S. coniferarum fed on both generations and all life stages of A. tsugae during both field trials at rates comparable to other adelgid-specific predators. Evidence of S. coniferarum oviposition was minimal, and may be attributed to low temperatures and prey availability. S. coniferarum mortality was greatest when exposed to winter temperatures at the higher elevation site in 2013, and least throughout the 2014 spring sample period. S. coniferarum demonstrated a high predation rate on A. tsugae and survived for extended periods of time at sites in southwest Virginia, indicating that this species could be an effective predator of hemlock woolly adelgid in similar climates. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Evaluation of the teratogenic potential and reproductive toxicity of coal-derived naphtha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, R H; Hinz, J P; Traul, K A

    1986-06-15

    Liquids which are derived from coal liquefaction processes and boil above approximately 250 degrees C have induced terata in rats. However, few studies have addressed the teratogenic potential of coal liquids which boil below 250 degrees C. The present studies evaluated the reproductive and teratogenic potential of EDS hydrotreated naphtha, a refined coal liquid boiling below 177 degrees C. These studies were conducted by inhalation exposures with Sprague-Dawley rats at target vapor concentrations of 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/m3. The first study assessed teratogenesis. There was no evidence that inhalation exposures for 6 hr per day between Days 6 and 19 of gestation induced maternal toxicity, fetal toxicity, or malformation. In a second study, rats were exposed for 6 hr per day, 5 days per week for 13 weeks, and then mated to assess reproductive toxicity. There was little evidence that inhalation exposure to EDS hydrotreated naphtha adversely affected reproductive performance or fetal development in Sprague-Dawley rats. A low incidence of malformations was observed in treated groups, but these malformations were probably not treatment related.

  7. Spectroscopic analysis of embryo culture media for predicting reproductive potential in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baştu, Ercan; Parlatan, Uğur; Başar, Günay; Yumru, Harika; Bavili, Nima; Sağ, Fatih; Bulgurcuoğlu, Sibel; Buyru, Faruk

    2017-09-01

    To predict the reproductive potential of embryos via Raman spectroscopy evaluation of the spent culture media as well as with a conventional morphologic evaluation. Women of reproductive age (n=31) who were treated for unexplained infertility and scheduled for single embryo transfer were invited to participate in this prospective study. After the embryos were removed from the culture, the spent culture media were stored at -80 °C after snap-freezing in liquid nitrogen. Fifteen patients were clinically pregnant, and 16 patients were clinically non-pregnant. Clinical pregnancy was predicted using Raman spectroscopy in 93% (14/15) of clinically pregnant patients, and in 62.5% (10 out of 16) of clinically non-pregnant patients. The sensitivity of the Raman spectroscopic analysis was 93% and the specificity was 62.5%. Metabolomic evaluation of spent embryo culture media is an emerging technique with promising objective results. However, there is clearly room for improvement.

  8. A potential mate influences reproductive development in female, but not male, pine siskins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Heather E.; Edley, Bruce; Hahn, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    The role of photoperiod in avian reproductive timing has been well studied, and we are increasingly recognizing the roles of other environmental cues such as social cues. However, few studies have evaluated the extent to which males and females of the same species respond similarly to the same type of cue. Moreover, previous studies have rarely examined how variation in the quality or nature of a given social cue might modulate its effect. Here, we examine the sensitivity of male and female pine siskins (Spinus pinus) to a potential mate as a stimulatory cue for gonadal recrudescence, and we investigate whether variation in the relationship between a bird and its potential mate modulates the effect of that potential mate. Birds were initially housed without opposite sex birds on a 12L:12D photoperiod with ad libitum food. After gonadal recrudescence had begun males and females were randomly paired with an opposite sex bird or housed alone. An additional group of males was paired with estradiol-implanted females. In males, these social treatments had no effect on testis length, cloacal protuberance length, luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, or testosterone levels. In females, presence of a potential mate had a significant and positive effect on ovary score, defeathering of the brood patch, and LH levels. Among paired birds, the degree of affiliation within a pair corresponded to the extent of reproductive development in females, but not males. Thus, reproductive timing in females appears to be sensitive to both the presence of a potential mate and her relationship with him. PMID:26836771

  9. Development, Reproduction, Survival, and Demographic Patterns of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on Different Commercial Tomato Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krechemer, F S; Foerster, L A

    2017-12-01

    The increase in the production of tomato, Solanum lycopersicon Mill. (Solanaceae), has favored the proliferation of pests, especially Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). In this study, the development, reproduction, survival, and demographic parameters of T. absoluta reared on six commercial tomato cultivars (Cherry, Cordilheira, Giuliana, Nemoneta, Paron, and Santa Clara) were evaluated. Tuta absoluta completed its development in all tomato cultivars. Development from newly hatched caterpillar to newly emerged adult varied between 24.8 and 28.2 days. Female fecundity ranged from 126.3 to 166.9 eggs, with fertility from 54.2 to 84.1%. Mortality during egg-adult development varied between 21.4 and 46.4% for insects reared on cultivars Cherry and Giuliana, respectively. The cultivars Cordilheira, Giuliana, and Santa Clara are promising options to tomato producers in order to decrease the attack and proliferation of T. absoluta. However, the development and population growth of T. absoluta is faster on the tomato cultivar Cherry.

  10. Survival, reproduction, and arsenic body burdens in Chironomus riparius exposed to arsenate and phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogren, Christina L., E-mail: christina.mogren@email.ucr.edu [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Kiparski, Guntram R. von; Parker, David R. [Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Trumble, John T. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Despite the increasing awareness of arsenic (As) contamination in surface waters worldwide, little is known about how As alone and in the presence of other chemicals affects aquatic insects. Larvae of Chironomus riparius were exposed in a laboratory investigation to factorial combinations of 0, 0.13, 2.0, 5.3, and 13 {mu}mol As l{sup -1} and 0, 0.15, and 15 {mu}mol PO{sub 4} l{sup -1} throughout development from first instar to pupal emergence. The time between male and female emergence increased from 1.8 {+-} 0.17 days to 2.9 {+-} 0.34 days with exposure at higher As levels. The highest As exposure also decreased the number of eggs per egg mass, which may affect population maintenance. For these parameters, there was no effect from PO{sub 4}, and no interaction between As and PO{sub 4}. Total As determination of larval and adult tissues was conducted using Hydride Generated Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (HGAAS) and revealed concentrations ranging from 2.48 {+-} 0.363 to 30.5 {+-} 0.473 {mu}g/g and 1.03 {+-} 0.286 to 8.97 {+-} 0.662 {mu}g/g, respectively, indicating elimination of approximately 72% of total As body burdens between the fourth instar and adult stages. There was no effect of PO{sub 4}, indicating PO{sub 4} does not alter uptake of As in C. riparius. The potential for movement of As to terrestrial systems exists, though trophic transfer may be more likely during the aquatic larval stage. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate how sublethal concentrations of As and P affect C. riparius. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High As exposure significantly increased the time between male and female emergence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High As exposure significantly decreased the number of eggs per egg mass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fourth instar larvae eliminate 72% of As body burdens before the adult stage.

  11. On the relationship between reproduction, age and survival in two carbid beetles: : Calathus melanocephalus L. and Pterostichus coerulescens L. (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Th S

    1979-01-01

    In this study the inverse relationship between the amount of reproduction in female carabid beetles and their survival until the next breeding season, suggested by Murdoch (1966), was examined in Pterostichus coerulescens L. and Calathus melanocephalus L. This was tested with individual and differently reproducing females, kept at the same temperature, as well as with groups of females kept at different temperatures, i.e. with very different overall levels of reproduction.No relationship was found between the numbers of eggs laid by individual females and their survival until the next breeding season.The numbers of eggs laid by individual females varies greatly, even under constant and optimal conditions,. In contrast to this, an individual female continues to lay a characteristic number of eggs over several succeeding weeks. The amount of reproduction is highly correlated with temperature when food is optimal. In P. coerulescens there was a positive correlation between the amount of reproduction of the same individuals in two succeeding years, whereas in C. melanocephalus no relationship could be found.Both in the field and in our experiments individuals of P. coerulescens generally live for 3 to 4 years, longer than C. melanocephalus which usually only lives for 2 years. The 3-4 year-old individuals of P. coerulescens die during the breeding season or shortly afterwards, but also during the winter, whereas the 2-3 year-old individuals of C. melanocephalus die during the winter. Males and females show a similar mortality after breeding. The level of reproduction of a population depends on the proportion of old beetles, since especially the very old ones die before the end of the breeding season.We reject the hypothesis of Murdoch because of these data. However, in a different way from that of Murdoch, we also suggest that old beetles are of great importance for the survival of a population, namely that this form of heterogeneity of a population may enhance its

  12. Effect of intensification in environments with zero-water exchange on the reproductive potential of Cherax quadricarinatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monge-Quevedo Armando

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive parameters (number of eggs, fertility index, survival of juveniles and the biochemical composition (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids of Cherax quadricarinatus broodstock were examined in specimens with weights ranging from: (i 30-45; (ii 46-60; (iii 61-75g; (iv 76-90 g, in an intensive system (4 organisms/m2 with zero-water exchange (maintained at 28+1°C and aerated continuously. Better reproductive efficiency was observed in specimens with smaller weights. This effect was also reflected in the biochemical parameters of the eggs and juveniles. The use of broodstock whose weight ranges between 45 and 60g is recommended.

  13. Geographic Variation of Photoperiodic Diapause but Not Adult Survival or Reproduction of the Invasive Mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisnham, P T; Towler, L; Juliano, S A

    2011-11-01

    Climate differences across latitude can result in seasonal constraints and selection on life-history characters. Because Aedes albopictus (Skuse) invaded North America in the mid-1980s, it has spread across a range of ≈14° latitude and populations in the north experience complete adult mortality because of cold winter temperatures that are absent in the south. Life-table experiments were conducted to test for differences in the adult survival and reproductive schedules of Ae. albopictus females from three populations from the northern (Salem, NJ; Springfield, IL; Eureka, MO; ≈39° N) and southern (Palm Beach, Palmetto, Tampa, FL; ≈27-28° N) extremes of the species distribution in North America. There were consistent differences between northern and southern populations in incidence of photoperiodically-induced egg diapause. Under short daylength, diapause eggs constituted twice the proportion of total viable eggs from northern females (81.9-92.1%) than southern females (35.9-42.7%). There were no consistent differences between northern and southern populations in resource allocation between reproduction and maintenance, reproduction over time, and reproductive investment among offspring, and no apparent trade-offs between diapause incidence with reproduction or longevity. Our results suggest that the main response of North American Ae. albopictus to unfavorable winter climates is via the life history strategy of producing diapausing eggs, rather than quantitative variation in reproduction, and that there are no detectable costs to adult survival. Inherent geographic variation in the expression of diapause, consistent with the latitudinal extremes of A. albopictus, indicates evolutionary loss of diapause response in southern populations because of the invasion of A. albopictus in North America.

  14. Potential of human twin embryos generated by embryo splitting in assisted reproduction and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Laila; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub; Ilic, Dusko

    2017-03-01

    Embryo splitting or twinning has been widely used in veterinary medicine over 20 years to generate monozygotic twins with desirable genetic characteristics. The first human embryo splitting, reported in 1993, triggered fierce ethical debate on human embryo cloning. Since Dolly the sheep was born in 1997, the international community has acknowledged the complexity of the moral arguments related to this research and has expressed concerns about the potential for reproductive cloning in humans. A number of countries have formulated bans either through laws, decrees or official statements. However, in general, these laws specifically define cloning as an embryo that is generated via nuclear transfer (NT) and do not mention embryo splitting. Only the UK includes under cloning both embryo splitting and NT in the same legislation. On the contrary, the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine does not have a major ethical objection to transferring two or more artificially created embryos with the same genome with the aim of producing a single pregnancy, stating that 'since embryo splitting has the potential to improve the efficacy of IVF treatments for infertility, research to investigate the technique is ethically acceptable'. Embryo splitting has been introduced successfully to the veterinary medicine several decades ago and today is a part of standard practice. We present here an overview of embryo splitting experiments in humans and non-human primates and discuss the potential of this technology in assisted reproduction and research. A comprehensive literature search was carried out using PUBMED and Google Scholar databases to identify studies on embryo splitting in humans and non-human primates. 'Embryo splitting' and 'embryo twinning' were used as the keywords, alone or in combination with other search phrases relevant to the topics of biology of preimplantation embryos. A very limited number of studies have been conducted in humans and non

  15. Review: MicroRNAs in assisted reproduction and their potential role in IVF failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siristatidis, Charalampos; Vogiatzi, Paraskevi; Brachnis, Nikos; Liassidou, Aspasia; Iliodromiti, Zoe; Bettocchi, Stefano; Chrelias, Charalampos

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression stability. In the endometrium, miRNAs are involved in the dynamic changes associated with the menstrual cycle, implicated in implantation and in reproductive disorders. We performed a review in an attempt to assess the potential biological pathways linking altered miRNAs profiles with in vitro fertilisation (IVF) failure. Crucially, as miRNAs appear to have a significant role in the course of reproduction, they are excellent research candidates with the potential to enable a better understanding over the underlying molecular activities that prevent implantation and further progression of the embryo. Further steps include in-depth pathway mapping of the implantation process and the characterization of the respective miRNAs and associated links. The efficiency of any intervention should determine whether miRNA profiling could possibly be adopted in routine practice to substantially improve the diagnostic accuracy and, in parallel, the directed treatment of the next-generation IVF. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Reproductive potential of a vole pest (Arvicola scherman in Spanish apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Somoano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fossorial water voles, Arvicola scherman, feed on tree roots causing important damages in European apple orchards. Since the intensity of crop damage produced by rodents ultimately depends on their inherent capacity to increase their population, the main goal of this study was to determine the reproductive potential of the subspecies A. scherman cantabriae in apple orchards from Asturias (NW Spain, where voles breed over the whole year. Our results were compared with those reported for the subspecies A. scherman monticola from the Spanish Pyrenees (where reproduction ceases in winter. Sexual characteristics, body condition, relative age class and number of embryos were recorded from 422 females caught in apple orchards along two years. We found pregnant females all along the year, which were able to produce a high number of litters per year (7.30 although litter size was relatively moderate (first year: 3.87 embryos/female; second year: 3.63 embryos/females. The potential number of pups per female and year (first year: 28.25; second year: 26.50 was substantially higher than that reported for Pyrenean voles, what is probably related with differences in the length of the breeding season and in life histories between subspecies. In our population, the number of implanted embryos correlated positively with the body condition of the mother. Our results reveal that management efforts should not be seasonal as they used to be so far and invite to explore the physiological consequences of management practices.

  17. Reproductive potential of a vole pest (Arvicola scherman) in Spanish apple orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somoano, A.; Miñarro, M.; Ventura, J.

    2016-07-01

    Fossorial water voles, Arvicola scherman, feed on tree roots causing important damages in European apple orchards. Since the intensity of crop damage produced by rodents ultimately depends on their inherent capacity to increase their population, the main goal of this study was to determine the reproductive potential of the subspecies A. scherman cantabriae in apple orchards from Asturias (NW Spain), where voles breed over the whole year. Our results were compared with those reported for the subspecies A. scherman monticola from the Spanish Pyrenees (where reproduction ceases in winter). Sexual characteristics, body condition, relative age class and number of embryos were recorded from 422 females caught in apple orchards along two years. We found pregnant females all along the year, which were able to produce a high number of litters per year (7.30) although litter size was relatively moderate (first year: 3.87 embryos/female; second year: 3.63 embryos/females). The potential number of pups per female and year (first year: 28.25; second year: 26.50) was substantially higher than that reported for Pyrenean voles, what is probably related with differences in the length of the breeding season and in life histories between subspecies. In our population, the number of implanted embryos correlated positively with the body condition of the mother. Our results reveal that management efforts should not be seasonal as they used to be so far and invite to explore the physiological consequences of management practices.

  18. Biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera dolichos (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora G. Montezano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera dolichos (Fabricius, 1794 were evaluated under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photophase. The longevity, pre-, post- and oviposition periods, fecundity, and fertility of 25 couples were evaluated. The longevity of females (12.9 days was not significantly different than that of males (12.4 days. The mean durations of the pre-, post- and oviposition periods were 3.0, 0.4 and 10.4 days, respectively. The mean fecundity was 4,086.0 eggs per female and mean fertility was 3,557.8 larvae per female. On average, a female copulated 1.4 times. The biotic potential of S. dolichos was estimated at 7.138 x 1018 individuals/female/year. The net reproductive rate (Ro was 1,711.98 times per generation and the mean generation time (T was 56.19 days. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm was 0.133, with a finite rate of increase (l of 1.142 per day. These results are compared with other species from Spodoptera and their relevance for management strategies of S. dolichos.

  19. Safety of conventional systemic therapies for psoriasis on reproductive potential and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Zenas Z N; Warren, Richard B; Mrowietz, Ulrich; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2015-01-01

    The effects of conventional systemic therapies for psoriasis on pregnancy outcomes, lactation, male fertility and mutagenicity are common concerns in the clinical setting. There is relatively little evidence to guide clinician and patient. In this study, we review the safety profile of the commonly used conventional systemic therapies used for psoriasis in individuals of reproductive potential. Safety data are derived from large-scale registries, adverse-event reporting databases, clinical trials and case reports. We assess the effect of each therapy on adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital malformations, and lactation with maternal administration. We also assess the effect of the therapies on male fertility and potential mutagenicity with paternal administration. We provide applicable guidance to inform clinician and patient before and after conception.

  20. The effects of Copper and Zinc on survival, growth and reproduction of the cladoceran Daphnia longispina: introducing new data in an "old" issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Celso; Jesus, Fátima T; Nogueira, António J A

    2017-11-01

    Metal contamination is still a major environmental issue due to their continuous deposition and persistence. In this work we intended to assess the impact that Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) exert in life-history parameters of Daphnia longispina, a common cladoceran in freshwater environments. Thus, we studied the effects of Cu (20-300 µg/L) and Zn (500-4000 µg/L) on the survival, growth, reproduction, feeding rate and population growth rate of D. longispina. Though survival was only reduced for the highest concentration of each metal, other endpoints were strongly affected by lower concentrations. Growth was affected by both metals, especially in the period 0-7 d, being significant for Cu ≥ 40 µg/L and Zn ≥ 500 µg/L. Indeed, growth endpoints at day 7 (body length and growth rate) were equally or more sensitive than the corresponding endpoints at day 21. The size at first reproduction decreased (significant for Cu ≥ 40 µg/L and Zn ≥ 500 µg/L). Reproduction decreased, which was partially explained by the reduced growth, but additional effects were supported by a direct effect of metals on reproduction (based on the relationship body length-brood size). Reduced growth and reproduction are likely a food mediated effect due to feeding inhibition caused by the metals. Globally, the studied endpoints were affected by Cu and Zn differently, supporting a chemical-specificity of the effects, with Zn causing more pronounced effects than Cu. This work presents an innovative approach to the effects of Cu and Zn to D. longispina, giving a general and comprehensive overview of those effects.

  1. Induced pluripotent stem cell potential in medicine, specifically focused on reproductive medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Joséphine Françoise Louise Wyns

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2006, several laboratories have proved that somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC. iPSCs have enormous potential in stem cell biology as they can give rise to numerous cell lineages, including the three germ layers. In this review, we discuss past and recent advances in human iPSCs used for modeling diseases in vitro, screening drugs to test new treatments, and autologous cell and tissue regenerative therapies, with a special focus on reproductive medicine applications. While this latter field of research is still in its stage of infancy, it holds great promise for investigating germ cell development and studying the genetic and physiopathological mechanisms of infertility. A major cause of infertility is the absence of germ cells in the testes, mainly due to genetic background or as a consequence of gonadotoxic treatments. For these patients, no effective fertility restoration strategy has so far been identified. The derivation of germ cells from iPSCs represents an alternative source of stem cells able to differentiate into spermatozoa. Lessons learned from animal models as well as studies on human iPSCs for reproductive purposes are reviewed.

  2. Optical properties of functional composite silver nanoparticles and their potential use in reproductive medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrvatka, Vasyl J.; Slyvchuk, Yurij I.; Rozgoni, Ivan I.; Gevkan, Ivan I.; Bilyy, Oleksandr I.

    2013-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles are promising product of nanotechnology with attractive physicochemical and biological properties. The main aim of the study was to investigate optical properties of functional silver nanoparticles with different composite agents: polyvinylpyrrolidone, bovine serum albumin, hyaluronan and to explore their potential using in reproductive medicine. The date obtained in the study showed that surface modification of nanoparticles leads to change of their optical, physicochemical and biological properties. The optical properties of silver nanoparticles display, that AgNPs with PVP and BSA is most stable in PBS than AgNPs with HA. However the absorption curves after 120 hours of storage show, that AgNPs-HA were the most stable in ethanol. Results show, that silver nanoparticles did not effect on sperm viability and motility, but cause a changes of some biochemical parameters of conditioned medium, particular increase the concentration of triglycerides, activity of alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and decrease the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase after 3 h of in vitro cultivation at 37°C. According to our latest data AgNPs with HA have a less toxic effect on biological processes in rabbits sperm compared with AgNPs with PVP and BSA. Nevertheless all functional composites of silver nanoparticles at the concentration of 0.1 μg/mL have no toxic effect on spermatozoa and can be successfully applied in reproductive medicine at low concentrations as signal enhancers, optical sensors, and biomarkers.

  3. Reproductive potential of silver European eels (Anguilla anguilla migrating from Vistonis Lake (Northern Aegean Sea, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MACNAMARA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European eel (Anguilla anguilla, once abundant throughout much of Europe and North Africa, has recently been classified as critically endangered. Information on its biology from the eastern Mediterranean is lacking, especially in relation to spawner quality. Therefore, silver eels were sampled during their seaward spawning migration from Vistonis Lake in Greece. Characteristics linked to reproductive output and success (i.e. body size and condition, sex ratio, silvering, Anguillicola crassus infection, fecundity and oocyte diameter were examined. The lake produced large (687–1138 mm, exclusively female silver eels, 61.7% of which were infected by A. crassus. Silver eel fecundity, the first estimates from the southern part of the species range, was positively related to body length (R2 = 0.693; P < 0.001 and body weight (R2 = 0.731; P < 0.001. Fecundity did not differ between A. crassus infected and uninfected silver eels, but Greek silver eels were significantly more fecund than those in north-west Europe. The reproductive potential of Vistonis Lake silver eels and their contribution to the A. anguilla spawning stock is discussed.

  4. Effects of NaCl and seawater induced salinity on survival and reproduction of three soil invertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, C S; Lopes, I; Sousa, J P; Chelinho, S

    2015-09-01

    The increase of global mean temperature is raising serious concerns worldwide due to its potential negative effects such as droughts and melting of glaciers and ice caps leading to sea level rise. Expected impacts on soil compartment include floodings, seawater intrusions and use of saltwater for irrigation, with unknown effects on soil ecosystems and their inhabitants. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of salinisation on soil ecosystems due to sea level rise. The reproduction and mortality of three standard soil invertebrate species (Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus crypticus, Hypoaspis aculeifer) in standard artificial OECD soil spiked with serial dilutions of seawater/gradient of NaCl were evaluated according to standard guidelines. An increased sensitivity was observed in the following order: H. aculeifer≪E. crypticus≈F. candida consistent with the different exposure pathways: springtails and enchytraeids are exposed by ingestion and contact while mites are mainly exposed by ingestion due to a continuous and thick exoskeleton. Although small differences were observed in the calculated effect electrical conductivity values, seawater and NaCl induced the same overall effects (with a difference in the enchytraeid tests where a higher sensitivity was found in relation to NaCl). The adverse effects described in the present study are observed on soils not considered saline. Therefore, the actual limit to define saline soils (4000 μS cm(-1)) does not reflect the existing knowledge when considering soil fauna. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. NTP-CERHR monograph on the potential human reproductive and developmental effects of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Michael D

    2008-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for bisphenol A to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. The CERHR Expert Panel on Bisphenol A completed its evaluation in August 2007. CERHR selected bisphenol A for evaluation because of the: widespread human exposure; public concern for possible health effects from human exposures; high production volume; evidence of reproductive and developmental toxicity in laboratory animal studies Bisphenol A (CAS RN: 80-05-7) is a high production volume chemical used primarily in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Polycarbonate plastics are used in some food and drink containers; the resins are used as lacquers to coat metal products such as food cans, bottle tops, and water supply pipes. To a lesser extent bisphenol A is used in the production of polyester resins, polysulfone resins, polyacrylate resins, and flame retardants. In addition, bisphenol A is used in the processing of polyvinyl chloride plastic and in the recycling of thermal paper. Some polymers used in dental sealants and tooth coatings contain bisphenol A. The primary source of exposure to bisphenol A for most people is assumed to occur through the diet. While air, dust, and water (including skin contact during bathing and swimming) are other possible sources of exposure, bisphenol A in food and beverages accounts for the majority of daily human exposure. The highest estimated daily intakes of bisphenol A in the general population occur in infants and children. The results of this bisphenol A evaluation are published in an NTP-CERHR Monograph that includes the (1) NTP Brief and (2) Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Bisphenol A. Additional information related to the evaluation process, including the peer review report for the NTP Brief and public comments received on the draft NTP

  6. Can the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS) be used to accurately report clinic total reproductive potential (TRP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Judy E; Hickman, Timothy N; Kinzer, Donna; Penzias, Alan S; Ball, G David; Gibbons, William E

    2012-04-01

    To assess whether total reproductive potential (TRP), the chance of a live birth from each fresh cycle (fresh cycle plus frozen transfers), could be calculated from the national Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS) database and whether information not available in SART CORS resulted in significant changes to the TRP calculation. Retrospective study using SART CORS and clinic data. Three assisted reproductive technology clinics. Women undergoing ART. None. Two- and three-year TRPs for 2005 and 2006 were calculated according to patient age at cycle start by linking fresh to frozen cycles up to first live birth. Clinic records were used to adjust for (remove) frozen cycles that used more than one fresh cycle as a source of embryos and for any embryos donated to other patients or research or shipped to another facility before a live birth. TRP was higher than fresh per-cycle rates for most ages at all clinics, although accuracy was compromised when there were fewer than 20 cycles per category. Two- and 3-year TRPs differed in only 2 of 24 calculations. Adjusted TRPs differed less than three percentage points from unadjusted TRPs when volume was sufficient. Clinic TRP can be calculated from SART CORS. Data suggest that calculations of clinic TRP from the national dataset would be meaningful. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Celiac disease and reproductive disorders: meta-analysis of epidemiologic associations and potential pathogenic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tersigni, Chiara; Castellani, Roberta; de Waure, Chiara; Fattorossi, Andrea; De Spirito, Marco; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Scambia, Giovanni; Di Simone, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    An increased risk of reproductive failures in women with celiac disease (CD) has been shown by several studies but a comprehensive evaluation of this risk is lacking. Furthermore, the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for obstetric complications occurring in CD have not been unraveled. To better define the risk of CD in patients with reproductive disorders as well as the risk in known CD patients of developing obstetric complications, we performed an extensive literature search of Medline and Embase databases. Odds ratio (OR) and relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used in order to combine data from case-control and cohort studies, respectively. All data were analyzed using Review Manager software. In addition, we summarized and discussed the current hypotheses of pathogenic mechanisms potentially responsible for obstetric complications occurring in CD. Patients with unexplained infertility, recurrent miscarriage or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were found to have a significantly higher risk of CD than the general population. The OR for CD was 5.06 (95% CI 2.13-11.35) in patients with unexplained infertility, 5.82 (95% CI 2.30-14.74) in women experiencing recurrent miscarriage and 8.73 (95% CI 3.23-23.58) in patients with IUGR. We did not observe an increased risk of CD in women delivering small-for-gestational age or preterm babies. Furthermore, we found that in celiac patients, the risk of miscarriage, IUGR, low birthweight (LBW) and preterm delivery is significantly higher with an RR of 1.39 (95% CI 1.15-1.67), 1.54 (95% CI 1.22-1.95), 1.75 (95% CI 1.23-2.49) and 1.37 (95% CI 1.19-1.57), respectively. In addition, we observed that the risk for IUGR, LBW and preterm delivery was significantly higher in untreated patients than in treated patients. No increased risk of recurrent miscarriage, unexplained stillbirth or pre-eclampsia was found in celiac patients. In vitro studies have provided two main pathogenic models of placental

  8. Parthenogenetic reproduction of Diaphanosoma celebensis (Crustacea: Cladocera): influence of salinity on feeding, survival, growth and neonate production

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Shrivastava, Y.; Mahambre, G.G.; Goswami, S.C.; Madhupratap, M.

    to 30 psu. Salinity variations also affected the size and age of primiparous females. Resting egg formation and sexual reproduction did not occur at the tested salinities. The results indicate that D. celebensis is adapted to low saline, estuarine...

  9. Survival of Dermatophilus congolensis in tropical clay soils submitted to different water potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D; Prior, P

    1991-10-01

    The survival of a rifampicin-resistant mutant of Dermatophilus congolensis in vertisol and oxisol soils from Guadeloupe and in their constitutive clays was studied using a pneumatic device for controlling water potentials (pF). Experiments were carried out at two pF values simulating the wet season and the dry season. Survival time depended on the type of soil and its water content. Organic matter had a protective effect on the microorganism in oxisol but not in vertisol. The pathogenicity of D. congolensis was preserved in the soils which could therefore act as temporary reservoirs of this pathogen. Long-term survival of this organism in soils mixed with water suggests that ponds and dipping tanks may constitute sources of infection for cattle.

  10. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA: Effects on reproduction, kit growth, and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, S.J.; Sharma, C.; Aulerich, R.J.; Yamini, B.; Mitchell, R.R.; Orazio, C.E.; Moore, D.R.J.; Svirsky, S.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of feeding farm-raised mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the Housatonic River (HR; Berkshire County, MA, USA) on adult reproductive performance and kit growth and survival. Diets contained 0.22-3.54% HR fish, providing 0.34-3.7 ??g total PCBs (TPCB)/g feed wet wt (3.5-68.5 pg toxic equivalence [TEQ]/g). Female mink were fed diets before breeding through weaning of kits. Twelve kits from each treatment were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 180 d. Dietary PCBs had no effect on the number of offspring produced, gestation period, or other measures of adult reproductive performance. Mink kits exposed to 3.7 ??g TPCB/g feed (68.5 pg TEQ/g) in utero and during lactation had reduced survivability between three and six weeks of age. The lethal concentrations to 10 and 20% of the population (LC10 and LC20, respectively) were estimated to be 0.231 and 0.984 ??g TPCB/g feed, respectively. Because inclusion of PCB-contaminated fish that composed approximately 1% of the diet would reduce mink kit survival by 20% or more, it is likely that consumption of up to 30-fold that quantity of HR fish, as could be expected for wild mink, would have an adverse effect on wild mink populations. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  11. Localization of transient receptor potential ion channels in primary and motile cilia of the female murine reproductive organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Stefan C.; Byskov, Anne Grete; Pedersen, Per Amstrup

    2005-01-01

    We have examined the subcellular localization of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels and the potential sensory role of cilia in murine female reproductive organs using confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis on ovary and oviduct tissue sections as well as on primary cultures...... intensity in proximal invaginations of the epithelial folds. These observations are the first to demonstrate ciliary localization of TRP ion channels and their possible receptor function in the female reproductive organs. We suggest that polycystins 1 and 2 play an important role in granulosa cell...

  12. Reproductive potential of the lithodids Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa (Anomura, Decapoda in the Beagle Channel, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Lovrich

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithodidae is the only group of reptant decapods that occurs in Antarctic waters and has been particularly abundant in the Beagle Channel, Straits of Magellan and south to 50º S. Because of their abundance in coastal waters, the sympatric Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa have constituted a mixed fishery since the 1930s. The two species differ markedly in their reproductive potential. Lithodes santolla is large (maximum size of 190 mm carapace length, CL, and 8 kg weight, has a generation time of 6 yrs., the reproductive cycle is annual and females carry between 5,000-60,000 eggs per female per clutch. In their life span, L. santolla females produce 6 times more eggs than P. granulosa females. Paralomis granulosa is smaller than its relative (maximum 115 mm CL and 1.5 kg weight, and has a slower growth rate, resulting in a generation time of 12 yrs. The reproductive cycle is biennial and females carry between 800-10,000 eggs per female per clutch. Moreover, the reproductive potential of P. granulosa is reduced because an important proportion of the largest and more prolific females of the population do not carry eggs. In other terms, in one generation time of P. granulosa, two complete generations of L. santolla are produced, and compared to other Subantarctic lithodids L. santolla is the most prolific species. The higher reproductive potential of L. santolla probably confers to this species the ability to recover more rapidly from an overfishing situation.

  13. Genome structure and reproductive behaviour influence the evolutionary potential of a fungal phytopathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Daverdin

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture favours the selection and spread of novel plant diseases. Furthermore, crop genetic resistance against pathogens is often rendered ineffective within a few years of its commercial deployment. Leptosphaeria maculans, the cause of phoma stem canker of oilseed rape, develops gene-for-gene interactions with its host plant, and has a high evolutionary potential to render ineffective novel sources of resistance in crops. Here, we established a four-year field experiment to monitor the evolution of populations confronted with the newly released Rlm7 resistance and to investigate the nature of the mutations responsible for virulence against Rlm7. A total of 2551 fungal isolates were collected from experimental crops of a Rlm7 cultivar or a cultivar without Rlm7. All isolates were phenotyped for virulence and a subset was genotyped with neutral genetic markers. Virulent isolates were investigated for molecular events at the AvrLm4-7 locus. Whilst virulent isolates were not found in neighbouring crops, their frequency had reached 36% in the experimental field after four years. An extreme diversity of independent molecular events leading to virulence was identified in populations, with large-scale Repeat Induced Point mutations or complete deletion of AvrLm4-7 being the most frequent. Our data suggest that increased mutability of fungal genes involved in the interactions with plants is directly related to their genomic environment and reproductive system. Thus, rapid allelic diversification of avirulence genes can be generated in L. maculans populations in a single field provided that large population sizes and sexual reproduction are favoured by agricultural practices.

  14. The influence of caffeine and thymol on the survival, growth and reproduction of Subulina octona (Brugüière, 1789) (Mollusca, Subulinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Ferreira; Geraldo Luiz Gonçalves Soares; Sthefane D'ávila; Elisabeth Cristina de Almeida Bessa

    2009-01-01

    Subulina octona is a terrestrial snail which serves as an intermediate host for the parasites. It is also an agricultural pest. The aim of this work was to assess, during 120 days, the effects of caffeine and thymol at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L on the hatchability, survival after hatching, growth and reproduction of S. octona under the laboratory conditions. A total of 240 eggs, 240 juveniles aged 10-day-old, and 240 aged 30-day-old were tested. The results showed that thymol (at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L) a...

  15. DESTAF: a database of text-mined associations for reproductive toxins potentially affecting human fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawe, Adam S; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Kaur, Mandeep; Sagar, Sunil; Seshadri, Sundararajan V; Schaefer, Ulf; Kamau, Allan A; Christoffels, Alan; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2012-01-01

    The Dragon Exploration System for Toxicants and Fertility (DESTAF) is a publicly available resource which enables researchers to efficiently explore both known and potentially novel information and associations in the field of reproductive toxicology. To create DESTAF we used data from the literature (including over 10500 PubMed abstracts), several publicly available biomedical repositories, and specialized, curated dictionaries. DESTAF has an interface designed to facilitate rapid assessment of the key associations between relevant concepts, allowing for a more in-depth exploration of information based on different gene/protein-, enzyme/metabolite-, toxin/chemical-, disease- or anatomically centric perspectives. As a special feature, DESTAF allows for the creation and initial testing of potentially new association hypotheses that suggest links between biological entities identified through the database. DESTAF, along with a PDF manual, can be found at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/destaf. It is free to academic and non-commercial users and will be updated quarterly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DESTAF: A database of text-mined associations for reproductive toxins potentially affecting human fertility

    KAUST Repository

    Dawe, Adam Sean

    2012-01-01

    The Dragon Exploration System for Toxicants and Fertility (DESTAF) is a publicly available resource which enables researchers to efficiently explore both known and potentially novel information and associations in the field of reproductive toxicology. To create DESTAF we used data from the literature (including over 10. 500 PubMed abstracts), several publicly available biomedical repositories, and specialized, curated dictionaries. DESTAF has an interface designed to facilitate rapid assessment of the key associations between relevant concepts, allowing for a more in-depth exploration of information based on different gene/protein-, enzyme/metabolite-, toxin/chemical-, disease- or anatomically centric perspectives. As a special feature, DESTAF allows for the creation and initial testing of potentially new association hypotheses that suggest links between biological entities identified through the database.DESTAF, along with a PDF manual, can be found at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/destaf. It is free to academic and non-commercial users and will be updated quarterly. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  17. Impact of the botanical insecticide Neem Azal on survival and reproduction of the biting louse Damalinia limbata on angora goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habluetzel, Annette; Carnevali, Fiorella; Lucantoni, Leonardo; Grana, Lucia; Attili, Anna Rita; Archilei, Francesca; Antonini, Marco; Valbonesi, Alessandro; Abbadessa, Valerio; Esposito, Fulvio; van der Esch, Stephen Andrew

    2007-03-31

    Secondary metabolites present in the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae), exhibit a wide range of biological activities in insects. However, few studies have been undertaken to assess the potential of neem products as insecticides for the control of ectoparasites of domestic animals. This study was undertaken to estimate the efficacy of Neem Azal, an azadirachtin-rich extract of neem seeds, in controlling Damalinia limbata (Phthiraptera) louse infestation of angora goats. The study was conducted on a fibre animal farm situated in Central Italy. Groups of 11-12 goats were treated with Neem Azal at an azadirachtin concentration of 650ppm or 125ppm, with Neguvon or were left untreated. Their louse burden was assessed fortnightly to monthly for 22 weeks. A reduction in louse densities of 76-96% was observed from week 2 to week 18 after treatment with the neem solution containing azadirachtin at a concentration of 650ppm. At the lower test concentration (125ppm) a reduction of 60-92% could be recorded from week 2 to week 14. Neem Azal was found to reduce the survival of both adult and nymph stages of D. limbata and to interfere with oviposition and oogenesis of female lice. A decrease in oviposition was observed in neem exposed female lice and the examination of their ovaries revealed morphological alterations in both vitellogenic and previtellogenic ovarioles at the follicular and germinal level. Since neem compounds target different life stages and physiological processes of D. limbata, the development of insecticide resistance by biting lice exposed to neem-based insecticides appears unlikely. For this reason and for its prolonged activity, which in principle allows angora goats to be protected for a large part of the mohair production cycle, neem-based insecticides may have a potential interest for mohair producing breeders.

  18. Symbiotic potential and survival of native rhizobia kept on different carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Ruíz-Valdiviezo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Native rhizobia are ideal for use as commercial legume inoculants. The characteristics of the carrier used to store the inoculants are important for the survival and symbiotic potential of the rhizobia. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of peat (PEAT, perlite sugarcane bagasse (PSB, carboxymethyl cellulose plus starch (CMCS, and yeast extract mannitol supplemented with mannitol (YEMM on the survival, nodulation potential and N2 fixation capacity of the native strains Sinorhizobium mexicanum ITTG R7T and Rhizobium calliandrae LBP2-1T and of the reference strain Rhizobium etli CFN42T. A factorial design (4 × 3 with four repetitions was used to determine the symbiotic potential of the rhizobial strains. The survival of the strains was higher for PEAT (46% for strain LBP2-1T, 167% for strain CFN42T and 219% for strain ITTG R7T than for the other carriers after 240 days, except for CFN42T kept on CMCS (225%. All the strains kept on the different carriers effectively nodulated common bean, with the lowest number of nodules found (5 nodules when CFN42T was kept on CMCS and with the highest number of nodules found (28 nodules when ITTG R7T was kept on PSB. The nitrogenase activity was the highest for ITTG R7T kept on PEAT (4911 μmol C2H4 per fresh weight nodule h−1; however, no activity was found when the strains were kept on YEMM. Thus, the survival and symbiotic potential of the rhizobia depended on the carrier used to store them.

  19. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Ordax

    Full Text Available Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae, one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle.

  20. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordax, Mónica; Piquer-Salcedo, Jaime E.; Santander, Ricardo D.; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Biosca, Elena G.; López, María M.; Marco-Noales, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i) E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii) medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle. PMID:25978369

  1. Hard time to be parents? Sea urchin fishery shifts potential reproductive contribution of population onto the shoulders of the young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Barbara; Guala, Ivan; Pires da Silva, Rodrigo; Brundu, Gianni; Baroli, Maura; Farina, Simone

    2017-01-01

    In Sardinia, as in other regions of the Mediterranean Sea, sustainable fisheries of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus have become a necessity. At harvesting sites, the systematic removal of large individuals (diameter ≥ 50 mm) seriously compromises the biological and ecological functions of sea urchin populations. Specifically, in this study, we compared the reproductive potential of the populations from Mediterranean coastal areas which have different levels of sea urchin fishing pressure. The areas were located at Su Pallosu Bay, where pressure is high and Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo, a marine protected area where sea urchin harvesting is low. Reproductive potential was estimated by calculating the gonadosomatic index (GSI) from June 2013 to May 2014 both for individuals of commercial size (diameter without spines, TD ≥ 50 mm) and the undersized ones with gonads (30 ≤ TD sea urchins than on their size. However, since population survival in the high-pressure zone is supported by the high density of undersized sea urchins between 30 and 50 mm, management measures should be addressed to maintain these sizes and to shed light on the source of the larval supply.

  2. The total pregnancy potential per oocyte aspiration after assisted reproduction-in how many cycles are biologically competent oocytes available?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmen, J G; Rodríguez, N M; Andreasen, L D

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: While stimulation of women prior to assisted reproduction is associated with increased success rates, the total biological pregnancy potential per stimulation cycle is rarely assessed. METHODS: Retrospective sequential cohort study of the cumulative live birth rate in 1148 first IVF/ICSI...

  3. The effect of Presynch-Ovsynch protocol with or without estrus detection on reproductive performance by parity, and the long-term effect of these different management strategies on milk production, reproduction, health and survivability of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, V S; Neves, R C; Lima, F S; Bicalho, R C

    2017-04-15

    During the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, at least half of the cows enrolled display signs of estrus, which can present as an opportunity for cows to be inseminated before the completion of the protocol. The primary objective of this study is to compare two management strategies for first service using the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol: insemination at completion of the Presynch-Ovsynch program (TAIonly) or insemination after estrus detection during the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, with the remainder of cows being inseminated at timed artificial insemination (ED + TAI). Cows inseminated at completion of the protocol have a longer voluntary waiting period, which could potentially extend their lactation length, allowing them to recover BCS at the end of their lactation and ultimately impacting their subsequent lactation. Therefore, this study has a secondary objective to evaluate the long term impact of these two strategies on reproductive outcomes, culling, milk production and health during the subsequent lactation. A total randomized field trial study design was used, and a total of 3489 cows were randomly enrolled to one of the treatment groups: ED + TAI or TAIonly. Cows enrolled in the TAIonly started the Presynch protocol receiving two injections of PGF2α at 55 ± 3 and 69 ± 3 DIM. They were subsequently submitted to the Ovsynch protocol: GnRH at 81 ± 3 DIM, PGF2α at 88 ± 3 DIM, and GnRH at 90 ± 3 DIM, and then inseminated at fixed time at 91 ± 3 DIM. Cows enrolled in the ED + TAI were submitted to the same synchronization protocol, but they were eligible to be inseminated at any time after the beginning of the synchronization protocol, if detected in estrous. During the experimental lactation, the effect of treatment on first service conception rate (FSCR) was conditional to parity: no difference among primiparous cows, but for multiparous cows, the FSCR was 41.2% and 35.3% for TAIonly and ED + TAI, respectively. Although TAIonly strategy

  4. Study Proposal for Reproductive Success and Nestling Survival of White-faced Ibis in Relation to Habitat in Northwest Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study is to determine nesting success, survival rate of nestlings, and recruitment of fledglings relative to habitat conditions within major nesting...

  5. Estimating the potential effects of pesticide seed treatments on the reproductive success of arable birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, David R; Lawrence, Alan J

    2017-08-22

    In temperate zones, seeds of spring-sown crops may be an attractive food source for breeding farmland birds. We modelled the effects of pesticide seed treatments on the reproductive success of 4 UK arable bird species (Rook, Linnet, Skylark, Yellowhammer) exposed to treated seeds of 3 spring-sown crops (beans, barley and linseed). We ran three types of model, 1) a "broods-at-risk" model looking at the temporal overlap between nesting and seed-sowing dates, and estimating the proportion of those nests that suffered toxicity-exposure ratios < 5; 2) a "seasonal success" Markov chain model estimating the number of chicks successfully raised in the course of a breeding season.; and 3) the potential effects of pesticides on population growth rates. Based on physiology, Rooks, should be less at risk from treated seeds than smaller species because bigger birds eat less as a proportion of their bodyweights. However, in nearly all our scenarios, Rooks were more vulnerable, followed by Skylark and Linnet, with Yellowhammer being least affected. A principal cause is that Rooks are more likely to be breeding at a time when treated seeds are being sown. Furthermore, whereas the other species may make several breeding attempts and early failures from pesticide exposure may be compensated by later successes, Rooks breed only once in a season. The results are also supported by historical evidence of Rook population declines following pesticide seed treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence and survival of potential pathogens in source-segregated green waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Lisa M; Booth, Philippa; Campbell, Colin; Tompkins, David; Hough, Rupert L

    2012-08-01

    Composting of source-separated green waste (SSGW) is essential to meet the EU Landfill Directive target and agricultural land is considered a significant market for the resulting composts. A critical review of the literature was performed to evaluate the potential for pathogens to enter the composting process via SSGW feedstocks and the likelihood of their survival of the composting process and subsequent application to land. This is discussed in the context of application of other organic wastes to land. It was concluded that zoonoses such as verotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. are unlikely to survive and effective composting process, whereas spore forming organisms are more resistant to composting but are also ubiquitous in the environment. Adherence to existing guidelines, such as those for farm yard manures, is likely to provide a rational degree of health protection for humans and livestock. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Effect of nitric oxide on spinal evoked potentials and survival rate in rats with decompression sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsøe, Thomas; Meehan, Claire Francesca; Broholm, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) releasing agents have, in experimental settings, been shown to decrease intravascular nitrogen bubble formation and to increase the survival rate during decompression sickness (DCS) from diving. The effect has been ascribed to a possible removal of preexisting micronuclei...... evaluated by means of spinal evoked potentials (SEPs). Anesthetized rats were decompressed from a 1-h hyperbaric air dive at 506.6 kPa (40 m of seawater) for 3 min and 17 s, and spinal cord conduction was studied by measurements of SEPs. Histological samples of the spinal cord were analyzed for lesions...... GTN (group 6) during the dive, before decompression. In all groups, decompression caused considerable intravascular bubble formation. The ISMN groups showed no difference compared with the control group, whereas the GTN groups showed a tendency toward faster SEP disappearance and shorter survival...

