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Sample records for survival rates calculated

  1. Precise calculation of a bond percolation transition and survival rates of nodes in a complex network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Hirokazu; Takayasu, Hideki; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft; Takayasu, Misako

    2015-01-01

    Through precise numerical analysis, we reveal a new type of universal loopless percolation transition in randomly removed complex networks. As an example of a real-world network, we apply our analysis to a business relation network consisting of approximately 3,000,000 links among 300,000 firms and observe the transition with critical exponents close to the mean-field values taking into account the finite size effect. We focus on the largest cluster at the critical point, and introduce survival probability as a new measure characterizing the robustness of each node. We also discuss the relation between survival probability and k-shell decomposition.

  2. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  3. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  4. Calculating the 30-day survival rate in acute myocardial infarction: should we use the treatment chain or the hospital catchment model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Norum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is a potentially deadly disease and significant efforts have been concentrated on improving hospital performance. A 30-day survival rate has become a key quality of care indicator. In Northern Norway, some patients undergoing AMI are directly transferred to the Regional Cardiac Intervention Center at the University Hospital of North Norway in Tromsø. Here, coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention is performed. Consequently, local hospitals may be bypassed in the treatment chain, generating differences in case mix, and making the treatment chain model difficult to interpret. We aimed to compare the treatment chain model with an alternative based on patients’ place of living. Methods: Between 2013 and 2015, a total of 3,155 patients were registered in the Norwegian Patient Registry database. All patients were categorized according to their local hospital’s catchment area. The method of Guo-Romano, with an indifference interval of 0.02, was used to test whether a hospital was an outlier or not. We adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity, and number of prior hospitalizations. Conclusions: We revealed the 30-day AMI survival figure ranging between 88.0% and 93.5% (absolute difference 5.5% using the hospital catchment method. The treatment chain rate ranged between 86.0% and 94.0% (absolute difference 8.0%. The latter figure is the one published as the National Quality of Care Measure in Norway. Local hospitals may get negative attention even though their catchment area is well served. We recommend the hospital catchment method as the first choice when measuring equality of care.

  5. Acute traumatic coagulopathy decreased actual survival rate when compared with predicted survival rate in severe trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Sung Woo; Han, Gap Su; Moon, Sung Woo; Choi, Sung Hyuck; Hong, Yun Sik

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) should be combined with the trauma and injury severity score (TRISS) to predict outcome in severe trauma patients and investigate effects of the change in coagulation state during early resuscitation on the actual survival rate. This was a retrospective study. Significant variables that affected 28-day mortality were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Study patients were classified into three groups: no coagulopathy, mild coagulopathy or severe coagulopathy. Concordance between actual and predicted survival rates were compared for each group. The predicted survival rate was calculated using the TRISS method. The study also determined whether changes in the coagulation state during inhospital resuscitation affected the relationship between actual and predicted survival in patients who had rechecked coagulation profile within 12 h after presentation. Data from a total of 336 patients were analysed. At presentation, 20.8% of the study patients had mild coagulopathy, whereas 7.7% had severe coagulopathy. Age, injury severity score, revised trauma score and presence of ATC at presentation were independently associated with 28-day mortality. Actual survival was significantly lower than predicted survival in the mild and severe coagulopathy groups. Aggravation of coagulation state from normal or mild to severe coagulopathy or persistent severe coagulopathy during inhospital resuscitation mainly contributed to the discrepancy between actual and predicted survival. ATC decreased actual survival more than expected. ATC should be combined with TRISS to predict trauma outcome in severely injured patients. Improvement in coagulopathy during resuscitation may reduce the incidence of preventable death after trauma.

  6. Fair and Reasonable Rate Calculation Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides guidelines for calculating the fair and reasonable rates for U.S. flag vessels carrying preference cargoes subject to regulations contained at...

  7. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Risk of Survival in Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the risk of survival in acute stroke using the MDRD equation derived estimated glomerular filtration rate. Design: A prospective observational cross-sectional study. Setting: Medical wards of a tertiary care hospital. Subjects: Eighty three acute stroke patients had GFR calculated within 48 hours of ...

  8. Glass dissolution rate measurement and calculation revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Maxime, E-mail: maxime.fournier@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Ull, Aurélien; Nicoleau, Elodie [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Inagaki, Yaohiro [Department of Applied Quantum Physics & Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Odorico, Michaël [ICSM-UMR5257 CEA/CNRS/UM2/ENSCM, Site de Marcoule, BP17171, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Frugier, Pierre; Gin, Stéphane [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France)

    2016-08-01

    Aqueous dissolution rate measurements of nuclear glasses are a key step in the long-term behavior study of such waste forms. These rates are routinely normalized to the glass surface area in contact with solution, and experiments are very often carried out using crushed materials. Various methods have been implemented to determine the surface area of such glass powders, leading to differing values, with the notion of the reactive surface area of crushed glass remaining vague. In this study, around forty initial dissolution rate measurements were conducted following static and flow rate (SPFT, MCFT) measurement protocols at 90 °C, pH 10. The international reference glass (ISG), in the forms of powders with different particle sizes and polished monoliths, and soda-lime glass beads were examined. Although crushed glass grains clearly cannot be assimilated with spheres, it is when using the samples geometric surface (S{sub geo}) that the rates measured on powders are closest to those found for monoliths. Overestimation of the reactive surface when using the BET model (S{sub BET}) may be due to small physical features at the atomic scale—contributing to BET surface area but not to AFM surface area. Such features are very small compared with the thickness of water ingress in glass (a few hundred nanometers) and should not be considered in rate calculations. With a S{sub BET}/S{sub geo} ratio of 2.5 ± 0.2 for ISG powders, it is shown here that rates measured on powders and normalized to S{sub geo} should be divided by 1.3 and rates normalized to S{sub BET} should be multiplied by 1.9 in order to be compared with rates measured on a monolith. The use of glass beads indicates that the geometric surface gives a good estimation of glass reactive surface if sample geometry can be precisely described. Although data clearly shows the repeatability of measurements, results must be given with a high uncertainty of approximately ±25%. - Highlights: • Initial dissolution

  9. Measuring survival rates from sudden cardiac arrest: the elusive definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Michael R; Travers, Andrew H; Daya, Mohamud; Greene, H Leon; Salive, Marcel E; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Craven, Richard A; Groh, William J; Hallstrom, Alfred P

    2004-07-01

    Measuring survival from sudden out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOH-CA) is often used as a benchmark of the quality of a community's emergency medical service (EMS) system. The definition of OOH-CA survival rates depends both upon the numerator (surviving cases) and the denominator (all cases). The purpose of the public access defibrillation (PAD) trial was to measure the impact on survival of adding an automated external defibrillator (AED) to a volunteer response system trained in CPR. This paper reports the definition of OOH-CA developed by the PAD trial investigators, and it evaluates alternative statistical methods used to assess differences in reported "survival." Case surveillance was limited to the prospectively determined geographic boundaries of the participating trial units. The numerator in calculating a survival rate should include only those patients who survived an event but who otherwise would have died except for the application of some facet of emergency medical care-in this trial a defibrillatory shock. Among denominators considered were: total population of the study unit, all deaths within the study unit, and documented ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrests. The PAD classification focused upon cases that might have benefited from the early use of an AED, in addition to the likely benefit from early recognition of OOH-CA, early access of EMS, and early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Results of this classification system were used to evaluate the impact of the PAD definition on the distribution of cardiac arrest case types between CPR only and CPR + AED units. Potential OOH-CA episodes were classified into one of four groups: definite, probable, uncertain, or not an OOH-CA. About half of cardiac arrests in the PAD units were judged to be definite OOH-CA events and therefore potentially treatable with an AED. However, events that occurred in CPR-only units were less likely to be classified as definite or probable OOH-CA events than those

  10. 49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures to calculate interest rates. 1141.1... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES TO CALCULATE INTEREST RATES § 1141.1 Procedures to calculate interest rates. (a) For purposes of complying with a Board decision in a...

  11. Investigation of survival rate of trees planted in agroforestry and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in Huye District from December 2011 to June 2012, with aiming to investigate the survival rate of trees planted on private and public land from 2007-2011 and underlying factors. Low survival rate of trees planted during annual planting campaigns is often reported in many parts of the country and ...

  12. Ten-year survival rate for cantilevered fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James D

    2005-01-01

    PubMed (1966-April 2004) provided the primary data source along with the bibliographies from identified articles and reviews. A manual search of two relevant journals (Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, Clinical Oral Implants Research, International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, International Journal of Prosthodontics, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Periodontology and Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry published; published 2001-2003) provided a further source of data. Because there were no randomised controlled trials (RCT) that compared fixed partial dentures (FPD) with and without cantilever extensions, other studies were selected if they met the following criteria: were published in the English language; were prospective and retrospective cohort studies; had a mean follow-up of >5 years; included patients who were clinically examined at follow-up; and reported details on suprastructures and described at least one-third of reconstructions as FPD. Two independent reviewers screened articles for inclusion. Disagreements were resolved by discussion and agreement determined by kappa. Two reviewers extracted data on the survival and success of the reconstructions and on biological and technical complications. Failure and complication rates were calculated by dividing the number of events by the total exposure time. Three prospective and 10 retrospective cohort studies incorporating 700 patients and 816 FPD were included. The mean number of cantilever extensions ranged from 1.1 to 6.0. Meta-analyses gave an estimated survival, after 10 years, of 81.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 78.2-84.9] and a proportion success of 63% (95% CI, 54.7-70.2). Considering biological complications using Poisson model analyses, the estimated rate of FPD lost because of caries after 10 years was 3.1% (95%CI, 1.0-8.8) and that for loss of vitality was 32.6% (95% CI, 13.9-64.9). The rate

  13. Colorectal Cancer in Jordan: Survival Rate and Its Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkas, Ghazi Faisal; Arqoub, Kamal H; Khader, Yousef S; Tarawneh, Mohammad R; Nimri, Omar F; Al-Zaghal, Marwan J; Subih, Hadil S

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the survival rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) and determine its predictors among Jordanian patients who were diagnosed in the period of 2005-2010. Methods. This study was based on Jordan cancer registry. All CRC cases that were registered in cancer registry during 2005-2010 were analyzed using the survival analysis. The last date for follow-up was 1st Oct 2016. Results. A total of 3005 patients with CRC were registered during 2005-2010. The overall 5-year and 10-year survival rates for patients with CRC were 58.2% and 51.8%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate decreased significantly from 60.4% for the age <50 years to 49.3% for the age ≥70 years (p < 0.005). The 5-year survival rate was 72.1% for the localized stage, 53.8% for the regional stage, and 22.6% for the distant metastasis. In the multivariate analysis, the only factors that were significantly associated with survival were age, grade, stage, and location of tumor. Conclusions. The overall 5-year and ten-year survival rates for CRC were 58.2% and 51.8%, respectively. Increased age, poor differentiation, advanced cancer stage, and right-sided cancers were associated with lower survival rates. Screening strategies are needed for early detection of colon adenomas and colorectal cancer in Jordan.

  14. Colorectal Cancer in Jordan: Survival Rate and Its Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Faisal Sharkas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the survival rate of colorectal cancer (CRC and determine its predictors among Jordanian patients who were diagnosed in the period of 2005–2010. Methods. This study was based on Jordan cancer registry. All CRC cases that were registered in cancer registry during 2005–2010 were analyzed using the survival analysis. The last date for follow-up was 1st Oct 2016. Results. A total of 3005 patients with CRC were registered during 2005–2010. The overall 5-year and 10-year survival rates for patients with CRC were 58.2% and 51.8%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate decreased significantly from 60.4% for the age <50 years to 49.3% for the age ≥70 years (p<0.005. The 5-year survival rate was 72.1% for the localized stage, 53.8% for the regional stage, and 22.6% for the distant metastasis. In the multivariate analysis, the only factors that were significantly associated with survival were age, grade, stage, and location of tumor. Conclusions. The overall 5-year and ten-year survival rates for CRC were 58.2% and 51.8%, respectively. Increased age, poor differentiation, advanced cancer stage, and right-sided cancers were associated with lower survival rates. Screening strategies are needed for early detection of colon adenomas and colorectal cancer in Jordan.

  15. Survival Rate of Limb Replantation in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebe, Masahiro; Urata, Shiro; Tanaka, Kenji; Kurahashi, Toshikazu; Takeda, Shinsuke; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    Revascularization of damaged limbs/digits is technically feasible, but indications for surgical replantation remain controversial. The authors analyzed the survival rate of upper limb amputations and the associated factors in different age groups. They grouped 371 limb/digit amputees (average age, 44 years; range, 2-85 years) treated in their hospital during the past 10 years into three groups based on age (young, ≤ 15 years, n  = 12; adult, 16-64 years, n  = 302; elderly, ≥ 65 years, n  = 57) and analyzed their injury type (extent of injury and stump status), operation method, presence of medical complications (Charlson comorbidity index), and survival rate. There were 168 replantations, and the overall replantation survival rate was 93%. The Charlson comorbidity index of the replantation patients was 0 in 124 cases; 1 in 32; 2 in 9; and 3 in 3, but it did not show any significant difference in survival rate after replantation. Eight elderly patients (14%) did not opt for replantation. Younger patients tended to undergo replantation, but they had lower success rates due to their severe injury status. The results of this study show that the survival rate of replantation in elderly patients is equal to that in adults. Stump evaluation is important for survival, but the presence of medical complications is not associated with the overall survival rate.

  16. Apparent survival rates of Cape Sugarbirds Promerops cafer at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliable estimates of survival rates of southern African bird species are still rare. Yet precise information on life history traits of birds from this southern Mediterranean-type climate would help in evaluating the generality of global patterns of avian life history. We estimated annual survival of Cape Sugarbirds Promerops cafer ...

  17. Assessing the reliability of calculated catalytic ammonia synthesis rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medford, Andrew James; Wellendorff, Jess; Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    between errors in density functional theory calculations is shown to play an important role in reducing the predicted error on calculated rates. Uncertainties depend strongly on reaction conditions and catalyst material, and the relative rates between different catalysts are considerably better described......We introduce a general method for estimating the uncertainty in calculated materials properties based on density functional theory calculations. We illustrate the approach for a calculation of the catalytic rate of ammonia synthesis over a range of transition-metal catalysts. The correlation...... than the absolute rates. We introduce an approach for incorporating uncertainty when searching for improved catalysts by evaluating the probability that a given catalyst is better than a known standard....

  18. Childhood cancer survival rates in two South African units | Stones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common cancers were leukaemia (25.0%), brain tumours (19.5%), lymphoma (13.0%) and nephroblastoma (10.0%). ... A comparison between ethnic groups showed white children to have the highest survival rate (62.8%); the rate for children of mixed racial origin was 53.8% and that for black children 48.5%.

  19. Dose Rate Calculations for Rotary Mode Core Sampling Exhauster

    CERN Document Server

    Foust, D J

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the calculated estimated dose rates for three external locations on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) exhauster HEPA filter housing, per the request of Characterization Field Engineering.

  20. Transit dose calculation in high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transit doses around a high dose rate 192Ir brachytherapy source were calculated using Sievert Integral at positions where the moving source was located exactly between two adjacent dwell positions. The correspond-ing transit dose rates were obtained by using energy absorption coefficients. Discrete step sizes of 0.25 ...

  1. Calculation Of Positron Annihilation Rates In Metals Using Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... electron-positron correlation in metals better than other models or approximations. Explanations for the observed discrepancies between the experimental and calculated positron annihilation rates in metals are given. Keywords: Metals, positrons, annihilation rates, enhancement factors. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol.

  2. Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaji, Bello Arkilla; Moy, Foong Ming; Roslani, April Camilla; Law, Chee Wei

    2017-05-18

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally. It is the second most common cancer among both males and females in Malaysia. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is likely to increase over time owing to its current trend and aging population. Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for early detection and improvement in cancer treatment. However, there was a scarcity of studies concerning survival of colorectal cancer patients as well as its predictors. Therefore, we aimed to determine the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates, compare survival rates among ethnic groups and determine the predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients. This was an ambidirectional cohort study conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. All Malaysian citizens or permanent residents with histologically confirmed diagnosis of colorectal cancer seen at UMMC from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2010 were included in the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from the medical records. Patients were followed-up until death or censored at the end of the study (31st December 2010). Censored patients' vital status (whether alive or dead) were cross checked with the National Registration Department. Survival analyses at 1-, 3- and 5-year intervals were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival rates, while Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was carried out to determine the predictors of 5-year colorectal cancer survival. Among 1212 patients, the median survival for colorectal, colon and rectal cancers were 42.0, 42.0 and 41.0 months respectively; while the 1-, 3-, and 5-year relative survival rates ranged from 73.8 to 76.0%, 52.1 to 53.7% and 40.4 to 45.4% respectively. The Chinese patients had the lowest 5-year survival compared to Malay and Indian patients. Based on the 814

  3. Introduction of a prediction model to assigning periodontal prognosis based on survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Canut, Pedro; Alcaraz, Jaime; Alcaraz, Jaime; Alvarez-Novoa, Pablo; Alvarez-Novoa, Carmen; Marcos, Ana; Noguerol, Blas; Noguerol, Fernando; Zabalegui, Ion

    2017-09-04

    To develop a prediction model for tooth loss due to periodontal disease (TLPD) in patients following periodontal maintenance (PM), and assess its performance using a multicentre approach. A multilevel analysis of eleven predictors of TLPD in 500 patients following PM was carried out to calculate the probability of TLPD. This algorithm was applied to three different TLPD samples (369 teeth) gathered retrospectively by nine periodontist, associating several intervals of probability with the corresponding survival rates, based on significant differences in the mean survival rates. The reproducibility of these associations was assessed in each sample (One-way ANOVA and pair-wise comparison with Bonferroni corrections). The model presented high specificity and moderate sensitivity, with optimal calibration and discrimination measurements. Seven intervals of probability were associated with seven survival rates and these associations contained close to 80% of the cases: the probability predicted the survival rate at this percentage. The model performed well in the three samples, since the mean survival rates of each association were significantly different within each sample, while no significant differences between the samples were found in pair-wise comparisons of means. This model might be useful for predicting survival rates in different TLPD samples This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Experiences with leak rate calculations methods for LBB application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebner, H.; Kastner, W.; Hoefler, A.; Maussner, G. [and others

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, three leak rate computer programs for the application of leak before break analysis are described and compared. The programs are compared to each other and to results of an HDR Reactor experiment and two real crack cases. The programs analyzed are PIPELEAK, FLORA, and PICEP. Generally, the different leak rate models are in agreement. To obtain reasonable agreement between measured and calculated leak rates, it was necessary to also use data from detailed crack investigations.

  5. Calculating the Rate of Senescence From Mortality Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Rozing, Maarten P; Kramer, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    The rate of senescence can be inferred from the acceleration by which mortality rates increase over age. Such a senescence rate is generally estimated from parameters of a mathematical model fitted to these mortality rates. However, such models have limitations and underlying assumptions. Notably......, they do not fit mortality rates at young and old ages. Therefore, we developed a method to calculate senescence rates from the acceleration of mortality directly without modeling the mortality rates. We applied the different methods to age group-specific mortality data from the European Renal Association......-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry, including patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis, who are known to suffer from increased senescence rates (n = 302,455), and patients with a functioning kidney transplant (n = 74,490). From age 20 to 70, senescence rates were comparable when...

  6. Cancer Patients’ Survival: Standard Calculation Methods And Some Considerations Regarding Their Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadnik Vesna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer patients’ survival is an extremely important but complex indicator for assessing regional or global inequalities in diagnosis practices and clinical management of cancer patients. The population-based cancer survival comparisons are available through international projects (i.e. CONCORD, EUROCARE, OECD Health Reports and online systems (SEER, NORDCAN, SLORA. In our research we aimed to show that noticeable differences in cancer patients’ survival may not always reflect the real inequalities in cancer care, but can also appear due to variations in the applied methodology for relative survival calculation.

  7. Water application rate and frequency affect seedling survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate amount of water is critical to successful tree nursery operation among resource-constrained smallholder farmers in Africa. Two experiments were undertaken with the objectives of evaluating effects of water application rate and frequency on seedling growth and survival of Persea americana and Vangueria ...

  8. APUAMA: a software tool for reaction rate calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euclides, Henrique O; P Barreto, Patricia R

    2017-06-01

    APUAMA is a free software designed to determine the reaction rate and thermodynamic properties of chemical species of a reagent system. With data from electronic structure calculations, the APUAMA determine the rate constant with tunneling correction, such as Wigner, Eckart and small curvature, and also, include the rovibrational level of diatomic molecules. The results are presented in the form of Arrhenius-Kooij form, for the reaction rate, and the thermodynamic properties are written down in the polynomial form. The word APUAMA means "fast" in Tupi-Guarani Brazilian language, then the code calculates the reaction rate on a simple and intuitive graphic interface, the form fast and practical. As program output, there are several ASCII files with tabulated information for rate constant, rovibrational levels, energy barriers and enthalpy of reaction, Arrhenius-Kooij coefficient, and also, the option to the User save all graphics in BMP format.

  9. Calculating stocking rates for game ranches: substitution ratios for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports on a study conducted to quantify the overlap in ungulate resource-use on a game ranch, and to demonstrate how these indices of overlap can be incorporated into substitution ratios for calculating stocking rates. Illustrates with tables. Keywords:Aepyceros melampus; Animal units; Blue wildebeest; Burchell's zebra; ...

  10. Errata Field theoretic calculation of energy cascade rates in non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Errata. Field theoretic calculation of energy cascade rates in non-helical magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. MAHENDRA K VERMA. (Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. 61, No. 3, pp. 577–594 (2003)). In our paper we committed some typographical errors. We are correcting them here. 1. In eqs (25) and (26), 〈Sub(k |p|q)〉 and 〈Sbu(k ...

  11. Calculation of multigroup reaction rates for the Ghana Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calculation of multigroup reaction rates for the Ghana Research Reactor -1 fuel lattice cell using the WINSD/4 Transport lattice codes. ... The discrete ordinate spatial model, which pro-vides solution to the differential form of the transport equation by the Carlson-SN (N=4) approach was adopted to solve the ...

  12. Effects of sample size on estimates of population growth rates calculated with matrix models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J Fiske

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Matrix models are widely used to study the dynamics and demography of populations. An important but overlooked issue is how the number of individuals sampled influences estimates of the population growth rate (lambda calculated with matrix models. Even unbiased estimates of vital rates do not ensure unbiased estimates of lambda-Jensen's Inequality implies that even when the estimates of the vital rates are accurate, small sample sizes lead to biased estimates of lambda due to increased sampling variance. We investigated if sampling variability and the distribution of sampling effort among size classes lead to biases in estimates of lambda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from a long-term field study of plant demography, we simulated the effects of sampling variance by drawing vital rates and calculating lambda for increasingly larger populations drawn from a total population of 3842 plants. We then compared these estimates of lambda with those based on the entire population and calculated the resulting bias. Finally, we conducted a review of the literature to determine the sample sizes typically used when parameterizing matrix models used to study plant demography. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found significant bias at small sample sizes when survival was low (survival = 0.5, and that sampling with a more-realistic inverse J-shaped population structure exacerbated this bias. However our simulations also demonstrate that these biases rapidly become negligible with increasing sample sizes or as survival increases. For many of the sample sizes used in demographic studies, matrix models are probably robust to the biases resulting from sampling variance of vital rates. However, this conclusion may depend on the structure of populations or the distribution of sampling effort in ways that are unexplored. We suggest more intensive sampling of populations when individual survival is low and greater sampling of stages with high

  13. Semiclassical Calculation of Reaction Rate Constants for Homolytical Dissociations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelino, Beatriz H.

    2002-01-01

    There is growing interest in extending organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) to III-V materials that exhibit large thermal decomposition at their optimum growth temperature, such as indium nitride. The group III nitrides are candidate materials for light-emitting diodes and semiconductor lasers operating into the blue and ultraviolet regions. To overcome decomposition of the deposited compound, the reaction must be conducted at high pressures, which causes problems of uniformity. Microgravity may provide the venue for maintaining conditions of laminar flow under high pressure. Since the selection of optimized parameters becomes crucial when performing experiments in microgravity, efforts are presently geared to the development of computational OMCVD models that will couple the reactor fluid dynamics with its chemical kinetics. In the present study, we developed a method to calculate reaction rate constants for the homolytic dissociation of III-V compounds for modeling OMCVD. The method is validated by comparing calculations with experimental reaction rate constants.

  14. NAC-1 cask dose rate calculations for LWR spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1999-02-24

    A Nuclear Assurance Corporation nuclear fuel transport cask, NAC-1, is being considered as a transport and storage option for spent nuclear fuel located in the B-Cell of the 324 Building. The loaded casks will be shipped to the 200 East Area Interim Storage Area for dry interim storage. Several calculations were performed to assess the photon and neutron dose rates. This report describes the analytical methods, models, and results of this investigation.

  15. Men and women show similar survival rates after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Paulo Franscisco Mascarenhas; de Oliveira, Letícia Lima; Costa, Célia Regina; de Aguiar, Suzana Sales; Bergmann, Anke; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos

    2017-04-01

    To compare the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of men and women undergoing treatment for breast cancer. A retrospective cohort study of patients with breast cancer diagnosed and treated at the Cancer Hospital III of the National Cancer Institute of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 1999 and 2013. Male breast cancer cases were matched for age, year of diagnosis, and clinical staging to three female cases (1:3). Patient characteristics were abstracted from hospital records and medical charts. Cases were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and comparisons between the genders were performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals. The study population comprised 98 men and 294 women. There were significant differences (p breast surgery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy, and use of palliative bisphosphonate therapy. Five- and 10-year DFS rates were, respectively, 80.0 and 51.4% for men and 71.4 and 63.5% for women (p = 0.245), and 5- and 10-year OS rates were, respectively, 65.0 and 47.5% for men and 56.5 and 41.4% for women (p = 0.221). There was no significant difference in prognosis (DFS and OS rates) between the genders, but significant differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were detected between male and female breast cancer cases.

  16. Empirical rate equation model and rate calculations of hydrogen generation for Hanford tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU, T.A.

    1999-07-13

    Empirical rate equations are derived to estimate hydrogen generation based on chemical reactions, radiolysis of water and organic compounds, and corrosion processes. A comparison of the generation rates observed in the field with the rates calculated for twenty eight tanks shows agreement with in a factor of two to three.

  17. Intersystem Crossing Rates of Isolated Fullerenes: Theoretical Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxiu; Lin, Minsong; Zhao, Yi

    2017-02-09

    Although the triplet states of fullerenes have prosperous applications, it remains unclear how the structural parameters of singlet and triplet states control the intersystem crossing (ISC) rates. Here, electronic structure calculations (reorganization energy, driving force, and spin-orbit coupling) and a rate theory (Marcus formula) are employed to quantitatively predict the ISC rates of isolated fullerenes Cn (n = 60-110). The results demonstrate that the driving force is not the only factor to predict the ISC rates. For instance, although C80, C82, and C110 have the favorable driving force, the ISC rates are close to zero because of small spin obit couplings, whereas small ISC rates of C96 and C100 result from quite small reorganization energies. Meanwhile, in addition to well-known C60 and C70, C92 possesses good ISC property with obviously large ISC rate. C92 also has a higher triplet-state energy than singlet-state oxygen energy; it may thus have a good photoactive property.

  18. CAFFEINE IMPROVES HEART RATE WITHOUT IMPROVING SEPSIS SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauzá, Gustavo; Remick, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Caffeine is consumed on a daily basis for its nervous system stimulant properties and is a global adenosine receptor antagonist. Since adenosine receptors have been found to play a major role in regulating the immune response to a septic insult, we investigated if caffeine consumption prior to a septic insult would alter immunological and physiological responses, as well as survival. Methods Two separate experimental designs were employed, both using outbred female ICR mice. In the first experiment mice were administered 20mg/kg of caffeine (equal to 2–3 cups of coffee for a human) or normal saline intraperitoneally at the time of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Immunological parameters including cytokines and local cell recruitment measured. In the second experiment caffeine (10mg/kg/hr) was delivered continuously for 24 hours via a subcutaneous infusion pump placed the day prior to CLP and hemodynamic parameters were examined. In both experiments survival was followed for five days. Results A single dose of caffeine at the initiation of sepsis did not alter survival. This single dose of caffeine did significantly increase in plasma levels of the chemokine KC six hours after the onset of sepsis compared to septic mice given normal saline. There were no changes in IL-6 or IL-10 levels in the caffeine groups. Peritoneal lavages performed 24 hours post-CLP showed no difference in the levels of IL-6, TNF, KC, MIP-1, IL-10 or the IL-1 receptor antagonist between caffeine and normal saline treated mice. Additionally, the lavages yielded similar numbers of cells (4.1×106 vehicle vs. 6.9×106 caffeine) and bacterial colony forming units (CFU, 4.1 million CFU vehicle vs. 2.8 million CFU caffeine). In the infusion group, caffeine also did not alter survival. However, caffeine infusion did increase heart rate prior to CLP, and prevented the decline in heart rate after CLP. Conclusion Caffeine increased heart rate in mice but does not impact cytokine

  19. Changing Survival Rate of Infants Born Before 26 Gestational Weeks; Single-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the changing survival rate and morbidities among infants born before 26 gestational weeks at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at 23–26 gestational weeks at SQUH between June 2006 and May 2013. Infants referred to SQUH within 72 hours of birth during this period were also included. Electronic records were reviewed for gestational age, gender, birth weight, maternal age, mode and place of delivery, antenatal steroid administration, morbidity and outcome. The survival rate was calculated and findings were then compared with those of a previous study conducted in the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. Rates of major morbidities were also calculated. Results: A total of 81 infants between 23–26 gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. Of these, 58.0% were male and 42.0% were female. Median gestational age was 25 weeks and mean birth weight was 770 ± 150 g. Of the 81 infants, 49 survived. The overall survival rate was 60.5% compared to 41% reported in the previous study. Respiratory distress syndrome (100.0%, retinopathy of prematurity (51.9%, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (34.6%, intraventricular haemorrhage (30.9% and patent ductus arteriosus (28.4% were the most common morbidities. Conclusion: The overall survival rate of infants between 23–26 gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. There is a need for the long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature infants.

  20. Calculating Outcrossing Rates used in Decision Support Systems for Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2008-01-01

    Onboard decision support systems (DSS) are used to increase the operational safety of ships. Ideally, DSS can estimate - in the statistical sense - future ship responses on a time scale of the order of 1-3 hours taking into account speed and course changes. The calculations depend on both...... operational and environmental parameters that are known only in the statistical sense. The present paper suggests a procedure to incorporate random variables and associated uncertainties in calculations of outcrossing rates, which are the basis for risk-based DSS. The procedure is based on parallel system...... analysis, and the paper derives and describes the main ideas. The concept is illustrated by an example, where the limit state of a non-linear ship response is considered. The results from the parallel system analysis are in agreement with corresponding Monte Carlo simulations. However, the computational...

  1. Effects of Sample Size on Estimates of Population Growth Rates Calculated with Matrix Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Ian J.; Bruna, Emilio M.; Bolker, Benjamin M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Matrix models are widely used to study the dynamics and demography of populations. An important but overlooked issue is how the number of individuals sampled influences estimates of the population growth rate (λ) calculated with matrix models. Even unbiased estimates of vital rates do not ensure unbiased estimates of λ–Jensen's Inequality implies that even when the estimates of the vital rates are accurate, small sample sizes lead to biased estimates of λ due to increased sampling variance. We investigated if sampling variability and the distribution of sampling effort among size classes lead to biases in estimates of λ. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from a long-term field study of plant demography, we simulated the effects of sampling variance by drawing vital rates and calculating λ for increasingly larger populations drawn from a total population of 3842 plants. We then compared these estimates of λ with those based on the entire population and calculated the resulting bias. Finally, we conducted a review of the literature to determine the sample sizes typically used when parameterizing matrix models used to study plant demography. Conclusions/Significance We found significant bias at small sample sizes when survival was low (survival = 0.5), and that sampling with a more-realistic inverse J-shaped population structure exacerbated this bias. However our simulations also demonstrate that these biases rapidly become negligible with increasing sample sizes or as survival increases. For many of the sample sizes used in demographic studies, matrix models are probably robust to the biases resulting from sampling variance of vital rates. However, this conclusion may depend on the structure of populations or the distribution of sampling effort in ways that are unexplored. We suggest more intensive sampling of populations when individual survival is low and greater sampling of stages with high elasticities. PMID:18769483

  2. Epidemiological Data and Survival Rate of Removable Partial Dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Amália; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Filho, Humberto Gennari; Santos, Emerson Gomes Dos; Sonego, Mariana Vilela; Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of removable partial denture (RPD) is considered as low-cost and common treatment option to rehabilitate edentulous areas. Aim This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological data of patients rehabilitated with removable partial denture (RPD) in order to assess treatment survival rate and failures. Materials and Methods Epidemiological data and medical records of patients treated with RPD between 2007 and 2012 at the RPD discipline of a Brazilian University (Aracatuba Dental School- UNESP) were evaluated as well as dental records of patients who underwent RPD treatments (fabrication or repairs) between 2000 and 2010. Factors such as gender, age, presence of systemic disease, main complaint, edentulous arch, period and cause of denture replacement and the prosthesis characteristics were recorded. The chi-square test was used to assess the differences between the variables and the Kaplan Meyer to assess the survival of the RPDs evaluated. Results A total of 324 maxillary RPD and 432 mandibular RPD were fabricated. Most of the patients were women aging 41 to 60-year-old. The number of mandibular RPD Kennedy class I (26%) was statistically higher for the maxillary arch (p<.05). There was no association between main complaint to gender or the presence of systemic disease. The lingual plate was the most common major connector used in the mandible (32%). The main reason for altering the design of replaced RPDs were changes during treatment plan. Conclusion The number of patients who require RPD is large; most of RPDs are Kennedy Class I. A good treatment plan is very important for achieving a positive treatment outcome, and it is strictly related to the survival rate. PMID:27437367

  3. Implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz; Almas, Khalid; Romanos, George E

    2010-12-01

    The overall impression regarding the success of dental implants (DI) in patients having undergone oral cancer therapy remains unclear. The aim of the present review study was to assess the implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy. Databases were explored from 1986 up to and including September 2010 using the following keywords in various combinations: "cancer", "chemotherapy", "dental implant", "oral", "osseointegration", "radiotherapy", "surgery" and "treatment". The eligibility criteria were: (1) original research articles; (2) clinical studies; (3) reference list of pertinent original and review studies; (4) intervention: patients having undergone radio- and chemotherapy following oral cancer surgery; and (5) articles published only in English. Twenty-one clinical studies were included. Results from 16 studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone radiotherapy following oral cancer surgery; whereas three studies showed irradiation to have negative effects on the survival of DI. Two studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone chemotherapy. It is concluded that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone oral cancer treatment. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. SU-E-T-352: Why Is the Survival Rate Low in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Rasmussen, K; Rice, J; Stephenson, S; Ferreira, Maria C [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Liu, T [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Yuh, K [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Wang, R; Grecula, J [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lo, S [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Mayr, N; Yuh, W [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumors are composed of a large number of clonogens that have the capability of indefinite reproduction. Even when there is complete clinical or radiographic regression of the gross tumor mass after treatment, tumor recurrence can occur if the clonogens are not completely eradicated by radiotherapy. This study was to investigate the colonogen number and its association with the tumor control probability (TCP) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCA). Methods: A literature search was conducted to collect clinical information of patients with OSCCA, including the prescription dose, tumor volume and survival rate. The linear-quadratic (LQ) model was incorporated into TCP model for clinical data analysis. The total dose ranged from 60 to 70 Gy and tumor volume ranged from 10 to 50 cc. The TCP was calculated for each group according to tumor size and dose. The least χ{sup 2} method was used to fit the TCP calculation to clinical data while other LQ model parameters (α, β) were adopted from the literature, due to the limited patient data. Results: A total of 190 patients with T2–T4 OSCCA were included. The association with HPV was not available for all the patients. The 3-year survival rate was about 82% for T2 squamous cell carcinoma and 40% for advanced tumors. Fitting the TCP model to the survival data, the average clonogen number was 1.56×10{sup 12}. For the prescription dose of 70 Gy, the calculated TCP ranged from 40% to 90% when the tumor volume varied from 10 to 50 cc. Conclusion: Our data suggests variation between the clonogen number and TCP in OSCCA. Tumors with larger colonogen number tend to have lower TCP and therefore dose escalation above 70 Gy may be indicated in order to improve the TCP and survival rate. Our result will require future confirmation with a large number of patients.

  5. Relativistic collision rate calculations for electron-air interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, G. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Roussel-Dupre, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The most recent data available on differential cross sections for electron-air interactions are used to calculate the avalanche, momentum transfer, and energy loss rates that enter into the fluid equations. Data for the important elastic, inelastic, and ionizing processes are generally available out to electron energies of 1--10 keV. Prescriptions for extending these cross sections to the relativistic regime are presented. The angular dependence of the cross sections is included where data are available as is the doubly differential cross section for ionizing collisions. The collision rates are computed by taking moments of the Boltzmann collision integrals with the assumption that the electron momentum distribution function is given by the Juettner distribution function which satisfies the relativistic H- theorem and which reduces to the familiar Maxwellian velocity distribution in the nonrelativistic regime. The distribution function is parameterized in terms of the electron density, mean momentum, and thermal energy and the rates are therefore computed on a two dimensional grid as a function of mean kinetic energy and thermal energy.

  6. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: analysis of epidemiological profile and survival rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Mariana Cardoso; da Silva, Denise Bousfield; Freund, Ana Paula Ferreira; Dacoregio, Juliana Shmitz; Costa, Tatiana El Jaick Bonifácio; Costa, Imaruí; Faraco, Daniel; Silva, Maurício Laerte

    2016-01-01

    To describe the epidemiological profile and the survival rate of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a state reference pediatric hospital. Clinical-epidemiological, observational, retrospective, descriptive study. The study included new cases of patients with AML, diagnosed between 2004 and 2012, younger than 15 years. Of the 51 patients studied, 84% were white; 45% were females and 55%, males. Regarding age, 8% were younger than 1 year, 47% were aged between 1 and 10 years, and 45% were older than 10 years. The main signs/symptoms were fever (41.1%), asthenia/lack of appetite (35.2%), and hemorrhagic manifestations (27.4%). The most affected extra-medullary site was the central nervous system (14%). In 47% of patients, the white blood cell (WBC) count was below 10,000/mm(3) at diagnosis. The minimal residual disease (MRD) was less than 0.1%, on the 15th day of treatment in 16% of the sample. Medullary relapse occurred in 14% of cases. When comparing the bone marrow MRD with the vital status, it was observed that 71.42% of the patients with type M3 AML were alive, as were 54.05% of those with non-M3 AML. The death rate was 43% and the main proximate cause was septic shock (63.6%). In this study, the majority of patients were male, white, and older than 1 year. Most patients with WBC count <10,000/mm(3) at diagnosis lived. Overall survival was higher in patients with MRD <0.1%. The prognosis was better in patients with AML-M3. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Precision decay rate calculations in quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Anders; Farhi, David; Frost, William; Schwartz, Matthew D.

    2017-04-01

    Tunneling in quantum field theory is worth understanding properly, not least because it controls the long-term fate of our Universe. There are, however, a number of features of tunneling rate calculations which lack a desirable transparency, such as the necessity of analytic continuation, the appropriateness of using an effective instead of classical potential, and the sensitivity to short-distance physics. This paper attempts to review in pedagogical detail the physical origin of tunneling and its connection to the path integral. Both the traditional potential-deformation method and a recent, more direct, propagator-based method are discussed. Some new insights from using approximate semiclassical solutions are presented. In addition, we explore the sensitivity of the lifetime of our Universe to short-distance physics, such as quantum gravity, emphasizing a number of important subtleties.

  8. Effectiveness of quality control methods for glomerular filtration rate calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeekin, Helena; Wickham, Fred; Barnfield, Mark; Burniston, Maria

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we aimed to identify the types of errors encountered in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement and test the effectiveness of all published quality control (QC) methods for detection of clinically significant errors. A total of 412 GFR tests were carried out on adults and children. The three-point slope-intercept glomerular filtration rate (SI-GFR) was compared with the nine-point 'area under curve' calculation as a gold standard to determine the error in SI-GFR. The Durbin-Watson test was used to characterize the nature of the errors. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of QC methods for detecting clinically significant errors were calculated and receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed. The QC methods were also applied to a dataset of 100 four-point GFR tests from different institutions. Model failure is the dominant cause of clinically significant error in this dataset, with individual point measurement errors only giving rise to clinically significant errors in a small number of cases. No QC test had an acceptable combination of sensitivity, PPV and specificity. The correlation coefficient QC test had the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.73). No other QC test had an area greater than 0.57. All the QC methods have poor sensitivity and PPV for detecting clinically significant errors and so cannot be relied on to ensure a robust measurement of GFR, underlining the need for careful working practices and a thorough system of measurement checks. We found no evidence for the value of multiple sampling with respect to QC; until such evidence is published, their clinical utility is unproven.

  9. RCS Leak rate Calculation Using Bilateral Kernel Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Gyun Young; Jang, Seok Bo; Kim, So Young [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang Ha [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    The leakage from a RCS (Reactor Coolant System) is classified into identified leakage which is defined as leakage into the closed system boundaries so that it can be captured and unidentified leakage which is all other leakages. The timely and accurate detection of the unidentified leakage has significant meaning from a viewpoint of nuclear safety. The unidentified leakage was typically determined by the RCS inventory balance method that NUREG-1107 recommended, which was the most preferable algorithm accepted in NPPs. However, it turned out that the accuracy of the conventional method was quite susceptible to measurement uncertainty. To enhance the robustness of the RCS inventory balance method, NUREG/CR-6582 indicated such a trouble can be eliminated by using filtering techniques, for example, such as a linear regression. On the basis of this recommendation, many of the NPPs including Korean NPPs have accepted the calculation algorithm which is based on the linear regression to eliminate noises or fluctuations. It should be noted that there are still technical issues, for example, how to deal with transient conditions. Since the accuracy of leak rate calculation is also strongly dependent on the step change in thermo-hydraulic conditions or inventories, any transient conditions such as injection or discharge modes should be avoided during a test period. Particularly, as transient conditions take place, the linear regression is of no use and what's worse is it may output junk results, which must be very confused to operators. In order to enhance the capability of the RCS inventory balance method in transient conditions as well as steady state operations, the study using Kalman filter and smoother techniques which have the system state modeling capability was proposed. After this study, we concluded that the study on the leak rate calculation would be worthwhile as not only a practical application to NPPs but also an academic concern. To extensively investigate

  10. Comparable cell survival between high dose rate flattening filter free and conventional dose rate irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbakel, Wilko F A R; van den Berg, Jaap; Slotman, Ben J; Sminia, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Investigation of clonogenic cell survival and cell proliferation following single dose and fractionated delivery of high dose rate flattening filter free (FFF) irradiation compared to conventional dose rates. The human astrocytoma D384, glioma T98 and lung carcinoma SW1573 cell lines were irradiated using either a single dose (0-12 Gy) or a fractionated protocol of 5 daily fractions of 2 Gy (D384) or 3 Gy (SW1573). Cells were irradiated inside a phantom using fixed gantry beams of a linear accelerator. A sliding window technique created homogeneous dose distributions over the surface of the cell cultures. Irradiations using standard beams (6 MV, 600 MU/min.) and high dose rate FFF beams (10 MV, 2400 MU/min.) were compared. Cell survival was determined by clonogenic assay. In the fractionated irradiation set-up, the number of clonogenic cells was estimated by including tumor cell proliferation during the overall treatment time in the analysis. All cell lines showed equal cell survival following irradiation using either the FFF beams or conventional flattened (FF) beams. This was observed after single dose exposure (0-12 Gy) as well as after fractionated irradiation (p = 0.08 for D384 and 0.20 for SW1373 cell lines). FFF irradiation with a dose rate of 2400 MU/min and four times higher dose per pulse compared to irradiation with FF beams did not change cell survival for three human cancer cell lines up to a fraction dose of 12 Gy compared to irradiation using FF beams.

  11. Analysis of feedbacks between nucleation rate, survival probability and cloud condensation nuclei formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westervelt, D. M.; Pierce, J. R.; Adams, P. J.

    2014-06-01

    Aerosol nucleation is an important source of particle number in the atmosphere. However, in order to become cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), freshly nucleated particles must undergo significant condensational growth while avoiding coagulational scavenging. In an effort to quantify the contribution of nucleation to CCN, this work uses the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol model to calculate changes in CCN concentrations against a broad range of nucleation rates and mechanisms. We then quantify the factors that control CCN formation from nucleation, including daily nucleation rates, growth rates, coagulation sinks, condensation sinks, survival probabilities, and CCN formation rates, in order to examine feedbacks that may limit growth of nucleated particles to CCN. Nucleation rate parameterizations tested in GEOS-Chem-TOMAS include ternary nucleation (with multiple tuning factors), activation nucleation (with two pre-factors), binary nucleation, and ion-mediated nucleation. We find that nucleation makes a significant contribution to boundary layer CCN(0.2%), but this contribution is only modestly sensitive to the choice of nucleation scheme, ranging from 49 to 78% increase in concentrations over a control simulation with no nucleation. Moreover, a two order-of-magnitude increase in the globally averaged nucleation rate (via changes to tuning factors) results in small changes (less than 10%) to global CCN(0.2%) concentrations. To explain this, we present a simple theory showing that survival probability has an exponentially decreasing dependence on the square of the condensation sink. This functional form stems from a negative correlation between condensation sink and growth rate and a positive correlation between condensation sink and coagulational scavenging. Conceptually, with a fixed condensable vapor budget (sulfuric acid and organics), any increase in CCN concentrations due to higher nucleation rates necessarily entails an increased aerosol surface area in the

  12. Effect of increased ovulation rate on embryo and foetal survival as a model for selection by ovulation rate in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Badawy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Selection for ovulation rate in prolific species has not improved litter size, due to an increase in prenatal mortality, with most mortality observed in the foetal period. The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude and timing of embryo and early foetal survival in females with high ovulation rate using hormonal treatment as a model for selection by ovulation rate. Two groups of females (treated and untreated were used. Treated females were injected with 50 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin 48 h before mating. Females were slaughtered at 18 d of gestation. Ovulation rate (OR, number of implanted embryos (IE, number of live foetuses at 12 and 18 d (LF12 and LF18, respectively were recorded. In addition, embryo survival (ES=IE/OR, foetal survival at 18 d of gestation (FSLF18=LF18/IE, foetal survival between 12 and 18 d of gestation (FSLF18/LF12=LF18/LF12 and prenatal survival (PSLF18=LF18/OR were estimated. For each female, the mean and variability of the weight for live foetuses (LFWm and LFWv, respectively and their placentas (LFPWm and LFPWv, respectively were calculated. Treated females had a higher ovulation rate (+3.02 ova than untreated females, with a probability of 0.99. An increase in the differences (D between treated and untreated females was observed from implantation to 18 d of gestation (D=–0.33, –0.70 and –1.28 for IE, LF12 and LF18, respectively. These differences had a low accuracy and the probability that treated females would have a lower number of foetuses also increased throughout gestation (0.60, 0.70 and 0.86 for IE, LF12 and LF18, respectively. According to the previous results for OR and LF18, treated females showed a lower survival rate from ovulation to 18 d of gestation (D=–0.12, P=0.98 for PSLF18. Treated females also had lower embryo and foetal survival (D=–0.10 and P=0.94 for ES and D=–0.08 and P=0.93 for FSLF18. Main differences in foetal survival appeared from 12 to 18 d of gestation (D=–0

  13. Survival rate of eukaryotic cells following electrophoretic nanoinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Matthias; Hübner, Wolfgang; Wilking, Alice; Huser, Thomas; Hennig, Simon

    2017-01-25

    Insertion of foreign molecules such as functionalized fluorescent probes, antibodies, or plasmid DNA to living cells requires overcoming the plasma membrane barrier without harming the cell during the staining process. Many techniques such as electroporation, lipofection or microinjection have been developed to overcome the cellular plasma membrane, but they all result in reduced cell viability. A novel approach is the injection of cells with a nanopipette and using electrophoretic forces for the delivery of molecules. The tip size of these pipettes is approximately ten times smaller than typical microinjection pipettes and rather than pressure pulses as delivery method, moderate DC electric fields are used to drive charged molecules out of the tip. Here, we show that this approach leads to a significantly higher survival rate of nanoinjected cells and that injection with nanopipettes has a significantly lower impact on the proliferation behavior of injected cells. Thus, we propose that injection with nanopipettes using electrophoretic delivery is an excellent alternative when working with valuable and rare living cells, such as primary cells or stem cells.

  14. A new approach to the "apparent survival" problem: estimating true survival rates from mark-recapture studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, James J; Virzi, Thomas; Boulton, Rebecca L; Lockwood, Julie L

    2012-07-01

    Survival estimates generated from live capture-mark-recapture studies may be negatively biased due to the permanent emigration of marked individuals from the study area. In the absence of a robust analytical solution, researchers typically sidestep this problem by simply reporting estimates using the term "apparent survival." Here, we present a hierarchical Bayesian multistate model designed to estimate true survival by accounting for predicted rates of permanent emigration. Initially we use dispersal kernels to generate spatial projections of dispersal probability around each capture location. From these projections, we estimate emigration probability for each marked individual and use the resulting values to generate bias-adjusted survival estimates from individual capture histories. When tested using simulated data sets featuring variable detection probabilities, survival rates, and dispersal patterns, the model consistently eliminated negative biases shown by apparent survival estimates from standard models. When applied to a case study concerning juvenile survival in the endangered Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), bias-adjusted survival estimates increased more than twofold above apparent survival estimates. Our approach is applicable to any capture-mark-recapture study design and should be particularly valuable for organisms with dispersive juvenile life stages.

  15. Study of Survival Rate After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Hospitals of Kermanshah in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Afshin; Jalali, Amir; Almasi, Afshin; Naderipour, Arsalan; Kalhori, Reza Pourmirza; Khodadadi, Amineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: After CPR, the follow-up of survival rate and caused complications are the most important practices of the medical group. This study was performed aimed at determining the follow-up results after CPR in patients of university hospitals in Kermanshah in 2014. Methods: In this prospective study, 320 samples were examined. A purposive sampling method was used, and data was collected using a researcher-made information form with content and face validity and reliability of r= 0.79. Data was analyzed with STATA9 software and statistical tests, including calculation of the success rate, relative risk (RR), chi-square and Fisher at significance level of P < 0.05. Results: The initial success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was equal to 15.3%, while the ultimate success rate (discharged alive from the hospital) was as 10.6%. The six-month success rate after resuscitation was 8.78% than those who were discharged alive. There were no significant statistical differences between different age groups regarding the initial success rate of resuscitation (P = 0.14), and the initial resuscitation success rate was higher in patients in morning shift (P = 0.02). Conclusion: By the results of study, it is recommended to increase the medical - nursing knowledge and techniques for personnel in the evening and night shifts. Also, an appropriate dissemination of health care staff in working shifts should be done to increase the success rate of CPR procedure. PMID:25560341

  16. Improvement of the Measure of the Network Survival Rate and its Application to a Japanese Business Relations Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Hirokazu; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    We analyze the typical characteristics of the percolation transition of a large-scale complex network, a Japanese business relation network consisting of approximately 600,000 nodes and 4,000,000 links. By utilizing percolation characteristics, we revise the definition of network survival rate that we previously proposed. The new network survival rate has a strong correlation with the old one. The calculation cost is also much smaller and the number of trials decreases from 100,000 to 1,000. Finally, we discuss the identification of robust and fragile regions using this index.

  17. A SINDA '85 nodal heat transfer rate calculation user subroutine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheston, Derrick J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a subroutine, GETQ, which was developed to compute the heat transfer rates through all conductors attached to a node within a SINDA '85 thermal submodel. The subroutine was written for version 2.3 of SINDA '85. Upon calling GETQ, the user supplies the submodel name and node number which the heat transfer rate computation is desired. The returned heat transfer rate values are broken down into linear, nonlinear, source and combined heat loads.

  18. Growing body of evidence on survival rates of implant-supported fixed prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Elliot

    2008-01-01

    the study-specific event rates, the Spearman goodness-of fit statistics and associated probability value were calculated. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to investigate formally whether event rates varied by crown material (metal-ceramic vs all-ceramic) or crown design (cemented vs screw-retained). Twenty-six studies were included in the meta-analysis. Survival of implants supporting SC was 96.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 95.9-97.6%] after 5 years. The survival rate of SC supported by implants was 94.5% (95% CI, 92.5-95.9%) after 5 years of function. The survival rate of metal-ceramic crowns, 95.4% (95% CI, 93.6-96.7%), was significantly higher (P 0.005) than the survival rate (91.2%; 95% CI, 86.8-94.2%), of all-ceramic crowns. Peri-implantitis and soft tissue complications occurred adjacent to 9.7% of the SC and 6.3% of the implants had bone loss exceeding 2 mm over the 5-year observation period. The cumulative incidence of implant fractures after 5 years was 0.14%. After 5 years, the cumulative incidence of screw or abutment loosening was 12.7%, and was 0.35% for screw or abutment fracture. For suprastructure-related complications, the cumulative incidence of ceramic or veneer fractures was 4.5%. An observation period of 5 years allows the conclusion that high survival rates of implants and implant-supported SC can be expected, but biological and, particularly, technical complications are frequent.

  19. 42 CFR 413.312 - Methodology for calculating rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... are multiplied by 105 percent. (2) Computation of routine capital-related cost. (i) The SNF routine capital-related cost for both direct and indirect capital costs allocated to routine services, as reported... diem capital-related cost is calculated by dividing the SNF's routine capital costs by its inpatient...

  20. Growth performance and survival rate of Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of aflatoxin- contaminated feed (0% toxigenic maize, 25% toxigenic maize +75% good maize, 50% toxigenic maize+50%good maize, 75% toxigenic maize +25% good maize and 100% toxigenic maize) on growth, survival, haematology and histology ...

  1. [Survival and complication rate of central venous catheters in newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Heladia Josefa; Torres-Yáñez, Héctor Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    In the current medical practice, central venous catheters (CVC) are very useful; however, their use involves certain risks, which increase morbidity and mortality, especially in newborns. The aim of this study was to describe both the frequency of complications and survival of CVC placed in newborns hospitalized in a third level neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A descriptive, observational and prospective study was carried-out in the NICU from the Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. Demographic, perinatal and CVC variables were recorded. We included 152 CVCs, which were inserted in 123 newborns. For the CVC insertion, the puncture technique [percutaneous and subclavian] was used in 56.6 % (n = 86). There was at least one complication in 48.7 %.(n = 74). The most frequent complications were colonization 32.4 % (n = 24) and CVC-related bacteremia in 27 % (n = 20). Survival probability for CVC was 93.4 % at 10 days and 91.4 % at 17 days. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated significantly lower survival probability for non-central catheters. Most of CVC complications occurred within the first two weeks after these CVC were installed. Infectious complications were the most frequent.

  2. Survival rates in West African savanna birds | Stevens | Ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite widespread interest in life histories and the comparison of parameters between tropical and temperate regions, there are still relatively few multispecies studies assessing annual survival in Afrotropical species. We used data from systematic mist-netting of savanna birds in Nigeria, between 2001 and 2008, ...

  3. Seasonal survival rates and causes of mortality of Little Owls in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Kasper; Pedersen, Dorthe; Sunde, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Survival rate is an essential component of population dynamics; therefore, identification of variation in mortality rates and the factors that influence them might be of key importance in understanding why populations increase or decrease. In Denmark, the Little Owl Athene noctua, a species...... the causes of current survival rates, we estimated age- and season-specific survival rates and causes of mortality in Danish Little Owls on the basis of ringed birds 1920–2002, radio tagged adult and juveniles 2005–2008 and nest surveys 2006–2008. We estimate that 32 % of all eggs fledge and survive to 2...... rate in the 1st year of life and a much lower rate in the first 3 months of life. Furthermore, the analyses indicated that survival was lower in the winter months for ringing data during 1920–2002 but not for radiotagged owls during 2005–2008 that experienced the highest mortality rates during...

  4. 3-year survival rates of retained composite resin and ART sealants using two assessment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, Leandro Augusto; Leal, Soraya Coelho; Freire, Gabriela Mesquita Lopes; Mulder, Jan; Frencken, Jo E

    2017-05-04

    The aim was to test the null-hypothesis that there is no difference in the cumulative survival rate of retained composite resin (CR) sealants and a high-viscosity glass-ionomer Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) sealant in first permanent molars calculated according to the traditional and the modified retention assessment criteria over a period of 3 years. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial consisted of 123 schoolchildren, 6-7-years-old. At baseline, high-caries risk pits and fissures of fully erupted first permanent molars were treated with CR and ART sealants. Evaluations were performed after 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 years. Retention was scored for free-smooth surface and for each of three sections into which the occlusal surface had been divided. The modified criterion differed from the traditional in that it determined an occlusal sealant to be a failure when at least one section contained no visible sealant material. Data were analysed according to the PHREG model with frailty correction, Wald-test, ANOVA and t-test, using the Jackknife procedure. The cumulative survival rates for retained CR and ART sealants in free-smooth and occlusal surfaces for both criteria were not statistically significantly different over the 3 years. A higher percentage of retained CR sealants on occlusal surfaces was observed at longer evaluations. Cumulative survival rates were statistically significantly lower for the modified criterion in comparison to the traditional. The modified retention assessment criterion should be used in future sealant-retention studies.

  5. 3-year survival rates of retained composite resin and ART sealants using two assessment criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Augusto HILGERT

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim was to test the null-hypothesis that there is no difference in the cumulative survival rate of retained composite resin (CR sealants and a high-viscosity glass-ionomer Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART sealant in first permanent molars calculated according to the traditional and the modified retention assessment criteria over a period of 3 years. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial consisted of 123 schoolchildren, 6–7-years-old. At baseline, high-caries risk pits and fissures of fully erupted first permanent molars were treated with CR and ART sealants. Evaluations were performed after 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 years. Retention was scored for free-smooth surface and for each of three sections into which the occlusal surface had been divided. The modified criterion differed from the traditional in that it determined an occlusal sealant to be a failure when at least one section contained no visible sealant material. Data were analysed according to the PHREG model with frailty correction, Wald-test, ANOVA and t-test, using the Jackknife procedure. The cumulative survival rates for retained CR and ART sealants in free-smooth and occlusal surfaces for both criteria were not statistically significantly different over the 3 years. A higher percentage of retained CR sealants on occlusal surfaces was observed at longer evaluations. Cumulative survival rates were statistically significantly lower for the modified criterion in comparison to the traditional. The modified retention assessment criterion should be used in future sealant-retention studies.

  6. Sex Disparity in Survival of Patients With Uveal Melanoma: Better Survival Rates in Women Than in Men in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, San Jun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Yeon, Bora; Cho, Hyunsoon; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the survival rate of patients with uveal melanoma and sex disparity in this rate in South Korea. We extracted incident uveal melanoma patients using the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) database, which covered the entire population from 1999 to 2012 in South Korea. We estimated all-cause survival probabilities and cancer-specific survival probabilities of patients with uveal melanoma and compared these probabilities between subgroups (sex, tumor site, age at diagnosis, etc.) using Kaplan-Meier methods and log-rank tests. We fitted the Cox-proportional hazards models for all-cause death and cancer death to determine sex disparities in survival. A total of 344 uveal melanoma patients (175 women, 51%) were ascertained. They comprised 283 patients with choroidal melanoma (82%) and 61 patients with ciliary body/iris melanoma (18%). The observed 5-year survival probability from all-cause death was 75% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69%-79%); women with uveal melanoma showed higher survival probability (83% [95% CI: 76%-89%]) compared with men (66% [95% CI: 58%-73%], P Korea, which requires further investigation of mechanism of the sex disparity in uveal melanoma.

  7. Calculation of Ionization Rate Coefficients of Heliumoide Iron | Dilmi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The atomic data of the various atomic processes are essential for the radiative collisional models describing plasmas. In this work we have our computation results of the coefficients of ionization rate of iron héliumoîde. These types of ions can exist in all the types of plasmas, amongst other things plasmas laser. We use a ...

  8. Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Magaji, Bello Arkilla; Moy, Foong Ming; Roslani, April Camilla; Law, Chee Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally. It is the second most common cancer among both males and females in Malaysia. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is likely to increase over time owing to its current trend and aging population. Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for early detection and improvement in cancer treatment. However, there was a scarcity of studies concerni...

  9. Calculation of K diffusional rates in bentonite beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altaner, S.P. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Zoned K-bentonites with illite-rich contacts and smectite-rich interiors are interpreted as products of potassium (K) metasomatism during diagenesis. A mathematical model is developed to describe both K transport in pore water and K fixation in smectite clays (smectite illitization). Solution of these coupled equations is done using finite difference techniques. Best-fit modeling of mineralogical and K/Ar data from a 2.5 m thick zoned K-bentonite from western Montana suggests that diffusional exchange of K for Ca is the important transport mechanism in compacted bentonite beds. Diffusion coefficients (D) for K/Ca exchange of about 9 to 13 {center dot} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec best model observed zonations in the 2.5 m bentonite as well as mineralogical zonations observed in bentonites thinner than 2.5 meters. This range in D seems to be reasonable when compared with calculated D values for K/Ca exchange in a highly tortuous medium. Although the precise burial history for these Montana rocks is not well known, geologically reasonable burial histories appear to be best modeled by using fifth- and sixth-order kinetic parameters for illitization. The model suggests that illitization occurred for 7 to 9 my at temperatures of about 80 to 90{degree}C. The model of chemical transport and illitization developed here should have applications in the analysis of the stability of bentonite as a backfill material in a nuclear waste repository.

  10. Improved survival rate in patients with diabetes and end-stage renal disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, V R; Mathiesen, E R; Heaf, J

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated the survival rate of Danish diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1990 and 2005 and evaluated possible predictors of survival rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the Danish National Register on Dialysis and Transplantation...... diabetic: 5%, non-diabetic: 24%. The survival rate of transplanted patients with diabetes mellitus (types 1 and 2) compared with non-diabetic patients at 1 year was: 95 vs 93%, at 5 years: 80 vs 85% and at 10 years: 52 vs 71%. Among diabetic patients survival rate was better in transplanted than in waiting...... and from the Scandiatransplant database. Survival rates in different patient groups and association with age, sex, calendar time, waiting-list status and renal transplantation were evaluated using a multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS: During the study period 8,421 patients (13% type 1 diabetic, 9...

  11. Survival and Growth Rates of Tilapia zillii and Oreochromis urolepis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fingerlings were fed twice daily using commercial fish feeds (white Rose floating type), initially at a rate of 5% of their total body weight (TBW) and two weeks later at 10% of their TBW. The growth rate (weight and length) was recorded once a week except for handling control fingerlings which were recorded at the beginning ...

  12. Calculating life tables by estimating Chiang's a from observed rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, R

    1978-11-01

    A simple, accurate method of life table construction is advanced based upon a new way to estimate Chiang's nax (the average number of years lived in the x to x + n age interval by those dying in the interval). The estimate for nax leads immediately to an expression for lx+n (the survivors to age x + n) in terms of lx and the known mortality rates for the interval x to x+n and the two adjacent intervals. The complete solution for the basic life table is given. The proposed method and five other easily applied methods are then compared against the standard provided by the U.S. life tables for 1969-1971. The results attest to the excellent performance and high degree of accuracy of the proposed method. Finally, extensions of the method to multiple decrement and associated single decrement life tables are briefly described.

  13. Analysis of Survival Rates Following Primary Surgery of 178 Consecutive Patients with Oral Cancer in a Large District General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Panagiotis; Smith, William P

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to present the survival rates in patients treated for oral cancer with primary surgery in a large district general hospital. We discuss the influence of the most significant prognostic factors on survival and compare our results with larger centres specializing in the management of oral cancer. All patients diagnosed with oral cancer from 1995 to 2006 and were treated in the Department had their details entered prospectively onto a computerized database. Demographic details of patients, type of treatment, pathological stage of tumor (TNM), local and regional recurrence rate, overall survival, disease specific survival and incidence of involved margins were recorded and calculated. Of the 178 patients, 96 (54 %) were alive and free of oral cancer 5 years after surgery. Forty-four patients died of oral cancer (24.7 %) but 38 (21.3 %) died of other causes. The overall survival rate after primary surgery in relation to stage was: I 84 %, II 71 %, III 36 % and IV 28 %. As almost half of our patients presented with advanced cancer and had discouraging survival rates, we emphasize the need for early recognition of the disease. Advanced disease signifies difficulty in obtaining clear margins which actually indicates a higher recurrence rate. 25 % of our patients died of oral cancer within 5 years of surgery which highlights the poor prognosis that recurrence carries after treatment. Effective educational campaign with purpose to raise oral cancer awareness and earlier referral may result in improvement of survival.

  14. One year Survival Rate of Ketac Molar versus Vitro Molar for Occlusoproximal ART Restorations: a RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Luisa de Brito, Pacheco; Isabel Cristina, Olegário; Clarissa Calil, Bonifácio; Ana Flávia Bissoto, Calvo; José Carlos Pettorossi, Imparato; Daniela Prócida, Raggio

    2017-11-06

    Good survival rates for single-surface Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) restorations have been reported, while multi-surface ART restorations have not shown similar results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate of occluso-proximal ART restorations using two different filling materials: Ketac Molar EasyMix (3M ESPE) and Vitro Molar (DFL). A total of 117 primary molars with occluso-proximal caries lesions were selected in 4 to 8 years old children in Barueri city, Brazil. Only one tooth was selected per child. The subjetcs were randomly allocated in two groups according to the filling material. All treatments were performed following the ART premises and all restorations were evaluated after 2, 6 and 12 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test, while Cox regression analysis was used for testing association with clinical factors (α = 5%). There was no difference in survival rate between the materials tested, (HR = 1.60, CI = 0.98-2.62, p = 0.058). The overall survival rate of restorations was 42.74% and the survival rate per group was Ketac Molar = 50,8% and Vitro Molar G2 = 34.5%). Cox regression test showed no association between the analyzed clinical variables and the success of the restorations. After 12 months evaluation, no difference in the survival rate of ART occluso-proximal restorations was found between tested materials.

  15. One year Survival Rate of Ketac Molar versus Vitro Molar for Occlusoproximal ART Restorations: a RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PACHECO Anna Luisa de Brito

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Good survival rates for single-surface Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART restorations have been reported, while multi-surface ART restorations have not shown similar results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate of occluso-proximal ART restorations using two different filling materials: Ketac Molar EasyMix (3M ESPE and Vitro Molar (DFL. A total of 117 primary molars with occluso-proximal caries lesions were selected in 4 to 8 years old children in Barueri city, Brazil. Only one tooth was selected per child. The subjetcs were randomly allocated in two groups according to the filling material. All treatments were performed following the ART premises and all restorations were evaluated after 2, 6 and 12 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test, while Cox regression analysis was used for testing association with clinical factors (α = 5%. There was no difference in survival rate between the materials tested, (HR = 1.60, CI = 0.98–2.62, p = 0.058. The overall survival rate of restorations was 42.74% and the survival rate per group was Ketac Molar = 50,8% and Vitro Molar G2 = 34.5%. Cox regression test showed no association between the analyzed clinical variables and the success of the restorations. After 12 months evaluation, no difference in the survival rate of ART occluso-proximal restorations was found between tested materials.

  16. Effect of CyberKnife radiosurgery on survival rate of patients with recurrent liver cancer after surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Huan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical effect of CyberKnife radiosurgery, a type of stereotactic body radiotherapy, in the treatment of recurrent liver cancer after resection or ablation, as well as the effect of clinical factors on survival rate. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 34 patients with recurrent liver cancer after surgery who were treated with CyberKnife radiosurgery. The patients′ survival rate and survival time after radiotherapy were calculated, and the influencing factors for survival were analyzed. The gross tumor volume of tumor target was 1.475-1082.075 cm3 (median 162.99 cm3. The fraction dose was 7-20 Gy (median 9 Gy, the number of times of irradiation was 2-8 times (median 5 times, and the tumor dose was 24-60 Gy (median 45 Gy once a day. The major indices for observation were short-term outcome, toxic and side effects, and long-term outcome. The log-rank test was used to analyze the surviral-related factors. The chi-square test and fisher test were used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Results The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates after radiotherapy were 91.2%, 70.6%, and 44.1%, respectively, and the median survival time was 34 months. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year progression-free survival rates were 55.9%, 38.2%, and 29.4%, respectively. There were no significant differences in 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates after radiotherapy between the ≤1-year (early postoperative group and the >1-year (late postoperative group (89%/73.7%/57.9% vs 93%/73.3%/33.3%, χ2=0.354, P=0.368. The univariate analyses showed that sex, age, time to postoperative recurrence, diameter and number of recurrent lesions, liver function classification, alpha-fetoprotein level, and chemotherapy were not significantly associated with patients' survival after radiotherapy. ConclusionCyberKnife radiosurgery is safe and effective in the treatment of recurrent liver cancer, with the

  17. Aminophylline Improves Urine Flow Rates but Not Survival in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) morbidity and mortality rates remain high. Variable AKI outcomes have been reported in association with aminophylline treatment. This study evaluated AKI outcome in a group of Nigerian children treated with aminophylline. Methods: This is a retrospective study of AKI in children ...

  18. Does response rate of chemotherapy with molecular target agents correlate with the conversion rate and survival in patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases?: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, M; Hatano, E; Nishino, H; Seo, S; Taura, K; Uemoto, S

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the response rate of chemotherapy with molecular target agents correlates with the conversion rate, R0 resection rate, and survival in patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). We reviewed the literature of prospective, controlled trials of systemic chemotherapy for patients with unresectable liver-only CRLM, including resectable extrahepatic metastases. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated. A total of 26 patient groups from 18 studies were reviewed. The response rate was significantly correlated with the conversion rate (r = 0.66) and R0 resection rate (r = 0.43) in overall patients. In subgroup analysis, only the conversion rate in patients with chemotherapy only (r = 0.75) and anti-EGFR therapy (r = 0.78) were significantly strongly correlated with the response rate. A non-significant strong trend toward correlation between response and conversion rates was observed in patients with bevacizumab (r = 0.73, p = 0.10). The regression line in the scatter plot of patients using bevacizumab showed a less steep slope. This indicated that conversion rates were relatively less affected by response rates under anti-VEGF therapy compared with the other patient groups. The response rate in chemotherapy-only patients was significantly correlated with median progression-free survival (r = 0.61) and overall survival (r = 0.66). Chemotherapy without molecular target agents and with anti-EGFR agents shows similar results of correlation between response and conversion/R0 resection rates. Under anti-VEGF therapy, conversion would be expected, even with a relatively lower response rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  19. 31 CFR 356.21 - How are awards at the high yield or discount rate calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discount rate calculated? 356.21 Section 356.21 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... high yield or discount rate calculated? (a) Awards to submitters. We generally prorate bids at the highest accepted yield or discount rate under § 356.20(a)(2) of this part. For example, if 80.15% is the...

  20. 40 CFR 75.83 - Calculation of Hg mass emissions and heat input rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... heat input rate. 75.83 Section 75.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Calculation of Hg mass emissions and heat input rate. The owner or operator shall calculate Hg mass emissions and heat input rate in accordance with the procedures in sections 9.1 through 9.3 of appendix F to...

  1. 76 FR 5518 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate in Certain Antidumping Duty Proceedings AGENCY: Import... regarding the calculation of the weighted average dumping margin and antidumping duty assessment rate in... regarding the calculation of the weighted average dumping margin and antidumping duty assessment rate in...

  2. Is growth rate more important than survival and reproduction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic value of a trait was defined as the marginal profit per ewe per year resulting from a unit increase or decrease in the average value of a trait, whilst holding the average levels of all other traits constant, and at a discount rate of 0 and 12.5%. The results of the study indicated that on average, traits associated with ...

  3. Improving survival rates of newborn infants in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenfield David

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number, rates and causes of early neonatal deaths in South Africa were not known. Neither had modifiable factors associated with these deaths been previously documented. An audit of live born infants who died in the first week of life in the public service could help in planning strategies to reduce the early neonatal mortality rate. Methods The number of live born infants weighing 1000 g or more, the number of these infants who die in the first week of life, the primary and final causes of these deaths, and the modifiable factors associated with them were collected over four years from 102 sites in South Africa as part of the Perinatal Problem Identification Programme. Results The rate of death in the first week of life for infants weighing 1000 g or more was unacceptably high (8.7/1000, especially in rural areas (10.42/1000. Intrapartum hypoxia and preterm delivery are the main causes of death. Common modifiable factors included inadequate staffing and facilities, poor care in labour, poor neonatal resuscitation and basic care, and difficulties for patients in accessing health care. Conclusion Practical, affordable and effective steps can be taken to reduce the number of infants who die in the first week of life in South Africa. These could also be implemented in other under resourced countries.

  4. Calculations on the rate of the ion-molecule reaction between NH3(+) and H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Eric; Defrees, D. J.; Talbi, D.; Pauzat, F.; Koch, W.

    1991-01-01

    The rate coefficient for the ion-molecule reaction NH3(+) + H2 yields NH4(+) + H has been calculated as a function of temperature with the use of the statistical phase space approach. The potential surface and reaction complex and transition state parameters used in the calculation have been taken from ab initio quantum chemical calculations. The calculated rate coefficient has been found to mimic the unusual temperature dependence measured in the laboratory, in which the rate coefficient decreases with decreasing temperature until 50-100 K and then increases at still lower temperatures. Quantitative agreement between experimental and theoretical rate coefficients is satisfactory given the uncertainties in the ab initio results and in the dynamics calculations. The rate coefficient for the unusual three-body process NH3(+) + H2 + He yields NH4(+) + H + He has also been calculated as a function of temperature and the result found to agree well with a previous laboratory determination.

  5. Estimation of survival rates and abundance of green turtles along the U.S. West Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To determine abundance and survival rates of the east Pacific green turtles in the northern most foraging grounds, the turtle research groups at SWFSC have been...

  6. Survival and Recovery Rates of Mallards Banded Postseason in South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a published report on the survival and recovery rates of mallards after they have been banded in South Carolina. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) has...

  7. Association between a Hospital’s Rate of Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Cardiac Arrest Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lena M.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Spertus, John A.; Li, Yan; Chan, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Context National efforts to measure hospital performance for cardiac arrest have focused on case survival, with the hope of improving survival after cardiac arrest. However, it is plausible that hospitals with high case-survival rates do a poor job of preventing cardiac arrests in the first place. Objective To describe the association between inpatient cardiac arrest incidence and survival rates. Design, Setting, and Patients Within a large, national registry, we identified hospitals with at least 50 adult in-hospital cardiac arrest cases between January 1, 2000 and November 30, 2009. We used multivariable hierarchical regression to evaluate the correlation between a hospital’s cardiac arrest incidence rate and its case-survival rate after adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Main Outcome Measure The correlation between a hospital’s incidence rate and case-survival rate for cardiac arrest. Results Of 102,153 cases at 358 hospitals, the median hospital cardiac arrest incidence rate was 4.02 per 1000 admissions (IQR: 2.95 to 5.65 per 1000 admissions), and the median hospital case-survival rate was 18.8% (IQR: 14.5% to 22.6%). In crude analyses, hospitals with higher case-survival rates also had lower cardiac arrest incidence (correlation of -0.16; P=0.003). This relationship persisted after adjusting for patient characteristics (correlation of -0.15; P=0.004). After adjusting for potential mediators of this relationship (i.e., hospital characteristics), the relationship between incidence and case-survival was attenuated (correlation of -0.07; P=0.18). The one modifiable hospital factor that most attenuated this relationship was a hospital’s nurse-to-bed ratio (correlation of -0.12; P=0.03). Conclusions Hospitals with exceptional rates of survival for in-hospital cardiac arrest are also better at preventing cardiac arrests, even after adjusting for patient case-mix. This relationship is partially mediated by measured hospital attributes

  8. Approximate Method of Calculating Heating Rates at General Three-Dimensional Stagnation Points During Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H. H., II

    1982-01-01

    An approximate method for calculating heating rates at general three dimensional stagnation points is presented. The application of the method for making stagnation point heating calculations during atmospheric entry is described. Comparisons with results from boundary layer calculations indicate that the method should provide an accurate method for engineering type design and analysis applications.

  9. Increasing Calcium Oxide (Cao) to Accelerate Moulting and Survival Rate Vannamei Shrimp (Litopenaeus Vannamei))

    OpenAIRE

    Erlando, Gito; ', Rusliadi; Mulyadi,

    2016-01-01

    The research about the increasing Calcium Oxide (CaO) to accelerate moulting and survival rate vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was conducted from Agustus until September 2015 at Balai Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau, Instalasi Pembenihan Udang (IPU) Gelung, Situbondo Provinsi Jawa Timur. The purpose of this research was to investigate optimum doses calcium oxide to accelerate moulting and the survival rate vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Vannamei shrimp with size PL25 were used in...

  10. Survival Rate of Short, Locking Taper Implants with a Plateau Design: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Özgür Demiralp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Short implants have become popular in the reconstruction of jaws, especially in cases with limited bone height. Shorter implants, those with locking tapers and plateau root shapes, tend to have longer survival times. We retrospectively investigated the cumulative survival rates of Bicon short implants (<8 mm according to patient variables over a 5-year period. Materials and Methods. This study included 111 consecutively treated patients with 371 implants supporting fixed or removable prosthetics. Data were evaluated to acquire cumulative survival rates according to gender, age, tobacco use, surgical procedure, bone quality, and restoration type. Statistics were performed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal Wallis H tests. Results. The survival rate was 97.3% with, on average, 22.8 months of follow-up. Patients older than 60 years had higher failure rate than the other age groups (P<0.05. Placed region, age, and bone quality had adverse effects on survival rate in the <8 mm implant group with statistically significant difference (P<0.05. Conclusions. Approximately 23-month follow-up data indicate that short implants with locking tapers and plateau-type roots have comparable survival rates as other types of dental implants. However, due to limitations of study, these issues remain to be further investigated in future randomized controlled clinical trials.

  11. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU TA

    2009-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  12. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU, T.A.

    2005-10-27

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  13. Look Different: Effect of Radiation Hormesis on the Survival Rate of Immunosuppressed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, M; Taeb, S; Okhovat, M A; Atefi, M; Negahdari, F

    2016-09-01

    Hormesis is defined as the bio-positive response of something which is bio-negative in high doses. In the present study, the effect of radiation hormesis was evaluated on the survival rate of immunosuppressed BALB/c mice by Cyclosporine A. We used 75 consanguine, male, BALB/c mice in this experiment. The first group received Technetium-99m and the second group was placed on a sample radioactive soil of Ramsar region (800Bq) for 20 days. The third group was exposed to X-rays and the fourth group was placed on the radioactive soil and then injected Technetium-99m. The last group was the sham irradiated control group. Finally, 30mg Cyclosporine A as the immunosuppressive agent was orally administered to all mice 48 hours after receiving X-rays and Technetium-99m. The mean survival rate of mice in each group was estimated during time. A log rank test was run to determine if there were differences in the survival distribution for different groups and related treatments. According to the results, the survival rate of all pre-irradiated groups was more than the sham irradiated control group (p Ramsar region for 20 days and then injected Technetium-99m. This study confirmed the presence of hormetic models and the enhancement of survival rate in immunosuppressed BALB/c mice as a consequence of low-dose irradiation. It is also revealed the positive synergetic radioadaptive response on survival rate of immunosuppressed animals.

  14. Survival and maturation rates of the African rodent Mastomys natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluydts, Vincent; Crespin, Laurent; Davis, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Survival and maturation rates of female Mastomys natalensis were analysed based on a ten-year onthly capture-recapture data set. We investigated whether direct and delayed density dependent and independent (rainfall) variables accounted for the considerable variation in demographic traits....... It was estimated that seasonal and annual covariates accounted for respectively 29 and 26% of the total variation in maturation rates and respectively 17 and 11% of the variation in survival rates. Explaining the between-year differences in maturation rates with annual past rainfall or density did not improve...... the model fit. On the other hand we showed that maturation rates were correlated negatively with density the previous month and positively to cumulative rainfall over the past three months. Survival estimates of both adults and subadults varied seasonally, with higher estimates during the increase phase...

  15. Banding reference areas and survival rates of green-winged teal, 1950-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, D.S.; Nichols, J.D.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Hines, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The green-winged teal (Anas crecca carolinensis) is an important harvest species, yet we know relatively little about its population ecology. We investigated aspects of green-winged teal population ecology of potential importance to waterfowl managers. We used recoveries of green-winged teal banded during winter (1950-89) to establish banding reference areas and estimate survival and band recovery rates. We used cluster analysis based on similarities in recovery patterns to group banding degree blocks into 8 minor and 5 major reference areas describing the principal wintering range of green-winged teal in North America. We then estimated survival and recovery rates of green-winged teal banded in these areas. Mean annual survival rate estimates across years and reference areas were similar (P gt 0.05) for males (0.55, cxa SE = 0.022) and females (0.51, cxa SE = 0.057). Mean annual recovery rate estimates were larger for males (0.033, cxa SE = 0.0017) than for females (0.024, cxa SE = 0.0024) (P lt 0.01). There was little evidence of temporal variation in survival or recovery rates for most datasets. There was evidence of geographic variation in survival rates among major reference areas for males (P = 0.04) but not for females (P = 0.30). We recommend that analyses be conducted on greenwinged teal banded during preseason to further investigate possible sex specificity of survival rates and to address questions about the relationship between harvest rates and survival.

  16. One-year survival rate of renal transplant: factors influencing the outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezapour S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Siavash Rezapour,1 Aliasghar Yarmohammadi,1,2 Mahmoud Tavakkoli1,2 1Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, 2Urology Department, Montaserie Organ Transplantation Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Background: Renal transplantation remains the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, as the procedure not only improves quality of life, but also markedly increases patients’ survival rates. Organ and patient survival rates are important issues of interest post-transplantation. Aim: To determine the 1-year survival rate of renal transplant, we studied graft function, which is a predictor of survival, among those who received a kidney transplant in the time period between February 2012 and February 2013 at Montaserie Organ Transplantation Hospital. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective cohort study planned to determine patient and organ survival rates after kidney transplantation from living and deceased donors during a 1-year period. We also tried to clarify factors resulting in graft loss. Designated variables were collected using checklists and subsequently entered into SPSS software version 17 and analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method and descriptive statistics.Results: From 173 patients included in the study, 67.1% (n=116 were female. The mean age of the recipients was 33±12.85 years. In the majority of cases, cause of end-stage renal disease was not clear (n=89, 51.44%. Urinary tract infection (23.1% was the commonest post-operative complication, followed by delayed graft function, which was diagnosed in 22 (12.7% recipients. Seventeen cases of graft rejection (9.8% were recorded and 4 (2.3% of these cases underwent nephrectomy that will be regarded as graft loss in this paper. Therefore, 1-year graft survival was 90.2%. Graft survival in cadaveric and live-donor recipients was 90.8% and 88.7%, respectively. As there was no mortality reported among graft recipients, 1-year patient survival rate

  17. Predictability of survival models for waiting list and transplant patients: calculating LYFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, R A; McCullough, K P; Leichtman, A B

    2009-07-01

    'Life years from transplant' (LYFT) is the extra years of life that a candidate can expect to achieve with a kidney transplant as compared to never receiving a kidney transplant at all. The LYFT component survival models (patient lifetimes with and without transplant, and graft lifetime) are comparable to or better predictors of long-term survival than are other predictive equations currently in use for organ allocation. Furthermore, these models are progressively more successful at predicting which of two patients will live longer as their medical characteristics (and thus predicted lifetimes) diverge. The C-statistics and the correlations for the three LYFT component equations have been validated using independent, nonoverlapping split-half random samples. Allocation policies based on these survival models could lead to substantial increases in the number of life years gained from the current donor pool.

  18. Evaluation of dose equivalent rate distribution in JCO critical accident by radiation transport calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Y

    2002-01-01

    In the prevention of nuclear disaster, there needs the information on the dose equivalent rate distribution inside and outside the site, and energy spectra. The three dimensional radiation transport calculation code is a useful tool for the site specific detailed analysis with the consideration of facility structures. It is important in the prediction of individual doses in the future countermeasure that the reliability of the evaluation methods of dose equivalent rate distribution and energy spectra by using of Monte Carlo radiation transport calculation code, and the factors which influence the dose equivalent rate distribution outside the site are confirmed. The reliability of radiation transport calculation code and the influence factors of dose equivalent rate distribution were examined through the analyses of critical accident at JCO's uranium processing plant occurred on September 30, 1999. The radiation transport calculations including the burn-up calculations were done by using of the structural info...

  19. Evaluation of Survival Rate and Effective Factors in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients in Emam Hospital (Year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Maghsoodloo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For the time being we have considered that the myocardial infarction is an increasing event in Islamic Republic of Iran and there are many procedures and methods which can help us to diminish the number of death from this ongoing event. The main aim of this research is to determine the survival rate in those patients who have had acute myocardial infarction and the association of it with different variables. Methods and Materials: The present research is a descriptive case-series study which evaluates the 100 cases of acute myocardial infarction who had been admitted in Tehran Emam Khomeini Hospital during the year 1999. Results: The mean age of patients was 57 years. The peak of attack rates was in spring and autumn. Investigating of the past history of these patients reviled that 41 percent had been smokers, 63.5 percent have had the history of previous ischemic heart disease, 41 percent have had hyper cholestrolemia, 34 percent had hypertension, 18 percent had diabetes mellitus, 9 percent had mitral rigurgitation and 9 percent had heart block. The Survival rate in our study has been calculated 68 percent in first 28 days of disease. Conclusion: In our study we concluded that there is significant correlation between survival rate and past history of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, tobacco smoking and clip classification.

  20. Estimating the personal cure rate of cancer patients using population-based grouped cancer survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binbing Yu; Tiwari, Ram C; Feuer, Eric J

    2011-06-01

    Cancer patients are subject to multiple competing risks of death and may die from causes other than the cancer diagnosed. The probability of not dying from the cancer diagnosed, which is one of the patients' main concerns, is sometimes called the 'personal cure' rate. Two approaches of modelling competing-risk survival data, namely the cause-specific hazards approach and the mixture model approach, have been used to model competing-risk survival data. In this article, we first show the connection and differences between crude cause-specific survival in the presence of other causes and net survival in the absence of other causes. The mixture survival model is extended to population-based grouped survival data to estimate the personal cure rate. Using the colorectal cancer survival data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Programme, we estimate the probabilities of dying from colorectal cancer, heart disease, and other causes by age at diagnosis, race and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage.

  1. Evidence that a Highway Reduces Apparent Survival Rates of Squirrel Gliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. McCall

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Roads and traffic are prominent components of most landscapes throughout the world, and their negative effects on the natural environment can extend for hundreds or thousands of meters beyond the road. These effects include mortality of wildlife due to collisions with vehicles, pollution of soil and air, modification of wildlife behavior in response to noise, creation of barriers to wildlife movement, and establishment of dispersal conduits for some plant and animal species. In southeast Australia, much of the remaining habitat for the squirrel glider, Petaurus norfolcensis, is located in narrow strips of Eucalyptus woodland that is adjacent to roads and streams, as well as in small patches of woodland vegetation that is farther from roads. We evaluated the effect of traffic volume on squirrel gliders by estimating apparent annual survival rates of adults along the Hume Freeway and nearby low-traffic-volume roads. We surveyed populations of squirrel gliders by trapping them over 2.5 years, and combined these data with prior information on apparent survival rates in populations located away from freeways to model the ratio of apparent annual survival rates in both site types. The apparent annual survival rate of adult squirrel gliders living along the Hume Freeway was estimated to be approximately 60% lower than for squirrel gliders living near local roads. The cause of the reduced apparent survival rate may be due to higher rates of mortality and/or higher emigration rates adjacent to the Hume Freeway compared with populations near smaller country roads. Management options for population persistence will be influenced by which of these factors is the primary cause of a reduced apparent survival rate.

  2. Calculation of the rate of coagulation of hydrophobic colloids in the non-steady state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebersen, G.J.; Wiersema, P.H.

    1974-01-01

    In accurate coagulation measurements, the observed coagulation rate should be extrapolated to time zero to find the rate of formation of doublets from singlet particles. In the theoretical calculation of coagulation rates, generally a steady state is assumed. At the onset of coagulation, however, a

  3. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  4. Nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) based on artificial nest experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xu; Zhao, Yu-Ze; Ma, Jing; Li, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Ji-Liang

    2017-01-01

    To explore the nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) and the nest-site factors that affect it, we conducted artificial nest experiments with reference to natural nests at Dongzhai National Nature Reserve (DNNR), Henan Province and Pingjingguan, Hubei Province from April to June 2014 simulating the situation in its early and later breeding season. We also determined distance characteristics of the nest sites using ArcGIS 10.0. Nest survival models were constructed in Pr...

  5. Survival Rate of Dental Implants in Patients with History of Periodontal Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Francisco; Gouveia, Sónia; Felino, António Campos; Costa, Ana Lemos; Almeida, Ricardo Faria

    To evaluate the differences between the survival rates of implants placed in patients with no history of periodontal disease (NP) and in patients with a history of chronic periodontal disease (CP). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in which all consenting patients treated with dental implants in a private clinic in Oporto, Portugal, from November 2, 2002 through February 11, 2011 were included. All patients were treated consecutively by the same experimental operator. This study aimed to analyze how the primary outcomes (presence of disease, time of placement, and time of loading) and the secondary outcomes (severity-generalized periodontitis, brand, implant length, prosthesis type, prosthesis metal-ceramic extension) influence the survival rate of dental implants. The survival analysis was performed through the Kaplan-Meier method, and the equality of survival distributions for all groups was tested with the log-rank test with a significance level of .05 for all comparisons. The sample consisted of 202 patients (47% NP and 53% CP) and 689 implants (31% NP and 69% CP). The survival rate in the NP and CP groups showed no statistically significant differences (95.8% versus 93.1%; P ≥ .05). Implants were lost before loading in 54.9% of the cases. The majority of the implants were lost in the first year and stabilized after the second year. Survival rates in the NP and CP patients showed no statistically significant differences when comparing the following factors: subclassification of the disease, implant brands, implant length (short/standard), type of prosthesis, extension of the prosthesis metal-ceramic, and time of placement and loading (P ≥ .05). This work disclosed no statistically significant differences in terms of survival rates when compared with the control group. Placing implants in patients with a history of periodontal disease appears to be viable and safe.

  6. Ten-year survival and success rate of implant-prosthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Ihan Hren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Implant-prosthodontic treatment for restoring a single missing tooth, partial edentulism and complete edentulism is a predictive and successful method in terms of both the survival rate of implants and the different parameters which determine the success rate of the treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 10-year survival and success rates of dental implants, analyze the causes of early and late complications, and assess the type and number of prosthodontic complications.Patients and methods: In 51 patients, 113 titanium dental implants were inserted by one surgeon using a two-stage surgical protocol. The prosthodontic treatment included fixed or removable treatment options. Implant survival and success were evaluated 10 years after the completion of prosthodontic treatment. The evaluation comprised history, clinical examination with assessment of success parameters (prosthesis functionality, peri-implant tissue status, and x-ray assessment of bone loss.Results: Two implants were lost before and two 10 years after the prosthodontic treatment. The survival rate of implants was 96.4 % on the average, 100 % in the lower jaw, and 92.5 % in the upper jaw. Peri-implantitis was diagnosed in 4.5 % of all implants. The success rate was thus 95.5 %. Technical complications occurred in 2.8 % of fixed prostheses and 19 % of removable prostheses.Conclusion: The long-term survival and success rates of dental implants are high. Proper implant prosthodontic treatment planning is crucial to achieving high survival and success rates of implant treatment. Bone quality has to be taken into account when implant treatment is performed. Peri-implantitis is rarely observed, and prosthodontic complications are uncommon. On completion of the surgical and prosthetic phases of treatment, patients must be followed at regular intervals to ensure timely management of complications.

  7. Factors Influencing the Cure Rate in the Corneal Graft Rejection with Survival Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feizi S.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: Immunologic rejection of the transplanted cornea is the major cause of human allograft failure with several risk factors contributing to it. Since in the corneal graft, most individuals do not reject the graft, we used the survival analysis with cure rate for the assessment of the factors influencing the cure rate at the time of data analysis. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the cure rate and assess the risk factors for corneal graft rejection in the keratoconus disease in Labafinejad Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Methods: This was a routine data base study in which the data were gathered from keratoconus patients’ files that had undergone penetrating keratoplasty operation. In the survival analysis, individuals who didn’t reject corneal were considered cured. To study the factors influencing the cure rate, we used the Weibull distribution for survival function and the logistic link function for the cure rate because of their tractability and accuracy.Results: Out of 119 patients 31 patients (26% rejected grafts. Among the factors influencing cure rate, only in vascularization and in persons older than 25 years of age was ameaningful effect on decreasing cure rate. With this cure model, the expected cure rate in the non-vascularization and less than 25 year- old patients was 81, in non-vascularization and more than 25 year- olds it is 64, in the vascularization and less than 25 year- olds, the cure rate is 19 and in the vascularization and more than 25 years of age, the cure rate is 9 percent and the observed cure rate for Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator was 79, 61, 27 and 0 percent, respectively. The results showed that the estimate of cure rate in the survival analysis was near the Kaplan-Meier product-limits estimator.Conclusion: One of the benefits of modeling is its ability to generalize the results; using them in the prediction. According to the results obtained from the fitting cure model

  8. 75 FR 81533 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate in Certain Antidumping Duty Proceedings AGENCY: Import... comments regarding the calculation of the weighted average dumping margin and antidumping duty assessment... calculated the weighted average margins of dumping using transaction-to-transaction comparisons, the...

  9. 77 FR 8101 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted-Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Weighted-Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate in Certain Antidumping Duty Proceedings; Final... its methodology regarding the calculation of the weighted-average dumping margins and antidumping duty... for Reviews, the Department will calculate weighted- average margins of dumping and antidumping duty...

  10. The Clinicopathologic Characteristics and 5-year Survival Rate of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Yazd, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Mortazavizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Bashardust, Nasrollah; Zakerian, Neda; Zaidabadi, Mahbube; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria; Teimoori, Soraya

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second most common malignancy in women, the most common cause of gynecologic cancer deaths, and most patients have advanced stage disease at the time of diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to estimate the 5-year survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer based on age, tumor histology, stage of disease, and type of treatment. This study was conducted on 120 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer referred to Shahid Sadoughi hospital and Shah Vali oncology clinic of Yazd from 2006 to 2012. Demographic data and patient records were studied to evaluate the treatment outcome, pathology of the tumor, and stage of disease. Finally, the overall survival rate and tumor-free survival of patients was assessed. The mean patient age was 53.87± 14.11 years. Most participants had stage I (36.7%) or stage II (35%) disease. Serous adenocarcinoma (57.6%) was the most common pathology found in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. The overall survival of patients in this study was significantly associated with the histological tumor type (p = 0.000) and disease stage (p = 0.0377). Stage I (84.18%) and serous adenocarcinoma (72.81%) demonstrated the best survival. The tumor-free survival rates were not associated with histology types (p = 0.079), surgical procedure (p = 0.18), or chemotherapy (p = 0.18). The survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer was significantly associated with disease stage. Serous adenocarcinoma also had the best prognosis among the pathologies studied. Therefore, early detection of ovarian cancer can substantially increase the survival rate.

  11. Survival rates and risk factors for mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus patients in a Chinese center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ge; Jia, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Dan; Zhao, Zhanzheng

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to study the survival and risk factors affecting the long-term prognosis of Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We collected clinical data of 1,072 SLE patients at the time of diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival rate, and the Cox proportional hazard regression model for the risk factors affecting prognosis. Of the original 1,072 recruited SLE patients, 665 (570 females and 95 males) were successfully followed up. Mean follow-up was 5.47 ± 4.62 years. Mean age of onset was 29.4 ± 13.4 years. Eighty-one patients did not survive during follow-up; infection, followed by cardiovascular disease, renal failure and SLE disease activity were the leading causes of death. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 91.2 and 79.6 %, respectively. Moreover, the 5-year survival rates of female and male patients were 92.6 and 81.6 % respectively, and the 10-year survival rates were 80.8 and 62.3 %, respectively. Univariate analyses indicated that male gender, older age of onset, hypertension, increased blood creatinine levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at the time of diagnosis of SLE were risk factors for all-cause mortality. After adjusting for potential confounders by multivariate analysis, male gender, older age of onset, and high SLEDAI scores at the time of diagnosis were independent risk factors for all-cause mortality in SLE patients. The long-term survival of Chinese SLE patients is comparable to that of other countries. Older age of onset, high disease activity, and decline in renal function are independent risk factors for mortality in patients with SLE.

  12. Calculating second derivatives of population growth rates for ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Esther; Caswell, Hal

    2014-05-01

    1. Second derivatives of the population growth rate measure the curvature of its response to demographic, physiological or environmental parameters. The second derivatives quantify the response of sensitivity results to perturbations, provide a classification of types of selection and provide one way to calculate sensitivities of the stochastic growth rate. 2. Using matrix calculus, we derive the second derivatives of three population growth rate measures: the discrete-time growth rate λ, the continuous-time growth rate r = log λ and the net reproductive rate R 0 , which measures per-generation growth. 3. We present a suite of formulae for the second derivatives of each growth rate and show how to compute these derivatives with respect to projection matrix entries and to lower-level parameters affecting those matrix entries. 4. We also illustrate several ecological and evolutionary applications for these second derivative calculations with a case study for the tropical herb Calathea ovandensis .

  13. Interdependence of response rates, survival rates, stage and histology after radio-/chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szepesi, T.; Kaercher, K.H.; Schratter, A.; Breitenecker, G.; Szalay, S.; Janisch, H.

    1982-11-01

    Between February 1977 and February 1981, 55 patients with ovarian cancer (45 at stage III and 10 at stage IV) underwent simultaneous radio-/chemotherapy and early therapeutic second-look operation. The overall response rate amounts to 94%, 63% of which are complete and 31% are partial emissions. Stage III comprises 74% complete and 26% partial remissions. Patients with complete remission at stage III have a significantly longer tumor-free survival time than patients with partial remission (median 16 vs. 8 months). A longer overall survival time (median 30 vs. 16 months) is also significant. At stage III there have been 74% successful therapeutic second operations. In all patients with residual tumors above 2 cm in diameter after primary operation a response rate of 92% could be achieved, 52% showed complete remissions. The survival time proved to be independent of both histological parameter and age. The remaining residual tumor above or under 2 cm in diameter in any single location is, however, a significant prognostic factor for long-time survival. Possible curative chances for patients with stage III disease are only to be expected through interdisciplinary oncological cooperation.

  14. Prospective 5-year survival rate data following open-wedge valgus high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Gerrit; von Heyden, Johanna; Pestka, Jan; Schmal, Hagen; Salzmann, Gian; Südkamp, Norbert; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2015-07-01

    Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy using internal plate fixation is a well-established and frequently performed treatment option for the management of medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) in the young and active patients. The present study provides survival rate and functional outcome preoperatively and after 6, 12, 24, 36 and 60 months following open-wedge high tibial osteotomy. Hypothesis of the authors was high survival rates after 5 years with still remaining satisfying functional results. Sixty-two patients suffering from tibial conditioned knee joint varus deformity and medial compartment OA that underwent high tibial osteotomy using an internal plate fixator (TomoFix™, Synthes) were included. Functional outcome was evaluated prior to surgery and in the further clinical course using standard instruments (IKDC score, Lysholm score). Treatment failure was defined as the need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Fifty-one patients (mean age 46.8 ± 10.2 years) were available at a mean of 60.5 (SD ± 2.5) months (follow-up rate 82.3 %) postoperatively. Sixty-month IKDC (69.4 % SD ± 18.6) and Lysholm (76.6 SD ± 20.5) improved significantly when comparing with preoperative values (IKDC 44.6 SD ± 17.8; Lysholm 52.1 SD ± 20.8). Two of 51 subjects underwent TKA, resulting in a survival rate of 96 % among those patients followed (51 of 60; 85 %). Overall complication rate was 8.6 %. With a survival rate of over 96 % at 5 years, high tibial osteotomy seems to be a reliable treatment option with satisfying clinical outcome. Functional outcome was stable following 60 months. While a delay of the necessity for TKA seems likely with regard to the survival rate demonstrated in this article, possible avoidance needs to be demonstrated by longer follow-up studies. Therapeutic case series, Level IV.

  15. Moment expansion approach to calculate impact ionization rate in submicron silicon devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Ken-ichiro; Yamaji, Mitsuru; Taniguchi, Kenji; Hamaguchi, Chihiro; Dunham, Scott T.

    1996-11-01

    A method to calculate the impact ionization rate in submicron silicon devices is developed using both an average energy and an average square energy of electrons. The method consists of an impact ionization model formulated with the average energy and conservation equations for the average square energy in the framework of an energy transport model. Parameters for the transport equations are extracted in such a way that calculated moments based on these equations match Monte Carlo simulation results. The impact ionization generation rate in an n+nn+ structure calculated with this method agrees well with the results obtained from Monte Carlo simulation. The new method is also applied to a submicron n-MOSFET. The calculated distribution of the generation rate is found to be quite different from the results based on a conventional method.

  16. Steady State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation and Lower Flammability Level Evaluation for Hanford Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU, T.A.

    2000-04-27

    This work is to assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell and single-shell tanks at Hanford. Hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using rate equation model developed recently.

  17. Survival rate of honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers after exposure to sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquiere, T.

    2010-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a commonly used systemic insecticide which can induce several sublethal effects. Previous research has not shown any increased mortality in bees that were fed with sublethal doses. However, there is very little research conducted with the focus on survival rate of honeybees in the

  18. Contribution of screening and survival differences to racial disparities in colorectal cancer rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); K.M. Kuntz (Karen); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); A. Zauber (Ann); A. Jemal (Ahmedin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Considerable disparities exist in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites in the United States. We estimated how much of these disparities could be explained by differences in CRC screening and stage-specific relative CRC survival.

  19. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, Hala

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009.

  20. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.24 Improved pension...

  1. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3...

  2. Retrospective Study of the Survival Rates of Indirect Pulp Therapy Versus Different Pulpotomy Medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Patrice Barsamian; Kuhnen, Marissa M; Best, Al M; Brickhouse, Tegwyn H

    2016-10-15

    The purposes of this retrospective chart review were to determine: (1) how primary molars in need of vital pulp therapy (VPT) have been treated over a period of four years at a university-based pediatric dental practice (UBP); and which treatments-indirect pulp therapy (IPT), formocresol pulpotomy (FCP), and ferric sulfate pulpotomy (FSP)-have been successful. Electronic patient records (axiUm) that contained the procedure codes D3120 (pulp cap-indirect) or D3220 (therapeutic pulpotomy) were totaled by year. Visit records were queried again to identify treatment failures (i.e., extractions [D7140] or pulpectomy [D3221/D3240]). A total of 2,001 primary molar teeth were included in the study. Success was compared using a Kaplan-Meier analysis. At the three-year follow-up, IPT had a 96.2 percent survival rate, FCP had a 65.8 percent survival rate, and FSP had a 62.9 percent survival rate (P<.0001). Over a four-year period of time, IPT became the more commonly used vital pulp therapy treatment at a university-based pediatric dental practice and had a significantly better survival rate than FCP or FSP.

  3. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a) General...

  4. The effect of breed on the survivability and motility rate of | Makhafola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effect of breed on the survivability and motility rate of cryopreserved cock semen. Semen from three cock breeds; White Leghorn (WL), Ovambo (OV) and Potchefstroom Koekoek (PK) was collected by means of the abdominal massage technique. Following semen collection, sperm were analyzed for ...

  5. Survival and growth rate of coastal water Escherichia coli isolates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of salt concentration on the survival and growth rate of Escherichia coli isolated from Lagos Lagoon surface water was investigated. This was necessitated to ascertain the suitability of using E. coli as feacal pollution indicator in this water body which experiences fluctuation in salinity values. The salinity during the ...

  6. Effect of Bacillus subtilis on the growth and survival rate of shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect ofBacillus subtilis, isolated from digestive tract of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was investigated on growth and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei during 60 days of culture. Sixteen aquaria with four replicates were used for treatments and controls. Treatment groups were consisted of Bacillus subtilis, isolated ...

  7. Immunocompetence index selection of broiler chicken lines for disease resistance and their impact on survival rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to develop the disease resistance broiler chicken lines over two generations (G0 , G1 and G2 of selection for immunocompetence (IC index by targeting all the facets of immune response traits viz., humoral response (HR to Sheep red blood cells (SRBC, cell mediated immune response (CMI to phytohaeagglutination- Pmitogen (PHA-P, levels of serum serum immunoglobin- G (IgG and serum lysozyme (LZM level.Materials and Methods: The SDLSynthetic Dam Line (SDL broiler line consisting of 303, 204 and 300 birds in G0 , G1 and G2 generations, respectively were screened for immunocompetence traits such as humoral response to SRBCs, cell mediated immune response to PHA-Pand levels of serum lysozyme by Lysoplate assay and IgG by SRID method, and ranked based on their IC index values. Results: The percent survival rate up to 6 weeks of age in SDL broiler chicken lines were selected for high immunocompetence index (HIC and low immunocompetence index values (LIC over two generations (G1 , G1 and G2 of selection and observed that significant differences (P< 0.05 in percent survival pattern in the base population (n= 303 with the highest survivability of 100.00% was observed in 5-6 weeks of age followed by 99.37% and 97.23% in 4-5 and 0-4 weeks of age respectively. In the G1 generation, significant differences ( P<0.01 was noticed in the selected high and low index lines up to 6 weeks of age with the overall survival rate lower in high index lines (93.10% as compared to the low index lines (97.62%. Whereas the reverse trend was observed in the G2 generation that the high index line had significantly (P<0.05 higher survival percent (98.62% as compared to the low index lines (97.93%. Moreover, the overall survival rate was better substantially over the two generations of divergent immunocompetent index selection of SDL broiler chicken lines. The present investigation revealed that breeding for better immunocompetence status by selection index

  8. Efficacy of monoterpene perillyl alcohol upon survival rate of patients with recurrent glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Clovis O; Simão, Marcela; Lins, Igor R; Caetano, Regina O; Futuro, Débora; Quirico-Santos, Thereza

    2011-02-01

    The monoterpene perillyl alcohol (POH) a Ras inhibitor with potential capacity to arrest gliomagenesis is being used in a phase I/II clinical trial in adults with recurrent malignant glioma. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of intranasal administration of monoterpene POH upon survival rate of patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) in comparison with historical control group of GBM patients. It was included 89 adults with recurrent GBM receiving daily intranasal administration of 440 mg POH and 52 matched GBM patients as historical control untreated group only with supportive treatment. Patients with recurrent primary GBM treated with POH survived significantly longer (log rank test, P < 0.0001) than untreated group. Patients with recurrent primary GBM in deep location survived significantly longer than with lobar location (log rank test, P < 0.0001). Median survival rate of secondary GBM was 11.2 months, longer (log rank test, P = 0.0366) than primary GBM (5.9 months). Radiographic improvement and reduction of corticosteroid dosage (36%) further associated with a delay towards progression. Intranasal administration of POH increased the overall survival of patients with recurrent GBM in comparison with historical untreated controls, but especially patients with secondary GBM and primary GBM with tumor localized in deep regions of the brain. The side effects of POH treatment were almost nonexistent, even in patients treated for over 4 years.

  9. The effect of chemical weapons incineration on the survival rates of Red-tailed Tropicbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, E.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Doherty, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1992, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) began incinerating U.S. chemical weapons stockpiles on Johnston Atoll (Pacific Ocean) where about 500,000 seabirds breed, including Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We hypothesized that survival rates of birds were lower in those nesting downwind of the incinerator smokestack compared to those upwind, and that birds might move away from the area. From 1992 - 2000 we monitored survival and movements between areas upwind and downwind from the JACADS facility. We used a multi-strata mark recapture approach to model survival, probability of recapture and movement. Probability of recapture was significantly higher for birds in downwind areas (owing to greater recapture effort) and thus was an important 'nuisance' parameter to take into account in modeling. We found no differences in survival between birds nesting upwind ( 0.8588) and downwind (0.8550). There was no consistent difference in movement rates between upwind or downwind areas from year to year: differences found may be attributed to differing vegetation growth and human activities between the areas. Our results suggest that JACADS has had no documentable influence on the survival and year to year movement of Red-tailed Tropicbirds.

  10. Survival Rate of Patients with Colorectal Cancer in Charmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran, 2000- 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M vakili

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Cancers are the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases globally. Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. This cancer is the third leading cause of death in America and one of the most prevalent cancers of the gastrointestinal tract in Iran. The purpose of this study was to estimate the survival rate of patients with gastric cancer in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran. Methods: The present observational (the analytical type study was conducted using the longitudinal and survival study methods. The population study included all patients with gastric cancer in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran. The samples were selected by the census method and all the patients diagnosed with colorectal between the years 2000 to 2010 (estimated to be about 452 cases. After collecting the data and coding them, they were inserted into the SPSS 16 and STATA 12 software. To investigate the survival and the factors influencing the survival time of patients which was the main objective of this study, the Kaplan-Meier method was used. In order to compare the survival function in different subgroups, the log rank test or generalized Wilcoxon test was used. Results: From the total 452 patients with colorectal cancer, 232 cases were male (51.3% and 220 were females (48.7%, respectively. The mean age of patients was 59.12 ±19.99 years at the time of diagnosis. The median age of patients was 60 years. The probability of survival at 1, 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of colorectal cancer in both sexes using the Kaplan-Meier was 85.7%, 71.9,% 52.5% respectively. Conclusion: Although the survival rate of patients with colorectal cancer in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province was at a desirable level, the need for further studies to identify prognostic factors is essential.