  8. Infection, Reproduction Potential, and Root Galling by Root-knot Nematode Species and Concomitant Populations on Peanut and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirunsalee, Anan; Barker, K. R.; Beute, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Single populations of Meloidogyne arenaria races 1 (MA1) and 2 (MA2) and M. hapla (MH), and mixed populations of MA1 + MA2 and MA1 + MH with four inoculum levels of eggs were tested on peanut cv. 'Florigiant' and M. incognita-resistant tobacco cv. 'McNair 373' in a greenhouse experiment. Root infection, female development, and reproduction of MA2 on peanut and MA1 on resistant tobacco were limited at 2 and 6 weeks. MA1, MH, and MA1 + MH on peanut had similar root infection (total parasitic forms per root unit) at both 2 and 6 weeks, and similar female development and reproduction potentials at 6 weeks. MA2 tended to depress root infection, female development, and reproduction of MA1 on peanut. MH had little effect on MA1 on this crop. On tobacco, MA2 population had greater incidence of root infection than did MH at 2 weeks. The two nematode species had similar development in roots at 6 weeks. All of these processes were restricted when either MA2 or MH was present together with MA1. As initial inoculum level of parasitically fit populations increased, relative infection ratio on both peanut and tobacco, and reproduction factor on peanut decreased. Populations that had high infection incidence and reproduction rates induced greater root galling than did other populations. Root galling was suppressed in the presence of antagonistic response between nematode populations. PMID:19277277

  9. Potentiation of ghrelin signaling attenuates cancer anorexia–cachexia and prolongs survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitsuka, N; Asakawa, A; Uezono, Y; Minami, K; Yamaguchi, T; Niijima, A; Yada, T; Maejima, Y; Sedbazar, U; Sakai, T; Hattori, T; Kase, Y; Inui, A

    2011-01-01

    Cancer anorexia–cachexia syndrome is characterized by decreased food intake, weight loss, muscle tissue wasting and psychological distress, and this syndrome is a major source of increased morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. This study aimed to clarify the gut–brain peptides involved in the pathogenesis of the syndrome and determine effective treatment for cancer anorexia–cachexia. We show that both ghrelin insufficiency and resistance were observed in tumor-bearing rats. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) decreased the plasma level of acyl ghrelin, and its receptor antagonist, α-helical CRF, increased food intake of these rats. The serotonin 2c receptor (5-HT2cR) antagonist SB242084 decreased hypothalamic CRF level and improved anorexia, gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility and body weight loss. The ghrelin receptor antagonist (D-Lys3)-GHRP-6 worsened anorexia and hastened death in tumor-bearing rats. Ghrelin attenuated anorexia–cachexia in the short term, but failed to prolong survival, as did SB242084 administration. In addition, the herbal medicine rikkunshito improved anorexia, GI dysmotility, muscle wasting, and anxiety-related behavior and prolonged survival in animals and patients with cancer. The appetite-stimulating effect of rikkunshito was blocked by (D-Lys3)-GHRP-6. Active components of rikkunshito, hesperidin and atractylodin, potentiated ghrelin secretion and receptor signaling, respectively, and atractylodin prolonged survival in tumor-bearing rats. Our study demonstrates that the integrated mechanism underlying cancer anorexia–cachexia involves lowered ghrelin signaling due to excessive hypothalamic interactions of 5-HT with CRF through the 5-HT2cR. Potentiation of ghrelin receptor signaling may be an attractive treatment for anorexia, muscle wasting and prolong survival in patients with cancer anorexia–cachexia. PMID:22832525

  10. Effects of spirodiclofen on the reproductive potential of two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae ovipositing females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marčić D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory bioassay was conducted to evaluate the effects of spirodiclofen on the survival and reproduction of young and mated females of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch. The females were sprayed with a series of acaricide concentrations (96, 48, 24, 12, and 6 mg/l 24-30 h after adult emergence, i.e., at the age most likely to exhibit dispersal behavior and close to their reproductive maximum. The proportions of T. urticae females that survived treatment without symptoms of poisoning were concentration-dependent, ranging between 0.41 and 0.88 (0.96 in the control. With the exception of females that survived 6 mg/l, fecundity of the treated female mites was strongly affected during the exposure, compared to the control. The mean daily fecundity (EL and mean daily fertility (EH of surviving females, transferred daily to new leaf disks over the following five days, significantly decreased as spirodiclofen concentrations increased. In treatments with 6 mg/l and 12 mg/l, only the latter concentration significantly reduced both EL and EH, compared to the control. In females that survived 24 mg/l and 48 mg/l, these life history parameters were reduced by over 90%, while treatment with 96 mg/l completely terminated egg-laying. The treated females lived for a significantly shorter time than untreated ones, with the exception of females that survived 6 mg/l. Compared to the control females, gross fecundity (GL and gross fertility (GH of the treated females were strongly reduced on the first and second day; from the third day onward, females treated with the lowest concentrations achieved marked recovery, their GL and GH going even above the values in the control. However, net fecundity (NL and net fertility (NH of all treated females decreased considerably throughout the trial, indicating that survival rates of these females were lower, compared to the control. Calculated as total sums of gross and net daily schedules within five days

  11. Drone exposure to the systemic insecticide Fipronil indirectly impairs queen reproductive potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kairo, Guillaume; Provost, Bertille; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; Ben Abdelkader, Faten; Bonnet, Marc; Cousin, Marianne; Sénéchal, Jacques; Benet, Pauline; Kretzschmar, André; Belzunces, Luc P; Brunet, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    .... Despite its special reproductive behavior, the honey bee was selected as a relevant and integrative environmental model because of its constant and diverse exposure to many stressors due to foraging activity...

  12. Biomarkers to Assess Possible Biological Effects on Reproductive Potential, Immune Function, and Energetic Fitness of Bottlenose Dolphins Exposed to Sounds Consistent with Naval Sonars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Effects on Reproductive Potential, Immune Function, and Energetic Fitness of Bottlenose Dolphins Exposed to Sounds Consistent with Naval Sonars...novel biomarkers to examine whether significant sublethal responses to sonar-type sounds occur in bottlenose dolphins exposed to such sounds. The...SUBTITLE Biomarkers to Assess Possible Biological Effects on Reproductive Potential, Immune Function, and Energetic Fitness of Bottlenose Dolphins

  13. Potential effects of the invasive species Gracilaria vermiculophylla on Zostera marina metabolism and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lüscher, Johann; Holmer, Marianne

    2010-06-01

    The potential threat to seagrasses of the invasive algae, Gracilaria vermiculophylla was assessed through metabolic indicators under experimental conditions. Net leaf photosynthesis (LNP) and dark respiration (LDR) were measured from leaf segments of Zostera marina shoots under different loads of G. vermiculophylla (control, low 2.2kg FW m(-2) and high 4kg FW m(-2)) in mesocosm experiments separated in tanks at four temperatures (19, 23.5, 26 and 30 degrees C). LNP decreased in the presence of the high density G. vermiculophylla mat (25% on average), being the most severe reductions at 30 degrees C (35% less in high). LDR did not respond significantly to differences in algal biomass, whereas a progressive increase was found with increasing temperatures (3.4 times higher at 30 degrees C than at 19 degrees C). Sulphide in porewater was measured weekly in order clarify the role of sediment conditions on seagrass metabolism, and increased both with algal biomass (29% in high) and temperature (from 0.5mM at 26 degrees C to 2.6mM at 30 degrees C), but changes in LNP and LDR were not correlated with sulphide concentrations. Seagrass survival rates showed decreasing trend with algal biomass at all the temperatures (from 74% to 21% survival). G. vermiculophylla showed harmful effects on Z. marina metabolism and survival with synergistic effects of temperature suggesting greater impact of invasive species under future higher water temperatures.

  14. EEN regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells by potentiating IGF-1 secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Er-Wen [Guangzhou Institute of Forensic Science, Guangzhou (China); Department of Forensic Pathology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xue, Sheng-Jiang [Department of Forensic Pathology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Xiao-Yan [Department of Pharmacy, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xu, Suo-Wen [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Cheng, Jian-Ding; Zheng, Jin-Xiang [Department of Forensic Pathology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Shi, He; Lv, Guo-Li; Li, Zhi-Gang; Li, Yue; Liu, Chang-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Hong [Guangzhou Institute of Forensic Science, Guangzhou (China); Li, Jie, E-mail: mdlijie@sina.com [Department of Anaesthesiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Chao, E-mail: liuchaogaj@21cn.com [Guangzhou Institute of Forensic Science, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Levels of EEN expression paralleled with the rate of cell proliferation. • EEN was involved in the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. • EEN regulated the activity of IGF-1-Akt/mTOR pathway. • EEN regulated proliferation and survival of MM cells by enhancing IGF-1 secretion. - Abstract: The molecular mechanisms of multiple myeloma are not well defined. EEN is an endocytosis-regulating molecule. Here we report that EEN regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells, by regulating IGF-1 secretion. In the present study, we observed that EEN expression paralleled with cell proliferation, EEN accelerated cell proliferation, facilitated cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase by regulating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) pathway, and delayed cell apoptosis via Bcl2/Bax-mitochondrial pathway. Mechanistically, we found that EEN was indispensable for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion and the activation of protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt-mTOR) pathway. Exogenous IGF-1 overcame the phenotype of EEN depletion, while IGF-1 neutralization overcame that of EEN over-expression. Collectively, these data suggest that EEN may play a pivotal role in excessive cell proliferation and insufficient cell apoptosis of bone marrow plasma cells in multiple myeloma. Therefore, EEN may represent a potential diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for multiple myeloma.

  15. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproductive success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Baohong [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Freitag, Christina M. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Cheng Qiuqiong [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)]. E-mail: todd.anderson@tiehh.ttu.edu

    2006-11-15

    The effect of two major hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproduction was studied. RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production. However, MNX and TNX did affect egg hatching. MNX and TNX were more toxic in spiked-sand than in topical tests. TNX was more toxic to egg than MNX. Developmental stage and exposure time affected hatching. After 30 days exposure to MNX or TNX, the EC{sub 2}, EC{sub 5}, and EC{sub 95} were 47, 128, and 247 {mu}g/g for TNX, and 65, 140, and 253 {mu}g/g for MNX in topical tests. The ECs for 20, 50, and 95 were 21, 52, and 99 {mu}g/g for MNX, and 12, 48, and 97 {mu}g/g for TNX in sand. No gross abnormalities in cricket nypmhs were observed in all experiments indicating that neither TNX or MNX is teratogenic in this assay. - RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production, but adversely affected egg hatching.

  16. Effects of phytoplankton extracts containing the toxin microcystin-LR on the survival and reproduction of cladocerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Natalia A; Echeverri, Luis Fernando; Ferrão-Filho, Aloysio S

    2015-03-01

    The use of ecotoxicological techniques for the evaluation of the quality of limnetic waters allows the early detection of toxic agents that pose risks to human health. In this study Moina micrura (two clones), Daphnia laevis (two clones) and Daphnia similis, a temperate species, were used to evaluate the toxicity of six Microcystis extracts from two Colombian reservoirs. Toxin was detected and quantified by HPLC. Microcystin-LR was found in all extracts with the highest concentrations in one sample from each reservoir (434 μg g(-1) and 538 μg g(-1)). The extracts that had the highest toxin concentration also had the highest toxicities to cladocerans. Measurement of 48-h LC50 showed consistent differences between cladoceran species but not clones, Also, reproduction data in two species were consistent with the MC-LR content of one sample tested, with decreased reproduction and disruption of egg production. However, only some growth results of neonates exposed to extracts were consistent with the acute response. In conclusion, Daphnia species are a good model for monitoring cyanotoxins as they respond in a sensitive way to natural phytoplankton samples containing microcystin-LR. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A Disorder of Menstrual Function Regularization and its Influence on a Female Reproductive Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Makarchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric complications in women of reproductive age are often the result of puberty disorders which remain underestimated and not taken into account in pregnancy monitoring programs in such patients, leading to an increase of habitual non-carrying of pregnancy and negative obstetric effects. The objective of the research is to carry out a comprehensive multivariate assessment of the disturbances of the body adaptive processes in teenage girls, taking into account the data of anamnesis regarding the specifics of menstrual function regularization during puberty, and to determine the main factors of complicated pregnancy in this category of patients. Materials and methods. To carry out the task, 110 pregnant women with a disorder of menstrual function regularizationhave been prospectively examined (the main group; the examination was performed at the preconception stage and in the periods of 6-12, 22-24 and 32-36 weeks of pregnancy. The comparison group consisted of 30 patients with a normal menstrual cycle. In order to identify risk factors and predict complications, the odds ratio (OR and its 95% confidence interval were used. Results. Extragenital pathology plays a significant role in the formation of pathological course of puberty and obstetric complications; 87.27% ofsuch cases were demonstrated in our study. Among the disorders of the ovarian-menstrual cycle, the structural significance is characteristic to the failure of the luteal phase and anovulatory disorders (78.18% of cases. Gynaecologic pathology includes inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs (35.45%, cervical background processes (41.66%, ovarian tumour lesions (21.81, and primary infertility(14.54%. The obtained results of the structure of pregnancy complications in patients of the main group show reproductive losses in early pregnancy (11.8%, subchorionic hematoma (28.18% and the threat of late spontaneous abortion; these data are notedthree times more often than in the

  18. Asynchronous development of honey bee host and Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) influences reproductive potential of mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Maria J; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Wagnitz, Jeremy; Whelan, Pádraig M

    2011-08-01

    A high proportion of nonreproductive (NR) Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Mesostigmata: Varroidae), is commonly observed in honey bee colonies displaying the varroa sensitive hygienic trait (VSH). This study was conducted to determine the influence of brood removal and subsequent host reinvasion of varroa mites on mite reproduction. We collected foundress mites from stages of brood (newly sealed larvae, prepupae, white-eyed pupae, and pink-eyed pupae) and phoretic mites from adult bees. We then inoculated these mites into cells containing newly sealed larvae. Successful reproduction (foundress laid both a mature male and female) was low (13%) but most common in mites coming from sealed larvae. Unsuccessful reproductive attempts (foundress failed to produce both a mature male and female) were most common in mites from sealed larvae (22%) and prepupae (61%). Lack of any progeny was most common for mites from white-eyed (83%) and pink-eyed pupae (92%). We also collected foundress mites from sealed larvae and transferred them to cells containing newly sealed larvae, prepupae, white-eyed pupae, or pink-eyed pupae. Successful reproduction only occurred in the transfers to sealed larvae (26%). Unsuccessful reproductive attempts were most common in transfers to newly sealed larvae (40%) and to prepupae (25%). Unsuccessful attempts involved the production of immature progeny (60%), the production of only mature daughters (26%) or the production of only a mature male (14%). Generally, lack of progeny was not associated with mites having a lack of stored sperm. Our results suggest that mites exposed to the removal of prepupae or older brood due to hygiene are unlikely to produce viable mites if they invade new hosts soon after brood removal. Asynchrony between the reproductive status of reinvading mites and the developmental stage of their reinvasion hosts may be a primary cause of NR mites in hygienic colonies. Even if reinvading mites use hosts having the proper age

  19. Reproductive potential and nesting effects of Osmia rufa (Syn. Bicornis) female (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giejdasz, K.; Fliszkiewicz, M.; Bednářová, Andrea; Krishnan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2016), s. 75-85 ISSN 1643-4439 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : megachilidae * reproduction * nest Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.722, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jas.2016.60.issue-1/jas-2016-0003/jas-2016-0003.xml

  20. Social Reproduction and College Access: Current Evidence, Context, and Potential Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Gabriel R.; Woulfe, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Social reproduction theory identifies schooling as a primary means for the perpetuation of the dominant class's ideologies, values, and power. The ability to access college is so closely tied to these constructs that it contributes to this dominance and marginalization. Social stratification is not only mirrored in higher education, but the…

  1. The potential of cryopreservation and reproductive technologies for animal genetic resources conservation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.; Lende, van der T.; Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter focuses on ex situ conservation. An overview of the state of the art cryopreservation and reproductive technology for farm animals and fish is followed by a discussion on the implications of ex situ conservation strategies. Ex situ conservation of genetic material from livestock and

  2. Sweet waste extract uptake by a mosquito vector: Survival, biting, fecundity responses, and potential epidemiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Satho, Tomomitsu; Abang, Fatimah; Meli, Nur Khairatun Khadijah Binti; Ghani, Idris A; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Hakim, Hafijah; Miake, Fumio; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Noor, Sabina; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Ahmad, Hamdan; Majid, Abdul Hafiz A; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Morales, Noppawan P; Attrapadung, Siriluck; Noweg, Gabriel Tonga

    2017-05-01

    In nature, adult mosquitoes typically utilize nectar as their main energy source, but they can switch to other as yet unidentified sugary fluids. Contemporary lifestyles, with their associated unwillingness to consume leftovers and improper disposal of waste, have resulted in the disposal of huge amounts of waste into the environment. Such refuse often contains unfinished food items, many of which contain sugar and some of which can collect water from rain and generate juices. Despite evidence that mosquitoes can feed on sugar-rich suspensions, semi-liquids, and decaying fruits, which can be abundant in garbage sites, the impacts of sweet waste fluids on dengue vectors are unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of extracts from some familiar sweet home waste items on key components of vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti. Adult mosquitoes were fed one of five diets in this study: water (WAT); sucrose (SUG); bakery product (remnant of chocolate cake, BAK); dairy product (yogurt, YOG); and fruit (banana (BAN). Differences in survival, response time to host, and egg production were examined between groups. For both males and females, maintenance on BAK extract resulted in marked survival levels that were similar to those seen with SUG. Sweet waste extracts provided better substrates for survival compared to water, but this superiority was mostly seen with BAK. Females maintained on BAK, YOG, and BAN exhibited shorter response times to a host compared to their counterparts maintained on SUG. The levels of egg production were equivalent in waste extract- and SUG-fed females. The findings presented here illustrate the potential of sweet waste-derived fluids to contribute to the vectorial capacity of dengue vectors and suggest the necessity of readdressing the issue of waste disposal, especially that of unfinished sweet foods. Such approaches can be particularly relevant in dengue endemic areas where rainfall is frequent and waste collection infrequent. Copyright

  3. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohong; Freitag, Christina M; Cañas, Jaclyn E; Cheng, Qiuqiong; Anderson, Todd A

    2006-11-01

    The effect of two major hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproduction was studied. RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production. However, MNX and TNX did affect egg hatching. MNX and TNX were more toxic in spiked-sand than in topical tests. TNX was more toxic to egg than MNX. Developmental stage and exposure time affected hatching. After 30 days exposure to MNX or TNX, the EC20, EC50, and EC95 were 47, 128, and 247 microg/g for TNX, and 65, 140, and 253 microg/g for MNX in topical tests. The ECs for 20, 50, and 95 were 21, 52, and 99 microg/g for MNX, and 12, 48, and 97 microg/g for TNX in sand. No gross abnormalities in cricket nypmhs were observed in all experiments indicating that neither TNX or MNX is teratogenic in this assay.

  4. Reproductive concerns of children and adolescents with cancer: challenges and potential solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stern C

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Catharyn Stern,1 Rachel Conyers,2 Lisa Orme,2 Shlomi Barak,1,3 Franca Agresta,1 John Seymour2 1Melbourne IVF and Royal Women's Hospital, 2Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, and University of Melbourne, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Abstract: The diagnosis of a potentially life-threatening cancer is one of the most traumatic events that can befall a young person and his or her family. However, fortunately, most young people will survive their cancer and its treatment and go on to lead a long and healthy life, with an appropriate expectation of being able to have their own genetic family. However, cancer treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, can have temporary and permanent effects on fertility, including damage to the uterus and pituitary gland, and reduction, or obliteration, of gonadal function, with consequential loss of oocytes or spermatozoa, which may result in ovarian or testicular failure. As the gamete pool is nonrenewable, permanent gonadal failure precludes subsequent fertility with a patient's own genetic material. Awareness and acknowledgement of the likely future fertility implications of cancer treatment is an essential part of any discussion about proposed therapies. Options for girls and young women include freezing mature oocytes and ovarian tissue, as well as attempting to protect the ovaries from the gonadotoxic effects of treatment. Options for boys and young men include semen collection and storage as well as testicular biopsy with freezing of testicular tissue or spermatozoa retrieved from the tissue. Fertility options can now be offered with increasing optimism about success and the provision of a genuine opportunity for having a family. While the initiation of cancer treatment is sometimes truly urgent, the opportunity for a detailed discussion about implications for fertility is of paramount importance for patients and

  5. Acute exposure to low-dose radiation disrupts reproduction and shortens survival of Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcaterra, Luis A; Coulin, Carolina; Briano, Juan A; Follett, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option to control ants and other hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural products exported from Hawaii. The radiotolerance of the invasive little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae), was studied to determine a dose sufficient for its control. Queens from each of five laboratory microcolonies started from five geographic locations in Argentina were irradiated at 20, 50, 70, or 100 Gy or left untreated as controls and then followed for 13 wk to observe colony growth. In general, queen survivorship, and the number of eggs, larvae, and pupae observed in the microcolonies decreased with increasing irradiation dose. In the 50-, 70-, and 100-Gy treatments, the number of eggs observed was reduced by 68, 66, and 76%, respectively, compared with untreated control microcolonies. The number of larvae in the 50-, 70-, and, 100-Gy treatments was reduced by 99.6%, and only one pupa was observed in the 50-Gy treatment and none in the 70- and 100-Gy treatments during the 13-wk experiment. Queens in the 100-Gy treatment had significantly reduced longevity compared with queens in the other treatments. Radiation doses > or = 70 Gy stopped reproduction in W. auropunctata queens and should be sufficient as a phytosanitary treatment. Information from additional invasive ants in Myrmicinae and other subfamilies is needed before recommending a generic irradiation treatment for ants.

  6. Effects of temperature and salinity on larval survival and development in the invasive shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus (Caridea: Palaemonidae) along the reproductive season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe Vázquez, M.; Bas, Claudia C.; Kittlein, Marcelo; Spivak, Eduardo D.

    2015-05-01

    The invasive shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus is associated mainly with brackish waters. Previous studies raised the question if tolerance to low salinities differs between larvae and adults. To answer this question, the combined effects of two temperatures (20 and 25 °C) and four salinities (5, 12, 23 and 34 psu) on survival and development of larvae that hatched at the beginning, in the midpoint and near the end of a reproductive season (denoted early, middle season and late larvae respectively) were examined. The three types of larvae were able to survive and reach juvenile phase at salinities between 12 and 34 psu and at both temperatures. At 5 psu all larvae died, but 45% molted at least once. Temperature and salinity to a lesser extent, had effects on the duration of development and on the number of larval stages in all larval types. Development was longer at the lower temperature, especially in middle season and late larvae. Most early larvae reached the juvenile phase through 5 larval stages; the number of larval stages of middle season and late larvae was higher at 20 °C and in late larvae also low salinity produced extra stages. Low salinity (12 psu) and, in early and middle season larvae, low temperature produced lighter and smaller individuals. Response of larvae to environmental factors seems to be related in part to the previous conditions (maternal effects and/or embryo development conditions). The narrower salinity tolerance of larvae compared to adults and the ability of zoea I to survive at least some days at 5 psu may be related with an export larval strategy.

  7. Will inundation and salinity levels associated with projected sea level rise reduce the survival, growth, and reproductive capacity of Sarcocornia pacifica (pickleweed)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, I.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    In the San Francisco Bay Estuary, CA, USA, sea level rise (SLR) is projected to increase by 1.4 m during the next 90 years resulting in increased inundation and salt water intrusion up-estuary. Since inundation and salinity are critical factors that drive vegetation structure and composition in coastal wetlands, we asked whether inundation and salinity levels associated with SLR would reduce the survival, growth, and reproductive capacity of a dominant halophyte, Sarcocornia pacifica (pickleweed). We conducted a 4 × 4 factorial greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of a range of inundation periods (25, 50, 75, and 100%) and water salinities (0, 10, 20, 30 psu) on individual S. pacifica adults and seedlings. We found that inundation and salinity treatments affected the height of adults and seedlings combined. When examined separately, adult height was negatively affected by inundation ≥75%, while seedling height was affected by the interaction of both inundation and salinity. Adult belowground biomass was negatively affected by complete inundation. Seedling aboveground biomass decreased 46% at the highest salinity (30 psu) and belowground biomass decreased at salinities ≥20 psu. Adult flower production was not affected by treatments but was reduced by 38% at 30 psu salinity for seedlings. While adult survival was 99%, seedling survival was 56% with greatest mortality at low (25%) inundation, possibly because their roots were more susceptible to desiccation. Vegetation structure of the marsh platform comprised of S. pacifica adults will be susceptible to greater inundation rates associated with SLR. Our results suggest that adults may grow less tall, thus altering the vegetation structure and likely the tidal marsh wildlife that rely on these habitats.

  8. High annual variability in reproductive success and survival of an Antarctic seabird, the snow petrel Pagodroma nivea : A 27-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastel, O; Weimerskirch, H; Jouventin, P

    1993-05-01

    Demographic parameters were estimated for snow petrels Pagodroma nivea nesting at Pointe Géologie Archipelago, Adélie Land, Antarctica between 1963 and 1990; 21 years of data on adult survival and 27 years of data on breeding success are available. The average age of first return and first breeding were 8.1 and 9.9 years respectively and there was no signifcant difference between the sexes. The overall breeding success averaged 51.3% and was very variable between years (21-80%). Breeding failure was mostly due to incubation failure and annual breeding success was negatively correlated with average snow falls in October-November and October-March. Breeding frequency was very low, averaging 52% of seasons during a reproductive lifetime. Good quality sites, with high occupancy rate and high breeding success were few in the study plots. Poor years in 1966-1967, 1976-1977 and 1983-1984, with low breeding success, very low proportions of nets with breeding attempts and high numbers of non-breeders, occurred 1 year after large-scale El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Snow petrels exhibited very low philopatry. Only 45 birds have been recovered in the study plots from a total of 1115 banded fledglings giving an estimated rate of return of 12.9% between fledging and 3 years old. Annual survival between 3 and 10 years was 91.4%. Annual adult survival (93.4%), though variable, was low during poor years of 1977-1978 and 1983-1984. Adult survival of males (94.7%) was not significantly different from that of females (93.9%). Over the study period, the population of Pointe Géologie was stable. Using the estimated parameters, a Leslie model gave a growth rate of 0.948%, which was probably compensated by immigration (5.7% per year). Restricted numbers of good-quality sites at the place of birth could have led young birds to prospect other colonies and could have selected low philopatry. High adult survival, strong site tenacity and capacity to spread breeding over a

  9. Potential independent factors of variability of biological status and reproductive history of Yucatecan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, F

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of the application of principal component analysis (PCA) in a study of the human ecology of rural-to-urban migrantion in Yucatan, Mexico. Socioeconomic, reproductive and anthropometric data from 216 women 32 years of age or older, were obtained in 1989-1990. Seventeen socioeconomic, demographic and environmental properties of the families of such women, plus migrant status, were employed in a PCA, which yielded five independent factors, explaining 57.1% of the total variance of such properties. These factors were employed to made a multiple regression analysis on 19 anthropometric and 21 reproductive traits, age adjusted. According to the multiple regression of women's biological status to independent factors, we found that in better living conditions (Factor 3), women are heavier, taller, with more body surface and subcutaneous fat in the trunk and in the upper extremity, than in worse living conditions. Better educational level of wife and husband (Factor 2) is associated with lower number of pregnancies and alive born children, as well as less reproductive losses. Women living in families with higher income (Factor 4), have a younger age at the first pregnancy, older age at the last pregnancy, greater number of pregnancies, alive born children and alive offspring at the interview, and they experience less reproductive losses in relation to the number of pregnancies. This fact suggests that for the families in this sample, big families are a strategy to cope with poverty and uncertainty in employment and income. Our results are discussed against the reports in the literature.

  10. Influence of Early Reproductive Success on Longevity and Late Reproductive Success in an Alpine Ungulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagakis, Andrea; Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D

    2017-06-01

    The life-history theories of aging predict lifetime trade-offs between early reproductive allocation and late-life survival, reproduction, or both components of fitness. Recent studies in wild populations have found evidence for these early-late life trade-offs, but rarely have they been found across multiple traits while exploring the additional effects of variation in environmental conditions and individual quality. Benefiting from longitudinal data on adult female mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), we investigated the influence of age at first reproduction (AFR) and early reproductive success (ERS) on longevity, late reproductive success, and senescence rates while accounting for the influence of natal environmental conditions and individual quality. Contrary to predictions, we did not find evidence for early-late life trade-offs. Instead, an earlier AFR and a greater ERS had positive but weak direct effects on late reproductive success. Natal population density, however, was the strongest determinant of all life-history traits, having a direct negative effect on female longevity, late reproductive success, AFR, and ERS. Although natal density reduced the probability of annual reproduction and annual survival during adulthood, higher allocation to reproduction in early life and poorer natal conditions did not lead to accelerated rates of senescence during adulthood. The results of this investigation provide an integrated picture of early-late life trade-offs, underscoring the importance of accounting for environmental conditions because of their potentially strong implications for population dynamics.

  11. Survival potential of wild type cellulose deficient Salmonella from the feed industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballance Simon

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofilm has been shown to be one way for Salmonella to persist in the feed factory environment. Matrix components, such as fimbriae and cellulose, have been suggested to play an important role in the survival of Salmonella in the environment. Multicellular behaviour by Salmonella is often categorized according to colony morphology into rdar (red, dry and rough expressing curli fimbriae and cellulose, bdar (brown, dry and rough expressing curli fimbriae and pdar (pink, dry and rough expressing cellulose. The aim of the study was to look into the distribution of morphotypes among feed and fish meal factory strains of Salmonella, with emphasis on potential differences between morphotypes with regards to survival in the feed factory environment. Results When screening a total of 148 Salmonella ser. Agona, Salmonella ser. Montevideo, Salmonella ser. Senftenberg and Salmonella ser. Typhimurium strains of feed factory, human clinical and reference collection origin, as many as 99% were able to express rough morphology (rdar or bdar. The dominant morphotype was rdar (74%, however as many as 55% of Salmonella ser. Agona and 19% of Salmonella ser. Senftenberg displayed the bdar morphology. Inconsistency in Calcofluor binding, indicating expression of cellulose, was found among 25% of all the strains tested, however Salmonella ser. Agona showed to be highly consistent in Calcofluor binding (98%. In biofilm, Salmonella ser. Agona strains with bdar mophology was found to be equally tolerant to disinfection treatment as strains with rdar morphotype. However, rdar morphology appeared to be favourable in long term survival in biofilm in a very dry environment. Chemical analysis showed no major differences in polysaccharide content between bdar and rdar strains. Our results indicate that cellulose is not a major component of the Salmonella biofilm matrix. Conclusion The bdar morphotype is common among Salmonella ser. Agona strains isolated

  12. Survival potential of wild type cellulose deficient Salmonella from the feed industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestby, Lene K; Møretrø, Trond; Ballance, Simon; Langsrud, Solveig; Nesse, Live L

    2009-11-23

    Biofilm has been shown to be one way for Salmonella to persist in the feed factory environment. Matrix components, such as fimbriae and cellulose, have been suggested to play an important role in the survival of Salmonella in the environment. Multicellular behaviour by Salmonella is often categorized according to colony morphology into rdar (red, dry and rough) expressing curli fimbriae and cellulose, bdar (brown, dry and rough) expressing curli fimbriae and pdar (pink, dry and rough) expressing cellulose. The aim of the study was to look into the distribution of morphotypes among feed and fish meal factory strains of Salmonella, with emphasis on potential differences between morphotypes with regards to survival in the feed factory environment. When screening a total of 148 Salmonella ser. Agona, Salmonella ser. Montevideo, Salmonella ser. Senftenberg and Salmonella ser. Typhimurium strains of feed factory, human clinical and reference collection origin, as many as 99% were able to express rough morphology (rdar or bdar). The dominant morphotype was rdar (74%), however as many as 55% of Salmonella ser. Agona and 19% of Salmonella ser. Senftenberg displayed the bdar morphology. Inconsistency in Calcofluor binding, indicating expression of cellulose, was found among 25% of all the strains tested, however Salmonella ser. Agona showed to be highly consistent in Calcofluor binding (98%). In biofilm, Salmonella ser. Agona strains with bdar mophology was found to be equally tolerant to disinfection treatment as strains with rdar morphotype. However, rdar morphology appeared to be favourable in long term survival in biofilm in a very dry environment. Chemical analysis showed no major differences in polysaccharide content between bdar and rdar strains. Our results indicate that cellulose is not a major component of the Salmonella biofilm matrix. The bdar morphotype is common among Salmonella ser. Agona strains isolated from the factory environment. The rdar and the bdar

  13. Toxigenic potential and heat survival of spore-forming bacteria isolated from bread and ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Palmira; Minervini, Fiorenza; Di Biase, Mariaelena; Valerio, Francesca; Lavermicocca, Paola; Sisto, Angelo

    2015-03-16

    Fifty-four spore-forming bacterial strains isolated from bread ingredients and bread, mainly belonging to the genus Bacillus (including Bacillus cereus), together with 11 reference strains were investigated to evaluate their cytotoxic potential and heat survival in order to ascertain if they could represent a risk for consumer health. Therefore, we performed a screening test of cytotoxic activity on HT-29 cells using bacterial culture filtrates after growing bacterial cells in Brain Heart Infusion medium and in the bread-based medium Bread Extract Broth (BEB). Moreover, immunoassays and PCR analyses, specifically targeting already known toxins and related genes of B. cereus, as well as a heat spore inactivation assay were carried out. Despite of strain variability, the results clearly demonstrated a high cytotoxic activity of B. cereus strains, even if for most of them it was significantly lower in BEB medium. Cytotoxic activity was also detected in 30% of strains belonging to species different from B. cereus, although, with a few exceptions (e.g. Bacillus simplex N58.2), it was low or very low. PCR analyses detected the presence of genes involved in the production of NHE, HBL or CytK toxins in B. cereus strains, while genes responsible for cereulide production were not detected. Production of NHE and HBL toxins was also confirmed by specific immunoassays only for B. cereus strains even if PCR analyses revealed the presence of related toxin genes also in some strains of other species. Viable spore count was ascertained after a heat treatment simulating the bread cooking process. Results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens strains almost completely survived the heat treatment showing less than 2 log-cycle reductions similarly to two strains of B. cereus group III and single strains belonging to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus mojavensis and Paenibacillus spp. Importantly, spores from strains of the B. cereus group IV exhibited a thermal resistance markedly lower than B

  14. Effect of systematic parturition induction of long gestation Holstein dairy cows on calf survival, cow health, production, and reproduction on a commercial farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Aurora; Lane, V Michael

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of parturition induction on dairy cattle with long gestation (past due-date) single pregnancies on calf survivability, cow health, production, and reproduction. There was an induction period during which all cows and heifers reaching 282 days of gestation were induced with dexamethasone (n = 614). Control cows calved the year after, had a gestation length > 282 d and were not induced (n = 508). As the induced and non-induced groups were not contemporaneous, data were standardized using the ratio between the herd baselines for each period. Multivariate analyses of the data showed that induced cows were 1.41 times more likely (P = 0.020) to become pregnant in the lactation following the studied calving than non-induced cows with long gestation. There was no difference in the risk of difficult calvings, stillbirths, culling due to reproductive reasons, average milk production, average days open or risk of abortion in the following lactation between induced and non-induced cows. There seemed to be a relationship between parturition induction and a lower risk of post-partum death, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.162), because including induction as a factor in the model markedly improved the fit of the data. There was no information on incidence of retained placenta (RP) for the non-induced group. In conclusion, parturition induction resulted in more cows becoming pregnant and a seemingly lower risk of post-spartum death without affecting calving difficulty, calf viability, or milk production.

  15. Effect of systematic parturition induction of long gestation Holstein dairy cows on calf survival, cow health, production, and reproduction on a commercial farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Aurora; Lane, V. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of parturition induction on dairy cattle with long gestation (past due-date) single pregnancies on calf survivability, cow health, production, and reproduction. There was an induction period during which all cows and heifers reaching 282 days of gestation were induced with dexamethasone (n = 614). Control cows calved the year after, had a gestation length > 282 d and were not induced (n = 508). As the induced and non-induced groups were not contemporaneous, data were standardized using the ratio between the herd baselines for each period. Multivariate analyses of the data showed that induced cows were 1.41 times more likely (P = 0.020) to become pregnant in the lactation following the studied calving than non-induced cows with long gestation. There was no difference in the risk of difficult calvings, stillbirths, culling due to reproductive reasons, average milk production, average days open or risk of abortion in the following lactation between induced and non-induced cows. There seemed to be a relationship between parturition induction and a lower risk of post-partum death, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.162), because including induction as a factor in the model markedly improved the fit of the data. There was no information on incidence of retained placenta (RP) for the non-induced group. In conclusion, parturition induction resulted in more cows becoming pregnant and a seemingly lower risk of post-spartum death without affecting calving difficulty, calf viability, or milk production. PMID:20592844

  16. Sex and proximity to reproductive maturity influence the survival, final maturation, and blood physiology of Pacific salmon when exposed to high temperature during a simulated migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Ken M; Hinch, Scott G; Martins, Eduardo G; Clark, Timothy D; Lotto, Andrew G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Farrell, Anthony P; Miller, Kristina M

    2012-01-01

    Some Pacific salmon populations have been experiencing increasingly warmer river temperatures during their once-in-a-lifetime spawning migration, which has been associated with en route and prespawn mortality. The mechanisms underlying such temperature-mediated mortality are poorly understood. Wild adult pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) salmon were used in this study. The objectives were to investigate the effects of elevated water temperature on mortality, final maturation, and blood properties under controlled conditions that simulated a "cool" (13°C) and "warm" (19°C) freshwater spawning migration. After 10 d at 13°C, observed mortality was 50%-80% in all groups, which suggested that there was likely some mortality associated with handling and confinement. Observed mortality after 10 d at 19°C was higher, reaching ≥98% in male pink salmon and female pink and sockeye salmon. Thus, male sockeye salmon were the most thermally tolerant (54% observed mortality). Model selection supported the temperature- and sex-specific mortality patterns. The pink salmon were closer to reproductive maturation and farther along the senescence trajectory than sockeye salmon, which likely influenced their survival and physiological responses throughout the experiment. Females of both species held at 19°C had reduced plasma sex steroids compared with those held at 13°C, and female pink salmon were less likely to become fully mature at 19° than at 13°C. Male and female sockeye salmon held at 19°C had higher plasma chloride and osmolality than those held at 13°C, indicative of a thermally related stress response. These findings suggest that sex differences and proximity to reproductive maturity must be considered when predicting thermal tolerance and the magnitude of en route and prespawn mortality for Pacific salmon.

  17. Calibration of redox potential in sperm wash media and evaluation of oxidation-reduction potential values in various assisted reproductive technology culture media using MiOXSYS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panner Selvam, M K; Henkel, R; Sharma, R; Agarwal, A

    2018-01-03

    Oxidation-reduction potential describes the balance between the oxidants and antioxidants in fluids including semen. Various artificial culture media are used in andrology and IVF laboratories for sperm preparation and to support the development of fertilized oocytes under in vitro conditions. The composition and conditions of these media are vital for optimal functioning of the gametes. Currently, there are no data on the status of redox potential of sperm processing and assisted reproduction media. The purpose of this study was to compare the oxidation-reduction potential values of the different media and to calibrate the oxidation-reduction potential values of the sperm wash medium using oxidative stress inducer cumene hydroperoxide and antioxidant ascorbic acid. Redox potential was measured in 10 different media ranging from sperm wash media, freezing media and assisted reproductive technology one-step medium to sequential media. Oxidation-reduction potential values of the sequential culture medium and one-step culture medium were lower and significantly different (p media. Calibration of the sperm wash media using the oxidant cumene hydroperoxide and antioxidant ascorbic acid demonstrated that oxidation-reduction potential and the concentration of oxidant or antioxidant are logarithmically dependent. This study highlights the importance of calibrating the oxidation-reduction potential levels of the sperm wash media in order to utilize it as a reference value to identify the physiological range of oxidation-reduction potential that does not have any adverse effect on normal physiological sperm function. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  18. Identification of sheep ovary genes potentially associated with off-season reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Ka; Zhao, Zongsheng; Blair, Hugh T; Zhang, Peng; Li, Daquan; Ma, Runlin Z

    2012-04-20

    Off-season reproduction is a favorable economic trait for sheep industry. Hu sheep, an indigenous Chinese sheep breed, demonstrates a higher productivity of lambs and displays year-around oestrous behavior under proper nutrition and environment. The genetic basis behind these traits, however, is not well understood. In order to identify genes associated with the off-season reproduction, we constructed a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library using pooled ovary mRNAs of 6 oestrous Hu females as a tester and the pooled ovary mRNAs of 6 non-oestrous Chinese Merino females as a driver. A total of 382 resulting positive clones were obtained after the SSH. We identified 114 differentially up-regulated genes in oestrous Hu sheep by using subsequent screening and DNA sequencing, of which 8 were previously known, 93 were reported for the first time in sheep, and 13 were novel with no significant homology to any sequence in the DNA databases. Functions of the genes identified are related to cell division, signal transduction, structure, metabolism, or cell defense. To validate the results of SSH, 6 genes (Ntrk2, Ppap2b, Htra1, Nid1, Serpine2 and Foxola) were selected for conformational analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and two of them (Htral and Foxo1a) were verified by Northern blot. All of the 6 genes were differentially up-regulated in the ovary of oestrous Hu. It is obvious that off-season reproduction is a complex trait involving multiple genes in multiple organs. This study helps to provide a foundation for the final identification of functional genes involved in the sheep ovary. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Estimates of reproductive potential of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in East Greenland based on an update of maturity status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennedy, James; Hedeholm, Rasmus B.; Gundersen, Agnes C.

    2014-01-01

    ), respectively. Combining the maturity data with abundance data of Greenland halibut in East Greenland, spawning stock biomass (SSB) and total egg production (TEP) was estimated in four quadrants between 1998 and 2012 using both the previous and current interpretation of the maturity scale. Using the new...... interpretation of the scale led to a decrease in SSB estimates of 28–92% in specific areas and years, with an average of 56%. Estimates of TEP were directly proportional to SSB so this approach did not offer any advantages over SSB as a measure of reproductive potential. Length composition of Greenland halibut...

  20. Potential Gains in Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy by Eliminating Maternal Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Liu, L; Zimmerman, L

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE). Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century...... and the hypothetical gains in African countries today by eliminating maternal mortality. Methods: Analogous to life expectancy, RALE is calculated from a life table of ages 15 to 49. Specifically, RALE is the average number of years that women at age 15 would be expected to live between 15 and 49 with current...... mortality rates. Associated single decrement life tables of causes of death other than maternal mortality are explored to assess the possible gains in RALE by reducing or eliminating maternal mortality. We used population-based data from the Human Mortality Database and the Demographic and Health Surveys...

  1. Avian WNT4 in the female reproductive tracts: potential role of oviduct development and ovarian carcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Hong Lim

    Full Text Available The wingless-type MMTV integration site family of proteins (WNTs is highly conserved secreted lipid-modified signaling molecules that play a variety of pivotal roles in developmental events such as embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis and cell polarity. Although, of these proteins, WNT4 is known to be involved in genital development in fetuses of mammalian species, its role is unknown in avian species. Therefore, in this study, we investigated expression profiles, as well as hormonal and post-transcriptional regulation of WNT4 expression in the reproductive tract of female chickens. Results of this study demonstrated that WNT4 is most abundant in the stromal and luminal epithelial cells of the isthmus and shell gland of the oviduct, respectively. WNT4 is also most abundant in the glandular epithelium of the shell gland of the oviduct of laying hens at 3 h post-ovulation during the laying cycle. In addition, treatment of young chicks with diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen agonist stimulated WNT4 only in the glandular epithelial cells of the isthmus and shell gland of the oviduct. Moreover, results of our study demonstrated that miR-1786 influences WNT4 expression via specific binding sites in its 3'-UTR. On the other hand, our results also indicate that WNT4 is expressed predominantly in the glandular epithelium of cancerous ovaries, but not in normal ovaries of hens. Collectively, these results indicate cell-specific expression of WNT4 in the reproductive tract of chickens and that it likely has crucial roles in development and function of oviduct as well as initiation of ovarian carcinogenesis in laying hens.

  2. Impairment of the reproductive potential of male fathead minnows by environmentally relevant exposures to 4-nonylphenolf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfuss, H.L.; Bartell, S.E.; Bistodeau, T.B.; Cediel, R.A.; Grove, K.J.; Zintek, Larry; Lee, K.E.; Barber, L.B.

    2008-01-01

    The synthetic organic compound 4-nonylphenol (NP) has been detected in many human-impacted surface waters in North America. In this study, we examined the ability of NP to alter reproductive competence in male fathead minnows after a 28 day flow-through exposure in a range of environmentally relevant concentrations bracketing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency toxicity-based NP chronic exposure criterion of 6.1 ??g NP/L. Exposure to NP at and above the EPA chronic exposure criterion resulted in an induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) within 14 days. However, 7 days after the cessation of exposure, VTG concentrations had dropped more than 50% and few males expressed VTG above the detection threshold. All of the morphological endpoints, including gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, secondary sexual characters, and histopathology, were unaltered by all NP treatments. However, when NP-exposed male fish were allowed to compete with control males for access to nest sites and females, most treatments altered the reproductive competence of exposed males. At lower NP concentrations, exposed males out-competed control males, possibly by being primed through the estrogenic NP exposure in a fashion similar to priming by pheromones released from female fathead minnows. At higher NP exposure concentrations, this priming effect was negated by the adverse effects of the exposure and control males out-competed treated males. Results of this study indicate the complexity of endocrine disrupting effects and the need for multiple analysis levels to assess the effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Spiromesifen on the Reproductive Potential of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Marčić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the effects of spiromesifen on the fecundity, fertility and population growth of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch after treatment of pre-ovipositing females with five acaricide concentrations: 180mg/l (maximum recommended concentration for use in glasshouses against spider mites, 18 mg/l, 1.8 mg/l and 0.18 mg/l (the last one was discriminative for eggs and immatures in preliminary studies, i.e. produced 100% mortality of those stages and 0.018 mg/l. After24h exposure, the percentages of females surviving treatment without visible symptoms of poisoning were 50% (180 mg/l, 45% (18 mg/l, 51% (1.8 mg/l, 74% (0.18 mg/l, 96% (0.018 mg/l and 98% (0 mg/l. Over the first four days after treatment, the females that survived180 mg/l and 18 mg/l laid no eggs. The total number of eggs laid after treatment with these two concentrations was reduced to less than 2% against the control by the end of the trial. The females that survived 1.8 mg/l laid 50% less eggs, compared to the control, while the number of eggs laid by the females treated with 0.18 mg/l and 0.018 mg/l were 19% and 4% lower, respectively. Over the initial four days, egg hatch rates in treatments were 73-87%, and 92-93% in the control. Significant statistical differences between gross fecundity (FCg and gross fertility (FTg values in the control and treatments were detected for females surviving 180 mg/l, 18 mg/l and 1.8 mg/l. On the other hand, only the net fertility (FTn value of females treated with 0.018 mg/l showed no statistically significant difference from the control value. Treatments with 180 mg/l and 18 mg/l significantly reduced the instantaneous rate of increase (ri 6, 8 and 10 days after treatment, compared to the control. The negative ri values in those treatments indicated a declining population. Sublethal effects of spiromesifen and its impact on T. urticae management are discussed.

  4. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kai [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong Province (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Song, Yong [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Department of Stomatology, Liu Zhou People' s Hospital, Guangxi (China); Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-lin [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Liu, Ke, E-mail: liuke.1999@aliyun.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck oncology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Shang, Zheng-jun, E-mail: shangzhengjun@hotmail.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck oncology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer–macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. - Highlights: • The fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion. • The resulting hybrid cells acquire a new property of drug resistance. • The resulting hybrid cells express the markers of both parental cells (i.e. vimentin and cytokeratin 18). • The hybrid cells contribute to tumor repopulation in vivo.

  5. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Song, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-Lin; Liu, Ke; Shang, Zheng-Jun

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer-macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Celebration Meets Caution: Long Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC)’s Boons, Potential Busts, and the Benefits of a Reproductive Justice Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Jenny A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an outpouring of research and funding pertaining to long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). The time is ripe to contextualize LARC’s hype within our broader reproductive health goals and tools—that is, how we can best address the needs of individuals who benefit from the reproductive health services we provide. After reviewing LARC’s major benefits, this commentary presents three potentially problematic aspects of LARC promotion: 1) the notion that increasing ...

  7. Oxidative stress and cytotoxic potential of anticholinesterase insecticide, malathion in reproductive toxicology of male adolescent mice after acute exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmi Slimen

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The importance to carry out in vitro reproductive toxicology assays lies on the need of knowing the alterations these insecticides may cause at cellular level, since they are endocrine disruptors that interfere with reproductive functions.

  8. Delusional Disorder over the Reproductive Life Span: The Potential Influence of Menopause on the Clinical Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre González-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Recent evidence supports an association between estrogen levels and severity of psychopathology in schizophrenia women. Our main goal was to investigate whether delusional disorder (DD women with premenopausal onset and those with postmenopausal onset differ in demographic and clinical features. Methods. Psychopathological symptoms were assessed in 80 DD women (DSM-IV-TR, at baseline and after six and 24 months. Scores in the PANSS, PSP for functionality, HRSD 17 items, C-SSRS for suicide, and the SUMD were considered outcome variables. For comparison purposes, t- and χ2-tests were performed and nonparametric tests when necessary. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA was conducted for multivariate comparisons. Results. 57 out of 80 DD women completed the study. When unadjusted, DD with premenopausal onset had a longer DUP, higher educational level, and a tendency toward higher rates of gynaecological disorders. Erotomanic type was most frequent in DD women premenopausal onset, and somatic and jealous types were most frequent in those with postmenopausal onset. After 24 months, DD women with premenopausal onset showed higher depressive symptoms and a tendency toward higher rates of psychotic relapses. Conclusions. Our results support that some aspects of psychopathology and insight may differ according to the onset of DD and the reproductive status.

  9. Ameliorative potential of vitamin E on the impact of dietary fumonisin B1 on reproductive performance of female rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ayodeji Gbore

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisin B1 (FB1, a contaminant of agricultural products, particularly maize worldwide is known to be consumed by farm animals and has been documented to cause various physiological responses in animals. A 15-week trial on the ameliorative potential of vitamin E on the negative impacts of FB_1 on reproductive performance of rabbits was conducted. Forty-nine female rabbits aged 16 to 18 weeks weighing 1.65 to 2.0 kg body weight were assigned to seven experimental feeding groups: the control group received a diet without FB_1, three groups were fed diets containing different concentrations of FB_1 at 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 mg kg^(−1, and three further groups had diets containing FB_1 and vitamin E i.e., 2.5 mg FB_1 kg^(−1 + 100 mg vitamin E, 5.0 mg FB_1 kg^(−1 + 100 mg vitamin E, and 7.5 mg FB_1 kg^(−1 + 100 mg vitamin E. Data obtained on reproductive parameters - gestation length, litter size, kit weight as well as the kit crown-rump length, were analysed using ANOVA. Serum reproductive hormones - luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, prolactin, prostaglanding F_2α (PGF_2α, and estradiol (E_2 levels in rabbits fed diets containing 7.5 mg FB_1 kg^(−1 were significantly lower than those for all other treatments. Rabbits fed diets containing >= 5 mg FB_1 kg^(−1 had significantly (p=5.0 mg FB_1 kg^(−1 were significantly (p<0.05 lower than the weight gain observed in the other treatment groups. Does fed diets supplemented with vitamin E had significantly (p<0.05 higher milk yield compared with does on not supplemented diets, including the control. This study has shown that vitamin E supplementation of does counteracts the adverse impacts of FB 1 on reproductive hormones, gestation length, kit weight, and milk production in rabbits.

  10. The effect of claw horn disruption lesions and body condition score at dry-off on survivability, reproductive performance, and milk production in the subsequent lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, V S; Caixeta, L S; McArt, J A A; Bicalho, R C

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of claw horn disruption lesions (CHDL; sole ulcers and white line disease) and body condition score (BCS) at dry-off on survivability, milk production, and reproductive performance during the subsequent lactation. An observational prospective cohort study was conducted on a large commercial dairy in Cayuga County, New York, from September 2008 until January 2009. A total of 573 cows enrolled at dry-off were scored for body condition and hoof trimmed; digits were visually inspected for the presence of CHDL. The BCS data were recategorized into a 3-level variable BCS group (BCSG), with cows with BCS3 placed in BCSG 3 (n=206). Cows in BCSG 2 were 1.35 and 1.02 times more likely to conceive than cows in BCSG 1 and 3, respectively. The cull/death hazard for BCSG 1 cows was 1.55 and 1.47 times higher than for cows in BCSG 2 and BCSG 3, respectively. Milk yield for cows in BCSG 2 (44.6 kg/d, 95% CI 43.4-45.8) was significantly greater than that for cows in BCSG 1 (41.5 kg/d, 95% CI 39.8-43.3). Cows with previous lactation days openmilk>14,054 kg had a similar 1.6 times higher odds of being classified into BCSG 1. Claw horn disruption lesions were found in 24.4% of the cows (n=140) at dry-off. Cows without CHDL were 1.4 times more likely to conceive than cows with CHDL. Additionally, lesion cows were 1.7 times more likely to die or be culled than nonlesion cows. Absence of CHDL did not have a significant effect on milk yield. These findings highlight the importance of claw health and BCS at the end of lactation on future survival and performance. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of insecticides used to control Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith in corn on survival, sex ratio, and reproduction of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jander R Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. is cultivated in large areas and considered one of the world's major cereal crops. There are several arthropod pests that can reduce its production such as the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lep.: Noctuidae, which is considered to be the main pest for corn. Fall armyworm is primarily controlled by insecticides. The use of biological control agents to manage this pest is growing with an emphasis on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate the impact of the following insecticides (g ai L-1 beta-cypermethrin (0.03, chlorfenapyr (0.60, chlorpyrifos (0.96, spinosad (0.16, etofenprox (0.10, triflumuron (0.08, alfa-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron (0.0425/0.0425, and lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam (0.11/0.083 on survival, sex ratio, reproduction, and T. pretiosum offspring. Distilled water was used as a control. Commercial insecticide formulations were diluted in distilled water. Bioassays used Anagasta kuehniella eggs treated with insecticides which were afterwards exposed to parasitism. Bioassays were conducted under controlled conditions at 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% RH, and 12:12 h photoperiod. Alfa-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron, beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenapyr, spinosad, etofenprox, and lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam reduced parasitism capacity of maternal generation females as well as the percentage of insect emergence from the F1 generation. Only triflumuron was selective for T. pretiosum and can be recommended along with this parasitoid in fall armyworm management programs in corn.

  12. In utero infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modulates leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar fluid of surviving piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J; Bøtner, A; Tingstedt, J-E; Aasted, B; Johnsen, C K; Riber, U; Lind, P

    2003-06-20

    It is well known that piglets congenitally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be viremic at birth, and that preweaning mortality due to secondary infections often increases during acute outbreaks of PRRS. Therefore, an immunosuppressive effect of in utero infection has been suggested. The aim of the present study was to characterise the changes of leukocyte populations in piglets surviving in utero infection with PRRSV. A total of 27 liveborn uninfected control piglets and 22 piglets infected transplacentally with a Danish strain of PRRSV were included. At 2 and 4 weeks of age, 21 of 22 (96%) and 7 of 14 (50%) examined infected piglets were still viremic, whereas PRRSV could not be detected in the six infected piglets examined at 6 weeks of age. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine the phenotypic composition of leukocytes in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 2-, 4- and 6-week-old infected piglets and age-matched uninfected controls. The key observation in the present study is that high levels of CD8(+) cells constitute a dominant feature in peripheral blood and BALF of piglets surviving in utero infection with PRRSV. In BALF, the average high level of CD8(+) cells in 2-week-old infected piglets (33.4 +/- 12.6%) was followed by a decline to 7.3 +/- 3.0 and 11.1 +/- 3.0% at 4 and 6 weeks of age. BALF of control piglets contained 1.6 +/- 0.9, 2.3 +/- 1.8 and 1.9 +/- 0.5% CD8(+) cells, only. In peripheral blood, however, the average number of CD8(+) cells remained at high levels in the infected piglets throughout the post-natal experimental period (2.8 +/- 1.9, 2.9 +/- 1.8 and 3.2 +/- 1.7 x 10(6) CD8(+) cells/ml at 2, 4 and 6 weeks, respectively). In the controls, the average levels of CD8(+) cells were 0.9+/-0.2, 1.9 +/- 1.7 and 1.6 +/- 0.5 x 10(6)/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the numbers of CD2(+) , CD4(+)CD8(+) and SLA-classII(+) cells, respectively, in peripheral blood, together with

  13. Lactobacillus plantarum-survival, functional and potential probiotic properties in the human intestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.C.; Vaughan, E.E.; Kleerebezem, M.; Vos, de W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a versatile lactic acid bacterium that is encountered in a range of environmental niches, has a proven ability to survive gastric transit, and can colonize the intestinal tract of human and other mammals. Several studies describe the effects of L. plantarum consumption on

  14. Evaluating the potential of natural reproduction and artificial techniques to increase Acropora cervicornis populations at Discovery Bay, Jamaica

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    Norman J Quinn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shallow water Acropora species have become uncommon on north coast Jamaican coral reefs owing to a number of factors. On many reefs, algae have taken their place. The result is loss of habitat for many species of fish and invertebrates and less attractive reefs with fewer fish. These reefs appear to be prime candidates for coral restoration. However, the potential for coral to naturally recover should be examined before efforts to restore reefs are undertaken. Reef restoration is unnecessary if the population has the capacity to recovery through natural means. We observed that the rate of settlement of Acropora spat in the Caribbean is much lower than the spat settlement rate of several other Caribbean coral families and much lower than Acropora spat settlement rates in the South Pacific. A very low percentage of apparently healthy colonies of A. cervicornis possessed developing gametes in July 2005, a month before spawning. It appears that the long-term survival of remnant A. cervicornis populations is threatened unless successful sexual reproduction is restored. Several techniques were used to test transplant methods for restoring A. cervicornis populations. The mean survivorship and growth rate of one technique was >75% and nearly 250% per annum, respectively. Working with hotel operators, environmental groups, and local fishers, we are attempting to reintroduce A. cervicornis to sites where it previously existed and increase coral biomass and complexity at these sites. Reefs with greater A. cervicornis biomass have larger edible fish populations. With localized protection of these restored reefs we anticipate an increase of larger edible fish not only on reefs within the restored protected areas but also on adjacent reefs. Furthermore, increased coral and fish biodiversity improves the attractiveness of the reef community for divers and snorkelers. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 105-116. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.Las especies someras de Acropora se

  15. Investigation of the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in reproductive medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottmann, Matthias; Homann, Christian; Leeb, R.; Doering, D.; Kuznetsova, J.; Reese, S.; Stief, C. G.; Koelle, S.; Sroka, R.

    2015-02-01

    Introduction and objective: In Europe, nearly every sixth couple in the reproductive age is involuntarily childless. In about 30%, both male and female reveal fertility problems. In about 10% of infertile men, azoospermia is the underlying cause. As conventional therapeutic options are limited, surgical testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is necessary to obtain sperms for assisted reproductive techniques. Regarding the females, up to 30% of all idiopathic infertilities are due to alterations of the uterine tube So far, no imaging technique, which does not require any labelling, is available to evaluate the male and female genital tract at a microscopic level under in vivo conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in gynaecology and andrology. Material and Methods: Tissues samples from the bovine testis, epididymis, vas deferens, ovary, oviduct (ampulla and isthmus) and uterus were obtained immediately after slaughter (14 cows aged 3 to 8 years and 14 bulls aged 3 to 6 years; breeds: Holstein- Friesian, and Deutsches Fleckvieh). Imaging was done by using the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved probe-based Niris Imaging System (Imalux, Cleveland, Ohio, USA) and the Telesto 1325 nm OCT System and Ganymede 930 nm OCT System (Thorlabs Inc., Dachau, Germany). All images obtained were compared to histological images after paraffin embedding and HE staining. Results: OCT imaging visualized the microarchitecture of the testis, epididymis, spermatic duct and the ovary, oviduct and uterus. Using the Thorlabs systems a axial resolution of approx. 5μm and lateral resolution of 8- 15μm could be achieved. Different optical tissue volumes could be visualized, which depends on the optical penetration depth of the wavelength of the system used. While the tissue volume observed by probe based Imalux-OCT is similar to the used Thorlabs systems, the optical resolution is

  16. Exposure to modern, widespread environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals and their effect on the reproductive potential of women: an overview of current epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwacka, Anetta; Zamkowska, Dorota; Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna

    2017-07-31

    Growing evidence indicates that exposure to widespread, environmental contaminants called endocrine disruptors (EDCs) negatively affects animal and human reproductive health and has been linked to several diseases including infertility. This review aims to evaluate the impact of environmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals [phthalates, parabens, triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA), organochlorine (PCBs) and perfluorinated (PFCs) compounds] on the reproductive potential among women, by reviewing most recently published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on EDCs exposure and reproductive potential among women for the last 16 years were identified by a search of the PUBMED, MEDLINE, EBSCO and TOXNET literature databases. The results of the presented studies show that exposure to EDCs impacts the reproductive potential in women, measured by ovarian reserve and by assisted reproductive technology outcomes. Exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals decrease: (i) oestradiol levels (BPA); (ii) anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations (PCBs); (iii) antral follicle count (BPA, parabens, phthalates); (iv) oocyte quality (BPA, triclosan, phthalates, PCBs); (v) fertilization rate (PFCs, PCBs); (vi) implantation (BPA, phthalates, PCBs); (vii) embryo quality (triclosan, PCBs, BPA); (viii) rate of clinical pregnancy and live births (parabens, phthalates). The studies were mostly well-designed and used prospective cohorts with the exposure assessment based on the biomarker of exposure. Considering the suggested health effects, more epidemiological data is urgently needed to confirm the presented findings.

  17. Lepidium latifolium reproductive potential and seed dispersal along salinity and moisture gradients

    OpenAIRE

    Leininger, Samuel P.; Foin, Theodore C.

    2009-01-01

    Lepidium latifolium is an aggressive plant species that is invading both wetlands and uplands across a wide range of salinities. This study examined how salinity and moisture gradients influence the potential for invasion by L. latifolium. Three sites in the San Francisco Bay Delta with varying salinity and moisture levels were chosen as research sites. These sites corresponded to a dry (18.32%) freshwater (3.88‰) site, a wet (40.53%) brackish (23.16‰) site, and a moderately wet (38.33%) sali...

  18. Study on Reproductive Biology of Rhododendron longipedicellatum: A Newly Discovered and Special Threatened Plant Surviving in Limestone Habitat in Southeast Yunnan, China

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    Taiqiang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron longipedicellatum is a narrow endemic species and a subject of urgent demand in the domestic market and overseas. Its fascinating shapes, brilliantly gilvous flowers, and unusual flowering time endow this species with extremely high ornamental value. However, only five wild populations of R. longipedicellatum surviving in limestone habitat have been found through elaborate field investigation, and the number of the populations decreases further or is even confronted with risk of extinction due to the damage of human activities. To enhance the protection and utilization of R. longipedicellatum, this study systematically investigated several important aspects of reproductive biology, including floral syndrome, pollen viability and stigma receptivity, petal color reflectance, breeding system, and pollination biology. The results demonstrated that arched styles not only create obvious herkogamy that avoide self-pollination, but also effectively reduce rain damage to the intrinsic characteristics of the stigma surface secretions, promoting the female fitness of R. longipedicellatum in poor weather. Pollen viability maintained a high level over the flowering period. The reflectance spectrum of petals had two peaks at wavelengths of 360 and 580 nm. Tests of OCI, P/O and artificial pollination all indicated that R. longipedicellatum was self-compatible and that the breeding system was mixed mating. Geitonogamy mediated by Bombus braccatus was the primary pollination route in the natural environment, which suggested that the breeding system of R. longipedicellatum might be evolving from selfing to outcrossing. The pollination vector of R. longipedicellatum was very specific, in that only B. braccatus was confirmed to deliver pollen to the stigmas. Visitation frequency was influenced by the activity rhythms and resource requirements of the different castes (i.e., sex. B. braccatus workers were the most effective pollinators because of higher

  19. The influence of caffeine and thymol on the survival, growth and reproduction of Subulina octona (Brugüière, 1789 (Mollusca, Subulinidae

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    Paula Ferreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Subulina octona is a terrestrial snail which serves as an intermediate host for the parasites. It is also an agricultural pest. The aim of this work was to assess, during 120 days, the effects of caffeine and thymol at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L on the hatchability, survival after hatching, growth and reproduction of S. octona under the laboratory conditions. A total of 240 eggs, 240 juveniles aged 10-day-old, and 240 aged 30-day-old were tested. The results showed that thymol (at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L and caffeine (at 5 g/L acted as ovicides. In the 10-day-old juveniles, caffeine at 5 g/L caused 25% mortality and at 2.5 g/L it caused 30% mortality. Thymol at 2.5 and 5 g/L caused 20 and 22.5% mortality, respectively. In the 30-day-old juveniles, caffeine at 5 g/L caused 47.5% mortality.Subulina octona é um molusco terrestre que atua como hospedeiro intermediário de parasitos. Também atua como praga agrícola. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante 120 dias, o efeito da cafeína e do timol a 2,5g/L e a 5g/L, sobre a eclodibilidade, a sobrevivência após a eclosão, crescimento e a reprodução de S. octona em condições de laboratório. Foram testados 240 ovos, 240 jovens com 10 e 30 dias de vida. Os resultados dos testes mostraram que o timol (5g/L e 2,5g/L e a cafeína a 5g/L atuaram como ovicida. Nos jovens com 10 dias de vida a cafeína à 5g/L provocou uma mortalidade de 25% e a 2,5 g/L 30%. O timol a 2,5g/L e 5g/L provocou 20 e 22,5% de mortalidade, respectivamente. Nos jovens com 30 dias de vida a cafeína a 5g/L causou 47,5% de mortalidade. Esses resultados sugerem novos estudos no campo.

  20. Infectivity and reproductive potential of the Oswego strain of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora associated with life stages of the clover root curculio, Sitona hispidulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya, Lane J; Hower, Arthur A

    2003-05-01

    The infectivity and reproductive potential of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Oswego strain), at different concentrations, was studied. Seventy to 80.0% mortality to late instar larvae of the clover root curculio, Sitona hispidulus, and 40.0-76.0% mortality to pupae, was observed at concentrations of 15-100 infective juveniles. There were no significant differences in mortality among nematode concentrations. LC(50) levels of 4.0 and 21.4 nematodes were determined for clover root curculio larvae and pupae, respectively. Nematodes did not cause significant mortality to adult or first instar clover root curculio. H. bacteriophora was able to complete its development and reproduce in 74.0-95.0% of clover root curculio late instar larvae and pupae. Reproductive potential in curculio larvae and pupae ranged from 0 to 7040 infective juveniles per host. Larvae exposed to 100 nematodes had a reproductive potential significantly higher than in those larvae exposed to 15 and 50 nematodes. Reproductive potential in pupae decreased with an increased nematode dose, indicating potential crowding effects. Host larval and pupal mass were positively correlated with nematode progeny production.

  1. A potential high risk for fatty liver disease was found in mice generated after assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Leilei; Zhang, Jingjing; Zheng, Meimei; Dong, Guoying; Xu, Jingyi; Zhang, Wuyue; Wu, Yibo; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Hui

    2018-02-01

    Abnormal gametogenesis and embryonic development may lead to poor health status of the offspring. The operations involved in the assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) occur during the key stage of gametogenesis and early embryonic development. To assess the potential risk of abnormal lipid metabolism in the liver of adult ARTs offspring, two ARTs mice models derived from preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD group) and in vitro cultured embryos without biopsy (IVEM group) were constructed. And control mice were from in vivo naturally conceived (Normal group). The results showed that ARTs offspring had increased body weight and body fat content comparing to normal group. An increasing volume and amount of lipid droplets as well as lipid droplet fusion were found in the hepatocytes of ARTs mice, and a significantly increased liver TG content was also shown in the ARTs mice, which due to the increased TG synthesis and decreased TG transport in the liver. All the results indicated that the manipulations involved in ARTs might play an important role in the lipid accumulation of adult offspring. By analyzing the DNA methylation profiles of 7.5dpc embryos, we proposed that methylation deregulation of the genes related to liver development in ARTs embryos might contribute to the abnormal phenotype in the offspring. The study demonstrated that ARTs procedures have adverse effect on liver development which resulted in abnormal lipid metabolism and induced the potential high risk of fatty liver in adulthood. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The total pregnancy potential per oocyte aspiration after assisted reproduction-in how many cycles are biologically competent oocytes available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmen, J G; Rodríguez, N M; Andreasen, L D; Loft, A; Ziebe, S

    2016-07-01

    While stimulation of women prior to assisted reproduction is associated with increased success rates, the total biological pregnancy potential per stimulation cycle is rarely assessed. Retrospective sequential cohort study of the cumulative live birth rate in 1148 first IVF/ICSI-cycles and 5-year follow up of frozen embryo replacement (FER) cycles were used. Oocyte number, number of embryos transferred, and cryopreserved/thawed and transferred embryos in a FER cycle were registered for all patients. Children per oocyte and per transferred embryo and percentage of cycles with births were calculated. We obtained 9529 oocytes. Embryos (2507) were transferred in either fresh or FER cycles, resulting in 422 births and 474 live born children. Median age of the women was 32.5 years (range 20-41.5 years). In total, 34.3 % of all cycles ended with a live birth while in 65.7 % of the cycles, no oocytes were capable of developing into a child. The average number of oocytes needed per live born child after transfer of fresh and thawed embryos was 20 as only 5.0 % of oocytes aspirated in the first IVF/ICSI cycle had the competence to develop into a child. In our setting, overall 5.0 % of the oocytes in a first cycle were biologically competent and in around 2/3 of all cycles, none of the oocytes had the potential to result in the birth of a child.

  3. Radical cystectomy in octogenarians--does morbidity outweigh the potential survival benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, S Machele; Siegrist, Timothy; Cronin, Angel; Savage, Caroline; Milowsky, Matthew I; Herr, Harry W

    2010-06-01

    Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data indicate only 19.7% of patients 80 years old or older with muscle invasive bladder cancer undergo radical cystectomy vs 49.4% of those with similar stage disease age 65 to 79 years, reflecting concern for perioperative morbidity. We evaluated the morbidity and survival outcomes of octogenarians treated with radical cystectomy at a tertiary cancer center. We conducted a retrospective review of 1,142 patients entered prospectively into a hospital based complication database between 1995 and 2005 using a modified Clavien system. Complications were classified as minor or major based on the complexity of intervention required. Disease specific and competing risk survival curves for patients younger than 80 years vs 80 years old or older were created. Octogenarians had a nonsignificantly higher rate of minor (55% vs 50%) and major complications (17% vs 13%) than younger patients, respectively (global p = 0.15). After adjusting for baseline characteristics the risk of any complication was roughly flat across all ages (p = 0.9). For major complications risk appeared to increase slightly up to age 65 years and then plateau (p = 0.16). After adjusting for deaths from other causes the cumulative incidence of death from bladder cancer in octogenarians was comparable to that in younger patients (5-year cumulative incidence of death from bladder cancer 26% vs 25%). In our experience radical cystectomy in older patients with bladder cancer provides similar disease control and survival outcomes with risks of high grade perioperative morbidity comparable to those in younger patients, and remains an important treatment option. Copyright 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nitrosylcobalamin potentiates the anti-neoplastic effects of chemotherapeutic agents via suppression of survival signaling.

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    Joseph A Bauer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl is a chemotherapeutic pro-drug derived from vitamin B12 that preferentially delivers nitric oxide (NO to tumor cells, based upon increased receptor expression. NO-Cbl induces Apo2L/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and inhibits survival signaling in a variety of malignant cell lines. Chemotherapeutic agents often simultaneously induce an apoptotic signal and activation of NF-kappaB, which has the undesired effect of promoting cell survival. The specific aims of this study were to 1 measure the anti-tumor effects of NO-Cbl alone and in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic agents, and to 2 examine the mechanism of action of NO-Cbl as a single agent and in combination therapy.Using anti-proliferative assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, immunoblot analysis and kinase assays, we demonstrate an increase in the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents in combination with NO-Cbl as a result of suppressed NF-kappaB activation.Eighteen chemotherapeutic agents were tested in combination with NO-Cbl, in thirteen malignant cell lines, resulting in a synergistic anti-proliferative effect in 78% of the combinations tested. NO-Cbl pre-treatment resulted in decreased NF-kappaB DNA binding activity, inhibition of IkappaB kinase (IKK enzymatic activity, decreased AKT activation, increased caspase-8 and PARP cleavage, and decreased cellular XIAP protein levels.The use of NO-Cbl to inhibit survival signaling may enhance drug efficacy by preventing concomitant activation of NF-kappaB or AKT.

  5. Survival Potential and Photosynthetic Activity of Lichens Under Mars-Like Conditions: A Laboratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Möhlmann, Diedrich; Butina, Frederike; Lorek, Andreas; Wernecke, Roland; Ott, Sieglinde

    2010-03-01

    Lichens were repetitively exposed over 22 days to thermophysical Mars-like conditions at low-and mid-latitudes. The simulated parameters and the experimental setup are described. Natural samples of the lichen Xanthoria elegans were used to investigate their ability to survive the applied Mars-like conditions. The effects of atmospheric pressure, CO2 concentration, low temperature, water availability, and light on Mars were also studied. The results of these experiments indicate that - no significant decrease in the vitality of the lichen occurred after exposure to simulated martian conditions, which was demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis, and - a 95% CO2 atmosphere with 100% humidity, low pressure (partial pressure of CO2 was 600 Pa), and low temperature has a balancing effect on photosynthetic activity as a function of temperature. This means a starting low photosynthetic activity at high CO2 concentrations with Earth-like pressure has a reduction of 60%. But, if the simulated atmospheric pressure is reduced to Mars-like conditions with the maintenance of the same Mars-like 95% CO2 concentration, the photosynthetic activity increases and again reaches similar values as those exhibited under terrestrial atmospheric pressure and concentration. Based on these results, we presume that, in any region on Mars where liquid water might be available, even for short periods of time, a eukaryotic symbiotic organism would have the ability to survive, at least over weeks, and to temporarily photosynthesize.

  6. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer in Taiwanese women: potential treatment delay and impact on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Ling; Chan, K Arnold; Hsieh, Fon-Jou; Chang, Li-Yun; Wang, Ming-Yang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of women diagnosed with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) in Taiwan. PABC is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or within 1 year after obstetric delivery. Our sample of PABC patients (N = 26) included all patients diagnosed at a major medical center in northern Taiwan from 1984 through 2009. Among these patients, 15 were diagnosed during pregnancy and 11 were diagnosed within 1 year after delivery. The comparison group included 104 patients within the same age range as the PABC patients and diagnosed with breast cancer not associated with pregnancy from 2004 through 2009 at the same hospital. Patients' initiating treatment delayed, 5-year and 10-year overall survival were delineated by stratified Kaplan-Meier estimates. Patients' characteristics were associated with initiating treatment delayed was evaluated with multivariate proportional hazards modeling. Antepartum PABC patients were younger and had longer time between diagnosis and treatment initiation than postpartum PABC patients. The predictor of treatment delayed was including birth parity, cancer stage, and pregnancy. The PABC group had larger tumors, more advanced cancer stage, and tumors with less progesterone receptor than the comparison group. The antepartum PABC patients had higher mortality than postpartum PABC and comparison groups within 5 years after diagnosis. Based on these results, we confirmed that pregnant women with breast cancer were more likely to delay treatment. Therefore, we recommend that breast cancer screening should be integrated into the prenatal and postnatal routine visits for early detection of the women's breast problems.

  7. The potential adjuvanticity of quaternized chitosan hydrogel based microparticles for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue-Qi; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yu-Xia; Wu, Ya-Jun; Jia, Pei-Yuan; Shan, Jun-Jie; Wu, Jie; Ma, Guang-Hui; Su, Zhi-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Infectious diseases possess a big threat to the livestock industry worldwide. Currently, inactivated veterinary vaccines have attracted much attention to prevent infection due to their safer profile compared to live attenuated vaccine. However, its intrinsic poor immunogenicity demands the incorporation of an adjuvant. Mineral oil based adjuvant (Montanide™ ISA206) was usually used to potentiate the efficacy of veterinary vaccines. However, ISA206 could not induce robust cellular immune responses, which was very important in controlling virus replication and clearing the infected cells. Moreover, mineral oil would result in severe side effects. To improve both the humoral and cellular immune responses of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) inactivated vaccine, we developed pH-sensitive and size-controllable quaternized chitosan hydrogel microparticles (Gel MPs) without using chemical cross linking agent. Gel MPs, ionic cross-linked with glycerophosphate (GP), were biocompatible and could efficiently adsorb the inactivated PRRSV vaccine with a loading capacity of 579.05μg/mg. After intramuscular immunization in mice, results suggested that Gel MPs elicited significantly higher cell-mediated immune responses and comparable humoral immune responses compared to ISA 206. Regarding the biocompatibility, safety and effectiveness, Gel MPs would be a promising candidate to enhance the efficacy of veterinary vaccine. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Latent effect of gamma irradiation on reproductive potential and ultrastructure of males' testes of Culex pipiens (Diptera; Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa I. Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory male pupae of Culex pipiens were exposed to 23, 41, 74 and 128 Gy doses of gamma radiation according to the LD25, LD50, LD75 and LD90 calculation, respectively. The inherited deleterious effects of gamma radiation were observed in the F1, F2 and F3 generations. Levels of sterility index in the F1 and F2 were higher than those of untreated control but in the F3 generation there was a semi-sterility compared with the control. Ultrastructure of normal males' testes of C. pipiens was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Histopathological responses were observed in the irradiated testes of C. pipiens. Gamma radiation had greatly affected the testes, such as (i rupture, necrosis, degeneration and small vacuoles were reported in the testicular wall (ii an abnormal distribution of the developmental stages of spermatogonia and spermatocytes leading to a general decrease in the rate of spermatogenesis; and (iii deformity of sperm inhibitting the movements and the fertility of the sperm led to the decrease in the reproductive potential of C. pipiens. Consequently, these radiation doses are consistent with those used in the already established Sterile Insect Technique (SIT programmes against Culex pipiens.

  9. Potential gains in reproductive-aged life expectancy by eliminating maternal mortality: a demographic bonus of achieving MDG 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Canudas-Romo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE. Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century and the hypothetical gains in African countries today by eliminating maternal mortality. METHODS: Analogous to life expectancy, RALE is calculated from a life table of ages 15 to 49. Specifically, RALE is the average number of years that women at age 15 would be expected to live between 15 and 49 with current mortality rates. Associated single decrement life tables of causes of death other than maternal mortality are explored to assess the possible gains in RALE by reducing or eliminating maternal mortality. We used population-based data from the Human Mortality Database and the Demographic and Health Surveys. FINDINGS: In developed countries, five years in RALE were gained over the twentieth century, of which approximately 10%, or half a year, was attributable to reductions in maternal mortality. In sub-Saharan African countries, the possible achievable gains fluctuate between 0.24 and 1.47 years, or 6% and 44% of potential gains in RALE. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mortality is a rare event, yet it is still a very important component of RALE. Averting the burden of maternal deaths could return a significant increase in the most productive ages of human life.

  10. Potential gains in reproductive-aged life expectancy by eliminating maternal mortality: a demographic bonus of achieving MDG 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Liu, Li; Zimmerman, Linnea; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Tsui, Amy

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the change over time in the contribution of maternal mortality to a life expectancy calculated between ages 15 and 49, or Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy (RALE). Our goal was to estimate the increase in RALE in developed countries over the twentieth century and the hypothetical gains in African countries today by eliminating maternal mortality. Analogous to life expectancy, RALE is calculated from a life table of ages 15 to 49. Specifically, RALE is the average number of years that women at age 15 would be expected to live between 15 and 49 with current mortality rates. Associated single decrement life tables of causes of death other than maternal mortality are explored to assess the possible gains in RALE by reducing or eliminating maternal mortality. We used population-based data from the Human Mortality Database and the Demographic and Health Surveys. In developed countries, five years in RALE were gained over the twentieth century, of which approximately 10%, or half a year, was attributable to reductions in maternal mortality. In sub-Saharan African countries, the possible achievable gains fluctuate between 0.24 and 1.47 years, or 6% and 44% of potential gains in RALE. Maternal mortality is a rare event, yet it is still a very important component of RALE. Averting the burden of maternal deaths could return a significant increase in the most productive ages of human life.

  11. Effects of temperature on survival, development, longevity, and fecundity of Ophraella communa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a potential biological control agent against Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asterales: Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Guo, Jian-Ying; Chen, Hong-Song; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2010-06-01

    Ophraella communa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a leaf beetle that is unintentionally introduced in China. It is a potential biological control agent against common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asterales: Asteraceae). The effects of temperature on the development and fecundity of O. communa were studied at eight constant temperature regimens (15, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, 32, 36 degrees C) in the laboratory. The results showed that the developmental periods for egg, larva, pupa, and entire immature stages decreased in response to the increasing temperature, with the exception of 30 degrees C. The survival rates at different developmental stages were higher at 25 and 28 degrees C than at other temperatures. Ovipositional period and longevity of female shortened with the increasing temperature. The highest fecundity of female was observed to be 2,712.3 eggs/female at 28 degrees C. Life table of O. communa was constructed based on the data at 20-32 degrees C. The innate capacity for increase (r(m)), the net reproductive rate (R(0)), and the finite rate of increase (lambda) reached the maximum at 28 degrees C, with values of 0.247, 1,773.0, and 1.280, respectively. The shortest period of a generation (T) was 24.6 d at 32 degrees C, whereas the longest T value was recorded as 79.3 d at 20 degrees C. These results offer valuable insight on the establishment potential of O. communa in new environments with diverse temperature regimens and on its mass-rearing techniques in laboratory.

  12. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer in Taiwanese women: potential treatment delay and impact on survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ling Yang

    Full Text Available This study investigated the clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of women diagnosed with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC in Taiwan. PABC is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or within 1 year after obstetric delivery. Our sample of PABC patients (N = 26 included all patients diagnosed at a major medical center in northern Taiwan from 1984 through 2009. Among these patients, 15 were diagnosed during pregnancy and 11 were diagnosed within 1 year after delivery. The comparison group included 104 patients within the same age range as the PABC patients and diagnosed with breast cancer not associated with pregnancy from 2004 through 2009 at the same hospital. Patients' initiating treatment delayed, 5-year and 10-year overall survival were delineated by stratified Kaplan-Meier estimates. Patients' characteristics were associated with initiating treatment delayed was evaluated with multivariate proportional hazards modeling. Antepartum PABC patients were younger and had longer time between diagnosis and treatment initiation than postpartum PABC patients. The predictor of treatment delayed was including birth parity, cancer stage, and pregnancy. The PABC group had larger tumors, more advanced cancer stage, and tumors with less progesterone receptor than the comparison group. The antepartum PABC patients had higher mortality than postpartum PABC and comparison groups within 5 years after diagnosis. Based on these results, we confirmed that pregnant women with breast cancer were more likely to delay treatment. Therefore, we recommend that breast cancer screening should be integrated into the prenatal and postnatal routine visits for early detection of the women's breast problems.

  13. L-carnosine enhanced reproductive potential of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast growing on medium containing glucose as a source of carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwolek-Mirek, Magdalena; Molon, Mateusz; Kaszycki, Pawel; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2016-08-01

    Carnosine is an endogenous dipeptide composed of β-alanine and L-histidine, which occurs in vertebrates, including humans. It has a number of favorable properties including buffering, chelating, antioxidant, anti-glycation and anti-aging activities. In our study we used the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast as a model organism to examine the impact of L-carnosine on the cell lifespan. We demonstrated that L-carnosine slowed down the growth and decreased the metabolic activity of cells as well as prolonged their generation time. On the other hand, it allowed for enhancement of the yeast reproductive potential and extended its reproductive lifespan. These changes may be a result of the reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased ATP content in the yeast cells. However, due to reduction of the post-reproductive lifespan, L-carnosine did not have an influence on the total lifespan of yeast. In conclusion, L-carnosine does not extend the total lifespan of S. cerevisiae but rather it increases the yeast's reproductive capacity by increasing the number of daughter cells produced.

  14. A Preliminary Study about the Potential Effects of Heavy Metals on the Human Male Reproductive Parameters in HIV-Infected Population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renyan; Zhao, Letian; Li, Lianbing; Hou, Zhiwei; Zhang, Danyan; Wan, Ling; Wei, Li; Yang, Yuyou; Lv, Jing; Ma, Mingfu; Zhu, Yijian

    2017-03-20

    Due to the inconsistent effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on the human male reproduction in previous studies and the impacts of environmental exposures, such as heavy metals, on male reproduction receiving little attention in HIV-infected population, the aim of present study was to investigate whether heavy metals have potential effects on reproductive parameters in HIV-infected men. The current study assessed the associations between semen quality or serum hormone and concentration of the three heavy metal toxicants (lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn)) in seminal, urine, and serum, and 50 HIV-infected men were recruited in the present study. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn were measured in three fluids by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Semen analyses were performed according to World Health Organization criteria. Serum samples were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone. HIV RNA viral load was determined by HIV virus loads kit. Spearman's rank correlations were used for correlation analyses. The results showed that the concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn were significantly correlated with semen quality and serum hormone. HIV-1 virus loads were significantly associated with increased seminal Pb. However, HIV-1 virus loads were not statistically associated with semen quality and serum hormone. Our findings suggested that environmental heavy metals had potential effects on reproductive parameters in HIV-infected men in China.

  15. Moringa oleifera with promising neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth promoting potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Md Abdul; Kang, Ji-Young; Mohibbullah, Md; Hong, Yong-Ki; Lee, Hyunsook; Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon; Moon, Il Soo

    2014-02-27

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) by virtue of its high nutritional as well as ethnomedical values has been gaining profound interest both in nutrition and medicinal research. The leaf of this plant is used in ayurvedic medicine to treat paralysis, nervous debility and other nerve disorders. In addition, research evidence also suggests the nootropic as well as neuroprotective roles of Moringa oleifera leaf in animal models. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf in the primary hippocampal neurons regarding its neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties. The primary culture of embryonic hippocampal neurons was incubated with the ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaf (MOE). After an indicated time, cultures were either stained directly with a lipophilic dye, DiO, or fixed and immunolabeled to visualize the neuronal morphology. Morphometric analyses for neurite maturation and synaptogenesis were performed using Image J software. Neuronal viability was evaluated using trypan blue exclusion and lactate dehydrogenase assays. MOE promoted neurite outgrowth in a concentration-dependent manner with an optimal concentration of 30 μg/mL. As a very initial effect, MOE significantly promoted the earlier stages of neuronal differentiation. Subsequently, MOE significantly increased the number and length of dendrites, the length of axon, and the number and length of both dendrite and axonal branches, and eventually facilitated synaptogenesis. The β-carotene, one major compound of MOE, promoted neuritogensis, but the increase was not comparable with the effect of MOE. In addition, MOE supported neuronal survival by protecting neurons from naturally occurring cell death in vitro. Our findings indicate that MOE promotes axodendritic maturation as well as provides neuroprotection suggesting a promising pharmacological importance of this nutritionally and ethnomedically important plant for the well-being of nervous system. Copyright

  16. Long-term potentiation promotes proliferation/survival and neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taesup Cho

    Full Text Available Neural stem cell (NSC replacement therapy is considered a promising cell replacement therapy for various neurodegenerative diseases. However, the low rate of NSC survival and neurogenesis currently limits its clinical potential. Here, we examined if hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP, one of the most well characterized forms of synaptic plasticity, promotes neurogenesis by facilitating proliferation/survival and neuronal differentiation of NSCs. We found that the induction of hippocampal LTP significantly facilitates proliferation/survival and neuronal differentiation of both endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs and exogenously transplanted NSCs in the hippocampus in rats. These effects were eliminated by preventing LTP induction by pharmacological blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR via systemic application of the receptor antagonist, 3-[(R-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl]-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP. Moreover, using a NPC-neuron co-culture system, we were able to demonstrate that the LTP-promoted NPC neurogenesis is at least in part mediated by a LTP-increased neuronal release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its consequent activation of tropomysosin receptor kinase B (TrkB receptors on NSCs. Our results indicate that LTP promotes the neurogenesis of both endogenous and exogenously transplanted NSCs in the brain. The study suggests that pre-conditioning of the host brain receiving area with a LTP-inducing deep brain stimulation protocol prior to NSC transplantation may increase the likelihood of success of using NSC transplantation as an effective cell therapy for various neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Body size, nuptial pad size and hormone levels: potential non-destructive biomarkers of reproductive health in wild toads (Bufo bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Frances; Baynes, Alice; Clare, Frances; Duffus, Amanda L J; Larroze, Severine; Scholze, Martin; Garner, Trenton W J

    2014-09-01

    Amphibians are declining and fertility/fecundity are major drivers of population stability. The development of non-destructive methods to assess reproductive health are needed as destructive measures are fundamentally at odds with conservation goals for declining species. We investigated the utility of body size, nuptial pad size and forelimb width as non-destructive biomarkers of internal reproductive physiology, by analysing correlations with commonly used destructive methods in adult male toads (Bufo bufo) from a low human impact and a high human impact site. Principal component analyses revealed that size was the most important variable for explaining inter-individual differences in other measured endpoints, both non-destructive and destructive, except for hormone levels and nuptial pad, which were independent of size. Toads from the LI and the HI site differed in almost all of the measured endpoints; this was largely driven by the significantly smaller size of toads from the HI site. Correlational analyses within sites revealed that size was correlated with several reproductive endpoints in toads from the HI site but not the LI site, indicating a possible limiting effect of size on reproductive physiology. Intersex was observed in 33% of toads from the HI site and incidence was not related to any other measured endpoint. In conclusion, we provide evidence that size is associated with reproductive physiology and that nuptial pad/hormone levels have potential as additional markers due to their independence from size. We also show that human activities can have a negative effect on reproductive physiology of the common toad.

  18. Effects of triclosan on hormones and reproductive axis in female Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio): Potential mechanisms underlying estrogen effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Guo, Xiangmeng; Chen, Wanguang; Sun, Yaowen; Fan, Chaojie

    2017-12-01

    Triclosan (TCS), a member of the class of compounds called pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), is a broad antibacterial and antifungal agent found in a lot of consumer products. However, TCS hormone effect mechanism in teleost female fish is not clear. Female Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 1/20, 1/10 and 1/5 LC 50 TCS (96h LC 50 of TCS to carp) under semi-static conditions for 42days. Vitellogenin (Vtg), 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), testosterone(T), estrogen receptor (Er), gonadotropin (GtH), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Meanwhile, we also examined the mRNA expressions of aromatase, GtHs-β, GnRH, and Er by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results indicated that 1/5 LC 50 TCS induced Vtg in hepatopancreas of female carps by interference with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at multiple potential loci through three mechanisms: (a) TCS exposure enhanced the mRNA expression of hypothalamus and gonadal aromatase which converts androgens into estrogens, subsequently increasing serum concentrations of E 2 to induce Vtg in hepatopancreas; (b) TCS treatment increased GnRH and GtH-β mRNA expression and secretion, causing the disturbance of reproductive endocrine and the increase of E 2 to induce Vtg in hepatopancreas; (c) TCS exposure enhanced synthesis and secretion of Er, then it bound to Er to active Vtg synthesis. These mechanisms showed that TCS may induce Vtg production in female Yellow River carp by Er-mediated and non-Er-mediated pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dispersal and survival rates of adult and juvenile Red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda exposed to potential contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber, E. A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Annual survival and dispersal rates of adult and juvenile red-tailed tropicbirds were examined in connection with exposure to heavy metals. From 1990-2000 the incineration of a U.S. stockpile of chemical weapons stored at Johnston Atoll exposed nesting tropicbirds to increased levels of human disturbance, smoke stack emissions and potential leaks. Using a multi-state mark-recapture modeling approach, birds nesting in this site (downwind of the plant were compared to those nesting in a reference site (upwind of the plant with less human disturbance, no exposure to smoke stack emissions or other potential incineration emissions. We did not find any difference in survival of adults or juveniles when comparing the two sites. Adult breeding dispersal rates did not differ between the sites but we did find differences in the age-specific natal dispersal rates. Birds fledged from downwind areas were less likely to return to their natal area to nest and more likely to immigrate to the upwind area than vice-versa. This asymmetry in emigration rates is believed to be due to differing vegetation densities and has implications for vegetation management in relation to tropicbird nest success and population size.