  11. Non-Rated Air Force Line Officer Attrition Rates Using Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    priority for the project: schedule or cost [15]. A study conducted by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency ( NIMA ) used the concept of stocks and flows...quantity–such as food in a grocery store–and flows are rates at which the inventory flows into or out of stocks. NIMA is also a government entity, and is

  12. A comparison of measured and calculated values of air kerma rates from 137Cs in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Ramzaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, a study was conducted to determine the air gamma dose rate from 137Cs deposited in soil. The gamma dose rate measurements and soil sampling were performed at 30 reference plots from the south-west districts of the Bryansk region (Russia that had been heavily contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The 137Cs inventory in the top 20 cm of soil ranged from 260 kBq m–2 to 2800 kBq m–2. Vertical distributions of 137Cs in soil cores (6 samples per a plot were determined after their sectioning into ten horizontal layers of 2 cm thickness. The vertical distributions of 137Cs in soil were employed to calculate air kerma rates, K, using two independent methods proposed by Saito and Jacob [Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry, 1995, Vol. 58, P. 29–45] and Golikov et al. [Contaminated Forests– Recent Developments in Risk Identification and Future Perspective. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. – P. 333–341]. A very good coincidence between the methods was observed (Spearman’s rank coefficient of correlation = 0.952; P<0.01; on average, a difference between the kerma rates calculated with two methods did not exceed 3%. The calculated air kerma rates agreed with the measured dose rates in air very well (Spearman’s coefficient of correlation = 0.952; P<0.01. For large grassland plots (n=19, the measured dose rates were on average 6% less than the calculated kerma rates. The tested methods for calculating the air dose rate from 137Cs in soil can be recommended for practical studies in radiology and radioecology. 

  13. Metastatic neuroblastoma in infants: are survival rates excellent only within the stringent framework of clinical trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cataldo, A; Agodi, A; Balaguer, J; Garaventa, A; Barchitta, M; Segura, V; Bianchi, M; Castel, V; Castellano, A; Cesaro, S; Couselo, J M; Cruz, O; D'Angelo, P; De Bernardi, B; Donat, J; de Andoin, N G; Hernandez, M I; La Spina, M; Lillo, M; Lopez-Almaraz, R; Luksch, R; Mastrangelo, S; Mateos, E; Molina, J; Moscheo, C; Mura, R; Porta, F; Russo, G; Tondo, A; Torrent, M; Vetrella, S; Villegas, J A; Viscardi, E; Zanazzo, G A; Cañete, A

    2017-01-01

    SIOPEN INES protocol yielded excellent 5-year survival rates for MYCN-non-amplified metastatic neuroblastoma. Patients deemed ineligible due to lack or delay of MYCN status or late registration were treated, but not included in the study. Our goal was to analyse survival at 10 years among the whole population. Italian and Spanish metastatic INES patients' data are reported. SPSS 20.0 was used for statistical analysis. Among 98 infants, 27 had events and 19 died, while 79 were disease free. Five- and 10-year event-free survival (EFS) were 73 and 70 %, and overall survival (OS) was 81 and 74 %, respectively. MYCN status was significant for EFS, but not for OS in multivariate analysis. The survival rates of patients who complied with all the inclusion criteria for INES trials are higher compared to those that included also not registered patients. Five-year EFS and OS for INES 99.2 were 87.8 and 95.7 %, while our stage 4s population obtained 78 and 87 %. Concerning 99.3, 5-year EFS and OS were 86.7 and 95.6 %, while for stage 4 we registered 61 and 68 %. MYCN amplification had a strong impact on prognosis and therefore we consider it unacceptable that many patients were not studied for MYCN and probably inadequately treated. Ten-year survival rates were shown to decrease: EFS from 73 to 70 % and OS from 81 to 74 %, indicating a risk of late events, particularly in stage 4s. Population-based registries like European ENCCA WP 11-task 11 will possibly clarify these data.

  14. Large-scale calculations of the beta-decay rates and r-process nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borzov, I.N.; Goriely, S. [Inst. d`Astronomie et d`Astrophysique, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bruxelles (Belgium); Pearson, J.M. [Inst. d`Astronomie et d`Astrophysique, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bruxelles (Belgium)]|[Lab. de Physique Nucleaire, Univ. de Montreal, Montreal (Canada)

    1998-06-01

    An approximation to a self-consistent model of the ground state and {beta}-decay properties of neutron-rich nuclei is outlined. The structure of the {beta}-strength functions in stable and short-lived nuclei is discussed. The results of large-scale calculations of the {beta}-decay rates for spherical and slightly deformed nuclides of relevance to the r-process are analysed and compared with the results of existing global calculations and recent experimental data. (orig.)

  15. Benchmarking of Monte Carlo based shutdown dose rate calculations for applications to JET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrizzi, L; Batistoni, P; Fischer, U; Loughlin, M; Pereslavtsev, P; Villari, R

    2005-01-01

    The calculation of dose rates after shutdown is an important issue for operating nuclear reactors. A validated computational tool is needed for reliable dose rate calculations. In fusion reactors neutrons induce high levels of radioactivity and presumably high doses. The complex geometries of the devices require the use of sophisticated geometry modelling and computational tools for transport calculations. Simple rule of thumb laws do not always apply well. Two computational procedures have been developed recently and applied to fusion machines. Comparisons between the two methods showed some inherent discrepancies when applied to calculation for the ITER while good agreement was found for a 14 MeV point source neutron benchmark experiment. Further benchmarks were considered necessary to investigate in more detail the reasons for the different results in different cases. In this frame the application to the Joint European Torus JET machine has been considered as a useful benchmark exercise. In a first calculational benchmark with a representative D-T irradiation history of JET the two methods differed by no more than 25%. In another, more realistic benchmark exercise, which is the subject of this paper, the real irradiation history of D-T and D-D campaigns conducted at JET in 1997-98 were used to calculate the shut-down doses at different locations, irradiation and decay times. Experimental dose data recorded at JET for the same conditions offer the possibility to check the prediction capability of the calculations and thus show the applicability (and the constraints) of the procedures and data to the rather complex shutdown dose rate analysis of real fusion devices. Calculation results obtained by the two methods are reported below, comparison with experimental results give discrepancies ranging between 2 and 10. The reasons of that can be ascribed to the high uncertainty on the experimental data and the unsatisfactory JET model used in the calculation. A new

  16. Reference calculation of light propagation between parallel planes of different sizes and sampling rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaz, Petr

    2011-01-03

    The article deals with a method of calculation of off-axis light propagation between parallel planes using discretization of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral and its implementation by fast convolution. It analyses zero-padding in case of different plane sizes. In case of memory restrictions, it suggests splitting the calculation into tiles and shows that splitting leads to a faster calculation when plane sizes are a lot different. Next, it suggests how to calculate propagation in case of different sampling rates by splitting planes into interleaved tiles and shows this to be faster than zero-padding and direct calculation. Neither the speedup nor memory-saving method decreases accuracy; the aim of the proposed method is to provide reference data that can be compared to the results of faster and less precise methods.

  17. Nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) based on artificial nest experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xu; Zhao, Yu-Ze; Ma, Jing; Li, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Ji-Liang

    2017-01-18

    To explore the nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant(Syrmaticus reevesii) and the nest-site factors that affect it, we conducted artificial nest experiments with reference to natural nests at Dongzhai National Nature Reserve(DNNR), Henan Province and Pingjingguan, Hubei Province from April to June 2014 simulating the situation in its early and later breeding season. We also determined distance characteristics of the nest sites by ArcGIS 10.0. Nest survival models were constructed in Program MARK for data analysis. Results indicated that in the early breeding season, the apparent survival rate(ASR) in DNNR(52.4%) was significantly greater than that in Pingjingguan(13.5%), and the ASR in the later breeding season in DNNR(26.7%) was not indistinctively correlated with Pingjingguan(3.2%). The daily survival rate(DSR) in the later breeding season was 93.8% in DNNR and 92.0% in Pingjingguan, respectively. The DSRs were both negatively correlated with nest distance to forest edges and settlements. The DSR in Pingjingguan was positively correlated with nest distance to paths and negatively correlated with nest distance to water sources. However, the DSR in DNNR was negatively correlated with nest distance to paths but positively correlated with nest distance to water sources.

  18. A retrospective study on related factors affecting the survival rate of dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Kyung; Lee, Ki; Lee, Yong-Sang; Park, Pil-Kyoo

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this retrospective study is to analyze the relationship between local factors and survival rate of dental implant which had been installed and restored in Seoul Veterans Hospital dental center for past 10 years. And when the relationship is found out, it could be helpful to predict the prognosis of dental implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of patients receiving root-shaped screw-type dental implants placed from January 2000 to December 2009 was conducted. 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients. The following data were collected from the dental records and radiographs: patient's age, gender, implant type and surface, length, diameter, location of implant placement, bone quality, prosthesis type. The correlations between these data and survival rate were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with the use of Kaplan-Meier analysis, Chi-square test and odds ratio. RESULTS In all, 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients (3120 male, 635 female; mean age 65 ± 10.58 years). 108 implants failed and the cumulative survival rate was 96.33%. There were significant differences in age, implant type and surface, length, location and prosthesis type (P.05). CONCLUSION Related factors such as age, implant type, length, location and prosthesis type had a significant effect on the implant survival. PMID:22259704

  19. The Calculation Methods of the Specific Fuel Rate in Combined Heat and Electricity Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Chuchueva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a specific fuel rate in combined heat and electricity production using CHP technology. There are two objectives for calculation of specific fuel rate: a CHP technical efficiency estimate, b increasing CHP competitiveness at electricity and district heat markets. Currently, development of a number of thermo-dynamical methods of calculation solves the first problem while to solve the second one there is a number of developed economical methods of calculation. In Russia despite a decade of the wholesale electricity market progress the CHP market offers are still tightly connected with technical efficiency rate. To estimate the technical efficiency rate is widely used the least effective thermo-dynamical method – so called “physical” method”. The paper formulates a problem statement that is the specific fuel rate calculation and reviews the most widely applied methods. The review consists of two parts: in the first the Russian methods are discussed, and in the second one the methods widely used in the countries with highly developed electricity and district heat markets. A new thermo-dynamical method to calculate the specific fuel rate is introduced, which uses the linear characteristic curves of a steam turbine. The developed method allows us to take into consideration the energy inequality of the CHP products. Another advantages of this new method are calculation simplicity and small number of input data. To compare the effectiveness of different methods were introduced comparison rules and also calculations were performed. The comparison of thermo-dynamical methods shows that the most effective methods are an exergy method and also the method that takes into consideration the reduced generation of electricity (work method. Calculation complexity and large number of input data are main disadvantages of these methods. The comparison of economical methods shows that the most effective from stated point of view are a

  20. Survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of an important mesopredator: the northern raccoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Troyer

    Full Text Available Populations of mesopredators (mid-sized mammalian carnivores are expanding in size and range amid declining apex predator populations and ever-growing human presence, leading to significant ecological impacts. Despite their obvious importance, population dynamics have scarcely been studied for most mesopredator species. Information on basic population parameters and processes under a range of conditions is necessary for managing these species. Here we investigate survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of a widely distributed and abundant mesopredator, the northern raccoon (Procyon lotor, using Pradel's temporal symmetry models and >6 years of monthly capture-mark-recapture data collected in a protected area. Monthly apparent survival probability was higher for females (0.949, 95% CI = 0.936-0.960 than for males (0.908, 95% CI = 0.893-0.920, while monthly recruitment rate was higher for males (0.091, 95% CI = 0.078-0.106 than for females (0.054, 95% CI = 0.042-0.067. Finally, monthly realized population growth rate was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.996-1.004, indicating that our study population has reached a stable equilibrium in this relatively undisturbed habitat. There was little evidence for substantial temporal variation in population growth rate or its components. Our study is one of the first to quantify survival, recruitment, and realized population growth rate of raccoons using long-term data and rigorous statistical models.

  1. Calculated ionization rates, ion densities, and airglow emission rates due to precipitating electrons in the nightside ionosphere of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, S. A.; Kim, J.; Nagy, A. F.; Keller, C. N.; Verigin, M. I.; Gringauz, K. I.; Shutte, N. M.; Szego, K.; Kiraly, P.

    1992-01-01

    The calculations presented in this paper clearly establish that the electron fluxes measured by the HARP instrument, carried on board Phobos 2, could cause significant electron impact ionization and excitation in the nightside atmosphere of Mars, if these electrons actually do precipitate. The calculated peak electron densities were found to be about a factor of 2 larger than the mean observed nightside densities, indicating that if a significant fraction of the measured electrons actually precipitate, they could be the dominant mechanism responsible for maintaining the nightside ionosphere. The calculated zenith column emission rates of the O I 5577-A and 6300-A and CO Cameron band emissions, due to electron impact and dissociative recombination mechanisms, were found to be significant.

  2. Standard practice for calculation of corrosion rates and related information from electrochemical measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1989-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the providing of guidance in converting the results of electrochemical measurements to rates of uniform corrosion. Calculation methods for converting corrosion current density values to either mass loss rates or average penetration rates are given for most engineering alloys. In addition, some guidelines for converting polarization resistance values to corrosion rates are provided. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  3. Estimating Survival Rates in Engineering for Community College Transfer Students Using Grades in Calculus and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugerman, Marcia; Shelley, Mack; Rover, Diane; Mickelson, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a unique synthesized set of data for community college students transferring to engineering by combining several cohorts of longitudinal data along with transcript-level data, from both the Community College and the University, to measure success rates in engineering. The success rates are calculated by developing Kaplan-Meier…

  4. Influence of L-dopa and of thymus fraction on the survival rate of whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, E.; Helmholz, M. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite))

    1982-06-01

    The survival rate of mice with exposure of the whole body (7 Gy) was hardly changed by one dose as well as several doses of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor amantadine and the interferon inductor measles vaccine. However, the survival rates were increased by one administration of L-dopa or by the long-term therapy using L-dopa at 7 and 9 Gy, resp. The survival rates were also increased at 7 and 9 Gy, resp. if the thymus factor was three times applied to the animals after irradiation. The increased survival rates gained by using L-dopa and thymus factor are correlated with the leukocyte values determined.

  5. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...

  6. Basic survival needs and access to medicines--coming to grips with TRIPS: conversion + calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Puymbroeck, Rudolf V

    2010-01-01

    "Access to medicines" is a broad concept. After a review of three authoritative frameworks that help to identify its constitutive components, this essay summarizes the actual situation on the ground in low- and middle-income countries on the basis of recent empirical work. An analysis of survey data from 36 countries concluded that developing countries should promote generic medicines as a key policy option for improving access to medicines. Taking an international perspective to that recommendation, this essay reviews the World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and, particularly, how this agreement has been applied in practice. As shown by the experience of Thailand, Brazil, and the Philippines, in order to deal effectively with international pressures for an excessive application of the TRIPS Agreement, some sort of conversion experience appears to be required, which then leads to a switch from a private enterprise, supply-driven approach to a public health vision that insists on universal and affordable access. But moral conviction is not sufficient. In order to muster and sustain the political will to face down international forces, civil society and government offices must be able and ready to show the costs and other adverse consequences of the TRIPS-based model for medicines. This calculation needs to reach beyond the health sector and calls for new alliances, nationally as well as internationally. © 2010 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  7. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  8. Occurrence of complications and survival rates in elderly with neurological disorders undergoing enteral nutrition therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Aline Stangherlin; Rezende, Nilton Alves de; Torres, Henrique Oswaldo da Gama

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of complications, as well as the survival rates, in elderly people having neurological diseases and undergoing enteral nutrition therapy (ENT). Patients aged over 60 years, assisted by a home medical service from a healthcare plan in the city of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, were thoroughly evaluated. The mentioned evaluation occurred at their homes after hospital discharge with enteral nutrition (EN) after a three-month period, a six-month period, and at the end of the study. A nutritional assessment was performed along with data collection performed on the patients' electronic medical records, and interviews performed with patients' family members and caregivers. Seventy-nine patients aged 82.9 ± 10.4 years old were evaluated; of these, 49.4% presented dementia, and 50.6% presented other neurological diagnoses. 100% of patients presented a high dependence level, assessed by the Katz index. The majority of patients (91.2%) presented some complications such as: pneumonia, catheter loss, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, fluid leakage, periostotomy, tube obstruction, reflux, and myiasis. Pneumonia was the most frequent complication, occurring in 55.9% of cases. The mortality rates were 15.2% at a three-month period, 22.8% at a six-month period, and 43% at the end of study. The median survival after starting EN was 364 days. Differences among the mortality rate and neurological diagnosis, EN routes of access, and complications were not observed. The survival rate was lower in patients having inadequate nutritional status and albumin levels nutritional status according to the clinical assessment and albumin levels lower than 3.5 mg/dL significantly influenced the survival rates.

  9. Impacts of Bokashi on survival and growth rates of Pinus pseudostrobus in community reforestation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-López, P F; Ramírez, M I; Pérez-Salicrup, D R

    2015-03-01

    Community-based small-scale reforestation practices have been proposed as an alternative to low-efficiency massive reforestations conducted by external agents. These latter conventional reforestations are often carried out in soils that have been seriously degraded and this has indirectly contributed to the introduction of non-native species and/or acceptance of very low seedling survival rates. Bokashi is a fermented soil organic amendment that can be made from almost any available agricultural byproduct, and its beneficial effects in agriculture have been reported in various contexts. Here, we report the results of a community-based small-scale experimental reforestation where the provenance of pine seedlings (local and commercial) and the use of Bokashi as a soil amendment were evaluated. Bokashi was prepared locally by members of a small rural community in central Mexico. Almost two years after the establishment of the trial, survival rates for the unamended and amended local trees were 97-100% while survival of the commercial trees from unamended and amended treatments were 87-93%. Consistently through time, local and commercial seedlings planted in Bokashi-amended soils were significantly taller (x̅ = 152 cm) than those planted in unamended soils (̅x = 86 cm). An unplanned infection by Cronartium quercuum in the first year of the experiment was considered as a covariable. Infected seedlings showed malformations but this did not affect survival and growth rates. Bokashi amendment seems as an inexpensive, locally viable technology to increase seedling survival and growth and to help recover deforested areas where soils have been degraded. This allows local stakeholders to see more rapid results while helping them to maintain their interest in conservation activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Panthere V2: Multipurpose Simulation Software for 3D Dose Rate Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penessot, Gaël; Bavoil, Éléonore; Wertz, Laurent; Malouch, Fadhel; Visonneau, Thierry; Dubost, Julien

    2017-09-01

    PANTHERE is a multipurpose radiation protection software developed by EDF to calculate gamma dose rates in complex 3D environments. PANTHERE takes a key role in the EDF ALARA process, enabling to predict dose rates and to organize and optimize operations in high radiation environments. PANTHERE is also used for nuclear waste characterization, transport of nuclear materials, etc. It is used in most of the EDF engineering units and their design service providers and industrial partners.

  11. Calculation and manipulation of the chirp rates of high-order harmonics

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, M.; Mauritsson, Johan; L'Huillier, Anne; Schafer, KJ; Gaarde, Mette

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the linear chirp rates of high-order harmonics in argon, generated by intense, 810 nm laser pulses, and explore the dependence of the chirp rate on harmonic order, driving laser intensity, and pulse duration. By using a time-frequency representation of the harmonic fields we can identify several different linear chirp contributions. to the plateau harmonics. Our results, which are based on numerical integration of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation, are in good agreement wit...

  12. Daily survival rate and habitat characteristics of nests of Wilson's Plover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, Elizabeth; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed habitat characteristics and measured daily survival rate of 72 nests of Charadrius wilsonia (Wilson's Plover) during 2012 and 2013 on South Island and Sand Island on the central coast of South Carolina. At both study areas, nest sites were located at slightly higher elevations (i.e., small platforms of sand) relative to randomly selected nearby unused sites, and nests at each study area also appeared to be situated to enhance crypsis and/or vigilance. Daily survival rate (DSR) of nests ranged from 0.969 to 0.988 among study sites and years, and the probability of nest survival ranged from 0.405 to 0.764. Flooding and predation were the most common causes of nest failure at both sites. At South Island, DSR was most strongly related to maximum tide height, which suggests that flooding and overwash may be common causes of nest loss for Wilson's Plovers at these study sites. The difference in model results between the 2 nearby study sites may be partially due to more-frequent flooding at Sand Island because of some underlying yet unmeasured physiographic feature. Remaining data gaps for the species include regional assessments of nest and chick survival and habitat requirements during chick rearing.

  13. Calculation Of Clinopyroxene And Olivine Growth Rates Using Plagioclase Residence Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, A. I.; Borell, A.; Leu, A.

    2012-12-01

    According to the Crystal Size Distribution theory (CSD) in a plot of logarithm of number of crystals of a given size range per unit volume [ln(n)], against crystal size [L] shows a straight line. Slope of that line is given by where is the crystal residence time and G is the crystal growth rate. Therefore if is known then G can be calculated. We used thin sections of the Kilauea basalt from Hawaii where olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystallized within a small temperature range, and the crystal growth rate of plagioclase is known. Assuming that crystal residence times of these three minerals are the same, we plotted ln(n) against L and using the slope and the known crystal growth rate of plagioclase we calculated the crystal growth rates of clinopyroxene and olivine. For the clinopyroxene growth rate we report 10-10.9cm/sec, which is in good agreement with Congdon's data of 10-10 cm/sec. We also calculated the growth rate of olivine is a basaltic melt as 10-8.5 cm/sec which is comparable to Jambon.

  14. Survival rates of porcelain laminate restoration based on different incisal preparation designs: An analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ashish; Kaiwar, Anjali; Shubhashini, N; Ashwini, P; Naveen, DN; Adarsha, MS; Shetty, Mitha; Meena, N

    2011-01-01

    Background: Veneer restorations provide a valid conservative alternative to complete coverage as they avoid aggressive dental preparation; thus, maintaining tooth structure. Initially, laminates were placed on the unprepared tooth surface. Although there is as yet no consensus as to whether or not teeth should be prepared for laminate veneers, currently, more conservative preparations have been advocated. Because of their esthetic appeal, biocompatibility and adherence to the physiology of minimal-invasive dentistry, porcelain laminate veneers have now become a restoration of choice. Currently, there is a lack of clinical consensus regarding the type of design preferred for laminates. Widely varying survival rates and methods for its estimation have been reported for porcelain veneers over approximately 2–10 years. Relatively few studies have been reported in the literature that use survival estimates, which allow for valid study comparisons between the types of preparation designs used. No survival analysis has been undertaken for the designs used. The purpose of this article is to attempt to review the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs from both clinical and non-clinical studies. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to review both clinical and non-clinical studies to determine the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs. A further objective of the study is to understand which is the most successful design in terms of preparation. Materials and Methods This study evaluated the existing literature – survival rates of veneers based on incisal preparation designs. The search strategy involved MEDLINE, BITTORRENT and other databases. Statistical Analysis Data were tabulated. Because of variability in the follow-up period in different studies, the follow-up period was extrapolated to 10 years in common for all of them. Accordingly, the failure rate was then estimated and The

  15. Survival rates of porcelain laminate restoration based on different incisal preparation designs: An analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ashish; Kaiwar, Anjali; Shubhashini, N; Ashwini, P; Naveen, Dn; Adarsha, Ms; Shetty, Mitha; Meena, N

    2011-01-01

    Veneer restorations provide a valid conservative alternative to complete coverage as they avoid aggressive dental preparation; thus, maintaining tooth structure. Initially, laminates were placed on the unprepared tooth surface. Although there is as yet no consensus as to whether or not teeth should be prepared for laminate veneers, currently, more conservative preparations have been advocated. Because of their esthetic appeal, biocompatibility and adherence to the physiology of minimal-invasive dentistry, porcelain laminate veneers have now become a restoration of choice. Currently, there is a lack of clinical consensus regarding the type of design preferred for laminates. Widely varying survival rates and methods for its estimation have been reported for porcelain veneers over approximately 2-10 years. Relatively few studies have been reported in the literature that use survival estimates, which allow for valid study comparisons between the types of preparation designs used. No survival analysis has been undertaken for the designs used. The purpose of this article is to attempt to review the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs from both clinical and non-clinical studies. The purpose of this study is to review both clinical and non-clinical studies to determine the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs. A further objective of the study is to understand which is the most successful design in terms of preparation. This study evaluated the existing literature - survival rates of veneers based on incisal preparation designs. The search strategy involved MEDLINE, BITTORRENT and other databases. Data were tabulated. Because of variability in the follow-up period in different studies, the follow-up period was extrapolated to 10 years in common for all of them. Accordingly, the failure rate was then estimated and The weighted mean was computed. The study found that the window preparation was of the

  16. BPS Explained II: Calculating the Equilibration Rate in the Extreme Quantum Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Singleton, Robert L

    2007-01-01

    This is the second in a series of two lectures on the technique of dimensional continuation, a new method for analytically calculating certain energy transport quantities in a weakly to moderately coupled plasma. Recently, this method was employed by Brown, Preston, and Singleton (BPS) to calculate the electron-ion temperature equilibration rate and the charged particle stopping power to leading and next-to-leading order in the plasma coupling. In this lecture, I develop the framework further, and then explicitly calculate the electron-ion temperature equilibration rate in the high temperature limit. This method captures all short and long distance physics to second order in the plasma coupling. This analytic perturbative technique is applicable for ignition in inertial confinement fusion and for other processes in hot a weakly coupled plasma.

  17. Thermochemistry and accurate quantum reaction rate calculations for H2/HD/D2 + CH3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyman, G.; Harrevelt, R. van; Manthe, U.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate quantum-mechanical results for thermodynamic data, cumulative reaction probabilities (for J = 0), thermal rate constants, and kinetic isotope effects for the three isotopic reactions H-2 + CH3 -> CH4 + H, HD + CH3 -> CH4 + D, and D-2 + CH3 -> CH3D + D are presented. The calculations are

  18. Field theoretic calculation of energy cascade rates in non-helical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Energy cascade rates and Kolmogorov's constant for non-helical steady magnetohydrodynamic turbulence have been calculated by solving the flux equations to the first order in perturbation. For zero cross helicity and space dimension d = 3 , magnetic energy cascades from large length-scales to small length-scales ...

  19. Survival and success rate of one-piece implant inserted in molar sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinci, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the use of one-piece implants (OPI) has become more popular. Since no reports specifically focus on OPIs inserted in molar areas, a retrospective study has been performed. A series of 36 OPIs (Diamond; BIOIMPLANT, Milan, Italy) were inserted into the molar area of patients admitted at the Dental Clinic, University of Chieti, Italy, for oral rehabilitation between January and December 2010. In our series survival rate (SVR) and success rate (SCR) were 91.7% and 97%, respectively. Statistical analysis demonstrated that no studied variable has an impact on survival (i.e., lost implants) as well as on clinical success (i.e., crestal bone resorption). OPIs are reliable devices for oral rehabilitation in the molar areas.

  20. Survival and success rate of one-piece implant inserted in molar sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinci, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently, the use of one-piece implants (OPI) has become more popular. Since no reports specifically focus on OPIs inserted in molar areas, a retrospective study has been performed. Materials and Methods: A series of 36 OPIs (Diamond; BIOIMPLANT, Milan, Italy) were inserted into the molar area of patients admitted at the Dental Clinic, University of Chieti, Italy, for oral rehabilitation between January and December 2010. Results: In our series survival rate (SVR) and success rate (SCR) were 91.7% and 97%, respectively. Statistical analysis demonstrated that no studied variable has an impact on survival (i.e., lost implants) as well as on clinical success (i.e., crestal bone resorption). Conclusion: OPIs are reliable devices for oral rehabilitation in the molar areas. PMID:23814575

  1. Implant and prosthodontic survival rates with implant fixed complete dental prostheses in the edentulous mandible after at least 5 years: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaspyridakos, Panos; Mokti, Muizzaddin; Chen, Chun-Jung; Benic, Goran I; Gallucci, German O; Chronopoulos, Vasilios

    2014-10-01

    The treatment of mandibular edentulism with implant fixed complete dental prostheses (IFCDPs) is a routinely used treatment option. The study aims to report the implant and prosthodontic survival rates associated with IFCDPs for the edentulous mandible after an observation period of a minimum 5 years. An electronic MEDLINE/PubMED search was conducted to identify randomized controlled clinical trials and prospective studies with IFCDPs for the edentulous mandible. Clinical studies with at least 5-year follow-up were selected. Pooled data were statistically analyzed and cumulative implant- and prosthesis survival rates were calculated by meta-analysis, regression, and chi-square statistics. Implant-related and prosthesis-related factors were identified and their impact on survival rates was assessed. Seventeen prospective studies, including 501 patients and 2,827 implants, were selected for meta-analysis. The majority of the implants (88.5% of all placed implants) had been placed in the interforaminal area. Cumulative implant survival rates for rough surface ranged from 98.42% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 97.98-98.86) (5 years) to 96.86% (95% CI: 96.00-97.73) (10 years); smooth surface implant survival rates ranged from 98.93% (95% CI: 98.38-99.49) (5 years) to 97.88% (95% CI: 96.78-98.98) (10 years). The prosthodontic survival rates for 1-piece IFCDPs ranged from 98.61% (95% CI: 97.80-99.43) (5 years) to 97.25% (95% CI: 95.66-98.86) (10 years). Treatment with mandibular IFCDPs yields high implant and prosthodontic survival rates (more than 96% after 10 years). Rough surface implants exhibited cumulative survival rates similar to the smooth surface ones (p > .05) in the edentulous mandible. The number of supporting implants and the antero-posterior implant distribution had no influence (p > .05) on the implant survival rate. The prosthetic design and veneering material, the retention type, and the loading protocol (delayed, early, and immediate) had no

  2. Temporal variation in survival and recovery rates of lesser scaup: A response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Todd W.; Afton, Alan D.; Anteau, Michael J.; Koons, David N.; Nicolai, Chris A.

    2017-01-01

    We recently analyzed long-term (1951–2011) continental band-recovery data from lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and demonstrated that harvest rates declined through time, but annual survival rates exhibited no such trends; moreover, annual harvest and survival rates were uncorrelated for all age-sex classes. We therefore concluded that declining fecundity was most likely responsible for recent population declines, rather than changes in harvest or survival. Lindberg et al. (2017) critiqued our conclusions, arguing that we did little more than fail to reject a null hypothesis of compensatory mortality, postulated ecologically unrealistic changes in fecundity, and failed to give sufficient consideration to additive harvest mortality. Herein, we re-summarize our original evidence indicating that harvest has been compensatory, or at most weakly additive, and demonstrate that our analysis had sufficient power to detect strongly additive mortality if it occurred. We further demonstrate that our conclusions were not confounded by population size, band loss, or individual heterogeneity, as suggested by Lindberg et al. (2017), and we provide additional support for our conjecture that low fecundity played a major role in declining scaup populations during 1983–2006. We therefore reiterate our original management recommendations: given low harvest rates and lack of demonstrable effect on scaup survival, harvest regulations could return to more liberal frameworks, and waterfowl biologists should work together to continue banding lesser scaup and use these data to explore alternative hypotheses to identify the true ecological causes of population change, given that it is unlikely to be excessive harvest. 

  3. Bacterial survival rate on tooth- and interdental brushes in relation to the use of toothpaste

    OpenAIRE

    Quirynen, Marc; De Soete, Marc; Pauwels, M.; Goossens, K.; Teughels, Wim; Van Eldere, Johan; van Steenberghe, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND, AIMS: Previous studies indicated that oral hygiene aids can play a rôle in the intra-oral translocation of pathogens. The survival rate of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic species on toothbrushes, with and without toothpaste, and interdental brushes was presently investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 12 periodontitis patients had their interdental spaces professionally cleaned with interdental brushes and their teeth with new toothbrushes with or without different dentifrices. Ea...

  4. Microcalcification-Associated Breast Cancer: Presentation, Successful First Excision, Long-Term Recurrence and Survival Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominger, Marga B; Steinmetz, Carolin; Westerman, Ronny; Ramaswamy, Annette; Albert, Ute-Susann

    2015-12-01

    In this study we evaluated mammographic, histological and immunohistochemical findings for microcalcification-associated breast cancer with regards to breast-conserving therapy, recurrence and survival rate. We retrospectively analyzed 99 consecutive, non-palpable and microcalcification-associated breast cancers (94 women) that were treated surgically between January 2002 and December 2003 at a national academic breast cancer center. Calcifications were classified according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Descriptors, surgical outcome and histological findings were assessed. Recurrences and survival rates were evaluated based on medical records, standardized patient questionnaires and/or contacting the physician. 42 of the 99 lesions (42.4%) were invasive carcinomas, 57 (57.6%) were pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). 6 out of 99 (6.1%) lesions were triple negative, and 29 (29.3%) were HER2/neu positive. Successful first excision rate was 76/99 lesions (76.8%). Breast conservation was achieved in 73.7% (73/99). 10 women showed local recurrences without negatively impacting survival. The recurrences included round/punctate, amorphous, fine pleomorphic, and fine linear or fine-linear branching descriptors. The breast cancer-specific long-term survival rate was 91/94 (96.8%) for a mean follow-up of 81.4 months. The 3 patients who died due to breast carcinoma showed fine pleomorphic calcifications, and had nodal-positive invasive carcinoma at diagnosis. Microcalcification-associated breast cancers are frequently treated with breast-conserving therapy. Continuous clinical and mammographic follow-up is recommended for all descriptors.

  5. Improvement of piglet survival rate in relation to farrowing systems and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumaitre, A; Le Dividich, J

    1984-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in the same farrowing house with the aim of comparing the efficiency of two types of floors and in order to estimate the effect of bedding material on the performance of newborn piglets. In addition, the productivity data of our sow herd as well as those of the national herd, were analysed in order to study the effect of the farrowing system and piglet maturity at birth on the survival rate of the newborn. The main results clearly show the detrimental effect on piglet survival of using slatted floors at farrowing. Furthermore the mode of sow tethering during parturition directly affects the piglets losses between birth and weaning, i.e. 2.03 piglets/litter for tethered sows, 2.17 for caged sows, 2.30 piglets when using farrowing rails. Use of a bedding material has a positive influence on the survival rate: 83.1% for straw, 78.5% for shredded paper versus 68.5% in the case of an insulated concrete floor. Rearing of newborn piglets in a cold environment leads to a drop in the rectal temperature, a poor body carbohydrate utilization and a decrease in colostrum intake. This results in a poor immunity, a low survival rate and a growth rate depression. Search for optimal environmental conditions for the newborn piglet is more important than for the sow. An adequate management of farrowing houses is recommended involving tethering of the sows, extra heating of the pens when the piglets are born and during their first 3 weeks of life.

  6. The impact of different sampling rates and calculation time intervals on ROTI values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Knut Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ROTI (Rate of TEC index is a commonly used measure of ionospheric irregularities level. The algorithm to calculate ROTI is easily implemented, and is the same from paper to paper. However, the sample rate of the GNSS data used, and the time interval over which a value of ROTI is calculated, varies from paper to paper. When comparing ROTI values from different studies, this must be taken into account. This paper aims to show what these differences are, to increase the awareness of this issue. We have investigated the effect of different parameters for the calculation of ROTI values, using one year of data from 8 receivers at latitudes ranging from 59° N to 79° N. We have found that the ROTI values calculated using different parameter choices are strongly positively correlated. However, the ROTI values are quite different. The effect of a lower sample rate is to lower the ROTI value, due to the loss of high-frequency parts of the ROT spectrum, while the effect of a longer calculation time interval is to remove or reduce short-lived peaks due to the inherent smoothing effect. The ratio of ROTI values based on data of different sampling rate is examined in relation to the ROT power spectrum. Of relevance to statistical studies, we find that the median level of ROTI depends strongly on sample rate, strongly on latitude at auroral latitudes, and weakly on time interval. Thus, a baseline “quiet” or “noisy” level for one location or choice or parameters may not be valid for another location or choice of parameters.

  7. Preoperative Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Independently Predicts Overall Survival in Localized Renal Cell Carcinoma following Radical Nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Cross

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the relationship between preoperative erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and overall survival in localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC following nephrectomy. Methods. 167 patients undergoing nephrectomy for localized RCC had ESR levels measured preoperatively. Receiver Operating Characteristics curves were used to determine Area Under the Curve and relative sensitivity and specificity of preoperative ESR in predicting overall survival. Cut-offs for low (0.0–20.0 mm/hr, intermediate (20.1–50.0 mm/hr, and high risk (>50.0 mm/hr groups were created. Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to assess the univariate impact of these ESR-based groups on overall survival. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis was conducted to assess the potential of these groups to predict overall survival, adjusting for other patient and tumor characteristics. Results. Overall, 55.2% were low risk, while 27.0% and 17.8% were intermediate and high risk, respectively. Median (95% CI survival was 44.1 (42.6–45.5 months, 35.5 (32.3–38.8 months, and 32.1 (25.5–38.6 months, respectively. After controlling for other patient and tumor characteristics, intermediate and high risk groups experienced a 4.5-fold (HR: 4.509, 95% CI: 0.735–27.649 and 18.5-fold (HR: 18.531, 95% CI: 2.117–162.228 increased risk of overall mortality, respectively. Conclusion. Preoperative ESR values represent a robust predictor of overall survival following nephrectomy in localized RCC.

  8. Bayesian Analysis of the Survival Function and Failure Rate of Weibull Distribution with Censored Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bambey Guure

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The survival function of the Weibull distribution determines the probability that a unit or an individual will survive beyond a certain specified time while the failure rate is the rate at which a randomly selected individual known to be alive at time will die at time (. The classical approach for estimating the survival function and the failure rate is the maximum likelihood method. In this study, we strive to determine the best method, by comparing the classical maximum likelihood against the Bayesian estimators using an informative prior and a proposed data-dependent prior known as generalised noninformative prior. The Bayesian estimation is considered under three loss functions. Due to the complexity in dealing with the integrals using the Bayesian estimator, Lindley’s approximation procedure is employed to reduce the ratio of the integrals. For the purpose of comparison, the mean squared error (MSE and the absolute bias are obtained. This study is conducted via simulation by utilising different sample sizes. We observed from the study that the generalised prior we assumed performed better than the others under linear exponential loss function with respect to MSE and under general entropy loss function with respect to absolute bias.

  9. CHARADE: A characteristic code for calculating rate-dependent shock-wave response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.N.; Tonks, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this report we apply spatially one-dimensional methods and simple shock-tracking techniques to the solution of rate-dependent material response under flat-plate-impact conditions. This method of solution eliminates potential confusion of material dissipation with artificial dissipative effects inherent in finite-difference codes, and thus lends itself to accurate calculation of elastic-plastic deformation, shock-to-detonation transition in solid explosives, and shock-induced structural phase transformation. Equations are presented for rate-dependent thermoelastic-plastic deformation for (100) planar shock-wave propagation in materials of cubic symmetry (or higher). Specific numerical calculations are presented for polycrystalline copper using the mechanical threshold stress model of Follansbee and Kocks with transition to dislocation drag. A listing of the CHARADE (for characteristic rate dependence) code and sample input deck are given. 26 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Calculation and Spatial Distribution of Capitalization Rates in the Selected Segment of Reality Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardielli Eva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of real property valuation by usage of income approaches is significantly affected by capitalization rate. This article deals with problematic of the capitalization rate determination in the real estate segment of apartments in the Ostrava city. It primarily aims to calculate the level of gross capitalization rate according to different urban localities of Ostrava, for various sizes of apartments, as well depending on the type of apartment ownership. The analysis of the real estate market is an important part of the research. It is focused on the offer of apartments from the perspective of market apartments for sale and also of market apartments for rent. The analyzed and calculated spatial values distributions are consequently processed into cartographic outputs.

  11. METHODS OF CALCULATING DISCOUNT AND CAPITALIZATION RATES TO VALUATING REAL ESTATE IN ACCORDANCE WITH MARKETS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chubuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The existent methods of determination of the discount and capitalization rates for the valuation of the profitable real estate are analyzed from point of their prevalence, advantages and lacks of application. The alternative methods for setting the discount rates are selected (Galasyuk’s method. There are resulted recommendations in relation to approaching calculated size of the discount and capitalization rates to the real market information. In particular, expansion of the use of actually attained level of the expected return on the invested capital is offered. The actual values of capitalization rates on the office, commercial, ware-house real estate market in the capital of Ukraine are examined for period from 2008 to 2013, which evidence of considerable changeability of investment return indexes. There is confirmed the necessity of increasing the size of corrections in supply price to the level 18-20% for calculation of the capitalization rates after the method of market extraction. There is also propagates the account of additional market factors at the construction of recapitalization rates after the Invud’s method: annual growth (decline of leasing rates that are obtained from the profit real estate object; annual growth (decline of cost of the real property object; a percent of diminishing of cost of the real estate object in result of all kinds of depreciation (when residual value differ from a zero.

  12. Urothelial atypia and survival rate of 500 unselected patients with primary transitional-cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde Olsen, P; Wolf, H; Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 500 unselected patients with primary urinary bladder tumours the influence of urothelial atypia on the 5 years survival-rate was examined. All tumours were transitional-cell tumours categorized according to the T-classification. Mucosal biopsies from 7 pre-selected sites...... worse than those with normal bladder mucosa (5 years survival 42% versus 62%). This difference in survival-rate became apparent first after two years of observation. Grade II atypia in the bladder mucosa and grade III (carcinoma in situ) had equal significance assessed by the survival-rates....

  13. Monte Carlo calculation of dose rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon emitters in soil

    CERN Document Server

    Clouvas, A; Antonopoulos-Domis, M; Silva, J

    2000-01-01

    The dose rate conversion factors D/sub CF/ (absorbed dose rate in air per unit activity per unit of soil mass, nGy h/sup -1/ per Bq kg/sup -1/) are calculated 1 m above ground for photon emitters of natural radionuclides uniformly distributed in the soil. Three Monte Carlo codes are used: 1) The MCNP code of Los Alamos; 2) The GEANT code of CERN; and 3) a Monte Carlo code developed in the Nuclear Technology Laboratory of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. The accuracy of the Monte Carlo results is tested by the comparison of the unscattered flux obtained by the three Monte Carlo codes with an independent straightforward calculation. All codes and particularly the MCNP calculate accurately the absorbed dose rate in air due to the unscattered radiation. For the total radiation (unscattered plus scattered) the D/sub CF/ values calculated from the three codes are in very good agreement between them. The comparison between these results and the results deduced previously by other authors indicates a good ag...

  14. Survival Rates from Fracture of Endodontically Treated Premolars Restored with Full-coverage Crowns or Direct Resin Composite Restorations: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksaphar, Warattama; Banomyong, Danuchit; Jirathanyanatt, Titalee; Ngoenwiwatkul, Yaowaluk

    2017-12-02

    The aim of the present study was to compare the survival rates against fracture of premolar endodontically treated teeth (ETT) restored with resin composite or crowns and to identify risk factors associated with the fracture. Data from dental records and radiographs of premolar ETT with postendodontic restorations (ie, resin composite or crowns) were collected between 2012 and 2016 and selected following selected inclusion and exclusion criteria. Tooth location, type of restoration, number of proximal contacts, and amount of tooth surface loss were recorded. The incidence and restorability of postendodontic fractures were identified. Survival rates against fracture of the 2 restoration types were calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Any potential factors associated with fractures were identified using Cox proportional hazards models. The survival rate against fracture of ETT restored with crowns (95.1%) was higher than resin composite (77.0%). ETT restored with resin composite with 1 or 2 tooth surface losses and 2 proximal contacts had a high survival rate of 88.5% that was not significantly different from ETT with crowns. A higher incidence of restorability after fracture was observed in teeth restored with resin composite than crowns. The type of restoration and number of proximal contacts were identified as potential risk factors associated with fracture incidence. The survival rate against fracture of ETT restored with crowns was higher than resin composite. However, ETT with 1 or 2 tooth surface losses and 2 proximal contacts and restored with resin composite showed a high survival rate that was comparable with ETT restored with crowns. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High survival and hatching rates following vitrification of embryos at blastocyst stage: a bovine model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jack Y J; Chung, Jin-Tae; Tan, Seang Lin; Chian, Ri-Cheng

    2007-04-01

    Cryopreservation of embryos at the blastocyst stage may provide an effective method to increase the cumulative pregnancy rate for each treatment cycle of ovarian-stimulated IVF. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival rate and hatching rate of bovine blastocysts following vitrification using a method designed for oocytes, with a view to introducing this methodology into human assisted reproduction technology and reproductive medicine. Bovine blastocysts were produced from abattoir materials subjected to in-vitro maturation and in-vitro fertilization. Survival rate of the bovine blastocysts was 100% (94/94) following vitrification using a method designed for oocyte cryopreservation. There was no difference in the hatching rate of the bovine blastocysts between control (62.5%: 60/96) and vitrified (61.7%: 58/94) groups. The number of dead cells in the blastocysts was not significantly different between control (5.0 +/- 2.9) and vitrified (9.5 +/- 4.0) groups. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that bovine blastocysts can be vitrified successfully using a procedure designed for oocyte cryopreservation. It is possible that this method may also be successful for the cryopreservation of human embryos. A further study into this is currently being organized.

  16. Trends in the incidence of and survival rates for oral cavity cancer in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S W; Moon, E K; Park, J Y; Jung, K W; Oh, C M; Kong, H J; Won, Y J

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed trends in the incidence of and survival rates for oral cavity cancer in the Korean population. Data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry were extracted for 10,282 patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer (C01-C06) between 1999 and 2010 to evaluate the age-standardised incidence rate, annual percentage change (APC) and 5-year relative survival rate (RSR) according to gender and age. In males, the incidence rate slightly decreased [APC of -0.2% (P = 0.6427)]; in females, the incidence rate increased [APC of 3.1% (P oral tongue cancer (C02) significantly increased [APC of 2.2% and 4.1%, respectively (P oral tongue cancer incidence was most prominent in the younger age group (cancer increased only among males [APC of 4.8% (P oral cavity cancer in females increased, whereas it stabilised or decreased in males. However, the incidence of oral tongue cancer increased in both males and females, especially in the younger age group. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Monte Carlo dose calculations for high-dose-rate brachytherapy using GPU-accelerated processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Z; Zhang, M; Hrycushko, B; Albuquerque, K; Jiang, S B; Jia, X

    2016-01-01

    Current clinical brachytherapy dose calculations are typically based on the Association of American Physicists in Medicine Task Group report 43 (TG-43) guidelines, which approximate patient geometry as an infinitely large water phantom. This ignores patient and applicator geometries and heterogeneities, causing dosimetric errors. Although Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation is commonly recognized as the most accurate method, its associated long computational time is a major bottleneck for routine clinical applications. This article presents our recent developments of a fast MC dose calculation package for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, gBMC, built on a graphics processing unit (GPU) platform. gBMC-simulated photon transport in voxelized geometry with physics in (192)Ir HDR brachytherapy energy range considered. A phase-space file was used as a source model. GPU-based parallel computation was used to simultaneously transport multiple photons, one on a GPU thread. We validated gBMC by comparing the dose calculation results in water with that computed TG-43. We also studied heterogeneous phantom cases and a patient case and compared gBMC results with Acuros BV results. Radial dose function in water calculated by gBMC showed GPU-based MC dose calculation package, gBMC, for HDR brachytherapy make it attractive for clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. It isn't like this on TV: Revisiting CPR survival rates depicted on popular TV shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portanova, Jaclyn; Irvine, Krystle; Yi, Jae Yoon; Enguidanos, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Public perceptions of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be influenced by the media. Nearly two decades ago, a study found that the rates of survival following CPR were far higher in popular TV shows than actual rates. In recent years, major strides toward enhanced education and communication around life sustaining interventions have been made. This study aimed to reassess the accuracy of CPR portrayed by popular medical TV shows. Additionally, we sought to determine whether these shows depicted discussions of care preferences and referenced advance directives. Three trained research assistants independently coded two leading medical dramas airing between 2010 and 2011, Grey's Anatomy and House. Patient characteristics, CPR survival rates, and goals of care discussions were recorded. CPR was depicted 46 times in the 91 episodes, with a survival rate of 69.6%. Among those immediately surviving following CPR, the majority (71.9%) survived to hospital discharge and 15.6% died before discharge. Advance directive discussions only occurred for two patients, and preferences regarding code status (8.7%), intubation (6.5%) and feeding (4.3%) rarely occurred. Both popular TV shows portrayed CPR as more effective than actual rates. Overall, the shows portrayed an immediate survival rate nearly twice that of actual survival rates. Inaccurate TV portrayal of CPR survival rates may misinform viewers and influence care decisions made during serious illness and at end of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of disturbance events on survival and dispersal rates of Florida box turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C.K.; Ozgul, A.; Oli, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Disturbances have the potential to cause long-term effects to ecosystem structure and function, and they may affect individual species in different ways. Long-lived vertebrates such as turtles may be at risk from such events, inasmuch as their life histories preclude rapid recovery should extensive mortality occur. We applied capture–mark–recapture models to assess disturbance effects on a population of Florida box turtles (Terrapene carolina bauri) on Egmont Key, Florida, USA. Near the midpoint of the study, a series of physical disturbances affected the island, from salt water overwash associated with several tropical storms to extensive removal of nonindigenous vegetation. These disturbances allowed us to examine demographic responses of the turtle population and to determine if they affected dispersal throughout the island. Adult survival rates did not vary significantly either between sexes or among years of the study. Survival rates did not vary significantly between juvenile and adult turtles, or among years of the study. Furthermore, neither adult nor juvenile survival rates differed significantly between pre- and post-disturbance. However, dispersal rates varied significantly among the four major study sites, and dispersal rates were higher during the pre-disturbance sampling periods compared to post-disturbance. Our results suggest few long-term effects on the demography of the turtle population. Florida box turtles responded to tropical storms and vegetation control by moving to favorable habitats minimally affected by the disturbances and remaining there. As long as turtles and perhaps other long-lived vertebrates can disperse to non-disturbed habitat, and high levels of mortality do not occur in a population, a long life span may allow them to wait out the impact of disturbance with potentially little effect on long-term population processes.

  20. Cognitive function, stress hormones, heart rate and nutritional status during simulated captivity in military survival training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R; Farina, Emily K; Caldwell, John; Williams, Kelly W; Thompson, Lauren A; Niro, Philip J; Grohmann, Kyle A; McClung, James P

    2016-10-15

    Stress influences numerous psychological and physiological processes, and its effects have practical implications in a variety of professions and real-world activities. However, few studies have concurrently assessed multiple behavioral, hormonal, nutritional and heart-rate responses of humans to acute, severe stress. This investigation simultaneously assessed cognitive, affective, hormonal, and heart-rate responses induced by an intensely stressful real-world environment designed to simulate wartime captivity. Sixty males were evaluated during and immediately following participation in U.S. Army Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) school, three weeks of intense but standardized training for Soldiers at risk of capture. Simulated captivity and intense mock interrogations degraded grammatical reasoning (pworking memory (pnutritional status and heart rate are simultaneously altered, and each of these subsequently recovers at different rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Survival rate and pressure ulcer prevalence in patients with and without dementia: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaul, E; Rosenzweig, J P; Meiron, O

    2017-07-02

    This retrospective study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pressure ulcers (PUs) in older patients with advanced dementia versus older patients without dementia but with other comorbidities, such as diabetes, ischaemic heart disease and chronic renal failure. PUs were thought to be more prevalent and to present a higher risk of mortality in patients with dementia. PUs were assessed on admission using the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) staging system. Patients were classified as either with or without dementia according to Reisberg's functional assessment staging test (FAST). The prevalence of PUs and the survival rates were analysed and compared in both groups. The combined effect of PUs and dementia on survival was assessed using the Cox proportional hazard model. The median survival rate of patients with PUs and dementia was 63 days, significantly lower than in patients with PUs without dementia 117 days. Both groups had similar other comorbidities. These findings underscore the requirement for geriatricians and health professionals to be more vigilant in examining PUs as dementia progresses.

  2. Survival Implications Associated with Variation in Mastectomy Rates for Early-Staged Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Brooks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a 20-year-old guideline from the National Institutes of Health (NIH Consensus Development Conference recommending breast conserving surgery with radiation (BCSR over mastectomy for woman with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC because it preserves the breast, recent evidence shows mastectomy rates increasing and higher-staged ESBC patients are more likely to receive mastectomy. These observations suggest that some patients and their providers believe that mastectomy has advantages over BCSR and these advantages increase with stage. These beliefs may persist because the randomized controlled trials (RCTs that served as the basis for the NIH guideline were populated mainly with lower-staged patients. Our objective is to assess the survival implications associated with mastectomy choice by patient alignment with the RCT populations. We used instrumental variable methods to estimate the relationship between surgery choice and survival for ESBC patients based on variation in local area surgery styles. We find results consistent with the RCTs for patients closely aligned to the RCT populations. However, for patients unlike those in the RCTs, our results suggest that higher mastectomy rates are associated with reduced survival. We are careful to interpret our estimates in terms of limitations of our estimation approach.

  3. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions.

  4. Relation of Mitral Valve Surgery Volume to Repair Rate, Durability, and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwe, Joanna; Toyoda, Nana; Anyanwu, Anelechi C; Itagaki, Shinobu; Egorova, Natalia N; Boateng, Percy; El-Eshmawi, Ahmed; Adams, David H

    2017-04-24

    Degenerative mitral valve repair rates remain highly variable, despite established benefits of repair over replacement. The contribution of surgeon-specific factors is poorly defined. This study evaluated the influence of surgeon case volume on degenerative mitral valve repair rates and outcomes. A mandatory New York State database was queried and 5,475 patients were identified with degenerative mitral disease who underwent mitral valve operations between 2002 and 2013. Mitral repair rates, mitral reoperations within 12 months of repair, and survival were analyzed using multivariable Cox modeling and restricted cubic spline function. Median annual surgeon volume of any mitral operations was 10 (range 1 to 230), with a mean repair rate of 55% (n = 20,797 of 38,128). In the subgroup of patients with degenerative disease, the mean repair rate was 67% (n = 3,660 of 5,475), with a range of 0% to 100%. Mean repair rates ranged from 48% (n = 179 of 370) for surgeons with total annual volumes of ≤10 mitral operations to 77% (n = 1,710 of 2,216) for surgeons with total annual volumes of >50 mitral operations (p mitral valve disease (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.13 for every additional 10 mitral operations; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10 to 1.17; p mitral operations annually; and improved 1-year survival (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.95 for every additional 10 operations; 95% CI: 0.92 to 0.98; p = 0.001). For surgeons with a total annual volume of ≤25 mitral operations, repair rates were higher (63.8%; n = 180 of 282) if they operated in the same institution as a surgeon with total annual mitral volumes of >50 and degenerative mitral valve repair rates of >70%, compared with surgeons operating in the other institutions (51.3%; n = 580 of 1,130) (adjusted OR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.60; p mitral repair rates, but also freedom from reoperation, and survival. The data from this study support the guideline's concept of reference referral to experienced mitral

  5. Effect of nitric oxide on spinal evoked potentials and survival rate in rats with decompression sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsøe, Thomas; Meehan, Claire Francesca; Broholm, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) releasing agents have, in experimental settings, been shown to decrease intravascular nitrogen bubble formation and to increase the survival rate during decompression sickness (DCS) from diving. The effect has been ascribed to a possible removal of preexisting micronuclei...... evaluated by means of spinal evoked potentials (SEPs). Anesthetized rats were decompressed from a 1-h hyperbaric air dive at 506.6 kPa (40 m of seawater) for 3 min and 17 s, and spinal cord conduction was studied by measurements of SEPs. Histological samples of the spinal cord were analyzed for lesions...... GTN (group 6) during the dive, before decompression. In all groups, decompression caused considerable intravascular bubble formation. The ISMN groups showed no difference compared with the control group, whereas the GTN groups showed a tendency toward faster SEP disappearance and shorter survival...

  6. Single-plate Molteno implants in complicated glaucomas : Results, survival rates, and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakantan Arvind

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-two single-plate single-stage Molteno implantations for complicated glaucomas were performed between March 1991 and November 1992. The charts of all these patients were reviewed to determine the intraocular pressure (IOP control success rate (< 21 mm Hg with or without medications, visual success rate (retention or improvement of visual acuity from preoperative level and the rate of complications encountered. A Kaplan-Meier life-table (survival analysis was also performed. IOP control was obtained in 74.2% of cases. Mean postoperative IOP was 16.97 +/- 8.07 mm Hg (Mean +/- SD. Visual success was obtained in 51.6% of the eyes. Eyes with aphakia/pseudophakic glaucomas showed the best response with 80% of them achieving IOP control and 60% achieving visual success. The survival plot for IOP control revealed 75.81% and 74.19% success rates at 48 and 72 weeks, respectively. Complications encountered were either due to the early postoperative hypotony or were tube-related. These results were gratifying considering the severity of the glaucoma in these cases and they reaffirm the usefulness of the Molteno implant in the management of difficult glaucomas.

  7. Optimal power flow calculation for power system with UPFC considering load rate equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiankun; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Qingsong

    2017-06-01

    Unified power flow controller (UPFC) device can change system electrical quantity (such as voltage, impedance, phase angle, etc.) rapidly and flexibly under the premise of maintain security, stability and reliability of power system, thus can improve the transmission power and transmission line utilization, so as to enhance the power supply capacity of the power grid. Based on a thorough study of the steady-state model of UPFC, taking load rate equalization as objective function, the optimal power flow model is established with UPFC, and simplified interior point method is used to solve it. Finally, optimal power flow of 24 continuous sections actual data is calculated on a typical day of Nanjing network. The results show that the optimal power flow calculation with UPFC can optimize the load rate equalization on the basis of eliminating line overload, improving the voltage level of local power network.

  8. Direct Calculation of Ice Homogeneous Nucleation Rate for a Molecular Model of Water

    CERN Document Server

    Haji-Akbari, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Ice formation is ubiquitous in nature, with important consequences in a variety of systems and environments, including biological cells [1], soil [2], aircraft [3], transportation infrastructure [4] and atmospheric clouds [5,6]. However, its intrinsic kinetics and microscopic mechanism are difficult to discern with current experiments. Molecular simulations of ice nucleation are also challenging, and direct rate calculations have only been performed for coarse-grained models of water [7-9]. For the more realistic molecular models, only indirect estimates have been obtained, e.g.~by assuming the validity of classical nucleation theory [10]. Here, we use a path sampling approach to perform the first direct rate calculation of homogeneous nucleation of ice in a molecular model of water. We use TIP4P/Ice [11], the most accurate among the existing molecular models for studying ice polymorphs. By using a novel topological order parameter for distinguishing different polymorphs, we are able to identify a freezing me...

  9. Effect of culture system on survival rate of vitrified bovine embryos produced in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, A; Nazari, H; Ahmadi, E; Heidari, B; Shams-Esfandabadi, N

    2009-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of in vitro culture system on bovine blastocyst yield and quality after vitrification. In Experiment 1, IVM/IVF zygotes were allocated to three culture conditions: (I) Oviductal cells-SOF (OCM-SOF); (II) Oviductal cells-TCM (OCM-TCM); and (III) SOF for 8 days. There was no significant difference between blastocyst rates among groups. In Experiment 2, the IVP-blastocysts in three above culture conditions were vitrified within groups segregated according to age (Day 7 and 8) and blastocoelic cavity size (early and expanded blastocysts). A trend of higher survival rate was obtained in vitrified/warmed early blastocysts compared with expanded ones, so that the difference in OCM-TCM group was significant (P<0.001). Higher survival and hatching rates (P<0.001) were obtained in OCM-SOF and OCM-TCM groups (co-culture) compared with SOF group and the age of blastocyst had no effect on post-thaw survival and hatching rates. In Experiment 3, after staining of blastocysts, in fresh blastocysts the highest number of trophectoderm cells was observed in OCM-TCM group and the number of inner cell mass (ICM) was higher in co-culture groups than SOF group (P<0.001). In vitrified/warmed blastocysts the number of ICM and trophectoderm cells in co-culture groups was higher than SOF group (P<0.001) except for the ICM of expanded blastocysts. In conclusion, in our culture conditions, the blastocyst yield is not influenced by culture system, while the cryotolerance of IVP-blastocysts is positively influenced by the presence of somatic cells. Moreover, the expanded blastocysts are more susceptible to cryoinjury than early blastocysts.

  10. Survival Rates of Teeth with Primary Endodontic Treatment after Core/Post and Crown Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Kandace; Bhagavatula, Pradeep; Stover, Sheila; Eichmiller, Frederick; Hashimoto, Lance; MacDonald, Scott; Barkley, Gordon

    2017-12-08

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of delayed placement of the core/post and crown on the outcomes of nonsurgical root canal therapy (NSRCT). According to the Delta Dental of Wisconsin claims database, 160,040 NSRCTs were completed with a core/post and a crown placed before the end of the continuous coverage period or occurrence of an untoward event. Untoward events were defined as a retreatment, apicoectomy, or extraction as defined by the Code on Dental Procedures and Nomenclature. Statistical analysis was performed by using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. The survival rate from the time of crown placement to an untoward event was 99.1% at 1 year, 96.0% at 3 years, 92.3% at 5 years, and 83.8% at 10 years. Failure rates were greater when a core/post was placed more than 60 days after the NSRCT (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.08) and when the crown was placed more than 60 days after the core/post placement (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.14). Overall, the survival rates of NSRCT were greater when performed by an endodontist versus other providers. On the basis of the information available from insurance claims data, this study shows that the long-term survival rates of initial endodontic therapy are adversely affected by the delayed placement of the final restoration and full coverage crown. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher survival rates of chronic hemodialysis patients on anti-hypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, K; Shoji, T; Nakai, S; Watanabe, Y; Akiba, T; Tsubakihara, Y

    2009-01-01

    The effects of anti-hypertensive drugs on survival have not been examined in a large cohort of hemodialysis (HD) patients. We examined the relationship between blood pressure, anti-hypertensive drug therapy, and survival using the nationwide HD registry of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. Outcomes were confirmed using the coded ID numbers of the 2005 and 2006 registries. Logistic analyses were performed to determine the effect of anti-hypertensive drug therapy on survival. A total of 163,668 patients (50.6% men; 31.5% with diabetes mellitus; mean age 63.6 years) on HD 3 times a week in 2005 were studied. Mean (SD) levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 153.4 (24.1) and 78.7 (13.7) mm Hg, respectively, before the HD session. Two-thirds of the HD patients were prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs and the numbers of anti-hypertensive medications were: 1 in 26.8%, 2 in 24.4%, and 3 or more in 14.5% of the total patients. The 1-year mortality rate was 6.6% overall: 8.5% in patients not prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs and 5.6% among those prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the 1-year mortality rate was 0.724 (0.681-0.770, p anti-hypertensive drugs, after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, HD duration, serum albumin, and systolic blood pressure. Survival was better in patients prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs, particularly renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, than in those not prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs. The causality on this association remained to be determined and prospective studies on blood pressure target levels and the effects of anti-hypertensive drug class in HD patients are warranted. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Efficient calculation of degenerate atomic rates by numerical quadrature on GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanyan, V.; Aslanyan, A. G.; Tallents, G. J.

    2017-10-01

    The rates of atomic processes in cold, dense plasma are governed strongly by effects of quantum degeneracy. The electrons follow Fermi-Dirac statistics and their high density limits the number of quantum states available for occupation after a collision. These factors preclude a direct solution to the usual rate coefficient integrals. We summarize the formulation of this problem and present a simple, but efficient method of evaluating collisional rate coefficients via direct numerical integration. Numerical quadrature has an intrinsically high level of parallelism, ideally suited for graphics processor units. GPUs are particularly suited to this problem because of the large number of integrals which must be carried out simultaneously for a given atomic model. A CUDA code to calculate the rates of significant atomic processes as part of a collisional-radiative model is presented and discussed. This approach may be readily extended to other applications where rapid and repeated evaluation of many integrals is required.

  13. External dose-rate conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This report presents a tabulation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides in the environment. This report was prepared in conjunction with criteria for limiting dose equivalents to members of the public from operations of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The dose-rate conversion factors are provided for use by the DOE and its contractors in performing calculations of external dose equivalents to members of the public. The dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons presented in this report are based on a methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. However, some adjustments of the previously documented methodology have been made in obtaining the dose-rate conversion factors in this report. 42 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Calculation of expected rates of fisheries‐induced evolution in data‐poor situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste

    for modeling the demography of fish based on size-based prescriptions of natural mortality, growth, and fishing is presented. Life history theory is used to reduce the necessary parameter set by utilizing relations between parameters making the framework particularly well suited for data-poor situations where...... only the size at maturation or the asymptotic size is known. The framework is applied to perform the modeling part of an evolutionary impact assessment using basic quantitative genetics to calculated expected rates of evolution on size at maturation, growth rate, and investment in gonads. A sensitivity...

  15. Assessments of fluid friction factors for use in leak rate calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chivers, T.C. [Berkeley Technology Centre, Glos (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Leak before Break procedures require estimates of leakage, and these in turn need fluid friction to be assessed. In this paper available data on flow rates through idealized and real crack geometries are reviewed in terms of a single friction factor k It is shown that for {lambda} < 1 flow rates can be bounded using correlations in terms of surface R{sub a} values. For {lambda} > 1 the database is less precise, but {lambda} {approx} 4 is an upper bound, hence in this region flow calculations can be assessed using 1 < {lambda} < 4.

  16. Understanding the biological activity of high rate algae ponds through the calculation of oxygen balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Zouhayr; de Godos Crespo, Ignacio; Corona, Enrique Lara; Rogalla, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae culture in high rate algae ponds (HRAP) is an environmentally friendly technology for wastewater treatment. However, for the implementation of these systems, a better understanding of the oxygenation potential and the influence of climate conditions is required. In this work, the rates of oxygen production, consumption, and exchange with the atmosphere were calculated under varying conditions of solar irradiance and dilution rate during six months of operation in a real scale unit. This analysis allowed determining the biological response of these dynamic systems. The rates of oxygen consumption measured were considerably higher than the values calculated based on the organic loading rate. The response to light intensity in terms of oxygen production in the bioreactor was described with one of the models proposed for microalgae culture in dense concentrations. This model is based on the availability of light inside the culture and the specific response of microalgae to this parameter. The specific response to solar radiation intensity showed a reasonable stability in spite of the fluctuations due to meteorological conditions. The methodology developed is a useful tool for optimization and prediction of the performance of these systems.

  17. MCNPCX calculations of dose rates and spectra in experimental channels of the CTEx irradiating facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Renato G.; Rebello, Wilson F.; Vellozo, Sergio O.; Junior, Luis M., E-mail: renatoguedes@ime.eb.br, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br, E-mail: vellozo@cbpf.br, E-mail: luisjrmoreira@hotmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Barra de Guaratiba, RJ (Brazil); Rusin, Tiago, E-mail: tiago.rusin@mma.gov.br [Ministerio do Meio Ambiente, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    MCNPX simulations have been performed in order to calculate dose rates as well as spectra along the four experimental channels of the gamma irradiating facility at the Technology Center of the Brazilian Army (CTEx). Safety, operational and research requirements have led to the need to determine both the magnitude and spectra of the leaking gamma fluxes. The CTEx experimental facility is cavity type with a moveable set of 28 horizontally positioned rods, filled with Cesium-137 chloride and doubly encased in stainless steel that yields an approximately plane 42 kCi-source that provides a maximum dose rate of about 1.5 kG/h into two irradiating chambers. The channels are intended for irradiation tests outside facility. They would allow larger samples to be exposed to lower gamma dose rates under controlled conditions. Dose rates have been calculated for several positions inside the channels as well as at their exits. In addition, for purposes related to the safety of operators and personnel, the angles submitted by the exiting beams have also been evaluated as they spread when leaving the channels. All calculations have been performed by using a computational model of the CTEx facility that allows its characteristics and operation to be accurately simulated by using the Monte Carlo Method. Virtual dosimeters filled with Fricke (ferrous sulfate) were modeled and positioned throughout 2 vertical channels (top and bottom) and 2 horizontal ones (front and back) in order to map dose rates and gamma spectrum distributions. The calculations revealed exiting collimated beams in the order of tenths of Grays per minute as compared to the maximum 25 Gy / min dose rate in the irradiator chamber. In addition, the beams leaving the two vertical channels were found to exhibit a widespread cone-shaped distribution with aperture angle ranging around 85 deg. The data calculated in this work are intended for use in the design of optimized experiments (better positioning of samples and

  18. Application of MCNP nonanalog techniques for calculations of reaction rate measurements at the BFS facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Andrianova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of measurements of criticality, central reaction rate ratios, reaction rate distributions and reactivity coefficients performed at the BFS critical assemblies is important both for obtaining information required to refine neutron data and assessing the accuracy of neutron-physical characteristics. The high core heterogeneity of critical assemblies dictates the need for using codes capable of reproducing an accurate description of the geometry and detailed representation of the energy dependence of neutron data. At the same time, serial verification tests of evaluated nuclear data libraries and processing and transport codes require significant computer time to obtain results of sufficient precision. In such cases, it is possible to achieve the required accuracy in measuring neutron-physical characteristics by using non-analogous calculation methods (variance reduction methods. The paper presents the algorithms for improving the efficiency of calculations based on non-analogous methods implemented in the MCNP code as exemplified by an analysis of experiments on measuring reaction rates in critical multiplying systems with a complex heterogeneous composition. The results of the analysis have shown that the combination of mesh-based weight window with energy splitting/roulette leads to a significant increase in the calculation efficiency and a reduction of computational time from a few days to a few hours at a statistical error in the spectral indexes of less than 2%.

  19. Five-year survival rates of melanoma patients treated by diet therapy after the manner of Gerson: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, G L; Hildenbrand, L C; Bradford, K; Cavin, S W

    1995-09-01

    Compare 5-year melanoma survival rates to rates in medical literature. Retrospective. Hospital in Tijuana, Mexico. White adult patients (N = 153) with superficial spreading and nodular melanoma, aged 25-72 years. Gerson's diet therapy: lactovegetarian; low sodium, fat and (temporarily) protein; high potassium, fluid, and nutrients (hourly raw vegetable/fruit juices). Metabolism increased by thyroid; calorie supply limited to 2600-3200 calories per day. Coffee enemas as needed for pain and appetite. 5-year survival rates by stage at admission. Of 14 patients with stages I and II (localized) melanoma, 100% survived for 5 years, compared with 79% of 15,798 reported by Balch. Of 17 with stage IIIA (regionally metastasized) melanoma, 82% were alive at 5 years, in contrast to 39% of 103 from Fachklinik Hornheide. Of 33 with combined stages IIIA + IIIB (regionally metastasized) melanoma, 70% lived 5 years, compared with 41% of 134 from Fachklinik Hornheide. We propose a new stage division: IVA (distant lymph, skin, and subcutaneous tissue metastases), and IVB (visceral metastases). Of 18 with stage IVA melanoma, 39% were alive at 5 years, compared with only 6% of 194 from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Survival impact was not assessed for stage IVB. Male and female survival rates were identical for stages I-IIIB, but stage IVA women had a strong survival advantage. The 5-year survival rates reported here are considerably higher than those reported elsewhere. Stage IIIA/B males had exceptionally high survival rates compared with those reported by other centers.

  20. Survival Rates in Trauma Patients Following Health Care Reform in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Turner; Glance, Laurent G; Li, Wenjun; Buzas, Jeffery S; Hosmer, David W

    2015-07-01

    Massachusetts introduced health care reform (HCR) in 2006, expecting to expand health insurance coverage and improve outcomes. Because traumatic injury is a common acute condition with important health, disability, and economic consequences, examination of the effect of HCR on patients hospitalized following injury may help inform the national HCR debate. To examine the effect of Massachusetts HCR on survival rates of injured patients. Retrospective cohort study of 1,520,599 patients hospitalized following traumatic injury in Massachusetts or New York during the 10 years (2002-2011) surrounding Massachusetts HCR using data from the State Inpatient Databases. We assessed the effect of HCR on mortality rates using a difference-in-differences approach to control for temporal trends in mortality. Health care reform in Massachusetts in 2006. Survival until hospital discharge. During the 10-year study period, the rates of uninsured trauma patients in Massachusetts decreased steadily from 14.9% in 2002 to 5.0.% in 2011. In New York, the rates of uninsured trauma patients fell from 14.9% in 2002 to 10.5% in 2011. The risk-adjusted difference-in-difference assessment revealed a transient increase of 604 excess deaths (95% CI, 419-790) in Massachusetts in the 3 years following implementation of HCR. Health care reform did not affect health insurance coverage for patients hospitalized following injury but was associated with a transient increase in adjusted mortality rates. Reducing mortality rates for acutely injured patients may require more comprehensive interventions than simply promoting health insurance coverage through legislation.

  1. Bacterial survival rate on tooth- and interdental brushes in relation to the use of toothpaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirynen, M; de Soete, M; Pauwels, M; Goossens, K; Teughels, W; van Eldere, J; van Steenberghe, D

    2001-12-01

    Previous studies indicated that oral hygiene aids can play a rôle in the intra-oral translocation of pathogens. The survival rate of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic species on toothbrushes, with and without toothpaste, and interdental brushes was presently investigated. 12 periodontitis patients had their interdental spaces professionally cleaned with interdental brushes and their teeth with new toothbrushes with or without different dentifrices. Each time brushes were rinsed with tap water and stored dry at room temperature. At different time intervals an interdental brush or 4 tufts from a toothbrush were processed for vitality staining and selective and non-selective culturing procedures. Immediately after rinsing, a toothbrush without toothpaste harboured 10(7), 10(8) and 10(7) colony forming units (CFU) of respectively aerobic, anaerobic and black pigmented species. An insignificant decrease occurred the first 24 hours and after 48 hours still 10(4) CFU of aerobic and anaerobic species could be cultured. No periodontopathogen remained detectable at 8 hours, except for Fusobacterium nucleatum. The proportion of vital bacteria decreased in 48 hours from 50% to 30%. Comparable results were obtained for interdental brushes. The bacterial survival rate on toothbrushes was significantly reduced by the use of a detergent containing toothpaste by 2 log at baseline, another 2 log at 4 hours and an extra log more at 8 hours for aerobic and anaerobic species. A toothpaste without detergent only had an insignificant bactericidal effect. Toothpaste detergents decrease the survival rate of pathogenic species on a toothbrush and can thus limit the risk for bacterial translocation.

  2. Determining dose rate with a semiconductor detector - Monte Carlo calculations of the detector response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordenfors, C

    1999-02-01

    To determine dose rate in a gamma radiation field, based on measurements with a semiconductor detector, it is necessary to know how the detector effects the field. This work aims to describe this effect with Monte Carlo simulations and calculations, that is to identify the detector response function. This is done for a germanium gamma detector. The detector is normally used in the in-situ measurements that is carried out regularly at the department. After the response function is determined it is used to reconstruct a spectrum from an in-situ measurement, a so called unfolding. This is done to be able to calculate fluence rate and dose rate directly from a measured (and unfolded) spectrum. The Monte Carlo code used in this work is EGS4 developed mainly at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is a widely used code package to simulate particle transport. The results of this work indicates that the method could be used as-is since the accuracy of this method compares to other methods already in use to measure dose rate. Bearing in mind that this method provides the nuclide specific dose it is useful, in radiation protection, since knowing what the relations between different nuclides are and how they change is very important when estimating the risks

  3. Effect of tidal volume and respiratory rate on the power of breathing calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalini, G; Marchesini, M; Tessadrelli, A; Rosano, A; Candiani, A; Bernardini, A

    2005-05-01

    The power of breathing (PoB) is used to estimate the mechanical workload of the respiratory system. Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different tidal volume-respiratory rate combinations on the PoB when the elastic load is constant. In order to assure strict control of the experimental conditions, the PoB was calculated on an airway pressure-volume curve in mechanically ventilated patients. Ten patients received three different tidal volume-respiratory rate combinations while minute ventilation was constant. Respiratory mechanics, PoB and its elastic and resistive components were calculated. Alternative methods to estimate the elastic workload were assessed: elastic work of breathing per litre per minute, elastic workload index (the square root of elastic work of breathing multiplied by respiratory rate) and elastic double product of the respiratory system (the elastic pressure multiplied by respiratory rate). Despite constant elastance and minute ventilation, the elastic PoB showed an increment greater than 200% from the lower to the greater tidal volume, accounting for approximately 80% of the whole PoB increment. On the contrary, elastic work of breathing per litre per minute, elastic workload index and elastic double product did not change. Changes in breathing pattern markedly affect the PoB despite constant mechanical load. Other indexes could assess the elastic workload without tidal volume dependence. Power of breathing use should be avoided to compare different mechanical loads or efficiencies of the respiratory muscles when tidal volume is variable.

  4. Comparative Study on Prediction Effects of Short Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate by Two Different Calculation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Liao, Zhen; Qin, Yahang; Wu, Yayun; Liang, Sai; Xiao, Shoune; Yang, Guangwu; Zhu, Tao

    2017-05-01

    To describe the complicated nonlinear process of the fatigue short crack evolution behavior, especially the change of the crack propagation rate, two different calculation methods are applied. The dominant effective short fatigue crack propagation rates are calculated based on the replica fatigue short crack test with nine smooth funnel-shaped specimens and the observation of the replica films according to the effective short fatigue cracks principle. Due to the fast decay and the nonlinear approximation ability of wavelet analysis, the self-learning ability of neural network, and the macroscopic searching and global optimization of genetic algorithm, the genetic wavelet neural network can reflect the implicit complex nonlinear relationship when considering multi-influencing factors synthetically. The effective short fatigue cracks and the dominant effective short fatigue crack are simulated and compared by the Genetic Wavelet Neural Network. The simulation results show that Genetic Wavelet Neural Network is a rational and available method for studying the evolution behavior of fatigue short crack propagation rate. Meanwhile, a traditional data fitting method for a short crack growth model is also utilized for fitting the test data. It is reasonable and applicable for predicting the growth rate. Finally, the reason for the difference between the prediction effects by these two methods is interpreted.

  5. Finite Volume Numerical Methods for Aeroheating Rate Calculations from Infrared Thermographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Nowak, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of multi-dimensional finite volume heat conduction techniques for calculating aeroheating rates from measured global surface temperatures on hypersonic wind tunnel models was investigated. Both direct and inverse finite volume techniques were investigated and compared with the standard one-dimensional semi-infinite technique. Global transient surface temperatures were measured using an infrared thermographic technique on a 0.333-scale model of the Hyper-X forebody in the NASA Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air tunnel. In these tests the effectiveness of vortices generated via gas injection for initiating hypersonic transition on the Hyper-X forebody was investigated. An array of streamwise-orientated heating striations was generated and visualized downstream of the gas injection sites. In regions without significant spatial temperature gradients, one-dimensional techniques provided accurate aeroheating rates. In regions with sharp temperature gradients caused by striation patterns multi-dimensional heat transfer techniques were necessary to obtain more accurate heating rates. The use of the one-dimensional technique resulted in differences of 20% in the calculated heating rates compared to 2-D analysis because it did not account for lateral heat conduction in the model.

  6. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2012-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...

  7. Improving village poultry’s survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto D.

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...

  8. Increasing Calcium Carbonate (Caco3) To Growt And Survival Rate Vannamei Shrimp (Litopenaeus Vannamei))

    OpenAIRE

    Heriadi, Unggul Fitrah; ', Mulyadi; Putra, Iskandar

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted in March 2016 - April 2016 for 21 days at the NationalBroodstock Center For Shrimp and Mollusk Karangasem Bali. The purpose of this study todetermine the effect of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) on the growth and survival rate vanameishrimp (Litopeneaus vannamei). Vanamei shrimp size PL25 were used in the research. Thecontainer used fiber tub with capacity 250 liters and the volume of water used is 100 liters.The treatment is giving of calcium carbonate 20 mg, 35mg, 50m...

  9. Survival Rate and its Related Factors in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ghaffarian Shirazi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: It has been noted that the myocardial infarction is an increasing episode in Islamic Republic of Iran and there are many procedures and methods which can help to reduce the number of death from this ongoing event. The aim of this study was to determine the survival rate in those patients who have had acute myocardial infarction and its association with different variables. Materials & Methods: This descriptive analytic study evaluates 111 cases of acute myocardial infarction admitted in Yasuj Imam Sajjad hospital during the year 2004 and 2005. Data were collected using a questionnaire which was completed through direct interviewing by trained personnel. The data were analyzed by standard statistical tests using SPSS software. Results: The mean age of patients was 57± 12 years. The mean time of having access to physician after MI was 4 ± 2.2 hours. The mean time of reaching hospital after physician order was 5 ± 4.9 hours. The mean time of hospitalization was 4 ± 1.67 days. Considering the past history of these patients revealed that 31 percent were smokers, 16 percent had the history of previous ischemic heart disease, 63 percent had hypertension, 8 percent had diabetes mellitus, 95 percent had clip I, 95 percent had no previous block, 82 percent had MI with Q wave. The survival rate in our study was found to be 0.91 in the first 10 hours, 0.847 in the first day, 0.829 in the first 28 days, 0.820 in the first third months, 0.792 in the first six months and 0.771 in the first 10 months of disease. Conclusion: The mortality rate during the first month among the patients with heart failure turned out to be higher than that of the other similar studies performed in other parts of the country however, the annual survival rate proved to be less. The most important causes of survival after the stroke are being single, smoking, fatness and angina pain

  10. Patient-specific dose calculation methods for high-dose-rate iridium-192 brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Emily S.

    In high-dose-rate 192Ir brachytherapy, the radiation dose received by the patient is calculated according to the AAPM Task Group 43 (TG-43) formalism. This table-based dose superposition method uses dosimetry parameters derived with the radioactive 192Ir source centered in a water phantom. It neglects the dose perturbations caused by inhomogeneities, such as the patient anatomy, applicators, shielding, and radiographic contrast solution. In this work, we evaluated the dosimetric characteristics of a shielded rectal applicator with an endocavitary balloon injected with contrast solution. The dose distributions around this applicator were calculated by the GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) code and measured by ionization chamber and GAFCHROMIC EBT film. A patient-specific dose calculation study was then carried out for 40 rectal treatment plans. The PTRAN_CT MC code was used to calculate the dose based on computed tomography (CT) images. This study involved the development of BrachyGUI, an integrated treatment planning tool that can process DICOM-RT data and create PTRAN_CT input initialization files. BrachyGUI also comes with dose calculation and evaluation capabilities. We proposed a novel scatter correction method to account for the reduction in backscatter radiation near tissue-air interfaces. The first step requires calculating the doses contributed by primary and scattered photons separately, assuming a full scatter environment. The scatter dose in the patient is subsequently adjusted using a factor derived by MC calculations, which depends on the distances between the point of interest, the 192Ir source, and the body contour. The method was validated for multicatheter breast brachytherapy, in which the target and skin doses for 18 patient plans agreed with PTRAN_CT calculations better than 1%. Finally, we developed a CT-based analytical dose calculation method. It corrects for the photon attenuation and scatter based upon the radiological paths determined by ray tracing

  11. Stadium IB - IIA cervical cancer patient’s survival rate after receiving definitive radiation and radical operation therapy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy along with analysis of factors affecting the patient’s survival rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslim, S. K.; Purwoto, G.; Widyahening, I. S.; Ramli, I.

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the characteristics and overall survival rates of early stage cervical cancer (FIGO IB-IIA) patients who receive definitive radiation therapy and those who are prescribed adjuvant postoperative radiation and to conduct a factors analysis of the variables that affect the overall survival rates in both groups of therapy. The medical records of 85 patients with cervical cancer FIGO stages IB-IIA who were treated at the Department of Radiotherapy of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital were reviewed and analyzed to determine their overall survival and the factors that affected it between a definitive radiation group and an adjuvant postoperative radiation group. There were 25 patients in the definitive radiation and 60 patients in the adjuvant radiation group. The overall survival rates in the adjuvant radiation group at years one, two, and three were 96.7%, 95%, and 93.3%, respectively. Negative lymph node metastasis had an average association with overall survival (p 12 g/dl was a factor with an average association with the overall survival (p cervical cancer FIGO stage IB-IIA patients who received definitive radiation or adjuvant postoperative radiation. Negative lymph node metastasis had an effect on the overall survival rate in the adjuvant postoperative radiation group, while a preradiation Hb level >12 g/dl tended to affect the overall survival in the definitive radiation group patients.

  12. Review suggests high survival rates for veneers at five and ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Eileen; Conway, David I

    2013-03-01

    The Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched and the Evidence-Based Dentistry, International Journal of Prosthodontics, Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, Journal of Adhesive Dentistry, Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry, and Journal of Oral Rehabilitation were hand searched. Clinical trials registers, conference proceedings and academic colleagues were contacted to identify unpublished data, abstracts and other gray literature. There were no language limits. Article identification, screening, and eligibility and inclusion assessments were completed independently by two reviewers. Prospective and retrospective cohort and controlled trials assessing the outcome of feldspathic porcelain veneers in more than 15 patients were included. Some veneers in each study had to be in situ for five years. Veneers placed using unusual techniques, such as with no enamel preparation or excessive incisal edge lengthening, were excluded. Estimated cumulative survival and standard error for each study were assessed and used for meta-, sensitivity and post hoc analyses. The I(2) statistic and the Cochran Q test and its associated P value were used to evaluate statistical heterogeneity, with a random-effects meta-analysis used when the P value for heterogeneity was less than 0.1. Heterogeneity, publication patterns and small study biases were explored. Eleven studies were included with six (four prospective and two retrospective cohorts) contributing to the meta-analysis. The estimated cumulative survival for feldspathic porcelain veneers was 95.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 92.9% to 98.4%) at five years and ranged from 64% to 95% at ten years across three studies. A post hoc meta-analysis indicated that the 10-year best estimate may approach 95.6% (95% CI: 93.8% to 97.5%). High levels of statistical heterogeneity were found. When bonded to enamel substrate, feldspathic porcelain veneers have a very high 10-year survival rate that may

  13. Small groups, large profits: Calculating interest rates in community-managed microfinance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Dahl

    2012-01-01

    Savings groups are a widely used strategy for women’s economic resilience – over 80% of members worldwide are women, and in the case described here, 72.5%. In these savings groups it is common to see the interest rate on savings reported as "20-30% annually". Using panel data from 204 groups...... in Malawi, I show that the right figure is likely to be at least twice this figure. For these groups, the annual return is 62%. The difference comes from sector-wide application of a non-standard interest rate calculations and unrealistic assumptions about the savings profile in the groups. As a result......, it is impossible to compare returns in savings groups with returns elsewhere. Moreover, the interest on savings is incomparable to the interest rate on loans. I argue for the use of a standardized comparable metric and suggest easy ways to implement it. Developments of new tools and standard along these lines...

  14. Calculating inspector probability of detection using performance demonstration program pass rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumblidge, Stephen; D'Agostino, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been working since the 1970's to ensure that nondestructive testing performed on nuclear power plants in the United States will provide reasonable assurance of structural integrity of the nuclear power plant components. One tool used by the NRC has been the development and implementation of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI Appendix VIII[1] (Appendix VIII) blind testing requirements for ultrasonic procedures, equipment, and personnel. Some concerns have been raised, over the years, by the relatively low pass rates for the Appendix VIII qualification testing. The NRC staff has applied statistical tools and simulations to determine the expected probability of detection (POD) for ultrasonic examinations under ideal conditions based on the pass rates for the Appendix VIII qualification tests for the ultrasonic testing personnel. This work was primarily performed to answer three questions. First, given a test design and pass rate, what is the expected overall POD for inspectors? Second, can we calculate the probability of detection for flaws of different sizes using this information? Finally, if a previously qualified inspector fails a requalification test, does this call their earlier inspections into question? The calculations have shown that one can expect good performance from inspectors who have passed appendix VIII testing in a laboratory-like environment, and the requalification pass rates show that the inspectors have maintained their skills between tests. While these calculations showed that the PODs for the ultrasonic inspections are very good under laboratory conditions, the field inspections are conducted in a very different environment. The NRC staff has initiated a project to systematically analyze the human factors differences between qualification testing and field examinations. This work will be used to evaluate and prioritize

  15. Calculation of doublet capture rate for muon capture in deuterium within chiral effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, J.; Tater, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics ASCR, CZ-250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Truhlik, E., E-mail: truhlik@ujf.cas.cz [Institute of Nuclear Physics ASCR, CZ-250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Epelbaum, E. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Machleidt, R. [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-0903 (United States); Ricci, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy)

    2012-03-13

    The doublet capture rate {Lambda}{sub 1/2} of the negative muon capture in deuterium is calculated employing the nuclear wave functions generated from accurate nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials constructed at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order of heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory and the weak meson exchange current operator derived within the same formalism. All but one of the low-energy constants that enter the calculation were fixed from pion-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon scattering data. The low-energy constant d{sup -hatR} (c{sub D}), which cannot be determined from the purely two-nucleon data, was extracted recently from the triton {beta}-decay and the binding energies of the three-nucleon systems. The calculated values of {Lambda}{sub 1/2} show a rather large spread for the used values of the d-hatR. Precise measurement of {Lambda}{sub 1/2} in the future will not only help to constrain the value of d-hatR, but also provide a highly nontrivial test of the nuclear chiral EFT framework. Besides, the precise knowledge of the constant d-hatR will allow for consistent calculations of other two-nucleon weak processes, such as proton-proton fusion and solar neutrino scattering on deuterons, which are important for astrophysics.

  16. 76 FR 64964 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... SECURITY Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue... Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and refunds (overpayments) of customs duties. For the calendar quarter beginning October 1, 2011, the interest rates for...

  17. 77 FR 2308 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 3 percent for both corporations and non-corporations. This notice...

  18. 78 FR 63238 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 3 percent for both corporations and non-corporations. This notice...

  19. 78 FR 1222 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 3 percent for both corporations and non-corporations. This notice...

  20. 78 FR 37839 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 3 percent for both corporations and non-corporations. This notice...

  1. 78 FR 20349 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 3 percent for both corporations and non-corporations. This notice...

  2. 75 FR 37823 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 4 percent. This notice is published for the convenience of the...

  3. 75 FR 20373 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... SECURITY Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue... Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and refunds (overpayments) of customs duties. For the calendar quarter beginning April 1, 2010, the interest rates for...

  4. 76 FR 41283 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 4 percent for both corporations and non-corporations. This notice...

  5. 75 FR 419 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on Customs Duties AGENCY... notice advises the public of the quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate... quarter beginning January 1, 2010, the interest rates for overpayments will be 3 percent for corporations...

  6. 76 FR 2404 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... SECURITY Customs And Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue... Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and refunds (overpayments) of customs duties. For the calendar quarter beginning January 1, 2011, the interest rates for...

  7. 77 FR 38076 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 3 percent for both corporations and non-corporations. This notice...

  8. 76 FR 20697 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 4 percent for both corporations and non-corporations. This notice...

  9. 75 FR 59279 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used In Calculating Interest On Overdue Accounts and Refunds On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used In Calculating Interest On... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 4 percent. This notice is published for the convenience of the...

  10. 77 FR 18256 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on... Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to calculate interest on overdue accounts (underpayments) and... interest rate for underpayments will be 3 percent for both corporations and non-corporations. This notice...

  11. A long-term retrospective analysis of survival rates of implants in the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshi, Thomas J; Wolfinger, Glenn J; Stein, Brett E; Balshi, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    To retrospectively analyze the survival rate of endosseous dental implants placed in the edentulous or partially edentulous mandible over a long-term follow-up period of 10 years or more. The charts of patients who underwent mandibular implant placement at a private prosthodontics practice and received follow-up care for 10 years or more were included in this study. Implants were examined according to the following study variables: patient sex, patient age, degree of edentulism (fully vs partially edentulous), implant location, time of loading (delayed vs immediate), implant size and type, bone quality, prosthesis type, and the presence of other implants during placement. The study sample was composed of 2,394 implants placed in 470 patients with 10 to 27 years of follow-up. Of these 2,394 implants, 176 failed, resulting in an overall cumulative survival rate (CSR) of 92.6%. A total of 1,482 implants were placed in edentulous mandibles, and 912 implants were placed in partially edentulous mandibles, with CSRs of 92.6% and 92.7%, respectively. Comparisons of the study variables with respect to CSR were largely nonsignificant. However, there were significant differences in CSRs between anterior vs posterior locations and rough- vs smooth-surfaced implants in addition to some prosthesis types, ages, and bone qualities. The overall CSR of 92.6% in the present study is high and comparable to survival rates observed in previous long-term analyses of mandibular implants. The significant differences observed between implant locations, patient age groups, bone qualities, and prostheses were not suggestive of any remarkable trends. Patient sex, age, degree of edentulism, implant location, time of loading, implant size and type, bone quality, prosthesis type, and the presence of multiple implants did not result in any significant effect on long-term implant survival. The CSR observed after 10 to 27 years of follow-up in a single private prosthodontic center was high (92

  12. A line rate calculation method for arbitrary directional imaging of an Earth observing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Moon-Jin; Kim, Eunghyun; Lim, Seong-Bin; Choi, Seok-Weon

    2016-10-01

    For an earth observing satellite, a line rate is the number of lines which the CCD of push broom type camera scans in a second. It can be easily calculated by ground velocity divided by ground sample distance. Accurate calculation of line rate is necessary to obtain high quality image using TDI CCD. The earth observing satellite has four types of imaging missions which are strip imaging, stereo imaging, multi-point imaging, and arbitrary directional imaging. For the first three types of imaging, ground scanning direction is aligned with satellite velocity direction. Therefore, if the orbit propagation and spacecraft attitude information are available, the ground velocity and ground sample distance could be easily calculated. However, the calculation method might not be applicable to the arbitrary directional imaging. In the arbitrary directional imaging mode, the ground velocity is not fixed value which could be directly derived by orbit information. Furthermore, the ground sample distance might not be easily calculated by simple trigonometry which is possible for the other types of imaging. In this paper, we proposed a line rate calculation method for the arbitrary directional imaging. We applied spherical geometry to derive the equation of ground point which is the intersection between the line of sight vector of the camera and earth surface. The derivative of this equation for time is the ground velocity except the factor of earth rotation. By adding this equation and earth rotation factor, the true ground velocity vector could be derived. For the ground sample distance, we applied the equation of circle and ellipse for yaw angle difference. The equation of circle is used for the yaw angle representation on the plane which is orthogonal to the line of sight vector. The equation of ellipse is used for the yaw angle representation on the ground surface. We applied the proposed method to the KOMPSAT-3A (Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite 3A) mission which is the first

  13. Shorter survival rate in varus-aligned knees after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Xiao; Shang, Ping; Ying, Xiao-Zhou; Zhang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    One long-held tenet of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is that post-operative neutral limb alignment promotes implant durability. Recently, the concept of generic safe zone (0° ± 3°) has been challenged. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate whether neutral alignment was superior to malalignment in long-term survival of TKAs. The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang Chinese Periodical, Google and reference lists of all the included studies were searched. Of the 1512 studies initially identified, ten met the eligibility criteria, including eight case-control studies and two cohort trials. Relative risks of implant failure were compared between post-operative neutrally aligned and malaligned knees. Post-operative malalignment showed higher failure rate of knee implants compared with neutral alignment (95 % CI 1.00-1.88, P = 0.05). Failure rate in knees with varus alignment was significantly higher than with neutral alignment (95 % CI 1.07-2.55, P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in the likelihood of implant failure between knees with valgus and neutral alignment (95 % CI 0.78-2.41, n.s.). No significant difference of failure rate was noted between neutral alignment and malalignment for fixed-bearing prothesis (95 % CI 0.94-1.95, n.s.) or rotating-platform prothesis (95 % CI 0.75-2.73, n.s.). There was no significant difference of failure rate between knees with neutral alignment and malalignment for studies with a mean follow-up of more than 10 years (95 % CI 0.81-2.01, n.s.) or studies using long-leg weight-bearing radiographs (95 % CI 0.79-1.79, n.s.). Post-operative varus alignment results in shorter survival rate after TKA. Not only neutral limb alignment but also the valgus alignment promotes implant durability. Neutral or valgus alignment rather than varus alignment is essential to achieve long-term survival of TKAs and patient satisfaction. III.

  14. Quantum chemical and conventional TST calculations of rate constants for the OH + alkane reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo-Perez, Graciela [Prog. Investig. Medio Ambiente y Seguridad, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Av. Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730, AP 14805 Mexico DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: gbperez@imp.mx; Alvarez-Idaboy, J. Raul [Prog. Investig. Medio Ambiente y Seguridad, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Av. Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730, AP 14805 Mexico DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: jidaboy@imp.mx; Jimenez, Annia Galano [Prog. Investig. Medio Ambiente y Seguridad, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Av. Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730, AP 14805 Mexico DF (Mexico); Cruz-Torres, Armando [Prog. Investig. Medio Ambiente y Seguridad, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Av. Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730, AP 14805 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2005-04-04

    Reactions of OH with methane, ethane, propane, i-butane, and n-butane have been modeled using ab initio (MP2) and hybrid DFT (BHandHLYP) methods, and the 6-311G(d,p) basis set. Furthermore, single-point calculations at the CCSD(T) level were carried out at the optimized geometries. The rate constants have been calculated using the conventional transition-state theory (CTST). Arrhenius equations are proposed in the temperature range of 250-650 K. Hindered Internal Rotation partition functions calculations were explicitly carried out and included in the total partition functions. These corrections showed to be relevant in the determination of the pre-exponential parameters, although not so important as in the NO{sub 3} + alkane reactions [G. Bravo-Perez, J.R. Alvarez-Idaboy, A. Cruz-Torres, M.E. Ruiz, J. Phys. Chem. A 106 (2002) 4645]. The explicit participation of the tunnel effect has been taken into account. The calculated rate coefficients provide a very good agreement with the experimental data. The best agreement for the overall alkane + OH reactions seemed to occur when the BHandHLYP geometries and partition functions are used. For propane and i-butane, in addition to the respective secondary and tertiary H-abstraction channels, the primary one has been considered. These pathways are confirmed to be significant in spite of the large differences in activation energies between primary and secondary or primary and tertiary channels, respectively of propane and i-butane reactions and should not be disregarded.

  15. The Effect of Weaning Tecnique to Survival Rate and Height Growth of Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ady Suryawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Technical rehabilitation planning of BPDAS Tondano on coastal area has reached 10,000 hectares, thus require many seedlings. Nyamplung has potential as rehabilitation plant in coastal at the same time it can support national demand of biofuel. However the nurseries of nyamplung in North Sulawesi are not optimal and need appropriate information of weaning method. This research used completely randomized design with three treatment factors, namely 1 Cutting the leaves consist of two levels ie D1 (pair leaves and D2 (intact leaf; 2 Cutting intact seeds, consists of two levels i.e B1 (removed seed and B2 (intact seeds; and 3 Cutting the roots lenght consist of three levels i.e A1 (5 cm, A2 (10 cm and A3 (15 cm. There were 180 seedlings taken from seed that germinated using cocopeat media. Results of variance analysis showed that the applied treatment only affect the heigth growth. The survival rate is not affected by all treatments or in the other words survival rate reached 100 %. The treatments on leaves and seeds gave significant effect, on the contrary with root treatment. The treatment of intact leaf (D2 and intact seeds (B2 produced the best height growth responses i.e 4.60 cm and 4.63 cm.

  16. Effect of Fascioloides magna (Digenea) on fecundity, shell height, and survival rate of Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankrác, Jan; Novobilský, Adam; Rondelaud, Daniel; Leontovyč, Roman; Syrovátka, Vít; Rajský, Dušan; Horák, Petr; Kašný, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Infection with Fascioloides magna (Digenea) causes serious damage to liver tissue in definitive hosts represented by ruminants, especially cervids. The distribution of F. magna includes the indigenous areas in North America, and the areas to which F. magna was introduced-Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and Italy. The North American intermediate host of F. magna, the freshwater snail Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae), is an invasive species recorded in South America, the Caribbean, Africa, Australia, and west and Southeast Europe. In Europe, Galba truncatula is the snail serving for transmission, but P. columella has potential to become here a new intermediate host of F. magna. Little is known about interactions between F. magna and P. columella. In this study, the susceptibility of P. columella (Oregon, USA) to the infection by a single miracidium of the Czech strain of F. magna and the influence of F. magna on snail fecundity, shell height, and survival were evaluated. The data show that the Oregon strain of P. columella is a highly suitable host for the Czech strain of F. magna, with the infection rate of 74 %. In addition, a negative effect on survival rate of infected snails was recorded only in the late phase of infection. The infection was accompanied by a major reduction in egg mass production and by a decrease in the number of eggs per egg mass. The shell height of infected snails did not significantly differ from that in unexposed controls.

  17. Use of alpaca seminal plasma on ovulation rate and embryonic survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanca T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The South American camelids are a domesticated species adapted to the high Andes, they are considered as a species of induced ovulation. In these species, so that the release of the oocyte occurs, a neuroendocrine interaction and stimulation during intercourse (which have to lasts on average 18 minutes is necessary. In recent years, several studies have demonstrated the presence of an inducing factor for the ovulation found in the seminal plasma of the male that is crucial for ovulation to occurs in camelids. From 1968 researches were initiated to confirm and determine the inductor factor. The works have shown that ovulation in alpacas occurs after intramuscular and intravaginal application of seminal plasma. Recent studies showed the luteotropic effect of this factor, which is evidenced by the increase and retention of circulating concentrations of LH, the rapid change in the vascularization of the pre-ovulatory follicle and corpus luteum development, this contributes to the increase of the embryonic survival rate, due to the stimulus that causes this hormone in the pituitary to release LH, triggering an additional luteotropic effect on the corpus luteum with increased secretion of progesterone. At the field, level the results are not as manifest in relation to the results obtained when the ultrasound monitoring is performed. However, the work done by different research groups confirm the contribution of seminal plasma in increasing fertility rates and embryonic survival in domestic camelids such as alpaca and llama.

  18. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Listeria monocytogenes in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in a commercially produced yogurt, (ii) determine the survival/inactivation rates of L. monocytogenes during cold storage of yogurt and (iii) to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behavior of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples of yogurt were inoculated with the mixture of three L. monocytogenes strains and stored at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15°C for 16 days. The number of listeriae was determined after 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14 and 16 days of storage. From each sample a series of decimal dilutions were prepared and plated onto ALOA agar (agar for Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti). It was found that applied temperature and storage time significantly influenced the survival rate of listeriae (pyogurt stored under temperature range from 3 to 15°C, however, the polynomial model gave a better fit to the experimental data.

  19. Radiotherapy combined with intracavitary irradiation for uterine cervical cancer. Study of survival rate, patterns of recurrence and complication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusuda, Junko; Mizutani, Yoshiyuki; Yoshino, Ayako; Takayama, Makoto; Furuya, Yoshiro (Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Takei, Ryoji

    1994-09-01

    Survival rates and patterns of recurrence in 137 patients with uterine cervical cancer were determined. These patients were treated by radiotherapy with high-dose rate intracavitary irradiation using remote afterloading system (RALS) at Kyorin University Hospital from Oct. 1987 to Dec. 1992. Age range was from 29 to 87 years. According to clinical staging of UICC, stages I, II, III, and IV were observed in 29, 62, 33, and 13 cases respectively. Cumulative 5-year survival rate of all cases was 72%. Cumulative 5-year survival rates were 100% for stage I, 81% for stage II, 38% for stage III, and 27% for stage IV. Cumulative 5-year survival rates of the postoperative radiotherapy and radical radiotherapy groups were 75% and 90% respectively. There was significant difference of survival rates between the postoperative radiotherapy group and the radical radiotherapy group. As patterns of recurrence, extrapelvic metastasis was more frequent than local recurrence. In stages II and III, recurrent patterns were extrapelvic matastasis in most cases. Of 18 cases with extrapelvic metastasis, there were 10 cases of paraaortic lymph node metastasis. With increase in the control rate of parraortic lymph node metastasis, survival rate of patients with uterine cervical cancer increased. Four of 5 cases with local recurrence controled by intracavitary irradiation is effective for local recurrence control. Rectal and bladder complications following radiotherapy were observed in 25 cases. However, all cases with complication after radiotherapy were treated conservatively, excluding 1 case (vasicorectal fistula). (author).

  20. Survival, fidelity, and recovery rates of white-winged doves in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2012-03-12

    Management of migratory birds at the national level has historically relied on regulatory boundaries for definition of harvest restrictions and estimation of demographic parameters. Most species of migratory game birds are not expanding their ranges, so migratory corridors are approximately fixed. White-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica), however, have undergone significant variation in population structure with marked range expansion occurring in Texas, and range contraction in Arizona, during the last 30 years. Because >85% of white-winged dove harvest in the United States (approx. 1.3 million annually) now occurs in Texas, information on vital rates of expanding white-winged dove populations is necessary for informed management. We used band recovery and mark-recapture data to investigate variation in survival and harvest across 3 geographic strata for white-winged doves banded in the pre-hunting season in Texas during 2007-2010. We banded 60,742 white-winged doves, recovered 2,458 bands via harvest reporting, and recaptured 455 known-age birds between 2007 and 2010. The best supporting model found some evidence for geographic differences in survival rates among strata (A-C) in both hatch-year (juvenile; A = 0.205 [SE = 0.0476], B = 0.213 [SE = 0.0278], C = 0.364 [SE = 0.0254]) and after-hatch year (adult; A = 0.483 [SE = 0.0775], B = 0.465 [SE = 0.0366], C = 0.538 [SE = 0.251]) birds. White-winged doves had a low probability of moving among strata (0.009) or being recaptured (0.002) across all strata. Harvest recovery rates were concordant with estimates for other dove species, but were variable across geographic strata. Based on our results, harvest management strategies for white-winged doves in Texas and elsewhere should consider differences in population vital rates among geographic strata. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  1. Breast cancer survival rate according to data of cancer registry and death registry systems in Bushehr province, 2001-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rampisheh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. Survival rate of breast cancer, especially as an indicator of the successful implementation of screening, diagnosis and treatment programs, has been at the center of attention of public health experts Material and Methods: In a survival study, the records of breast cancer cases in cancer registry system of Bushehr Province were extracted during 2001, March to 2013, September. These records were linked and matched with records of death registry system. After determining patients, status regarding being alive or dead, survival analysis was done. Life table, Kaplan-Mayer analysis, log rank and Breslow tests were used for computing and comparing survival rates. Results: In 300 recorded breast cancer cases, mean and standard deviation of age was 51.26±13.87. Survival rates were 95, 88, 78, 73 and 68 percent since the first year through the fifth year, respectively. Mean survival was 87.20 months (95% CI= 81.28- 93.12. There was no significant difference in mean survival regarding age and different geographical areas. Conclusion: Although survival rates of registered breast cancer patients in Bushehr Province are similar to other provinces, they are far from those of developed countries. This situation demands more extensive efforts regarding public education and improving the process of diagnosis, treatment and care of patients especially during first two years after diagnosis.

  2. Reduced in-hospital survival rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims with obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, M T; Warnier, M J; Bardai, A

    2013-01-01

    with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have a lower survival rate after OHCA than non-OPD patients. METHODS: We performed a community-based cohort study of 1172 patients with non-traumatic OHCA with ECG-documented VT/VF between 2005 and 2008. We compared survival to emergency room (ER), to hospital admission...

  3. Comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Ferrario, Marco M; Chambless, Lloyd E

    2013-12-01

    In this article we focus on comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis, when longitudinal data are observed prior to the follow-up time. Motivational examples include the analysis of the association between changes in cardiovascular risk factors and subsequent onset of coronary events. We derive a measurement error model for the rate of change, estimated through subject-specific linear regression, assuming an additive measurement error model for the time-specific measurements. The rate of change is then included as a time-invariant variable in a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for the first time-specific measurement (baseline) and an error-free covariate. In a simulation study, we compared bias, standard deviation and mean squared error (MSE) for the regression calibration (RC) and the simulation-extrapolation (SIMEX) estimators. Our findings indicate that when the amount of measurement error is substantial, RC should be the preferred method, since it has smaller MSE for estimating the coefficients of the rate of change and of the variable measured without error. However, when the amount of measurement error is small, the choice of the method should take into account the event rate in the population and the effect size to be estimated. An application to an observational study, as well as examples of published studies where our model could have been applied, are also provided.

  4. Retrospective comparative ten-year study of cumulative survival rates of remaining teeth in large edentulism treated with implant-supported fixed partial dentures or removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Seiya; Arakawa, Hikaru; Maekawa, Kenji; Hara, Emilio Satoshi; Noda, Kinji; Minakuchi, Hajime; Sonoyama, Wataru; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Kuboki, Takuo

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the survival rates of remaining teeth between implant-supported fixed dentures (IFDs) and removable partial dentures (RPDs) in patients with large edentulous cases. The second goal was to assess the risk factors for remaining tooth loss. The study subjects were selected among those who received prosthodontic treatment at Okayama University Dental Hospital for their edentulous space exceeding at least four continuous missing teeth. Twenty-one patients were included in the IFD group and 82 patients were included in the RPD group. Survival rates of remaining teeth were calculated in three subcategories: (1) whole remaining teeth, (2) adjacent teeth to intended edentulous space, and (3) opposing teeth to intended edentulous space. The ten-year cumulative survival rate of the whole remaining teeth was significantly higher in the IFD group (40.0%) than in the RPD group (24.4%). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between two groups in the survival rate of teeth adjacent or opposing to intended edentulous space. A Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that RPD restoration and gender (male) were the significant risk factors for remaining tooth loss (whole remaining teeth). These results suggest that IFD treatment can reduce the incidence of remaining tooth loss in large edentulous cases. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary Calculations of Shutdown Dose Rate for the CTS Diagnostics System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Nonbøl, Erik; Lauritzen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    DTU and IST 2 are partners in the design of a collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostics for ITER through a contract with F4E. The CTS diagnostic utilizes probing radiation of ~60 GHz emitted into the plasma and, using a mirror, collects the scattered radiation by an array of receivers. Having...... on supplying input which affect the system design. Examples include: - Heatloads on plasma facing mirrors and preliminary stress and thermal analysis - Port plug cooling requirements and it's dependence on system design (in particular blanket cut-out) - Shutdown dose-rate calculations (relative analysis...

  6. Internationally comparable diagnosis-specific survival probabilities for calculation of the ICD-10-based Injury Severity Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedeborg, R.; Warner, M.; Chen, L. H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) -based Injury Severity Score (ICISS) performs well but requires diagnosis-specific survival probabilities (DSPs), which are empirically derived, for its calculation. The objective was to examine if DSPs b...... based on data pooled from several countries could increase accuracy, precision, utility, and international comparability of DSPs and ICISS. METHODS: Australia, Argentina, Austria, Canada, Denmark, New Zealand, and Sweden provided ICD-10-coded injury hospital discharge data, including in......-hospital mortality status. Data from the seven countries were pooled using four different methods to create an international collaborative effort ICISS (ICE-ICISS). The ability of the ICISS to predict mortality using the country-specific DSPs and the pooled DSPs was estimated and compared. RESULTS: The pooled DSPs...... generated empirically derived DSPs. These pooled DSPs facilitate international comparisons and enables the use of ICISS in all settings where ICD-10 hospital discharge diagnoses are available. The modest reduction in performance of the ICE-ICISS compared with the country-specific scores is unlikely...