  20. EGFR Inhibition Abrogates Leiomyosarcoma Cell Chemoresistance through Inactivation of Survival Pathways and Impairment of CSC Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Giovanni; Salvati, Valentina; Memeo, Lorenzo; Fecchi, Katia; Colarossi, Cristina; Di Matteo, Paola; Signore, Michele; Biffoni, Mauro; D’Andrea, Vito; De Antoni, Enrico; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; De Maria, Ruggero; Eramo, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Background Tumor cells with stem-like phenotype and properties, known as cancer stem cells (CSC), have been identified in most solid tumors and are presumed to be responsible for driving tumor initiation, chemoresistance, relapse, or metastasis. A subpopulation of cells with increased stem-like potential has also been identified within sarcomas. These cells are endowed with increased tumorigenic potential, chemoresistance, expression of embryonic markers, and side population(SP) phenotype. Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are soft tissue sarcomas presumably arising from undifferentiated cells of mesenchymal origin, the Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC). Frequent recurrence of LMS and chemoresistance of relapsed patients may likely result from the failure to target CSC. Therefore, therapeutic cues coming from the cancer stem cell (CSC) field may drastically improve patient outcome. Methodology/Principal Findings We expanded LMS stem-like cells from patient samples in vitro and examined the possibility to counteract LMS malignancy through a stem-like cell effective approach. LMS stem-like cells were in vitro expanded both as “tumor spheres” and as “monolayers” in Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) conditions. LMS stem-like cells displayed MSC phenotype, higher SP fraction, and increased drug-extrusion, extended proliferation potential, self-renewal, and multiple differentiation ability. They were chemoresistant, highly tumorigenic, and faithfully reproduced the patient tumor in mice. Such cells displayed activation of EGFR/AKT/MAPK pathways, suggesting a possibility in overcoming their chemoresistance through EGFR blockade. IRESSA plus Vincristine treatment determined pathway inactivation, impairment of SP phenotype, high cytotoxicity in vitro and strong antitumor activity in stem-like cell-generated patient-like xenografts, targeting both stem-like and differentiated cells. Conclusions/Significance EGFR blockade combined with vincristine determines stem-like cell effective

  1. Areas of potential suitability and survival of Dendroctonus valens in China under extreme climate warming scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S Y; Ge, X Z; Wang, T; Wen, J B; Zong, S X

    2015-08-01

    The areas in China with climates suitable for the potential distribution of the pest species red turpentine beetle (RTB) Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were predicted by CLIMEX based on historical climate data and future climate data with warming estimated. The model used a historical climate data set (1971-2000) and a simulated climate data set (2010-2039) provided by the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change (TYN SC 2.0). Based on the historical climate data, a wide area was available in China with a suitable climate for the beetle in which every province might contain suitable habitats for this pest, particularly all of the southern provinces. The northern limit of the distribution of the beetle was predicted to reach Yakeshi and Elunchun in Inner Mongolia, and the western boundary would reach to Keerkezi in Xinjiang Province. Based on a global-warming scenario, the area with a potential climate suited to RTB in the next 30 years (2010-2039) may extend further to the northeast. The northern limit of the distribution could reach most parts of south Heilongjiang Province, whereas the western limit would remain unchanged. Combined with the tendency for RTB to spread, the variation in suitable habitats within the scenario of extreme climate warming and the multiple geographical elements of China led us to assume that, within the next 30 years, RTB would spread towards the northeast, northwest, and central regions of China and could be a potentially serious problem for the forests of China.

  2. Life-history tradeoffs and reproductive cycles in Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Kendall, William L.; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2015-01-01

    The study of tradeoffs among life-history traits has long been key to understanding the evolution of life-history strategies. However, more recently, evolutionary ecologists have realized that reproductive costs have the potential to influence population dynamics. Here, we tested for costs of reproduction in the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and assessed whether costs of reproduction in year t − 1 on reproduction in year t could be responsible for regionally synchronized biennial cycles in reproductive output. Logistic regression analysis and multistate mark–recapture models with state uncertainty revealed that breeding reduced the likelihood of reproducing in the subsequent year by 16% to 38%, but had no influence on subsequent survival. We also found that costs of reproduction in year t − 1 were correlated with climatic conditions in year t, with evidence of higher costs during the dry phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Using a simulation-based population model, we showed that strong reproductive costs had the potential to create biennial cycles in population-level reproductive output; however, estimated costs of reproduction appeared to be too small to explain patterns observed in Spotted Owls. In the absence of strong reproductive costs, we hypothesize that observed natural cycles in the reproductive output of Spotted Owls are related to as-yet-unmeasured, regionally concordant fluctuations in environmental conditions or prey resources. Despite theoretical evidence for demographic effects, our analyses illustrate that linking tradeoffs to actual changes in population processes will be challenging because of the potential confounding effects of individual and environmental variation.

  3. Three-year breeding cycle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-based diet, totally free of marine resources: consequences for reproduction, fatty acid composition and progeny survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Leprevost, Amandine; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial plant resources are increasingly used as substitutes for fish meal and fish oil in fish feed in order to reduce the reliance of aquaculture on marine fishery resources. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the effects of such nutritional transition, no whole breeding cycles of fish fed diets free from marine resources has been reported to date. We therefore studied the reproductive performance of trout after a complete cycle of breeding while consuming a diet totally devoid of marine ingredients and thus of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) that play a major role in the formation of ova. Two groups of female rainbow trout were fed from first feeding either a commercial diet (C, marine and plant ingredients), or a 100% plant-based diet (V, blend of plant proteins and vegetable oils). Livers, viscera, carcasses and ova were sampled at spawning and analyzed for lipids and fatty acids. Although the V-diet was devoid of n-3 LC-PUFAs, significant amounts of EPA and DHA were found in livers and ova, demonstrating efficient bioconversion of linolenic acid and selective orientation towards the ova. Some ova were fertilized to assess the reproductive performance and offspring survival. We observed for the first time that trout fed a 100% plant-based diet over a 3-year breeding cycle were able to produce ova and viable alevins, although the ova were smaller. The survival of offspring from V-fed females was lower (-22%) at first spawning, but not at the second. Our study showed that, in addition to being able to grow on a plant-based diet, rainbow trout reared entirely on such a diet can successfully produce ova in which neo-synthesized n-3 LC-PUFAs are accumulated, leading to viable offspring. However, further adjustment of the feed formula is still needed to optimize reproductive performance.

  4. Development, reproductive capacity and survival of Amblyomma variegatum and Boophilus decoloratus in relation to host resistance and climatic factors under field conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solomon, G; Kaaya, G.P

    1998-01-01

    To determine the developmental periods, fecundity and survival of Amblyomma variegatum and Boophilus decoloratus and the effect of host resistance, a study was carried out in the field at Abernossa...

  5. Oryzias melastigma - an effective substitute for exotic larvicidal fishes: enhancement of its reproductive potential by supplementary feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Abir Lal; Dey, Sajal Kumar; Chakraborty, Debargha; Manna, Asim Kumar; Manna, Pankaj Kumar

    2013-12-01

    A preliminary study was conducted on the efficacy of Oryzias melastigma in consuming mosquito larva so as to control mosquito and mosquito borne diseases, and enhancing its reproductive success using supplementary feed. Oryzias melastigma is a larvivore fish and widely distributed in the shallow water, wetlands of Gangetic plains and peninsular India. These studies indicate that O. melastigma is a prolific breeder and gregarious feeder of mosquito larvae. Increased reproduction by providing different supplementary feed, of which Ulothrix acted remarkably, may aid in wide spread use of this fish as a biological control measure against mosquitoes. One adult fish of any sex can consume 87.1% first instars mosquito larvae/day. So, early stages of mosquito larvae are effectively controlled, as compared to other successive stages. Ulothrix has considerable effect on egg production, successful hatching and regaining reproductive maturity of female in surprisingly quicker interval.

  6. 60-Day chronic exposure to low concentrations of HgCl2 impairs sperm quality: hormonal imbalance and oxidative stress as potential routes for reproductive dysfunction in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S Martinez

    Full Text Available Mercury is a toxic and bio-accumulative heavy metal of global concern. While good deals of research have been conducted on the toxic effects of mercury, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of male reproductive dysfunction induced by mercury. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects and underlying mechanisms of chronic mercury exposure at low levels on male reproductive system of rats. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups and treated for 60 days with saline (i.m., Control and HgCl2 (i.m. 1st dose: 4.6 µg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07 µg/kg/day. We analyzed sperm parameters, hormonal levels and biomarkers of oxidative stress in testis, epididymis, prostate and vas deferens. Mercury treatment decreased daily sperm production, count and motility and increased head and tail morphologic abnormalities. Moreover, mercury treatment decreased luteinizing hormone levels, increased lipid peroxidation on testis and decreased antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase on reproductive organs. Our data demonstrate that 60-day chronic exposure to low concentrations of HgCl2 impairs sperm quality and promotes hormonal imbalance. The raised oxidative stress seems to be a potential mechanism involved on male reproductive toxicity by mercury.

  7. Biomarkers to Assess Possible Biological Effects on Reproductive Potential, Immune Function, and Energetic Fitness of Bottlenose Dolphins Exposed to Sounds Consistent with Naval Sonars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    biologically significant responses such as changes in reproductive potential, immune system function, acute phase responses, and energetic fitness. The...the National Marine Fisheries Service-Southwest Fisheries Science Center. Particular thanks go to Dr. R.L. Brownell, Ms. Siri Hakala, Agent Rhyan...profiling of a pre-selected class of metabolites, and non-targeted, semi-quantitative fingerprinting of a large number of metabolites providing a “ systems

  8. Optimum level of fish liver oil as enrichment for Artemia fed to the tiger tail seahorse Hippocampus comes for reproduction and juvenile survival

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Nhu Binh; Augusto E. Serrano Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive performance of broodstocks and juvenile stress resistance of seahorseHippocampus comes afed Artemia enriched with varying fish liver oil (FLO) were evaluated. Artemia wasenriched in seven media with 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 10% FLO supplemented with egg yolk,baker’s yeast and vitamins 12 h before feeding to seahorse broodstocks. In general, responseparameters increased at lower concentration of FLO, peaked at 5% and decreased at 10%; thus, forparabolic relationships, the quadra...

  9. Survival, Biofilm Formation, and Growth Potential of Environmental and Enteric Escherichia coli Strains in Drinking Water Microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abberton, Cathy L; Bereschenko, Ludmila; van der Wielen, Paul W J J; Smith, Cindy J

    2016-09-01

    Escherichia coli is the most commonly used indicator for fecal contamination in drinking water distribution systems (WDS). The assumption is that E. coli bacteria are of enteric origin and cannot persist for long outside their host and therefore act as indicators of recent contamination events. This study investigates the fate of E. coli in drinking water, specifically addressing survival, biofilm formation under shear stress, and regrowth in a series of laboratory-controlled experiments. We show the extended persistence of three E. coli strains (two enteric isolates and one soil isolate) in sterile and nonsterile drinking water microcosms at 8 and 17°C, with T90 (time taken for a reduction in cell number of 1 log10 unit) values ranging from 17.4 ± 1.8 to 149 ± 67.7 days, using standard plate counts and a series of (reverse transcription-)quantitative PCR [(RT-)Q-PCR] assays targeting 16S rRNA, tuf, uidA, and rodA genes and transcripts. Furthermore, each strain was capable of attaching to a surface and replicating to form biofilm in the presence of nutrients under a range of shear stress values (0.6, 2.0, and 4.4 dynes [dyn] cm(-2); BioFlux system; Fluxion); however, cell numbers did not increase when drinking water flowed over the biofilm (P > 0.05 by t test). Finally, E. coli regrowth within drinking water microcosms containing polyethylene PE-100 pipe wall material was not observed in the biofilm or water phase using a combination of culturing and Q-PCR methods for E. coli The results of this work highlight that when E. coli enters drinking water it has the potential to survive and attach to surfaces but that regrowth within drinking water or biofilm is unlikely. The provision of clean, safe drinking water is fundamental to society. WDS deliver water to consumers via a vast network of pipes. E. coli is used as an indicator organism for recent contamination events based on the premise that it cannot survive for long outside its host. A key public health

  10. Notch activation inhibits AML growth and survival: a potential therapeutic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Sankaranarayanan; Sutphin, Robert M.; Hall, Mandy G.; Golfman, Leonard S.; Fang, Wendy; Nolo, Riitta M.; Akers, Lauren J.; Hammitt, Richard A.; McMurray, John S.; Kornblau, Steven M.; Melnick, Ari M.; Figueroa, Maria E.

    2013-01-01

    Although aberrant Notch activation contributes to leukemogenesis in T cells, its role in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) remains unclear. Here, we report that human AML samples have robust expression of Notch receptors; however, Notch receptor activation and expression of downstream Notch targets are remarkably low, suggesting that Notch is present but not constitutively activated in human AML. The functional role of these Notch receptors in AML is not known. Induced activation through any of the Notch receptors (Notch1–4), or through the Notch target Hairy/Enhancer of Split 1 (HES1), consistently leads to AML growth arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis, which are associated with B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) loss and enhanced p53/p21 expression. These effects were dependent on the HES1 repressor domain and were rescued through reexpression of BCL2. Importantly, activated Notch1, Notch2, and HES1 all led to inhibited AML growth in vivo, and Notch inhibition via dnMAML enhanced proliferation in vivo, thus revealing the physiological inhibition of AML growth in vivo in response to Notch signaling. As a novel therapeutic approach, we used a Notch agonist peptide that led to significant apoptosis in AML patient samples. In conclusion, we report consistent Notch-mediated growth arrest and apoptosis in human AML, and propose the development of Notch agonists as a potential therapeutic approach in AML. PMID:23359069

  11. Transcriptional Portrait of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during Acute Disease - Potential Strategies for Survival and Persistence in the Host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Rundsten, Carsten Friis; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2012-01-01

    was monitored during the acute phase of infection in its natural host. Methodology/Principal Findings Bacterial expression profiles of A. pleuropneumoniae isolated from lung lesions of 25 infected pigs were compared in samples taken 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours post experimental challenge. Within 6 hours, focal......, fibrino hemorrhagic lesions could be observed in the pig lungs, indicating that A. pleuropneumoniae had managed to establish itself successfully in the host. We identified 237 differentially regulated genes likely to encode functions required by the bacteria for colonization and survival in the host....... The results suggested that A. pleuropneumoniae is using various strategies to increase its fitness, such as applying Na+ pumps as an alternative way of gaining energy. Furthermore, the transcriptional data provided potential clues as to how A. pleuropneumoniae is able to circumvent host immune factors...

  12. Age-specific reproductive success and cost in female Alpine ibex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rughetti, Marco; Dematteis, Andrea; Meneguz, Pier Giuseppe; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-05-01

    In female mammals, reproduction requires high energy expenditure because of gestation and lactation, possibly leading to a fitness cost. Several studies, however, failed to find the expected negative correlation between current and future reproductive success, likely because of individual heterogeneity in reproductive potential. We compared reproductive performance and costs of reproduction for 40 female Alpine ibex in one established population with 29 females translocated from the same population to a new colony. We investigate factors affecting pregnancy, fecundity and overwinter survival of juveniles, after accounting for individual heterogeneity. In both populations, prime-aged females experienced a strong reproductive cost. Senescent females, however, showed no evidence of reproductive costs. The colonizing population showed lower reproductive cost and better age-specific reproductive performance than the established population. We found a general pattern of low age-specific fecundity and reproductive success that was affected by environmental constraints. Age-specific reproductive success was unrelated to longevity. Although about 84% of adult females appeared to conceive, independently of environmental constraints, energy was allocated to reproduction in a highly conservative manner, leading to low age-specific fecundity (only 36 and 21% of prime-aged and senescent females were seen with a kid) but high kid survival (100% to weaning and 92% to 1 year). Our results suggest that females embarked on lactation only if they had a very high probability of raising their offspring. Our study highlights how reproductive performance and costs in this species vary with age and environment, and are the result of a highly conservative reproductive tactic.

  13. Life span and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourocq, Emeline; Bize, Pierre; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Bradley, Russell; Charmantier, Anne; de la Cruz, Carlos; Drobniak, Szymon M; Espie, Richard H M; Herényi, Márton; Hötker, Hermann; Krüger, Oliver; Marzluff, John; Møller, Anders P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Phillips, Richard A; Radford, Andrew N; Roulin, Alexandre; Török, János; Valencia, Juliana; van de Pol, Martijn; Warkentin, Ian G; Winney, Isabel S; Wood, Andrew G; Griesser, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here, we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life history as well as social and ecological factors. Most individuals adopted the species-specific Optimal AFR and both the mean and Optimal AFR of species correlated positively with life span. Interspecific deviations of the Optimal AFR were associated with indices reflecting a change in LRS or survival as a function of AFR: a delayed AFR was beneficial in species where early AFR was associated with a decrease in subsequent survival or reproductive output. Overall, our results suggest that a delayed onset of reproduction beyond maturity is an optimal strategy explained by a long life span and costs of early reproduction. By providing the first empirical confirmations of key predictions of life-history theory across species, this study contributes to a better understanding of life-history evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Assessing the potential for rainbow trout reproduction in tributaries of the Mountain Fork River below Broken Bow Dam, southeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Starks, Trevor A.; Farling, Tyler; Bastarache, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Stocked trout (Salmonidae) in reservoir tailwater systems in the Southern United States have been shown to use tributary streams for spawning and rearing. The lower Mountain Fork of the Little River below Broken Bow Dam is one of two year-round tailwater trout fisheries in Oklahoma, and the only one with evidence of reproduction by stocked rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Whether stocked trout use tributaries in this system for spawning is unknown. Furthermore, an

  15. Survival of spray-dried and free-cells of potential probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 564 in soft goat cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Zorica; Miočinović, Jelena; Mirković, Nemanja; Mirković, Milica; Paunović, Dušanka; Ivanović, Marina; Seratlić, Sanja

    2017-11-01

    A high viability of probiotics in food product, with a living cells threshold of 107 /cfu/g (colony-forming units/g) is a challenge to achieve in food production. Spray drying is an efficient and economic industrial method for probiotic bacterial preservation and its application in food products. In this study, the survival of free and spray-dried cells of potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 564 after production and during 8 weeks of storage of soft acid coagulated goat cheese was investigated, as well as compositional and sensory quality of cheese. Total bacterial count of spray-dried Lb. plantarum 564 cells were maintained at the high level of 8.82 log/cfu/g in cheese after 8 weeks of storage, while free-cell number decreased to 6.9 log/cfu/g. However, the chemical composition, pH values and sensory evaluation between control cheese (C1 sample made with commercial starter culture) and treated cheese samples (C2 and C3, made with the same starter, with the addition of free and spray-dried Lb. plantarum 564 cells, respectively) did not significantly differ. High viability of potential probiotic bacteria and acceptable sensory properties indicate that spray-dried Lb. plantarum 564 strain could be successfully used in the production of soft acid coagulated goat cheeses. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Identification of the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 as a potential survival biomarker in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Ayan; Chan, Angela; Deng, Lili; Kornaga, Elizabeth N; Enwere, Emeka K; Morris, Donald G; Bonni, Shirin

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis is the ultimate cause of breast cancer related mortality. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to play a crucial role in the metastatic potential of breast cancer. Growing evidence has implicated the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 in the regulation of EMT in mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer metastasis. However, the relevance of PIAS1 in human cancer and mechanisms by which PIAS1 might regulate breast cancer metastasis remain to be elucidated. Using tissue-microarray analysis (TMA), we report that the protein abundance and subcellular localization of PIAS1 correlate with disease specific overall survival of a cohort of breast cancer patients. In mechanistic studies, we find that PIAS1 acts via sumoylation of the transcriptional regulator SnoN to suppress invasive growth of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell-derived organoids. Our studies thus identify the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 as a prognostic biomarker in breast cancer, and suggest a potential role for the PIAS1-SnoN sumoylation pathway in controlling breast cancer metastasis.

  17. Transcriptional portrait of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during acute disease--potential strategies for survival and persistence in the host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstine Klitgaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene expression profiles of bacteria in their natural hosts can provide novel insight into the host-pathogen interactions and molecular determinants of bacterial infections. In the present study, the transcriptional profile of the porcine lung pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was monitored during the acute phase of infection in its natural host. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bacterial expression profiles of A. pleuropneumoniae isolated from lung lesions of 25 infected pigs were compared in samples taken 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours post experimental challenge. Within 6 hours, focal, fibrino hemorrhagic lesions could be observed in the pig lungs, indicating that A. pleuropneumoniae had managed to establish itself successfully in the host. We identified 237 differentially regulated genes likely to encode functions required by the bacteria for colonization and survival in the host. This group was dominated by genes involved in various aspects of energy metabolism, especially anaerobic respiration and carbohydrate metabolism. Remodeling of the bacterial envelope and modifications of posttranslational processing of proteins also appeared to be of importance during early infection. The results suggested that A. pleuropneumoniae is using various strategies to increase its fitness, such as applying Na+ pumps as an alternative way of gaining energy. Furthermore, the transcriptional data provided potential clues as to how A. pleuropneumoniae is able to circumvent host immune factors and survive within the hostile environment of host macrophages. This persistence within macrophages may be related to urease activity, mobilization of various stress responses and active evasion of the host defenses by cell surface sialylation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data presented here highlight the importance of metabolic adjustments to host conditions as virulence factors of infecting microorganisms and help to provide insight into the mechanisms

  18. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Anna C; Kaufer, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    It is well accepted that stress, measured by increased glucocorticoid secretion, leads to profound reproductive dysfunction. In times of stress, glucocorticoids activate many parts of the fight or flight response, mobilizing energy and enhancing survival, while inhibiting metabolic processes that are not necessary for survival in the moment. This includes reproduction, an energetically costly procedure that is very finely regulated. In the short term, this is meant to be beneficial, so that the organism does not waste precious energy needed for survival. However, long-term inhibition can lead to persistent reproductive dysfunction, even if no longer stressed. This response is mediated by the increased levels of circulating glucocorticoids, which orchestrate complex inhibition of the entire reproductive axis. Stress and glucocorticoids exhibits both central and peripheral inhibition of the reproductive hormonal axis. While this has long been recognized as an issue, understanding the complex signaling mechanism behind this inhibition remains somewhat of a mystery. What makes this especially difficult is attempting to differentiate the many parts of both of these hormonal axes, and new neuropeptide discoveries in the last decade in the reproductive field have added even more complexity to an already complicated system. Glucocorticoids (GCs) and other hormones within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (as well as contributors in the sympathetic system) can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at all levels-GCs can inhibit release of GnRH from the hypothalamus, inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release in the pituitary, and inhibit testosterone synthesis and release from the gonads, while also influencing gametogenesis and sexual behavior. This chapter is not an exhaustive review of all the known literature, however is aimed at giving a brief look at both the central and peripheral effects of glucocorticoids on the reproductive function.

  19. Celebration Meets Caution: Long Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC)’s Boons, Potential Busts, and the Benefits of a Reproductive Justice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Jenny A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an outpouring of research and funding pertaining to long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). The time is ripe to contextualize LARC’s hype within our broader reproductive health goals and tools—that is, how we can best address the needs of individuals who benefit from the reproductive health services we provide. After reviewing LARC’s major benefits, this commentary presents three potentially problematic aspects of LARC promotion: 1) the notion that increasing LARC use could singlehandedly end unintended pregnancies and their associations with poverty, 2) the clinical emphasis on LARC methods over all others, and 3) inadvertently failing to acknowledge the ways in which poor women of color will experience LARC promotion through legacies of racism and eugenics. The comment concludes by highlighting the benefits of a reproductive justice approach to LARC: an approach devoted to making LARC affordable and accessible while simultaneously respecting women’s decisions not to use LARC, their ability to have LARC removed when they wish, and their ability to determine for themselves where contraception and pregnancies fit into their lives. PMID:24582293

  20. Adaptive Potential for the Invasion of Novel Host Plants in the Bean Weevil: Patterns of the Reproductive Behavior in Populations That Used Different Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Milanović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to examine interpopulation patterns in the reproductive behavior of populations of bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say; Coleoptera: Bruchidae that had different levels of specialization on their native host plant – the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., as well as on a novel host plant – the chickpea (Cicer arietinum Thorn. The obtained pattern of interpopulation mating behavior seemed exactly as if the males on chickpea had evolved a specific odor and/or a courtship ritual that females of populationson bean found repulsive. Unlike females, the males of bean populations seemed to be willing to mate with females from the population on chickpea equally as with their own females. Such an asymmetric pattern of reproductive isolation between populations ofa species has been often considered an initial phase of a process of speciation. Thus, our results could be a good starting point for further, thorough examination of both the role of the level of host specialization in females and the role of biochemical characteristics of male pheromone (and/or their cuticular hydrocarbones in the evolution of pre-reproductive isolation between insect populations.As the results of this study, together those of previous studies on A. obtectus, suggest great evolutionary potential for invasions of and fast specialization on novel host plants, they could provide valuable information for the development of long-term strategiesunder the programmes of Integrated Pest Management.

  1. Reproductive resilience to food shortage in a small heterothermic primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Cindy I; Huchard, Elise; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    The massive energetic costs entailed by reproduction in most mammalian females may increase the vulnerability of reproductive success to food shortage. Unexpected events of unfavorable climatic conditions are expected to rise in frequency and intensity as climate changes. The extent to which physiological flexibility allows organisms to maintain reproductive output constant despite energetic bottlenecks has been poorly investigated. In mammals, reproductive resilience is predicted to be maximal during early stages of reproduction, due to the moderate energetic costs of ovulation and gestation relative to lactation. We experimentally tested the consequences of chronic-moderate and short-acute food shortages on the reproductive output of a small seasonally breeding primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) under thermo-neutral conditions. These two food treatments were respectively designed to simulate the energetic constraints imposed by a lean year (40% caloric restriction over eight months) or by a sudden, severe climatic event occurring shortly before reproduction (80% caloric restriction over a month). Grey mouse lemurs evolved under the harsh, unpredictable climate of the dry forest of Madagascar and should thus display great potential for physiological adjustments to energetic bottlenecks. We assessed the resilience of the early stages of reproduction (mating success, fertility, and gestation) to these contrasted food treatments, and on the later stages (lactation and offspring growth) in response to the chronic food shortage only. Food deprived mouse lemurs managed to maintain constant most reproductive parameters, including oestrus timing, estrogenization level at oestrus, mating success, litter size, and litter mass as well as their overall number of surviving offspring at weaning. However, offspring growth was delayed in food restricted mothers. These results suggest that heterothermic, fattening-prone mammals display important reproductive

  2. Reproductive resilience to food shortage in a small heterothermic primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy I Canale

    Full Text Available The massive energetic costs entailed by reproduction in most mammalian females may increase the vulnerability of reproductive success to food shortage. Unexpected events of unfavorable climatic conditions are expected to rise in frequency and intensity as climate changes. The extent to which physiological flexibility allows organisms to maintain reproductive output constant despite energetic bottlenecks has been poorly investigated. In mammals, reproductive resilience is predicted to be maximal during early stages of reproduction, due to the moderate energetic costs of ovulation and gestation relative to lactation. We experimentally tested the consequences of chronic-moderate and short-acute food shortages on the reproductive output of a small seasonally breeding primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus under thermo-neutral conditions. These two food treatments were respectively designed to simulate the energetic constraints imposed by a lean year (40% caloric restriction over eight months or by a sudden, severe climatic event occurring shortly before reproduction (80% caloric restriction over a month. Grey mouse lemurs evolved under the harsh, unpredictable climate of the dry forest of Madagascar and should thus display great potential for physiological adjustments to energetic bottlenecks. We assessed the resilience of the early stages of reproduction (mating success, fertility, and gestation to these contrasted food treatments, and on the later stages (lactation and offspring growth in response to the chronic food shortage only. Food deprived mouse lemurs managed to maintain constant most reproductive parameters, including oestrus timing, estrogenization level at oestrus, mating success, litter size, and litter mass as well as their overall number of surviving offspring at weaning. However, offspring growth was delayed in food restricted mothers. These results suggest that heterothermic, fattening-prone mammals display important

  3. Alcohol Production as an Adaptive Livelihood Strategy for Women Farmers in Tanzania and Its Potential for Unintended Consequences on Women’s Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Sandra I.; Ralph, Lauren J.; Wilson, Wema; Padian, Nancy S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although women occupy a central position in agriculture in many developing countries, they face numerous constraints to achieving their full potential including unequal access to assets and limited decision-making authority. We explore the intersection of agricultural livelihoods, food and economic security, and women’s sexual and reproductive health in Iringa Region, Tanzania. Our goal was to understand whether the benefits of supporting women in the agricultural sector might also extend to more distal outcomes, including sexual and reproductive health. Methods Using the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework to guide data collection, we conducted 13 focus group discussions (FGD) with female (n = 11) and male farmers (n = 2) and 20 in-depth interviews with agricultural extension officers (n = 10) and village agro-dealers (n = 10). Results Despite providing the majority of agricultural labor, women have limited control over land and earned income and have little bargaining power. In response to these constraints, women adopt adaptive livelihood strategies, such as alcohol production, that allow them to retain control over income and support their households. However, women’s central role in alcohol production, in concert with the ubiquitous nature of alcohol consumption, places them at risk by enhancing their vulnerability to unsafe or transactional sex. This represents a dangerous confluence of risk for female farmers, in which alcohol plays an important role in income generation and also facilitates high-risk sexual behavior. Conclusions Alcohol production and consumption has the potential to both directly and indirectly place women at risk for undesirable sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Group formation, better access to finance, and engaging with agricultural extension officers were identified as potential interventions for supporting women farmers and challenging harmful gender norms. In addition, joint, multi

  4. Temporal constraints on the potential role of fry odors as cues of past reproductive success for spawning lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Binder, Thomas R.; Huertas, Mar; Bussy, Ugo; Li, Ke; Hanson, James E.; Krueger, Charles C.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Deciding where to reproduce is a major challenge for most animals. Many select habitats based upon cues of successful reproduction by conspecifics, such as the presence of offspring from past reproductive events. For example, some fishes select spawning habitat following odors released by juveniles whose rearing habitat overlaps with spawning habitat. However, juveniles may emigrate before adults begin to search for spawning habitat; hence, the efficacy of juvenile cues could be constrained by degradation or dissipation rates. In lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), odors deposited by the previous year's offspring have been hypothesized to guide adults to spawning reefs. However, in most extant populations, lake trout fry emigrate from spawning reefs during the spring and adults spawn during the fall. Therefore, we postulated that the role of fry odors in guiding habitat selection might be constrained by the time between fry emigration and adult spawning. Time course chemical, physiological, and behavioral assays indicated that the odors deposited by fry likely degrade or dissipate before adults select spawning habitats. Furthermore, fry feces did not attract wild lake trout to constructed spawning reefs in Lake Huron. Taken together, our results indicate fry odors are unlikely to act as cues for lake trout searching for spawning reefs in populations whose juveniles emigrate before the spawning season, and underscore the importance of environmental constraints on social cues.

  5. Socially selected ornaments and fitness: Signals of fighting ability in paper wasps are positively associated with survival, reproductive success, and rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Forrest, Taylor; Vernier, Cassondra; Jinn, Judy; Madagame, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Many animals have ornaments that mediate choice and competition in social and sexual contexts. Individuals with elaborate sexual ornaments typically have higher fitness than those with less elaborate ornaments, but less is known about whether socially selected ornaments are associated with fitness. Here, we test the relationship between fitness and facial patterns that are a socially selected signal of fighting ability in Polistes dominula wasps. We found wasps that signal higher fighting ability have larger nests, are more likely to survive harsh winters, and obtain higher dominance rank than wasps that signal lower fighting ability. In comparison, body weight was not associated with fitness. Larger wasps were dominant over smaller wasps, but showed no difference in nest size or survival. Overall, the positive relationship between wasp facial patterns and fitness indicates that receivers can obtain diverse information about a signaler's phenotypic quality by paying attention to socially selected ornaments. Therefore, there are surprisingly strong parallels between the information conveyed by socially and sexually selected signals. Similar fitness relationships in social and sexually selected signals may be one reason it can be difficult to distinguish the role of social versus sexual selection in ornament evolution. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Growth, Survival and Reproduction of the Giant Clam Tridacna maxima (Röding 1798, Bivalvia) in Two Contrasting Lagoons in French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Andréfouët, Serge; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Wabnitz, Colette C. C.; Menoud, Mathilde; Le Moullac, Gilles; Levy, Peva; Gilbert, Antoine; Remoissenet, Georges

    2017-01-01

    Shell growth, reproduction, and natural mortality of the giant clam Tridacna maxima were characterized over a two-year-period in the lagoon of the high island of Tubuai (Austral Archipelago) and in the semi-closed lagoon of Tatakoto (Tuamotu Archipelago) in French Polynesia. We also recorded temperature, water level, tidal slope, tidal range, and mean wave height in both lagoons. Lower lagoon aperture and exposure to oceanic swells at Tatakoto than at Tubuai was responsible for lower lagoon water renewal, as well as higher variability in temperature and water level at Tatakoto across the studied period. These different environmental conditions had an impact on giant clams. Firstly, spawning events in the lagoon of Tatakoto, detected by gonad maturity indices in June and July 2014, were timed with high oceanic water inflow and a decrease in lagoon water temperature. Secondly, temperature explained differences in shell growth rates between seasons and lagoons, generating different growth curves for the two sites. Thirdly, local mortality rates were also found to likely be related to water renewal patterns. In conclusion, our study suggests that reef aperture and lagoon water renewal rates play an integral role in giant clam life history, with significant differences in rates of shell growth, mortality and fertility found between open versus semi-closed atoll lagoons in coral reef ecosystems. PMID:28118406

  7. Densidad, estructura poblacional, reproducción y supervivencia de cuatro especies de plantas útiles en el Valle de Tehuacán, México Density, population structure, reproduction and survival of four useful plat species in the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Godínez-Alvarez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizó densidad, estructura poblacional, reproducción y supervivencia individual de 4 especies de plantas útiles con el fin de determinar el estado en el que se encuentran sus poblaciones y capacidad de regeneración, así como la importancia relativa de la reproducción sexual y la propagación vegetativa para el reclutamiento de 2 de estas especies. Las poblaciones de todas las especies tienen densidades variables y están compuestas por plantas de tamaño intermedio. Las plantas de tamaño pequeño y grande son escasas. La producción de frutos varió entre las poblaciones de cada especie, aunque no se observaron diferencias en el número de semillas por fruto y la proporción de semillas germinadas. La supervivencia de las plántulas fue baja y dependió de las condiciones ambientales. La propagación vegetativa es el mecanismo más común para el reclutamiento de las especies que presentan esta forma de reproducción. Se discuten los posibles factores físicos, biológicos y humanos que podrían limitar la capacidad de regeneración de las poblaciones y su efecto sobre el aprovechamiento de estas plantas.This work analyzes density, population structure, individual reproduction and survival of 4 useful plant species, in order to determine the current status of their populations and their regeneration capacity. The relative importance of sexual reproduction and vegetative propagation in the recruitment of 2 of these species was also analyzed. Populations of all species are composed of medium size plants and their density is variable. Small and large plants are scarce. For all species fruit production varied between populations, although there were no significant differences in the number of seeds per fruit and proportion of germinated seeds. Seedling survival was low and affected by environmental conditions. Vegetative propagation was the most common mechanism for the recruitment of those species with this type of

  8. The politics of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

    1991-01-01

    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and

  9. Evaporative cooling in late-gestation Murrah buffaloes potentiates immunity around transition period and overcomes reproductive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali

    2015-10-15

    The objective of the study was to observe the effect of evaporative cooling during late gestation on immunity around the transition period and the probable outcome on reproductive disorders in Murrah buffaloes. Sixteen pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes at 60 days prepartum were selected and divided into two groups of eight animals each. Group 1 buffaloes remained without the provision of cooling, whereas the second group of buffaloes was managed under fans and mist cooling during the dry period. After parturition, all the animals were managed under evaporative cooling. Dry matter intake was significantly (P animals at -15, 0, and +20 days of parturition. Cortisol and prolactin levels were significantly (P animals at -15 and 0 days of parturition. However, prolactin was significantly (P animals at +20 days. Messenger RNA expression of prolactin receptor gene (PRL-R) was upregulated and suppressor of cytokine signaling gene 1 (SOCS-1) was downregulated in cooled animals at -20, 0, and +20 days of parturition. Tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 4 levels remained significantly (P animals at -20, 0, and +20 days of parturition. Interleukin 6 was significantly (P animals at -20 and 0 days. Interferon γ levels were significantly higher at -20 and +20 days of parturition in cooled relative to noncooled animals. The reproductive disorders such as retention of placenta, metritis, and endometritis occurred at the rate of 37.25%, 25%, and 12.25% in the noncooled group, whereas only retention of placenta was observed in the cooled (12.5%) group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Revealing polychaetes invasion patterns: Identification, reproduction and potential risks of the Korean ragworm, Perinereis linea (Treadwell), in the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Andrés; Richter, Alexandra; Anadón, Nuria; Glasby, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    An established population of the polychaetous annelid Perinereis linea (Treadwell) is reported for the first time outside its native distribution range (NW Pacific). This exotic worm has reached the Western Mediterranean (Mar Menor lagoon) via importing live fishing-bait as it is commonly used by anglers in Mar Menor lagoon, an area largely used for recreational fishing. To avoid confusion with other related species, and because the scientific name has been in synonymy for many years, P. linea is redescribed and illustrated. We focus on the reproductive biology and ecology of P. linea to help to understand its introduction, naturalization and spread along this coastal lagoon. Comparison between the Mediterranean population with a native population from South Korea revealed that the species exhibits a great reproductive plasticity and adaptability, which depends on the environmental conditions. Perinereis linea can reproduce after acquiring the epitokous form or prior to complete epitokal modification. In the Mar Menor lagoon population females release eggs asynchronically without completing epitokal modifications. However, under particular laboratory conditions females produce eggs synchronically and release them after complete epitokal transformations. Fertilization can occur internally in the female coelom, and females release zygotes and larvae through openings in their body walls; they are then incubated in gelatinous masses attached to the female parapodia. The sperm morphology is of the ent-aquasperm type. The eggs and larvae are attacked by symbiotic ciliate protozoa that feed on their yolk reserves. These foreign ciliates may act as carriers of disease in native beachworms and constitute an important risk for the ecosystem health. Finally, we provide recommendations on the prevention of the adverse effects that this exotic ragworm can cause in receiving ecosystems.

  11. Gonad RNA-specific qRT-PCR analyses identify genes with potential functions in schistosome reproduction such as SmFz1 and SmFGFRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Steffen; Quack, Thomas; Parker-Manuel, Sophia J.; Lu, Zhigang; Vanderstraete, Mathieu; Morel, Marion; Dissous, Colette; Cailliau, Katia; Grevelding, Christoph G.

    2014-01-01

    In the search for new strategies to fight schistosomiasis, the unique reproductive biology of Schistosoma mansoni has come into the focus of research. The development of the gonads and the ability of egg production are fundamental not only for continuing the life cycle but also for pathogenicity. Previous studies of schistosome biology demonstrated an influence of pairing on gonad development of the female and on gene expression profiles in both genders. Due to the limited access to specific tissues, however, most of these studies were done at the level of whole worms neglecting individual tissues that may be targets of pairing-dependent processes. Recently, we established a protocol allowing the isolation of testes and ovaries from adult S. mansoni. Here, we describe tissue-specific qRT-PCR analyses comparing transcript levels of selected genes on the basis of RNA from gonads and whole worms. Gene expression in ovary and testes was in some cases found to be significantly influenced by pairing, which was not traceable in whole worms. Among the candidate genes identified as regulated by pairing in gonads were the frizzled homolog SmFz1 and the two fibroblast growth factor receptor homologs SmFGFR-A and SmFGFR-B. First functional characterizations were done, including comparative qRT-PCR analyses, in situ-localization experiments, heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes (SmFGFR-A/B), and inhibitor studies using the Fz/Dvl-pathway inhibitor 3289-8625, or BIBF1120 blocking FGFR-signaling. Besides confirming gonad localization and receptor functions, inhibitor-induced phenotypes were observed in vitro such as decreased egg production as well as drastic effects on gonad differentiation, morphology, embryogenesis, and survival of adult worms. In summary, these results emphasise the usefulness of tissue-specific qRT-PCRs for selection of candidate genes with important roles in reproduction, allowing subsequent studies to determine their suitability as drug targets. PMID

  12. Gonad RNA-specific qRT-PCR analyses identify genes with potential functions in schistosome reproduction such as SmFz1 and SmFGFRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen eHahnel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the search for new strategies to fight schistosomiasis, the unique reproductive biology of Schistosoma mansoni has come into the focus of research. The development of the gonads and the ability of egg production are fundamental not only for continuing the life cycle but also for pathogenicity.Previous studies of schistosome biology demonstrated an influence of pairing on gonad development of the female and on gene expression profiles in both genders. Due to the limited access to specific tissues, however, most of these studies were done at the level of whole worms neglecting individual tissues that may be targets of pairing-dependent processes.Recently, we established a protocol allowing the isolation of testes and ovaries from adult S. mansoni. Here, we describe tissue-specific qRT-PCR analyses comparing transcript levels of selected genes on the basis of RNA from gonads and whole worms. Gene expression in ovary and testes was in some cases found to be significantly influenced by pairing, which was not traceable in whole worms. Among the candidate genes identified as regulated by pairing in gonads were the frizzled homolog SmFz1 and the two fibroblast growth factor receptor homologs SmFGFR-A and SmFGFR-B. First functional characterizations were done, including comparative qRT-PCR analyses, in situ-localization experiments, heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes (SmFGFR-A/B, and inhibitor studies using the Fz/Dvl-pathway inhibitor 3289-8625, or BIBF1120 blocking FGFR-signaling. Besides confirming gonad localization and receptor functions, inhibitor-induced phenotypes were observed in vitro such as decreased egg production as well as drastic effects on gonad differentiation, morphology, embryogenesis, and survival of adult worms.In summary, these results emphasise the usefulness of tissue specific qRT-PCRs for selection of candidate genes with important roles in reproduction, allowing subsequent studies to determine their suitability as

  13. Growth, reproductive phenology and yield responses of a potential biofuel plant, Jatropha curcas grown under projected 2050 levels of elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Chaitanya, Bharatula S K; Ghatty, Sreenivas; Reddy, Attipalli R

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) is a non-edible oil producing plant which is being advocated as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in diverse soil conditions and minimal requirements of essential agronomical inputs compared with other oilseed crops makes it viable for cost-effective advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]) (550 ppm) on the growth, reproductive development, source-sink relationships, fruit and seed yield of J. curcas. We report, for the first time that elevated CO(2) significantly influences reproductive characteristics of Jatropha and improve its fruit and seed yields. Net photosynthetic rate of Jatropha was 50% higher in plants grown in elevated CO(2) compared with field and ambient CO(2) -grown plants. The study also revealed that elevated CO(2) atmosphere significantly increased female to male flower ratio, above ground biomass and carbon sequestration potential in Jatropha (24 kg carbon per tree) after 1 year. Our data demonstrate that J. curcas was able to sustain enhanced rate of photosynthesis in elevated CO(2) conditions as it had sufficient sink strength to balance the increased biomass yields. Our study also elucidates that the economically important traits including fruit and seed yield in elevated CO(2) conditions were significantly high in J. curcas that holds great promise as a potential biofuel tree species for the future high CO(2) world. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Effects of deltamethrin, dimethoate, and chlorpyrifos on survival and reproduction of the collembolan Folsomia candida and the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer in two African and two European soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaabiri Kamoun, Ikram; Jegede, Olukayode O; Owojori, Olugbenga J; Bouzid, Jalel; Gargouri, Radhia; Römbke, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides is rampant in most parts of Africa, but only scanty ecotoxicological data exist for the protection of soil organisms-and these data were usually obtained under temperate conditions, including the use of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) standard test protocols. In order to assess the effects of 3 commonly used pesticides (deltamethrin, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos) on soil fauna in Africa, noncontaminated natural soils were collected from Nigeria and Tunisia. In addition, 2 common test soils, OECD artificial soil and European (Landwirtschaftliche Untersichungs- und Forschungsanstalt [LUFA]) 2.3 soil, were used in OECD standard reproduction tests. Two microarthropod species, the springtail Folsomia candida and the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer, were exposed in these 4 soils spiked individually with the 3 insecticides. Results show that the collembolan F. candida was more sensitive than the mite H. aculeifer for all 3 insecticides. The toxicity of each insecticide in the 4 soils differed, with few exceptions, by less than an order of magnitude. However, the pattern of toxicity was not consistent, that is, the lowest toxicity was often but not always found in OECD artificial soil. Soil- and pesticide-specific patterns of toxicity to F. candida and H. aculeifer might be related to the physicochemical properties of the soils and thus the availability of the 3 pesticides. Following the rules laid down in the European Union for the registration of pesticides and using standard European exposure scenarios, neither an acute nor a chronic risk of dimethoate and chlorpyrifos can be excluded (with few exceptions) in all 4 soils. Lower risks were identified for deltamethrin. For pesticide used in Africa, an environmental risk assessment based on data gained in tests with at least 1 additional natural field soil, preferably of African origin, should be performed using the same risk assessment principles as in the

  15. Ecological effects of scrubber water discharge on coastal plankton: Potential synergistic effects of contaminants reduce survival and feeding of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Stedmon, Colin; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    To meet the oncoming requirements for lower sulphur emissions, shipping companies can install scrubbers where the exhaust is sprayed with seawater and subsequently discharged to the sea. The discharge water has a pH around 3 and contains elevated concentrations of vanadium, nickel, lead and hydro......To meet the oncoming requirements for lower sulphur emissions, shipping companies can install scrubbers where the exhaust is sprayed with seawater and subsequently discharged to the sea. The discharge water has a pH around 3 and contains elevated concentrations of vanadium, nickel, lead...... and hydrocarbons. We investigated 1) the threshold concentrations of scrubber discharge water for survival, feeding and reproduction of the copepod Acartia tonsa, 2) whether the effects depend on the exposure route and 3) whether exposure to discharge water can be detected in field-collected organisms. A direct...... exposure to discharge water increased adult copepod mortality and reduced feeding at metal concentrations which were orders of magnitude lower than the lethal concentrations in previous single-metal studies. In contrast, reproduction was not influenced by dietary uptake of contaminants. Scrubber water...