  7. Efficacy of Various Scoring Systems for Predicting the 28-Day Survival Rate among Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Requiring Emergency Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the efficacy of four severity-of-disease scoring systems in predicting the 28-day survival rate among patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD requiring emergency care. Clinical data of patients with AECOPD who required emergency care were recorded over 2 years. APACHE II, SAPS II, SOFA, and MEDS scores were calculated from severity-of-disease indicators recorded at admission and compared between patients who died within 28 days of admission (death group; 46 patients and those who did not (survival group; 336 patients. Compared to the survival group, the death group had a significantly higher GCS score, frequency of comorbidities including hypertension and heart failure, and age (P<0.05 for all. With all four systems, scores of age, gender, renal inadequacy, hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmia, anemia, fracture leading to bedridden status, tumor, and the GCS were significantly higher in the death group than the survival group. The prediction efficacy of the APACHE II and SAPS II scores was 88.4%. The survival rates did not differ significantly between APACHE II and SAPS II (P=1.519. Our results may guide triage for early identification of critically ill patients with AECOPD in the emergency department.

  8. Reduced-dose cyclosporine with mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone significantly improves the long-term glomerular filtration rate and graft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rending; Xu, Ying; Wu, Jianyong; Wang, Yimin; He, Qiang; Chen, Jianghua

    2013-01-01

    It remains debated whether reduced doses of chronic calcineurin inhibitors benefit graft survival. This retrospective study analyzed 60 first cadaveric renal transplant recipients who received cyclosporine (CSA), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and prednisone (CMP group) and 71 recipients who received reduced-dose CSA with prednisone and MMF (RCMP group). All recipients were followed for at least 96 months. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated at different time points, graft survival, the incidence of chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) and the acute rejection rate within six months were analyzed and compared between the two groups. The incidence of acute rejection within six months post-transplant was 15.5% (11/71) in the RCMP group and 13.3% (8/60) in the CMP group. This difference was not significant (p=0.727). The MDRD-calculated GFR in the CMP group reached a peak at 24 months post-transplant (66.6 ± 20.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) then decreased gradually. In contrast, in the RCMP group, the GFR reached a peak at 36 months post-transplant (76.9 ± 19.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). The GFR from month 36 to month 96 was significantly higher in the RCMP group than in the CMP group. The Kaplan-Meier calculated death-censored graft survival in the RCMP group was significantly higher than that observed in the CMP group, with an estimated cumulative proportion surviving at 96 months of 95.5% in the RCMP group and 83.5% in the CMP group. The incidence of CAN within 96 months was 5.6% (4/71) in the RCMP group vs. 16.7% (10/60) in the CMP group (p=0.042). An RCMP regimen can significantly improve the long-term GFR level and benefit graft survival.

  9. Determine movement patterns and survival rates of Central Valley Chinook salmon, steelhead and their predators using acoustic tags.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project’s objective is to document movement patterns and survival rates of Chinook salmon, steelhead, green sturgeon, and other fish from several sources in...

  10. Observations on feeding behaviour and survival rates in the estuarine calanoid copepods Acartia spinicauda and Heliodiaptomus cinctus (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srivastava, Y.; Fernandes, Brenda; Goswami, S.C.; Goswami, U.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Experiments were conducted on the calanoid copepods, Acartia spinicauda (Acartiidae) and Heliodiaptomus cinctus (Diaptomidae) in order to determine food preference and survival rates respectively. Adults of A. spinicauda were fed monocultures...

  11. Path-integral virial estimator for reaction-rate calculation based on the quantum instanton approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sandy; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Miller, William H

    2006-02-28

    The quantum instanton approximation is a type of quantum transition-state theory that calculates the chemical reaction rate using the reactive flux correlation function and its low-order derivatives at time zero. Here we present several path-integral estimators for the latter quantities, which characterize the initial decay profile of the flux correlation function. As with the internal energy or heat-capacity calculation, different estimators yield different variances (and therefore different convergence properties) in a Monte Carlo calculation. Here we obtain a virial (-type) estimator by using a coordinate scaling procedure rather than integration by parts, which allows more computational benefits. We also consider two different methods for treating the flux operator, i.e., local-path and global-path approaches, in which the latter achieves a smaller variance at the cost of using second-order potential derivatives. Numerical tests are performed for a one-dimensional Eckart barrier and a model proton transfer reaction in a polar solvent, which illustrates the reduced variance of the virial estimator over the corresponding thermodynamic estimator.

  12. Achievable information rates calculation for optical OFDM few-mode fiber long-haul transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Changyu; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Zou, Ding

    2015-06-29

    We propose a method to estimate the lower bound of achievable information rates (AIRs) of high speed orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) in spatial division multiplexing (SDM) optical long-haul transmission systems. The estimation of AIR is based on the forward recursion of multidimensional super-symbol efficient sliding-window Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv (BCJR) algorithm. We consider most of the degradations of fiber links including nonlinear effects in few-mode fiber (FMF). This method does not consider the SDM as a simple multiplexer of independent data streams, but provides a super-symbol version for AIR calculation over spatial channels. This super-symbol version of AIR calculation algorithm, in principle, can be used for arbitrary multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO)-SDM system with channel memory consideration. We illustrate this method by performing Monte Carlo simulations in a complete FMF model. Both channel model and algorithm for calculation of the AIRs are described in details. We also compare the AIRs results for QPSK/16QAM in both single mode fiber (SMF)- and FMF-based optical OFDM transmission.

  13. New Approach for Investigating Reaction Dynamics and Rates with Ab Initio Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Kelly L; Tiwary, Pratyush; Pfaendtner, Jim

    2016-01-21

    Herein, we demonstrate a convenient approach to systematically investigate chemical reaction dynamics using the metadynamics (MetaD) family of enhanced sampling methods. Using a symmetric SN2 reaction as a model system, we applied infrequent metadynamics, a theoretical framework based on acceleration factors, to quantitatively estimate the rate of reaction from biased and unbiased simulations. A systematic study of the algorithm and its application to chemical reactions was performed by sampling over 5000 independent reaction events. Additionally, we quantitatively reweighed exhaustive free-energy calculations to obtain the reaction potential-energy surface and showed that infrequent metadynamics works to effectively determine Arrhenius-like activation energies. Exact agreement with unbiased high-temperature kinetics is also shown. The feasibility of using the approach on actual ab initio molecular dynamics calculations is then presented by using Car-Parrinello MD+MetaD to sample the same reaction using only 10-20 calculations of the rare event. Owing to the ease of use and comparatively low-cost of computation, the approach has extensive potential applications for catalysis, combustion, pyrolysis, and enzymology.

  14. Comparison of estimated glomerular filtration rate values calculated using serum cystatin C and serum creatinine

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    Cevdet Türkyürek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to compare estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR formulas based on cystatin C and serum creatinine and investigate whether the formulas can detect the renal damage at microalbuminuric level in diabetic patients. Methods: Totally, 99 type 2 diabetic patients were included and divided into 3 groups according to 24 hour urine albumin levels as normoalbuminuric group (group 1, microalbuminuric group (group 2 and macroalbuminuric group (group 3. Creatinine clearance, Cockcroft-Gault (C-G, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD, The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI, eGFR1, eGFR2 and eGFR3 levels were calculated using formulas. Results: There were significant differences between group 1-3 and group 2-3, but there was no significant difference between group 1 and 2 in calculated GFR levels. Cystatin C-based formulas were found to have a better correlation with creatinine clearance. Conclusion: As a result, cystatin C-based formulas were found to predict creatinine clearance better than the other calculated GFR formulas in diabetic patients. However none of the formulas can discriminate the renal damage at microalbuminuric level. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (2: 91-95

  15. Growth and Survival Rate of Redclaw Crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus Reared with Different Density in Recirculation System

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    Tatag Budiardi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know the growth and survival rate of redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus reared in recirculation system with density 20, 30, 40 and 50 m-2. Lobster with 6.02 ± 0.13 cm length and 6.23 ± 0.51 gram initial body weights were cultured in 60 x 30 x 40 cm aquarium and compiled in recirculation system, for 42 days. Result of research showed that there are statistically difference at growth rate daily weight, coefficient of variances and feed efficiency (p0.05. From this research it can be concluded that the best density for freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus was 50 m-2.Keywords: density, growth, survival rate, redclaw crayfish,  Cherax quadricarinatus ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup lobster capit merah (Cherax quadricarinatus yang dipelihara pada sistem resirkulasi dengan kepadatan 20, 30, 40 dan 50 ekor/m2. Benih lobster yang digunakan memiliki panjang awal rata-rata 6,02 ± 0,13 cm dan berat 6,23 ± 0,51 gram, dipelihara pada akuarium dengan ukuran 60 x 30 x 40 cm yang diisi air setinggi 20 cm dan disusun dalam sistem resirkulasi, selama 42 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan nyata pada laju pertumbuhan bobot harian, koefisien keragaman dan efisiensi pakan (p0,05. Dari hasil penelitian ini, dapat disimpulkan bahwa padat penebaran yang dapat memberikan hasil maksimum adalah 50 ekor/m2.Kata kunci: padat penebaran, pertumbuhan, kelangsungan hidup, lobster capit merah, Cherax quadricarinatus

  16. Calculation of Radioactivity and Dose Rate of Activated Corrosion Products in Water-Cooled Fusion Reactor

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    Jingyu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In water-cooled reactor, the dominant radioactive source term under normal operation is activated corrosion products (ACPs, which have an important impact on reactor inspection and maintenance. A three-node transport model of ACPs was introduced into the new version of ACPs source term code CATE in this paper, which makes CATE capable of theoretically simulating the variation and the distribution of ACPs in a water-cooled reactor and suitable for more operating conditions. For code testing, MIT PWR coolant chemistry loop was simulated, and the calculation results from CATE are close to the experimental results from MIT, which means CATE is available and credible on ACPs analysis of water-cooled reactor. Then ACPs in the blanket cooling loop of water-cooled fusion reactor ITER under construction were analyzed using CATE and the results showed that the major contributors are the short-life nuclides, especially Mn-56. At last a point kernel integration code ARShield was coupled with CATE, and the dose rate around ITER blanket cooling loop was calculated. Results showed that after shutting down the reactor only for 8 days, the dose rate decreased nearly one order of magnitude, which was caused by the rapid decay of the short-life ACPs.

  17. Heart rate calculation from ensemble brain wave using wavelet and Teager-Kaiser energy operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Jayaraman; Adithya, V

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal artifacts are caused by various factors, such as, Electro-oculogram (EOG), Electromyogram (EMG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), movement artifact and line interference. The relatively high electrical energy cardiac activity causes EEG artifacts. In EEG signal processing the general approach is to remove the ECG signal. In this paper, we introduce an automated method to extract the ECG signal from EEG using wavelet and Teager-Kaiser energy operator for R-peak enhancement and detection. From the detected R-peaks the heart rate (HR) is calculated for clinical diagnosis. To check the efficiency of our method, we compare the HR calculated from ECG signal recorded in synchronous with EEG. The proposed method yields a mean error of 1.4% for the heart rate and 1.7% for mean R-R interval. The result illustrates that, proposed method can be used for ECG extraction from single channel EEG and used in clinical diagnosis like estimation for stress analysis, fatigue, and sleep stages classification studies as a multi-model system. In addition, this method eliminates the dependence of additional synchronous ECG in extraction of ECG from EEG signal process.

  18. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses in a national cohort of Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ascencio-Montiel, Iv?n de Jes?s; Kumate-Rodr?guez, Jes?s; Borja-Aburto, V?ctor Hugo; Fern?ndez-Garate, Jos? Esteban; Konik-Comonfort, Selene; Mac?as-P?rez, Oliver; Campos-Hern?ndez, ?ngel; Rodr?guez-V?zquez, H?ctor; L?pez-Rold?n, Ver?nica Miriam; Zitle-Garc?a, Edgar Jes?s; Sol?s-Cruz, Mar?a del Carmen; Vel?zquez-Ram?rez, Ismael; Aguilar-Jim?nez, Miriam; Villa-Caballero, Leonel; Cisneros-Gonz?lez, Nelly

    2016-01-01

    Background Permanent occupational disability is one of the most severe consequences of diabetes that impedes the performance of usual working activities among economically active individuals. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses have not previously been examined among Mexican workers. We aimed to describe the worker compensation expenses derived from pension payments and also to examine the survival rates and characteristics associated with all-cause mortality, in a cohort of 34,01...

  19. [Impact of ishemia-reperfusion injury on long survival rate in intestinal transplantation in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausada, Natalia; Stringa, Pablo; Cabanne, Ana; Ramisch, Diego; Machuca, Mariana; Galvao, Flavio; Coronato, Silvia; Raimondi, Jorge Clemente; Gondolesi, Gabriel

    2011-06-01

    The intestine is a highly sensitive tissue to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury that will early respond increasing its permeability. Later this response is translated in morphologic and histological changes that reveal the degree of damage. The heterotopic intestinal transplantation model in rats allows to evaluate the evolution of intestinal tissue injury after ischemia-reperfusion without affecting the long survival rate. The aim of this paper is to establish a relationship between the ischemic reperfusion injury with the long-term survival Ten intestinal transplants were analyzed in adult, Wistar, inbred, male rats. Light microscopical examination was performed on intestine graft: 1) immediately post-dissection, 2) at the end of cold isquemia, 3) 30 min, 4) 48hs and 5) 5 days post-transplant procedure, respectively. Biopsies were reported according to Park's classification and extension of staining using immunohistochemestry to malondialdehyde (MDA) products. The Park's classification indexes reported in samples were 1) 0,57 +/- 1,13 (N=10); 2) 2,71 +/- 1,25 (N=10); 3) 4,14 +/- 0,89 (N=10); 4) 1,0 +/- 0,81 (N=7); 5) 0 (N=7). The highest levels of immunohistochemical detection of MDA were observed thirty minutes post-reperfusion (extension of staining between 51% to 75%). Three animals died when they were sampled at 48 hours, and the biopsies had Park's classification > or = 4 at 30 minutes post-reperfusion and endotoxemic signology. The highest degree of mucosal damage was observed immediately post-reperfusion. At 48hs the graft tended to be normalized Failure to repair the immediately I-R injury signficantly affects the long term survival.

  20. A simple algebraic cancer equation: calculating how cancers may arise with normal mutation rates

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    Shibata Darryl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this article is to present a relatively easy to understand cancer model where transformation occurs when the first cell, among many at risk within a colon, accumulates a set of driver mutations. The analysis of this model yields a simple algebraic equation, which takes as inputs the number of stem cells, mutation and division rates, and the number of driver mutations, and makes predictions about cancer epidemiology. Methods The equation [p = 1 - (1 - (1 - (1 - udkNm ] calculates the probability of cancer (p and contains five parameters: the number of divisions (d, the number of stem cells (N × m, the number of critical rate-limiting pathway driver mutations (k, and the mutation rate (u. In this model progression to cancer "starts" at conception and mutations accumulate with cell division. Transformation occurs when a critical number of rate-limiting pathway mutations first accumulates within a single stem cell. Results When applied to several colorectal cancer data sets, parameter values consistent with crypt stem cell biology and normal mutation rates were able to match the increase in cancer with aging, and the mutation frequencies found in cancer genomes. The equation can help explain how cancer risks may vary with age, height, germline mutations, and aspirin use. APC mutations may shorten pathways to cancer by effectively increasing the numbers of stem cells at risk. Conclusions The equation illustrates that age-related increases in cancer frequencies may result from relatively normal division and mutation rates. Although this equation does not encompass all of the known complexity of cancer, it may be useful, especially in a teaching setting, to help illustrate relationships between small and large cancer features.

  1. Dampak Stres Salinitas Terhadap Prevalensi White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV dan Survival Rate Udang Vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei Pada Kondisi Terkontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attabik Mukhammad Amrillah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome (WSS adalah penyakit yang secara signifikan menyebabkan tingginya mortalitas dan kerusakan parah pada budidaya udang. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui dampak stres salinitas terhadap prevalensi WSSV dan survival rate udang vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei. Penelitian ini menggunakan udang vannamei ukuran PL 40 yang diinfeksi WSSV dengan konsentrasi virus 20 μg/ml pada tiga rentang salinitas yang berbeda 0-10 ppt, 11-20 ppt, 21–30 ppt dan di rendam selama 4 jam kemudian dilakukan pengamatan selama 7 hari pasca infeksi dan diukur survival rate dan kuaitas airnya. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa seluruh sampel terinfeksi oleh WSSV, ditunjukkan hasil analisa PCR dan gejala klinis yang timbul. Salinitas 0-10 ppt memberikan hasil persentase survival rate terendah jika dibandingkan dengan rentang salinitas yang lainnya yaitu sebesar 7 ekor atau 33% dari jumlah total sampel yang digunakan. Persentase survival rate udang tertinggi pasca infeksi virus WSSV terdapat pada perlakuan salinitas 21-30 ppt yaitu sebesar 13 ekor atau 63% dari jumlah total individu, dan salinitas 11-20 ppt memiliki persentase survival rate medium yaitu sebesar 10 ekor atau 49% dari jumlah total sampel. Stres salinitas mempengaruhi prevalensi WSSV dengan semakin tingginya tingkat infeksi seiring menurunnya rentang salinitas, akan tetapi survival rate semakin tinggi seiring dengan bertambahnya rentang salinitas.

  2. Outpatient-shopping behavior and survival rates in newly diagnosed cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shang-Jyh; Wang, Shiow-Ing; Liu, Chien-Hsiang; Yaung, Chih-Liang

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the appropriateness of the definition of outpatient-shopping behavior in Taiwanese patients. Linked study of 3 databases (Taiwan Cancer Registry, National Health Insurance [NHI] claim database, and death registry database). Outpatient shopping behavior was defined as making at least 4 or 5 physician visits to confirm a cancer diagnosis. We analyzed patient-related factors and the 5-year overall survival rate of the outpatient-shopping group compared with a nonshopping group. Using the household registration database and NHI database, we determined the proportion of outpatient shopping, characteristics of patients who did and did not shop for outpatient therapy, time between diagnosis and start of regular treatment, and medical service utilization in the shopping versus the nonshopping group. Patients with higher incomes were significantly more likely to shop for outpatient care. Patients with higher comorbidity scores were 1.4 times more likely to shop for outpatient care than patients with lower scores. Patients diagnosed with more advanced cancer were more likely to shop than those who were not. Patients might be more trusting of cancer diagnoses given at higher-level hospitals. The nonshopping groups had a longer duration of survival over 5 years. Health authorities should consider charging additional fees after a specific outpatient- shopping threshold is reached to reduce this behavior. The government may need to reassess the function of the medical sources network by shrinking it from the original 4 levels to 2 levels, or by enhancing the referral function among different hospital levels.

  3. Survival Rate and Growth of Fighting Fish Larvae (Betta splendens Regan Fed on Various Live Foods

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    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larval of fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan requires precise live foods for its growth and survival. In this experiment, fish larvae were fed on either Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, or Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex. The fish were fed Paramecium from day-2 till day-7 after hatching. There after, the live food was changed according to the treatments till day-28.  Results showed that fish fed on Paramecium + Artemia significantly had the highest total length (12.63 mm than other treatments (11.86 mm. On the other hand, survival rate of fish had no significant affected by the treatments. Keywords: fighting fish, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larvae   ABSTRAK Larva ikan betta (Betta splendens Regan membutuhkan jenis pakan alami yang tepat bagi kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhannya. Pada penelitian ini, larva ikan diberi pakan berupa Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, atau Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex.  Ikan diberi pakan pakan berupa Paramecium dari hari ke-2 hingga hari ke-7. Setelah itu, pemberian pakan alami diubah berdasarkan masing-masing perlakuan hingga hari ke-28.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang diberi pakan Paramecium + Artemia memiliki tubuh secara signifikan lebih panjang (12,63 mm dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya (11,86 mm.  Sementara itu, kelangsungan hidup tidak dipengatuhi oleh perlakuan. Kata kunci: ikan betta, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larva

  4. The genotoxin colibactin exacerbates lymphopenia and decreases survival rate in mice infected with septicemic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcq, Ingrid; Martin, Patricia; Payros, Delphine; Cuevas-Ramos, Gabriel; Boury, Michèle; Watrin, Claude; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Olier, Maïwenn; Oswald, Eric

    2014-07-15

    Sepsis is a life-threatening infection. Escherichia coli is the first known cause of bacteremia leading to sepsis. Lymphopenia was shown to predict bacteremia better than conventional markers of infection. The pks genomic island, which is harbored by extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and encodes the genotoxin colibactin, is epidemiologically associated with bacteremia. To investigate a possible relationship between colibactin and lymphopenia, we examined the effects of transient infection of lymphocytes with bacteria that were and those that were not producing the genotoxin. A mouse model of sepsis was used to compare the virulence of a clinical ExPEC isolate with its isogenic mutant impaired for the production of colibactin. We observed that colibactin induced double-strand breaks in the DNA of infected lymphocytes, leading to cell cycle arrest and to cell death by apoptosis. E. coli producing colibactin induced a more profound lymphopenia in septicemic mice, compared with the isogenic mutant unable to produce colibactin. In a sepsis model in which the mice were treated by rehydration and antibiotics, the production of colibactin by the bacteria was associated with a significantly lower survival rate. In conclusion, we demonstrate that production of colibactin by E. coli exacerbates lymphopenia associated with septicemia and could impair the chances to survive sepsis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Increased rate of survival in Streptococcus pneumoniae-infected rats treated with the new immunomodulator Pidotimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Marco, R; Condorelli, F; Girardello, R; Uslenghi, C; Chisari, G; di Mauro, M; Speciale, A M; Meroni, P L; Nicoletti, F

    1992-01-01

    Wistar rats infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae (type III ATCC) rapidly develop an acute form of experimental lobar pneumonia (ELP) with death of 80-90% of the animals by 6 days after the infection. Prophylactic treatment of these animals with the novel immunomodulator Pidotimod, at the dose of 25 mg/kg bw, significantly increased their rate of survival as compared to the control group (50 vs. 90% respectively). Recovery from the infection appeared definitive since all the Pidotimod-treated survivors were alive and in good condition at the end of the observation period (45 days post infection). Prophylactic treatment with higher or lower doses of the drug was ineffective. Therapy with Pidotimod was not effective. This preliminary study suggests that Pidotimod may have contributed to activation of specific and non-specific immune effectors involved in the host response to S. pneumoniae infection.

  6. Survival rate of salmonella on cooked pig ear pet treats at refrigerated and ambient temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pet treats, including pig ears, have been implicated as vehicles of human salmonellosis, and Salmonella has been isolated on commercially produced pig ears. Therefore, behavior of the pathogen on this very low water activity (aw) pet treat is of interest. The survival of Salmonella serotypes Newport and Typhimurium DT104 was measured on natural (aw 0.256) and smoked (aw 0.306) pig ear pet treat products inoculated at ca. 6.5 log CFU per sample and stored at 4.4 or 22°C for 365 days. Surviving populations of Salmonella were enumerated periodically, and a modified Weibull model was used to fit the inactivation curves for log populations. After 14 days, the decline of Salmonella was significantly (P Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 declined by 2.19 log on smoked pig ears and 1.14 log on natural pig ears, while Salmonella Newport declined by 4.20 log on smoked pig ears and 2.08 log on natural pig ears. Populations of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on refrigerated natural pig ears rebounded between day 152 (3.21 log CFU per sample) and day 175 (4.79 log CFU per sample) and rose gradually for the duration of the study to 5.28 log CFU per sample. The model fits for survival rate of Salmonella on pig ears at 4.4°C show a rapid initial decline followed by a long tailing effect. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on natural pig ears at 4.4°C had the slowest rate of reduction. At 22°C Salmonella declined nonlinearly by >4.5 log for each combination of serotype and pig ear type at 22°C but remained detectable by enrichment. The model parameter for days to first decimal reduction of Salmonella on pig ears was two to three times higher at 4.4°C compared with 22°C, demonstrating that Salmonella slowly declines on very low aw refrigerated pet treats and more rapidly at room temperature. This information may be useful for pet treat safety assessments.

  7. Chloroquine Improves Survival and Hematopoietic Recovery After Lethal Low-Dose-Rate Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim Yiting [Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kastan, Michael B. [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Matsui, William, E-mail: matsuwi@jhmi.edu [Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); DeWeese, Theodore L., E-mail: deweete@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that the antimalarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with a total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hour. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 {mu}g per 17 g of body weight, 24 hours and 4 hours before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula, and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retroorbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methylcellulose colony-forming assay of whole bone marrow cells and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of lineage depleted cells were used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results: Mice pretreated with chloroquine before radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate than did mice treated with radiation alone (80% vs. 31%, p = 0.0026). Chloroquine administration before radiation did not affect the survival of ATM null mice (p = 0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after transplantation (4.2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.015). Conclusion: Chloroquine administration before radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice, strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect, like the in vitro effect, is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR-irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection

  8. Forward flux sampling calculation of homogeneous nucleation rates from aqueous NaCl solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Haji-Akbari, Amir; Debenedetti, Pablo G.; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2018-01-01

    We used molecular dynamics simulations and the path sampling technique known as forward flux sampling to study homogeneous nucleation of NaCl crystals from supersaturated aqueous solutions at 298 K and 1 bar. Nucleation rates were obtained for a range of salt concentrations for the Joung-Cheatham NaCl force field combined with the Extended Simple Point Charge (SPC/E) water model. The calculated nucleation rates are significantly lower than the available experimental measurements. The estimates for the nucleation rates in this work do not rely on classical nucleation theory, but the pathways observed in the simulations suggest that the nucleation process is better described by classical nucleation theory than an alternative interpretation based on Ostwald's step rule, in contrast to some prior simulations of related models. In addition to the size of NaCl nucleus, we find that the crystallinity of a nascent cluster plays an important role in the nucleation process. Nuclei with high crystallinity were found to have higher growth probability and longer lifetimes, possibly because they are less exposed to hydration water.

  9. Automatic calculation of hippocampal atrophy rates using a hippocampal template and the boundary shift integral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J; Boyes, R G; Lewis, E B; Schott, J M; Frost, C; Scahill, R I; Fox, N C

    2007-11-01

    We describe a method of automatically calculating hippocampal atrophy rates on T1-weighted MR images without manual delineation of hippocampi. This method was applied to a group of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=36) and control (n=19) subjects and compared with manual methods (manual segmentation of baseline and repeat-image hippocampi) and semi-automated methods (manual segmentation of baseline hippocampi only). In controls, mean (S.D.) atrophy rates for manual, semi-automated, and automated methods were 18.1 (53.5), 15.3 (50.2) and 11.3 (50.4) mm3 loss per year, respectively. In AD patients these rates were 174.6 (106.5) 159.4 (101.2) and 172.1 (123.1) mm3 loss per year, respectively. The automated method was a significant predictor of disease (p=0.001) and gave similar group discrimination compared with both semi-automated and manual methods. The automated hippocampal analysis in this small study took approximately 20 min per hippocampal pair on a 3.4 GHz Intel Xeon server, whereas manual delineation of each hippocampal pair took approximately 90 min of operator-intensive labour. This method may be useful diagnostically or in studies where analysis of many scans may be required.

  10. Influence of the cavity-size on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemoli, Arthur Musakulu; van Amerongen, Willem Evert

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the influence of the size of proximal cavities on the survival rate of the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. A total of 804 children, aged 6-8 years, from a low socio-economic community, with an ART restorable proximal carious lesion in their primary molars, participated. Over a 3-week period, three 'experienced' and four 'inexperienced' operators randomly paired with four 'experienced' and four 'inexperienced' assistants, made the restorations at site using hand instruments. They randomly used Fuji IX, Ketac Molar Easymix and Ketac Molar Aplicap glass ionomer cements to restore the cavities, under randomly selected rubber dam and cotton roll isolation methods. The fillings were independently evaluated by nine trained and calibrated evaluators. After 1 year, the survival rate of the fillings evaluated in the study was 44.8%. Irrespective of the other factors involved, restorations with the highest survival rate were of size between 2 and 3 mm (mesio-distal, bucco-lingual, and depth) or volumes 10.0-19.9 mm(3) (Chi-square, P = 0.002, KM mean survival of 345 days). While the survival rates for class II ART restorations were still low, the choice of medium-sized proximal cavities gave better survival rates for this technique.

  11. Survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved by high caseload volume: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Pesus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive correlation between caseload and outcome has previously been validated for several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is no information linking caseload and outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC treatment. We used nationwide population-based data to examine the association between physician case volume and survival rates of patients with NPC. Methods Between 1998 and 2000, a total of 1225 patients were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity score were used to assess the relationship between 10-year survival rates and physician caseloads. Results As the caseload of individual physicians increased, unadjusted 10-year survival rates increased (p p = 0.001 after adjusting for comorbidities, hospital, and treatment modality. When analyzed by propensity score, the adjusted 10-year survival rate differed significantly between patients treated by high-volume physicians and patients treated by low/medium-volume physicians (75% vs. 61%; p Conclusions Our data confirm a positive volume-outcome relationship for NPC. After adjusting for differences in the case mix, our analysis found treatment of NPC by high-volume physicians improved 10-year survival rate.

  12. Factors Affecting the Survival Rate of Dental Implants: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikar, Sonal; Talukdar, Pratim; Kumari, Sarala; Panda, Sangram Kumar; Oommen, Vinni Mary; Prasad, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    Dental implants have emerged as new treatment modality for the majority of patients and are expected to play a significant role in oral rehabilitation in the future. The present study was conducted to assess various factors affecting the survival rate of dental implants. The present retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Prosthodontics. In this study, 5200 patients with dental implants which were placed during June 2008-April 2015 were included. Exclusion criteria were patients with hormonal imbalance, patients with chronic infectious disease, patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, pregnant women, drug and alcohol addicts, and patients with severe periodontal diseases. Parameters such as name, age, gender, length of implant, diameter of implant, location of implant, and bone quality were recorded. Data were tabulated and statistically evaluated with IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0., IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA. Out of 5200 patients, 2800 were males and 2400 females. Maximum implants failures (55) were seen in age group above 60 years of age (males - 550, females -700). Age group 11.5 mm (40/700) followed by implants with 4.5 mm (16/1600) and implants with diameter 3.75-4.5 mm (50/2600). The Chi-square test showed significant results ( P < 0.05). Mandibular posterior showed 3.3% implants failure, maxillary posterior revealed 2.2%, maxillary anterior showed 2.1%, and mandibular anterior showed 1% failure rate; this difference was significant ( P < 0.05). Type I bone showed 0.3% implant failure, Type II showed 1.95%, Type III showed 3%, and Type IV revealed 0.8% failure rate; this difference was significant ( P < 0.05). Age, length of implant, diameter of implant, bone quality, and region of implant are factors determining the survival rate of implants. We found that implant above 11.5 mm length, and with diameter <3.75 mm, placed in the mandibular posterior region, in Type III bone showed maximum failures.

  13. Effect of continuous hemofiltration on internal environment and survival rate of severe heatstroke dogs with shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-ming CHEN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of continuous hemofiltration(CHF on internal environment and survival rate of severe heatstroke dogs with shock.Methods Sixteen healthy male dogs were randomly divided into heatshock group(HS group,n=8 and continuous hemofiltration group(CHF group,n=8.Severe heatstroke model was established by applying high temperature to whole body,and then the animals were removed from the heating cabin as soon as they presented manifestations of shock.Dogs of HS group were put into an ordinary environment,while dogs of CHF group received CHF treatment.The core temperature(Tc,mean arterial pressure(MAP,blood gas analysis,serum electrolytes and survival rate of dogs in two groups were observed.Results The time from heat exposure to shock was 107.0±28.5min and 111.4±22.2min in HS group and CHF group respectively(t=-0.354,P=0.729.The Tc in CHF group declined to normal level 15 to 30 minitues after CHF treatment,while the Tc in HS group remained at a level higher than that before heat exposure at 90min after shock.The Tc of two groups showed significant difference at each time point after shock(P < 0.01.The MAP of both groups was obviously lowered than that before heatstroke.The MAP of CHF group raised gradually 30 min after treatment,while the MAP of HS group rose very slowly,and it was significantly lower than that of CHF group at each time point after 45min(P < 0.05,P < 0.01.All the dogs in both groups manifested hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis when shock appeared.After shock,respiratory alkalosis in HS group gradually became metabolic acidosis,with some animals manifested combined metabolic and respiratory acidosis because of respiratory decompensation,while the blood gas levels in CHF group recovered to normal gradually.The blood gas levels of two groups showed significant difference at each time point after shock(P < 0.05,P < 0.01.Hypernatremia,hyperchloraemia and hyperpotassaemia were found in all animals of both

  14. Implications of imprecision in kinetic rate data for photochemical model calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, R.W.; Thompson, A.M. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center

    1997-12-31

    Evaluation of uncertainties in photochemical model calculations is of great importance to scientists performing assessment modeling. A major source of uncertainty is the measurement imprecision inherent in photochemical reaction rate data that modelers rely on. A rigorous method of evaluating the impact of data imprecision on computational uncertainty is the study of error propagation using Monte Carlo techniques. There are two problems with the current implementation of the Monte Carlo method. First, there is no satisfactory way of accounting for the variation of imprecision with temperature in 1, 2, or 3D models; second, due to its computational expense, it is impractical in 3D model studies. These difficulties are discussed. (author) 4 refs.

  15. Helium release rates and ODH calculations from RHIC magnet cooling line failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-03-28

    A catastrophic failure of the magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, could discharge cold helium into the RHIC tunnel and cause an Oxygen Deficiency Hazard (ODH) problem. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the insulating vacuum volumes and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces are included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Results, including helium discharge rates, helium inventory loss, and the resulting oxygen concentration in the RHIC tunnel area, are reported. Good agreement had been achieved when comparing the simulation results, a RHIC sector depressurization test measurement, and some simple analytical calculations.

  16. Systematic comparison of ISOLDE-SC yields with calculated in-target production rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukic, S.; Gevaert, F.; Kelic, A.; Ricciardi, M.V.; Schmidt, K.H.; Yordanov, O.

    2006-02-15

    Recently, a series of dedicated inverse-kinematics experiments performed at GSI, Darmstadt, has brought an important progress in our understanding of proton and heavy-ion induced reactions at relativistic energies. The nuclear reaction code ABRABLA that has been developed and benchmarked against the results of these experiments has been used to calculate nuclide production cross sections at different energies and with different targets and beams. These calculations are used to estimate nuclide production rates by protons in thick targets, taking into account the energy loss and the attenuation of the proton beam in the target, as well as the low-energy fission induced by the secondary neutrons. The results are compared to the yields of isotopes of various elements obtained from different targets at CERN-ISOLDE with 600 MeV protons, and the overall extraction efficiencies are deduced. The dependence of these extraction efficiencies on the nuclide half-life is found to follow a simple pattern in many different cases. A simple function is proposed to parameterize this behavior in a way that quantifies the essential properties of the extraction efficiency for the element and the target - ion-source system in question. (orig.)

  17. Modeling Atmospheric Emissions and Calculating Mortality Rates Associated with High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Alyssa

    Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are a growing pollution concern throughout the global community, as they have been linked to numerous health issues. The freight transportation sector is a large source of these emissions and is expected to continue growing as globalization persists. Within the US, the expanding development of the natural gas industry is helping to support many industries and leading to increased transportation. The process of High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing (HVHF) is one of the newer advanced extraction techniques that is increasing natural gas and oil reserves dramatically within the US, however the technique is very resource intensive. HVHF requires large volumes of water and sand per well, which is primarily transported by trucks in rural areas. Trucks are also used to transport waste away from HVHF well sites. This study focused on the emissions generated from the transportation of HVHF materials to remote well sites, dispersion, and subsequent health impacts. The Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transport (GIFT) model was used in this analysis within ArcGIS to identify roadways with high volume traffic and emissions. High traffic road segments were used as emissions sources to determine the atmospheric dispersion of particulate matter using AERMOD, an EPA model that calculates geographic dispersion and concentrations of pollutants. Output from AERMOD was overlaid with census data to determine which communities may be impacted by increased emissions from HVHF transport. The anticipated number of mortalities within the impacted communities was calculated, and mortality rates from these additional emissions were computed to be 1 in 10 million people for a simulated truck fleet meeting stricter 2007 emission standards, representing a best case scenario. Mortality rates due to increased truck emissions from average, in-use vehicles, which represent a mixed age truck fleet, are expected to be higher (1 death per 341,000 people annually).

  18. Advanced Unilateral Retinoblastoma: The Impact of Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery on Enucleation Rate and Patient Survival at MSKCC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H Abramson

    Full Text Available To report on the influence of ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC on enucleation rates, ocular and patient survival from metastasis and impact on practice patterns at Memorial Sloan Kettering for children with advanced intraocular unilateral retinoblastoma.Single-center retrospective review of all unilateral retinoblastoma patients with advanced intraocular retinoblastoma treated at MSKCC between our introduction of OAC (May 2006 and December 2014. End points were ocular survival, patient survival from metastases and enucleation rates.156 eyes of 156 retinoblastoma patients were included. Primary enucleation rates have progressively decreased from a rate of >95% before OAC to 66.7% in the first year of OAC use to the present rate of 7.4%. The percent of patients receiving OAC has progressively increased from 33.3% in 2006 to 92.6% in 2014. Overall, ocular survival was significantly better in eyes treated with OAC in the years 2010-2014 compared to 2006-2009 (p = 0.023, 92.7% vs 68.0% ocular survival at 48 months. There have been no metastatic deaths in the OAC group but two patients treated with primary enucleation have died of metastatic disease.OAC was introduced in 2006 and its impact on patient management is profound. Enucleation rates have decreased from over 95% to less than 10%. Our ocular survival rate has also significantly and progressively improved since May 2006. Despite treating more advanced eyes rather then enucleating them patient survival has not been compromised (there have been no metastatic deaths in the OAC group. In our institution, enucleation is no longer the most common treatment for advanced unilateral retinoblastoma.

  19. STEADY-STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU TA

    2007-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The methodology of flammability analysis for Hanford tank waste is developed. The hydrogen generation rate model was applied to calculate the gas generation rate for 177 tanks. Flammability concentrations and the time to reach 25% and 100% of the lower flammability limit, and the minimum ventilation rate to keep from 100 of the LFL are calculated for 177 tanks at various scenarios.

  20. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hala; Sinnott, Sarah-Jo; Corcoran, Paul; Deady, Sandra; Sharp, Linda; Kabir, Zubair

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009. National data on incident oral cancers [ICD 10 codes C01-C06] were obtained from the National Cancer Registry Ireland from 1994 to 2009. We estimated annual percentage change (APC) in oral cancer incidence during 1994-2009 using joinpoint regression software (version 4.2.0.2). The lifetime risk of oral cancer to age 79 was estimated using Irish incidence and population data from 2007 to 2009. Survival rates were also examined using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models to explore the influence of several demographic/lifestyle covariates with follow-up to end 2012. Data were obtained on 2,147 oral cancer incident cases. Men accounted for two-thirds of oral cancer cases (n = 1,430). Annual rates in men decreased significantly during 1994-2001 (APC = -4.8 %, 95 % CI: -8.7 to -0.7) and then increased moderately (APC = 2.3 %, 95 % CI: -0.9 to 5.6). In contrast, annual incidence increased significantly in women throughout the study period (APC = 3.2 %, 95 % CI: 1.9 to 4.6). There was an elevated risk of death among oral cancer patients who were: older than 60 years of age; smokers; unemployed or retired; those living in the most deprived areas; and those whose tumour was sited in the base of the tongue. Being married and diagnosed in more recent years were associated with reduced risk of death. Oral cancer increased significantly in both sexes between 1999 and 2009 in Ireland. Our analyses demonstrate the influence of measured factors such as smoking, time of diagnosis and age on observed trends. Unmeasured factors such as alcohol use, HPV and dietary factors may also be contributing to increased trends. Several of

  1. Survival rates of short-span implant-supported cantilever fixed dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Gary L

    2010-01-01

    Publications were sought using Medline, and searches were made by hand of the journals Clinical Oral Implants Research, International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology and the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, along with reference lists of identified articles. Titles and abstracts were initially screened by two independent reviewers to identify prospective or retrospective longitudinal cohort studies or controlled studies reporting on implant-supported cantilever fixed dental prostheses (ICFDP) with a mean followup period of at least 5 years. A clinical examination had to be performed at the end of the followup. For multiple publications reporting on the same population, only the most recent report was included. Data for the meta-analysis were extracted by two independent reviewers. Information regarding survival and complication rates of both implants and ICFDP were extracted. Implant survival was considered if the implant was present at the followup examination; ICFDP survival was considered if the prosthesis was present at the followup visit without any modifications. Peri-implantitis and soft tissue complications were included in the category of biological complications. As for technical complications, all the events affecting the implant and/ or the meso- and/ or the suprastructures' integrity were considered. Among them, the following categories were defined: implant fractures, veneer fractures, framework fractures, abutment or screw fractures, loss of retention and screw loosening. The five studies included in the meta-analysis yielded an estimated 5- and 10-year ICFDP cumulative survival rate of 94.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 84.1-98%] and 88.9% (95% CI, 70.8- 96.1%), respectively. Five-year estimates for peri-implantitis were 5.4% (95% CI, 2.0-14.2%) and 9.4% (95% CI, 3.3-25.4%) at implant and prosthesis levels, respectively. Veneer fracture (5-year

  2. Effects of pond salinization on survival rate of amphibian hosts infected with the chytrid fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Storrie, Lachlan James; Pollard, Carla Jean; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2015-04-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of amphibian populations worldwide, but management options are limited. Recent studies show that sodium chloride (NaCl) has fungicidal properties that reduce the mortality rates of infected hosts in captivity. We investigated whether similar results can be obtained by adding salt to water bodies in the field. We increased the salinity of 8 water bodies to 2 or 4 ppt and left an additional 4 water bodies with close to 0 ppt and monitored salinity for 18 months. Captively bred tadpoles of green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) were released into each water body and their development, levels of B. dendrobatidis infection, and survival were monitored at 1, 4, and 12 months. The effect of salt on the abundance of nontarget organisms was also investigated in before and after style analyses. Salinities remained constant over time with little intervention. Hosts in water bodies with 4 ppt salt had a significantly lower prevalence of chytrid infection and higher survival, following metamorphosis, than hosts in 0 ppt salt. Tadpoles in the 4 ppt group were smaller in length after 1 month in the release site than those in the 0 and 2 ppt groups, but after metamorphosis body size in all water bodies was similar . In water bodies with 4 ppt salt, the abundance of dwarf tree frogs (Litoria fallax), dragonfly larvae, and damselfly larvae was lower than in water bodies with 0 and 2 ppt salt, which could have knock-on effects for community structure. Based on our results, salt may be an effective field-based B. dendrobatidis mitigation tool for lentic amphibians that could contribute to the conservation of numerous susceptible species. However, as in all conservation efforts, these benefits need to be weighed against negative effects on both target and nontarget organisms. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Abundance and survival rates of the Hawai'i Island associated spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris stock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A Tyne

    Full Text Available Reliable population estimates are critical to implement effective management strategies. The Hawai'i Island spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris is a genetically distinct stock that displays a rigid daily behavioural pattern, foraging offshore at night and resting in sheltered bays during the day. Consequently, they are exposed to frequent human interactions and disturbance. We estimated population parameters of this spinner dolphin stock using a systematic sampling design and capture-recapture models. From September 2010 to August 2011, boat-based photo-identification surveys were undertaken monthly over 132 days (>1,150 hours of effort; >100,000 dorsal fin images in the four main resting bays along the Kona Coast, Hawai'i Island. All images were graded according to photographic quality and distinctiveness. Over 32,000 images were included in the analyses, from which 607 distinctive individuals were catalogued and 214 were highly distinctive. Two independent estimates of the proportion of highly distinctive individuals in the population were not significantly different (p = 0.68. Individual heterogeneity and time variation in capture probabilities were strongly indicated for these data; therefore capture-recapture models allowing for these variations were used. The estimated annual apparent survival rate (product of true survival and permanent emigration was 0.97 SE ± 0.05. Open and closed capture-recapture models for the highly distinctive individuals photographed at least once each month produced similar abundance estimates. An estimate of 221 ± 4.3 SE highly distinctive spinner dolphins, resulted in a total abundance of 631 ± 60.1 SE, (95% CI 524-761 spinner dolphins in the Hawai'i Island stock, which is lower than previous estimates. When this abundance estimate is considered alongside the rigid daily behavioural pattern, genetic distinctiveness, and the ease of human access to spinner dolphins in their preferred resting habitats, this

  4. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Joanne Saher,; Theresa Childers,

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  5. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... for NIC. For babies babies alive at onset of labour were admitted to neonatal intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: There are wide variations in the survival rates to discharge from NIC for very preterm deliveries and in the timing of death across the MOSAIC regions. In order...

  6. Limitations of the TG-43 formalism for skin high-dose-rate brachytherapy dose calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granero, Domingo, E-mail: dgranero@eresa.com [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, 46014 Valencia (Spain); Perez-Calatayud, Jose [Radiotherapy Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026 (Spain); Vijande, Javier [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100, Spain and IFIC (UV-CSIC), Paterna 46980 (Spain); Ballester, Facundo [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: In skin high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, sources are located outside, in contact with, or implanted at some depth below the skin surface. Most treatment planning systems use the TG-43 formalism, which is based on single-source dose superposition within an infinite water medium without accounting for the true geometry in which conditions for scattered radiation are altered by the presence of air. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric limitations of the TG-43 formalism in HDR skin brachytherapy and the potential clinical impact. Methods: Dose rate distributions of typical configurations used in skin brachytherapy were obtained: a 5 cm × 5 cm superficial mould; a source inside a catheter located at the skin surface with and without backscatter bolus; and a typical interstitial implant consisting of an HDR source in a catheter located at a depth of 0.5 cm. Commercially available HDR{sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir sources and a hypothetical {sup 169}Yb source were considered. The Geant4 Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to estimate dose rate distributions for the configurations considered. These results were then compared to those obtained with the TG-43 dose calculation formalism. In particular, the influence of adding bolus material over the implant was studied. Results: For a 5 cm × 5 cm{sup 192}Ir superficial mould and 0.5 cm prescription depth, dose differences in comparison to the TG-43 method were about −3%. When the source was positioned at the skin surface, dose differences were smaller than −1% for {sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir, yet −3% for {sup 169}Yb. For the interstitial implant, dose differences at the skin surface were −7% for {sup 60}Co, −0.6% for {sup 192}Ir, and −2.5% for {sup 169}Yb. Conclusions: This study indicates the following: (i) for the superficial mould, no bolus is needed; (ii) when the source is in contact with the skin surface, no bolus is needed for either {sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir. For

  7. Limitations of the TG-43 formalism for skin high-dose-rate brachytherapy dose calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Domingo; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Vijande, Javier; Ballester, Facundo; Rivard, Mark J

    2014-02-01

    In skin high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, sources are located outside, in contact with, or implanted at some depth below the skin surface. Most treatment planning systems use the TG-43 formalism, which is based on single-source dose superposition within an infinite water medium without accounting for the true geometry in which conditions for scattered radiation are altered by the presence of air. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric limitations of the TG-43 formalism in HDR skin brachytherapy and the potential clinical impact. Dose rate distributions of typical configurations used in skin brachytherapy were obtained: a 5 cm × 5 cm superficial mould; a source inside a catheter located at the skin surface with and without backscatter bolus; and a typical interstitial implant consisting of an HDR source in a catheter located at a depth of 0.5 cm. Commercially available HDR(60)Co and (192)Ir sources and a hypothetical (169)Yb source were considered. The Geant4 Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to estimate dose rate distributions for the configurations considered. These results were then compared to those obtained with the TG-43 dose calculation formalism. In particular, the influence of adding bolus material over the implant was studied. For a 5 cm × 5 cm(192)Ir superficial mould and 0.5 cm prescription depth, dose differences in comparison to the TG-43 method were about -3%. When the source was positioned at the skin surface, dose differences were smaller than -1% for (60)Co and (192)Ir, yet -3% for (169)Yb. For the interstitial implant, dose differences at the skin surface were -7% for (60)Co, -0.6% for (192)Ir, and -2.5% for (169)Yb. This study indicates the following: (i) for the superficial mould, no bolus is needed; (ii) when the source is in contact with the skin surface, no bolus is needed for either (60)Co and (192)Ir. For lower energy radionuclides like (169)Yb, bolus may be needed; and (iii) for the interstitial case, at

  8. Survival of mouse embryos after vitrification depending on the cooling rate of the cryoprotectant solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hredzák, R; Ostró, A; Zdilová, Viera; Maracek, I; Kacmárik, J

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the rate of cooling of eight-cell mouse embryos to the temperature of liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C) and their developmental capacity after thawing on the basis of their ability to leave the zona pellucida ('hatching') during in vitro culturing. Eight-cell embryos were obtained from superovulated female mice and divided into three experimental and one control group. Embryos from the experimental groups were cryopreserved by the vitrification method using ethylene glycol as cryoprotectant. The vitrification protocols used in the study differed in the rate of cooling of the cryoprotectant solution. Embryos from the first group were frozen in conventional 0.25-ml plastic straws, those from the second group in pipetting 'tips', and embryos from the third group, placed in vitrification solution, were introduced dropwise directly into liquid nitrogen. The control group of embryos was cultured in vitro without freezing in a culturing medium in an environment consisting of 95% air and 5% CO2. The developmental capacity of thawed embryos was assessed on the basis of their ability to leave the zona pellucida ('hatching') after three days of in vitro culturing. In the control group 95.1% of embryos 'hatched'. A significantly higher number of embryos that 'hatched' after thawing was observed in the group introduced dropwise directly into liquid nitrogen (60.0%) compared to the group frozen in pipetting 'tips' (37.9%). The group frozen in straws yielded significantly the lowest proportion of 'hatching' embryos (8.1%). These results showed that increasing cooling rates during vitrification of embryos improved their survival.

  9. Changes in the management and survival rates of patients with oral cancer: a 30-year single-institution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bo-Yun; Lee, Chung-O; Kim, Jin-Wook

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the management and 5-year survival rates of patients with oral cancer in our department over a 30-year period. We investigated the patient distributions, treatment methods, method of neck dissection according to cancer stage, and 5-year survival rates for 700 oral cancer patients over the periods of 1982-1996 (256 patients), 1999-2006 (248 patients), and 2007-2011 (196 patients). Stage IV patients were the largest group in all of the time periods evaluated. Although surgery and radiotherapy were the most common methods in all periods (over 50%), the prevalence of patients who underwent concomitant chemoradiotherapy increased from 7.0% to 16.2%. The use of radical neck dissection decreased from 43.0% to 5.3%, while conservative surgical methods increased from 24.1% to 76.3%. Lastly, the overall 5-year survival rate increased from 31.6% to 63.5% during the study period. Although the 5-year survival rate reached the same level as that of other developed countries during the course of our study, most patients continue to come to the hospital with stage IV disease. In order to increase the 5-year survival rate of oral carcinoma, it may be necessary to improve public education and social efforts relevant to early diagnosis.

  10. Enhancing the Survival Rate of Sand Goby, Oxyeleotris marmorata (Blkr., Larvae with Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irzal Effendi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPenicillin G and streptomycin sulphate were administered for 18 days of rearing of sand goby larvae. 7'wo-days larvae (3,37-3,41 mm were reared in 160 1 aerated water at stocking density of 50 fish/1.  Until 17 days of rearing period, the larvae were fed plankton (50-300 gm at stocking density of 20-30 individual/mi, and at day 13-I8, were fed Artemia sp. (1-2 individual/ml.  During first seven days, penicillin G and streptomycin sulphate (1.000 IU/1 and 10 mg/1, respectively were applied daily, and there after once every three days.  The fry which reared in media containing antibiotics exhibited higher survival rate (28,09%, compared to 3,3 1 %, than the control, whereas their growth was similar (1,09-1,53 mm. Keywords :  Antibiotics, survival rate, sand goby fish, Oxyeleotris marmorata  ABSTRAKAntibiotik penisilin G dan streptomisin sulfat telah digunakan dalam pemeliharaan larva ikan betutu selama 18 hari.  Larva umur 2 hari (3,37-3,41 mm dipelihara dalain tangki berisi air sebanyak 160 1 yang diaerasi halus, dengan kepadatan 50 ekor/1.  Antibiotik diberikan kepada media pemeliharaan larva setiap hari pada 7 hari pertarna pemeliharaan dan selanjutnya setiap 3 hari sekaii hingga akhir pemeliharaan, sebanyak 1.000 IU/1 dan 10 mg/1 masing-masing untuk penisilin G dan streptomisin sulfat.  Pada hari pertama hingga ke- 1 7, larva diberi makan plankton berukuran 50-300 gm sebanyak 20-30 individu/ml, hari ke- 13 sampai 18 diberi Artemia sp. sebanyak 1-2 ekor/ml.  Larva yang dipelihara pada media berantibiotik memiliki kelangsungan hidup (28,09% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan tanpa antibiotik (3,31%, sedangkan pertumbuhan panjang mutlaknya sama yaitu 1,09-1,53 mm.Kata kunci :  Antibiotik, kelangsungan hidup, ikan betutu, Oxyeleotris marmorata

  11. Effect of Different Medium on Survival Rate and Growth of Chironomus sp. Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Widanarni

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental fish and fish for food culture, feeding by natural feed is very suitable since they are easy to digest and their size is suitable with  to larval mouth.  One of natural foods is blood worm Chironomus sp. larvae that has high protein content (till  65.2% of  protein. Until now, blood worm is obtained from nature and their stock depends on the weather.  That problem  may be overcome by culturing blood worm in appropriate culture medium.  Naturally, Chironomus sp. grows well in the water containing sago waste.  This study was carried out to examine the growth of Chironomus sp. reared in the medium containing mud, solid sago waste, solid tapioca wastes and water with no waste in depth of 0.5 cm. After 35-day rearing, survival rate of Chironomus sp was different among the treatments, while growth in length was similar. The best survival rate, 58.93% was obtained in the media containing solid sago waste.   Keywords: Chironomus, blood worm, sago waste, tapioca waste   ABSTRAK Dalam usaha budidaya ikan hias maupun ikan konsumsi, pemberian pakan alami sangat cocok karena mudah dicerna dan sesuai dengan bukaan mulut larva. Salah satu contoh pakan alami adalah Chironomus sp. (blood worm yang mempunyai kandungan protein mencapai 65,2%. Selama ini cacing darah diperoleh dari alam dan suplainya tergantung pada kondisi musim. Hal ini mungkin dapat diatasi dengan membudidayakan cacing darah dengan  media yang sesuai sebagai tempat hidupnya. Secara alami, Chironomus sp. dapat tumbuh dan berkembang dengan baik pada limbah sagu. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan Chironomus sp. yang dipelihara pada media berupa lumpur, limbah sagu padat, limbah tapioka padat dan air tanpa limbah dengan ketebalan media 0,5 cm. Setelah 35 hari masa pemeliharaan, diketahui bahwa penggunaan media limbah padat sagu, limbah padat tapioka, lumpur dan air tanpa limbah pada pemeliharaan Chironomus sp. masing-masing menghasilkan tingkat

  12. 77 FR 59411 - Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Quarterly IRS Interest Rates Used in Calculating Interest on Overdue Accounts and Refunds on Customs Duties...: This notice advises the public of the quarterly Internal Revenue Service interest rates used to... calendar quarter beginning October 1, 2012, the interest rates for overpayments will be 2 percent for...

  13. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  14. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... to directly compare international statistics for mortality in very preterm infants, data collection needs to be standardised. We believe that the standard point of comparison should be using all those infants alive at the onset of labour as the denominator for comparisons of mortality rates for very preterm...... to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and survival to discharge. RESULTS: Overall the proportion of this very preterm cohort who survived to discharge from neonatal care was 89.5%, varying from 93.2% to 74.8% across the regions. Less than 2% of infants

  15. Bayesian Analysis for Dynamic Generalized Linear Latent Model with Application to Tree Survival Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-sheng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic regression model is the most popular regression technique, available for modeling categorical data especially for dichotomous variables. Classic logistic regression model is typically used to interpret relationship between response variables and explanatory variables. However, in real applications, most data sets are collected in follow-up, which leads to the temporal correlation among the data. In order to characterize the different variables correlations, a new method about the latent variables is introduced in this study. At the same time, the latent variables about AR (1 model are used to depict time dependence. In the framework of Bayesian analysis, parameters estimates and statistical inferences are carried out via Gibbs sampler with Metropolis-Hastings (MH algorithm. Model comparison, based on the Bayes factor, and forecasting/smoothing of the survival rate of the tree are established. A simulation study is conducted to assess the performance of the proposed method and a pika data set is analyzed to illustrate the real application. Since Bayes factor approaches vary significantly, efficiency tests have been performed in order to decide which solution provides a better tool for the analysis of real relational data sets.

  16. Melanoma tumors frequently acquire LRP2/megalin expression, which modulates melanoma cell proliferation and survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rikke K; Hammer, Katrine; Hager, Henrik; Christensen, Julie N; Ludvigsen, Maja; Honoré, Bent; Thomsen, Mai-Britt H; Madsen, Mette

    2015-05-01

    We show that the multiligand receptor megalin, known to mediate uptake and trafficking of nutrients and signaling molecules, is frequently expressed in malignant melanoma samples. Expression of megalin-encoding mRNA was investigated in 65 samples of nevi, melanomas, and melanoma metastases and was observed in more than 60% of the malignant samples, while only in 20% of the benign counterparts. Megalin expression in nevus and melanoma samples was additionally investigated by immunohistochemistry, which confirmed our mRNA-based observations. We furthermore show that a panel of tumor-derived melanoma cell lines express LRP2/megalin endogenously. In these cells, megalin is internalized from the cell surface and localizes extensively to intracellular vesicles, confirming receptor activity and pointing toward association with the endocytic apparatus. Groundbreaking, our results indicate that sustained megalin expression in melanoma cells is crucial for cell maintenance, as siRNA-mediated reduction in melanoma cell expression of LRP2/megalin significantly decreases melanoma cell proliferation and survival rates. © 2015 The Authors. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Recurrent and de novo glomerulonephritis following renal transplantation: higher rates of rejection and lower graft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirioglu, Safak; Caliskan, Yasar; Goksoy, Yagmur; Gulcicek, Sibel; Ozluk, Yasemin; Sarihan, Irem; Seyahi, Nurhan; Kilicaslan, Isin; Turkmen, Aydin; Sever, Mehmet Sukru

    2017-12-01

    In this retrospective study with case-control design, we aimed to determine the clinical and pathological characteristics of post-transplant glomerulonephritis (GN), and their effects on transplant recipients. One hundred and twenty renal transplant recipients with biopsy-proven recurrent or de novo primary GN were compared with two matched control groups including 120 transplant recipients with nonrecurrent primary GN (nonrecurrent GN group) and 120 transplant recipients with non-GN etiology (non-GN group). Primary outcome was allograft loss, and secondary outcomes were biopsy-confirmed cellular or antibody-mediated rejection. In recurrent/de novo GN, nonrecurrent GN and non-GN groups, 54.2% (n = 65), 16.7% (n = 20) and 8.3% (n = 10) of patients reached primary outcome after a median follow-up of 96 (IQR: 56-149) months, respectively. Allograft loss was significantly higher in recurrent/de novo GN group compared to nonrecurrent GN and non-GN groups (p < 0.001). At 10 years, allograft loss rates in recurrent/de novo GN group were 54.2% for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, 53.2% for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and 33.4% for IgA nephropathy cases. Biopsy-confirmed rejection rate was significantly higher in the recurrent/de novo GN group (n = 25, 20.8%) compared to non-GN (n = 8, 6.7%) group (p = 0.001). Recurrent/de novo GN is associated with higher risk of rejection and worse allograft survival.

  18. The combined effect of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on cancer survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ming Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This population-based study investigated the relationship between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES and mortality rates for major cancers in Taiwan. METHODS: A population-based follow-up study was conducted with 20,488 cancer patients diagnosed in 2002. Each patient was traced to death or for 5 years. The individual income-related insurance payment amount was used as a proxy measure of individual SES for patients. Neighborhood SES was defined by income, and neighborhoods were grouped as living in advantaged or disadvantaged areas. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the death-free survival rates between the different SES groups after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for patient characteristics (age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, urbanization, and area of residence, tumor extent, treatment modalities (operation and adjuvant therapy, and hospital characteristics (ownership and teaching level, colorectal cancer, and head and neck cancer patients under 65 years old with low individual SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods conferred a 1.5 to 2-fold higher risk of mortality, compared with patients with high individual SES in advantaged neighborhoods. A cross-level interaction effect was found in lung cancer and breast cancer. Lung cancer and breast cancer patients less than 65 years old with low SES in advantaged neighborhoods carried the highest risk of mortality. Prostate cancer patients aged 65 and above with low SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods incurred the highest risk of mortality. There was no association between SES and mortality for cervical cancer and pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that cancer patients with low individual SES have the highest risk of mortality even under a universal health-care system. Public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this vulnerable group.

  19. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates...

  20. The reaction rate for dissociative adsorption of N-2 on stepped Ru(0001): Six-dimensional quantum calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Harrevelt, Rob; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical calculations of the reaction rate for dissociative adsorption of N-2 on stepped Ru(0001) are presented. Converged six-dimensional quantum calculations for this heavy-atom reaction have been performed using the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree method. A potential...

  1. Racial disparities in breast carcinoma survival rates: seperating factors that affect diagnosis from factors that affect treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kenneth C; Lamar, Charisee A; Freeman, Harold P

    2003-06-01

    Black females have lower breast carcinoma survival rates compared with white females. One possible reason is that black females have more advanced-stage breast disease. Another factor may be racial differences in the utilization of cancer treatments. The authors determined racial differences in 6-year stage specific survival rates, adjusting for age and treatments (using estrogen receptor [ER] status), to determine whether there were racial differences in treatment. Racial differences in the stage distributions of breast disease were used to examine the impact of racial factors on breast carcinoma diagnosis. For all breast carcinoma cases, the stage specific 6-year survival rates, in general, were significantly lower for black females for all stages combined and for Stages I-III in every age group. However, examination by different treatments, as measured by ER status, revealed some different results. Only black women younger than age 50 years with ER-positive tumors and women younger than age 65 years with ER-negative tumors had significantly lower stage-specific survival rates. In addition, the stage distribution analyses showed that black females of every age group had less Stage I breast disease. For younger black women (younger than age 50 years), there was evidence of racial differences in treatment for both women with ER-positive tumors and women with ER-negative tumors, as indicated by their lower stage-specific survival rates. In contrast, for black females age 65 years or older with ER-positive or ER-negative tumors, the lack of a significant difference in the stage-specific survival rate suggests that Medicare may help to alleviate racial disparities in cancer treatment. Furthermore, racial differences in the stage distributions indicated the need for earlier diagnosis for black females of every age. Published 2003 American Cancer Society.

  2. Locating the rate-limiting step for the interaction of hydrogen with Mg(0001) using density-functional theory calculations and rate theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Tejs

    2004-01-01

    the nudged elastic band method, and rates of the activated processes are calculated within the harmonic approximation to transition state rate theory, using both classical and quantum partition functions based atomic vibrational frequencies calculated by DFT. The dissociation/recombination of H2 is found......The dissociation of molecular hydrogen on a Mgs0001d surface and the subsequent diffusion of atomic hydrogen into the magnesium substrate is investigated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and rate theory. The minimum energy path and corresponding transition states are located using...... to be rate-limiting for the ab- and desorption of hydrogen, respectively. Zero-point energy contributions are found to be substantial for the diffusion of atomic hydrogen, but classical rates are still found to be within an order of magnitude at room temperature....

  3. Apparent survival rates of forest birds in eastern Ecuador revisited: improvement in precision but no change in estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Blake

    Full Text Available Knowledge of survival rates of Neotropical landbirds remains limited, with estimates of apparent survival available from relatively few sites and species. Previously, capture-mark-recapture models were used to estimate apparent survival of 31 species (30 passerines, 1 Trochilidae from eastern Ecuador based on data collected from 2001 to 2006. Here, estimates are updated with data from 2001-2012 to determine how additional years of data affect estimates; estimates for six additional species are provided. Models assuming constant survival had highest support for 19 of 31 species when based on 12 years of data compared to 27 when based on six; models incorporating effects of transients had the highest support for 12 of 31 species compared to four when based on 12 and six years, respectively. Average apparent survival based on the most highly-supported model (based on model averaging, when appropriate was 0.59 (± 0.02 SE across 30 species of passerines when based on 12 years and 0.57 (± 0.02 when based on six. Standard errors of survival estimates based on 12 years were approximately half those based on six years. Of 31 species in both data sets, estimates of apparent survival were somewhat lower for 13, somewhat higher for 17, and remained unchanged for one; confidence intervals for estimates based on six and 12 years of data overlapped for all species. Results indicate that estimates of apparent survival are comparable but more precise when based on longer-term data sets; standard error of the estimates was negatively correlated with numbers of captures (rs  = -0.72 and recaptures (rs  = -0.93, P<0.001 in both cases. Thus, reasonable estimates of apparent survival may be obtained with relatively few years of data if sample sizes are sufficient.

  4. Calculation of the Rate of M>6.5 Earthquakes for California and Adjacent Portions of Nevada and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Mueller, Charles

    2008-01-01

    One of the key issues in the development of an earthquake recurrence model for California and adjacent portions of Nevada and Mexico is the comparison of the predicted rates of earthquakes with the observed rates. Therefore, it is important to make an accurate determination of the observed rate of M>6.5 earthquakes in California and the adjacent region. We have developed a procedure to calculate observed earthquake rates from an earthquake catalog, accounting for magnitude uncertainty and magnitude rounding. We present a Bayesian method that corrects for the effect of the magnitude uncertainty in calculating the observed rates. Our recommended determination of the observed rate of M>6.5 in this region is 0.246 ? 0.085 (for two sigma) per year, although this rate is likely to be underestimated because of catalog incompleteness and this uncertainty estimate does not include all sources of uncertainty.

  5. Calculating site-specific evolutionary rates at the amino-acid or codon level yields similar rate estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydykova, Dariya K; Wilke, Claus O

    2017-01-01

    Site-specific evolutionary rates can be estimated from codon sequences or from amino-acid sequences. For codon sequences, the most popular methods use some variation of the dN∕dS ratio. For amino-acid sequences, one widely-used method is called Rate4Site, and it assigns a relative conservation score to each site in an alignment. How site-wise dN∕dS values relate to Rate4Site scores is not known. Here we elucidate the relationship between these two rate measurements. We simulate sequences with known dN∕dS, using either dN∕dS models or mutation-selection models for simulation. We then infer Rate4Site scores on the simulated alignments, and we compare those scores to either true or inferred dN∕dS values on the same alignments. We find that Rate4Site scores generally correlate well with true dN∕dS, and the correlation strengths increase in alignments with greater sequence divergence and more taxa. Moreover, Rate4Site scores correlate very well with inferred (as opposed to true) dN∕dS values, even for small alignments with little divergence. Finally, we verify this relationship between Rate4Site and dN∕dS in a variety of empirical datasets. We conclude that codon-level and amino-acid-level analysis frameworks are directly comparable and yield very similar inferences.

  6. Early development, survival and growth rates of the giant clam Tridacna crocea (Bivalvia: Tridacnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mies

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tridacnid clams are conspicuous inhabitants of Indo-Pacific coral reefs and are traded and cultivated for the aquarium and food industries. In the present study, daily growth rates of larvae of the giant clam Tridacna crocea were determined in the laboratory during the first week of life. Adults were induced to spawn via intra-gonadal serotonin injection through the byssal orifice. After spawning oocytes were collected, fertilized and kept in 3 L glass beakers and raceways treated with antibiotics to avoid culture contamination. Larvae were fed twice with the microalga Isochrysis galbana and zooxanthellae were also offered twice during the veliger stage (days 4 and 6. Larval length was measured using a digitizing tablet coupled to a microcomputer. Larval mortality was exponential during the first 48 hours of life declining significantly afterwards. Mean growth rate was 11.3 μm day-1, increasing after addition of symbionts to 18.0 μm day-1. Survival increased to ca. 75% after the addition of zooxanthellae. The results describe the growth curve for T. crocea larvae and suggest that the acquisition of symbionts by larvae may be useful for larval growth and survival even before larvae have attained metamorphosis.Bivalves tridacnídeos são habitantes conspícuos dos recifes da região do Indo-Pacífico e são cultivados e comercializados para os mercados alimentício e aquarista. No estudo apresentado foram determinadas as taxas de crescimento diário durante a primeira semana de vida da larva do bivalve ornamental Tridacna crocea. As matrizes foram induzidas à desova por meio de uma injeção intragonadal de serotonina realizada através do orifício bissal. Após desova, ovócitos foram coletados, fertilizados e mantidos em béqueres de vidro e tanques de fluxo contínuo tratados com antibióticos para evitar contaminação. Larvas foram alimentadas em duas ocasiões com a microalga Isochrysis galbana e zooxantelas foram oferecidas também por

  7. Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates of Cryotop-Vitrified Oocyte and Embryo Using Low Concentrated Cryoprotectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roozbehi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: The preserving embryos, the risk of multiple pregnancies, the existence of factors in stimulated uterine cycle, are important forces in perfecting embryo cryopreservation. The aim of current study was to assess Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates (SRs, FRs, DRs of the mouse oocytes and embryos using cryotop and low concentrated cryoprotectants solutions. Methods: Mouse C57BL/6 oocytes and embryos were collected. Oocytes SRs, FRs, DRs were recorded after cryotop-vitrification/ warming. As well as comparing fresh oocytes and embryos, the data obtained from experimental groups (exp. applying 1.25, 1.0, and 0.75 Molar (M CPAs were analyzed in comparison to those of exp. adopting 1.5 M CPAs (largely-used concentration of EthylenGlycol (EG and Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO. Results: The data of oocytes exposed to 1.25 M CPAs were in consistency with those exposed to 1.5 M and control group in terms of SR, FR and DR. As fewer concentrations were applied, the more decreased SRs, FRs and DRs were obtained from other experimental groups. The results of embryos were exposed to 1.25 M and 1.0 M was close to those vitrified with 1.5 M and fresh embryos. The results of 0.75 M concentrated CPAs solutions were significantly lower than those of control, 1.5 M and 1.0 M treated groups. Conclusion: CPAs limited reduction to 1.25 M and 1.0 M instead of using 1.5 M, for oocyte and embryo cryotop-vitrification procedure may be a slight adjustment.

  8. Short-term survival and mortality rates in a retrospective study of colic in 1588 Danish horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken; Dupont, Nana Hee; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina S.

    2014-01-01

    or social factors such as attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia. The aims of this study were to 1) describe and analyse characteristics in horses with signs of colic referred to the University Hospital for Large Animals (UHLA), University of Copenhagen, Denmark over a 10-year period and 2...... or were euthanized (CI: 19 – 32%; 48/189), while 75% survived to discharge (CI: 68 – 81%). Conclusions: The short term survival rates of Danish horses with colic were similar or lower to those reported from other countries. Apart from variability of veterinary care, attitudes towards euthanasia vary among...... the countries, which may bias the outcomes. This study indicates that qualitative interview studies on owners ’ attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia need to be conducted. Our opinion is that survival rates are not valid as sole indicators of quality of care in colic treatment due to selection bias...

  9. Hot-electron-mediated desorption rates calculated from excited-state potential energy surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Gavnholt, Jeppe; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    We present a model for desorption induced by (multiple) electronic transitions [DIET (DIMET)] based on potential energy surfaces calculated with the delta self-consistent field extension of density-functional theory. We calculate potential energy surfaces of CO and NO molecules adsorbed on variou...

  10. Temperature- and age-dependent survival, development, and oviposition rates of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of temperature and age on development, survival, attack rate, and oviposition of the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) exploiting house fly pupae was investigated by conducting life-table experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Temperature had...

  11. Influence of the cavity-size on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Aim.  To evaluate the influence of the size of proximal cavities on the survival rate of the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. Design.  A total of 804 children, aged 6-8 years, from a low socio-economic community, with an ART restorable proximal carious lesion in their primary

  12. Influence of the experience of operator and assistant on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations: two-year results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Opinya, G.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The objective of the study was to determine the influence of the experience of the operator and the assistant on the survival rate of proximal ART- restorations after 2 years when placed using two methods of tooth-isolation and three glass ionomer cement-brands. STUDY DESIGN: A clinical

  13. Survival rate of approximal-ART restorations using a two-layer technique for glass ionomer insertion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifácio, C.C.; Hesse, D.; de Oliveira Rocha, R.; Bönecker, M.; Raggio, D.P.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Good survival rates (SR) have been reported for occlusal-atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations but not for approximal-ART restorations. The high-viscosity consistency of the glass ionomer cement (GIC) may lead to its incorrect adaptation into the cavity and thus to failure of

  14. The 3.5-year survival rates of primary molars treated according to three treatment protocols: a controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mijan, M.; Amorim, R.G. de; Leal, S.C.; Mulder, J.; Oliveira, L.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the survival rates of molars treated according to the conventional restorative treatment (CRT) using amalgam, atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) using high-viscosity glass ionomer, and ultraconservative treatment

  15. State-of-the-Art Calculation of the Decay Rate of Electroweak Vacuum in the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigusa, So; Moroi, Takeo; Shoji, Yutaro

    2017-11-01

    The decay rate of the electroweak (EW) vacuum is calculated in the framework of the standard model (SM) of particle physics, using the recent progress in the understanding of the decay rate of metastable vacuum in gauge theories. We give a manifestly gauge-invariant expression of the decay rate. We also perform a detailed numerical calculation of the decay rate. With the best-fit values of the SM parameters, we find that the decay rate of the EW vacuum per unit volume is about 10-554 Gyr-1 Gpc-3 ; with the uncertainty in the top mass, the decay rate is estimated as 10-284- 10-1371 Gyr-1 Gpc-3 .

  16. How the probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates: a European survey using vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael; Frey, Peter; Esteva, Magdalena; Gašparović Babić, Svjetlana; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè; Petek, Davorina; Petek Ster, Marija; Thulesius, Hans

    2017-03-01

    European cancer survival rates vary widely. System factors, including whether or not primary care physicians (PCPs) are gatekeepers, may account for some of these differences. This study explores where patients who may have cancer are likely to present for medical care in different European countries, and how probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates. Seventy-eight PCPs in a range of European countries assessed four vignettes representing patients who might have cancer, and consensus groups agreed how likely those patients were to present to different clinicians in their own countries. These data were compared with national cancer survival rates. A total of 14 countries. Consensus groups of PCPs. Probability of initial presentation to a PCP for four clinical vignettes. There was no significant correlation between overall national 1-year relative cancer survival rates and the probability of initial presentation to a PCP (r  = -0.16, 95% CI -0.39 to 0.08). Within that there was large variation depending on the type of cancer, with a significantly poorer lung cancer survival in countries where patients were more likely to initially consult a PCP (lung r = -0.57, 95% CI -0.83 to -0.12; ovary: r = -0.13, 95% CI -0.57 to 0.38; breast r = 0.14, 95% CI -0.36 to 0.58; bowel: r = 0.20, 95% CI -0.31 to 0.62). There were wide variations in the degree of gatekeeping between countries, with no simple binary model as to whether or not a country has a "PCP-as-gatekeeper" system. While there was case-by-case variation, there was no overall evidence of a link between a higher probability of initial consultation with a PCP and poorer cancer survival. KEY POINTS European cancer survival rates vary widely, and health system factors may account for some of these differences. The data from 14 European countries show a wide variation in the probability of initial presentation to a PCP. The degree to

  17. Are survival and mortality rates associated with recruitment to clinical trials in teenage and young adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia? A retrospective observational analysis in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Rachael; Sandhu, Sabrina; Khan, Maria; Moran, Anthony; Feltbower, Richard; Stiller, Charles; Stevens, Mike C G; Rowntree, Clare; Vora, Ajay; McCabe, Martin G

    2017-10-05

    Participation rates in clinical trials are low in teenagers and young adults (TYA) with cancer. Whilst the importance of clinical trials in informing best practice is well established, data regarding individual patient benefit are scarce. We have investigated the association between overall survival and trial recruitment in TYA patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Retrospective. National (England) TYA patients treated for ALL. 511 patients aged 15-24 years diagnosed with ALL between 2004 and 2010 inclusive, of whom 239 (46.7%) participated in the UKALL2003 trial. Patients were identified using National Clinical Trial (UKALL2003) and Cancer Registry (National Cancer Data Repository, English National Cancer Online Registration Environment) Databases. Relative survival rates were calculated for trial and non-trial patients and observed differences were modelled using a multiple regression approach. The numbers and percentages of deaths in those patients included in the survival analysis were determined for each 3-month period, p values were calculated using the two-tailed z-test for difference between proportions and 95% CIs for percentage deaths were derived using the binomial distribution based on the Wilson Score method. Patients treated on the trial had a 17.9% better 2-year survival (85.4% vs 67.5%, p<0.001) and 8.9% better 1-year survival (90.8% vs 81.9%, p=0.004) than those not on the trial. 35 (14.6%) patients recruited to the trial died in the 2 years following diagnosis compared with 86 (32.6%) of those not recruited (p<0.001). TYA patients recruited to the clinical trial UKALL 2003 in England had a lower risk of mortality and a higher overall survival than contemporaneous non-trial patients. These data underline the potential for individual patient benefit in participating in a clinical trial and the importance of international efforts to increase trial participation in the TYA age group. ISRCTN07355119. © Article author(s) (or their

  18. The influence of printing parameters on cell survival rate and printability in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yang; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Yao, Rui

    2015-11-02

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell printing technology has provided a versatile methodology to fabricate cell-laden tissue-like constructs and in vitro tissue/pathological models for tissue engineering, drug testing and screening applications. However, it still remains a challenge to print bioinks with high viscoelasticity to achieve long-term stable structure and maintain high cell survival rate after printing at the same time. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of 3D cell printing parameters, i.e. composition and concentration of bioink, holding temperature and holding time, on the printability and cell survival rate in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology. Rheological measurements were utilized to characterize the viscoelasticity of gelatin-based bioinks. Results demonstrated that the bioink viscoelasticity was increased when increasing the bioink concentration, increasing holding time and decreasing holding temperature below gelation temperature. The decline of cell survival rate after 3D cell printing process was observed when increasing the viscoelasticity of the gelatin-based bioinks. However, different process parameter combinations would result in the similar rheological characteristics and thus showed similar cell survival rate after 3D bioprinting process. On the other hand, bioink viscoelasticity should also reach a certain point to ensure good printability and shape fidelity. At last, we proposed a protocol for 3D bioprinting of temperature-sensitive gelatin-based hydrogel bioinks with both high cell survival rate and good printability. This research would be useful for biofabrication researchers to adjust the 3D bioprinting process parameters quickly and as a referable template for designing new bioinks.

  19. The dwell time and survival rates of PICC placement after balloon angioplasty in patient with unexpected central venous obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Park, Sang Woo; Chang, Il Soo; Yim, Younghee

    2016-09-21

    To evaluate the dwell time and actual survival rates of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placements after balloon angioplasty in patients with unexpected central venous obstructions. Data were obtained on all PICC insertions performed in a tertiary care hospital from August 2008 to December 2013. Thirty-five PICCs attempted after balloon angioplasty in 25 patients (15 male and 10 female patients; mean age, 63 years). Fisher's exact test was used to test for differences in reasons for catheter removal between the groups of patients with stenosis or obstructions. Survival curves for PICC dwell time of all patients, stenosis group, and obstruction group were generated separately using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and compared with log-rank tests. There were a total 21 obstructions and 14 stenoses. The overall technical success rate of PICC placement after balloon angioplasty was 94% (33 of 35 procedures). The PICC dwell time was determined for 27 PICCs and ranged from 4 to 165 days (mean, 39.6 days). Among all PICCs, 16 were removed early, resulting in an actual survival rate of 40.7% (11 of 27 PICCs). There were no significant differences in reasons for catheter removal between the stenosis and obstruction groups (p = 0.24). The dwell times for both groups were not significantly different by Kaplan-Meier analysis (p = 0.54). PICC placement after balloon angioplasty is a good treatment option for patients with unexpected central venous lesions, and offers high technical success rates. The actual survival rate was relatively lower (40.7%) than that from previous studies.

  20. Short-term survival and mortality rates in a retrospective study of colic in 1588 Danish horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Mogens T; Dupont, Nana; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina S; Konnerup, Christel; Pihl, Tina H; Andersen, Pia H

    2014-04-08

    Outcomes of colic treatment are of great interest to clinicians, horse owners and insurers. One commonly used criterion of success is the overall short-term survival rate. This is used as to compare treatments and to measure quality of veterinary care, but may be biased by demographic or social factors such as attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia. The aims of this study were to 1) describe and analyse characteristics in horses with signs of colic referred to the University Hospital for Large Animals (UHLA), University of Copenhagen, Denmark over a 10-year period and 2) to compare these rates with those published in other comparable studies. The overall survival rate for colic horses over the 10-year study period was 68% (confidence intervals (CI): 66-71%; 1087/1588). In the medical group, 1093 horses, short-term survival was 87% (CI: 85-89%). Thirty one % of referred horses were given diagnoses requiring surgical intervention (CI: 29-33%). In this group 32% of the horses were euthanized before surgery (CI: 28-36%; 159/495). Of the surgical cases 27% (CI: 23-31%) were euthanized or died during surgery. Of the horses that recovered from surgery 25% died or were euthanized (CI: 19-32%; 48/189), while 75% survived to discharge (CI: 68-81%). The short term survival rates of Danish horses with colic were similar or lower to those reported from other countries. Apart from variability of veterinary care, attitudes towards euthanasia vary among the countries, which may bias the outcomes. This study indicates that qualitative interview studies on owners' attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia need to be conducted. Our opinion is that survival rates are not valid as sole indicators of quality of care in colic treatment due to selection bias. If the survival rates are to be compared between hospitals, techniques or surgeons, prospective studies including mutually agreed-on disease severity scores and a predefined set of reasons for euthanasia are needed.

  1. Estimated glucose disposal rate and long-term survival in type 2 diabetes after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Thomas; Holzmann, Martin J; Eliasson, Björn; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Kuhl, Jeanette; Sartipy, Ulrik

    2017-03-01

    We performed a nationwide population-based cohort study to investigate the association between estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR) and long-term survival after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with type 2 diabetes. All patients who underwent primary CABG in Sweden from 2006 to 2013 were identified from the SWEDEHEART register and by record linkage to the National Diabetes Register; all patients with type 2 diabetes were included and formed the study population. Patients were followed until 2013 through national registers for major adverse cardiovascular events and death from any cause. eGDR was calculated using waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c, and presence or the absence of hypertension. The association between eGDR and death was estimated using multivariable Cox regression. A total of 3256 patients were included. During a mean follow-up of 3.1 years (10,227 person-years), in total, 14 % patients died: 17 % (n = 186) in the 1st tertile (lowest eGDR), 14 % (n = 145) in the 2nd tertile, and 13 % (n = 133) in the 3rd tertile (highest eGDR). There was a significant association between eGDR and increased risk of death: adjusted hazard ratio (95 % confidence interval): 1.46 (1.12-1.90) for the 1st eGDR tertile compared to the 3rd and highest eGDR tertile. In conclusion, patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent CABG, a low eGDR, were associated with an increased risk of long-term all-cause mortality that was independent of other cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Insulin resistance measured by eGDR could be a useful risk marker in patients with type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease.

  2. Quantum wave packet calculation of reaction probabilities, cross sections, and rate constants for the C(1D) + HD reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogtas, Fahrettin; Bulut, Niyazi; Akpinar, Sinan

    The time-dependent real wave packet method has been used to study the C(1D) + HD reaction. The state-to-state and state-to-all reactive scattering probabilities for a broad range of energies are calculated at zero total angular momentum. The probabilities for J > 0 are estimated from accurately computed J = 0 probabilities by using the J-shifting approximation. The integral cross sections for a large energy range, and thermal rate constants are calculated.

  3. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  4. Osteosarcoma incidence and survival rates from 1973 to 2004: data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabello, Lisa; Troisi, Rebecca J; Savage, Sharon A

    2009-04-01

    Osteosarcoma, which is the most common primary bone tumor, occurs most frequently in adolescents, but there is a second incidence peak among individuals aged > 60 years. Most osteosarcoma epidemiology studies have been embedded in large analyses of all bone tumors or focused on cases occurring in adolescence. Detailed descriptions of osteosarcoma incidence and survival with direct comparisons among patients of all ages and ethnicities are not available. Frequency, incidence, and survival rates for 3482 patients with osteosarcoma from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program between 1973 and 2004 were investigated by age (ages 0-24 years, 25-59 years, and 60 to > or = 85 years), race, sex, pathology subtype, stage, and anatomic site. There were large differences in incidence and survival rates by age. There was a high percentage of osteosarcoma with Paget disease and osteosarcoma as a second or later cancer among the elderly. There was a high percentage of osteosarcoma among patients with Paget disease and osteosarcoma as a second or later cancer among the elderly. Tumor site differences among age groups were noted. Survival rates varied by anatomic site and disease stage and did not improve significantly from 1984 to 2004. This comprehensive, population-based description of osteosarcoma, identified important differences in incidence, survival, pathologic subtype, and anatomic site among age groups, and quantified the impact of osteosarcoma in patients with Paget disease or as a second cancer on incidence and mortality rates. These findings may have implications in understanding osteosarcoma biology and epidemiology. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society

  5. Survival and feeding rates of four aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on various sucrose concentrations in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different concentrations of sucrose were used to investigate how survival and feeding was affected on four species of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Seven sucrose concentrations were evaluated in feeding chambers fitted with a parafilm membranes and infested with nymphs of Aphis glycines, Diuraphi...

  6. H-Abstraction by OH from Large Branched Alkanes: Overall Rate Measurements and Site-Specific Tertiary Rate Calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Dapeng

    2017-01-10

    Reaction rate coefficients for the reaction of hydroxyl (OH) radicals with nine large branched alkanes (i.e., 2-methyl-3-ethyl-pentane, 2,3-dimethyl-pentane, 2,2,3-trimethylbutane, 2,2,3-trimethyl-pentane, 2,3,4-trimethyl-pentane, 3-ethyl-pentane, 2,2,3,4-tetramethyl-pentane, 2,2-dimethyl-3-ethyl-pentane, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-ethyl-pentane) are measured at high temperatures (900-1300 K) using a shock tube and narrow-line-width OH absorption diagnostic in the UV region. In addition, room-temperature measurements of six out of these nine rate coefficients are performed in a photolysis cell using high repetition laser-induced fluorescence of OH radicals. Our experimental results are combined with previous literature measurements to obtain three-parameter Arrhenius expressions valid over a wide temperature range (300-1300 K). The rate coefficients are analyzed using the next-nearest-neighbor (N-N-N) methodology to derive nine tertiary (T003, T012, T013, T022, T023, T111, T112, T113, and T122) site-specific rate coefficients for the abstraction of H atoms by OH radicals from branched alkanes. Derived Arrhenius expressions, valid over 950-1300 K, are given as (the subscripts denote the number of carbon atoms connected to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon): T003 = 1.80 × 10-10 exp(-2971 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T012 = 9.36 × 10-11 exp(-3024 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T013 = 4.40 × 10-10 exp(-4162 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T022 = 1.47 × 10-10 exp(-3587 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T023 = 6.06 × 10-11 exp(-3010 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T111 = 3.98 × 10-11 exp(-1617 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T112 = 9.08 × 10-12 exp(-3661 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T113 = 6.74 × 10-9 exp(-7547 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T122 = 3.47 × 10-11 exp(-1802 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1.

  7. Calculation of Achievable Information Rates of Long-Haul Optical Transmission Systems Using Instanton Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivković, Miloš; Djordjević, Ivan; Vasić, Bane

    2007-05-01

    A method for estimation of achievable information rates of high-speed optical transmission systems is proposed. This method consists of two steps: 1) approximating probability density functions for energy of pulses, which is done by the instanton approach, and 2) estimating achievable information rates by applying a method originally proposed by Arnold and Pfitser. Numerical results for a specific optical transmission system (submarine system at transmission rate 40 Gb/s) are reported.

  8. Mixed quantum classical calculation of proton transfer reaction rates: from deep tunneling to over the barrier regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weiwei; Xu, Yang; Zhu, Lili; Shi, Qiang

    2014-05-07

    We present mixed quantum classical calculations of the proton transfer (PT) reaction rates represented by a double well system coupled to a dissipative bath. The rate constants are calculated within the so called nontraditional view of the PT reaction, where the proton motion is quantized and the solvent polarization is used as the reaction coordinate. Quantization of the proton degree of freedom results in a problem of non-adiabatic dynamics. By employing the reactive flux formulation of the rate constant, the initial sampling starts from the transition state defined using the collective reaction coordinate. Dynamics of the collective reaction coordinate is treated classically as over damped diffusive motion, for which the equation of motion can be derived using the path integral, or the mixed quantum classical Liouville equation methods. The calculated mixed quantum classical rate constants agree well with the results from the numerically exact hierarchical equation of motion approach for a broad range of model parameters. Moreover, we are able to obtain contributions from each vibrational state to the total reaction rate, which helps to understand the reaction mechanism from the deep tunneling to over the barrier regimes. The numerical results are also compared with those from existing approximate theories based on calculations of the non-adiabatic transmission coefficients. It is found that the two-surface Landau-Zener formula works well in calculating the transmission coefficients in the deep tunneling regime, where the crossing point between the two lowest vibrational states dominates the total reaction rate. When multiple vibrational levels are involved, including additional crossing points on the free energy surfaces is important to obtain the correct reaction rate using the Landau-Zener formula.

  9. Survival rates against fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with full-coverage crowns or resin composite restorations: a systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warattama Suksaphar; Danuchit Banomyong; Titalee Jirathanyanatt; Yaowaluk Ngoenwiwatkul

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aims to summarize the current clinical studies that investigated survival rates against fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with crowns or resin composite restorations...

  10. Survival rates of immature Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks estimated using field-placed enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Nathan C; Holmes, Elizabeth A; Foley, Janet E

    2010-06-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) and Lyme borreliosis are emerging tick-borne diseases caused by infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi, respectively, and maintained in rodent-Ixodes spp. tick cycles, including I. pacificus in the western U.S. Ixodes pacificus has a multiple-year life cycle and B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum are transstadially, but not transovarially, transmitted within ticks, thus ticks function importantly in maintaining infection in nature. In this study, the survival of larval and nymphal I. pacificus was determined using ticks placed in tubes in leaf litter from June 2005 to September 2006 at two field sites in the California northern coast range mountains and a laboratory control. In all three sites, nymphal and larval survival ranged from 90-400 d, with differences in mean survival among sites. Fewer ticks died in the autumn in the moister field sites compared with the drier incubator control treatment. The first large die-off event in late autumn occurred at all sites shortly before relative humidity increased from 80-100% and temperature declined from approximately 22-15 degrees C. The concurrent die-off in the incubator population, subject to relative humidity and temperature regimes that were invariant, suggests that survival time was dependent on other factors in addition to environmental conditions. These results suggested that many ticks exhausted resources or tolerance for relatively low humidity within six months of questing, and that higher humidity prolonged survival. Based on observed longevity, humans and other animals could acquire A. phagocytophilum infection from adult I. pacificus that were infected up to three years earlier.

  11. Current evaluation of dose rate calculation - analytical method; Visao atual do calculo de dose - metodo analitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Marcos [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Grupo de Compatibilidade Eletromagnetica; Vilhena, Marco Tulio [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Metalurgica e dos Materiais

    1996-12-31

    The accuracy of the dose calculations based on pencil beam formulas such as Fokker-Plank equations and Fermi equations for charged particle transport are studied and a methodology to solve the Boltzmann transport equation is suggested 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. IMPROVED SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL RATES IN VITRIFIED-WARMED PIG OOCYTES AFTER RECOVERY CULTURE WITH COENZYME Q10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Sul; Kwon, D ae-Jin; Kwak, Tae-Uk; Lee, Jeong-Woong; Im, Gi-Sun; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2016-01-01

    The primary problems with porcine oocyte vitrification are their low viability and development; both need improvement. This study was designed to improve the survival and developmental rates in vitrified-warmed porcine oocytes. Porcine oocytes matured in vitro were vitrified-warmed with Cryotop. Then the oocytes were supplemented with Q10 during recovery culture. The survival rates immediately after warming were 92.9% by morphological inspection and 39.3% by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) assay. The group of recovery culture with Q10 (VC+Q10) showed significantly higher viability compared to the group of recovery culture without Q10 (VC+) analyzed by morphology and the FDA. The VC+Q10 group showed a low Bax/Bcl-xl ratio and a high expression of MAP3K12 and TGFB3 compared to the VC+. The cleavage rate did not differ in both groups but, blastocyst yield was higher in VC+Q10 than the VC+ group. Supplementation of Q10 during recovery culture led to a higher blastocyst yield by increasing survival rates and regulating mRNA expressions.

  13. A clinical study on survival rate of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Sami; Güven, Orhan; Gllareva, Enis; Prekazi, Mergime; Salihu, Leminot

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the survival rate of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip in Kosovo and to see the effect of stage of disease on the success of surgical treatment. 789 patients with SCCLL who were referred to the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Clinical Centre of Kosovo, were examined during a period of 20 years (between 1993 and 2013). 614 (77.82%) of these patients received treatment and have regularly visited the department once every 3 months for post-operative controls. Data have been collected from these 614 patients for 10 years; thus the follow-up period lasts for 10 years for every patient under control. The collected data were analysed using Chi square test. Patients were classified by sex, aetiology, stage of the disease, location of the disease, the treatment patients received, metastasis rate and survival rate. The most susceptible patients were those at ages between 50 and 70. The youngest patient was 8 years old whereas the oldest was 92. The male-female ratio was 5:1. 57% of the patients had been working outdoors and had been exposed to sunlight. Ten years survival rate for the Stages I, II, III and IV was 91.7%, 83.7%, 28% and 11.4% respectively. It was found that the success of the surgery was closely related with the stage of disease and early diagnosis. Training the relevant parties (i.e., the people, family doctors etc.) on early diagnosis would improve the survival rate. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The 3.5-year survival rates of primary molars treated according to three treatment protocols: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijan, Maite; de Amorim, Rodrigo Guedes; Leal, Soraya Coelho; Mulder, Jan; Oliveira, Luciana; Creugers, Nico H J; Frencken, Jo E

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the survival rates of molars treated according to the conventional restorative treatment (CRT) using amalgam, atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) using high-viscosity glass ionomer, and ultraconservative treatment (UCT) protocol after 3.5 years. Cavitated primary molars were treated according to CRT, ART, and UCT (small cavities were restored with ART and medium/large cavities were daily cleaned with toothpaste/toothbrush under supervision). Molar extractions resulting from toothache, sepsis, or pulp exposure were failures. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival curves. The numbers of treated teeth, among the 302 6-7-year-old children, were 341 (CRT), 244 (ART), and 281 (for UCT group: 109 small ART, 166 open cavities, and 6 combinations). Protocol groups were similar at baseline regarding gender and mean decayed missing filled tooth score, but not regarding age and type of surface. The numbers of molars extracted were 22 (CRT), 16 (ART), and 26 (UCT). Fistulae were most often recorded. After 3.5 years, the cumulative survival rate ± standard error for all molars treated was 90.9 ± 2.0 % with CRT, 90.4 ± 2.4 % with ART, and 88.6 ± 1.9 % with UCT (p = 0.13). Only a type of surface effect was observed over the 3.5-year period: survival rates for molars were higher for single- than for multiple-surface cavities. There was no difference in the cumulative survival rates of primary molars treated according to the CRT, ART, and UCT protocols over a 3.5-year period. Keeping cavities in primary molars biofilm-free might be another treatment option alongside restoring such cavities through conventional and ART protocols.

  15. Worse Long-term Patient Survival and Higher Cancer Rates in Liver Transplant Recipients With a History of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangus, Richard S; Fridell, Jonathan A; Kubal, Chandrashekhar A; Loeffler, Amanda L; Krause, Audrey A; Bell, Jeffrey A; Tiwari, Sarika; Tector, Joseph

    2015-09-01

    This study is a retrospective review of liver transplant (LT) recipients to determine the impact of tobacco exposure on 10-year survival and de novo cancer (CA) incidence. The records of 1275 consecutive LT patients were reviewed (2001 to 2011). Patients were categorized as current, previous, or never smokers (NS) at listing for LT. Additionally, smokers were stratified by pack-years of tobacco exposure. Events included patient death, cardiovascular events, and de novo cancers. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate survival. A complete cause of death analysis is provided, as well as a detailed tumor registry. Current (n = 279) and previous smokers (n = 323) were more likely to have hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at transplant (25%, 29% vs 18% [NS], P history of smoking, and the risk of negative events increases with increasing tobacco use. Smokers have higher rates of HCC and recurrence, de novo cancer, and worse long-term survival. This study summarizes the clinical outcomes for 1275 LT patients over 10 years, analyzing the impact of pre transplant recipient tobacco use. There are 47% of patients with a history of smoking. Because of demonstrated higher cancer rates and decreased survival, patients with a significant smoking history should be carefully scrutinized for liver transplantation.

  16. Dental Implant Survival and Complication Rate over 2 Years for Individuals with Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskow, Caroline C; Oates, Thomas W

    2017-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that implant therapy may be a viable option for diabetic individuals with elevated glycemic levels. The purpose of this 2 year observational study was to evaluate survival and clinical complications of dental implants following placement in type 2 diabetes individuals having poor glycemic control. Adult participants (n = 24) with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (8.0% ≤ HbA1c ≤ 12.0%) received two or more transgingival dental implants. Survival was evaluated after 1 (23 participants, 72 implants) and 2 (20 participants, 59 implants) years. Clinical complications were evaluated in 18 participants (52 implants) after 21-34 months. Relationships between complications and stratified HbA1c levels were assessed using Pearson's correlation test. Survival rates were 98.6% (71/72 implants) after 1 year and 96.6% (57/59 implants) after 2 years. Complications were identified in 29% of participants with peri-implant mucositis, the most common event. Complications correlated directly with number of implants across HbA1c strata (0.42, R2  = 0.66). There was no correlation between HbA1c and the occurrences of complications or mucositis. This 2-year evaluation supports the broader application of implant therapy in type 2 diabetes individuals with poor glycemic control in demonstrating high survival rates with limited complications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Trends in 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-year survival rates of beta-thalassemia patients in Southern Iran, 1995-2016: A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Hassanzadeh

    2017-12-01

    Results: Five and 10-year survival rates remained unchanged since 1995-2016. Overall, 20- and 30-year survival rates were lower in younger birth cohorts than older ones. A declining trend was found in 20-year survival rate from 1995 to 2000 for all and also for thalassemia major patients, but was stable from 2001 to 2016. In addition, there was a declining trend in 30-year survival rate from 1995 to 2008 for all and also for thalassemia major patients, but was an increased trend from 2009 to 2016. Conclusion: Over the past two decades and in recent birth cohorts, the 20- and 30-year survival rates has declined. In other words, declining survival trends in the birth cohorts may be associated with some different causes of mortality such as exposure to the toxic effects of iron over time and the occurrence of diseaserelated mortality.

  18. Regional Contrasts of the Warming Rate over Land Significantly Depend on the Calculation Methods of Mean Air Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaicun; Zhou, Chunlüe

    2015-07-22

    Global analyses of surface mean air temperature (T(m)) are key datasets for climate change studies and provide fundamental evidences for global warming. However, the causes of regional contrasts in the warming rate revealed by such datasets, i.e., enhanced warming rates over the northern high latitudes and the "warming hole" over the central U.S., are still under debate. Here we show these regional contrasts depend on the calculation methods of T(m). Existing global analyses calculate T(m) from daily minimum and maximum temperatures (T2). We found that T2 has a significant standard deviation error of 0.23 °C/decade in depicting the regional warming rate from 2000 to 2013 but can be reduced by two-thirds using T(m) calculated from observations at four specific times (T4), which samples diurnal cycle of land surface air temperature more often. From 1973 to 1997, compared with T4, T2 significantly underestimated the warming rate over the central U.S. and overestimated the warming rate over the northern high latitudes. The ratio of the warming rate over China to that over the U.S. reduces from 2.3 by T2 to 1.4 by T4. This study shows that the studies of regional warming can be substantially improved by T4 instead of T2.

  19. Regional Contrasts of the Warming Rate over Land Significantly Depend on the Calculation Methods of Mean Air Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaicun; Zhou, Chunlüe

    2015-01-01

    Global analyses of surface mean air temperature (Tm) are key datasets for climate change studies and provide fundamental evidences for global warming. However, the causes of regional contrasts in the warming rate revealed by such datasets, i.e., enhanced warming rates over the northern high latitudes and the “warming hole” over the central U.S., are still under debate. Here we show these regional contrasts depend on the calculation methods of Tm. Existing global analyses calculate Tm from daily minimum and maximum temperatures (T2). We found that T2 has a significant standard deviation error of 0.23 °C/decade in depicting the regional warming rate from 2000 to 2013 but can be reduced by two-thirds using Tm calculated from observations at four specific times (T4), which samples diurnal cycle of land surface air temperature more often. From 1973 to 1997, compared with T4, T2 significantly underestimated the warming rate over the central U.S. and overestimated the warming rate over the northern high latitudes. The ratio of the warming rate over China to that over the U.S. reduces from 2.3 by T2 to 1.4 by T4. This study shows that the studies of regional warming can be substantially improved by T4 instead of T2. PMID:26198976

  20. Development of wide-range constitutive equations for calculations of high-rate deformation of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For development of models of strength and compressibility of metals in wide range of pressures (up to several megabar and strain rates ~ 1÷108 s−1, the method of dynamic tests is used. Since direct measurement of strength is impossible under complicated intensive high-rate loading, a formal model is created at first, and then it is updated basing on comparison with many experiments, which are sensitive to shear strength. Elastic-plastic, viscous-elastic-plastic and relaxation integral models became nowadays most commonly used. The basic unsolved problems in simulation of high-rate deformation of metals are mentioned in the paper.

  1. Survival rate of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: On different states of wheat and rye kernels previously infested by beetle pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukajlović Filip N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine survival rate of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner, 1813, reared on different mechanical states of Vizija winter wheat cultivar and Raša winter rye cultivar, previously infested with different beetle pests. Wheat was previously infested with Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cryptolestes ferrugineus, while rye was infested only with O. surinamensis. Kernels were tested in three different mechanical states: (A whole undamaged kernels; (B kernels already damaged by pests and (C original storage kernels (mixture of B and C type. No P. interpunctella adult emerged on wheat kernels, while 36 adults developed on rye kernels. The highest abundance reached beetle species who fed with a mixture of kernels damaged by pests and whole undamaged kernels. Development and survival rate of five different storage insect pests depends on type of kernels and there exist significant survivorship correlations among them.

  2. Differences in treatment and survival rates of non-small-cell lung cancer in three regions of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosclaude, P; Galat, J P; Macé-Lesech, J; Roumagnac-Machelard, M; Mercier, M; Robillard, J

    1995-11-01

    Treatment and survival rates of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were compared between three French Cancer Registries (Calvados, Doubs, Tarn). The methodological issues in such comparisons are discussed. The treatments for NSCLC differed between the regions: radiotherapy tended to be preferred in Calvados (73% vs 21.3% surgery), whereas surgery was more frequently employed in Doubs and Tarn (27.7% and 37% respectively). The percentage of cases receiving no therapeutic treatment ranged from 7.8% (Calvados) to 26% (Tarn). Despite the differences in treatment, the overall survival rates were similar in the three regions. Adjustment for treatment in such a descriptive study may be misleading since different therapeutic strategies in different regions may lead to selection of patients of systematically better or poorer prognosis in the various treatment groups.

  3. Effect of antibiotics selection on survival rate of nodal explant and gene transformation in Anthurium andraeanum cv. Sonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-chato, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various concentrations of hygromycin antibiotic supplemented in modified Murashige and Skoog (MMS on the survival rate of nodal explant of Anthurium andraeanum cv. Sonate were determined.The use of hygromycin at 50 mg/l caused absolute death of nodal tissue after 4 weeks of culture. Dipping nodal explant with agrobacterium, EHA 105 containing pCAMBIA1301 for 15 min followed by co-cultureon filter paper laid on MMS with 0.5 mg/l benzyladenine (BA, 0.5 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ and 200 mg/l cefotaxime for 2 days then transferring the explant to culture on MMS supplemented with the abovephytohormones and 50 mg/l hygromycin resulted in the highest survival rate at 26.6% with 4 shoots/callus. Histochemical analysis of gus activity was found in callus after 6 weeks of nodal culture and in leaf fromshoot derived from the callus.

  4. Survival and progression rates of large European silver eel Anguilla anguilla in late freshwater and early marine phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Thorstad, Eva B.; Koed, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The population of European silver eel Anguilla anguilla has declined tremendously in the last decades. The cause of this decline is unknown, and it is necessary to investigate the migratory behaviour and survival rates of silver eels during the reproductive migration in order to understand...... was high in fresh water. However, 60% of eels were lost in the inner and outer fjord, supporting the hypothesis that mortality is large in the early phase of the marine migration and that fishing may be a major cause of mortality of silver eels. There was no indication that the slowest-migrating...... if the decline is related to factors acting during that migration. We estimated survival and progression rates of European silver eel migrating in the lower part of the River Gudenaa and during the first phase of the marine migration in the Randers Fjord in Denmark. Fifty migrating silver eel (total body length...

  5. Sesquiterpene lactones of Vernonia - influence of glaucolide-A on the growth rate and survival of Lepidopterous larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Samuel B; Burnett, William C; Coile, Nancy C; Mabry, Tom J; Betkouski, M F

    1979-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactone glaucolide-A from Vernonia, incorporated in the rearing diets of five species of Lepidoptera, significantly reduced the rate of growth of larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania; fall armyworm, S. frugiperda; and yellowstriped armyworm, S. ornithogalli. Quantitative feeding tests demonstrated that decreased feeding levels and reduced growth resulted from ingestion of a sesquiterpene lactone. Ingestion of glaucolide-A increased the number of days to pupation in four of the species. In the southern armyworm, it significantly reduced pupal weight. Glaucolide-A decidedly reduced percentage of survival of southern and fall armyworms. Yellow woollybear, Diacrisia virginica, and cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, larvae were essentially uneffected by the ingestion of the sesquiterpene lactone. Sesquiterpene lactones adversely affect growth rate and survival of certain insects that feed upon plants containing them. They apparently function as defensive products, screening out a portion of the potential herbivores.

  6. Exploring survival rates of companies in the UK video-games industry: An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Cabras, I.; Goumagias, N. D.; Fernandes, K.; Cowling, P.; Li, F.; Kudenko, D.; Devlin, S.; Nucciarelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this paper investigates companies operating in the UK video-game industry with regard to their levels of survivability. Using a unique dataset of companies founded between 2009 and 2014, and combining elements and theories from the fields of Organisational Ecology and Industrial Organisation, the authors develop a set of hierarchical logistic regressions to explore and examine the effects of a range of variables such as industry concentration, market size and density on...

  7. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Jes [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  8. The relationship between integrating sphere and diffusion theory calculations of fluence rate at the wall of a spherical cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M. Star (W.)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe radiant energy fluence rate has been calculated at the wall of a spherical cavity, filled with a non-scattering and non-absorbing material, in a scattering and absorbing infinite medium, illuminated by an isotropic point light source at the centre. Two methods have been used: first,

  9. A refined protocol for calculating air flow rate of naturally ventilated broiler barns based on CO2 mass balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, L.; Tinoco, I.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Osorio-Hernandez, R.; Saraz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate relatively simple protocols for monitoring ventilation rate (VR) in naturally-ventilated barns (NVB). The test protocols were first applied to a mechanically-ventilated broiler barn (MVB), where VR was estimated more accurately and then were used to calculate VR

  10. A comparison of methods for calculating NMR cross-relaxation rates (NOESY and ROESY intensities) in small peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, K.A; Peter, C.; Scheek, R.M.; Gunsteren, W.F.van; Mark, A.E.

    Three methods for calculating nuclear magnetic resonance cross-relaxation rates from molecular dynamics simulations of small flexible molecules have been compared in terms of their ability to reproduce relaxation data obtained experimentally and to produce consistent descriptions of the system. The

  11. Calculation of astrophysical S-factor and reaction rate in 12C(p, γ)13N reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadasi, A.; Sadeghi, H.; Pourimani, R.

    2018-02-01

    The 12C(p, γ)13N reaction is the first process in the CNO cycle. Also it is a source of low-energy solar neutrinos in various neutrino experiments. Therefore, it is of high interest to gain data of the astrophysical S-factor in low energies. By applying Faddeev's method, we calculated wave functions for the bound state of 13N. Then the cross sections for resonance and non-resonance were calculated through using Breit-Wigner and direct capture cross section formulae, respectively. After that, we calculated the total S-factor and compared it with previous experimental data, revealing a good agreement altogether. Then, we extrapolated the S-factor in zero energy and the result was 1.32 ± 0.19 (keV.b). In the end, we calculated reaction rate and compared it with NACRE data.

  12. 24 Hour Survival Rate and its Determinants in Patients with Successful Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Movahedi; Ali Kavosi; Hamidreza Behnam Vashani; Gholamreza Mohammadi; Hasan Mehrad Majd; Javad Malekzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aims The main cause of death in the adult population in the industrialized world is sudden cardiac arrest. The first purpose of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is return of spontaneous circulation. Post cardiopulmonary resuscitation cares are fifth stage of American Heart Association cardiopulmonary resuscitation that less take into consideration. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the aim of “24 Hour Survival Rate and it’s determinants in patients w...