  16. Survival in nuclear waste, extreme resistance, and potential applications gleaned from the genome sequence of Kineococcus radiotolerans SRS30216.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Bagwell

    Full Text Available Kineococcus radiotolerans SRS30216 was isolated from a high-level radioactive environment at the Savannah River Site (SRS and exhibits gamma-radiation resistance approaching that of Deinococcus radiodurans. The genome was sequenced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute which suggested the existence of three replicons, a 4.76 Mb linear chromosome, a 0.18 Mb linear plasmid, and a 12.92 Kb circular plasmid. Southern hybridization confirmed that the chromosome is linear. The K. radiotolerans genome sequence was examined to learn about the physiology of the organism with regard to ionizing radiation resistance, the potential for bioremediation of nuclear waste, and the dimorphic life cycle. K. radiotolerans may have a unique genetic toolbox for radiation protection as it lacks many of the genes known to confer radiation resistance in D. radiodurans. Additionally, genes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and the excision repair pathway are overrepresented. K. radiotolerans appears to lack degradation pathways for pervasive soil and groundwater pollutants. However, it can respire on two organic acids found in SRS high-level nuclear waste, formate and oxalate, which promote the survival of cells during prolonged periods of starvation. The dimorphic life cycle involves the production of motile zoospores. The flagellar biosynthesis genes are located on a motility island, though its regulation could not be fully discerned. These results highlight the remarkable ability of K radiotolerans to withstand environmental extremes and suggest that in situ bioremediation of organic complexants from high level radioactive waste may be feasible.

  17. Loss in childbearing among Gambia's kanyalengs: using a stratified reproduction framework to expand the scope of sexual and reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Carolyn A

    2010-11-01

    This paper draws on ethnographic fieldwork with Gambian women who have experienced infertility and/or child mortality and who have consequently become kanyalengs. Kanyaleng kafoos are groups of women united by their reproductive difficulties whose bold public performances are designed to "beg God" for fertility and for children who will survive. I situate 'kanyalengs' disrupted childbearing within a framework of stratified reproduction, which reveals the tensions between ongoing demands to meet norms of high fertility, women's heavy burden of reproductive disease and the limits of a reproductive public health agenda narrowly focused on family planning and HIV prevention. To ameliorate these tensions, I call for an expansion of the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) agenda in Gambia to include RTI/STI prevention, diagnosis and management. This expansion reflects the goals set out by the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development for a broader approach to reproductive health, the productive potential of linkages between SRH and HIV prevention efforts, as well as the reproductive objectives of Gambian women and men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modelling predicts that tolerance to drought during reproductive development will be required for high yield potential and stability of wheat in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Mikhail A.; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Paul, Matthew J.

    2017-04-01

    Short periods of extreme weather, such as a spell of high temperature or drought during a sensitive stage of development, could result in substantial yield losses due to reduction in grain number and grain size. In a modelling study (Stratonovitch & Semenov 2015), heat tolerance around flowering in wheat was identified as a key trait for increased yield potential in Europe under climate change. Ji et all (Ji et al. 2010) demonstrated cultivar specific responses of yield to drought stress around flowering in wheat. They hypothesised that carbohydrate supply to anthers may be the key in maintaining pollen fertility and grain number in wheat. It was shown in (Nuccio et al. 2015) that genetically modified varieties of maize that increase the concentration of sucrose in ear spikelets, performed better under non-drought and drought conditions in field experiments. The objective of this modelling study was to assess potential benefits of tolerance to drought during reproductive development for wheat yield potential and yield stability across Europe. We used the Sirius wheat model to optimise wheat ideotypes for 2050 (HadGEM2, RCP8.5) climate scenarios at selected European sites. Eight cultivar parameters were optimised to maximise mean yields, including parameters controlling phenology, canopy growth and water limitation. At those sites where water could be limited, ideotypes sensitive to drought produced substantially lower mean yields and higher yield variability compare with tolerant ideotypes. Therefore, tolerance to drought during reproductive development is likely to be required for wheat cultivars optimised for the future climate in Europe in order to achieve high yield potential and yield stability.

  19. Early-life reproduction is associated with increased mortality risk but enhanced lifetime fitness in pre-industrial humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Adam D; Nenko, Ilona; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-04-07

    The physiology of reproductive senescence in women is well understood, but the drivers of variation in senescence rates are less so. Evolutionary theory predicts that early-life investment in reproduction should be favoured by selection at the cost of reduced survival and faster reproductive senescence. We tested this hypothesis using data collected from preindustrial Finnish church records. Reproductive success increased up to age 25 and was relatively stable until a decline from age 41. Women with higher early-life fecundity (ELF; producing more children before age 25) subsequently had higher mortality risk, but high ELF was not associated with accelerated senescence in annual breeding success. However, women with higher ELF experienced faster senescence in offspring survival. Despite these apparent costs, ELF was under positive selection: individuals with higher ELF had higher lifetime reproductive success. These results are consistent with previous observations in both humans and wild vertebrates that more births and earlier onset of reproduction are associated with reduced survival, and with evolutionary theory predicting trade-offs between early reproduction and later-life survival. The results are particularly significant given recent increases in maternal ages in many societies and the potential consequences for offspring health and fitness. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling survival and connectivity of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, J.; van Beek, J.; Augustine, S.; Vansteenbrugge, L.; van Walraven, L.; van Langenberg, V.; van der Veer, H.W.; Hostens, K.; Pitois, S.; Robbens, J.

    2015-01-01

    Three different models were applied to study the reproduction, survival and dispersal of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Scheldt estuaries and the southern North Sea: a high-resolution particle tracking model with passive particles, a low-resolution particle tracking model with a reproduction model

  1. Norwegian honey bees surviving Varroa destructor mite infestations by means of natural selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A.Y. Oddie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Managed, feral and wild populations of European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera, are currently facing severe colony losses globally. There is consensus that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, that switched hosts from the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana to the Western honey bee A. mellifera, is a key factor driving these losses. For >20 years, breeding efforts have not produced European honey bee colonies that can survive infestations without the need for mite control. However, at least three populations of European honey bees have developed this ability by means of natural selection and have been surviving for >10 years without mite treatments. Reduced mite reproductive success has been suggested as a key factor explaining this natural survival. Here, we report a managed A. mellifera population in Norway, that has been naturally surviving consistent V. destructor infestations for >17 years. Methods Surviving colonies and local susceptible controls were evaluated for mite infestation levels, mite reproductive success and two potential mechanisms explaining colony survival: grooming of adult worker bees and Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH: adult workers specifically detecting and removing mite-infested brood. Results Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in surviving colonies and mite reproductive success was reduced by 30% when compared to the controls. No significant differences were found between surviving and control colonies for either grooming or VSH. Discussion Our data confirm that reduced mite reproductive success seems to be a key factor for natural survival of infested A. mellifera colonies. However, neither grooming nor VSH seem to explain colony survival. Instead, other behaviors of the adult bees seem to be sufficient to hinder mite reproductive success, because brood for this experiment was taken from susceptible donor colonies only. To mitigate the global impact of V. destructor, we suggest learning

  2. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) induced antimicrobial gene expression in the male reproductive tract of rat: evaluation of the potential of Defensin 21 to limit infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, B; Bhushan, S; Rajesh, A; Suraj, S K; Lu, Y; Meinhardt, A; Yenugu, S

    2015-03-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a common pathogen in epididymitis, which represents a prevalent entity in male reproductive tract infections (RTI). Although current treatment regimens using antibiotics are satisfactory, development of antimicrobial resistance by the pathogen represents a challenge in the management of RTI. Hence, identification of antimicrobial peptides as alternatives to antibiotics has gained importance. We demonstrate that in a rat epididymo-orchitis model induced with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strain MTCC 729, the expression of defensins and defensin-like Spag11 genes are induced in the epididymis and testes. The induction of antimicrobial gene expression is paralleled by phosphorylation of the NF-kB subunit p65 and the inhibitor of NFkB (IkB-alpha), decreased levels of histone deacetylase 1 and increased methylation of Histone 3, indicating the role of classical Toll-like receptor mediated signaling and epigenetic regulation. Recombinant Defensin 21, when administered to UPEC-infected rats, substantially reduced the bacterial load in the epididymis and testis and proved to be more effective than gentamycin. The ability of Defensin 21 to limit RTI provides support that antibacterial proteins of the male reproductive tract may be used as potential alternatives to antibiotics in treatment of this disease. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  3. A low-cost mesocosm for the study of behaviour and reproductive potential in Afrotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B T; Stone, C M; Ebrahimi, B; Briët, O J T; Foster, W A

    2015-03-01

    A large-scale mesocosm was constructed and tested for its effectiveness for use in experiments on behaviour, reproduction and adult survivorship in the Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in temperate climates. The large space (82.69 m(3) ) allowed for semi-natural experiments that increased demand on a mosquito's energetic reserves in an environment of widely distributed resources. A one-piece prefabricated enclosure, made with white netting and vinyl, prevented the ingress of predators and the egress of mosquitoes. Daylight and white materials prompted the mosquitoes to seclude themselves in restricted daytime resting sites and allowed the easy collection of dead bodies so that daily mortality could be assessed accurately using a method that accounts for the loss of a proportion of bodies. Here, daily, age-dependent mortality rates of males and females were estimated using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. In overnight experiments, mosquitoes successfully located plants and took sugar meals. A 3-week survival trial with a single cohort demonstrated successful mating, blood feeding, oviposition and long life. The relatively low cost of the mesocosm and the performance of the mosquitoes in it make it a viable option for any behavioural or ecological study of tropical mosquitoes in which space and seasonal cold are constraining factors. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Influence of helping and breeding experience on reproductive performance in the Seychelles warbler : A translocation experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J

    1996-01-01

    Reproductive success of the cooperative breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis) increases with age. This age effect is not due to differential survival or increased reproductive effort, but to accumulated helping and breeding experience. In their first year of breeding, reproductive

  5. Reproductive emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutkowitz, L Ari

    2005-03-01

    The emergency clinician is frequently called on to manage problems relating to the female reproductive tract. Because owners sel-dom have the medical knowledge needed to differentiate normal from abnormal reproductive behaviors, they frequently look to the emergency veterinarian for guidance and information during and after parturition. For this reason, it is essential that the veterinarian have a good understanding of the normal reproductive cycle as well as the common emergencies that may occur. This article reviews the events surrounding normal parturition in the dog and cat and the reproductive emergencies seen most commonly in practice.

  6. Survival, dispersal, and potential soil-mediated suppression of Phytophthora ramorum in a California redwood-tanoak forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. J. Fichtner; S. C. Lynch; D. M. Rizzo

    2009-01-01

    Because the role of soil inoculum of Phytophthora ramorum in the sudden oak death disease cycle is not well understood, this work addresses survival, chlamydospore production, pathogen suppression, and splash dispersal of the pathogen in infested forest soils. Colonized rhododendron and bay laurel leaf disks were placed in mesh sachets before...

  7. Reproduction and biochemical responses in Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) to zinc or cadmium exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novais, Sara C., E-mail: sara.novais@ua.pt [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gomes, Susana I.L. [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gravato, Carlos [CIIMAR-Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia e Ecologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Guilhermino, Lucia [CIIMAR-Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia e Ecologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); ICBAS-Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); De Coen, Wim [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology - E.B.T., Groenenborgerlaan 171 - U.7., B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Amorim, Monica J.B. [CESAM and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-07-15

    To better understand chemical modes of action, emphasis has been given to stress responses at lower levels of biological organization. Cholinesterases and antioxidant defenses are among the most used biomarkers due to their crucial role in the neurocholinergic transmission and in cell homeostasis preventing DNA damage, enzymatic inactivation and lipid peroxidation. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc and cadmium on survival and reproduction of E. albidus and to assess metals oxidative stress potential and neurotoxic effects at concentrations that affected reproduction. Both metals affected the enchytraeids' survival and reproduction and induced significant changes in the antioxidant defenses as well as increased lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative damage. This study demonstrates that determining effects at different levels of biological organization can give better information on the physiological responses of enchytraeids in metal contamination events and further unravel the mechanistic processes dealing with metal stress. - Highlights: > Zinc and cadmium influence the survival and reproduction of Enchytraeus albidus. > Oxidative stress and membrane damage occur at reproduction effect concentrations. > Glutathione seems to be important in the antioxidant defense against metals. > Time intervals (2, 4, 8 days) allowed following the evolution of oxidative events. - Zinc and cadmium cause oxidative stress and membrane damage in Enchytraeus albidus at reproduction effect concentrations.

  8. Developing alternative indices of reproductive potential for use in fisheries management : Case studies for stocks spanning an information gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshall, C.T.; O'Brien, L.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2003-01-01

    sufficient data to reconstruct a time series of total eggproduction (TEP), whereas, the remaining stocks were limited to estimating proxies for stockreproductive potential. For some of the case studies the alternative indices explained a higheramount of recruitment variation than did SSB. Other case studies...

  9. Potential factors affecting survival differ by run-timing and location: linear mixed-effects models of Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp. in the Klamath River, California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Quiñones

    Full Text Available Understanding factors influencing survival of Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp. is essential to species conservation, because drivers of mortality can vary over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although recent studies have evaluated the effects of climate, habitat quality, or resource management (e.g., hatchery operations on salmonid recruitment and survival, a failure to look at multiple factors simultaneously leaves open questions about the relative importance of different factors. We analyzed the relationship between ten factors and survival (1980-2007 of four populations of salmonids with distinct life histories from two adjacent watersheds (Salmon and Scott rivers in the Klamath River basin, California. The factors were ocean abundance, ocean harvest, hatchery releases, hatchery returns, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, El Niño Southern Oscillation, snow depth, flow, and watershed disturbance. Permutation tests and linear mixed-effects models tested effects of factors on survival of each taxon. Potential factors affecting survival differed among taxa and between locations. Fall Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha survival trends appeared to be driven partially or entirely by hatchery practices. Trends in three taxa (Salmon River spring Chinook salmon, Scott River fall Chinook salmon; Salmon River summer steelhead trout O. mykiss were also likely driven by factors subject to climatic forcing (ocean abundance, summer flow. Our findings underscore the importance of multiple factors in simultaneously driving population trends in widespread species such as anadromous salmonids. They also show that the suite of factors may differ among different taxa in the same location as well as among populations of the same taxa in different watersheds. In the Klamath basin, hatchery practices need to be reevaluated to protect wild salmonids.

  10. Examining Microbial Survival During Infall onto Europa: An Important Limit on the Origin of Potential European Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Conrad, P.; Matney, M.; Steele, A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work shows that transfer of material from Earth to Europa is statistically possible, opening the question of whether terrestrial biota may have transferred to Europa to populate that world. Transfer of viable organisms is a function of parameters such as ejection shock, radiation exposure, and others, applied across four phases in the transfer process: ejection from the parent body, transport through interplanetary space, infall onto the target world, and biological adaptation. If terrestrial biota could survive transport to Europa, then biology on Europa may be either the product of a separate and unrelated origin or they are the descendants of transferred terrestrial organisms. If, however, transfer of viable organisms is impossible, then any biota present on Europa must be the product of a biological origin independent from terrestrial life. We will investigate the survival likelihood of material falling onto Europa.

  11. Potential Involvement of Snail Members in Neuronal Survival and Astrocytic Migration during the Gecko Spinal Cord Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Certain regenerative vertebrates such as fish, amphibians and reptiles are capable of regenerating spinal cord after injury. Most neurons of spinal cord will survive from the injury and regrow axons to repair circuits with an absence of glial scar formation. However, the underlying mechanisms of neuronal anti-apoptosis and glia-related responses have not been fully clarified during the regenerative process. Gecko has becoming an inspiring model to address spinal cord regeneration in amniotes. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory roles of Snail family members, the important transcriptional factors involved in both triggering of the cell migration and cell survival, during the spontaneous spinal cord regeneration. Both Snail1 and Snail3 have been shown to promote neuronal survival and astrocytic migration via anti-apoptotic and GTPases signaling following gecko tail amputation. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ, together with other cytokines were involved in inducing expression of Snail protein. Our data indicate a conserved function of Snail proteins in embryonic development and tissue regeneration, which may provide clues for CNS repair in the mammals.

  12. Detailed analysis of the male reproductive system in a potential bio-indicator species - The marine invertebrate Galeolaria caespitosa (Polychaeta: Serpulidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Lu

    Full Text Available For the first time, this study has systemically investigated the male reproductive system in a sessile broadcast-spawning marine invertebrate, Galeolaria caespitosa (Polychaeta: Serpulidae, which has significant potential as a bio-indicator species of coastal marine pollution. The abdomen of G. caespitosa was divided by intersegmental septa into over 80 trunk segments. Each segment served as a germinal chamber with a C-shaped gonadal arrangement consisting of several distinct compartments: a seminiferous epithelium (SE compartment located in the centre of the chamber, with each of its two ends connecting to a nurse cell (NC compartment and then an efferent duct (ED compartment. The SE compartment contained a multilayered seminiferous epithelium where spermatogenesis was initiated. Spermatids were released in pairs into the lumen of the SE compartment and then transported to the NC compartment where they underwent spermiogenesis with the support of secretory vesicles released by the nurse cells. Spermatozoa were stored in the ED compartment and subsequently released into the seawater through the vas deferens. Unlike vertebrates where germ cells differentiated in close proximity to the nurse cell population (i.e. Sertoli cells, the spermatogenic cells of G. caespitosa exhibited no direct contact with supporting cells at any spermatogenic stage. This finding suggested that the spermatogenesis in G. caespitosa was more dependent on intrinsic developmental programming than most species. Notwithstanding such differences, there were clear parallels between the male reproductive system of G. caespitosa and mammals, in terms of the structure and function. The independence of spermatogenic cells from supporting cells in G. caespitosa raised the possibility of inducing spermiogenesis in vitro, which would provide a useful tool to dissect the mechanisms underlying this complex cell differentiation process in invertebrates and other higher order animals.

  13. Reproductive Health and Reproductive Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive health represents, almost to an equal extent, a socio-cultural and a medical fact. What influences it, both positively and negatively, stems from the ways in which we culturally cognize and act with regard to reproductive behavior. These thoughts and actions are conditioned by a culturally contextualized conceptualization of human physiology which is, in turn, based on the conceptualization of sexuality, and especially, the normativization of gender roles. Therefore, reproductive health is, above all, female health, when viewed as a socio-cultural category, meaning that reproductive vulnerability mostly refers to those factors that negatively influence female reproductive health. These factors are social – they negatively influence reproductive health through the institutional and legally normative aspects, they are economic – they decrease the number of those who, in a certain socio-cultural context, have timely access to quality medical care, and they are cultural – they reinforce modes of thinking and behavior which do not take into consideration the right of every human being to his or her own sexual and reproductive life, but rather insist on conforming individual sexuality and reproductive desires and capacities to the dominant cultural norm.

  14. Density and nest survival of golden-cheeked warblers: Spatial scale matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Reidy; Frank R., III Thompson; Lisa O' Donnell

    2017-01-01

    Conservation and management plans often rely on indicators such as species occupancy or density to define habitat quality, ignoring factors that influence reproductive success, and potentially limiting conservation achievements. We examined relationships between predicted density and nest survival with environmental features at multiple spatial scales for the golden-...

  15. The predicted influence of climate change on lesser prairie-chicken reproductive parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake A Grisham

    Full Text Available The Southern High Plains is anticipated to experience significant changes in temperature and precipitation due to climate change. These changes may influence the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus in positive or negative ways. We assessed the potential changes in clutch size, incubation start date, and nest survival for lesser prairie-chickens for the years 2050 and 2080 based on modeled predictions of climate change and reproductive data for lesser prairie-chickens from 2001-2011 on the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico. We developed 9 a priori models to assess the relationship between reproductive parameters and biologically relevant weather conditions. We selected weather variable(s with the most model support and then obtained future predicted values from climatewizard.org. We conducted 1,000 simulations using each reproductive parameter's linear equation obtained from regression calculations, and the future predicted value for each weather variable to predict future reproductive parameter values for lesser prairie-chickens. There was a high degree of model uncertainty for each reproductive value. Winter temperature had the greatest effect size for all three parameters, suggesting a negative relationship between above-average winter temperature and reproductive output. The above-average winter temperatures are correlated to La Niña events, which negatively affect lesser prairie-chickens through resulting drought conditions. By 2050 and 2080, nest survival was predicted to be below levels considered viable for population persistence; however, our assessment did not consider annual survival of adults, chick survival, or the positive benefit of habitat management and conservation, which may ultimately offset the potentially negative effect of drought on nest survival.

  16. The Relationship between Patient Satisfaction with Service Quality and Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - Is Self-Rated Health a Potential Confounder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Lis

    Full Text Available Previously we reported that higher patient satisfaction (PS with service quality is associated with favorable survival outcomes in a variety of cancers. However, we cautioned the readers that patients with greater satisfaction might be the ones with better self-rated health (SRH, a well-established prognosticator of cancer survival. In other words, SRH could potentially confound the PS and survival relationship. We investigated this hypothesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.778 NSCLC patients (327 males and 451 females; mean age 58.8 years treated at 4 Cancer Treatment Centers of America hospitals between July 2011 and March 2013. PS was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "completely dissatisfied" to "completely satisfied". SRH was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "very poor" to "excellent". Both were dichotomized into 2 categories: top box response (7 versus all others (1-6. Patient survival was the primary end point. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between PS and survival controlling for covariates.74, 70, 232 and 391 patients had stage I, II, III and IV disease respectively. 631 (81.1% patients were "completely satisfied". 184 (23.7% patients had "excellent" SRH. There was a weak but significant correlation between overall PS and SRH (Kendall's tau b = 0.19; p<0.001. On univariate analysis, "completely satisfied" patients had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.99; p = 0.04. Similarly, patients with "excellent" SRH had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.81; p = 0.001. On multivariate analysis controlling for stage at diagnosis, treatment history and gender, SRH was found to be a significant predictor of survival (HR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.89; p = 0.007 while PS was not (HR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.2; p = 0.32. Among the individual PS items, the only significant independent predictor of survival was "teams communicating with each

  17. Intraspecific variation in body size and the rate of reproduction in female insects - adaptive allometry or biophysical constraint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David; Olofsson, Martin; Friberg, Magne; Karlsson, Bengt; Wiklund, Christer; Gotthard, Karl

    2012-11-01

    1. A high rate of reproduction may be costly if ecological factors limit immediate reproductive output as a fast metabolism compromises own future survival. Individuals with more reserves need more time and opportunity to realize their reproductive potential. Theory therefore predicts that the reproductive rate, defined as the investment in early reproduction in proportion to total potential, should decrease with body size within species. 2. However, metabolic constraints on body size- and temperature-dependent biological rates may impede biophysical adaptation. Furthermore, the sequential manner resources that are allocated to somatic vs. reproductive tissue during ontogeny may, when juveniles develop in unpredictable environments, further contribute to non-adaptive variation in adult reproductive rates. 3. With a model on female egg laying in insects, we demonstrate how variation in body reserves is predicted to affect reproductive rate under different ecological scenarios. Small females always have higher reproductive rates but shorter lifespans. However, incorporation of female host selectivity leads to more similar reproductive rates among female size classes, and oviposition behaviour is predicted to co-evolve with reproductive rate, resulting in small females being more selective in their choice and gaining relatively more from it. 4. We fed simulations with data on the butterfly Pararge aegeria to compare model predictions with reproductive rates of wild butterflies. However, simulated reproductive allometry was a poor predictor of that observed. Instead, reproductive rates were better explained as a product of metabolic constraints on rates of egg maturation, and an empirically derived positive allometry between reproductive potential and size. However, fitness is insensitive to moderate deviations in reproductive rate when oviposition behaviour is allowed to co-evolve in the simulations, suggesting that behavioural compensation may mitigate putative

  18. Potential for using online and mobile education with parents and adolescents to impact sexual and reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Lee, Jane J; Kantor, Leslie M; Levine, Deborah S; Baum, Sarah; Johnsen, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Research supports the central role of parents in the sexual health behaviors and outcomes of their adolescent children. Too often, parents and adolescents with the greatest sexual health disparities are difficult to reach and engage in preventative interventions. Online and mobile technologies (OMTs) represent an innovative opportunity to reach large numbers of youth and their parents. However, there is a dearth of information related to the feasibility and acceptability of OMT-delivered family interventions for reaching vulnerable youths--particularly, ethnic minority youths. The current manuscript addresses this gap in the empirical literature by examining the feasibility and acceptability of OMT-based parent-adolescent sexual health interventions for African American and Latino families. Focus groups were conducted with convenience samples of Latino and African Americans from six US cities. Fourteen focus groups (six parents and eight adolescents) with an average of 10-12 participants each provided data for the study. Researchers used inductive thematic analysis to evaluate data. The findings suggest that parents and adolescents were motivated to obtain sexual health information through OMTs due to their accessibility, widespread use, and ability to deliver large quantities of information. However, personalized and trustworthy information was viewed as less attainable through the Internet or similar digital means, presenting a potential barrier to delivering an adolescent sexual health intervention via OMTs. Sexual health interventions delivered through online and mobile mechanisms present a novel opportunity for reaching potentially at-risk ethnic minority adolescents and their parents. Feelings of discomfort surrounding OMT use with parents, generational differences, and parent-adolescent relationship quality must be considered when developing technology-based sexual health interventions for Latino and African American families.

  19. Effect of low concentrations of benzalkonium chloride on acanthamoebal survival and its potential impact on empirical therapy of infectious keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Elmer Y; Shoff, Megan E; Gao, Weihua; Joslin, Charlotte E

    2013-05-01

    The significant antiacanthamoebal effect of benzalkonium chloride, at or below concentrations used for preservation of common ophthalmic preparations, should be understood both when choosing empiric antibiotic therapy for infectious keratitis and when assessing the persistent rise in Acanthamoeba cases in the United States since 2003. To characterize the antiacanthamoebal efficacy of low concentrations of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) for drug preservation and therapeutic effect against Acanthamoeba. Experimental study with a review of the literature. Laboratory. A concentration of 10(4) trophozoites of 3 well-characterized clinical strains of Acanthamoeba were exposed at 0.5, 2.0, 3.5, 5.0, and 6.5 hours to BAK (0.001%, 0.002%, and 0.003%), moxifloxacin hydrochloride (0.5%), and moxifloxacin (0.5%) + BAK (0.001% and 0.003%) with hydrogen peroxide (3%) and amoeba saline controls. Amoeba survival was calculated using the most probable number method recorded as log kill values. The relationship of BAK concentration and exposure time as well as the relative effect of BAK and moxifloxacin on acanthamoebal survival were analyzed. Amoebicidal activity of BAK is both time dependent and concentration dependent in pooled and strain-stratified analyses (P independent inhibitory effect or additive effect to BAK efficacy on acanthamoebal survival. The profound antiacanthamoebal effect of BAK, 0.003%, was similar to that of hydrogen peroxide for certain strains. Low concentrations of BAK, previously demonstrated to concentrate and persist in ocular surface epithelium, exhibit significant antiacanthamoebal activity in vitro at or below concentrations found in commercially available ophthalmic anti-infectives. The unexplained persistence of the Acanthamoeba keratitis outbreak in the United States, clusters abroad, and clinical studies reporting resolution or modification of Acanthamoeba keratitis without specific antiacanthamoebal therapy suggests that other contributing factors

  20. Analysis of the effects of polyphenols on human spermatozoa reveals unexpected impacts on mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress and DNA integrity; implications for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, R J; Muscio, L; Whiting, S; Connaughton, H S; Fraser, B A; Nixon, B; Smith, N D; De Iuliis, G N

    2016-12-01

    The need to protect human spermatozoa from oxidative stress during assisted reproductive technology, has prompted a detailed analysis of the impacts of phenolic compounds on the functional integrity of these cells. Investigation of 16 individual compounds revealed a surprising variety of negative effects including: (i) a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) via mechanisms that were not related to opening of the permeability transition pore but associated with a reduction in thiol expression, (ii) a decline in intracellular reduced glutathione, (iii) the stimulation of pro-oxidant activity including the induction of ROS generation from mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial sources, (iv) stimulation of lipid peroxidation, (v) the generation of oxidative DNA damage, and (vi) impaired sperm motility. For most of the polyphenolic compounds examined, the loss of motility was gradual and highly correlated with the induction of lipid peroxidation (r=0.889). The exception was gossypol, which induced a rapid loss of motility due to its inherent alkylating activity; one consequence of which was a marked reduction in carboxymethyl lysine expression on the sperm tail; a post-translational modification that is known to play a key role in the regulation of sperm movement. The only polyphenols that did not appear to have adverse effects on spermatozoa were resveratrol, genistein and THP at doses below 100μM. These compounds could, therefore, have some therapeutic potential in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Survival, Growth and Reproduction of Non-Native Nile Tilapia II: Fundamental Niche Projections and Invasion Potential in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    University of Southern Mississippi, Ocean Springs , Mississippi, United States of America, 2 United States Army Engineer Research and Development Center...Academic Publishers. pp. 1–32. 18. Casal MVC (2006) Global documentation of fish introductions: the growth in crises and recommendations for action...Thibodaux, Louisiana. 64. Hutchinson GE (1957) Concluding remarks. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 22: 414–427. 65. Peterson MS, Slack

  2. Determinants of reproductive costs in the long-lived Black-legged Kittiwake: A multiyear experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golet, Gregory H.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Irons, David B.; Estes, James A.

    2004-01-01

    We studied reproductive costs of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) in Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA) by removing entire clutches from randomly selected nests over four successive years, and then contrasting survival and fecundity of adults from manipulated and unmanipulated nests in each subsequent year. To elucidate mechanisms that lead to the expression of reproductive costs, we simultaneously characterized several behavioral and physiological parameters among adults in the two treatment groups. We also examined naturally nonbreeding adults that previously bred to determine their survival and future nonbreeding probabilities.Food availability varied during the study, being generally poor at the onset, and improving in later years. Adult nest attendance and body condition (assessed late in the chick- rearing period) varied accordingly among years, and between adults raising chicks and adults that had their eggs removed. Adults from unmanipulated nests incurred significant survival costs in all years, although fecundity costs were strongly expressed in only one of four years. Neither survival nor fecundity costs were strongly influenced by body condition or food availability, and no difference in reproductive costs was detected between the sexes. Although unmanipulated breeders survived at lower rates than manipulated breeders due to costs of reproduction, their survival rates were elevated compared to those of natural nonbreeders, presumably due to differences in individual ability. These findings indicate that models of adult survival must consider not only an organism's reproductive state, but also the factors that lead to that state.Although body condition appeared to be weakly related to survival, it was insufficient to explain the full magnitude of survival costs observed. We suggest that other parameters that were found to differ between treatment groups (e.g., rates of energy turnover, baseline levels of stress, and patterns of allocating body

  3. Human reproductive issues in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Jennings, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    A review of reproductive functioning in animal species studied during space flight demonstrated that most species were affected significantly by the absence of gravity and/or the presence of radiation. These two factors induced alterations in normal reproductive functioning independently of, as well as in combination with, each other. Based on animal models, several potential problem areas regarding human reproductive physiology and functioning in the space environment were identified. While there are no current space flight investigations, the animal studies suggest priorities for future research in human reproduction. Such studies will be critical for the successful colonization of the space frontier.

  4. Veterinary management of snake reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Scott J

    2002-09-01

    The reptile veterinarian should approach the breeder with a comprehensive plan involving a review of proper husbandry, nutrition, record keeping, and a thorough prebreeding evaluation of the snakes. In addition, an evaluation of the reproductive strategy, assistance with confirming and monitoring gestation, and a review of potential reproductive complications will help to prepare the snake owner for a successful breeding season.

  5. Food utilization efficiency in fifth instar larvae of Antheraea mylitta (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) infected with Nosema sp. and its effect on reproductive potential and silk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, S S; Prasad, B C; Sinha, B R R P

    2003-05-01

    Antheraea mylitta, a sericigenous insect of economical importance is often infected with an intracellular parasite of the genus Nosema. This pathogen is known to cause fatal pebrine disease and is considered as an important factor that strongly influences the development of the host. Larvae developed from the eggs laid by a female infected with Nosema sp. showed extended development period. The increment in the larval weight declined significantly in infected larvae in comparison to uninfected ones. Food consumption, digestion, relative consumption rate (RCR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), and relative growth rate (RGR) values declined significantly, but at the same time a significant increase in approximate digestibility (AD) was also observed. Silk production declined in infected larvae. Silk gland weight and shell weight also significantly declined following infection over uninfected larvae. The reproductive potential in adults declined significantly (P<0.001) with decrease in ovary weight (31.6%), fecundity (54.1%), and fertility (34.9%). Egg chorionation was also affected in adults, which developed from infected larvae. The maternal infection level in one generation (10.4 x 10(6) spores/female) decreased significantly in the next generation (8.0 x 10(6) spores/female).

  6. Evaluating the potential of effluent extracts from pulp and paper mills in Canada, Brazil, and New Zealand to affect fish reproduction: Estrogenic effects in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, Rodrigo; Milestone, Craig B; Hewitt, L Mark; Guchardi, John; Heid-Furley, Tatiana; Slade, Alison; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Holdway, Douglas

    2017-06-01

    The authors examined the potential of pulp mill effluent from pulp-producing countries (Canada, Brazil, New Zealand) to affect fish reproduction. Specifically, the estrogenic effects in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) pulse-exposed to 11 different mill effluent extracts (intraperitoneal injections of solid-phase extraction-dichloromethane nonpolar fraction). The results indicated that effluent extracts were estrogenic in juvenile trout irrespective of the gender, as reflected by increasing level of plasma vitellogenin (VTG; Brazil > New Zealand > Canada). Despite the high variability observed among mills, differences in VTG levels were related to the type of mill process (kraft > elementary chlorine-free kraft > thermomechanical pulping). Moreover, effluent treatments did not appear to significantly decrease VTG induction. A consistent estrogenic effect was observed in those mills that process a combination of feedstocks (softwood and hardwood), with the highest increase in VTG related to eucalyptus feedstock. The results demonstrate significant estrogenic effects of pulp mill effluents on chronically exposed juvenile trout, suggesting that in vivo metabolic activation of precursors is necessary to cause the observed increases in VTG levels. This molecular estrogenic response provides a useful starting point for predicting population-level impacts through the adverse outcome pathway methodology. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1547-1555. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. Mycoplasma hyorhinis is a potential pathogen of porcine respiratory disease complex that aggravates pneumonia caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ah; Oh, Yu-Ri; Hwang, Min-A; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Sang-Won

    2016-09-01

    The porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) caused by numerous bacterial and viral agents has a great impact on pig industry worldwide. Although Mycoplasma hyorhinis (Mhr) has been frequently isolated from lung lesions from pigs with PRDC, the pathological importance of Mhr may have been underestimated. In this study, 383 serum samples obtained from seven herds with a history of PRDC were tested for specific antibodies to Mhr, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp), and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Seropositive rates of PRRSV were significantly correlated with those of Mhr (correlation coefficient, 0.862; P-value, 0.013), but not with those of Mhp (correlation coefficient, -0.555; P-value, 0.196). In vivo experiments demonstrated that pigs co-infected with Mhr and PRRSV induced more severe lung lesions than pigs infected with Mhr or PRRSV alone. These findings suggest that Mhr is closely associated with pneumonia caused by PRRSV and provide important information on Mhr pathogenesis within PRDC. Therefore, effective PRDC control strategies should also consider the potential impact of Mhr in the pathogenesis of PRDC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reproductive Allocation in Three Macrophyte Species from Different Lakes with Variable Eutrophic Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wan

    Full Text Available Reproductive allocation is a key process in the plant life cycle and aquatic plants exhibit great diversity in their reproductive systems. In the present study, we conduct a field investigation of three aquatic macrophytes: Stuckenia pectinata, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Potamogeton perfoliatus. Our results showed that widespread species, including S. pectinata and M. spicatum had greater plasticity in their allocation patterns in the form of increased sexual and asexual reproduction, and greater potential to set seeds and increase fitness in more eutrophic environments. P. perfoliatus also exhibited a capacity to adopt varied sexual reproductive strategies such as setting more offspring for the future, although only in clear conditions with low nutrient levels. Our results establish strategies and mechanisms of some species for tolerating and surviving in varied eutrophic lake conditions.

  9. Potential effects of climate change on streambed scour and risks to salmonid survival in snow-dominated mountain basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime R. Goode; John M. Buffington; Daniele Tonina; Daniel J. Isaak; Russell F. Thurow; Seth Wenger; David Nagel; Charlie Luce; Doerthe Tetzlaff; Chris Soulsby

    2013-01-01

    Snowmelt-dominated basins in northern latitudes provide critical habitat for salmonids. As such, these systems may be especially vulnerable to climate change because of potential shifts in the frequency, magnitude, and timing of flows that can scour incubating embryos. A general framework is presented to examine this issue, using a series of physical models that link...

  10. Identification and Characterization of Early Mission Phase Microorganisms Residing on the Mars Science Laboratory and Assessment of Their Potential to Survive Mars-like Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie A.; Benardini, James N., III; Anderl, David; Ford, Matt; Wear, Emmaleen; Schrader, Michael; Schubert, Wayne; DeVeaux, Linda; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Childers, Susan E.

    2017-03-01

    Planetary protection is governed by the Outer Space Treaty and includes the practice of protecting planetary bodies from contamination by Earth life. Although studies are constantly expanding our knowledge about life in extreme environments, it is still unclear what the probability is for terrestrial organisms to survive and grow on Mars. Having this knowledge is paramount to addressing whether microorganisms transported from Earth could negatively impact future space exploration. The objectives of this study were to identify cultivable microorganisms collected from the surface of the Mars Science Laboratory, to distinguish which of the cultivable microorganisms can utilize energy sources potentially available on Mars, and to determine the survival of the cultivable microorganisms upon exposure to physiological stresses present on the martian surface. Approximately 66% (237) of the 358 microorganisms identified are related to members of the Bacillus genus, although surprisingly, 22% of all isolates belong to non-spore-forming genera. A small number could grow by reduction of potential growth substrates found on Mars, such as perchlorate and sulfate, and many were resistant to desiccation and ultraviolet radiation (UVC). While most isolates either grew in media containing ≥10% NaCl or at 4°C, many grew when multiple physiological stresses were applied. The study yields details about the microorganisms that inhabit the surfaces of spacecraft after microbial reduction measures, information that will help gauge whether microorganisms from Earth pose a forward contamination risk that could impact future planetary protection policy.

  11. Scale Dependence of Female Ungulate Reproductive Success in Relation to Nutritional Condition, Resource Selection and Multi-Predator Avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared F Duquette

    Full Text Available Female ungulate reproductive success is dependent on the survival of their young, and affected by maternal resource selection, predator avoidance, and nutritional condition. However, potential hierarchical effects of these factors on reproductive success are largely unknown, especially in multi-predator landscapes. We expanded on previous research of neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus daily survival within home ranges to assess if resource use, integrated risk of 4 mammalian predators, maternal nutrition, winter severity, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained landscape scale variation in daily or seasonal survival during the post-partum period. We hypothesized that reproductive success would be limited greater by predation risk at coarser spatiotemporal scales, but habitat use at finer scales. An additive model of daily non-ideal resource use and maternal nutrition explained the most (69% variation in survival; though 65% of this variation was related to maternal nutrition. Strong support of maternal nutrition across spatiotemporal scales did not fully support our hypothesis, but suggested reproductive success was related to dam behaviors directed at increasing nutritional condition. These behaviors were especially important following severe winters, when dams produced smaller fawns with less probability of survival. To increase nutritional condition and decrease wolf (Canis lupus predation risk, dams appeared to place fawns in isolated deciduous forest patches near roads. However, this resource selection represented non-ideal resources for fawns, which had greater predation risk that led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resources alone. Although the reproductive strategy of dams resulted in greater predation of fawns from alternative predators, it likely improved the life-long reproductive success of dams, as many were late-aged (>10 years old and could have produced multiple litters

  12. Reproductive endocrinology of Syngnathidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobell, S K; Mackenzie, D S

    2011-06-01

    Few studies have examined the underlying hormonal mechanisms that mediate reproductive cyclicity, male pregnancy and reproductive behaviour in syngnathids. Progress in these areas has been hampered by the small size of most species in the family and a lack of validated techniques for assessing endocrine function. Research on a relatively small number of species has suggested that androgens are likely regulators of spermatogenesis and the development of the male brood pouch prior to pregnancy whereas prolactin and corticosteroids synergistically promote brood pouch function during pregnancy. No evidence supports a reversal of reproductive steroid hormone function in sex-role reversed behaviour, but neuropeptides such as arginine vasotocin or isotocin should be examined for their role in regulating parturition and mating behaviour. The diversity of reproductive patterns exhibited by syngnathids suggests that they will provide a unique opportunity to assess how hormonal regulation of integumentary function, gametogenesis and reproductive behaviour have evolved within a teleost lineage. Additionally, their coastal distribution and embryo retention make them potentially important subjects for studies on the effect of endocrine disruption on fitness. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Bacterial genome adaptation to niches: Divergence of the potential virulence genes in three Burkholderia species of different survival strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Sarria Saul H; Ulrich Ricky L; Yu Yan; Schell Mark A; Kim H Stanley; Nierman William C; DeShazer David

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Two closely related species Burkholderia mallei (Bm) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) are serious human health hazards and are potential bio-warfare agents, whereas another closely related species Burkholderia thailandensis (Bt) is a non-pathogenic saprophyte. To investigate the genomic factors resulting in such a dramatic difference, we first identified the Bm genes responsive to the mouse environment, and then examined the divergence of these genes in Bp and Bt. Result...

  14. Reproductive epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which...

  15. Reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  16. The costs of risky male behaviour: sex differences in seasonal survival in a small sexually monomorphic primate

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, Cornelia; Eberle, Manfred; Kappeler, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    Male excess mortality is widespread among mammals and frequently interpreted as a cost of sexually selected traits that enhance male reproductive success. Sex differences in the propensity to engage in risky behaviours are often invoked to explain the sex gap in survival. Here, we aim to isolate and quantify the survival consequences of two potentially risky male behavioural strategies in a small sexually monomorphic primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus: (i) most females hibernate...

  17. Growth and reproductive potential of Eisenia foetida (Sav) on various zoo animal dungs after two methods of pre-composting followed by vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Godínez, Edmundo Arturo; Lagunes-Zarate, Jorge; Corona-Hernández, Juan; Barajas-Aceves, Martha

    2017-06-01

    Disposal of animal manure without treatment can be harmful to the environment. In this study, samples of four zoo animal dungs and one horse dung were pre-composted in two ways: (a) traditional composting and (b) bokashi pre-composting for 1month, followed by vermicomposting for 3months. The permanence (PEf) and reproductive potential (RP) of Eisenia foetida as well as the quality of vermicompost were evaluated. The PEf values and RP index of E. foetida were higher for samples pre-composted using the traditional composting method (98.7-88% and 31.85-16.27%, respectively) followed by vermicomposting (92.7-72.7% and 22.96-13.51%, respectively), when compared with those for bokashi pre-composted samples followed by vermicomposting, except for the horse dung sample (100% for both the parameters). The values of electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic C, total N, available P, C/N ratio, and pH showed that both treatments achieved the norms of vermicompost (.5-8.5, respectively). However, the maturity indices of vermicompost, namely, organic matter loss, N loss, and CEC/organic carbon (OC) ratio indicated that bokashi pre-composting followed by vermicomposting produced the highest values (98.7-70.7%, 97.67-96.65%, and 2.7-1.97%, respectively), when compared with the other method adapted in this study. Nevertheless, further studies with plants for plant growth evaluation are needed to assess the benefits and limitations of these two pre-composting methods prior to vermicomposting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacterial genome adaptation to niches: Divergence of the potential virulence genes in three Burkholderia species of different survival strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarria Saul H

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two closely related species Burkholderia mallei (Bm and Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp are serious human health hazards and are potential bio-warfare agents, whereas another closely related species Burkholderia thailandensis (Bt is a non-pathogenic saprophyte. To investigate the genomic factors resulting in such a dramatic difference, we first identified the Bm genes responsive to the mouse environment, and then examined the divergence of these genes in Bp and Bt. Results The genes down-expressed, which largely encode cell growth-related proteins, are conserved well in all three species, whereas those up-expressed, which include potential virulence genes, are less well conserved or absent notably in Bt. However, a substantial number of up-expressed genes is still conserved in Bt. Bm and Bp further diverged from each other in a small number of genes resulting from unit number changes in simple sequence repeats (ssr in the homologs. Conclusion Our data suggest that divergent evolution of a small set of genes, rather than acquisition or loss of pathogenic islands, is associated with the development of different life styles in these bacteria of similar genomic contents. Further divergence between Bm and Bp mediated by ssr changes may reflect different adaptive processes of Bm and Bp fine-tuning into their host environments.

  19. Men's Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Cancel Close Email Share Dialog × Print Men's Reproductive Health Reproductive health is an important component of men's overall health ... often, males have been overlooked in discussions of reproductive health, especially when reproductive issues such as contraception and ...

  20. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Male Reproductive System Print A ... son's reproductive health. continue About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  1. The potential effects of pre-settlement processes on post-settlement growth and survival of juvenile northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) in Gulf of Alaska nursery habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Erin J.; Miller, Jessica A.; Hurst, Thomas P.; Jiang, Duo

    2017-04-01

    Early life history traits in marine fish such as growth, size, and timing of life history transitions often vary in response to environmental conditions. Identifying the potential effects of trait variation across life history stages is critical to understanding growth, recruitment, and survival. Juvenile northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) were collected (2005, 2007, 2009-2011) from two coastal nurseries in the Gulf of Alaska during the early post-settlement period (July-August) to examine variation in early life history traits in relation to water temperature and juvenile densities in nurseries as well as to evaluate the potential for carry-over effects. Size-at-hatch, larval growth, metamorphosis size and timing, and post-metamorphic and recent growth of juveniles were quantified using otolith structural analysis and compared across years and sites. Additionally, traits of fish caught in July and August were compared for evidence of selective mortality. Post-metamorphic and recent growth were related to temperatures in nurseries as well as temperatures during the larval period, indicating a direct influence of concurrent nursery temperatures and a potential indirect effect of thermal conditions experienced by larvae. Correlations between metamorphic traits and fish size at capture demonstrated that interannual variation in size persisted across life history stages regardless of post-settlement growth patterns. No evidence of density-dependent growth or growth-selective mortality were detected during the early post-settlement period; however, differences in hatch size and metamorphosis timing between fish collected in July and August indicate a selective loss of individuals although the pattern varied across years. Overall, variation in size acquired early in life and temperature effects on the phenology of metamorphosis may influence the direction of selection and survival of northern rock sole.