  13. Effects of Cryptocaryon irritans infection on the survival, feeding, respiratory rate and ionic regulation of the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Gong, Qiyang; Li, Yanwei; Dan, Xueming; Sun, Peng; Gao, Quanxin; Shi, Zhaohong; Peng, Shiming; Li, Anxing

    2014-02-01

    To clarify the effects of a Cryptocaryon irritans infection on the physiological functions of the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus, this study utilized C. irritans at concentrations of 2500; 5000; 7500; 10,000; 20,000; and 30,000 theronts/fish to infect marbled rockfish weighing 45 ± 3 g. The survival rate, food intake, respiratory rate, serum ion concentrations and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity were determined. With the increase of the infection concentration and the passage of time, the survival rate of the rockfish gradually decreased. The groups infected with more than 5000 theronts/fish had stopped feeding within 4 days. The respiratory rates of the fish in the groups infected with 2500 and 5000 theronts/fish initially increased and then decreased. In contrast, the respiratory rate of the fish in the groups infected with more than 7500 theronts/fish was elevated to levels significantly higher than the control group after 12 h. The Na+/K+-ATPase activity and serum Na+ and Cl- concentrations increased with increasing infection concentration. In conclusion, the physiological functions of the fish infected with low concentrations of C. irritans can be effectively restored, whereas a high concentration infection induced severe stress. The declined food intake and accelerated respiratory rate could be useful for an early warning system as important indicators.

  14. One-Year Multicenter Prospective Evaluation of Survival Rates and Bone Resorption in One-Piece Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleh Golab, Kaveh; Balouch, Amir; Mirtorabi, Shahram

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have reported the efficiency of immediate loading techniques. The aim of this multicenter prospective study was to evaluate the clinical efficiency of the one-piece screw (OPS) implants used by general dentists. A total of 272 patients were treated with 533 implants at five dental clinics by five general dentists. Some implants were provided with provisional restoration. Implants in partially edentulous spaces were splinted with acryl, composite, and intraoral welding. The implant survival rates, bone resorption, plaque accumulation, and soft tissue health were evaluated after 3, 6, and 12 months. The final restorations were cemented in the maxilla after 6 months and in the mandible after 3 months. Twelve implants failed (98% survival rate) after 12 months. None of the splinted implants failed during the follow-ups. There were five failures in unsplinted partial cases. The average amounts of bone loss around the implants were 0.40 ± 0.35 mm, 0.56 ± 0.41 mm, and 0.59 ± 0.41 mm after 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Visible plaque was registered in 18% of the implants, and bleeding on probing was observed in 17% of the implants after 12 months. High survival rates and favorable host tissue responses support the clinical performance of OPS implants. This study demonstrated that one-piece implants can be efficiently used by well-trained general dentists. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Calculating Ivalent Dose Rate Field Structure Applying the Method of Optimal Interpollation in the Baltic Sea Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrijus Styra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Equivalent dose rate measurements were carried out in the Baltic Sea coast near Juodkrantė. The measurements were performed at the ground level and 1 meter above it at 63 points within the territory of 2,0´0,2 km on 2 July 2008 and 10 July 2008 under conditions of northern and southern wind directions respectively. The extreme rates of the equivalent dose rate were 51 and 90 nSv/h respectively which means that the structure of the equivalent dose field was unhomogeneous. The method of optimal interpollation was used to calculate and evaluate the structure of the equivalent dose rate field. This method was used in 3 cases when 63, 33 and 18 numbers of measurement were carried out. The identical structures of the equivalent dose field were accepted. Using 18 measurement points, coincidence between the measured and calculated values of the equivalent dose rate was satisfactory. Difference between the measured and calculated values does not exceed 15% in 80% of the measurement points.Article in Lithuanian

  16. Variational RRKM calculation of thermal rate constant for C–H bond fission reaction of nitro methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Taghva Manesh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides quantitative results for the rate constants of unimolecular C–H bond fission reactions in the nitro methane at elevated temperatures up to 2000 K. In fact, there are three different hydrogen atoms in the nitro methane. The potential energy surface for each C–H bond fission reaction of nitro methane was investigated by ab initio calculations. The geometry and vibrational frequencies of the species involved in this process were optimized at the MP2 level of theory, using the cc-pvdz basis set. Since C–H bond fission channel is a barrierless reaction, we have used variational RRKM theory to predict rate coefficients. By means of calculated rate coefficients at different temperatures, the Arrhenius expression of the channel over the temperature range of 100–2000 K is k(T = 5.9E19∗exp(−56274.6/T.

  17. Sarcopenia in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis: incidence rate, risk factors and its effect on survival risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongqi; Gong, Dehua; Jia, Fengyu; Xu, Bin; Liu, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a degenerative syndrome mainly characterized by the atrophy of skeletal muscle, along with the decrease of muscle strength and function. However, there are currently few studies concerning sarcopenia in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis dialysis (MHD). This study was aimed to investigate the incidence of sarcopenia in MHD patients and its influencing factors, as well as its impact on survival risk. All 131 MHD patients enrolled in our study were tested with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and grip strength. Demographic data was collected and anthropometric measurement and laboratory examination were conducted. The total incidence of sarcopenia within the 131 MHD patients was 13.7% and the incidence of sarcopenia in patients over 60 years was 33.3%. The dialysis duration, with or without diabetes, serum phosphorus and pre-albumin levels of sarcopenic patients were significantly different from those of non-sarcopenicones; the modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA) scores of sarcopenic patients were higher than those without sarcopenia. Multivariate analysis showed that dialysis duration, diabetes and serum phosphorus level were independent risk factors for sarcopenia in MHD patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a one-year survival of 88.9% in sarcopenic patients, which was significantly lower than non-sarcopenic patients. The incidence of sarcopenia in MHD patients was high and increased gradually with age. Dialysis duration, diabetes, serum phosphorus level and malnutrition predisposed the patients to sarcopenia. One-year follow-up found that the mortality risk of sarcopenic patients was higher than that of non-sarcopenic patients.

  18. Impacts of low dose rate irradiation on the fertility, fecundity and hatchling survival of Japanese rice fish (medaka, Oryzias latipes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, T.G.; Coughlin, D.P.; Marsh, L.C.; Yi, Yi; Winn, R. [Georgia Univ., Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Drawer E, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2004-07-01

    A renewed international interest in the effects on biota from low dose rate irradiation has recently occurred. Much of that interest is centered on the relevance of previously accepted dose rate guidelines (e.g. 10 mGy d{sup -1} for aquatic biota) suggested by the ICRP and IAEA. All parties concerned seem to agree that additional data are needed on population level impacts from chronic low-level exposures to radionuclides. Using a Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility (LoDIF), we conducted an experiment on the fecundity, fertility and hatchling survival of Japanese Rice Fish (medaka, Oryzias latipes). Fish were exposed externally to {sup 137}Cs from juvenile through adulthood at mean dose rates of 3.5, 35 and 350 mGy d{sup -1}. Fish were bred at maturity and the following endpoints were examined: 1) the number of eggs produced; 2) the percent of eggs that hatched; and 3) the survival of hatchlings 20-days post hatch. The influence of gender was examined by breeding irradiated males with control females; control males with irradiated females; irradiated males with irradiated females; and control males with control females. The data contribute to our understanding the impacts of low dose rate irradiation. (author)

  19. Effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Bone and Joint Surgery, The affiliated hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou 646000 (China); Qing, Quan [Sichuan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Mianyang 621000 (China); Regenerative Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chen, Xi; Liu, Cheng-Jun; Luo, Jing-Cong [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Hu, Jin-Lian [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Qin, Ting-Wu, E-mail: tingwuqin@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The shapes of tenocytes varied when seeded on different surface of scaffolds. • Tenocytes were flat on smooth surface and spindle on micro-grooved surface. • Tenocytes were ellipse or spindle on porous surface. • Tenocytes got varying adhesion shape and elongation index on varying surfaces. • The tenocyte survival on porous surface was superior to the other two groups. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs. Tenocytes were obtained from tail tendons of rats. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate three types of scaffolds with varying surface morphological characteristics, i.e., smooth, micro-grooved, and porous surfaces, respectively. The tenocytes were seeded on the surfaces of the scaffolds to form tenocyte-scaffold constructs. The constructs were cryopreserved in a vitreous cryoprotectant (CPA) with a multi-step protocol. The cell adhesion to scaffolds was observed with electronic scanning microscopy (SEM). The elongation index of the living tenocytes and ratio of live/dead cell number were examined based on a live/dead dual fluorescent staining technique, and the survival rate of tenocytes was studied with flow cytometry (FC). The results showed the shapes of tenocytes varied between the different groups: flat or polygonal (on smooth surface), spindle (on micro-grooved surface), and spindle or ellipse (on porous surface). After thawing, the porous surface got the most living tenocytes and a higher survival rate, suggesting its potential application for vitreous cryopreservation of engineered tendon constructs.

  20. Should thermostatted ring polymer molecular dynamics be used to calculate thermal reaction rates?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hele, Timothy J. H., E-mail: tjhh2@cam.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Suleimanov, Yury V. [Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center, Cyprus Institute, 20 Kavafi St., Nicosia 2121 (Cyprus); Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    We apply Thermostatted Ring Polymer Molecular Dynamics (TRPMD), a recently proposed approximate quantum dynamics method, to the computation of thermal reaction rates. Its short-time transition-state theory limit is identical to rigorous quantum transition-state theory, and we find that its long-time limit is independent of the location of the dividing surface. TRPMD rate theory is then applied to one-dimensional model systems, the atom-diatom bimolecular reactions H + H{sub 2}, D + MuH, and F + H{sub 2}, and the prototypical polyatomic reaction H + CH{sub 4}. Above the crossover temperature, the TRPMD rate is virtually invariant to the strength of the friction applied to the internal ring-polymer normal modes, and beneath the crossover temperature the TRPMD rate generally decreases with increasing friction, in agreement with the predictions of Kramers theory. We therefore find that TRPMD is approximately equal to, or less accurate than, ring polymer molecular dynamics for symmetric reactions, and for certain asymmetric systems and friction parameters closer to the quantum result, providing a basis for further assessment of the accuracy of this method.

  1. NORCAL_BASELINES - Offshore Baseline for Northern California Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 3.0; An ArcGIS extension for...

  2. SOCAL_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for Southern California Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 3.0; An ArcGIS extension for...

  3. Calculating second derivatives of population growth rates for ecology and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shyu, E.; Caswell, H.

    2014-01-01

    Second derivatives of the population growth rate measure the curvature of its response to demographic, physiological or environmental parameters. The second derivatives quantify the response of sensitivity results to perturbations, provide a classification of types of selection and provide one way

  4. Should thermostatted ring polymer molecular dynamics be used to calculate thermal reaction rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hele, Timothy J H; Suleimanov, Yury V

    2015-08-21

    We apply Thermostatted Ring Polymer Molecular Dynamics (TRPMD), a recently proposed approximate quantum dynamics method, to the computation of thermal reaction rates. Its short-time transition-state theory limit is identical to rigorous quantum transition-state theory, and we find that its long-time limit is independent of the location of the dividing surface. TRPMD rate theory is then applied to one-dimensional model systems, the atom-diatom bimolecular reactions H + H2, D + MuH, and F + H2, and the prototypical polyatomic reaction H + CH4. Above the crossover temperature, the TRPMD rate is virtually invariant to the strength of the friction applied to the internal ring-polymer normal modes, and beneath the crossover temperature the TRPMD rate generally decreases with increasing friction, in agreement with the predictions of Kramers theory. We therefore find that TRPMD is approximately equal to, or less accurate than, ring polymer molecular dynamics for symmetric reactions, and for certain asymmetric systems and friction parameters closer to the quantum result, providing a basis for further assessment of the accuracy of this method.

  5. CENCAL_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for Central California Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 3.0; An ArcGIS extension for...

  6. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses in a national cohort of Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván de Jesús Ascencio-Montiel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Permanent occupational disability is one of the most severe consequences of diabetes that impedes the performance of usual working activities among economically active individuals. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses have not previously been examined among Mexican workers. We aimed to describe the worker compensation expenses derived from pension payments and also to examine the survival rates and characteristics associated with all-cause mortality, in a cohort of 34,014 Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes during the years 2000–2013 at the Mexican Institute of Social Security. Methods A cross-sectional analysis study was conducted using national administrative records data from the entire country, regarding permanent occupational disability medical certification, pension payment and vital status. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI in order to assess the cohort characteristics and all-cause mortality risk. Total expenses derived from pension payments for the period were accounted for in U.S. dollars (USD, 2013. Results There were 12,917 deaths in 142,725.1 person-years. Median survival time was 7.26 years. After multivariate adjusted analysis, males (HR, 1.39; 95 % CI, 1.29–1.50, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers (HR, 1.41; 95 % CI, 1.15–1.73 and renal complications (HR, 3.49; 95 % CI, 3.18–3.83 had the highest association with all-cause mortality. The all-period expenses derived from pension payments amounted to $777.78 million USD (2013, and showed a sustained increment: from $58.28 million USD in 2000 to $111.62 million USD in 2013 (percentage increase of 91.5 %. Conclusions Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes had a median survival of 7.26 years, and those

  7. Sample size calculation while controlling false discovery rate for differential expression analysis with RNA-sequencing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ran; Liu, Peng

    2016-03-31

    RNA-Sequencing (RNA-seq) experiments have been popularly applied to transcriptome studies in recent years. Such experiments are still relatively costly. As a result, RNA-seq experiments often employ a small number of replicates. Power analysis and sample size calculation are challenging in the context of differential expression analysis with RNA-seq data. One challenge is that there are no closed-form formulae to calculate power for the popularly applied tests for differential expression analysis. In addition, false discovery rate (FDR), instead of family-wise type I error rate, is controlled for the multiple testing error in RNA-seq data analysis. So far, there are very few proposals on sample size calculation for RNA-seq experiments. In this paper, we propose a procedure for sample size calculation while controlling FDR for RNA-seq experimental design. Our procedure is based on the weighted linear model analysis facilitated by the voom method which has been shown to have competitive performance in terms of power and FDR control for RNA-seq differential expression analysis. We derive a method that approximates the average power across the differentially expressed genes, and then calculate the sample size to achieve a desired average power while controlling FDR. Simulation results demonstrate that the actual power of several popularly applied tests for differential expression is achieved and is close to the desired power for RNA-seq data with sample size calculated based on our method. Our proposed method provides an efficient algorithm to calculate sample size while controlling FDR for RNA-seq experimental design. We also provide an R package ssizeRNA that implements our proposed method and can be downloaded from the Comprehensive R Archive Network ( http://cran.r-project.org ).

  8. Low-Salt Intake during Mating or Gestation in Rats Is Associated with Low Birth and Survival Rates of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranna Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of maternal salt restriction during mating or gestation on birth rate and offspring growth in Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DS. DS were divided into 5 groups: DS fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl, w/w (DS-low or high-salt (4% NaCl, w/w diet (DS-high during mating and DS-high or DS-low during gestation, and DS fed regular chow (0.75% NaCl, w/w (DS-regular throughout mating and gestation. During the unspecified periods, the rats were given regular chow. DS-low during mating delivered fewer infants than high-salt mothers (P<0.05. The birth rate on regular chow was 87%. Six out of 11 DS-low rats during pregnancy produced pups while the rats fed a high-salt diet all delivered pups (P<0.025. The pup survival rate was 67% for high-salt mothers during mating and 54% for mothers on a low-salt diet. The pup survival rate was 95% for mothers on a high-salt diet during pregnancy and 64% for mothers on a low-salt diet (P<0.0001. Seven out of 8 DS-regular rats during mating delivered 59 neonates. However, 66% of the neonates survived. A low-salt diet during mating or pregnancy lowers birth rate and the neonates from low-salt mothers during pregnancy were more likely to die than those from high-salt mothers.

  9. Concept for calculating dose rates from activated groundwater at accelerator sites

    CERN Document Server

    Prolingheuer, N; Vanderborght, J; Schlögl, B; Nabbi, R; Moormann, R

    Licensing of particle accelerators requires the proof that the groundwater outside of the site will not be significantly contaminated by activation products formed below accelerator and target. In order to reduce the effort for this proof, a site independent simplified but conservative method is under development. The conventional approach for calculation of activation of soil and groundwater is shortly described on example of a site close to Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany. Additionally an updated overview of a data library for partition coefficients for relevant nuclides transported in the aquifer at the site is presented. The approximate model for transport of nuclides with ground water including exemplary results on nuclide concentrations outside of the site boundary and of resulting effective doses is described. Further applications and developments are finally outlined.

  10. Convergence rates of supercell calculations in the reduced Hartree-Fock model

    OpenAIRE

    Gontier, David; Lahbabi, Salma

    2015-01-01

    This article is concerned with the numerical simulations of perfect crystals. We study the rate of convergence of the reduced Hartree-Fock (rHF) model in a supercell towards the periodic rHF model in the whole space. We prove that, whenever the crystal is an insulator or a semi-conductor, the supercell energy per unit cell converges exponentially fast towards the periodic rHF energy per unit cell, with respect to the size of the supercell.

  11. Prenatal Stress Exposure Generates Higher Early Survival and Smaller Size without Impacting Developmental Rate in a Pacific Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelle, Pauline M; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Sopinka, Natalie M; Heath, John W; Love, Oliver P

    2016-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to elevated glucocorticoids can act as a signal of environmental stress, resulting in modifications to offspring phenotype. While "negative" phenotypic effects (i.e., smaller size, slower growth) are often reported, recent research coupling phenotype with other fitness-related traits has suggested positive impacts of prenatal stress. Using captive Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), we treated eggs with biologically relevant cortisol levels-low (300 ng mL(-1) ), high (1,000 ng mL(-1) ), or control (0 ng mL(-1) )-to examine the early-life impacts of maternally transferred stress hormones on offspring. Specifically, we measured early survival, rate of development, and multiple measures of morphology. Low and high cortisol dosing of eggs resulted in significantly higher survival compared to controls (37% and 24% higher, respectively). Fish reared from high dose eggs were structurally smaller compared to control fish, but despite this variation in structural size, exposure to elevated cortisol did not impact developmental rate. These results demonstrate that elevations in egg cortisol can positively influence offspring fitness through an increase in early survival while also altering phenotype at a critical life-history stage. Overall, these results suggest that exposure to prenatal stress may not always produce apparently negative impacts on offspring fitness and further proposes that complex phenotypic responses should be examined in relevant environmental conditions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Survival rate variation with different histological subtypes of poor prognostic male anal squamous cell carcinoma: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Kelash; Vikash, Sindhu; Chen, Liaobin; Li, Jingfeng

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective The prognosis of male anal squamous cell carcinoma (MASCC) and female anal squamous cell carcinoma (FASCC) is variable. The influence of tumor subtype on the survival rate and gender is poorly known. Our study is the largest population-based study and aims to outline the difference in survival between MASCC and FASCC patients. Methods A retrospective population-based study was performed to compare the disease-specific mortalities (DSMs) between genders related to the tumor subtypes. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program database was employed to obtain the data from January 1988 to December 2014. Results A total of 4,516, (3,249 males and 1,267 females), patients with anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC) were investigated. The 5-year DSMs were 24.18% and 18.08% for men and women, respectively. The univariate analysis of the male basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) and cloacogenic carcinoma (CC) patients demonstrated higher DSMs (P <0.001). Moreover, in the multivariate analysis, BSCC and CC were associated with soaring DSMs in male patients (P < 0.05). Conclusions In the cohort of BSCC and CC patients, male patients demonstrated a considerable decrease in survival rate compared to females. A more precise classification of ASCC and individualized management for MASCC are warranted. PMID:29137429

  13. estimated glomerular filtration rate and risk of survival in acute stroke

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... rate or glomerular filtration barrier and occurrence of stroke. Arch Neurol 2008; 65: 934-938. 2. Matsushita K,Mahmoodi BK, Woodward M,. Emberson JR, Jafar TH, Jee SH et al. Comparison of risk prediction using the CKD-EPI equation and the. MDRD study equation for estimated glomerular filtration rate.

  14. Dispersal and survival rates of adult and juvenile Red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda exposed to potential contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber, E. A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Annual survival and dispersal rates of adult and juvenile red-tailed tropicbirds were examined in connection with exposure to heavy metals. From 1990-2000 the incineration of a U.S. stockpile of chemical weapons stored at Johnston Atoll exposed nesting tropicbirds to increased levels of human disturbance, smoke stack emissions and potential leaks. Using a multi-state mark-recapture modeling approach, birds nesting in this site (downwind of the plant were compared to those nesting in a reference site (upwind of the plant with less human disturbance, no exposure to smoke stack emissions or other potential incineration emissions. We did not find any difference in survival of adults or juveniles when comparing the two sites. Adult breeding dispersal rates did not differ between the sites but we did find differences in the age-specific natal dispersal rates. Birds fledged from downwind areas were less likely to return to their natal area to nest and more likely to immigrate to the upwind area than vice-versa. This asymmetry in emigration rates is believed to be due to differing vegetation densities and has implications for vegetation management in relation to tropicbird nest success and population size.

  15. Calculation of electric field-induced detachment rate of electrons from mononegative ions; relevance to gaseous dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweinler, H.C.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    This model for the mononegative atomic or molecular ion in its effect on the most loosely bound electron is a spherical square well (constant positive inner potential within a sphere of radius r/sub 0/ and zero potential outside). From it we have calculated by quantum mechanics the emission rate w/sub ..nu..lm/ of electrons from the ..nu../sup th/ excited state (of orbital angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers l and m and energy E/sub ..nu..l/ < 0) under the influence of a constant electric field F. The calculation is conceptionally simple (involving time-dependent perturbation theory) but technically complicated (requiring an eleven-fold integration), and leads to a surprisingly simple final expression. The relevance of our calculations to gaseous dielectrics is discussed.

  16. Normalized impact factor (NIF): an adjusted method for calculating the citation rate of biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owlia, P; Vasei, M; Goliaei, B; Nassiri, I

    2011-04-01

    The interests in journal impact factor (JIF) in scientific communities have grown over the last decades. The JIFs are used to evaluate journals quality and the papers published therein. JIF is a discipline specific measure and the comparison between the JIF dedicated to different disciplines is inadequate, unless a normalization process is performed. In this study, normalized impact factor (NIF) was introduced as a relatively simple method enabling the JIFs to be used when evaluating the quality of journals and research works in different disciplines. The NIF index was established based on the multiplication of JIF by a constant factor. The constants were calculated for all 54 disciplines of biomedical field during 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 years. Also, ranking of 393 journals in different biomedical disciplines according to the NIF and JIF were compared to illustrate how the NIF index can be used for the evaluation of publications in different disciplines. The findings prove that the use of the NIF enhances the equality in assessing the quality of research works produced by researchers who work in different disciplines. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-Term Survival Rate in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure Treated With Noninvasive Ventilation in Ordinary Wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrini, Luca; Landoni, Giovanni; Bocchino, Speranza; Lembo, Rosalba; Monti, Giacomo; Greco, Massimiliano; Zambon, Massimo; Colombo, Sergio; Pasin, Laura; Beretta, Luigi; Zangrillo, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    Noninvasive ventilation is a life-saving technique increasingly used to treat acute respiratory failure. Noninvasive ventilation has been applied mostly in ICUs, but several reasons brought to an increasing application of noninvasive ventilation in ordinary wards. Few articles evaluated the outcomes of patients receiving noninvasive ventilation including long-term follow-up. The aim of the present study was to assess 1-year survival rate of patients treated with noninvasive ventilation outside the ICU for acute respiratory failure of heterogeneous causes and to identify the predictors of long-term mortality. Prospective, observational, pragmatic study. Ordinary wards of a teaching hospital. Consecutive patients treated with noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. None. Two-hundred and twenty-patients were enrolled. Mortality rates at 30-day, 90-days, and 1-year follow-up were 20%, 26%, and 34%. When excluding patients with "do-not-resuscitate" status, mortality rates were 13%, 19%, and 28%. The multivariate analyses identified solid cancer, pneumonia in hematologic patients, and do-not-resuscitate status as independent predictors of mortality with postoperative acute respiratory failure associated with improved survival. The same predictors were confirmed when excluding do-not-resuscitate patients from the analyses. Noninvasive ventilation applied in ordinary wards was effective, with long-term outcomes not different from those reported for ICU settings. Solid cancer, pneumonia in hematologic malignancies, and do-not-resuscitate status predicted mortality, whereas patients with postoperative acute respiratory failure had the best survival rate. Additional studies are required to evaluate noninvasive ventilation efficacy in the wards compared with ICU.

  18. Retrospective success and survival rates of dental implants placed with simultaneous bone augmentation in partially edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Nima; Darby, Ivan

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the success and survival rate of dental implants placed with simultaneous hard tissue grafting. All patients treated in Royal Dental Hospital of Melbourne who had implant placement with and without guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures were identified. Seventy-three attended a follow-up appointment. These patients were examined recording probing depth, bleeding on probing, plaque accumulation and radiographic bone loss by one examiner. Clinical and radiographic findings were compared in grafted and non-grafted groups and also analysed for years in function. Approximately 50% of implants were placed simultaneous guided bone regeneration technique. In the majority of cases, defects were filled by deproteinized bovine bone mineral and covered with collagen membrane. The range of time in function was 20-88 months with a mean 34.8 (±1.7). Seventy-nine per cent of the implants placed in anterior maxilla were placed with GBR, while only 18% in posterior mandible needed grafting procedure. The cumulative implant survival rates at the time of examination was 97.95% for both GBR and non-GBR group. The mean PPD, BOP, and Plaque index were not statistically significantly different in GBR vs. non-GBR groups two to seven years in function. However, bone loss is significantly less in GBR group 2-7 years after function. The overall success rate was around 90% after 2-7 years in function with the GBR group slightly less than the non-GBR group, but not statistically significant. For the subjects included in this retrospective study, the data demonstrate that GBR is a predictable procedure. The survival and success rates of the implants inserted with simultaneous GBR were similar, if slightly lower, to the non-grafted implants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Breast Cancer Detected at Screening US: Survival Rates and Clinical-Pathologic and Imaging Factors Associated with Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Han, Boo-Kyung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Choi, Woo Jung; Choi, Yunhee; Kim, Hak Hee; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-08-01

    Purpose To determine the survival rates and clinical-pathologic and imaging factors associated with recurrence in women with breast cancer detected at screening ultrasonography (US). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. A retrospective review of the databases of four institutions identified 501 women (median age, 47 years; range, 27-74 years) with breast cancer (425 invasive cancers and 76 ductal carcinoma in situ) detected at screening US between January 2004 and March 2011. Five-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were estimated, and the clinical-pathologic and imaging data were collected. Multivariate analysis was performed by using Cox proportional hazard regression to determine factors associated with recurrence. Results At a median follow-up of 7.0 years (range, 5.0-12.1 years), 15 (3.0%) recurrences were detected: five in ipsilateral breast and 10 in contralateral breast. The 5-year OS and RFS rates were 100% and 98.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 96.8%, 99.2%), respectively. In patients with invasive cancers, age younger than 40 years (hazard ratio: 3.632 [95% CI: 1.099, 11.998]; P = .032), the triple-negative subtype (hazard ratio: 7.498 [95% CI: 2.266, 24.816]; P = .001), and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 4A lesions (hazard ratio: 5.113 [95% CI: 1.532, 17.195]; P = .008) were associated with recurrence. Conclusion Women with breast cancers detected at screening US have excellent outcomes, with a 5-year RFS rate of 98.0%. However, in patients with invasive breast cancer, age younger than 40 years, the triple-negative subtype, and BI-RADS category 4A lesions were associated with recurrence. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  20. Examining mortality risk and rate of ageing among Polish Olympic athletes: a survival follow-up from 1924 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuhui; Gajewski, Antoni; Poznańska, Anna

    2016-04-18

    Population-based studies have shown that an active lifestyle reduces mortality risk. Therefore, it has been a longstanding belief that individuals who engage in frequent exercise will experience a slower rate of ageing. It is uncertain whether this widely-accepted assumption holds for intense wear-and-tear. Here, using the 88 years survival follow-up data of Polish Olympic athletes, we report for the first time on whether frequent exercise alters the rate of ageing. Longitudinal survival data of male elite Polish athletes who participated in the Olympic Games from year 1924 to 2010 were used. Deaths occurring before the end of World War II were excluded for reliable estimates. Recruited male elite athletes N=1273 were preassigned to two categorical birth cohorts--Cohort I 1890-1919; Cohort II 1920-1959--and a parametric frailty survival analysis was conducted. An event-history analysis was also conducted to adjust for medical improvements from year 1920 onwards: Cohort II. Our findings suggest (1) in Cohort I, for every threefold reduction in mortality risk, the rate of ageing decelerates by 1%; (2) socioeconomic transitions and interventions contribute to a reduction in mortality risk of 29% for the general population and 50% for Olympic athletes; (3) an optimum benefit gained for reducing the rate of ageing from competitive sports (Cohort I 0.086 (95% CI 0.047 to 0.157) and Cohort II 0.085 (95% CI 0.050 to 0.144)). This study further suggests that intensive physical training during youth should be considered as a factor to improve ageing and mortality risk parameters. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE [SEC 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU, T.A.

    2003-09-30

    Flammable gases such as hydrogen, ammonia, and methane are observed in the tank dome space of the Hanford Site high-level waste tanks. This report assesses the steady-state flammability level under normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The steady-state flammability level was estimated from the gas concentration of the mixture in the dome space using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. A time-dependent equation of gas concentration, which is a function of the gas release and ventilation rates in the dome space, has been developed for both soluble and insoluble gases. With this dynamic model, the time required to reach the specified flammability level at a given ventilation condition can be calculated. In the evaluation, hydrogen generation rates can be calculated for a given tank waste composition and its physical condition (e.g., waste density, waste volume, temperature, etc.) using the empirical rate equation model provided in Empirical Rate Equation Model and Rate Calculations of Hydrogen Generation for Hanford Tank Waste, HNF-3851. The release rate of other insoluble gases and the mass transport properties of the soluble gas can be derived from the observed steady-state gas concentration under normal ventilation conditions. The off-normal ventilation rate is assumed to be natural barometric breathing only. A large body of data is required to do both the hydrogen generation rate calculation and the flammability level evaluation. For tank waste that does not have sample-based data, a statistical-based value from probability distribution regression was used based on data from tanks belonging to a similar waste group. This report (Revision 3) updates the input data of hydrogen generation rates calculation for 177 tanks using the waste composition information in the Best-Basis Inventory Detail

  2. Migratory behaviour and survival rates of wild northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts: Effects of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, J.G.; Rikardsen, A.H.; Halttunen, E.; Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Letcher, B.H.; Skarhamar, J.; Naesje, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    To study smolt behaviour and survival of a northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar population during river descent, sea entry and fjord migration, 120 wild S. salar were tagged with acoustic tags and registered at four automatic listening station arrays in the mouth of the north Norwegian River Alta and throughout the Alta Fjord. An estimated 75% of the post-smolts survived from the river mouth, through the estuary and the first 17 km of the fjord. Survival rates in the fjord varied with fork length (LF), and ranged from 97??0 to 99??5% km-1. On average, the post-smolts spent 1??5 days (36 h, range 11-365 h) travelling from the river mouth to the last fjord array, 31 km from the river mouth. The migratory speed was slower (1??8 LF s-1) in the first 4 km after sea entry compared with the next 27 km (3??0 LF s-1). Post-smolts entered the fjord more often during the high or ebbing tide (70%). There was no clear diurnal migration pattern within the river and fjord, but most of the post-smolts entered the fjord at night (66%, 2000-0800 hours), despite the 24 h daylight at this latitude. The tidal cycle, wind-induced currents and the smolts' own movements seemed to influence migratory speeds and routes in different parts of the fjord. A large variation in migration patterns, both in the river and fjord, might indicate that individuals in stochastic estuarine and marine environments are exposed to highly variable selection regimes, resulting in different responses to environmental factors on both temporal and spatial scales. Post-smolts in the northern Alta Fjord had similar early marine survival rates to those observed previously in southern fjords; however, fjord residency in the north was shorter. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Introducing a Quantitative Method to Calculate the Rate of Primary Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi, MM; Kamali, K; Ranjbar, F; Shafeghati, S; Ardakani, Z Behjati; Shirzad, M; Eslamifar, M; Mohammad, K; Parsaeian, M

    2012-01-01

    Background In the previous studies, the rate of primary infertility was reported differently. It seems the main reasons are related to the different methods of data collection and information analysis. Therefore, introducing a precise method to determine the infertile couples and the population exposed to the risk of infertility is an important issue to study primary infertility. Methods: The proposed methodology for assessing primary infertility rate has been designed and applied by Avicenna Research Institute in a national survey. Sampling was conducted based on probability proportional to size cluster method. In this survey, after reviewing the former studies, the reproductive history was used as a basis for data collection. Every reproductive event was recorded with a code and a date in the questionnaire. To introduce a precise method, all possible events were considered thoroughly and for each situation, it was determined whether these cases should be considered in numerator, denominator or it should be eliminated from the study. Also in some situations where the correct diagnosis of infertility was not possible, a sensitivity analysis was recommended to see the variability of results under different scenarios. Conclusion: The proposed methodology can precisely define the infertile women and the population exposed to the risk of infertility. So, this method is more accurate than other available data collection strategies. To avoid bias and make a consistent methodology, using this method is recommended in future prevalence studies. PMID:23641391

  4. Calculation of Residual Dose Rates and Intervention Scenarios for the LHC Beam Cleaning Insertions-Constraints and Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Brugger, Markus; Assmann, R W; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Menzel, Hans Gregor; Roesler, Stefan; Vincke, Helmut H

    2005-01-01

    Radiation protection of the personnel who will perform interventions in the LHC Beam Cleaning Insertions is mandatory and includes the design of equipment and the establishment of work procedures. Residual dose rates due to activated equipment are expected to reach significant values such that any maintenance has to be planned and optimized in advance. Three-dimensional maps of dose equivalent rates at different cooling times after operation of the LHC have been calculated with FLUKA. The simulations are based on an explicit calculation of induced radioactivity and of the transport of the radiation from the radioactive decay. The paper summarizes the results for the Beam Cleaning Insertions and discusses the estimation of individual and collective doses received by personnel during critical interventions, such as the exchange of a collimator or the installation of Phase 2. The given examples outline the potential and the need to optimize, in an iterative way, the design of components as well as the layout of ...

  5. Experimental validation of calculated capture rate for nucleus involved in fuel cycle; Validation experimentale du calcul du taux de capture des noyaux intervenant dans le cycle du combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benslimane-Bouland, A

    1997-09-01

    The framework of this study was the evaluation of the nuclear data requirements for Actinides and Fission Products applied to current nuclear reactors as well as future applications. This last item includes extended irradiation campaigns, 100 % Mixed Oxide fuel, transmutation or even incineration. The first part of this study presents different types of integral measurements which are available for capture rate measurements, as well as the methods used for reactor core calculation route design and nuclear data library validation. The second section concerns the analysis of three specific irradiation experiments. The results have shown the extent of the current knowledge on nuclear data as well as the associated uncertainties. The third and last section shows both the coherency between all the results, and the statistical method applied for nuclear data library adjustment. A relevant application of this method has demonstrated that only specifically chosen integral experiments can be of use for the validation of nuclear data libraries. The conclusion is reached that even if co-ordinated efforts between reactor and nuclear physicists have made possible a huge improvement in the knowledge of capture cross sections of the main nuclei such as uranium and plutonium, some improvements are currently necessary for the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm). Both integral and differential measurements are recommended to improve the knowledge of minor actinide cross sections. As far as integral experiments are concerned, a set of criteria to be followed during the experimental conception have been defined in order to both reduce the number of required calculation approximations, and to increase as much as possible the maximum amount of extracted information. (author)

  6. Implant survival and success rates in patients with risk factors: results from a long-term retrospective study with a 10 to 18 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, F; Papi, P; Mencio, F; Rosella, D; Di Carlo, S; Pompa, G

    2017-02-01

    Risk factors for implant therapy are represented by all general and local conditions that through various mechanisms can increase either short-term and long-term failure risk. The aim of this study is to assess the implant survival and implant success rates with single and multiple risk factors. To address the research purpose, a retrospective cohort study was designed and implemented, including a sample of 225 patients with a total of 871 implants placed. The following risk factors were considered: smoking, bruxism, bone augmentation procedures and the presence of load risk (implants with crown/implant relation > 0.8; angulation > 25°; presence of cantilever). Follow-up ranged from 10 years to 18 years (average follow-up 13.6 years). Failures were subdivided into short-term failures, before the prosthetic phase, and long-term failures, after definitive prosthesis. The success criteria published by Albrektsson and Zarb were adopted. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to calculate hazard ratio, with a statistically significant p-value implants placed, 138 did not meet the success criteria, (success rate 84.16%), sixty (43.47%) were classified as "early failure" and seventy-eight as "late failure" (56.53%). A total of 70 dental implants were removed, with a survival rate of 91.96%. The presence of a single risk factor does not imply a marked increase of failure risk. Among the analyzed factors, the one that proved to be the most dangerous was bruxism, even when presented as the only risk factor. Bruxism with load risk proved to be the most dangerous association (success rate 69.23%) and could be included among the absolute contraindications for implant treatment.

  7. Increasing the competitiveness of maintenance contract rates by using an alternative methodology for the calculation of average vehicle maintenance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carstens

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Companies tend to outsource transport to fleet management companies to increase efficiencies if transport is a non-core activity. The provision of fleet management services on contract introduces a certain amount of financial risk to the fleet management company, specifically fixed rate maintenance contracts. The quoted rate needs to be sufficient and also competitive in the market. Currently the quoted maintenance rates are based on the maintenance specifications of the manufacturer and the risk management approach of the fleet management company. This is usually reflected in a contingency that is included in the quoted maintenance rate. An alternative methodology for calculating the average maintenance cost for a vehicle fleet is proposed based on the actual maintenance expenditures of the vehicles and accepted statistical techniques. The proposed methodology results in accurate estimates (and associated confidence limits of the true average maintenance cost and can beused as a basis for the maintenance quote.

  8. Factors affecting survival rates of in vitro produced bovine embryos after vitrification and direct in-straw rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajta, G; Holm, P; Greve, T; Callesen, H

    1996-12-16

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibilities of simplification, and to outline the limits of application, of a vitrification method for cow embryos. Morulae and blastocysts were produced by in vitro fertilization of slaughterhouse-derived, in vitro matured oocytes with frozen-thawed bull semen, and subsequent culture on a granulosa cell monolayer. Vitrification was performed by equilibration of embryos with 12.5% ethylene glycol and 12.5% dimethylsulphoxide at 20-22 degrees C for 60 s, then with 25% ethylene glycol and 25% dimethylsulphoxide at 4 degrees C for another 60 s. Embryos were then loaded in straws, placed in liquid nitrogen vapour for 2 min, and then plunged. Straws were thawed in a 22 degrees C water-bath, the embryos were directly rehydrated and further incubated in straw, and were then expelled and cultured in vitro for 72 h. In the first experiment, embryos of different age and developmental stage (Day 5 compacted morulae, Day 6 early blastocysts, Days 6 and 7 blastocysts, Day 7 expanded blastocysts and Day 8 hatched blastocysts) as well as Days 7 and 5 blastocysts previously subjected to partial zone dissection were vitrified. After thawing, the re-expansion rates of blastocysts and zona-dissected embryos did not differ (67 and 87%, respectively), and hatching was more frequent for blastocysts frozen in advanced developmental stages (34, 47 and 63% for early blastocysts, blastocysts and expanded blastocysts, respectively). The re-expansion rate of morulae was lower (10%) and no hatching of these embryos was observed. In the second experiment, Day 7 expanded blastocysts were vitrified using PBS, PBS+albumin, TCM199 and TCM199+calf serum as holding media. No differences in re-expansion and hatching rates were seen. However, when incubation with the concentrated cryoprotectant solution was performed at 20-22 degrees C, the embryo survival rate decreased (PBS+albumin) or no embryo survived (TCM199+calf serum) the vitrification procedure. In

  9. Survival Rates Using Individualized Bioselection Treatment Methods in Patients with Advanced Laryngeal Cancer : The University of Michigan Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gregory T.; Bellile, Emily; Eisbruch, Avraham; Urba, Susan; Bradford, Carol R.; Peterson, Lisa; Prince, Mark E.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Hogikyan, Norman D.; McLean, Scott A.; Moyer, Jeffery; Taylor, Jeremy MG; Worden, Francis P.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of chemoradiation for advanced laryngeal cancer led to a major paradigm shift in treatment as an alternative to laryngectomy. Despite widespread adoption, survival rates have not improved and the original premise of matching neoadjuvant chemotherapy tumor response to determine subsequent treatment has not been followed. A unique approach incorporating a single cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to select patients with advanced disease for either laryngectomy or concurrent chemoradiation was studied to determine if improved survival could be achieved. Design From 2002–2012, we treated an unselected cohort of 247 patients with laryngeal cancer in an academic institution. Interventions Limited disease patients (n=94) underwent endoscopic resection (n=33; 35%), radiation (n=50; 53%) or chemoradiation for deeply invasive T2 lesions (n=11; 12%). For advanced disease (n=153), neoadjuvant chemotherapy for treatment selection (n=71; 46%), concurrent chemoradiation (n=50; 33%) or primary surgery (n=32; 21%) was recommended. Outcomes Propensity for treatment selection in advanced patients was modeled using logistic regression. Overall (OS) and disease specific survival (DSS) were analyzed with Cox proportional hazards models stratified by propensity score. Median follow was 48 months. Results Five-year OS and DSS was 75% (95% C.I. 68–81%) and 83% (77–88%), respectively for the entire cohort. DSS was 92% (83–97%) for patients with Stage I, II and 78% (69–84%) for patients with Stage III, IV disease. For advanced disease patients, 5-year OS (and DSS) ranged from 78% (91%) for surgery to 76% (79%) for neoadjuvant bioselection and 61% (66%) for primary chemoradiation. Propensity-adjusted multivariable Cox models controlling for known prognostic factors showed DSS was significantly improved in the neoadjuvant group compared to definitive chemoradiation [Hazard ratio 0.48, 95%CI: (0.29, 0.80), p=0.005]. DSS for the definitive surgery group was

  10. Effects of high dose rate gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Nakano, Eliana [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Parasitologia], e-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, e-mail: eliananakano@butantan.gov.br; Borrely, Sueli I. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes], e-mail: sborrely@ipen.br; Amaral, Ademir; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR)], e-mail: amaral@ufpe.br; Silva, Luanna R.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, e-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiations are known as mutagenic agents, causing lethality and infertility. This characteristic has motivated its application on animal biological control. In this context, the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata can be considered an excellent experimental model to study effects of ionizing radiations on lethality and reproduction. This work was designed to evaluate effects of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation at high dose rate (10.04 kGy/h) on B. glabrata. For this purpose, adult snails were selected and exposed to doses ranging from 20 to 100 Gy, with 10 Gy intervals; one group was kept as control. There was not effect of dose rate in the lethality of gamma radiation; the value of 64,3 Gy of LD{sub 50} obtained in our study was similar to that obtained by other authors with low dose rates. Nevertheless, our data suggest that there was a dose rate effect in the reproduction. On all dose levels, radiation improved the production of embryos for all exposed individuals. However, viability indexes were below 6% and, even 65 days after irradiation, fertility was not recovered. These results are not in agreement with other studies using low dose rates. Lethality was obtained in all groups irradiated, and the highest doses presented percentiles of dead animals above 50%. The results demonstrated that doses of 20 and 30 Gy were ideal for population control of B. glabrata. Further studies are needed; nevertheless, this research evidenced great potential of high dose rate gamma radiation on B. glabrata reproductive control. (author)

  11. On the symmetric α-stable distribution with application to symbol error rate calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2016-12-24

    The probability density function (PDF) of the symmetric α-stable distribution is investigated using the inverse Fourier transform of its characteristic function. For general values of the stable parameter α, it is shown that the PDF and the cumulative distribution function of the symmetric stable distribution can be expressed in terms of the Fox H function as closed-form. As an application, the probability of error of single input single output communication systems using different modulation schemes with an α-stable perturbation is studied. In more details, a generic formula is derived for generalized fading distribution, such as the extended generalized-k distribution. Later, simpler expressions of these error rates are deduced for some selected special cases and compact approximations are derived using asymptotic expansions.

  12. Electron-phonon scattering rates in complex polar crystals from ab initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prange, Micah P.; Campbell, Luke W.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2017-09-17

    The thermalization of fast electrons by phonons is studied in CsI, NaI, SrI2, and YAP. This numerical study uses an improvement to a recently developed ab initio method based on a density functional perturbation theoretical description of the phonon modes that provides a way to go beyond widely used phonon models based on binary crystals. Improvements to this method are described, and scattering rates are presented and discussed. The results here treat polar and nonpolar scattering on equal footing and allow an assessment of the relative importance of the two types of scattering. The relative activity of the numerous phonon modes in materials with complicated structures is discussed, and a simple criterion for finding the modes that scatter strongly is presented.

  13. Numerical calculation of protein-ligand binding rates through solution of the Smoluchowski equation using smooth particle hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wenxiao; Daily, Michael D.; Baker, Nathan A.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of a Lagrangian particle-based method, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), to study diffusion in biomolecular systems by numerically solving the time-dependent Smoluchowski equation for continuum diffusion. The numerical method is first verified in simple systems and then applied to the calculation of ligand binding to an acetylcholinesterase monomer. Unlike previous studies, a reactive Robin boundary condition (BC), rather than the absolute absorbing (Dirichlet) boundary condition, is considered on the reactive boundaries. This new boundary condition treatment allows for the analysis of enzymes with "imperfect" reaction rates. Rates for inhibitor binding to mAChE are calculated at various ionic strengths and compared with experiment and other numerical methods. We find that imposition of the Robin BC improves agreement between calculated and experimental reaction rates. Although this initial application focuses on a single monomer system, our new method provides a framework to explore broader applications of SPH in larger-scale biomolecular complexes by taking advantage of its Lagrangian particle-based nature.

  14. First Principles Calculation of the Reaction Rates for Ligand Binding to Myoglobin: The Cases of NO and CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lábas, Anikó; Menyhárd, Dóra K; Harvey, Jeremy N; Oláh, Julianna

    2017-12-28

    Ligand binding by proteins is among the most fundamental processes in nature. Among these processes the binding of small gas molecules, such as O 2 , CO and NO to heme proteins has traditionally received vivid interest, which was further boosted by their recently recognized significant role in gas sensing in the body. At the heart of the binding of these ligands to the heme group is the spinforbidden reaction between high-spin iron(II) and the ligand yielding a low-spin adduct. We use computational means to address the complete mechanism of CO and NO binding by myoglobin. Considering that it involves several steps occurring on different time scales, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to address the diffusion of the ligand through the enzyme, and DFT calculations in combination with statistical rate calculation to investigate the spin-forbidden reaction. The calculations yielded rate constants in qualitative agreement with experiments and revealed that the bottleneck of NO and CO binding is different; for NO, diffusion was found to be rate-limiting, whereas for CO, the spin-forbidden step is the slowest. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Metallic copper corrosion rates, moisture content, and growth medium influence survival of copper ion-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elguindi, J; Moffitt, S; Hasman, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The rapid killing of various bacteria in contact with metallic copper is thought to be influenced by the influx of copper ions into the cells, but the exact mechanism is not fully understood. This study showed that the kinetics of contact killing of copper surfaces depended greatly on the amount...... surface corrosion rates were determined from electrochemical polarization tests using the Stern-Geary method and revealed decreased corrosion rates with benzotriazole and thermal oxide coating. Copper ion-resistant E. coli and E. faecium cells suspended in 0.8% NaCl showed prolonged survival rates...... on electroplated copper surfaces with benzotriazole coating and thermal oxide coating compared to surfaces without anti-corrosion treatment. Control of surface corrosion affected the level of copper ion influx into bacterial cells, which contributed directly to bacterial killing....

  16. Comparison of all morphotype males and various types stocking density of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man on growth and survival rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Rubia Banu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to appraise the effect of different stocking densities on three male morphotypes named blue claw (BC, orange claw (OC and small male (SM at harvest in all-male culture and assess the growth performance of BC, OC and SM in each isolated culture. Trials involving three stocking densities of all-male prawn viz., 20, 30 and 40 juvenile m−2 were carried out in replicates. After 4 months of culture, BC, OC and SM were sorted from all tanks and restocked at 5 m−2 in treatments BC, OC and SM respectively for 80 days. A difference in prawn density was significant (P < 0.05 affect adversely on morphotypes. The highest survival rate combined with good yields performance was from 20 juvenile m−2 stocking density with 21% BC, 62.5% OC and 16.5% SM respectively. In isolation culture, the average specific growth rate of the SM population (1.22 was significantly higher than that of the OC (1.01 and the BC (0.43 population. The survival rate of the SM population was 100% while others were 72%. Absolute weight of prawn was significantly greater in the OC male (23.87 g than the SM (19.57 g and the BC male (6.31 g. Impacts of isolated culture on population structure were much more pronounced in the SM population than others.

  17. Effects of temperature, total dissolved solids, and total suspended solids on survival and development rate of larval Arkansas River Shiner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia S.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Worthington, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Decreases in the abundance and diversity of stream fishes in the North American Great Plains have been attributed to habitat fragmentation, altered hydrological and temperature regimes, and elevated levels of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Pelagic-broadcast spawning cyprinids, such as the Arkansas River Shiner Notropis girardi, may be particularly vulnerable to these changing conditions because of their reproductive strategy. Our objectives were to assess the effects of temperature, total dissolved solids, and total suspended solids on the developmental and survival rates of Arkansas River Shiner larvae. Results suggest temperature had the greatest influence on the developmental rate of Arkansas River Shiner larvae. However, embryos exposed to the higher levels of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids reached developmental stages earlier than counterparts at equivalent temperatures. Although this rapid development may be beneficial in fragmented waters, our data suggest it may be associated with lower survival rates. Furthermore, those embryos incubating at high temperatures, or in high levels of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids resulted in less viable embryos and larvae than those incubating in all other temperature, total dissolved solid, and total suspended solid treatment groups. As the Great Plains ecoregion continues to change, these results may assist in understanding reasons for past extirpations and future extirpation threats as well as predict stream reaches capable of sustaining Arkansas River Shiners and other species with similar early life-history strategies.

  18. Comparison of peritonitis rates and patient survival in automated and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a 10-year single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Reshaid, Wael; Al-Disawy, Hanan; Nassef, Hossameldeen; Alhelaly, Usama

    2016-09-01

    Peritonitis is a common complication in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). In this retrospective study, peritonitis rates and patient survival of 180 patients on CAPD and 128 patients on APD were compared in the period from January 2005 to December 2014 at Al-Nafisi Center in Kuwait. All patients had prophylactic topical mupirocin at catheter exit site. Patients on CAPD had twin bag system with Y transfer set. The peritonitis rates were 1 in 29 months in CAPD and 1 in 38 months in APD (p peritonitis free patients over 10-year period in CAPD and APD were 49 and 60%, respectively (p peritonitis was 10.25 ± 3.1 months in CAPD compared to 16.1 ± 4 months in APD (p peritonitis was 13.1 ± 1 and 14 ± 1.4 months respectively (p = 0.3) whereas in peritonitis free patients it was 15 ± 1.4 months in CAPD and 23 ± 3.1 months in APD (p = 0.025). APD had lower incidence rate of peritonitis than CAPD. Patient survival was better in APD than CAPD in peritonitis free patients but was similar in patients who had peritonitis.

  19. Possible natural hybridization of two morphologically distinct species of Acropora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia in the Pacific: fertilization and larval survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Isomura

    Full Text Available Natural hybridization of corals in the Indo-Pacific has been considered rather rare. However, field studies have observed many corals with intermediate interspecific or unusual morphologies. Given that the existence of F1 hybrids with intermediate interspecific morphologies has been proven in the Caribbean, hybrids may also inhabit the Indo-Pacific and occur more frequently than expected. In this study, we focused on two morphologically different species, Acropora florida and A. intermedia, and performed crossing experiments at Akajima Island, Japan. Results showed that these species could hybridize in both directions via eggs and sperm, but that fertilization rates significantly differed according to which species provided eggs. These results are similar to those reported from the Caribbean. Although all embryos developed normally to the planular larval stage, the developmental processes of some hybrid embryos were delayed by approximately 1 h compared with conspecific embryos, suggesting that fertilization occurred 1 h later in interspecific crosses than in intraspecific crosses. More successful hybridization could occur under conditions with low numbers of conspecific colonies. Additionally, a comparison of survival rates between hybrid and intraspecific larvae revealed that intra- and interspecific larvae produced from eggs of A. florida survived for significantly longer than those produced from eggs of A. intermedia. Considering these data, under specific conditions, hybrids can be expected to be produced and survive in nature in the Pacific. Furthermore, we identified one colony with intermediate morphology between A. florida and A. intermedia in the field. This colony was fertilized only by eggs of A. florida, with high fertilization rates, suggesting that this colony would be a hybrid of these two species and might be backcrossed.

  20. Survival and success rates of immediately and early loaded implants: 12-month results from a multicentric randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Tommaso; Garuti, Giovanna; Guazzi, Paolo; Tarabini, Luciano; Forabosco, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Our objective was to compare survival and peri-implant bone levels of immediately nonocclusally vs early loaded implants in partially edentulous patients up to 12 months after implant placement. Eighty patients (inclusion criteria: general good health, good oral hygiene, 30-65 years old; exclusion criteria: head and neck irradiation/cancer, pregnancy, uncontrolled diabetes, substance abuse, bruxism, lack of opposing occluding dentition, smokers >10 cigarettes/day, need for bone augmentation procedures) were selected in 5 Italian study centers and randomized into 2 groups: 40 patients in the immediately loaded group (minimal insertion torque 30 Ncm) and 40 patients in the early loaded group. Immediately loaded implants were provided with nonoccluding temporary restorations. Final restorations were provided 2 months later. Early loaded implants were provided with a definitive restoration after 2 months. Peri-implant bone resorption was evaluated radiographically with software (ImageJ 1.42). No dropout occurred. Both groups gradually lost peri-implant bone. After 12 months, patients of both groups lost an average of 0.4 mm of peri-implant bone. There were no statistically significant differences (evaluated with t test) between the 2 loading strategies for peri-implant bone level changes at 2 (P = .6730), 6 (P = .6613) and 12 (P = .5957) months or for survival rates (100% in both groups). If adequate primary stability is achieved, immediate loading of dental implants can provide similar success rates, survival rates, and peri-implant bone resorption as compared with early loading, as evaluated in the present study.

  1. Weather Correlations to Calculate Infiltration Rates for U. S. Commercial Building Energy Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lisa C; Quiles, Nelson Ojeda; Dols, W Stuart; Emmerich, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    As building envelope performance improves, a greater percentage of building energy loss will occur through envelope leakage. Although the energy impacts of infiltration on building energy use can be significant, current energy simulation software have limited ability to accurately account for envelope infiltration and the impacts of improved airtightness. This paper extends previous work by the National Institute of Standards and Technology that developed a set of EnergyPlus inputs for modeling infiltration in several commercial reference buildings using Chicago weather. The current work includes cities in seven additional climate zones and uses the updated versions of the prototype commercial building types developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U. S. Department of Energy. Comparisons were made between the predicted infiltration rates using three representations of the commercial building types: PNNL EnergyPlus models, CONTAM models, and EnergyPlus models using the infiltration inputs developed in this paper. The newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus yielded average annual increases of 3 % and 8 % in the HVAC electrical and gas use, respectively, over the original infiltration inputs in the PNNL EnergyPlus models. When analyzing the benefits of building envelope airtightening, greater HVAC energy savings were predicted using the newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus compared with using the original infiltration inputs. These results indicate that the effects of infiltration on HVAC energy use can be significant and that infiltration can and should be better accounted for in whole-building energy models.