  2. Survival of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria on fermented green table olives during packaging in polyethylene pouches at 4 and 20 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blana, Vasiliki A; Polymeneas, Napoleon; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2016-02-01

    The survival of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with in vitro probiotic potential was studied during storage of cv. Halkidiki green olives previously subjected to inoculated Spanish-style fermentation. After fermentation olives were packed in polyethylene pouches, covered with freshly prepared brine (9%, w/v, NaCl), acidified with 2‰ (w/v) citric acid and 1.5‰ (w/v) ascorbic acid, and stored at 4 and 20 °C for 357 days. Four packing treatments were studied, namely olives previously fermented by (i) the indigenous microbiota (control); (ii) Lactobacillus pentosus B281; (iii) Lactobacillus plantarum B282; and (iv) a co-culture of both LAB strains. Microbiological analyses were performed on the olives in parallel with physicochemical changes (pH, titratable acidity, salt content, aw and colour) at the early (day 1), middle (day 197) and final stage (day 357) of storage, as well as sensory evaluation at the end of the storage. The survival of probiotic strains was confirmed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). LAB decreased throughout storage reaching a final population of ca. 3.5-4.0 log CFU/g and 4.5-5.0 log CFU/g at 4 and 20 °C, respectively. The pH values ranged between 3.90 and 4.61 during storage depending on packaging condition. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 and L. plantarum B282 showed a high survival rate with a recovery of 100 and 96%, respectively, at 4 °C, and less than 20% for both strains at 20 °C. Finally, in the packing treatment with a co-culture of both strains, L. pentosus dominated over L. plantarum throughout storage at both temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression of Erk5 in early stage breast cancer and association with disease free survival identifies this kinase as a potential therapeutic target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Montero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common neoplasia in women. Even though advances in its treatment have improved disease outcome, some patients relapse. Therefore, attempts to better define the molecular determinants that drive breast cancer cell proliferation may help in defining potential therapeutic targets. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK play important roles in tumorigenesis. One of them, Erk5, has been linked to the proliferation of breast cancer cells in vitro. Here we have investigated the expression and prognostic value of Erk5 in human breast cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Animal and cellular models were used to study Erk5 expression and function in breast cancer. In 84 human breast tumours the expression of Erk5 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Active Erk5 (pErk5 was studied by Western blotting. Correlation of Erk5 with clinicopathological parameters and with disease-free survival in early stage breast cancer patients was analyzed. Expression of Erk5 was detected in most patients, and overexpression was found in 20%. Active Erk5 was present in a substantial number of samples, as well as in tumours from an animal breast cancer model. Overexpression of Erk5 was associated with a decrease in disease-free survival time, which was independent of other clinicopathological parameters of prognosis. Transient transfection of a short hairpin RNA (shRNA targeting Erk5, and a stable cell line expressing a dominant negative form of Erk5 (Erk5(AEF, were used to investigate the influence of Erk5 on drugs used in the clinic to treat breast tumours. We found that inhibition of Erk5 decreased cancer cell proliferation and also sensitized these cells to the action of anti-HER2 therapies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overexpression of Erk5 is an independent predictor of disease-free survival in breast cancer, and may represent a future therapeutic target.

  4. CD44 variant 9 is a potential biomarker of tumor initiating cells predicting survival outcome in hepatitis C virus-positive patients with resected hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehashi, Anna; Ishii, Naomi; Sugihara, Eiji; Gi, Min; Saya, Hideyuki; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether the expression of CD44 variant 9 (CD44v9) might be a functional marker of tumor-initiating stem-like cells in primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV)(+) patients and provide an indicator of patient survival, as well as associated mechanisms. A total of 90 HCV(+) HCC patients who underwent surgery from 2006 to 2011 were enrolled and monitored for 2-8 years. Expression of CD44v9 was validated immunohistochemically in all HCCs, followed by comparative proteome, survival, and clinicopathological analyses. CD44 variant 8--10 was further evaluated in diethylnitrosamine-induced HCCs of C57Bl/6J mice. Focally localized CD44v(+) cells with a membranous staining pattern were detected in human HCV(+) and mouse HCCs. CD44v9(+) cells of HCCs were predominantly negative for Ki67 and P-p38, indicating decrease of cell proliferation in the CD44v9(+) tumor cell population, likely to be related to suppression of intracellular oxidative stress due to activation of Nrf2-mediated signaling, DNA repair, and inhibition of xenobiotic metabolism. CD44v9 IHC evaluation in 90 HCV(+) HCC cases revealed that positive expression was significantly associated with poor overall and recurrence-free survival, a younger age, poor histological differentiation of HCCs, and high alkaline phosphatase levels compared with patients with negative expression. CD44v9 is concluded to be a potential biomarker of tumor-initiating stem-like cells and a prognostic marker in HCV(+) HCC patients associated with Nrf2-mediated resistance to oxidative stress. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  5. Prognostic potential of initial CT changes for progression-free survival in gefitinib-treated patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung: a preliminary analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yu-Cheng; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chang, Wei-Chou; Ko, Kai-Hsiung; Hsu, Yi-Chih [Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tung, Ho-Jui [Asia University, Department of Healthcare Administration, Taichung (China); Huang, Tsai-Wang; Chang, Hung [Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Ho, Ching-Liang [Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Division of hematology-oncology, Department of internal Medicine, Taipei (China)

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to determine whether initial tumour responses measured during short-term follow-up computed tomography (CT) examinations after baseline examinations would correlate with clinical outcomes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy. A total of 86 gefitinib-treated patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent baseline and short-term follow-up CT examinations. The new response criteria (NRC) by Lee et al. were used for the response evaluations. A Cox proportional hazards multiple regression model and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were used to evaluate correlations between the initial tumour changes and progression-free and overall survival (PFS, OS). Better separation and smaller p values were observed for both PFS and OS when good and poor disease responses (as defined by NRC) were compared after excluding tumours with characteristic morphologies. Early tumour changes correlated with PFS in a size-dependent manner. Moreover, a stronger association was observed between size changes and PFS when characteristic morphology was also considered. Initial changes in tumour size during short-term post-treatment CT examinations could act as a potential prognostic imaging surrogate for PFS in gefitinib-treated patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung. (orig.)

  6. Environmental impacts on reproductive health and fertility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woodruff, T. J

    2010-01-01

    .... Focusing on exposures to environmental contaminants, particularly during critical periods in development and their potential effects on all aspects of future reproductive life-course, this book...

  7. Survival strategies in arctic ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. C. Tyler

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ungulates usually neither freeze nor starve to death despite the rigours of winter. Physiological adaptations enable them to survive and reproduce despite long periods of intense cold and potential undernutrition. Heat conservation is achieved by excellent insulation combined with nasal heat exchange. Seasonal variation in fasting metabolic rate has been reported in several temperate and sub-arctic species of ungulates and seems to occur in muskoxen. Surprisingly, there is no evidence for this in reindeer. Both reindeer and caribou normally maintain low levels of locomotor activity in winter. Light foot loads are important for reducing energy expenditure while walking over snow. The significance and control of selective cooling of the brain during hard exercise (e.g. escape from predators is discussed. Like other cervids, reindeer and caribou display a pronounced seasonal cycle of appetite and growth which seems to have an intrinsic basis. This has two consequences. First, the animals evidently survive perfectly well despite enduring negative energy balance for long periods. Second, loss of weight in winter is not necessarily evidence of undernutrition. The main role of fat reserves, especially in males, may be to enhance reproductive success. The principal role of fat reserves in winter appears to be to provide a supplement to, rather than a substitute for, poor quality winter forage. Fat also provides an insurance against death during periods of acute starvation.

  8. Evaluation of Potential Probiotic Properties of Enterococcus mundtii, Its Survival in Boza and in situ Bacteriocin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav D. Todorov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Boza is a low-pH and low-alcohol cereal-based beverage produced in the Balkan Peninsula. Barley was cooked and prepared according to a traditional recipe and inoculated with Enterococcus mundtii ST4V (a potential probiotic and bacteriocin-producing strain, commercially produced boza, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a combination of strain E. mundtii ST4V and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fermentation was carried out at 37 °C for 3 h. The organoleptic properties of fermented products were evaluated by a qualified taste panel. No significant differences in rheological properties were observed, suggesting that E. mundtii ST4V had no effect on the quality of the final product. Microbial cell numbers remained relatively unchanged during one week of storage. The preservative properties of bacteriocin ST4V were evaluated by contaminating boza with Lactobacillus sakei DSM 20017. Changes in microbial populations were monitored by using classical microbiological methods, PCR with species-specific primers and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. Adsorption of bacteriocin ST4V to target cells is pH-dependent, with the highest adsorption (88 % recorded at pH=8.0 and pH=10.0. Maximum adsorption of bacteriocin ST4V (75 % to Enterococcus faecalis and Listeria innocua was recorded at 25 to 37 °C. Growth of E. mundtii ST4V was inhibited only by a few antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medicaments, suggesting that the strain may be used as a probiotic by individuals receiving medical treatment.

  9. Identification and Characterization of Early Mission Phase Microorganisms Residing on the Mars Science Laboratory and Assessment of Their Potential to Survive Mars-like Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie A; Benardini, James N; Anderl, David; Ford, Matt; Wear, Emmaleen; Schrader, Michael; Schubert, Wayne; DeVeaux, Linda; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Childers, Susan E

    2017-03-01

    Planetary protection is governed by the Outer Space Treaty and includes the practice of protecting planetary bodies from contamination by Earth life. Although studies are constantly expanding our knowledge about life in extreme environments, it is still unclear what the probability is for terrestrial organisms to survive and grow on Mars. Having this knowledge is paramount to addressing whether microorganisms transported from Earth could negatively impact future space exploration. The objectives of this study were to identify cultivable microorganisms collected from the surface of the Mars Science Laboratory, to distinguish which of the cultivable microorganisms can utilize energy sources potentially available on Mars, and to determine the survival of the cultivable microorganisms upon exposure to physiological stresses present on the martian surface. Approximately 66% (237) of the 358 microorganisms identified are related to members of the Bacillus genus, although surprisingly, 22% of all isolates belong to non-spore-forming genera. A small number could grow by reduction of potential growth substrates found on Mars, such as perchlorate and sulfate, and many were resistant to desiccation and ultraviolet radiation (UVC). While most isolates either grew in media containing ≥10% NaCl or at 4°C, many grew when multiple physiological stresses were applied. The study yields details about the microorganisms that inhabit the surfaces of spacecraft after microbial reduction measures, information that will help gauge whether microorganisms from Earth pose a forward contamination risk that could impact future planetary protection policy. Key Words: Planetary protection-Spore-Bioburden-MSL-Curiosity-Contamination-Mars. Astrobiology 17, 253-265.

  10. Date and parental quality effects in the seasonal decline in reproductive performance of the Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor: Interpreting results in light of potential experimental bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardrop, S.L.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    In many bird species early breeders have higher reproductive performance than late breeders from the same population. This could be caused by a reduction in environmental factors related to date per se (Date Hypothesis), or because poorer performers nest later (Parent Quality Hypothesis). We

  11. Assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jack Yu Jen; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) encompass fertility treatments, which involve manipulations of both oocyte and sperm in vitro. This chapter provides a brief overview of ART, including indications for treatment, ovarian reserve testing, selection of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) protocols, laboratory techniques of ART including in vitro fertilization (IVF), and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), embryo transfer techniques, and luteal phase support. This chapter also discusses potential complications of ART, namely ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and multiple gestations, and the perinatal outcomes of ART.

  12. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....

  13. Cost of reproduction in selected species of zooplankton (rotifers and cladocerans)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarma, S.S.S.; Nandini, S.; Gulati, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Reproduction is an energetically costly biological process. Among the freshwater zooplankton, rotifers and cladocerans reproduce parthenogenetically and the cost of reproduction can be estimated using the life table data from demographic studies. Reduced probability of future survival or future

  14. Intra-tumoral heterogeneity in metastatic potential and survival signaling between iso-clonal HCT116 and HCT116b human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC metastasis is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The molecular mechanisms underlying this complex, multi-step pathway are yet to be completely elucidated. Recent reports have stressed the importance of intra-tumoral heterogeneity in the development of a metastatic phenotype. The purpose of this study was to characterize the intra-tumoral phenotypic heterogeneity between two iso-clonal human colon cancer sublines HCT116 and HCT116b on their ability to undergo metastatic colonization and survive under growth factor deprivation stress (GFDS.HCT116 and HCT116b cells were transfected with green fluorescence protein and subcutaneously injected into BALB/c nude male mice. Once xenografts were established, they were excised and orthotopically implanted into other male BALB/c nude mice using microsurgical techniques. Animal tissues were studied for metastases using histochemical techniques. Microarray analysis was performed to generate gene signatures associated with each subline. In vitro assessment of growth factor signaling pathway was performed under GFDS for 3 and 5 days.Both HCT116 and HCT116b iso-clonal variants demonstrated 100% primary tumor growth, invasion and peritoneal spread. However, HCT116 was highly metastatic with 68% metastasis observed in liver and/or lungs compared to 4% in HCT116b. Microarray analysis revealed an upregulation of survival and metastatic genes in HCT116 cells compared to HCT116b cells. In vitro analysis showed that HCT116 upregulated survival and migratory signaling proteins and downregulated apoptotic agents under GFDS. However, HCT116b cells effectively showed the opposite response under stress inducing cell death.We demonstrate the importance of clonal variation in determining metastatic potential of colorectal cancer cells using the HCT116/HCT116b iso-clonal variants in an orthotopic metastatic mouse model. Determination of clonal heterogeneity in patient tumors

  15. Helping patterns and reproductive success in Aymara communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crognier, E; Villena, M; Vargas, E

    2002-01-01

    "Helpers at the nest," young adults remaining in their parents home to take care of younger siblings, are known in many species of birds and mammals. Similar behaviors are occasionally observed in human societies but their frequency and significance for parental reproductive success are still not fully appraised. This study was designed to document this issue in a traditional Aymara peasant society of the Bolivian Altiplano, It is based on 359 reproductive life histories of women 45 years of age or older and on a survey of children's workload in 1998 and 1999. The presence of "potential helpers" in the household is significantly associated with higher fertility and with improved survival of siblings to sexual maturity. Caretaking is not particularly assigned to older daughters. The positive relationship between the availability of offspring help and reproductive success does not demonstrate a causal role for child caretaking because, in contrast with nonhuman helpers, workloads of children range from housekeeping to agricultural tasks, instead of being focused on feeding or protecting younger siblings. Correlation and multiple regression analyses, however, suggest that the total amount of care given by the older offspring and the amount of care received by each recipient are, along with offspring contribution to household economy, among the determinants of parental reproductive success. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Response rate as a potential surrogate for survival and efficacy in patients treated with novel immune checkpoint inhibitors: A meta-regression of randomised prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roviello, Giandomenico; Andre, Fabrice; Venturini, Sergio; Pistilli, Barbara; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Rosellini, Pietro; Generali, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    To assess the role of the tumour response rate (RR) after immune checkpoint inhibitors-based therapy as a potential surrogate end-point of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with solid tumours, we performed a trial-based meta-regression of randomised studies comparing different immune checkpoint inhibitors-based treatments. The systematic literature search included the electronic databases and the proceedings of oncologic meetings. Treatment effects on PFS and OS were expressed as hazard ratios (HRs); treatment effects on RR were expressed as odds ratios (ORs). A weighted regression analysis was performed on log-transformed treatment effect estimates to test the association between treatment effects on the surrogate outcome and treatment effects on the clinical outcome. Twenty-four trials, for a total of 11,894 patients, were included in the analysis. Using the complete set of data, the regression of either the log(HR) for PFS or the log(HR) for OS on the log(OR) for RR demonstrated weak associations (R2 = 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03-0.77; P = 0.001; and R2 = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.02-0.76; P = 0.01, respectively). The pre-planned analyses stratifying trials according to different type of disease and different mechanism of action of immune checkpoint inhibitors showed a very weak association of the RR with the OS for non-small cell lung cancer indicated and a modest association of the RR with the PFS for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 checkpoint inhibitors. The results of the trial-based meta-regression analysis indicated a weak correlation between RR and OS, supporting future investigations to assess the surrogacy of RR in the patient treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adipose tissue and reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Hannah; Castracane, V Daniel; Mantzoros, Christos

    2017-11-16

    The understanding of adipose tissue role has evolved from that of a depot energy storage organ to a dynamic endocrine organ. While genetics, sexual phenotype and sex steroids can impact the mass and distribution of adipose tissue, there is a counter-influence of white adipocytes on reproduction. This primarily occurs via the secretion of adipokines, the most studied of which- leptin and adiponectin- are highlighted in this article. Leptin, the "satiety hormone" primarily acts on the hypothalamus via pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons to translate acute changes in nutrition and energy expenditure, as well as chronic adipose accumulation into changes in appetite and potentially mediate insulin resistance via shared pathway and notably impacting reproductive health via influence on GnRH secreting neurons. Meanwhile, adiponectin is notable for its action in mediating insulin sensitivity, with receptors found at every level of the reproductive axis. Both have been examined in the context of physiologic and pathologic reproductive conditions. Leptin has been shown to influence puberty, pregnancy, hypothalamic amenorrhea, and lipodystrophy, and with a potential therapeutic role for both metabolic and reproductive health. Adiponectin mediates the relative state of insulin resistance in pregnancy, and has been implicated in conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome and reproductive malignancies. There are numerous other adipokines, including resistin, visfatin, chemerin and retinol binding protein-4, which may also play roles in reproductive health and disease states. The continued examination of these and other adipokines in both normal reproduction and reproductive pathologies represents an important avenue for continued study. Here, we seek to provide a broad, yet comprehensive overview of many facets of these relationships and highlight areas of consideration for clinicians and future study. Copyright © 2017

  18. Assessing the potential for rainbow trout reproduction in tributaries of the Mountain Fork River below Broken Bow Dam, southeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Long; Trevor A. Starks; Tyler Farling; Robert. Bastarache

    2016-01-01

    Stocked trout (Salmonidae) in reservoir tailwater systems in the Southern United States have been shown to use tributary streams for spawning and rearing. The lower Mountain Fork of the Little River below Broken Bow Dam is one of two year-round tailwater trout fisheries in Oklahoma, and the only one with evidence of reproduction by stocked rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus...

  19. Effects of oil on avian reproduction: A review and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Rosie, Don; Barnes, Stephen N.

    1983-01-01

    Oil pollution is a highly visible form of environmental contamination that affects avian reproduction in a variety of ways. Plumage oiling causes widespread and locally severe mortality of adult birds. Egg oiling can be a serious hazard for bird embryos but only a few field observationons of this have been reported. Oil ingestion seldom kills birds directly but it causes sublethal change~ in the bodily functions and behavior of adults and nestlings. Studies of the effects of oil on avian reproduction have produced varied and, in ingestion studies, sometimes conflicting results because of inconsistent experimental design and the use of different test species and types of oil. Field experimentation with the sublethal effects of ingested oil on avian reproduction has been limited. Simulation modelling of seabird populations has shown that (l) an occasional decrease in survival of breeding adults will have a greater impact on seabird populations than an occasional decrease in reproductive success, and (2) populations of long-lived seabirds with low reproductive potential have great difficulty recovering from high one-time mortality when experiencing even small sustained annual decreases in either natality or breeding adult survival. The impact of oil-related decreases in survival or reproduction will be more noticeable at the local or colony level than at the regional or species level. Immigration, surplus breeders, and possible compensatory changes in natality and mortality resulting from population reductions usually prevent local population reductions from lasting very long (unless the species is rare or at the edge of its range). A study of west European seabird populations indicates that the natural annual mortality of the region greatly exceeds the annual mortality due to plumage oiling; effects of oil ingestion and egg oiling were not measured but were thought to be less than the mortality from plu~age oiling. Oil-related mortality, even if in addition to

  20. Nematode survival in relation to soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Established nematode populations are very persistent in the soil. It is known that they need sufficient soil moisture for movement, feeding and reproduction (fig. 5), and that there are adverse soil moisture conditions which they cannot survive. The influence of soil moisture on survival

  1. Effects of coal combustion residues on survival, antioxidant potential, and genotoxicity resulting from full-lifecycle exposure of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio Holthius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmick, Danika M; Mitchelmore, Carys L; Hopkins, William A; Rowe, Christopher L

    2007-02-01

    Coal combustion residues (CCRs), largely derived from coal-fired electrical generation, are rich in numerous trace elements that have the potential to induce sublethal effects including oxidative stress, alterations in antioxidant status and DNA single strand breaks (SSB). CCRs are frequently discharged into natural and man-made aquatic systems. As the effects of CCRs have received relatively little attention in estuarine systems, the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was chosen for this study. Grass shrimp were exposed in the laboratory to CCR-enriched sediments and food over a full life cycle. Survival to metamorphosis was significantly reduced in CCR-exposed larvae (17+/-4 versus 70+/-13% in the controls) but not in the juveniles or adults. The COMET assay, a general but sensitive assay for genotoxicity, was used to quantify DNA SSB in the adults. Total antioxidant potential was examined to assess the overall antioxidant scavenging capacity of CCR-exposed and non-exposed adult grass shrimp. Grass shrimp exposed to CCR significantly accumulated selenium and cadmium compared to unexposed shrimp, although an inverse relationship was seen for mercury accumulation. Chronic CCR exposure caused DNA SSB in hepatopancreas cells, as evidenced by the significantly increased percent tail DNA, tail moment, and tail length as compared to reference shrimp. However, no significant difference was observed in total antioxidant potential. Our findings suggest that genotoxicity may be an important mode of toxicity of CCR, and that DNA SSB may serve as a useful biomarker of exposure and effect of this very common, complex waste stream.

  2. Environmental pollution and reproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, B.

    1987-05-01

    In the human a high percentage of conceptus dies during early pregnancy. Cytogenetical analyses of first trimester abortions found in 50-60% chromosomal anomalies. Epidemiological studies revealed occupational effects on reproduction. In view of these informations environmental pollution has to be considered as a potential reason for reproductive disorders. In animal experiments several substances like chemicals, metals, caffeine, nicotine, and drugs revealed to be embryotoxic during early pregnancy (preimplantation period), in combination even in a supra-additive fashion. The embryo, however, is not only a target of environmental hazards during early pregnancy but in all stages of gestation. This was taken into consideration by the 'MAK'-commission in publishing riskgroups for industrial chemicals which may damage embryonic or fetal development. Subdivision into pregnancy riskgroups is desirable for as many occupational chemicals and environmental pollutions as possible. Valid techniques for investigating embryo development are available, esp. during very early pregnancy.

  3. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/third-party-reproduction-booklet.pdf (PDF - 902 KB) [top] American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2015). Assisted reproductive technologies: A guide for patients . Retrieved May ...

  4. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... or sperm. continue Parts of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  5. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  6. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  7. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancel Close Email Share Dialog × Print Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) ART refers to treatments and procedures that ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2015). Assisted reproductive technologies: A guide for patients . Retrieved May 31, 2016, ...

  8. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  9. Selenium protects reproductive system and foetus development in a rat model of gestational lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W; Chen, J; Yin, J; Wang, S-L

    2016-01-01

    Lead is a common environmental contaminant. Lead accumulation in the body is especially dangerous for pregnant women and newborns. Selenium is a trace element which may rectify the damaging effects of lead. Here we tested potential protective effects of selenium against gestational lead exposure. Pregnant SD rats were exposed to 200 mg/L of lead acetate (given with water), with or without sodium selenite supplementation (2-8 mg/kg/day via intragastric administration). Pregnant rats not exposed to lead or selenium served as control animals. The outcomes in pregnant rats were serum lead and selenium levels, reproductive hormone (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, oestradiol, progesterone) levels, and uterine and ovarian morphological changes. The outcomes in the offspring were sex differentiation, survival rates (day 21 after birth), weight (days 0-35 after birth), weight of reproductive organs, and puberty onset (foreskin separation or vaginal opening). Selenium supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum lead levels, rectified reproductive hormone levels, and attenuated reproductive morphological changes caused by lead exposure. Lead exposure did not affect sex differentiation, but significantly (p lead exposure delayed the onset of puberty. These pathological changes were dose-dependently rectified or attenuated by selenium supplementation. Gestational lead exposure causes damages to the reproductive system of pregnant rats, and negatively modulates growth and reproductive system development of the offspring. These adverse effects are rectified or attenuated by selenium supplementation.

  10. The Evolution of Reproductive Phenology in Broadcast Spawners and the Maintenance of Sexually Antagonistic Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olito, Colin; Marshall, Dustin J; Connallon, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Reproductive phenology is a crucial life-history trait that evolves in response to external environmental conditions and frequency- and density-dependent interactions within species. Broadcast spawners-which represent a large fraction of aquatic biodiversity-evolve phenologies that balance strong density-dependent fertilization success against abiotic environmental conditions that are required for successful reproduction. The overall balance between these processes may be particularly complex in dioecious species, where selection on reproductive timing potentially differs between the sexes. Here, we develop a population genetic model of reproductive phenology in a dioecious broadcast spawning species and show that environmental variability and density-dependent fertilization dynamics naturally give rise to profound sex differences in selection on gamete release strategies. The frequency-dependent nature of sperm competition generates sexually antagonistic selection on reproductive timing and facilitates the maintenance of genetic variation in phenological traits. Selection in females favors monomorphic spawning phenologies that maximize net fertilization success and offspring survival across environmental conditions, whereas selection in males often favors polymorphic phenologies that are primarily shaped by sperm competition. Our model helps explain several well-documented empirical observations in aquatic species, including high intraspecific variance of reproductive phenologies, sex-specific spawning phenologies, and spawning during environmentally suboptimal times.

  11. Resource allocation and post-reproductive degeneration in the freshwater cnidarian Hydra oligactis (Pallas, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tökölyi, Jácint; Ősz, Zsófia; Sebestyén, Flóra; Barta, Zoltán

    2017-02-01

    Freshwater hydra are among the few animal groups that show negligible senescence and can maintain high survival and reproduction rates when kept under stable conditions in the laboratory. Yet, one species of Hydra (H. oligactis) undergoes a senescence-like process in which polyps degenerate and die after sexual reproduction. The ultimate factors responsible for this phenomenon are unclear. High mortality in reproducing animals could be the consequence of increased allocation of resources to reproduction at the expense of somatic maintenance. This hypothesis predicts that patterns of reproduction and survival are influenced by resource availability. To test this prediction we investigated survival and reproduction at different levels of food availability in 10 lineages of H. oligactis derived from a single Hungarian population. Sexual reproduction was accompanied by reduced survival, but a substantial proportion of animals regenerated after sexual reproduction and continued reproducing asexually. Polyps belonging to different lineages showed differences in their propensity to initiate sexual reproduction, gonad number and survival rate. Food availability significantly affected fecundity (number of eggs or testes produced), with the largest number of gonads being produced by animals kept on a high food regime. On the other hand, survival rate was not affected by the amount of food. These results show that survival is conserved at the expense of reproduction in this population when food is low. It remains a question still to be answered why survival is prioritized over reproduction in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Are reproductive and somatic senescence coupled in humans? Late, but not early, reproduction correlated with longevity in historical Sami women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Samuli; Lummaa, Virpi; Jokela, Jukka

    2005-01-01

    Evolutionary theory of senescence emphasizes the importance of intense selection on early reproduction owing to the declining force of natural selection with age that constrains lifespan. In humans, recent studies have, however, suggested that late-life mortality might be more closely related to late rather than early reproduction, although the role of late reproduction on fitness remains unclear. We examined the association between early and late reproduction with longevity in historical post-reproductive Sami women. We also estimated the strength of natural selection on early and late reproduction using path analysis, and the effect of reproductive timing on offspring survival to adulthood and maternal risk of dying at childbirth. We found that natural selection favoured both earlier start and later cessation of reproduction, and higher total fe cundity. Maternal age at childbirth was not related to offspring or maternal survival. Interestingly, females who produced their last offspring at advanced age also lived longest, while age at first reproduction and total fecundity were unrelated to female longevity. Our results thus suggest that reproductive and somatic senescence may have been coupled in these human populations, and that selection could have favoured late reproduction. We discuss alternative hypotheses for the mechanisms which might have promoted the association between late reproduction and longevity. PMID:15875567

  13. Survival of a native toxigenic isolate of Listeria monocytogenes CFR 1302 during storage of milk-based foods can be a potential cause of health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanth, Hampapura S; Varadaraj, Mandyam C

    2017-07-01

    The ability of a native toxigenic culture of Listeria monocytogenes CFR 1302 to survive and elaborate associated toxigenic trait in ice cream and mango pulp-based lactic fermented milk was studied. The culture of L. monocytogenes inoculated at two initial levels of 4.6 and 5.6 log10 CFU/ml almost remained unaltered during storage of the food products. However, in both the milk-based products, a marginal increase in viable population was observed during 2-4 d of storage as against the initial inoculum levels. The toxigenic trait, listeriolysin "O" was detected by PCR based on species-specific hlyA primers in the two products without any step of enrichment. The positive amplification in PCR was evidenced with initial population levels of 6.3, 7.3, and 8.3 log10 CFU/ml of the respective products. In culture broth, PCR detection was positive with the lowest level of 2.3 log10 CFU/ml. The established pathogenic strain of L. monocytogenes Scott A used as a reference culture revealed almost the same behavior to that of native culture in the food products. The findings of present study bring into focus that, irrespective of low storage temperatures, there exists the potential health hazard associated with foods initially contaminated with risk population levels of L. monocytogenes.

  14. The adipocytokine Nampt and its product NMN have no effect on beta-cell survival but potentiate glucose stimulated insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Spinnler

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Obesity is associated with a dysregulation of beta-cell and adipocyte function. The molecular interactions between adipose tissue and beta-cells are not yet fully elucidated. We investigated, whether or not the adipocytokine Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt and its enzymatic product Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN, which has been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM directly influence beta-cell survival and function. METHODS: The effect of Nampt and NMN on viability of INS-1E cells was assessed by WST-1 assay. Apoptosis was measured by Annexin V/PI and TUNEL assay. Activation of apoptosis signaling pathways was evaluated. Adenylate kinase release was determined to assess cytotoxicity. Chronic and acute effects of the adipocytokine Nampt and its enzymatic product NMN on insulin secretion were assessed by glucose stimulated insulin secretion in human islets. RESULTS: While stimulation of beta-cells with the cytokines IL-1β, TNFα and IFN-γ or palmitate significantly decreased viability, Nampt and NMN showed no direct effect on viability in INS-1E cells or in human islets, neither alone nor in the presence of pro-diabetic conditions (elevated glucose concentrations and palmitate or cytokines. At chronic conditions over 3 days of culture, Nampt and its product NMN had no effects on insulin secretion. In contrast, both Nampt and NMN potentiated glucose stimulated insulin secretion acutely during 1 h incubation of human islets. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: Nampt and NMN neither influenced beta-cell viability nor apoptosis but acutely potentiated glucose stimulated insulin secretion.

  15. Mixed Responses to Systemic Therapy Revealed Potential Genetic Heterogeneity and Poor Survival in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhong-Yi; Zhai, Hao-Ran; Hou, Qing-Yi; Su, Jian; Liu, Si-Yang; Yan, Hong-Hong; Li, Yang-Si; Chen, Zhi-Yong; Zhong, Wen-Zhao; Wu, Yi-Long

    2017-01-01

    A subset of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) fosters mixed responses (MRs) to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) or chemotherapy. However, little is known about the clinical and molecular features or the prognostic significance and potential mechanisms. The records of 246 consecutive patients with NSCLC receiving single-line chemotherapy or TKI treatment and who were assessed by baseline and interim positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans were collected retrospectively. The clinicopathological correlations of the MR were analyzed, and a multivariate analysis was performed to explore the prognostic significance of MR. The overall incidence of MR to systemic therapy was 21.5% (53/246) and predominated in patients with stage IIIB-IV, EGFR mutations and those who received TKI therapy (p heterogeneity. MR was not a rare event in patients with NSCLC and tended to occur in those with advanced lung adenocarcinoma treated with a TKI. MR may result from genetic heterogeneity and is an unfavorable prognostic factor for survival. Further studies are imperative to explore subsequent treatment strategies. The Oncologist 2017;22:61-69Implications for Practice: Tumor heterogeneity tends to produce mixed responses (MR) to systemic therapy, including TKI and chemotherapy; however, the clinical significance and potential mechanisms are not fully understood, and the subsequent treatment after MR is also a clinical concern. The present study systemically assessed patients by PET/CT and differentiated MR and therapies. The study identified a relatively high incidence of MR in patients with advanced NSCLC, particularly those treated with targeted therapies. An MR may be an unfavorable prognostic factor and originate from genetic heterogeneity. Further studies are imperative to explore subsequent treatment strategies. © AlphaMed Press 2017.

  16. Human species and mating systems: Neandertal-Homo sapiens reproductive isolation and the archaeological and fossil records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmann, Karenleigh; Coolidge, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    The present paper examined the assumption of strong reproductive isolation (RI) between Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens, as well as the question of what form it might have taken, using insights from the parallel case of chimpanzee–bonobo hybridization. RI from hybrid sterility or inviability was thought unlikely based on the short separation-to-introgression timeline. The forms of RI that typically develop in primates have relatively short timelines (especially for partial implementation); they generally preclude mating or influence hybrid survival and reproduction in certain contexts, and they have the potential to skew introgression directionality. These RI barriers are also consistent with some interpretations of the archaeological and fossil records, especially when behavioral, cognitive, morphological, and genetic differences between the two human species are taken into consideration. Differences potentially influencing patterns of survival and reproduction include interspecies violence, Neandertal xenophobia, provisioning behavior, and ontogenetic, morphological, and behavioral differences affecting matters such as kin and mate recognition, infanticide, and sexual selection. These factors may have skewed the occurrence of interbreeding or the survival and reproduction of hybrids in a way that might at least partially explain the pattern of introgression.

  17. Determination of pyruvate and lactate as potential biomarkers of embryo viability in assisted reproduction by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mádr, Aleš; Celá, Andrea; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Pelcová, Marta; Crha, Igor; Žáková, Jana; Glatz, Zdeněk

    2015-06-01

    Human-assisted reproduction is increasing in importance due to the constantly rising number of couples suffering from infertility issue. A key step in in vitro fertilization is the proper assessment of embryo viability in order to select the embryo with the highest likelihood of resulting in a pregnancy. This study proposes a method based on CE with contactless conductivity detection for the determination of pyruvate and lactate in spent culture media used in human-assisted reproduction. A fused-silica capillary of 64.0 cm total length and 50 μm inner diameter was used. The inner capillary wall was modified by the coating of successive layers of the ionic polymers polybrene and dextran sulfate to reverse EOF. The BGE was composed of 10 mM MES/lithium hydroxide, pH 6.50. The sample was injected by pressure 50 mbar for 18 s, separation voltage was set to -24 kV, and capillary temperature to 15°C. The presented method requires only 2 μL of the culture medium, with LODs for pyruvate and lactate of 0.03 and 0.02 μM, respectively. The results demonstrated the method's suitability for the analysis of spent culture media to support embryo viability assessment by light microscopy, providing information about key metabolites of the energy metabolism of a developing embryo. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Dusty discos and dangerous desires: community perceptions of adolescent sexual and reproductive health risks and vulnerability and the potential role of parents in rural Mwanza, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Pieter; Renju, Jenny; Nyalali, Kija; Medard, Lemmy; Kimaryo, Michael; Changalucha, John; Obasi, Angela; Wight, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents villagers' assessments of young people's sexual and reproductive health vulnerability and of community-based interventions that may reduce both vulnerability and risk in rural Mwanza, Tanzania. The primary methods used were 28 group discussions and 18 in-depth interviews with representatives of various social groups in four villages. The majority of participants attributed young people's sexual and reproductive health risks to a combination of modernisation (and its impact on family and community life), socioeconomic conditions, social norms in rural/lakeshore communities and the difficulties parents and other adults face in raising adolescents in contemporary Tanzania. Community life has limited opportunities for positive development but contains many risky situations. Young and old agreed that parents have a strong influence on young people's health but are failing in their parental responsibility. Parents acknowledged the multiple influences on sexual risk behaviour. They expressed a need for knowledge and skills related to parenting so that they can address these influences both through family- and community-based strategies.

  19. Are male reproductive disorders a common entity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, K A; Main, K M; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2001-01-01

    Growing evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies points to a synchronized increase in the incidence of male reproductive problems, such as genital abnormalities, testicular cancer, reduced semen quality, and subfertility. Together these male reproductive problems may reflect the existence...... affecting genetically susceptible individuals. We recommend that future epidemiological studies on trends in male reproduction do not focus on one symptom only, but take all aspects of TDS into account. The potential impact of adverse environmental factors and the role of genetic polymorphisms involved...

  20. Feminist perspectives on motherhood and reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Neyer, Gerda; Bernardi, Laura

    2011-01-01

    "Motherhood and reproduction have been at the core of the feminist discourse about women's rights ever since its onset. For the first and second feminist movements, the right to abortion and the public recognition of motherhood have been main issues in the discourse on reproduction. Since the last two decades of the 20th century, the potentials of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have opened up new venues of feminist discourse. In this paper the authors sketch the main feminist lines ...

  1. Enhancement of the reproductive potential of Mallada boninensis Okamoto (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, a predator of red spider mite infesting tea: An evaluation of artificial diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanthakumar Duraikkannu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green lacewing Mallada boninensis is an important predator of various soft-bodied arthropods, including red spider mites in tea. Efforts were made to develop mass rearing technology for this predator in a cost effective manner. Three combinations of artificial diets (Protinex (AD1, egg yolk (AD2 and royal jelly (AD3 based were evaluated in comparison with standard diet (Protinex + Honey. All the tested diets influenced the egg-laying capacity of M. boninensis. The egg yolk-based diet resulted in more egg production than the other two diets. Survival of all life stages of M. boninensis was also observed on each diet and no significant difference was noticed. Results revealed that the egg yolk-based diet is the best of the three diet combinations tested in view of high fecundity and survival rate of M. boninensis.

  2. Hypothalamic survival circuits: blueprints for purposive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternson, Scott M

    2013-03-06

    Neural processes that direct an animal's actions toward environmental goals are critical elements for understanding behavior. The hypothalamus is closely associated with motivated behaviors required for survival and reproduction. Intense feeding, drinking, aggressive, and sexual behaviors can be produced by a simple neuronal stimulus applied to discrete hypothalamic regions. What can these "evoked behaviors" teach us about the neural processes that determine behavioral intent and intensity? Small populations of neurons sufficient to evoke a complex motivated behavior may be used as entry points to identify circuits that energize and direct behavior to specific goals. Here, I review recent applications of molecular genetic, optogenetic, and pharmacogenetic approaches that overcome previous limitations for analyzing anatomically complex hypothalamic circuits and their interactions with the rest of the brain. These new tools have the potential to bridge the gaps between neurobiological and psychological thinking about the mechanisms of complex motivated behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  4. Zika virus and assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Christina N; Bano, Rashda; Washington Cross, Chantel I; Segars, James H

    2017-06-01

    Due to the fact that the Zika virus can be sexually transmitted, there is a potential risk for disease transmission at several stages of assisted reproduction. Such a possibility poses a serious challenge to couples pursing fertility with reproductive technologies. Here, we discuss what is known regarding Zika virus infection with respect to sexual transmission and correlate this knowledge with recent recommendations in the realm of infertility treatment. Zika virus can be transmitted from infected men and women through vaginal, oral or anal intercourse. Zika virus RNA has been detected in blood, semen, cervical mucus and vaginal fluid. Currently, the Centers for Disease Control recommends that infected men wait 6 months, and infected women 8 weeks, prior to attempting pregnancy. Reproductive tissue donors should wait 6 months before giving a specimen. Further study of Zika virus transmission in different reproductive tissues and establishment of validated testing methods for viral disease transmissibility are urgently needed. Reproductive technologists need to establish screening, testing and laboratory protocols aimed to reduce the risk of Zika virus transmission during assisted reproduction.

  5. Anti-transforming growth factor antibody at low but not high doses limits cyclosporine-mediated nephrotoxicity without altering rat cardiac allograft survival: potential of therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Ashwani K; Plummer, Matthew S; Hilton, Gail; Pieper, Galen M; Ledbetter, Steven

    2004-12-21

    Long-term treatment of cardiac transplant recipients with cyclosporine results in a progressive decline in kidney function in a large number of patients. This complication is one of the most important prognostic parameters that determine the outcome of cardiac transplantation. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is one of the most potent mediators of the fibrogenic effects of cyclosporine. With the use of an experimental rodent model, heterotopic heart transplantation was performed, creating histocompatibility-disparate allografts. Because TGF-beta in part mediates both the immunosuppressive and nephrotoxic effects of cyclosporine, recipients were treated with cyclosporine with and without anti-TGF-beta antibody to determine whether anti-TGF-beta antibody could reduce the nephrotoxic effects of cyclosporine. Intrarenal expression of TGF-beta, collagen, fibronectin, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 was studied with the use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Intrarenal expression of TGF-beta protein was studied by immunohistochemistry and with the use of ELISA to quantify circulating levels of TGF-beta protein in plasma. Cyclosporine-induced graft survival (immunosuppressive effect) was abrogated with a higher concentration (2.5 mg/kg) of anti-TGF-beta antibody, whereas a lower concentration (1 mg/kg) inhibited both cyclosporine-induced expression of fibrogenic molecules and renal toxicity. These results provide credence to the pivotal role of TGF-beta in immunosuppression-associated renal toxicity in recipients of cardiac transplantation. Furthermore, these findings support a potentially significant therapeutic use of optimal concentration of anti-TGF-beta antibody to ameliorate cyclosporine-associated nephrotoxicity in cardiac transplant recipients.

  6. Typhlodromus pyri and Euseius finlandicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as potential biocontrol agents against spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) inhabiting willows: laboratory studies on predator development and reproduction on four diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalska, Ewa K; Kozak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Euseius finlandicus (Oudemans) are important predators of phytophagous mites. The present laboratory study aimed to determine whether both species can develop and reach maturity feeding on spider mites occurring on willows, i.e., Schizotetranychus schizopus (Zacher), Schizotetranychus garmani Pritchard & Baker, and Tetranychus urticae Koch, and on Brassica napus L. pollen. The predators' development, reproduction and demographic parameters were significantly affected by diet. The data suggest that rape pollen can be useful in mass rearing of E. finlandicus but is completely unsuitable as alternative food for T. pyri. Short development time and high values of population parameters achieved by T. pyri feeding on larvae and protonymphs of S. schizopus and by E. finlandicus feeding on juvenile stages of S. garmani indicate great suitability of these preys as food for the phytoseiids, and make both predatory species promising biocontrol agents in spider mite control on willows.

  7. Cannabis, cannabinoids and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boram; McPartland, John M; Glass, Michelle

    2004-02-01

    In most countries Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug. Its use during pregnancy in developed nations is estimated to be approximately 10%. Recent evidence suggests that the endogenous cannabinoid system, now consisting of two receptors and multiple endocannabinoid ligands, may also play an important role in the maintenance and regulation of early pregnancy and fertility. The purpose of this review is therefore twofold, to examine the impact that cannabis use may have on fertility and reproduction, and to review the potential role of the endocannabinoid system in hormonal regulation, embryo implantation and maintenance of pregnancy.

  8. Potential costs of bacterial infection on storage protein gene expression and reproduction in queenless Apis mellifera worker bees on distinct dietary regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Anete Pedro; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Macedo, Liliane Maria Fróes; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2012-09-01

    Insects are able to combat infection by initiating an efficient immune response that involves synthesizing antimicrobial peptides and a range of other defense molecules. These responses may be costly to the organism, resulting in it exploiting endogenous resources to maintain homeostasis or support defense to the detriment of other physiological needs. We used queenless worker bees on distinct dietary regimes that may alter hemolymph protein storage and ovary activation to investigate the physiological costs of infection with Serratia marcescens. The expression of the genes encoding the storage proteins vitellogenin and hexamerin 70a, the vitellogenin receptor, and vasa (which has a putative role in reproduction), was impaired in the infected bees. This impairment was mainly evident in the bees fed beebread, which caused significantly higher expression of these genes than did royal jelly or syrup, and this was confirmed at the vitellogenin and hexamerin 70a protein levels. Beebread was also the only diet that promoted ovary activation in the queenless bees, but this activation was significantly impaired by the infection. The expression of the genes encoding the storage proteins apolipophorins-I and -III and the lipophorin receptor was not altered by infection regardless the diet provided to the bees. Similarly, the storage of apolipophorin-I in the hemolymph was only slightly impaired by the infection, independently of the supplied diet. Taken together these results indicate that, infection demands a physiological cost from the transcription of specific protein storage-related genes and from the reproductive capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reproductive Medicine in Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Norin

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of amphibians includes ovulation, spermiation, fertilization, oviposition, larval stage and development, and metamorphosis. A problem at any stage could lead to reproductive failure. To stimulate reproduction, environmental conditions must be arranged to simulate changes in natural habits. Reproductive life history is well documented in amphibians; a thorough knowledge of this subject will aid the practitioner in diagnosis and treatment. Technologies for artificial reproduction are developing rapidly, and some protocols may be transferable to privately kept or endangered species. Reproductive tract disorders are rarely described; no bacterial or viral diseases are known that specifically target the amphibian reproductive system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Causes of death of women in the reproductive age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Infectious and parasitic diseases especially HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis were the leading causes of death of women in the reproductive age group contributing significantly to maternal mortality, which exerts a heavy toll on survival of women in this age group. Strategies to comprehensively address the reproductive health problems of women should be instituted.

  11. Genetic architecture of rainbow trout survival from egg to adult

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vehvilainen, H.; Kause, A.; Quiton, C.; Kuukka-Anttila, H.; Koskinen, H.; Paananen, T.

    2010-01-01

    Survival from birth to a reproductive adult is a challenge that only robust individuals resistant to a variety of mortality factors will overcome. To assess whether survival traits share genetic architecture throughout the life cycle, we estimated genetic correlations for survival within fingerling

  12. Survival in Women with NSCLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katcoff, Hannah; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Schwartz, Ann G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women, few studies have investigated the hormonal influence on survival after a lung cancer diagnosis and results have been inconsistent. We evaluated the role of reproductive and hormonal factors in predicting overall survival in women with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Population-based lung cancer cases diagnosed between November 1, 2001 and October 31, 2005 were identified through the Metropolitan Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry. Interview and follow-up data were collected for 485 women. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine hazard ratios (HRs) for death after an NSCLC diagnosis associated with reproductive and hormonal variables. Results Use of hormone therapy (HT) was associated with improved survival (HR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.54–0.89), adjusting for stage, surgery, radiation, education level, pack-years of smoking, age at diagnosis, race, and a multiplicative interaction between stage and radiation. No other reproductive or hormonal factor was associated with survival after an NSCLC diagnosis. Increased duration of HT use before the lung cancer diagnosis (132 months or longer) was associated with improved survival (HR, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.37–0.78), and this finding remained significant in women taking either estrogen alone or progesterone plus estrogen, never smokers, and smokers. Conclusion These findings suggest that HT use, in particular use of estrogen plus progesterone, and long-term HT use are associated with improved survival of NSCLC. PMID:24496005

  13. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel neuropeptide Y neuronal pathway linking energy state and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroi, Yoshikage; Ishii, Toshiaki

    2016-10-01

    Animals consume energy for reproduction, as well as survival. Excess or insufficient energy investment into reproduction, respectively, threatens the survival of parents or leads to the failure of reproduction. Management of energy consumption in reproduction is important, not only for the success of the process, but also for the survival of the parents. Reproductive behaviors, such as mating and parental behavior, are indispensable for achieving each event of reproduction including gametogamy, parturition, and lactation. Therefore, reproductive behavior is one of the important factors in managing energy consumption for reproduction. Orexigenic and anorexigenic molecules in the hypothalamus have been implicated in the regulation of reproductive functions. An orexigenic neuropeptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), has been also implicated in the regulation of both reproduction and energy state of animals. In this review, we will first summarize the neuronal mechanism for regulating reproductive functions by orexigenic and anorexigenic molecules in the hypothalamus. Second, we will focus on the NPY neuronal pathways regulating reproductive behavior in the intra- and extra-hypothalamic brain areas. We will highlight the NPY neuronal pathway from the arcuate nucleus to the dorsal raphe nucleus as a novel extra-hypothalamic pathway for energy state-dependent regulation of reproductive behavior. Finally, we will propose a biological significance of the extra-hypothalamic NPY neuronal pathway, which plays an important role in the associative control of feeding and reproductive behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reproduction Symposium: developmental programming of reproductive and metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, V; Veiga-Lopez, A

    2014-08-01

    concept for the developmental origin of fertility and metabolic disorders. Studies with the environmental endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) show that reproductive disruptions found in prenatal BPA-treated sheep are similar to those seen in prenatal T-treated sheep. The ubiquitous exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds with steroidogenic potential via the environment and food sources calls for studies addressing the impact of developmental exposure to environmental steroid mimics on reproductive function.

  16. Pervasive gene expression responses to a fluctuating diet in Drosophila melanogaster: The importance of measuring multiple traits to decouple potential mediators of life span and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandveld, Jelle; van den Heuvel, Joost; Mulder, Maarten; Brakefield, Paul M; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Shanley, Daryl P; Zwaan, Bas J

    2017-11-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is an important concept in life-history evolution, and most organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster, show a plastic life-history response to diet. However, little is known about how these life-history responses are mediated. In this study, we compared adult female flies fed an alternating diet (yoyo flies) with flies fed a constant low (CL) or high (CH) diet and tested how whole genome expression was affected by these diet regimes and how the transcriptional responses related to different life-history traits. We showed that flies were able to respond quickly to diet fluctuations throughout life span by drastically changing their transcription. Importantly, by measuring the response of multiple life-history traits we were able to decouple groups of genes associated with life span or reproduction, life-history traits that often covary with a diet change. A coexpression network analysis uncovered which genes underpin the separate and shared regulation of these life-history traits. Our study provides essential insights to help unravel the genetic architecture mediating life-history responses to diet, and it shows that the flies' whole genome transcription response is highly plastic. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Potential antifouling strategies for marine finfish aquaculture: the effects of physical and chemical treatments on the settlement and survival of the hydroid Ectopleura larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Jana; Fitridge, Isla; Misimi, Ekrem

    2011-10-01

    The hydroid Ectopleura larynx is a common fouling organism on aquaculture nets. To contribute to the development of novel cleaning methods, laboratory and field studies determined the effects of heat (30, 40, 50 and 60°C for immersion times of 1 and 3 s) and acetic acid (0.2 and 2.0% for immersion times of 1, 3 and 10 s, 1 and 5 min) on the settlement of actinulae and the survival of juvenile and adult E. larynx. Laboratory studies showed that, regardless of immersion time, a temperature of 50°C was effective in preventing the settlement of actinulae and the survival of juveniles, while ≤12% of adult hydroids could survive. A temperature of 60°C killed all adult hydroids. For an acetic acid concentration of 0.2%, an immersion time of 1 min substantially reduced the settlement of actinulae and the survival of juvenile and adult hydroids, and none of the juvenile and adult hydroids survived after 5 min. For an acetic acid concentration of 2.0%, all immersion times were effective and reduced the mean settlement of actinulae and the survival of juvenile and adult hydroids to ≤10%. Field studies with fouled net panels exposed to selected heat or acetic acid treatments showed small reductions in mean wet weight and net aperture occlusion of the net panels 2 and 5 days after treatment. Visual inspections of the net panels showed that hydranths of the hydroids were shed, but the dead stolons of the hydroids remained on the treated net panels. Novel cleaning methods and devices may utilise these results to effectively kill E. larynx on aquaculture nets, while further studies are needed to determine the necessity of removing the dead hydroids before further biofouling accumulates on the nets.

  18. Evaluación del potencial reproductivo del chorito (Mytilus chilensis de dos poblaciones naturales sometidas a diferentes temperaturas de acondicionamiento Assessment of the reproductive potential of the mussel (Mytilus chilensis from two natural populations subjected to different conditioning temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Lagos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mytilus chilensis tiene ciclos reproductivos que varían latitudinalmente. Presenta reducida diferenciación genética y morfológica debido a un gran potencial de dispersión. Se acondicionaron reproductores de bahía Yaldad (Chiloé y bahía Zenteno (Punta Arenas a 9 ± 0,5°C y 15 ± 0,5°C, alimentados con dieta (1:1 de Isochrysis galbana y Chaetoceros neogracile. Se espera dilucidar si el acondicionamiento a diferentes temperaturas produce variaciones en el potencial reproductivo de las poblaciones. El menor desarrollo gonadal se produjo en los reproductores acondicionados a 9°C, mientras que el mayor se produjo en los reproductores acondicionados a 15°C provenientes de Chiloé. La fecundidad de los reproductores de Yaldad fue mayor que los de Zenteno. El diámetro de los ovocitos fue mayor en los reproductores de Zenteno y en ambas poblaciones fue mayor a 9°C. Ni el porcentaje de huevos fecundados ni el porcentaje de eclosión de larvas D mostraron diferencias significativas entre las poblaciones a ninguna de las temperaturas de acondicionamiento. De acuerdo con estos resultados, no se logra establecer diferencias en el potencial reproductivo en las poblaciones y bajo las condiciones de este estudio.The reproductive cycles of Mytilus chilensis vary latitudinally. This species has reduced genetic and morphological differentiation due to its high potential for dispersal. Broodstocks from Yaldad Bay (Chiloé and Zenteno Bay (Punta Arenas were conditioned at 9 ± 0.5°C and 15 ± 0.5°C, and were fed a diet (1:1 of Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros neogracile. We expected to determine whether conditioning at different temperatures produces changes in the reproductive potential of the populations. Gonadal development was lowest in the broodstocks conditioned at 9°C, and highest in those conditioned at 15°C, from Chiloé. Fertility was greater in broodstocks from Yaldad than in those from Zenteno. Oocyte diameter was greater in broodstocks

  19. Reproductive effort in biparental care : an experimental study in long-lived Cape gannets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Allert I.; Mullers, Ralf H. E.

    2009-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts a trade-off between current and future reproduction, such that long-lived species should not increase their reproductive effort (RE) at a cost to their own survival. In species with long-term pair bonds and biparental care, each parent must balance its reproductive

  20. Impact of small variations in temperature and humidity on the reproductive activity and survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae); Impacto de pequenas variacoes de temperatura e umidade na atividade reprodutiva e sobrevivencia de Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ethiene Arruda Pedrosa de Almeida; Santos, Eloina Maria de Mendonca; Correia, Juliana Cavalcanti; Albuquerque, Cleide Maria Ribeiro de, E-mail: cleide.ufpe@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia

    2010-07-01

    In short space of time increase in temperature and rainfall can affect vector populations and, consequently, the diseases for them transmitted. The present study analyzed the effect of small temperature and humidity variations on the fecundity, fertility and survival of Aedes aegypti. These parameters were analyzed using individual females at temperatures ranging from 23 to 27 deg C (mean 25 deg C); 28 to 32 deg C (mean 30 deg C) and 33 to 37 deg C (mean 35 deg C) associated to 60 +- 8% and 80 +- 6% relative humidity. Females responded to an increase in temperature by reducing egg production, oviposition time and changing oviposition patterns. At 25 deg C and 80% relative humidity, females survived two-fold more and produced 40% more eggs when compared to those kept at 35 deg C and 80% relative humidity. However, in 45% of females kept at 35 deg C and 60% relative humidity oviposition was inhibited and only 15% females laid more than 100 eggs, suggesting that the intensity of the temperature effect was influenced by humidity. Gradual reductions in egg fertility at 60% relative humidity were observed with the increase in temperature, although such effect was not found in the 80% relative humidity at 25 deg C and 30 deg C. These results suggest that the reduction in population densities recorded in tropical areas during seasons when temperatures reach over 35 deg C is likely to be strongly influenced by temperature and humidity, with a negative effect on several aspects of mosquito biology. (author)

  1. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood...... development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some...... studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable...

  2. The effects of juvenile hormone on Lasius niger reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamminger, T; Buttstedt, A; Norman, V; Schierhorn, A; Botías, C; Jones, J C; Basley, K; Hughes, W O H

    2016-12-01

    Reproduction has been shown to be costly for survival in a wide diversity of taxa. The resulting trade-off, termed the reproduction-survival trade-off, is thought to be one of the most fundamental forces of life-history evolution. In insects the pleiotropic effect of juvenile hormone (JH), antagonistically regulating reproduction and pathogen resistance, is suggested to underlie this phenomenon. In contrast to the majority of insects, reproductive individuals in many eusocial insects defy this trade-off and live both long and prosper. By remodelling the gonadotropic effects of JH in reproductive regulation, the queens of the long-lived black garden ant Lasius niger (living up to 27 years), have circumvented the reproduction-survival trade off enabling them to maximize both reproduction and pathogen resistance simultaneously. In this study we measure fertility, vitellogenin gene expression and protein levels after experimental manipulation of hormone levels. We use these measurements to investigate the mechanistic basis of endocrinological role remodelling in reproduction and determine how JH suppresses reproduction in this species, rather then stimulating it, like in the majority of insects. We find that JH likely inhibits three key aspects of reproduction both during vitellogenesis and oogenesis, including two previously unknown mechanisms. In addition, we document that juvenile hormone, as in the majority of insects, has retained some stimulatory function in regulating vitellogenin expression. We discuss the evolutionary consequences of this complex regulatory architecture of reproduction in L. niger, which might enable the evolution of similar reproductive phenotypes by alternate regulatory pathways, and the surprising flexibility regulatory role of juvenile hormone in this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ran Involved in the Development and Reproduction Is a Potential Target for RNA-Interference-Based Pest Management in Nilaparvata lugens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Li

    Full Text Available Ran (RanGTPase in insects participates in the 20-hydroxyecdysone signal transduction pathway in which downstream genes, FTZ-F1, Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1 and vitellogenin, are involved. A putative Ran gene (NlRan was cloned from Nilaparvata lugens, a destructive phloem-feeding pest of rice. NlRan has the typical Ran primary structure features that are conserved in insects. NlRan showed higher mRNA abundance immediately after molting and peaked in newly emerged female adults. Among the examined tissues ovary had the highest transcript level, followed by fat body, midgut and integument, and legs. Three days after dsNlRan injection the NlRan mRNA abundance in the third-, fourth-, and fifth-instar nymphs was decreased by 94.3%, 98.4% and 97.0%, respectively. NlFTZ-F1 expression levels in treated third- and fourth-instar nymphs were reduced by 89.3% and 23.8%, respectively. In contrast, NlKr-h1 mRNA levels were up-regulated by 67.5 and 1.5 folds, respectively. NlRan knockdown significantly decreased the body weights, delayed development, and killed >85% of the nymphs at day seven. Two apparent phenotypic defects were observed: (1 Extended body form, and failed to molt; (2 The cuticle at the notum was split open but cannot completely shed off. The newly emerged female adults from dsNlRan injected fifth-instar nymphs showed lower levels of NlRan and vitellogenin, lower weight gain and honeydew excretion comparing with the blank control, and no offspring. Those results suggest that NlRan encodes a functional protein that was involved in development and reproduction. The study established proof of concept that NlRan could serve as a target for dsRNA-based pesticides for N. lugens control.

  4. Differences on allocation of available resources, in growth, reproduction, and survival, in an exotic gastropod of Physidae compared to an endemic one Diferencias en la asignación de los recursos disponibles en crecimiento, reproducción y supervivencia entre un gasterópodo exótico y uno endémico de la familia Physidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Núñez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1805 is an invasive gastropod that can affect local species. In Argentina, it is widespread and abundant, even in environments inhabited by the native species Stenophysa marmorata Guilding, 1828. Its predominance raises the question whether this could be explained by a more successful energy allocation in functional requirements (growth, reproduction and survival compared to S. marmorata. This study was aimed at comparing growth rates, as well as survival and fecundity, between both species under laboratory conditions. Individuals born on the same day were grouped in four per aquaria and kept under controlled conditions of food, light, and temperature. Snails were weekly measured (maximum shell length, and growth rates were calculated using the Von Bertalanffy's equation. The number of eggs and survivors were grouped by week. Stenophysa marmorata was larger at birth than Physa acuta and invested more energy in growth, delaying sexual maturity. This resulted in a disadvantage in fecundity and survival compared to P. acuta, which had a lower growth rate but matured earlier and survived longer. Furthermore, the growth of P. acuta was not affected by reproduction, its reproductive period was longer, consequently with more eggs laid than S. marmorata.Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1805 es un gasterópodo invasor que puede afectar las poblaciones de especies locales. En Argentina, se encuentra ampliamente distribuida y en altas densidades, incluso en ambientes habitados por la especie nativa Stenophysa marmorata Guilding, 1828. Su predominancia podría ser explicada por un uso más exitoso de la energía en las demandas funcionales (crecimiento, reproducción y supervivencia con respecto a S. marmorata. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar las constantes de crecimiento de ambas especies, teniendo en cuenta también los valores de supervivencia y fecundidad, en condiciones de laboratorio. Los individuos nacidos el mismo día fueron

  5. Clinical potential of inhibitors of survival pathways and activators of apoptotic pathways in treatment of cervical cancer : changing the apoptotic balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hougardy, BM; Maduro, JH; van der Zee, AGJ; Willemse, PHB; de Jong, S; de Vries, EGE

    Cervical cancer is the most common gynaecological malignant disorder worldwide. The best possible treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer is a combination of radiation and cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, 5-year overall survival is still only 52%. To improve treatment results, research

  6. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  7. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates...

  8. Squalus cubensis Reproduction Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Squalus cubensis (Cuban dogfish) were opportunistically collected from 2005-2012. Data include those necessary to examine reproductive cycle,...

  9. Reproductive success of Horned Lark and McCown's Longspur in relation to wind energy infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Anika; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2016-01-01

    Wind energy is a rapidly expanding industry with potential indirect effects to wildlife populations that are largely unexplored. In 2011 and 2012, we monitored 211 nests of 2 grassland songbirds, Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris) and McCown's Longspur (Rhynchophanes mccownii), at 3 wind farms and 2 undeveloped reference sites in Wyoming, USA. We evaluated several indices of reproductive investment and success: clutch size, size-adjusted nestling mass, daily nest survival rate, and number of fledglings. We compared reproductive success between wind farms and undeveloped sites and modeled reproductive success within wind farms as a function of wind energy infrastructure and habitat. Size-adjusted nestling mass of Horned Lark was weakly negatively related to turbine density. In 2011, nest survival of Horned Lark decreased 55% as turbine density increased from 10 to 39 within 2 km of the nest. In 2012, however, nest survival of Horned Lark was best predicted by the combination of vegetation height, distance to shrub edge, and turbine density, with survival increasing weakly with increasing vegetation height. McCown's Longspur nest survival was weakly positively related to vegetation density at the nest site when considered with the amount of grassland habitat in the neighborhood and turbine density within 1 km of the nest. Habitat and distance to infrastructure did not explain clutch size or number of fledglings for either species, or size-adjusted nestling mass for McCown's Longspur. Our results suggest that the influence of wind energy infrastructure varies temporally and by species, even among species using similar habitats. Turbine density was repeatedly the most informative measure of wind energy development. Turbine density could influence wildlife responses to wind energy production and may become increasingly important to consider as development continues in areas with high-quality wind resources.

  10. Temperature is the evil twin: effects of increased temperature and ocean acidification on reproduction in a reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G M; Kroon, F J; Metcalfe, S; Mundayi, P L

    2015-04-01

    Reproduction in many organisms can be disrupted by changes to the physical environment, such as those predicted to occur during climate change. Marine organisms face the dual climate change threats of increasing temperature and ocean acidification, yet no studies have examined the potential interactive effects of these stressors on reproduction in marine fishes. We used a long-term experiment to test the interactive effects of increased temperature and CO2 on the reproductive performance of the anemonefish, Amphiprion melanopus. Adult breeding pairs were kept for 10 months at three temperatures (28.5°C [+0.0°C], 30.0°C [-1.5°C] and 31.5°C [+3.0°C]) cross-factored with three CO2 levels (a current-day control [417 µatm] and moderate [644 µatm] and high [1134 µatm]) treatments consistent with the range of CO2 projections for the year 2100. We recorded each egg clutch produced during the breeding season, the number of eggs laid per clutch, average egg size, fertilization success, survival to hatching, hatchling length, and yolk provisioning. Adult body condition, hepatosomatic index, gonadosomatic index, and plasma 17β-estradiol concentrations were measured at the end of the breeding season to determine the effect of prolonged exposure to increased temperature and elevated. CO2 on adults, and to examine potential physiological mechanisms for changes in reproduction. Temperature had by far the stronger influence on reproduction, with clear declines in reproduction occurring in the +1.5°C treatment and ceasing altogether in the +3.0°C treatment. In contrast, CO2 had a minimal effect on the majority of reproductive traits measured, but caused a decline in offspring quality in combination with elevated temperature. We detected no significant effect of temperature or Co2 on adult body condition or hepatosomatic index. Elevated temperature had a significant negative effect on plasma 17β-estradiol concentrations, suggesting that declines in reproduction with

  11. Reproductive rights and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviera, R D

    1994-01-01

    Rosiska Darcy Oliviera, Executive Secretary of the Coalition of Brazilian Women from Non-governmental Organizations for Population and Environment, stresses the need to view population control as a political problem rather than just a technical problem of demographic organization. At present, science, technology, and capital separate the work in much the same way that the master slave relationship of colonialist times did. The vast majority of the excluded are from developing countries in the South and, from a market perspective, these outcasts serve no purpose to global processes. Relegated to the margins of society, outcasts are often forced to turn to illegal activities such as drug trafficking and prostitution to survive, and these behaviors are used to bolster racist ideology. Improving the quality of life for all men and women requires a global alliance to overcome this social apartheid. If women are to exercise their reproductive rights, women's health programs must extend their focus beyond contraception to include education that empowers women to make real choices and a material base that permits access to a spectrum of safe methods.

  12. Male Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Exercise Is Wise Are Detox Diets Safe? Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Male Reproductive System ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Male Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male ...

  13. An Insight in the Reproductive Biology of Therophilus javanus (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, and Agathidinae), a Potential Biological Control Agent against the Legume Pod Borer (Lepidoptera, Crambidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboubakar Souna, Djibril; Bokonon-Ganta, Aimé; Ravallec, Marc; Cusumano, Antonino; Pittendrigh, Barry Robert; Volkoff, Anne Nathalie; Tamò, Manuele

    2017-01-01

    Therophilus javanus is a koinobiont, solitary larval endoparasitoid currently being considered as a biological control agent against the pod borer Maruca vitrata, a devastating cowpea pest causing 20-80% crop losses in West Africa. We investigated ovary morphology and anatomy, oogenesis, potential

  14. Reproductive consequences of farmland heterogeneity in little owls (Athene noctua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Vanja T; Naef-Daenzer, Beat; Keil, Herbert; Grüebler, Martin U

    2017-04-01

    The amount of high-quality habitat patches, their distribution, and the resource accessibility therein play a key role in regulating habitat effects on reproductive success. Heterogeneous habitats offer non-substitutable resources (e.g. nest sites and food) and substitutable resources (e.g. different types of food) in close proximity, thereby facilitating landscape complementation and supplementation. However, it remains poorly understood how spatial resource separation in homogeneous agricultural landscapes affects reproductive success. To fill this gap, we investigated the relationships between farmland heterogeneity and little owl (Athene noctua) reproductive success, including potential indirect effects of the heterogeneity-dependent home-range size on reproduction. Little owl home-ranges were related to field heterogeneity in summer and to structural heterogeneity in winter. Clutch size was correlated with the amount of food-rich habitat close to the nest irrespective of female home-range size, suggesting importance of landscape complementation. Nestling survival was positively correlated with male home-range size, suggesting importance of landscape supplementation. At the same time, fledgling condition was negatively correlated with male home-range size. We conclude that decreasing farmland heterogeneity constrains population productivity by two processes: increasing separation of food resources from nest or roost sites results in low landscape complementation, and reduction of alternative food resources limits landscape supplementation. Our results suggest that structural heterogeneity affects landscape complementation, whereas the heterogeneity and management of farmland fields affect landscape supplementation. Thus, to what extent a reduction of the heterogeneity within agricultural landscapes results in species-specific habitat degradation depends on the ecological processes (i.e. landscape complementation or supplementation) which are affected.

  15. Spiroplasma bacteria enhance survival of Drosophila hydei attacked by the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialei Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternally-transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are ubiquitous. While many of these associations are obligate and mutually beneficial, many are facultative, and the mechanism(s by which these microbes persist in their host lineages remain elusive. Inherited microbes with imperfect transmission are expected to be lost from their host lineages if no other mechanisms increase their persistence (i.e., host reproductive manipulation and/or fitness benefits to host. Indeed numerous facultative heritable endosymbionts are reproductive manipulators. Nevertheless, many do not manipulate reproduction, so they are expected to confer fitness benefits to their hosts, as has been shown in several studies that report defense against natural enemies, tolerance to environmental stress, and increased fecundity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined whether larval to adult survival of Drosophila hydei against attack by a common parasitoid wasp (Leptopilina heterotoma, differed between uninfected flies and flies that were artificially infected with Spiroplasma, a heritable endosymbiont of Drosophila hydei that does not appear to manipulate host reproduction. Survival was significantly greater for Spiroplasma-infected flies, and the effect of Spiroplasma infection was most evident during the host's pupal stage. We examined whether or not increased survival of Spiroplasma-infected flies was due to reduced oviposition by the wasp (i.e., pre-oviposition mechanism. The number of wasp eggs per fly larva did not differ significantly between Spiroplasma-free and Spiroplasma-infected fly larvae, suggesting that differential fly survival is due to a post-oviposition mechanism. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that Spiroplasma confers protection to D. hydei against wasp parasitism. This is to our knowledge the first report of a potential defensive mutualism in the genus Spiroplasma. Whether it explains the

  16. In vitro and in vivo toxicities of sediment and surface water in an area near a major steel industry of Korea: endocrine disruption, reproduction, or survival effects combined with instrumental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Cheolmin; Liu, Xiaoshan; Seo, Jihyun; Jung, Hyorin; Ji, Kyunghee; Hong, Seongjin; Park, Jinsoon; Khim, Jong Seong; Yoon, Seokmin; Lee, Woojin; Park, Jeongim; Choi, Kyungho

    2014-02-01

    The influence of industrial and/or municipal contaminant inputs on the aquatic environment of Pohang, Korea was investigated, with a focus on bioassay combined with instrumental analysis. Pohang is the most heavily populated city in Gyeongsangbuk-do province of Korea, with more than half a million residents, and also hosts the nation's biggest steel manufacturer and related industries. Sediment (n=15) and surface water samples (n=17) were collected from Hyeongsan River which runs across the Pohang city, in two separate events, i.e., June 2010 and February 2011. Sediment samples were first Soxhlet-extracted (raw extract) and were measured for estrogenicity using H295R cell line, and also analyzed for alkylphenols (APs), bisphenol A (BPA), PAHs, and PCBs. For sediment samples which exhibited greatest effects in the cell line, further fractionation was performed into non-polar, mid-polar, and polar portions. In surface water samples, heavy metals were also analyzed. Among 15 sediment samples, station S2 near the steel industry complex and station M3 near the municipal area showed the greatest sex hormone changes, and these changes were generally explained by the fractions which contained APs and BPA. Principal component analysis (PCA) however suggests that chemicals that were not analyzed in the present study would better explain endocrine disruption capacity of sediments. In water samples, adverse effects on hatchability and growth of Japanese medaka fish, and on Daphnia reproduction were noted following exposure to six water samples collected from stations near industrial and municipal areas. Several heavy metals and nonylphenol (NP) concentrations exceeded surface water quality guidelines, suggesting adverse effects of contamination inputs from both industrial and municipal activities. Observed estrogenicities in stations such as S2 and M3 warrant further investigations on longer term ecosystem impacts near industrial and municipal areas. The levels of major

  17. Reproductive isolation during domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempewolf, Hannes; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Rummell, Sonja E; Ellstrand, Norman C; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that reproductive isolation should facilitate evolution under domestication. However, a systematic comparison of reproductive barrier strength between crops and their progenitors has not been conducted to test this hypothesis. Here, we present a systematic survey of reproductive barriers between 32 economically important crop species and their progenitors to better understand the role of reproductive isolation during the domestication process. We took a conservative approach, avoiding those types of reproductive isolation that are poorly known for these taxa (e.g., differences in flowering time). We show that the majority of crops surveyed are isolated from their progenitors by one or more reproductive barriers, despite the fact that the most important reproductive barrier in natural systems, geographical isolation, was absent, at least in the initial stages of domestication for most species. Thus, barriers to reproduction between crops and wild relatives are closely associated with domestication and may facilitate it, thereby raising the question whether reproductive isolation could be viewed as a long-overlooked "domestication trait." Some of the reproductive barriers observed (e.g., polyploidy and uniparental reproduction), however, may have been favored for reasons other than, or in addition to, their effects on gene flow.

  18. Characterizing the reproductive transcriptomic correlates of acute dehydration in males in the desert-adapted rodent, Peromyscus eremicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordonowy, Lauren; MacManes, Matthew

    2017-06-23

    The understanding of genomic and physiological mechanisms related to how organisms living in extreme environments survive and reproduce is an outstanding question facing evolutionary and organismal biologists. One interesting example of adaptation is related to the survival of mammals in deserts, where extreme water limitation is common. Research on desert rodent adaptations has focused predominantly on adaptations related to surviving dehydration, while potential reproductive physiology adaptations for acute and chronic dehydration have been relatively neglected. This study aims to explore the reproductive consequences of acute dehydration by utilizing RNAseq data in the desert-specialized cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus). We exposed 22 male cactus mice to either acute dehydration or control (fully hydrated) treatment conditions, quasimapped testes-derived reads to a cactus mouse testes transcriptome, and then evaluated patterns of differential transcript and gene expression. Following statistical evaluation with multiple analytical pipelines, nine genes were consistently differentially expressed between the hydrated and dehydrated mice. We hypothesized that male cactus mice would exhibit minimal reproductive responses to dehydration; therefore, this low number of differentially expressed genes between treatments aligns with current perceptions of this species' extreme desert specialization. However, these differentially expressed genes include Insulin-like 3 (Insl3), a regulator of male fertility and testes descent, as well as the solute carriers Slc45a3 and Slc38a5, which are membrane transport proteins that may facilitate osmoregulation. These results suggest that in male cactus mice, acute dehydration may be linked to reproductive modulation via Insl3, but not through gene expression differences in the subset of other a priori tested reproductive hormones. Although water availability is a reproductive cue in desert-rodents exposed to chronic drought

  19. An Assessment of the Potential Impact of Fortification of Staples and Condiments on Micronutrient Intake of Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Leyvraz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh has experienced rapid economic growth and achieved major health improvements in the past decade, but malnutrition rates remain high. A nationally representative study conducted in 2011 assessed the dietary habits of 841 children 24–59 months old, 1428 children 6–14 years old, and 1412 nonpregnant, nonlactating women. The study’s objective was to assess dietary intakes of key micronutrients and the consumption pattern of potentially fortifiable foods, and then to model the potential impact of the fortification of key staple foods. The current intakes of several micronutrients—namely, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin B12—were found to be insufficient to meet the needs of Bangladesh’s children and women. The fortification of rice with iron and zinc and edible oil with vitamin A has the potential to fill a significant part of the nutrient gap, as these are consumed widely and in significant amounts. Wheat flour and sugar are not as promising food vehicles in the Bangladeshi context, as they were consumed by a smaller portion of the population and in smaller amounts. In conclusion, fortification of rice and oil is recommended to address the large gap in micronutrient intakes.

  20. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  1. Resilience potential of an Indian Ocean reef: an assessment through coral recruitment pattern and survivability of juvenile corals to recurrent stress events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Balakrishnan; Ravindran, Jeyaraman; Vidya, Pottekkatt Jayabalan; Shrinivasu, Selvaraju; Manimurali, Rajagopal; Paramasivam, Kaliyaperumal

    2017-05-01

    Coral reefs are degraded by the synergistic action of climate and anthropogenic stressors. Coral cover in the Palk Bay reef at the northern Indian Ocean largely declined in the past decade due to frequent bleaching events, tsunami and increased fishing activities. In this study, we carried out a comparative assessment to assess the differences in the recovery and resilience of three spatially distant reefs viz. Vedhalai, Mandapam and Pamban along Palk Bay affected by moderate, severe and low fishing pressure respectively. The assessment was based on the juvenile coral recruitment pattern and its survivability combined with availability of hard substratum, live coral cover and herbivore reef fish stock. The Vedhalai reef has the highest coral cover (14.6 ± 6.3%), and ≥90% of the live corals in Vedhalai and Mandapam were affected by turf algal overgrowth. The density of herbivore reef fish was low in Vedhalai and Mandapam reefs compared to the Pamban reef with relatively few grazing species. The juvenile coral diversity and density were high in the Pamban reef and low in Vedhalai and Mandapam reefs despite high hard substratum cover. In total, 22 species of juvenile corals of 10 genera were recorded in Palk Bay. Comparison of the species diversity of juvenile corals with adult ones suggested that the Pamban reef is connected with other distant reefs whereas Vedhalai and Mandapam reefs were self-seeded. There was no statistically significant difference in the survivability of juvenile corals between the study sites, and in total, ≥90% of the juvenile corals survived the high sedimentation stress triggered by the northeast monsoon and bleaching stress that occurred recurrently. Our results indicated that the human activities indirectly affected the juvenile coral recruitment by degrading the live coral cover and contributed to the spatial variation in the recovery and resilience of the Palk Bay reef. Low species diversity of the juvenile corals will increase the

  2. Potential for improved survival with intensification of daunorubicin based induction chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia patients who do not receive transplant: A multicenter retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, John L; Sullivan, Matthew R; Winer, Eric S; Lansigan, Frederick; Cardin, Michael S; Castillo, Jorge J

    2015-08-01

    During induction daunorubicin intensification from 45 mg/m(2)/day to 90 mg/m(2)/day has shown improved response and survival rates in AML patients. We retrospectively reviewed outcomes of daunorubicin 60 mg/m(2)/day (DNR60) versus daunorubicin 90 mg/m(2)/day (DNR90) in adult AML patients. Newly diagnosed AML patients ≥18 years who received 7+3 with or without etoposide as frontline therapy from 1/1/2006 to 5/1/2013 were identified. Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare characteristics. Kaplan-Meier curves were estimated for overall survival (OS). Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were developed to determine independent predictors for survival. A total of 128 patients were included (DNR90=48 patients, DNR60=80 patients). The estimated 3-year OS rate in the DNR90 group was 56% (95% CI 38-70%), while in the DNR60 group was 34% (95% CI 23-44%). Multivariate analysis (MVA) in non-allotransplanted patients showed that unfavorable cytogenetics and worse performance status were associated with decreased OS while DNR intensification, etoposide use and site were associated with improved OS. In MVA of allotransplanted patients re-induction based on day-14 marrow was associated with worse OS. Based on our retrospective study, initial DNR based induction chemotherapy intensification improved OS in non-allotransplanted patients. Prospective studies are needed to confirm this preliminary finding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tetraselmis chuii biomass as a potential feed additive to improve survival and oxidative stress status of Pacific white-leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazira Abdu Rahman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Shrimp is an important traded fishery commodity. When subjected to stress, shrimp usually suffers from oxidative stress, which leads to cell injury, senescence, and death. To maintain shrimp good health, performance and production, antioxidant and immune systems are important. Natural antioxidants found in microalgae may be used to increase the cell protection against oxidative damage, being a promising alternative to the carcinogenic synthetic antioxidants. In this study, Tetraselmis chuii was evaluated for its effect on survival, growth and oxidative stress biomarkers on Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae (PL. The antioxidant properties of the formulated feed with T. chuii inclusion were determined using four antioxidant chemical assays. Meanwhile, the oxidative stress biomarkers on PL were analyzed by hydrogen peroxide, membrane stability and lipid peroxidation assays. Results showed that PL reared on diets supplemented with 50% T. chuii had a significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05 survival (97.6 ± 1.4% and lower oxidative stress in terms of hydrogen peroxide content (10.08 ± 0.4 mM g−1 FW and electrolyte leakage (10.8 ± 0.3%. The result of this study also showed that shrimp PL reared on diets supplemented with microalgal, T. chuii have high resistance to reverse salinity stress test (76.7–100%. However, no significant differences (P ≥ 0.05 were found in the growth and lipid peroxidation. Due to the positive effect on oxidative stress status, survival and resistance to salinity stress, the feeding of L. vannamei PL with diet containing at least 50% of T. chuii is recommended as a natural source of antioxidant for PL.

  4. Vitamin D treatment improves survival and infant lung structure after intra-amniotic endotoxin exposure in rats: potential role for the prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Erica; Seedorf, Gregory; Gien, Jason; Abman, Steven H

    2014-03-01

    Vitamin D (vit D) has anti-inflammatory properties and modulates lung growth, but whether vit D can prevent lung injury after exposure to antenatal inflammation is unknown. We hypothesized that early and sustained vit D treatment could improve survival and preserve lung growth in an experimental model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia induced by antenatal exposure to endotoxin (ETX). Fetal rats (E20) were exposed to ETX (10 μg), ETX + Vit D (1 ng/ml), or saline (control) via intra-amniotic (IA) injections and delivered 2 days later. Newborn pups exposed to IA ETX received daily intraperitoneal injections of vit D (1 ng/g) or saline for 14 days. Vit D treatment improved oxygen saturations (78 vs. 87%; P < 0.001) and postnatal survival (84% vs. 57%; P < 0.001) after exposure to IA ETX compared with IA ETX alone. Postnatal vit D treatment improved alveolar and vascular growth at 14 days by 45% and 25%, respectively (P < 0.05). Vit D increased fetal sheep pulmonary artery endothelial cell (PAEC) growth and tube formation by 64% and 44%, respectively (P < 0.001), and prevented ETX-induced reductions of PAEC growth and tube formation. Vit D directly increased fetal alveolar type II cell (ATIIC) growth by 26% (P < 0.001) and enhanced ATIIC growth in the presence of ETX-induced growth suppression by 73% (P < 0.001). We conclude that antenatal vit D therapy improved oxygenation and survival in newborn rat pups and enhanced late lung structure after exposure to IA ETX in vivo, which may partly be due to direct effects on vascular and alveolar growth.

  5. Age-specific density-dependent survival in Mediterranean Gulls Larus melanocephalus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Marvelde, Luc; Meininger, Peter L.; Flamant, Renaud; Dingemanse, Niels J.

    2009-01-01

    Survival and reproductive rates often decrease with increasing population density. Such negative density dependence reflects a changing net balance between the benefits and costs of presence of others with increasing density. When densities are low, however, survival and reproductive rates might

  6. Reproductive toxicity of metals in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizent, Alica; Tariba, Blanka; Živković, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    A combination of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors contributes to adverse effects on the reproductive health in men. Metals are pervasive in food, water, air, tobacco smoke, and alcoholic beverages. Experimental studies suggest that many metals have adverse effects on the male reproductive function. However, information about reproductive effects of human exposure to metals is scarce and/or inconsistent. This review summarises the information from epidemiological studies of the effects of metal exposure on reproductive function in men. Factors capable of affecting these relationships were identified and discussed. A particular attention is given to the studies considering influence of concomitant exposure to various metals. These studies have generally confirmed that even moderate- to low-level exposure to lead affects certain reproductive parameters, and that exposure to cadmium affects the prostate function and serum testosterone levels. Adverse effects of mercury, manganese, chromium and arsenic on semen quality and altered serum hormone are less well documented. There is no clear evidence that boron exposure may impair reproductive health in men. Only a few studies have investigated reproductive effects of concomitant exposure to several metals and controlled for potential confounders. Future studies should consider the contribution of combined exposure to various metals and/or other factors that may influence individual susceptibility to reproductive health impairment in men.

  7. Thermal tolerances of reef corals in the Gulf: a review of the potential for increasing coral survival and adaptation to climate change through assisted translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Steve L; Riegl, Bernhard M

    2013-07-30

    Corals in the Gulf withstand summer temperatures up to 10 °C higher than corals elsewhere and have recovered from extreme temperature events in 10 years or less. This heat-tolerance of Gulf corals has positive implications for the world's coral populations to adapt to increasing water temperatures. However, survival of Gulf corals has been severely tested by 35-37 °C temperatures five times in the last 15 years, each time causing extensive coral bleaching and mortality. Anticipated future temperature increases may therefore challenge survival of already highly stressed Gulf corals. Previously proposed translocation of Gulf corals to introduce temperature-adapted corals outside of the Gulf is assessed and determined to be problematical, and to be considered a tool of last resort. Coral culture and transplantation within the Gulf is feasible for helping maintain coral species populations and preserving genomes and adaptive capacities of Gulf corals that are endangered by future thermal stress events. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. New blocking antibodies impede adhesion, migration and survival of ovarian cancer cells, highlighting MFGE8 as a potential therapeutic target of human ovarian carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Tibaldi

    Full Text Available Milk Fat Globule--EGF--factor VIII (MFGE8, also called lactadherin, is a secreted protein, which binds extracellularly to phosphatidylserine and to αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins. On human and mouse cells expressing these integrins, such as endothelial cells, phagocytes and some tumors, MFGE8/lactadherin has been shown to promote survival, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and phagocytosis. A protumoral function of MFGE8 has consequently been documented for a few types of human cancers, including melanoma, a subtype of breast cancers, and bladder carcinoma. Inhibiting the functions of MFGE8 could thus represent a new type of therapy for human cancers. Here, we show by immunohistochemistry on a collection of human ovarian cancers that MFGE8 is overexpressed in 45% of these tumors, and we confirm that it is specifically overexpressed in the triple-negative subtype of human breast cancers. We have established new in vitro assays to measure the effect of MFGE8 on survival, adhesion and migration of human ovarian and triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Using these assays, we could identify new MFGE8-specific monoclonal antibodies, which efficiently blocked these three tumor-promoting effects of MFGE8. Our results suggest future use of MFGE8-blocking antibodies as new anti-cancer therapeutics in subgroups of ovarian carcinoma, and triple-negative breast carcinoma patients.

  9. An Insight in the Reproductive Biology of Therophilus javanus (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, and Agathidinae, a Potential Biological Control Agent against the Legume Pod Borer (Lepidoptera, Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djibril Aboubakar Souna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Therophilus javanus is a koinobiont, solitary larval endoparasitoid currently being considered as a biological control agent against the pod borer Maruca vitrata, a devastating cowpea pest causing 20–80% crop losses in West Africa. We investigated ovary morphology and anatomy, oogenesis, potential fecundity, and egg load in T. javanus, as well as the effect of factors such as age of the female and parasitoid/host size at oviposition on egg load. The number of ovarioles was found to be variable and significantly influenced by the age/size of the M. vitrata caterpillar when parasitized. Egg load also was strongly influenced by both the instar of M. vitrata caterpillar at the moment of parasitism and wasp age. The practical implications of these findings for improving mass rearing of the parasitoid toward successful biological control of M. vitrata are discussed.

  10. Ionisation potential theorem in the presence of the electric field: Assessment of range-separated functional in the reproduction of orbital and excitation energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borpuzari, Manash Protim; Boruah, Abhijit; Kar, Rahul

    2016-04-28

    Recently, the range-separated density functionals have been reported to reproduce gas phase orbital and excitation energies with good accuracy. In this article, we have revisited the ionisation potential theorem in the presence of external electric field. Numerical results on six linear molecules are presented and the performance of the range-separated density functionals in reproducing highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energies, LUMO energies, HOMO-LUMO gaps in the presence of the external electric field is assessed. In addition, valence and Rydberg excitation energies in the presence of the external electric field are presented. It is found that the range-separated density functionals reproduce orbital and excitation energies accurately in the presence of the electric field. Moreover, we have performed fractional occupation calculation using cubic spline equation and tried to explain the performance of the functional.

  11. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J; Chandler, Jane N; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J.; Chandler, Jane N.; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  13. Innovations’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovations currently represent a tool of maintaining the going concern of a business entity and its competitiveness. However, effects of innovations are not infinite and if an innovation should constantly preserve a life of business entity, it has to be a continual chain of innovations, i.e. continual process. Effective live of a single innovation is limited while the limitation is derived especially from industry. The paper provides the results of research on innovations effects in the financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Objective of this paper is to determine the length and intensity of the effects of technical innovations in company’s financial performance. The economic effect of innovations has been measured at application of company’s gross production power while the Deviation Analysis has been applied for three years’ time series. Subsequently the Survival Analysis has been applied. The analyses are elaborated for three statistical samples of SMEs constructed in accordance to the industry. The results obtained show significant differences in innovations’ survival within these three samples of enterprises then. The results are quite specific for the industries, and are confronted and discussed with the results of authors’ former research on the issue.

  14. Widespread endocrine disruption and reproductive impairment in an estuarine fish population exposed to seasonal hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Peter; Rahman, Md Saydur; Khan, Izhar A; Kummer, James A

    2007-11-07

    The long-term effects on marine fish populations of the recent increase worldwide in the incidence of coastal hypoxia are unknown. Here we show that chronic environmental exposure of Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) to hypoxia in a Florida estuary caused marked suppression of ovarian and testicular growth which was accompanied by endocrine disruption. Laboratory hypoxia studies showed that the endocrine disruption was associated with impairment of reproductive neuroendocrine function and decreases in hypothalamic serotonin (5-HT) content and the activity of the 5-HT biosynthetic enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase. Pharmacological restoration of hypothalamic 5-HT levels also restored neuroendocrine function, indicating that the stimulatory serotonergic neuroendocrine pathway is a major site of hypoxia-induced inhibition. Inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase activity to downregulate reproductive activity could have evolved as an adaptive mechanism to survive periodic hypoxia, but in view of the recent increased incidence of coastal hypoxia could become maladaptive and potentially affect fish population abundance and threaten valuable fishery resources.

  15. Reproductive toxicity of carbon nanomaterials: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyukova, I.; Gusev, A.; Tkachev, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the current review, we assembled the experimental evidences of an association between carbon nanomaterials including carbon black, graphite nanoplatelets, graphene, single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and fullerene exposure and adverse reproductive and developmental effects, in vitro and in vivo studies. It is shown that carbon nanomaterials reveal toxic effect on reproductive system and offspring development of the animals of various system groups to a certain degree depending on carbon crystal structure. Although this paper provides initial information about the potential male and female reproductive toxicity of carbon nanomaterials, further studies, using characterized nanoparticles, relevant routes of administration, and doses closely reflecting all the expected levels of exposure are needed.

  16. Pre-operative perfusion skewness and kurtosis are potential predictors of progression-free survival after partial resection of newly diagnosed glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, Wo Yul [Dept. of Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Sang Joon [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To determine whether pre-operative perfusion skewness and kurtosis derived from normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) histograms are associated with progression-free survival (PFS) of patients after partial resection of newly diagnosed glioblastoma. A total of 135 glioblastoma patients who had undergone partial resection of tumor (resection of < 50% of pre-operative tumor volume or surgical biopsy) confirmed with immediate postsurgical MRI and examined with both conventional MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI before the surgery were retrospectively reviewed in this study. They had been followed up post-surgical chemoradiotherapy for tumor progression. Using histogram analyses of nCBV derived from pre-operative DSC perfusion MRI, patients were sub-classified into the following four groups: positive skewness and leptokurtosis (group 1); positive skewness and platykurtosis (group 2); negative skewness and leptokurtosis (group 3); negative skewness and platykurtosis (group 4). Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis were performed to determine whether clinical and imaging covariates were associated with PFS or overall survival (OS) of these patients. According to the Kaplan-Meier method, median PFS of group 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 62, 51, 39, and 41 weeks, respectively, with median OS of 82, 77, 77, and 72 weeks, respectively. In multivariable analyses with Cox proportional hazards regression, pre-operative skewness/kurtosis pattern (hazard ratio: 2.98 to 4.64; p < 0.001), Karnofsky performance scale score (hazard ratio: 1.04; p = 0.003), and post-operative tumor volume (hazard ratio: 1.04; p = 0.02) were independently associated with PFS but not with OS. Higher skewness and kurtosis of nCBV histogram before surgery were associated with longer PFS in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma after partial tumor resection.

  17. ESTIMATION OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND VULNERABILITY OF ADOLESCENT REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Stanojević

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents are reproductive potential of society. Protection of their reproductive health is one of the biggest challenges of modern society. Adolescent reproductive health is endangered by early sexual activities, inadequate protection against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. It is necessary to take measures which would protect and improve adolescent reproductive health.Adoption of knowledge about sexuality, physiology of reproduction, protection against unwanted pregnancy and sexual infections are prerequisites for formation of correct attitudes related to family planning and taking over responsibility for their own sexual behaviour.

  18. Reproductive Disorders in Parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagnelli, Alyssa M; Tully, Thomas N

    2017-05-01

    Disease affecting the reproductive tract of the companion parrot is often impacted by physiologic and environmental stimuli. In conjunction with appropriate medical management, some birds diagnosed with reproductive disorders may be successfully treated. Once the bird is diagnosed with a disease condition affecting the reproductive tract, therapeutic measures are focused on stabilizing and supporting the patient, and surgical intervention is required only in the most severe cases. Hormonal therapy with synthetic, long-acting GnRH agonists should be considered for chronic reproductive disease conditions in which decreasing ovarian activity can help alleviate certain disease processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  20. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Vested

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research.

  1. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research.

  2. PHOTOSYNTHETIC PERFORMANCE AND LEAF WATER POTENTIAL OF GULUPA (Passiflora edulis Sims, PASSIFLORACEAE IN THE REPRODUCTIVE PHASE IN THREE LOCATIONS IN THE COLOMBIAN ANDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Victoria PÉREZ MARTÍNEZ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gulupa, Passiflora edulis Sims (Passifloraceae, is an important fruit due to its organoleptic and nutritional characteristics and its demand in the international market; however, very few studies have been conducted for study its Ecophysiology. Until now, this crop has spread throughout the country through empirical knowledge without data that indicate the zones that are more suitable for its cultivation. For this reason, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence (photosystem II operating efficiency and maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry and leaf water potential were measured in three different locations of Cundinamarca department (Chia [2610 m a.s.l., 14 °C], Granada [2230 m a.s.l., 15 °C] and Tena [2090 m a.s.l., 17 °C], whose climatic conditions were monitored with meteorological stations to evaluate the physiologic performance in each location related to the environmental factors. The results indicate that, even though the photosynthetic capacity was similar and high in Granada and Tena, the water status of the plant, the stomatal control of water loss and recovery of photosystems during the night were more efficient in Granada (p < 0.05. In Tena, the small differences between day and night temperature, humidity, and vapor pressure deficit (VPD limited the night water recovery in the plants. Meanwhile, in Chia, the increase of VPD during the day and the low temperatures decreased the water potential both during the day and during the night, as well as the recovery of photosystem II. Therefore, in conclusion the climatic conditions similar to Granada, which are 18/13 °C day/night, a VPD close to 0.5 KPa, and radiation that did not exceed 1000 μmol photons/m2s favored the good physiological performance of gulupaDesempeño fotosintético y potencial hídrico foliar de gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae en estado reproductivo en tres localidades de los Andes colombianos La gulupa, Passiflora edulis Sims

  3. Reproductive efficiency of a Mediterranean endemic zooxanthellate coral decreases with increasing temperature along a wide latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Airi

    Full Text Available Investments at the organismal level towards reproduction and growth are often used as indicators of health. Understanding how such energy allocation varies with environmental conditions may, therefore, aid in predicting possible responses to global climatic change in the near future. For example, variations in seawater temperature may alter the physiological functioning, behavior, reproductive output and demographic traits (e.g., productivity of marine organisms, leading to shifts in the structure, spatial range, and abundance of populations. This study investigated variations in reproductive output associated with local seawater temperature along a wide latitudinal gradient on the western Italian coast, in the zooxanthellate Mediterranean coral, Balanophyllia europaea. Reproductive potential varied significantly among sites, where B. europaea individuals from the warmest site experienced loss of oocytes during gametogenesis. Most of the early oocytes from warmest sites did not reach maturity, possibly due to inhibition of metabolic processes at high temperatures, causing B. europaea to reabsorb the oocytes and utilize them as energy for other vital functions. In a progressively warming Mediterranean, the efficiency of the energy invested in reproduction could be considerably reduced in this species, thereby affecting vital processes. Given the projected increase in seawater temperature as a consequence of global climate change, the present study adds evidence to the threats posed by high temperatures to the survival of B. europaea in the next decades.

  4. Survival of a feline isolate of Tritrichomonas foetus in water, cat urine, cat food and cat litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Ripley, Allyson; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Blagburn, Byron L; Grant, David C; Lindsay, David S

    2012-04-30

    Feline intestinal trichomoniasis caused by Tritrichomonas foetus is associated with large bowel diarrhea in cats from many parts of the world. It has long been recognized as an economically important sexually transmitted disease that causes early abortion in cattle. Isolates of T. foetus from cattle are infectious for the large intestine of cats and isolates of T. foetus from cats are infectious for the reproductive system of cattle. The parasite is maintained by fecal-oral transmission in cats. The present study was conducted to examine the survival of a feline isolate of T. foetus, AUTf-12, under various conditions that are relevant to fecal-oral transmission in cats. Trophozoites were grown in TYM medium and then exposed to water, cat urine, dry cat food, canned cat food, clumping cat litter, or filter paper for various lengths of time and then re-cultured in TYM medium. Trophozoites survived exposure to distilled or tap water for 30 but not 60 min, while they survived for at least 180 min in urine. Trophozoites survived for 30 min on dry cat food but survived for 120-180 min in canned cat food. No survival of trophozoites was observed on cat litter but trophozoites survived for 15 min when placed on filter paper. Our results indicate that T. foetus can survive and be potentially infectious in water, urine, dry cat food and canned cat food. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Body size and survival in premenopausal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, E. R.; Vessey, M. P.; McPherson, K.; Doll, R.; Yeates, D.

    1985-01-01

    The survival experience of 582 women with premenopausal breast cancer was examined to determine whether prognosis was related to body size or to demographic and reproductive factors. During the follow-up period 228 patients died and 18 emigrated or were lost to follow-up. Usual body weight, reported at the time of diagnosis, was a strong predictor of survival, with a statistically significant trend towards lower survival with increasing weight. Height and obesity (Quetelet index) were not significantly related to survival, although the tallest women and the most obese women appeared to fare worst. Other characteristics of prognostic importance were disease stage and reproductive history (women who were older when their first child was born fared better). Women aged 46-50 when diagnosed also appeared more likely to survive but no clear trend with age was evident. Other characteristics of the women including social class, cigarette use and oral contraceptive use were not significantly related to survival probability. PMID:3994912

  6. Antibiotic-Mediated Inhibition of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV Infection: A Novel Quinolone Function Which Potentiates the Antiviral Cytokine Response in MARC-145 Cells and Pig Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Cafruny

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is an economically significant agent for which there currently are no effective treatments. Development of antiviral agents for PRRSV as well as many other viruses has been limited by toxicity of known antiviral compounds. In contrast, antibiotics for non-virus microbial infections have been widely useful, in part because of their acceptable toxicity in animals. We report here the discovery that the quinolonecontaining compound Plasmocin™, as well as the quinolones nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, have potent anti-PRRSV activity in vitro. PRRSV replication was inhibited by these antibiotics in both cultured MARC-145 cells and cultured primary alveolar porcine macrophages (PAMs. Furthermore, sub-optimal concentrations of nalidixic acid synergized with antiviral cytokines (AK-2 or IFN-γ to quantitatively and qualitatively inhibit PRRSV replication in MARC-145 cells or PAMs. The antiviral activity of Plasmocin and nalidixic acid correlated with reduced actin expression in MARC-145 cells. Replication of the related lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV was also inhibited in primary mouse macrophages by Plasmocin. These results are significant to the development of antiviral strategies with potentially reduced toxicity, and provide a model system to better understand regulation of arterivirus replication.

  7. Lack of XAGE-1b and NY-ESO-1 in metastatic lymph nodes may predict the potential survival of stage III melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Mariko; Funakoshi, Takeru; Kameyama, Kaori; Kawakami, Yutaka; Sato, Eiichi; Nakayama, Eiichi; Amagai, Masayuki; Tanese, Keiji

    2017-06-01

    The cancer-testis antigens (CTA) are a large family of tumor-associated antigens expressed by a variety of cancer cells and primitive germ cells of the adult testis and placenta. These tumor-restricted expressing patterns suggest that CTA would be ideal targets for tumor-specific immunotherapy. XAGE-1 is a CTA that was originally identified by computer-based screening, and four transcription variants, XAGE-1a, -1b, -1c and -1d, have been characterized to date. Although the presence of XAGE-1 transcripts has been reported in various cancers, the expression of XAGE-1b in melanoma has not been fully characterized. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical staining of XAGE-1b together with NY-ESO-1, a well-known CTA, in 113 melanoma samples obtained from 84 patients and evaluated their expression in tumor cells. The effects of expression on tumor progression and patient prognosis were analyzed. Both XAGE-1b and NY-ESO-1 were expressed at high levels in lymph node metastasis and skin metastasis samples compared with the primary site (P ESO-1). In a subgroup analysis of 22 patients with stage III lymph node metastasis, overall survival was significantly higher in the XAGE-1b and NY-ESO-1 double-negative group than in the other groups (P ESO-1 expression could have a positive influence on clinical outcome in patients with melanoma. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  8. Effect of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) on survivability, extent of proteolysis and ACE inhibition of potential probiotic cultures in fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basannavar, Santosh; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In the present investigation, the effect of Aloe vera gel powder on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, extent of proteolysis during fermentation and survival of Lactobacillus casei NCDC19 during storage of fermented milk was studied. Among the different cultures screened for ACE inhibitory activity, Lactobacillus casei NCDC 19 exhibited the highest ACE inhibition (approx. 40%) as well as extent of proteolysis (0.37, Abs₃₄₀). In the presence of Aloe vera (0.5% and 1% w/v) an increase in extent of proteolysis (0.460 ± 0.047 and 0.480 ± 0.027) and percent ACE inhibitory activity (44.32 ± 2.83 and 47.52 ± 1.83) was observed in comparison to control. Aloe vera powder addition also led to an increase in viable counts (>11 log cfu mL⁻¹) of L. casei NCDC 19 in fermented milk during storage for 7 days and the counts were maintained in sufficiently higher numbers. The study suggests Aloe vera to be a good functional ingredient which can be further explored for different health attributes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Reproductive Physiology of Marsupials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    Describes some unique features of marsupial reproduction which include (1) chromosomal sex determination, (2) reproductive system, (3) birth, (4) location, and (5) embryonic diapause. These features suggest that viviparity evolved separately in eutherian and marsupial stocks after their derivation from a common oviparous ancestor. Bibliography.…

  10. Multichannel Sound Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkki, Ville

    Spatial reproduction of sound is a field in which the spatial attributes of a real recording room or a virtual space are reproduced to the listener. Spatial attributes include for example directions of sound sources, directions of reflections and envelopment by reverberation. Many such systems employ more than two loudspeakers to create virtual sources. This is called multichannel sound or spatial sound reproduction.

  11. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  12. Crane reproductive physiology and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    Some unique features of crane reproduction, management, and conservation are described. Because cranes are sexually monomorphic, sexing is difficult and must be accomplished using behavior, laparoscopy, cloacal examination, genetic techniques, or fecal steroid analysis. Although husbandry techniques for cranes are similar to those used with other nondomestic birds, a number of basic characteristics, such as extreme aggressiveness, imprinting by the crane chick on man, a delayed molt in the immature crane, delayed sexual maturity, and infertility, pose special problems for the propagator. Artificial insemination is a practical solution to crane infertility. Vigorous captive management and propagation efforts must become increasingly important if several endangered crane species are to survive the continuing decline in wild populations. The ultimate goal is the restoration of suitable habitat and sustainable native populations.

  13. Experimental manipulation of female reproduction demonstrates its fitness costs in kangaroos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélin, Uriel; Wilson, Michelle E; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-01-01

    When resources are scarce, female mammals should face a trade-off between lactation and other life-history traits such as growth, survival and subsequent reproduction. Kangaroos are ideal to test predictions about reproductive costs because they may simultaneously lactate and carry a young, and have indeterminate growth and a long breeding season. An earlier study in three of our five study populations prevented female eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from reproducing during one reproductive season by either inserting contraceptive implants or removing very small pouch young. We explored how individual and environmental variables affect the costs of reproduction over time, combining this experimental reduction of reproductive effort with multi-year monitoring of 270 marked females. Experimental manipulation should control for individual heterogeneity, revealing the costs of reproduction and their likely sources. We also examined the fitness consequences of reproductive effort and offspring sex among unmanipulated individuals to test whether sex allocation strategies affected trade-offs. Costs of reproduction included longer inter-birth intervals and lower probability of producing a young that survived to 7 months in the subsequent reproductive event. Weaning success, however, did not differ significantly between manipulated and control females. By reducing reproductive effort, manipulation appeared to increase individual condition and subsequent reproductive success. Effects of offspring sex upon subsequent reproductive success varied according to year and study population. Mothers of sons were generally more likely to have a young that survived to 7 months, compared to mothers of daughters. The fitness costs of reproduction arise from constraints in both acquisition and allocation of resources. To meet these costs, females delay subsequent parturition and may manipulate offspring sex. Reproductive tactics thus vary according to the amount of resource

  14. Nanotechnology in reproductive medicine: emerging applications of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkalina, Natalia; Charalambous, Charis; Jones, Celine; Coward, Kevin

    2014-07-01

    In the last decade, nanotechnology has been extensively introduced for biomedical applications, including bio-detection, drug delivery and diagnostic imaging, particularly in the field of cancer diagnostics and treatment. However, there is a growing trend towards the expansion of nanobiotechnological tools in a number of non-cancer applications. In this review, we discuss the emerging uses of nanotechnology in reproductive medicine and reproductive biology. For the first time, we summarise the available evidence regarding the use of nanomaterials as experimental tools for the detection and treatment of malignant and benign reproductive conditions. We also present an overview of potential applications for nanomaterials in reproductive biology, discuss the benefits and concerns associated with their use in a highly delicate system of reproductive tissues and gametes, and address the feasibility of this innovative and potentially controversial approach in the clinical setting and for investigative research into the mechanisms underlying reproductive diseases. This unique review paper focuses on the emerging use of nanotechnology in reproductive medicine and reproductive biology, highlighting the role of nanomaterials in the detection and treatment of various reproductive conditions, keeping in mind the benefits and potential concerns associated with nanomaterial use in the delicate system of reproductive tissue and gametes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reproductive health and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchesky, R

    1993-01-01

    This article was based on a speech given in Rio de Janeiro in January 1994 at the Reproductive Health and Justice Conference. Questions were raised about the universality of reproductive rights. The suggestion was that Western norms and principles subordinated Southern meanings. A women's health advocate in Nigeria believed that poor and oppressed women were not able to consider limiting family size or to consider reproductive health when the critical concerns were health care, education, livelihood, and basic needs. Rights and needs go together. Reproductive and sexual rights must be understood in terms of social, economic, and political enabling conditions. The respect for women's bodily integrity and reproductive and sexual well-being was viewed as integral to being an effective social and political agent. Women group's have carved out distinct concepts of work, economic resources, education, and political empowerment. The differences in experiences between the North and the South must not be used to diminish the impact of population control forces and fundamentalists. Reproductive rights means giving women the power to make informed decisions about individual fertility, childrearing, and health and sexual activity and means the resources to make decisions effectively and safely. The origin of the definition must not be confused with the process of debate. Rights can be approached either as legal and formal entities and/or as political claims to change existing power structures. Reproductive rights when construed to be liberties or choices were viewed as ineffectual; the focus must be on gender, class, culture, ethnicity, and national needs. Social rights must be incorporated in the concept of reproductive rights and as such challenge structural adjustment programs that reduce expenditures on health and social services. Terminology that focused on "reproduction" obscured the larger focus on personal health and well being. The principles of reproductive rights

  16. Endoparasite infection has both short- and long-term negative effects on reproductive success of female house sparrows, as revealed by faecal parasitic egg counts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Holand

    Full Text Available Parasites have the potential to severely reduce host reproductive success. However, the effects of endoparasites on reproductive success have not received the same amount of attention as the effects of parasites on host survival. We investigated the relationship between an avian endoparasite (gapeworm, Syngamus trachea and both current and future reproductive success of female house sparrows (Passer domesticus in a population on the coast of Helgeland, northern Norway. We found that the proportion of eggs in a nest that failed to develop into fledglings increased as the faecal parasitic egg count of the mothers increased. We also found that juvenile females with high numbers of parasitic eggs in their faeces had lower lifetime reproductive success as adults. However, we did not find a relationship between maternal parasite infection and clutch size or recruitment rate of offspring. To our knowledge this is the first study to find a relationship between reproductive success of an avian host and faecal egg count of an endoparasite. The present study indicates that infection by an endoparasite may be associated with lower individual reproductive success in both the short-term and long-term in a wild population of hosts.

  17. Endoparasite infection has both short- and long-term negative effects on reproductive success of female house sparrows, as revealed by faecal parasitic egg counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holand, Håkon; Jensen, Henrik; Tufto, Jarle; Pärn, Henrik; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Ringsby, Thor Harald

    2015-01-01

    Parasites have the potential to severely reduce host reproductive success. However, the effects of endoparasites on reproductive success have not received the same amount of attention as the effects of parasites on host survival. We investigated the relationship between an avian endoparasite (gapeworm, Syngamus trachea) and both current and future reproductive success of female house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in a population on the coast of Helgeland, northern Norway. We found that the proportion of eggs in a nest that failed to develop into fledglings increased as the faecal parasitic egg count of the mothers increased. We also found that juvenile females with high numbers of parasitic eggs in their faeces had lower lifetime reproductive success as adults. However, we did not find a relationship between maternal parasite infection and clutch size or recruitment rate of offspring. To our knowledge this is the first study to find a relationship between reproductive success of an avian host and faecal egg count of an endoparasite. The present study indicates that infection by an endoparasite may be associated with lower individual reproductive success in both the short-term and long-term in a wild population of hosts.

  18. Male reproductive health and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Thomas J

    2011-11-01

    Male infertility impacts a substantial proportion of men and has serious implication for a man's quality of life. Advances in reproductive technology may allow men to bypass urologic care in order to achieve their family planning goals. Recent data suggests that male reproductive failure may be a harbinger of future urologic diseases, including prostate cancer (CaP), thus emphasizing the importance of dedicated urologic evaluation and care for all male infertility patients. We will review the epidemiologic data that explores an association between male reproductive health and CaP. We will review the potential biologic mechanisms that may underlie this association, and explore possible reasons for inconsistencies in study findings. Studies of the association between male infertility and CaP are inconsistent. Despite this, the association between reproductive health in a man's fourth decade (30s) and his development of aggressive CaP in his sixth decade (50s) should not be ignored. These findings, combined with the robustness of the potential common underlying mechanisms, provide a foundation for future studies of male reproductive health that are more specific in their approach to answering questions about the association between male reproductive failure and future systemic disease.

  19. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . To this end, selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) have been developed and routinized over the last few decades. In today’s world, selective reproduction is taking place on a historically unprecedented scale; through sex-selective abortions following ultrasound scans, termination of pregnancies following......In the 21st century, human reproduction increasingly involves decisions about which gametes to fertilize, which embryos to implant, or which fetuses to abort. The term ‘selective reproduction’ refers to these increasingly widespread efforts to bring specific kinds of children into being...... detection of fetal anomalies during prenatal screening and testing programs, the development of preimplantation genetic diagnosis techniques as well as the screening of potential gamete donors by egg agencies and sperm banks. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century provides unique ethnographic insights...

  20. The future of human reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overall, Christine

    1989-01-01

    ... Contradictions III SOCIAL POLICY QUESTIONS Pregnancy as Justification for Loss of Juridical Autonomy Sanda Rodgers 174 Prenatal Diagnosis: Reproductive Choice? Reproductive Control? Abby Lippman ...

  1. Parturition effects on reproductive health in the gilt and sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Oat; Björkman, S; Oliviero, C

    2016-10-01

    In this review, we address significant characteristics of parturition in the pig and their connection to post-partum reproductive health and fertility. We discuss the normal physiology and behaviour around parturition and the effect of the second phase (expulsion of foetuses) on the third phase of parturition (expulsion of foetal membranes). In addition, we intend to cover retained placenta, and the connection to post-partum uterine health and fertility in the contemporary prolific sow. We also explore factors that support successful parturition or can cause potential problems. Successful parturition in the pig includes the possibility to express adequate maternal behaviour, rapid expulsion of the piglets, complete expulsion of the placenta, neonatal activity and colostrum intake. Abnormal incidents during any phase of parturition can cause subsequent problems. Duration of the expulsion phase of foetuses can be used as a simple measure of whether parturition is considered successful. Prolonged parturition can impair health of the sow and piglet and fertility after weaning. New insights, such as adding more fibre to sow diets during pregnancy, and especially during the period prior to farrowing, may prevent constipation, increase water intake of the sow around parturition and increase milk intake and performance of piglets. Maternal characteristics, including maternal behaviour, ease of parturition, colostrum production and piglet quality parameters, may be utilized to improve success rate of reproductive management during farrowing and early lactation. Additionally, we share some of the recent developments in methods, including ultrasonography in evaluation of post-partum uterine health. In conclusion, successful farrowing is of the greatest importance for reproductive health of the sow and survival of the piglets. We suggest connections exist among prolonged farrowing and yield of colostrum, retained placenta, development of PDS, and impaired involution of the

  2. Pristimerin demonstrates anticancer potential in colorectal cancer cells by inducing G1 phase arrest and apoptosis and suppressing various pro-survival signaling proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Bashir A; Guerram, Mounia; Hassan, Hozeifa M; Hamdi, Aida M; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Jiang, Zhen-Zhou

    2016-02-01

    Pristimerin is a naturally occurring triterpenoid that has a cytotoxic effect on several cancer cell lines. However, the cytotoxic effects of pristimerin as well as its molecular mechanisms of action against colorectal cancer have never been explored. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer potential of pristimerin, and examined the different signaling pathways affected by its action in three colon cancer cell lines namely HCT-116, COLO-205 and SW-620. Pristimerin was found to possess potent cytotoxic and proliferation inhibitory effects against these cell lines. Cell cycle analysis revealed G1 phase arrest, which was strongly associated with decreased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinases (cdk4 and cdk6) with concomitant induction of p21. Pristimerin also induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Cell plasma membrane alterations studied by Annexin V/PI double staining, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), measurements of caspase activities and the inhibitory effect of Z-VAD-FMK (a caspase inhibitor) confirmed the apoptotic effect of pristimerin. Moreover, western blot data showed that apoptotic induction was associated with activated caspase-3 and -8, PARP-1 cleavage and modulation of the expression levels of Bcl-2 family proteins. Additionally, pristimerin treatment downregulated the phosphorylated forms of EGFR and HER2 proteins, and subsequently caused a decrease in the phosphorylated forms of Erk1/2, Akt, mTOR and NF-κB proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that pristimerin may have potential as a new targeting therapeutic strategy for the treatment of colon cancer.

  3. Varicocele repair in the era of modern assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Matthew; Hsieh, Tung-Chin; Lipshultz, Larry

    2012-11-01

    This review looks at the literature on varicocele repair and its effect on assisted reproductive techniques. The effects of varicocele correction on improved sperm production have been well documented with semen analysis data. What remain to be elucidated are the causes of the varicocele effect and how correction of the resultant pathophysiology may affect the outcomes of modern assisted reproductive technology. Basic science research shows us that varicoceles exert deleterious effects on Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, and germ cells via very different mechanisms. The effects of varicocele correction on the reproductive potential of sperm are less well understood. Clinical research has shown improved semen parameters, DNA integrity, and assisted reproductive technology outcomes after varicocele repair. Varicocele correction presents a possible method to optimize a couples' reproductive potential or decrease the need for complex assisted reproductive technology.

  4. Is growth rate more important than survival and reproduction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic value of a trait was defined as the marginal profit per ewe per year resulting from a unit increase or decrease in the average value of a trait, whilst holding the average levels of all other traits constant, and at a discount rate of 0 and 12.5%. The results of the study indicated that on average, traits associated with ...

  5. The possible genetic improvement of reproduction and survival rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 28, No 2 (1998) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Cod reproductive ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria

    reproduction. The overall objective of the thesis is to investigate the role of lipids in reproduction of cod (Gadus morhua) in the Central Baltic Sea. The first objective is to examine the seasonal variation in content of lipid and EFA in whole prey species of cod (Paper I). The second objective...... is to investigate the variation in lipid content, EFA and antioxidants of female Baltic cod gonads and livers during the reproductive cycle (Paper II) and to examine whether there is a deficiency in lipid energy and dietary EFA that could explain the delayed spawning time observed in the Baltic cod (Paper III...

  7. Adult survival, apparent lamb survival, and body condition of desert bighorn sheep in relation to habitat and precipitation on the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Matthew; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Cain, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The decline of desert bighorn sheep on the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (KNWR) beginning in 2003 stimulated efforts to determine the factors limiting survival and recruitment. We 1) determined pregnancy rates, body fat, and estimated survival rates of adults and lambs; 2) investigated the relationship between precipitation, forage conditions, previous year’s reproductive success, and adult body condition; 3) assessed the relative influence of body condition of adult females, precipitation, and forage characteristics on apparent survival of lambs; and 4) determined the prevalence of disease. To assess the influence of potential limiting factors on female desert bighorn sheep on the KNWR, we modeled percent body fat of adult females as a function of previous year’s reproductive effort, age class, and forage conditions (i.e., seasonal NDVI and seasonal precipitation). In addition, we assessed the relative influence of the body condition of adult females, precipitation, and forage conditions (NDVI) on length of time a lamb was observed at heel.Adult female survival was high in both 2009 (0.90 [SE = 0.05]) and 2010 (0.96 [SE = 0.03]). Apparent lamb survival to 6 months of age was 0.23 (SE = 0.05) during 2009-2010 and 0.21 (SE = 0.05) during 2010-2011 lambing seasons. Mean body fat for adult females was 12.03% (SE = 0.479) in 2009-2010 and 11.11% (SE= 0.486) in 2010-2011 and was not significantly different between years. Pregnancy rate was 100% in 2009 and 97.5% in 2010.Models containing the previous year’s reproductive effort, spring NDVI and previous year’s reproductive effort and spring precipitation best approximated data on percent body fat in adult females in 2009-2010. In 2010-2011, the two highest-ranking models included the previous year’s reproductive effort and winter NDVI and previous year’s reproductive effort, and winter and spring NDVI. None of the models assessing the influence of maternal body fat, precipitation, or forage conditions were

  8. Survival After Relapse of Medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschmann, Carl; Bloom, Karina; Upadhyaya, Santhosh; Geyer, J Russell; Leary, Sarah E S

    2016-05-01

    Survival after recurrence of medulloblastoma has not been reported in an unselected cohort of patients in the contemporary era. We reviewed 55 patients diagnosed with medulloblastoma between 2000 and 2010, and treated at Seattle Children's Hospital to evaluate patterns of relapse treatment and survival. Fourteen of 47 patients (30%) over the age of 3 experienced recurrent or progressive medulloblastoma after standard therapy. The median time from diagnosis to recurrence was 18.0 months (range, 3.6 to 62.6 mo), and site of recurrence was metastatic in 86%. The median survival after relapse was 10.3 months (range, 1.3 to 80.5 mo); 3-year survival after relapse was 18%. There were trend associations between longer survival and having received additional chemotherapy (median survival 12.8 vs. 1.3 mo, P=0.16) and radiation therapy (15.4 vs. 5.9 mo, P=0.20). Isolated local relapse was significantly associated with shorter survival (1.3 vs. 12.8 mo, P=0.009). Recurrence of medulloblastoma is more likely to be metastatic than reported in previous eras. Within the limits of our small sample, our data suggest a potential survival benefit from retreatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation even in heavily pretreated patients. This report serves as a baseline against which to evaluate novel therapy combinations.

  9. The Potential of Food Fortification to Add Micronutrients in Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age - Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Fabian; Leyvraz, Magali; Konan, Amoin G; Esso, Lasme J C E; Wirth, James P; Norte, Augusto; Adiko, Adiko F; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Aaron, Grant J

    2016-01-01

    Poor micronutrient intakes are a major contributing factor to the high burden of micronutrient deficiencies in Côte d'Ivoire. Large-scale food fortification is considered a cost-effective approach to deliver micronutrients, and fortification of salt (iodine), wheat flour (iron and folic acid), and vegetable oil (vitamin A) is mandatory in Côte d'Ivoire. A cross-sectional survey on households with at least one child 6-23 months was conducted to update coverage figures with adequately fortified food vehicles in Abidjan, the capital of and largest urban community in Côte d'Ivoire, and to evaluate whether additional iron and vitamin A intake is sufficient to bear the potential to reduce micronutrient malnutrition. Information on demographics and food consumption was collected, along with samples of salt and oil. Wheat flour was sampled from bakeries and retailers residing in the selected clusters. In Abidjan, 86% and 97% of salt and vegetable oil samples, respectively, were adequately fortified, while only 32% of wheat flour samples were adequately fortified, but all samples contained some added iron. There were no major differences in additional vitamin A and iron intake between poor and non-poor households. For vitamin A in oil, the additional percentage of the recommended nutrient intake was 27% and 40% for children 6-23 months and women of reproductive age, respectively, while for iron from wheat flour, only 13% and 19% could be covered. Compared to previous estimates, coverage has remained stable for salt and wheat flour, but improved for vegetable oil. Fortification of vegetable oil clearly provides a meaningful additional amount of vitamin A. This is not currently the case for iron, due to the low fortification levels. Iron levels in wheat flour should be increased and monitored, and additional vehicles should be explored to add iron to the Ivorian diet.

  10. Endocannabinoids as biomarkers of human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapino, Cinzia; Battista, Natalia; Bari, Monica; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a condition of the reproductive system that affects ∼10-15% of couples attempting to conceive a baby. More than half of all cases of infertility are a result of female conditions, while the remaining cases can be attributed to male factors, or to a combination of both. The search for suitable biomarkers of pregnancy outcome is a challenging issue in human reproduction, aimed at identifying molecules with predictive significance of the reproductive potential of male and female gametes. Among the various candidates, endocannabinoids (eCBs), and in particular anandamide (AEA), represent potential biomarkers of human fertility disturbances. Any perturbation of the balance between synthesis and degradation of eCBs will result in local changes of their tone in human female and male reproductive tracts, which in turn regulates various pathophysiological processes, oocyte and sperm maturation included. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for papers using relevant keywords like 'biomarker', 'endocannabinoid', 'infertility', 'pregnancy' and 'reproduction'. In this review, we discuss different studies on the measurements of AEA and related eCBs in human reproductive cells, tissues and fluids, where the local contribution of these bioactive lipids could be critical in ensuring normal sperm fertilizing ability and pregnancy. Based on the available data, we suggest that the AEA tone has the potential to be exploited as a novel diagnostic biomarker of infertility, to be used in association with assays of conventional hormones (e.g. progesterone, β-chorionic gonadotrophin) and semen analysis. However further quantitative research of its predictive capacity is required. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Reproductive prognosis in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjordt Hansen, Maj V; Dalsgaard, Torur; Hartwell, Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reproductive long-term prognosis of women with and without endometriosis, to explore changes over time, and to quantify the contribution of artificial reproductive techniques. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark 1977-2009. SAMPLE: Data retrieved from four national...... registries. Among 15-49-year-old women during the period 1977-82, 24 667 were diagnosed with endometriosis and 98 668 (1:4) women without endometriosis were age-matched. METHODS: To assess long-term reproductive prognosis, all pregnancy outcomes were identified among the women with and without endometriosis......, but this was restricted to pregnancies from assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION: Women with endometriosis have slightly fewer children, but this lessened over time due to artificially conceived pregnancies. The risk for miscarriages and ectopic pregnancies was increased compared with women without the disease....

  12. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    From a historical perspective, selective reproduction is nothing new. Infanticide, abandonment, and selective neglect of children have a long history, and the widespread deployment of sterilization and forced abortion in the twentieth century has been well documented. Yet in recent decades...... selective reproduction has been placed under the aegis of science and expertise in novel ways. New laboratory and clinical techniques allow for the selective fertilization of gametes, implantation of embryos, or abortion of fetuses. Although they will often overlap with assisted reproductive technologies...... (ARTs), what we term selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) are of a more specific nature: Rather than aiming to overcome infertility, they are used to prevent or allow the birth of certain kinds of children. This review highlights anthropological research into SRTs in different parts of the world...

  13. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... With a special focus on placental toxicity, this book is the only available reference to connect the three key risk stages, and is the only resource to include reproductive and developmental toxicity in domestic animals, fish, and wildlife.

  14. Reproductive data for groundfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ROCKFISH database houses data from rockfish species collected by the SWFSC FED along the California coast as part of a reproductive study originating in the...

  15. Genetic and reproduction strategy in Crassostrea gigas mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Moal, Jeanne; Bedier, Edouard; Fleury, Pierre-gildas; Langlade, Aime; Le Coguic, Yvette; Degremont, Lionel; Boudry, Pierre; Le Coz, Jean-rene; Pouvreau, Stephane; Enriquez-diaz, M.; Lambert, Christophe; Quere, Christele; Soudant, Philippe; Samain, Jean-francois

    2003-01-01

    Bi-parental families were produced in hatchery and tested in the field in 2001. Two sets of 5 families were constituted, selected on their high (R) and low (S) survival. These two sets were reared in Brittany from March to November 2002. Samplings were performed twice a month to obtain data on biometry, survival, reproductive cycle, biochemical composition, adenylate energy charge, hemolymph parameters (ions and defense system) and muscle strength. "R" and "S" oysters exhibited different repr...

  16. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  17. Reproductive Liberty and Overpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Carol A. Kates

    2004-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence pointing to a looming Malthusian catastrophe, governmental measures to reduce population have been opposed both by religious conservatives and by many liberals, especially liberal feminists. Liberal critics have claimed that 'utilitarian' population policies violate a 'fundamental right of reproductive liberty'. This essay argues that reproductive liberty should not be considered a fundamental human right, or certainly not an indefeasible right. It should, instead...

  18. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  19. Thyroid and male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Shekhar, Skand; Dhole, Bodhana

    2014-01-01

    Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  20. Chemical Constituents from Hericium erinaceus Promote Neuronal Survival and Potentiate Neurite Outgrowth via the TrkA/Erk1/2 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chen Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus is a culinary-medicinal mushroom used traditionally in Eastern Asia to improve memory. In this work, we investigated the neuroprotective and neuritogenic effects of the secondary metabolites isolated from the MeOH extract of cultured mycelium of H. erinaceus and the primary mechanisms involved. One new dihydropyridine compound (6 and one new natural product (2 together with five known compounds (1,3–5,7 were obtained and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR and HRMS. The cell-based screening for bioactivity showed that 4-chloro-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic methyl ester (1 and a cyathane diterpenoid, erincine A (3, not only potentiated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth but also protected neuronally-differentiated cells against deprivation of NGF in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. Additionally, compound 3 induced neuritogenesis in primary rat cortex neurons. Furthermore, our results revealed that TrkA-mediated and Erk1/2-dependant pathways could be involved in 1 and 3-promoted NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.

  1. Chemical Constituents from Hericium erinaceus Promote Neuronal Survival and Potentiate Neurite Outgrowth via the TrkA/Erk1/2 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-Chen; Cao, Chen-Yu; Kubo, Miwa; Harada, Kenichi; Yan, Xi-Tao; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2017-07-30

    Hericium erinaceus is a culinary-medicinal mushroom used traditionally in Eastern Asia to improve memory. In this work, we investigated the neuroprotective and neuritogenic effects of the secondary metabolites isolated from the MeOH extract of cultured mycelium of H. erinaceus and the primary mechanisms involved. One new dihydropyridine compound ( 6 ) and one new natural product ( 2 ) together with five known compounds ( 1 , 3 - 5 , 7 ) were obtained and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR and HRMS. The cell-based screening for bioactivity showed that 4-chloro-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic methyl ester ( 1 ) and a cyathane diterpenoid, erincine A ( 3 ), not only potentiated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth but also protected neuronally-differentiated cells against deprivation of NGF in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. Additionally, compound 3 induced neuritogenesis in primary rat cortex neurons. Furthermore, our results revealed that TrkA-mediated and Erk1/2-dependant pathways could be involved in 1 and 3 -promoted NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.

  2. Asexual Reproduction in Holothurians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmatov, Igor Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holothurian species indicates that this reproduction mode is more widespread in Holothuroidea than previously believed. New data about the history of the discovery of asexual reproduction in holothurians, features of fission, and regeneration of anterior and posterior fragments are described here. Asexual reproduction is obviously controlled by the integrated systems of the organism, primarily the nervous system. Special molecular mechanisms appear to determine the location where fission occurs along the anterior-posterior axis of the body. Alteration of the connective tissue strength of the body wall may play an important role during fission of holothurians. The basic mechanism of fission is the interaction of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and enzymes forming cross-link complexes between fibrils of collagen. The population dynamics of fissiparous holothurians are discussed. PMID:25405228

  3. Kisspeptin as a therapeutic target in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lisa; Dhillo, Waljit

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptins are a family of neuropeptides whose identification has become one of the biggest discoveries in reproductive endocrinology during the past decade. Kisspeptins act upstream of GnRH as high-level mediators of the reproductive axis. The authors performed a search of all publications on kisspeptin since its discovery in 1996. A full appraisal of the expanding literature concerning kisspeptin is beyond the scope of this review. This article therefore aims to cover the principle human studies outlining kisspeptin action in human physiology and to discuss the key findings, describing kisspeptin's potential as a therapeutic target in human reproduction. The identification of the kisspeptin signaling pathway has greatly advanced the study of reproductive endocrinology. Building on a large body of animal data, a growing number of human studies have shown that exogenous kisspeptin can stimulate physiological gonadotropin responses in both healthy subjects and those with disorders of reproduction. There is an increasing appreciation that kisspeptin may act as a signal transmitter between metabolic status and reproductive function. Future work is likely to involve investigation of novel kisspeptin analogs and further exploration of role of neurokinin B and dynorphin on the kisspeptin-GnRH axis.

  4. [Toxicity of nanoparticles on reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, F; Courbière, B; Rose, J; Orsière, T; Sari-Minodier, I; Bottero, J-Y; Auffan, M; Perrin, J

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are sized between 1 and 100nm. Their size allows new nanoscale properties of particular interest for industrial and scientific purpose. Over the past twenty years, nanotechnology conquered many areas of use (electronic, cosmetic, textile…). While, human is exposed to an increasing number of nanoparticles sources, health impacts and, particularly on reproductive function, remains poorly evaluated. Indeed, traceability of nanoparticles use is lacking and nanotoxicology follows different rules than classical toxicology. This review focuses on the impact of NPs on health and particularly on fertility and addresses potential risks of chronic exposure to NPs on human fertility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of helping and breeding experience on reproductive performance in the Seychelles warbler: A translocation experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Komdeur, J

    1996-01-01

    Reproductive success of the cooperative breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis) increases with age. This age effect is not due to differential survival or increased reproductive effort, but to accumulated helping and breeding experience. In their first year of breeding, reproductive performance of inexperienced warblers with neither helping nor breeding experience was significantly lower than that of warblers of the same age with either previous helping or breeding experience....

  6. Photosynthesis in reproductive structures: costs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Griffiths, Howard

    2015-04-01

    The role of photosynthesis by reproductive structures during grain-filling has important implications for cereal breeding, but the methods for assessing the contribution by reproductive structures to grain-filling are invasive and prone to compensatory changes elsewhere in the plant. A technique analysing the natural abundance of stable carbon isotopes in soluble carbohydrates has significant promise. However, it depends crucially on there being no more than two sources of organic carbon (leaf and ear/awn), with significantly different (13)C:(12)C ratios and no secondary fractionation during grain-filling. The role of additional peduncle carbohydrate reserves represents a potential means for N remobilization, as well as for hydraulic continuity during grain-filling. The natural abundance of the stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen are also useful for exploring the influence of reproduction on whole plant carbon and water relations and have been used to examine the resource costs of reproduction in females and males of dioecious plants. Photosynthesis in reproductive structures is widespread among oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, including many clades of algae and embryophytes of different levels of complexity. The possible evolutionary benefits of photosynthesis in reproductive structures include decreasing the carbon cost of reproduction and 'use' of transpiratory loss of water to deliver phloem-immobile calcium Ca(2+) and silicon [Si(OH)4] via the xylem. The possible costs of photosynthesis in reproductive structures are increasing damage to DNA from photosynthetically active, and hence UV-B, radiation and the production of reactive oxygen species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Shift work and circadian dysregulation of reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Gamble

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Health impairments, including reproductive issues, are associated with working nights or rotating shifts. For example, shift work has been associated with an increased risk of irregular menstrual cycles, endometriosis, infertility, miscarriage, low birth weight or pre-term delivery, and reduced incidence of breastfeeding. Based on what is known about circadian regulation of endocrine rhythms in rodents (and much less in humans, the circadian clock is an integral regulatory part of the reproductive system. When this 24-h program is disordered by environmental perturbation (such as shift work or genetic alterations, the endocrine system can be impaired. The purpose of this review is to explore the hypothesis that misalignment of reproductive hormones with the environmental light-dark cycle and/or sleep wake rhythms can disrupt menstrual cycles, pregnancy, and parturition. We highlight the role of the circadian clock in regulating human reproductive physiology and shift work-induced pathology within each step of the reproductive axis while exploring potential mechanisms from the animal model literature. In addition to documenting the reproductive hazards of shift work, we also point out important gaps in our knowledge as critical areas for future investigation. For example, future studies should examine whether forced desynchronization disrupts gonadotropin secretion rhythms and whether there are sleep/wake schedules that are better or worse for the adaptation of the reproductive system to shift work. These studies are necessary in order to define not only whether or not shift-work induced circadian misalignment impairs reproductive capacity, but also to identify strategies for the future that can minimize this desynchronization.

  8. Reproduction in the endangered African wild dog: basic physiology, reproductive suppression and possible benefits of artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Berghe, F; Paris, D B B P; Van Soom, A; Rijsselaere, T; Van der Weyde, L; Bertschinger, H J; Paris, M C J

    2012-07-01

    The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) is an endangered exotic canid with less than 5500 animals remaining in the wild. Despite numerous strategies to conserve this species, numbers of free-living animals are in decline. It is a highly social species with a complex pack structure: separate male and female dominant hierarchies with, typically, participation of subdominant adults in the rearing of the dominant breeding pairs' pups. Basic reproductive knowledge is largely missing in this species, with only limited information available on the profile of reproductive hormones, based on non-invasive endocrine monitoring. The dominant or alpha male and female are reproductively active and the subdominants are generally reproductively suppressed. However, the occasional production of litters by subdominant females and evidence of multiple paternity within litters suggests that fertility of subordinates is not completely inhibited. In this respect, there are still considerable gaps in our knowledge about the mechanisms governing reproduction and reproductive suppression in African wild dogs, particularly the influence of dominance and pack structure on both male and female fertility. Given concerns over the long-term survival of this species, further research in this area is essential to provide valuable information for their captive breeding and conservation. Reproductive information can also be applied to the development of Assisted Reproductive Techniques for this species; the utility of which in African wild dog conservation is also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Is the reduction of birth intervals an efficient reproductive strategy in traditional Morocco?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crognier, E

    1998-01-01

    Birth interval lengths are analysed from reproductive life histories of 517 Berber peasant women of the region of Marrakesh (Southern Morocco), whose fertility developed in a full traditional context. The high mortality rates associated with short birth intervals indicate that a rapid succession of births is detrimental to the progeny. The reproductive efficiency of the traditional propensity to a large family size is therefore examined by means of two different evaluations of reproductive success: the 'absolute' reproductive success (the absolute number of offspring surviving to maturity) and the 'relative' reproductive success (the proportion of live born surviving to maturity). The first shows that close pregnancies increase the fertility rate to such an extent that the associate higher number of deaths is more than compensated for, so that the women practising short birth intervals produce more surviving offspring than the others by the end of their reproductive life. The second shows that the probability of survival is directly associated with birth interval length, the efficiency of the reproductive process being therefore greater as birth intervals grow. It is suggested that these two behaviours are not contradictory, and that they represent two successive steps of the same reproductive adjustment to evolving environmental conditions.

  10. Influence of reproduction traits and pre-weaning growth rate on herd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproduction and calf survival rates were the most important production traits that affected herd efficiency. Management practices should be adapted to maximize the reproduction rate of the females, including the young heifers, to maximise herd efficiency. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol. 36(2) 2006: 89-98 ...

  11. Plant Reproduction. Plant Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Plants are vital to all other life on this planet - without them, there would be no food, shelter or oxygen. Luckily, over millions of years plants have developed many different features in order to survive and reproduce. In Plant Reproduction, students will discover that primitive mosses and algae are dependent upon water for their reproduction.…

  12. Endocrine uncoupling of the trade-off between reproduction and somatic maintenance in eusocial insects

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues Marisa Almeida; Flatt Thomas

    2016-01-01

    n most animals reproduction trades off with somatic maintenance and survival. Physiologically this trade off is mediated by hormones with opposite effects on reproduction and maintenance. In many insects this regulation is achieved by an endocrine network that integrates insulin like/IGF 1 signaling (IIS) juvenile hormone (JH) and the yolk precursor vitellogenin (Vg) (or more generally yolk proteins [YPs]). Downregulation of this network promotes maintenance and survival at the expense of rep...

  13. Best squirrels trade a long life for an early reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Sébastien; Boutin, Stan; Berteaux, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    Age at primiparity plays a crucial role in population dynamics and life-history evolution. Long-term data on female North American red squirrels were analysed to study the fitness consequences of delaying first reproduction. Early breeders were born earlier, had a higher breeding success and achieved a higher lifetime reproductive success than females who delayed their first reproduction, which suggests a higher quality of early breeders. However, early breeders had similar mass when tagged, and similar number of food caches available at one year of age as late breeders. Nevertheless, we found evidence of survival costs of early primiparity. Early breeders had a lower survival between one and two years of age than late breeders and a lower lifespan. Our study points out that two reproductive tactics co-occurred in this population: a tactic based on early maturity at the cost of a lower survival versus a tactic based on delayed maturity and long lifespan. High quality individuals express the most profitable tactic by breeding early whereas low quality individuals do the best of a bad job by delaying their first reproduction. PMID:16928640

  14. Reproductive endocrinology of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mette; Boisen, Ida Marie; Mortensen, Li Juel

    2017-01-01

    in the reproductive tissues. The reproductive organs are therefore responsive to and able to metabolize vitamin D locally. The exact role remains to be clarified but several studies have suggested a link between vitamin D and production/release of reproductive hormones into circulation, which will be the main focus...... suffering from reproductive problems and abnormal endocrinology research addressing the role of vitamin D in reproductive endocrinology is of clinical importance....

  15. Women's reproductive health: monotheistic religious perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, J G

    2000-07-01

    It is important to those who practice