  2. Escaping the correction for body surface area when calculating glomerular filtration rate in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, Amy; Tondeur, Marianne [CHU St. Pierre, Department of Radioisotopes, Brussels (Belgium); Ham, Hamphrey [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-09-15

    {sup 51}Cr ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid ({sup 51}Cr EDTA) clearance is nowadays considered as an accurate and reproducible method for measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. Normal values in function of age, corrected for body surface area, have been recently updated. However, much criticism has been expressed about the validity of body surface area correction. The aim of the present paper was to present the normal GFR values, not corrected for body surface area, with the associated percentile curves. For that purpose, the same patients as in the previous paper were selected, namely those with no recent urinary tract infection, having a normal left to right {sup 99m}Tc MAG3 uptake ratio and a normal kidney morphology on the early parenchymal images. A single blood sample method was used for {sup 51}Cr EDTA clearance measurement. Clearance values, not corrected for body surface area, increased progressively up to the adolescence. The percentile curves were determined and allow, for a single patient, to estimate accurately the level of non-corrected clearance and the evolution with time, whatever the age. (orig.)

  3. Preserved heart rate variability during therapeutic hypothermia correlated to 96 hrs neurological outcomes and survival in a pig model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqin; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Guan, Jun; Barbut, Denise; Bisera, Joe; Weil, Max Harry; Tang, Wanchun

    2012-02-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia initiated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves neurologic outcomes and survival after prolonged cardiac arrest. However, the potential mechanism by which hypothermia improves neurologic outcomes remains unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of rapid head cooling on 96-hr neurologic outcomes and survival by heart rate variability analysis in a pig model of prolonged cardiac arrest. Prospective randomized controlled animal study. University-affiliated research laboratory. Yorkshire-X domestic pigs (Sus scrofa). A protocol of 10 mins of untreated ventricular fibrillation followed by 5 mins of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a pig model of cardiac arrest was used in this study. Sixteen male domestic pigs weighing between 39 and 45 kg were randomized into two groups, hypothermia (n = 8) and control (n = 8). For the hypothermia group, intranasal-induced head cooling was initiated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation and persisted for 4 hrs after resuscitation. For the control group, cardiopulmonary resuscitation was started with normothermia. Time and frequency domain heart rate variability was calculated in 5-min sections of electrocardiographic recordings at baseline and 4 hrs after resuscitation. Neurologic outcomes were evaluated every 24 hrs during the 96-hr postresuscitation observation period. No differences in the baseline measurement and resuscitation outcome were observed between the groups. However, the 96-hr cerebral performance categories of the hypothermic group were significantly lower than control (1.0 ± 0.0 vs. 4.0 ± 1.9, p = .003). Four hrs after resuscitation, mean RR interval, heart rate variability triangular index, and normalized very-low-frequency power were restored to baseline in the hypothermia group. Square root of the mean squared differences of successive RR intervals and SD of instantaneous RR intervals were significantly improved in the cooled animals compared with controls. A significant

  4. Effect of Triiodothyronine and Cortisol on Development, Growth and Survival Rate of Sand Goby (Oxyeleotris marmorata, Blkr. Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R Sri Pudji

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of triiodothyronine and cortisol on the development, growth, and survival rate of sand goby larvae.  The experiment was carried out at Kolan Percobaan Babakan, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, IPB Bogor.  The larvae were immersed in solution of A (T3 2 mg/1 + C 1 mg/1, B (T3 2 mg/1 + C 0, 1 mgll, C (T3 2 mg/1 + C 0,0 1 mg/1 dan D (without hormone for one hour.  After treatment, larvae were reared in aquarium (50x50x50 cm.  Larvae were fed by rotifer and phytoplankton, three times a day.  Larval development, growth and survival rate were observed.  Result showed that T3 2 mg/1 +C 1 nig/1 and T3 2 mg/1 + C 0, 1 mg/1 could accelerated development of swim bladder and eyespot of larvae.  Treatment did not effect body pigmentation and growth; but effect survival rate of sand goby larvae.Key words :  Triidothyronine, cortisol, larvae, sand goby fish, development, growth, survival rate ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian hormon triidotironin dan kortisol terhadap perkembangan, pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup larva ikan betutu.  Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kolam Percobaan Babakan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Institut Pertanian Bogor.  Larva direndam selama satu jam dalam larutan A (T3 2 mg/1 + C 1 mg/1, B (T3 2 mg/1 + C 0, 1 mg/1, C (T3 2 mg/1 + C 0,0 1 mg/1 dan D (tanpa hormon.  Setelah perlakuan, larva dipelihara dalam akuariun berukuran 50x50x50 cm.  Selama pemeliharaan larva diberi pakan berupa rotifer dan fitoplankton dengan frekuensi tiga kali sehari.  Perkembangan, petumbuhan, dan kelangsungan hidup larva diamati.  Perendaman larva ikan betutu dalam larutan A dan B dapat mempercepat pembentukan gelembung renang dan bintik mata.  Perlakuan yang diberikan tidak mempengaruhi kecepatan terjadinya pigmentasi tubuh dan pertumbuhan, tetapi mempengaruhi derriat kelangsungan hidup larva.Kata kunci :  Triidotironin, kortisol

  5. Lovastatin delays infection and increases survival rates in AG129 mice infected with dengue virus serotype 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Martinez-Gutierrez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been reported that treatment of DENV-infected cultures with Lovastatin (LOV, can affect viral assembly. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of LOV on the survival rate and viremia levels of DENV-2-infected AG129 mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were inoculated with 1 × 10(6 plaque-forming units (PFU/ml of DENV-2 and treated with LOV (200 mg/kg/day. Pre-treatment with one or three doses of LOV increased the survival rate compared to untreated mice (7.3 and 7.1 days, respectively, compared to 4.8 days. Viremia levels also decreased by 21.8% compared to untreated mice, but only in the group administered three doses prior to inoculation. When LOV was administered after viral inoculation, the survival rate increased (7.3 days in the group treated at 24 hpi, 6.8 days in the group treated at 48 hpi and 6.5 days in the group treated with two doses compared to the untreated group (4.8 days. Interestingly, the serum viral titer increased by 24.6% in mice treated at 48 hpi with a single dose of LOV and by 21.7% in mice treated with two doses (at 24 and 48 hpi of LOV compared to untreated mice. Finally histopathological changes in the liver and spleen in infected and untreated mice included massive extramedullary erythropoiesis foci and inflammatory filtration, and these characteristics were decreased or absent in LOV-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the effect of LOV on viremia depends on the timing of treatment and on the number of doses administered. We observed a significant increase in the survival rate in both schemes due to a delay in the progression of the disease. However, the results obtained in the post-treatment scheme must be handled carefully because this treatment scheme increases viremia and we do not know how this increase could affect disease progression in humans.

  6. Two computational approaches for Monte Carlo based shutdown dose rate calculation with applications to the JET fusion machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrizzi, L.; Batistoni, P.; Migliori, S. [Associazione EURATOM ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Chen, Y.; Fischer, U.; Pereslavtsev, P. [Association FZK-EURATOM Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Loughlin, M. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX (United Kingdom); Secco, A. [Nice Srl Via Serra 33 Camerano Casasco AT (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    In deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion plasmas neutrons are produced causing activation of JET machine components. For safe operation and maintenance it is important to be able to predict the induced activation and the resulting shut down dose rates. This requires a suitable system of codes which is capable of simulating both the neutron induced material activation during operation and the decay gamma radiation transport after shut-down in the proper 3-D geometry. Two methodologies to calculate the dose rate in fusion devices have been developed recently and applied to fusion machines, both using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. FZK has developed a more classical approach, the rigorous 2-step (R2S) system in which MCNP is coupled to the FISPACT inventory code with an automated routing. ENEA, in collaboration with the ITER Team, has developed an alternative approach, the direct 1 step method (D1S). Neutron and decay gamma transport are handled in one single MCNP run, using an ad hoc cross section library. The intention was to tightly couple the neutron induced production of a radio-isotope and the emission of its decay gammas for an accurate spatial distribution and a reliable calculated statistical error. The two methods have been used by the two Associations to calculate the dose rate in five positions of JET machine, two inside the vacuum chamber and three outside, at cooling times between 1 second and 1 year after shutdown. The same MCNP model and irradiation conditions have been assumed. The exercise has been proposed and financed in the frame of the Fusion Technological Program of the JET machine. The scope is to supply the designers with the most reliable tool and data to calculate the dose rate on fusion machines. Results showed that there is a good agreement: the differences range between 5-35%. The next step to be considered in 2003 will be an exercise in which the comparison will be done with dose-rate data from JET taken during and

  7. Daily survival rates for nests of Black Skimmers from a core breeding area of the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive success of Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of undisturbed beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rates (DSR) of nests were examined at three nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR), South Carolina, USA, 2009–2010. The percent of successful nests (n  =  346 nests) ranged from 42–69% among colony sites when data were pooled across both years. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, predation risk, height of high tide, and clutch size. Predation and overwash were the principal causes of identifiable nest loss, each accounting for ∼33% of nest failures during the two study years. Because of the challenges of resighting skimmer chicks, we were not able to measure chick survival effectively and therefore accurate measures of productivity remain elusive. High variability in nest success among sites within close proximity to each other (flooding and overwash are far more limited. Conservation of Black Skimmers in the southeastern USA would benefit from coordinated, multi-state efforts to measure nest and chick survival.

  8. Low-cost GICs reduce survival rate in occlusal ART restorations in primary molars after one year: A RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olegário, Isabel Cristina; Pacheco, Anna Luisa de Brito; de Araújo, Mariana Pinheiro; Ladewig, Nathalia de Miranda; Bonifácio, Clarissa Calil; Imparato, José Carlos Pettorossi; Raggio, Daniela Prócida

    2017-02-01

    The high costs of the worldwide recommended GICs might be a barrier for the implementation of ART. To overcome this problem, low cost GIC are used even though there is a lack of evidence for the survival rate of restorations. To evaluate the performance of low-cost GICs used on occlusal ART restorations after one year. A total of 150 primary molars in 150 children with occlusal caries lesions were selected in 4-8 year-old children. The patients were randomly allocated in three groups: G1-GC Gold Label 9 (GC Corp); G2-Vitro Molar (DFL) and G3-Maxxion R (FGM). All treatments were performed following the ART premises in school setting. Restorations were evaluated after 2, 6 and 12 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test and Cox regression was used for testing association with clinical factors (α=5%). GC Gold Label 9 had better performance compared to the low-cost GICs (HR=1.47, CI=1.04-2.08, p=0.027). The overall SR of restorations was 65.33% and the SR per group was G1=77.55%; G2=61.11% and G3=42.55%. The low-cost GICs have a poorer performance than GC Gold Label 9 in occlusal ART restoration in primary molars. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Effects of Aeration Rate and Salinity Gradient on the Survival and Growth in the Early Life Stages of the Devil Stinger Inimicus japonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Sakakura, Yoshitaka; Andou, Yoshihide; Tomioka, Chisato; Yogo, Shigeru; Kadomura, Kazushi; Miyaki, Kadoo; Hagiwara, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of a flow field in the rearing tank exhibited by different aeration rate and salinity gradient on the larviculture of the devil stinger Inimicus japonicus. Two different rearing experiments using 1 kl rearing tanks were conducted from hatching (day 0) to settlement. In the Experiment 1, fish were reared until day 21 in 5 different aeration rates (0-1200 ml/min). There was a significant and positive relationship between survival and aeration rate, and fish survival b...

  10. Calculations of Solar Shortwave Heating Rates due to Black Carbon and Ozone Absorption Using in Situ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, R. S.; Hall, S. R.; Swartz, W. H.; Spackman, J. R.; Watts, L. A.; Fahey, D. W.; Aikin, K. C.; Shetter, R. E.; Bui, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    Results for the solar heating rates in ambient air due to absorption by black-carbon (BC) containing particles and ozone are presented as calculated from airborne observations made in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) in January-February 2006. The method uses airborne in situ observations of BC particles, ozone and actinic flux. Total BC mass is obtained along the flight track by summing the masses of individually detected BC particles in the range 90 to 600-nm volume-equivalent diameter, which includes most of the BC mass. Ozone mixing ratios and upwelling and partial downwelling solar actinic fluxes were measured concurrently with BC mass. Two estimates used for the BC wavelength-dependent absorption cross section yielded similar heating rates. For mean altitudes of 16.5, 17.5, and 18.5 km (0.5 km) in the tropics, average BC heating rates were near 0.0002 K/d. Observed BC coatings on individual particles approximately double derived BC heating rates. Ozone heating rates exceeded BC heating rates by approximately a factor of 100 on average and at least a factor of 4, suggesting that BC heating rates in this region are negligible in comparison.

  11. Effect of Formalin on the Hatching Rate of eggs and Survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    carcinogenicity (Meyer and Jorgenson 1984,. Fitzpatrick et al, 1995) and / or mutagenic properties. (Marking et al, 1994), its use was limited to the treatment of non-food ... effective anti fungal agents used to control fungal infections on eggs and improves hatching rate. Formalin effectively kills parasites on gills, skin and fins.

  12. Growth rates and post-release survival of captive neonate timber rattlesnakes Crotalus horridus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Shirley J. Burgdorf

    2003-01-01

    The need for conservation and management of rare species is becoming increasingly important as wildlife species and their habitat continue to decline. Translocation of wild captured adults to augment and reintroduce populations has been successfully used for some endangered avian species (see Carrie et al. 1999; Rudolph et al. 1992). In general, success rates for...

  13. Survival rate of lithium disilicate restorations at 4 years: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Taiseer A; Delgado, Alex J; Donovan, Terence E

    2015-09-01

    Ceramic restorations are frequently being placed due to the esthetic demand and the cost of noble metals that has increased considerably. One major disadvantage of ceramic restoration is failure of the material due to fracture by crack propagation. In vitro studies are of little clinical significance and in vivo studies are too short to support clinical success. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the failure rate of lithium disilicate restorations (monolithic and layered) at 4 years. Data were collected over 45 months from 2 commercial laboratories. Restorations were categorized into monolithic restorations and layered restorations. Each category was further classified into complete coverage single crowns, fixed dental prostheses, e.max veneers, and inlay/onlay restorations. Failure rates were compared and analyzed using Chi-square (α=.05). A total of 21,340 restorations were evaluated in this study and included 15,802 monolithic restorations and 5538 layered restorations. The failure rate for single crown monolithic restorations was 0.91% and was 1.83% for single crown layered restorations. For fixed dental prostheses, 4.55% of monolithic restorations failed. For e.max veneers, 1.3% of monolithic veneers fractured and 1.53% of layered veneers fractured. Of the inlay/onlay restorations group, 1.01% of monolithic restorations fractured. In the short term (45 months), restorations fabricated with the lithium disilicate material (IPS e.max) had relatively low fracture rates. Layered single crowns fractured at approximately 2 times the rate of monolithic crowns. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Survival rate of approximal-ART restorations using a two-layer technique for glass ionomer insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Clarissa Calil; Hesse, Daniela; de Oliveira Rocha, Rachel; Bönecker, Marcelo; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; van Amerongen, W Evert

    2013-09-01

    Good survival rates (SR) have been reported for occlusal-atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations but not for approximal-ART restorations. The high-viscosity consistency of the glass ionomer cement (GIC) may lead to its incorrect adaptation into the cavity and thus to failure of the restoration. Because the use of a flowable GIC layer seemed to improve its adaptation in approximal restorations in vitro, we evaluated whether the use of an intermediate flowable GIC layer would improve the SR of approximal-ART restorations. A total of 208 children (6-7 years old) with at least one occluso-proximal carious lesion in a primary molar were selected and randomly allocated to two groups: G1, conventional technique, one-layer GIC (powder/liquid ratio 1:1); and G2, two-layer technique, consisting of a first layer of GIC with a flowable consistency (powder/liquid ratio 1:2) and a second layer of a regular consistency. Restorations were made by final-year students and evaluated after 1, 6, 12 and 18 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival and logrank test. Poisson regression analyses (α = 5) were used to verify the influence of factors such as insertion technique, restoration surface and operators. The overall SR of the restorations after 18 months was 68 %. There was no difference in SR between the techniques, neither did the other factors influence the SR. Over 18 months, the use of an intermediate flowable GIC layer in approximal-ART restorations does not improve the restoration survival. This study suggests that the two-layer technique is not the answer for increasing approximal-ART restoration longevity.

  15. Ab initio thermal rate calculations of HO + HO = O(3P) + H2O reaction and isotopologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Stanton, John F

    2013-04-04

    The forward and reverse reactions, HO + HO ⇌ O((3)P) + H2O, which play roles in both combustion and laboratory studies, were theoretically characterized with a master equation approach to compute thermal reaction rate constants at both the low and high pressure limits. Our ab initio k(T) results for the title reaction and two isotopic variants agree very well with experiments (within 15%) over a wide temperature range. The calculated reaction rate shows a distinctly non-Arrhenius behavior and a strong curvature consistent with the experiment. This characteristic behavior is due to effects of positive barrier height and quantum mechanical tunneling. Tunneling is very important and contributes more than 70% of total reaction rate at room temperature. A prereactive complex is also important in the overall reaction scheme.

  16. Escin Increases the Survival Rate of LPS-Induced Septic Mice Through Inhibition of HMGB1 Release from Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have described the effects of Escin on improving the survival rate of endotoxemic animals. The purpose of this study was to explore the molecular mechanisms of this potentially beneficial treatment. Methods: First, the survival rate of endotoxemic mice was monitored for up to 2 weeks after Escin pretreatment, Escin post-treatment, or Escin post-treatment + rHMGB1. The effects of Escin on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a, IL-1ß, IL-6 and HMGB1 in the serum of endotoxemic mice and LPS-induced macrophages were evaluated by ELISA. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of HMGB1 in LPS-induced macrophages were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Additionally, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a, IL-1ß, IL-6 was evaluated by ELISA in rHMGB1-induced macrophages. Finally, the protein levels and the activity of NF-κB in macrophages were checked by Western blot and ELISA, respectively. Results: Both pretreatment and post-treatment with Escin could improve the survival rate of endotoxemic mice, while exogenous rHMGB1 reversed this effect. In addition, Escin decreased the level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a, IL-1ß, IL-6 and HMGB1 in endotoxemic mice and in LPS-induced macrophages. Escin could also inhibit the mRNA levels and activity of HMGB1. The release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a, IL-1ß, IL-6 could be suppressed in rHMGB1-induced macrophages by Escin. Finally, Escin could suppress the activation of NF-κB in LPS-induced macrophages. Conclusion: Escin could improve the survival of mice with LPS-induced endotoxemia. This effect maybe meditated by reducing the release of HMGB1, resulting in the suppression of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  17. Analyzing a Lung Cancer Patient Dataset with the Focus on Predicting Survival Rate One Year after Thoracic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Hachesu, Peyman; Moftian, Nazila; Dehghani, Mahsa; Samad Soltani, Taha

    2017-06-25

    Background: Data mining, a new concept introduced in the mid-1990s, can help researchers to gain new, profound insights and facilitate access to unanticipated knowledge sources in biomedical datasets. Many issues in the medical field are concerned with the diagnosis of diseases based on tests conducted on individuals at risk. Early diagnosis and treatment can provide a better outcome regarding the survival of lung cancer patients. Researchers can use data mining techniques to create effective diagnostic models. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns existing in risk factor data of for mortality one year after thoracic surgery for lung cancer. Methods: The dataset used in this study contained 470 records and 17 features. First, the most important variables involved in the incidence of lung cancer were extracted using knowledge discovery and datamining algorithms such as naive Bayes, maximum expectation and then, using a regression analysis algorithm, a questionnaire was developed to predict the risk of death one year after lung surgery. Outliers in the data were excluded and reported using the clustering algorithm. Finally, a calculator was designed to estimate the risk for one-year post-operative mortality based on a scorecard algorithm. Results: The results revealed the most important factor involved in increased mortality to be large tumor size. Roles for type II diabetes and preoperative dyspnea in lower survival were also identified. The greatest commonality in classification of patients was Forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), based on levels of which patients could be classified into different categories. Conclusion: Development of a questionnaire based on calculations to diagnose disease can be used to identify and fill knowledge gaps in clinical practice guidelines. Creative Commons Attribution License

  18. Metabolic and protein interaction sub-networks controlling the proliferation rate of cancer cells and their impact on patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Amir; Bordel, Sergio

    2013-10-24

    Cancer cells can have a broad scope of proliferation rates. Here we aim to identify the molecular mechanisms that allow some cancer cell lines to grow up to 4 times faster than other cell lines. The correlation of gene expression profiles with the growth rate in 60 different cell lines has been analyzed using several genome-scale biological networks and new algorithms. New possible regulatory feedback loops have been suggested and the known roles of several cell cycle related transcription factors have been confirmed. Over 100 growth-correlated metabolic sub-networks have been identified, suggesting a key role of simultaneous lipid synthesis and degradation in the energy supply of the cancer cells growth. Many metabolic sub-networks involved in cell line proliferation appeared also to correlate negatively with the survival expectancy of colon cancer patients.

  19. Comparison of Survival Rates, Tumor Stages, and Localization in between Obese and Nonobese Patients with Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kocoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this study we tried to determine the association between body-mass index (BMI, survival rate, and the stage of tumor at the time of diagnosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods. A total of 270 gastric cancer patients’ hospital records were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were grouped according to their BMI at the time of tumor diagnosis. Tumor stages at admission were compared according to their BMI values. Results. There were no differences in OS among BMI subgroups (p=0.230. The percent of patients with stage III tumor was significantly higher in nonobese while the percent of stage IV tumor was surprisingly higher in obese patients (p was 0.011 and 0.004, resp.. Percent of patients who did not have any surgical intervention was significantly lower in overweight and obese patients than normal and/or underweight patients. Conclusions. At the time of diagnosis, obese patients had significantly higher percent of stage IV tumor than nonobese patients. Despite of that, there were no differences in survival rates among BMI subgroups. Our study results are consistent with “obesity paradox” in gastric cancer patients. We also did not find any relationship between BMI and localization of gastric tumor.

  20. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ON SURVIVAL RATE, GROWTH, AND PRODUCTION OF WHITELEG SHRIMP IN TRADITIONAL-PLUS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharijadi Atmomarsono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Instead of culturing tiger shrimp that is frequently burdened by mass mortality, whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei is then considered as an alternative commodity in Indonesian brackishwater ponds. To prevent the whiteleg shrimp from diseases, different probiotic bacteria were tested in completely randomized design experiment using nine 250 m2 experimental ponds stocked with 10 PLs of whiteleg shrimp fry/m2. Three treatments were applied, namely A alternate use of probiotic bacteria RICA-1, RICA-2, RICA-3; B alternate use of probiotic bacteria RICA-4, RICA-5, RICA-3, and C control (without probiotic bacteria; each with three replications. After 11-week application, the results showed that the best survival rate of whiteleg shrimp was achieved by treatment B 98.83% and the best production was achieved by treatment A (23.52 kg/250 m2. However, there were no significant differences (P>0.05 among the three treatments tested for the shrimp survival rate. The whiteleg shrimp production in treatment A and B were signicantly better (P<0.05 than that in treatment C (control. These high shrimp production in treatment A and B were mainly caused by the capability of the applied probiotics in controlling some water quality variables and Vibrio numbers.

  1. Density and survival rate of Culex quinquefasciatus at Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Gabriel Z; Sallum, Maria Anice M

    2008-03-01

    Parity rate, gonotrophic cycle length, and density of a Culex quinquefasciatus female population was estimated at the Parque Ecológico do Tietê (PET), São Paulo, Brazil. Adult Cx. quinquefasciatus females were collected from vegetation along the edges of a polluted drainage canal with the use of a battery-powered backpack aspirator from September to November 2005 and from February to April 2006. We examined 255 Cx. quinquefasciatus ovaries to establish the parity rate of 0.22 and determined the gonotrophic cycle length under laboratory conditions to be 3 and 4 days. From these data, we calculated the Cx. quinquefasciatus survival rate to be 0.60 and 0.68 per day. Density of the Cx. quinquefasciatus female (5.71 females per m2) was estimated based on a population size of 28,810 individuals divided by the sampled area of 5,040 m2. Results of all experiments indicate medium survivorship and high density of the Cx. quinquefasciatus female population. This species is epidemiologically relevant in the PET area and should be a target of the vector control program of São Paulo municipality.

  2. MCNPX calculations of dose rate distribution inside samples treated in the research gamma irradiating facility at CTEx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, Tiago; Rebello, Wilson F.; Vellozo, Sergio O.; Gomes, Renato G., E-mail: tiagorusin@ime.eb.b, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.b, E-mail: vellozo@cbpf.b, E-mail: renatoguedes@ime.eb.b [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.b [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    A cavity-type cesium-137 research irradiating facility at CTEx has been modeled by using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. The irradiator has been daily used in experiments to optimize the use of ionizing radiation for conservation of many kinds of food and to improve materials properties. In order to correlate the effects of the treatment, average doses have been calculated for each irradiated sample, accounting for the measured dose rate distribution in the irradiating chambers. However that approach is only approximate, being subject to significant systematic errors due to the heterogeneous internal structure of most samples that can lead to large anisotropy in attenuation and Compton scattering properties across the media. Thus this work is aimed at further investigating such uncertainties by calculating the dose rate distribution inside the items treated such that a more accurate and representative estimate of the total absorbed dose can be determined for later use in the effects-versus-dose correlation curves. Samples of different simplified geometries and densities (spheres, cylinders, and parallelepipeds), have been modeled to evaluate internal dose rate distributions within the volume of the samples and the overall effect on the average dose. (author)

  3. Effect of the Lookback Period's Length Used to Identify Incident Acute Myocardial Infarction on the Observed Trends on Incidence Rates and Survival: Cardiovascular Disease in Norway Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulo, Gerhard; Igland, Jannicke; Vollset, Stein Emil; Nygård, Ottar; Egeland, Grace M; Ebbing, Marta; Sulo, Enxhela; Tell, Grethe S

    2015-07-01

    In studies using patient administrative data, the identification of the first (incident) acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in an individual is based on retrospectively excluding previous hospitalizations for the same condition during a fixed time period (lookback period [LP]). Our aim was to investigate whether the length of the LP used to identify the first AMI had an effect on trends in AMI incidence and subsequent survival in a nationwide study. All AMI events during 1994 to 2009 were retrieved from the Cardiovascular Disease in Norway project. Incident AMIs during 2004 to 2009 were identified using LPs of 10, 8, 7, 5, and 3 years. For each LP, we calculated time trends in incident AMI and subsequent 28-day and 1-year mortality rates. Results obtained from analyses using the LP of 10 years were compared with those obtained using shorter LPs. In men, AMI incidence rates declined by 4.2% during 2004 to 2009 (incidence rate ratio, 0.958; 95% confidence interval, 0.935-0.982). The use of other LPs produced similar results, not significantly different from the LP of 10 years. In women, AMI incidence rates declined by 7.3% (incidence rate ratio, 0.927; 95% confidence interval, 0.901-0.955) when an LP of 10 years was used. The decline was statistically significantly smaller for the LP of 5 years (6.2% versus 7.3%; P=0.02) and 3 years (5.9% versus 7.3%; P=0.03). The choice of LP did not influence trends in 28-day and 1-year mortality rates. The length of LP may influence the observed time trends in incident AMIs. This effect is more evident in older women. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Comparison of survival rates between 3D conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with stage Ⅲ non–small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Moonkyoo Kong, Seong Eon Hong Department of Radiation Oncology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: Randomized trials showing a clear survival benefit of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT over 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT in the treatment of lung cancer are lacking. This study compared the survival rates of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer who were treated with either 3D-CRT or IMRT and analyzed the prognostic factors for survival.Methods: From January 2008 to July 2015, 19 patients were treated with IMRT and 30 were treated with 3D-CRT in our institution. The choice between 3D-CRT and IMRT was determined by the physician based on tumor extent and general condition of the patients. The primary endpoint of this study was overall survival. The secondary endpoints were loco-regional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and the incidence of radiation-induced lung and esophageal toxicities. Results: The 1- and 2-year overall survival rates were 94.7% and 77.1% in the IMRT group and 76.7% and 52.5% in the 3D-CRT group, respectively. The overall survival rates of the IMRT group were higher than those of the 3D-CRT group; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P=0.072. Gross tumor volume was significantly associated with the overall survival rate. The 1- and 2-year loco-regional recurrence-free survival rates were 63.2% and 51% in the IMRT group and 67.5% and 48.1% in the 3D-CRT group (P=0.897, respectively. The 1- and 2-year distant metastasis-free survival rates were 78.9% and 68.4% in the IMRT group and 62.6% and 40.9% in the 3D-CRT group (P=0.120, respectively. Chemotherapy and treatment interruption were significantly associated with distant metastasis-free survival.Conclusion: IMRT showed comparable or better overall survival compared with 3D-CRT in patients with stage III non-small cell

  5. Impacts of glycolate and formate radiolysis and thermolysis on hydrogen generation rate calculations for the Savannah River Site tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-14

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) personnel requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluate available data and determine its applicability to defining the impact of planned glycolate anion additions to Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) on Tank Farm flammability (primarily with regard to H2 production). Flammability evaluations of formate anion, which is already present in SRS waste, were also needed. This report describes the impacts of glycolate and formate radiolysis and thermolysis on Hydrogen Generation Rate (HGR) calculations for the SRS Tank Farm.

  6. Estimating the Number of Heterosexual Persons in the United States to Calculate National Rates of HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Lansky

    Full Text Available This study estimated the proportions and numbers of heterosexuals in the United States (U.S. to calculate rates of heterosexually acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Quantifying the burden of disease can inform effective prevention planning and resource allocation.Heterosexuals were defined as males and females who ever had sex with an opposite-sex partner and excluded those with other HIV risks: persons who ever injected drugs and males who ever had sex with another man. We conducted meta-analysis using data from 3 national probability surveys that measured lifetime (ever sexual activity and injection drug use among persons aged 15 years and older to estimate the proportion of heterosexuals in the United States population. We then applied the proportion of heterosexual persons to census data to produce population size estimates. National HIV infection rates among heterosexuals were calculated using surveillance data (cases attributable to heterosexual contact in the numerators and the heterosexual population size estimates in the denominators.Adult and adolescent heterosexuals comprised an estimated 86.7% (95% confidence interval: 84.1%-89.3% of the U.S. population. The estimate for males was 84.1% (CI: 81.2%-86.9% and for females was 89.4% (95% CI: 86.9%-91.8%. The HIV diagnosis rate for 2013 was 5.2 per 100,000 heterosexuals and the rate of persons living with diagnosed HIV infection in 2012 was 104 per 100,000 heterosexuals aged 13 years or older. Rates of HIV infection were >20 times as high among black heterosexuals compared to white heterosexuals, indicating considerable disparity. Rates among heterosexual men demonstrated higher disparities than overall population rates for men.The best available data must be used to guide decision-making for HIV prevention. HIV rates among heterosexuals in the U.S. are important additions to cost effectiveness and other data used to make critical decisions about resources for

  7. Association between hospital rates of early Do-Not-Resuscitate orders and favorable neurological survival among survivors of inhospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendler, Timothy J; Spertus, John A; Kennedy, Kevin F; Chan, Paul S

    2017-11-01

    Current guidelines recommend deferring prognostication for 48 to 72 hours after resuscitation from inhospital cardiac arrest. It is unknown whether hospitals vary in making patients who survive an arrest Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR) early after resuscitation and whether a hospital's rate of early DNR is associated with its rate of favorable neurological survival. Within Get With the Guidelines-Resuscitation, we identified 24,899 patients from 236 hospitals who achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after inhospital cardiac arrest between 2006 and 2012. Hierarchical models were constructed to derive risk-adjusted hospital rates of DNR status adoption ≤12 hours after ROSC and risk-standardized rates of favorable neurological survival (without severe disability; Cerebral Performance Category ≤2). The association between hospitals' rates of early DNR and favorable neurological survival was evaluated using correlation statistics. Of 236 hospitals, 61.7% were academic, 83% had ≥200 beds, and 94% were urban. Overall, 5577 (22.4%) patients were made DNR ≤12 hours after ROSC. Risk-adjusted hospital rates of early DNR varied widely (7.1%-40.5%, median: 22.7% [IQR: 19.3%-26.1%]; median OR of 1.48). Significant hospital variation existed in risk-standardized rates of favorable neurological survival (3.5%-44.8%, median: 25.3% [IQR: 20.2%-29.4%]; median OR 1.72). Hospitals' risk-adjusted rates of early DNR were inversely correlated with their risk-standardized rates of favorable neurological survival (r=-0.179, P=.006). Despite current guideline recommendations, many patients with inhospital cardiac arrest are made DNR within 12 hours after ROSC, and hospitals vary widely in rates of early DNR. Higher hospital rates of early DNR were associated with worse meaningful survival outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of the edentulous atrophic maxilla using zygomatic implants: evaluation of survival rates over 5-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, J M; Brook, I M; Patel, R R; Wragg, P F; Atkins, S A; El-Awa, A; Bakri, I; Bolt, R

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective observational cohort study was to analyse and report the 5-10-year survival rates of endosseous zygomatic implants used in the rehabilitation of the atrophic maxilla. Forty-three consecutive zygomatic implant placements in 25 patients were evaluated over a 5-10-year period. All zygomatic implant surgery was carried out under general anaesthesia. Nobel Biocare zygomatic machined-surface implants were used, and placement was undertaken using the modified sinus slot method. The main outcome measures and determinants for success were survival of the restored implants and the proportion of originally planned prostheses delivered to patients. Of the 25 patients treated, 12 were male and 13 were female; 19 were non-smokers, and the mean age at time of surgery was 64 years. Patients were treatment-planned for implant-retained bridgework, a removable prosthesis retained by fixed cast gold or milled titanium beams, or magnet-retained removable prostheses. A combination of zygomatic and conventional implants was used in all but one patient. In this study it was shown that the overall success rate for zygomatic implants was 86%, with six of the implants either failing to integrate or requiring removal due to persistent infection associated with the maxillary sinus. All patients received their planned prosthesis, although in six cases the method of retention required modification. This study illustrates that zygomatic implants are a successful and important treatment option when trying to restore the atrophic maxilla, with the potential to avoid additional augmentation/grafting procedures and resulting in a high long-term success rate. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of calculated and experimentally resolved rate constants for excitation energy transfer in C-phycocyanin. 2. Trimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debreczeny, M.F.; Sauer, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Zhou, J.; Bryant, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-05-18

    Resolution of the absorption spectrum of the {beta}{sub 155} chromophore in C-phycocyanin (PC) trimers is achieved by comparison of the steady state absorption spectra of ({alpha}{sup PC}{beta}{sup PC}){sub 3} and ({alpha}{sup PC}{beta}{sup *}){sub 3}. Comparison of the anisotropy decays of ({alpha}{sup PC}{beta}{sup PC}){sub 3} and ({alpha}{sup PC}{beta}{sup *}){sub 3} also greatly aids in the assignment of the dominant kinetic processes in PC trimers. A comparison is made of calculated Foerster rate constants for energy transfer with those rate constants resolved experimentally in the PC trimers. 35 refs.., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Comparison of calculated and experimentally resolved rate constants for excitation energy transfer in C-phycocyanin. 1. Monomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debreczeny, M.P.; Sauer, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Zhou, J.; Bryant, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-05-18

    Rate constants for excitation energy transfer in light-harvesting protein, C-phycocyanin (PC), in the monomeric aggregation state, isolated from the cyanobacterium cynechococcus sp. PCC 7002, are calculated, using Foerster theory and compared with the results of time-resolved fluorescence measurements. The assignments of the energy-transfer rate constants in PC monomers are confirmed here by time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements of the PC monomers isolated from both the wild-type and a mutant strain (cpcB/C155S) whose PC is missing the {beta}{sub 155} chromophore. It is concluded that the Foerster model of resonant energy transfer in the weak coupling limit successfully describes the dominant energy-transfer processes in this protein in the monomeric state. 31 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Reactive oxygen species in plasma against E. coli cells survival rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ren-Wu; Zhang, Xian-Hui; Zong, Zi-Chao; Li, Jun-Xiong; Yang, Zhou-Bin; Liu, Dong-Ping; Yang, Si-Ze

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we report on the contrastive analysis of inactivation efficiency of E. coli cells in solution with different disinfection methods. Compared with the hydrogen peroxide solution and the ozone gas, the atmospheric-pressure He plasma can completely kill the E. coli cells in the shortest time. The inactivation efficiency of E. coli cells in solution can be well described by using the chemical reaction rate model. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that the C-O or C=O content of the inactivated E. coli cell surface by plasma is predominantly increased, indicating the quantity of oxygen-containing species in plasma is more than those of two other methods, and then the C-C or C-H bonds can be broken, leading to the etching of organic compounds. Analysis also indicates that plasma-generated species can play a crucial role in the inactivation process by their direct reactions or the decompositions of reactive species, such as ozone into OH radicals in water, then reacting with E. coli cells. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. 2014J01025), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11275261), and the Funds from the Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, China.

  12. Rapid wetland expansion during European settlement and its implication for marsh survival under modern sediment delivery rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Murray, A. Brad; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Corbett, D. Reide

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in sea-level rise rates are thought to dominate the formation and evolution of coastal wetlands. Here we demonstrate a contrasting scenario in which land-use-related changes in sediment delivery rates drive the formation of expansive marshland, and vegetation feedbacks maintain their morphology despite recent sediment supply reduction. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon dating in the Plum Island Estuary (Massachusetts, United States) suggest that salt marshes expanded rapidly during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries due to increased rates of sediment delivery following deforestation associated with European settlement. Numerical modeling coupled with the stratigraphic observations suggests that existing marshland could survive, but not form under the low suspended sediment concentrations observed in the estuary today. These results suggest that many of the expansive marshes that characterize the modern North American coast are metastable relicts of high nineteenth century sediment delivery rates, and that recent observations of degradation may represent a slow return to pre-settlement marsh extent. In contrast to ecosystem management practices in which restoring pre-anthropogenic conditions is seen as a way to increase ecosystem services, our results suggest that widespread efforts to restore valuable coastal wetlands actually prevent some systems from returning to a natural state.

  13. Model-based estimates of annual survival rate are preferable to observed maximum lifespan statistics for use in comparative life-history studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementz, D.G.; Sauer, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of longevity are available for many animals, and are commonly used in comparative life-history analyses. We suggest that annual survival rate is more appropriate life history parameter for most comparative life history analyses. Observed maximum longevities were not correlated with the annual survival rate estimates and appear to be unstable over time. We recommend that observed maximum lifespans not be used in life history analyses.

  14. Effects of functionalized fullerenes on bifenthrin and tribufos toxicity to Daphnia magna: Survival, reproduction, and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Kathryn A; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Philip N; Maul, Jonathan D

    2010-11-01

    Incorporation of carbon nanomaterials into industrial and consumer products is increasing, yet their impact on aquatic ecosystems alone and in chemical mixtures is largely unknown. Carbon nanomaterials may be found in the aquatic environment as mixtures with pesticides because of their proposed use in agriculture as smart delivery systems and nanosensors. The interaction effects of a functionalized fullerene ([1,2-methanofullerene C₆₀]-61-carboxylic acid) (fC₆₀) at 52.8 µg/L and the hydrophobic pesticides bifenthrin and tribufos were examined. The test organism was Daphnia magna, and response variables included 48-h survival, reproduction (bifenthrin, 70-d; tribufos, 21-d), and 10-d growth. Both pesticides reduced D. magna survival and reproduction (p Fullerenes significantly increased bifenthrin acute toxicity but did not significantly affect chronic endpoints or growth (p > 0.05). Median lethal concentrations (LC50s), median inhibition concentrations (IC50s) for days surviving, and IC50s for reproduction were 0.86, 0.55, and 0.49 µg/L for bifenthrin; 0.22, 0.39, and 0.77 µg/L for fC₆₀-bifenthrin mix; 6.63, 9.89, and 5.79 µg/L for tribufos; and 9.17, 8.17, and 6.59 µg/L for fC₆₀-tribufos mix. Mixtures did not affect instantaneous growth rate (p > 0.05). These results suggest that fC₆₀ had little effect on pesticide chronic toxicity but influenced acute toxicity. Given the widespread application of nanotechnology, the influence of nanomaterials on environmental contaminants is an important consideration. Thus, our results may be useful in the development and use of nanotechnology in agricultural practices. © 2010 SETAC.

  15. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pirrie Stockwell

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation.

  16. The nexus of hair corticosterone level, immunocompetence, metabolic rates and overwinter survival in the root vole, Microtus oeconomus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Aneta; Zub, Karol; Szafrańska, Paulina A; Wieczorek, Monika; Konarzewski, Marek

    2017-09-01

    Although corticosterone (CORT) regulates many physiological mechanisms, the associations between CORT levels, immunocompetence, energy expenditures and overwinter survival have not been examined. Here, we studied individual variation in CORT level extracted from hair, immunocompetence quantified as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (N/L) ratio, total white blood cells (WBC) and natural antibody levels (NAbs), along with the resting (RMR) and peak metabolic rates (PMR) and mortality during three consecutive winter seasons in a natural population of the root vole, Microtus oeconomus. In early winter, hair CORT level was strongly positively associated with body mass and inversely related to voles' ability to survive. We suggest that the observed association between hair CORT level and body mass may be the key component of the physiological nexus driving the survivorship of individual rodents. Additionally, hair CORT was a significant predictor of variation of the whole body RMR, which in turn enhanced overwinter survival in the studied population. On the other hand, hair CORT was not significantly associated with changes in the blood indices. Interestingly, the analysis carried out only during the first year of study (2008), which was characterized by a high population density and prevalence of infestation with a blood protozoan, Babesia spp., showed that the intensity of the infestation was negatively correlated with both the hair CORT level and the N/L ratio. Because CORT is often considered immunosuppressive, we expected a positive association between its level and the N/L ratio. However, hair CORT did not significantly correlate with the N/L ratio. We suggest that the lack of an association between hair CORT and the N/L ratio resulted from a small inter-individual variation in the N/L ratio in 2008, which was much higher and less variable than in the other years of our study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relativistic many-body calculation of energies, transition rates, lifetimes, and multipole polarizabilities in Cs-like La iii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, M. S.

    2014-05-01

    Excitation energies of the [Xe]nd (n =5-9), [Xe]ns (n =6-10), [Xe]np (n =6-9), [Xe]nf (n =4-8), and [Xe]ng (n =5-8) states in La iii, where [Xe] = 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p6, are evaluated. Electric dipole matrix elements for the allowed transitions between the low-lying [Xe]nd, [Xe]ns, [Xe]np, [Xe]nf, and [Xe]ng states in the La iii ion are calculated using the high-precision relativistic all-order method where all single, double, and partial triple excitations of the Dirac-Fock wave functions are included to all orders of perturbation theory. Recommended values are provided for a large number of electric dipole matrix elements, oscillator strengths, transition rates, and lifetimes. Scalar and tensor polarizabilities of the states listed above are evaluated. The uncertainties of the recommended values are estimated. Electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole matrix elements are calculated to determine lifetimes of the 5d5/2 and 6s metastable levels. The ground-state E1, E2, and E3 static polarizabilities are calculated. This work provides recommended values critically evaluated for their accuracy for a number of La iii atomic properties for use in planning and analysis of various experiments as well as theoretical modeling.

  18. Effect of oxaliplatin on the survival rate of human Y79 cells after down-regulation of Mcl-1

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    Lu Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of oxaliplatin on the survival rate of Y79 after down-regulation of Mcl-1 by SiRNA. METHODS: Y79 cells were cultured in RPMI1640. The cultured cells were stimulated with 0.25μmol/L of oxaliplatin. The expression of Mcl-1 protein was detected by Western blot after 6, 16 and 24h respectively. Cells in logarithmic phase were collected and used for single-cell suspension. Then they were transfected with empty plasmid, Mcl-1-homo-991, Mcl-1-homo-1114 and Mcl-1-homo-1235. After 6h, fluorescence microscope was used to observe the transfection efficiency and the optimal one was selected. The cells were divided into Group A and transfected with empty plasmids. The cells transfected with Mcl-1 were divided into Group B and Group C. Group A and Group C were treated with 0.25μmol/L oxaliplatin for stimulating induction, and the apoptotic rate was compared after 24h.RESULTS: The expression of Mcl-1 in Y79 stimulated by oxaliplatin was the most after 24h of culture. Mcl-1-homo-991 significantly inhibited the expression of Mcl-1 in Y79 after transfection. There was no significant difference in the apoptosis rate in Group A(11.1%±1.2%and in the control group(6.1%±0.6%(P>0.05. The apoptotic rate of Group C(49.2%±2.7%was significantly higher than that of Group B(20.8%±1.9%. At the same time, the apoptotic rates of these two groups were significantly higher than those of Group A and control group, the difference was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION:Downregulation of Mcl-1 by siRNA can reduce the drug resistance of Y79, thereby enhancing the apoptosis of Y79, and reducing the survival rate of Y79.

  19. Calculation of the decay rate of tachyonic neutrinos against charged-lepton-pair and neutrino-pair Cerenkov radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentschura, Ulrich D.; Nándori, István; Ehrlich, Robert

    2017-10-01

    We consider in detail the calculation of the decay rate of high-energy superluminal neutrinos against (charged) lepton pair Cerenkov radiation, and neutrino pair Cerenkov radiation, i.e., against the decay channels ν \\to ν {e}+ {e}- and ν \\to ν \\overline{ν } ν . Under the hypothesis of a tachyonic nature of neutrinos, these decay channels put constraints on the lifetime of high-energy neutrinos for terrestrial experiments as well as on cosmic scales. For the oncoming neutrino, we use the Lorentz-covariant tachyonic relation {E}ν =\\sqrt{{p}2-{m}ν 2}, where m ν is the tachyonic mass parameter. We derive both threshold conditions as well as on decay and energy loss rates, using the plane-wave fundamental bispinor solutions of the tachyonic Dirac equation. Various intricacies of rest frame versus lab frame calculations are highlighted. The results are compared to the observations of high-energy IceCube neutrinos of cosmological origin.

  20. Calculating the Number of Cluster Heads Based on the Rate-Distortion Function in Wireless Sensor Networks

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    Mingxin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to limited resources in wireless sensor nodes, energy efficiency is considered as one of the primary constraints in the design of the topology of wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Since data that are collected by wireless sensor nodes exhibit the characteristics of temporal association, data fusion has also become a very important means of reducing network traffic as well as eliminating data redundancy as far as data transmission is concerned. Another reason for data fusion is that, in many applications, only some of the data that are collected can meet the requirements of the sink node. In this paper, we propose a method to calculate the number of cluster heads or data aggregators during data fusion based on the rate-distortion function. In our discussion, we will first establish an energy consumption model and then describe a method for calculating the number of cluster heads from the point of view of reducing energy consumption. We will also show through theoretical analysis and experimentation that the network topology design based on the rate-distortion function is indeed more energy-efficient.

  1. Mandible-Powered Escape Jumps in Trap-Jaw Ants Increase Survival Rates during Predator-Prey Encounters.

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    Fredrick J Larabee

    Full Text Available Animals use a variety of escape mechanisms to increase the probability of surviving predatory attacks. Antipredator defenses can be elaborate, making their evolutionary origin unclear. Trap-jaw ants are known for their rapid and powerful predatory mandible strikes, and some species have been observed to direct those strikes at the substrate, thereby launching themselves into the air away from a potential threat. This potential escape mechanism has never been examined in a natural context. We studied the use of mandible-powered jumping in Odontomachus brunneus during their interactions with a common ant predator: pit-building antlions. We observed that while trap-jaw ant workers escaped from antlion pits by running in about half of interactions, in 15% of interactions they escaped by mandible-powered jumping. To test whether escape jumps improved individual survival, we experimentally prevented workers from jumping and measured their escape rate. Workers with unrestrained mandibles escaped from antlion pits significantly more frequently than workers with restrained mandibles. Our results indicate that some trap-jaw ant species can use mandible-powered jumps to escape from common predators. These results also provide a charismatic example of evolutionary co-option, where a trait that evolved for one function (predation has been co-opted for another (defense.

  2. Mandible-Powered Escape Jumps in Trap-Jaw Ants Increase Survival Rates during Predator-Prey Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larabee, Fredrick J; Suarez, Andrew V

    2015-01-01

    Animals use a variety of escape mechanisms to increase the probability of surviving predatory attacks. Antipredator defenses can be elaborate, making their evolutionary origin unclear. Trap-jaw ants are known for their rapid and powerful predatory mandible strikes, and some species have been observed to direct those strikes at the substrate, thereby launching themselves into the air away from a potential threat. This potential escape mechanism has never been examined in a natural context. We studied the use of mandible-powered jumping in Odontomachus brunneus during their interactions with a common ant predator: pit-building antlions. We observed that while trap-jaw ant workers escaped from antlion pits by running in about half of interactions, in 15% of interactions they escaped by mandible-powered jumping. To test whether escape jumps improved individual survival, we experimentally prevented workers from jumping and measured their escape rate. Workers with unrestrained mandibles escaped from antlion pits significantly more frequently than workers with restrained mandibles. Our results indicate that some trap-jaw ant species can use mandible-powered jumps to escape from common predators. These results also provide a charismatic example of evolutionary co-option, where a trait that evolved for one function (predation) has been co-opted for another (defense).

  3. Patients with a history of diabetes have a lower survival rate after in-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petursson, P; Gudbjörnsdottir, S; Aune, S; Svensson, L; Oddby, E; Sjöland, H; Herlitz, J

    2008-01-01

    To describe the association between a history of diabetes and outcome among patients suffering an in-hospital cardiac arrest. All patients suffering an in-hospital cardiac arrest in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was attempted at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Göteborg between 1994 and 2006 and at nine further hospitals in Sweden between 2005 and 2006. In all, 1810 patients were included in the survey, 395 (22%) of whom had a previous history of diabetes. Patients with a history of diabetes differed from those without such a history by having a higher prevalence of previous myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure and renal disease. They were more frequently treated with anti-arrhythmic drugs during resuscitation. Whereas immediate survival did not differ between groups (51.7% and 53.1%, respectively), patients with diabetes were discharged alive from hospital (29.3%) less frequently compared with those without diabetes (37.6%). When correcting for dissimilarities at baseline, the adjusted odds ratio for being discharged alive (diabetes/no diabetes) was 0.57 (95% CL 0.40-0.79). Among patients suffering an in-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden in whom CPR was attempted, 22% had a history of diabetes. These patients had a lower survival rate, which cannot simply be explained by different co-morbidity.

  4. Functionalized Scaffold-mediated Interleukin 10 Gene Delivery Significantly Improves Survival Rates of Stem Cells In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Carolyn; Power, Karen; Sefton, Michael; O'Brien, Timothy; Gallagher, William M.; Pandit, Abhay

    2011-01-01

    While stem cell transplantation could potentially treat a variety of disorders, clinical studies have not yet demonstrated conclusive benefits. This may be partly because transplanted stem cells have low survival rates, potentially due to host inflammation. The system described herein used two different gene therapy techniques to improve retention of rat mesenchymal stem cells. In the first, stem cells were transfected with interleukin-10 (IL-10) before being loaded into a collagen scaffold. In the second, unmodified stem cells were loaded into a collagen scaffold along with polymer-complexed IL-10 plasmids. The scaffolds were surgically implanted into the dorsum of syngeneic rats. At each endpoint, the scaffolds were explanted and cell retention, IL-10 level and inflammatory response were quantified. All treatment groups had statistically significant increases in cell retention after 7 days, but the group treated with 2 µg of IL-10 polyplexes had a significant improvement even at 21 days. This cell retention was associated with increased IL-10 and decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. The primary effect on the inflammatory response appeared to be on macrophage differentiation, encouraging the regulatory phenotype over the cytotoxic lineage. Improving cell survival may be an important step toward realization of the therapeutic potential of stem cells. PMID:21266957

  5. Increased drying rate lowers the critical water content for survival in embryonic axes of English oak (Quercus robur L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuli, Tobias M; Finch-Savage, William E; Berjak, Patricia; Pammenter, Norman W

    2011-04-01

    The potential to cryopreserve embryonic axes of desiccation-sensitive (recalcitrant) seeds is limited by damage during the desiccation necessary for low temperature survival, but the basis of this injury and how to reduce it is not well understood. The effects of drying rate on the viability, respiratory metabolism and free radical-mediated processes were therefore investigated during dehydration of Quercus robur L. embryonic axes. Viability, assessed by evidence of germination and tetrazolium staining, showed a sharp decline at 0.27 and 0.8 g/g during rapid (<12 h) or slow (3 d) dehydration, respectively. Rapid dehydration therefore lowered the critical water content for survival. At any given water content rapid dehydration was associated with higher activities of the free radical processing enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase and lower levels of hydroperoxide and membrane damage. Rapid dehydration was also associated with lower malate dehydrogenase activity, and a reduced decline in phosphofructokinase activity and in levels of the oxidized form of nicotinamide dinucleotide. Ageing may have contributed to increased damage during slow dehydration, since viability declined even in hydrated storage after 3 d. The results presented are consistent with rapid dehydration reducing the accumulation of damage resulting from desiccation induced aqueous-based deleterious reactions. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Settlement and post-settlement survival rates of the white seabream (Diplodus sargus) in the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, Amalia; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Cardona, Luis; Cheminée, Adrien; Hidalgo, Manuel; Moranta, Joan

    2018-01-01

    Survival during the settlement window is a limiting variable for recruitment. The survival is believed to be strongly determined by biological interactions and sea conditions, however it has been poorly investigated. We examined the settlement patterns related to relevant biotic and abiotic factors (i.e. Density-dependence, wind stress, wave height and coastal current velocity) potentially determining post-settler survival rates of a coastal necto-benthic fish of wide distribution in the Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic, the white seabream (Diplodus sargus). An observational study of the demography of juveniles of this species was carried out at six coves in Menorca Island (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean). Three of the coves were located in the northern and wind exposed coast, at the Northeast (NE) side; while the other three were found along the southern and sheltered coast, at the Southwest (SW) side of the island. The settlement period extended from early May to late June and maximum juvenile densities at the sampling sites varied between 5 and 11 ind. m-1 with maximum values observed in late May simultaneously occurring in the two coasts. Our analysis of juvenile survival, based on the interpretation of the observed patters using an individual based model (IBM), revealed two stages in the size-mortality relationships. An initial density-dependent stage was observed for juveniles up to 20 mm TL, followed by a density independent stage when other factors dominated the survival at sizes > 20 mm TL. No significant environmental effects were observed for the small size class (30mm TL) size class. In the NE, the wind stress consistently affected the density of fish of 20-30 mm and >30 mm TL with a dome-shape effect with higher densities at intermediate values of wind stress and negative effect at the extremes. The best models applied in the SW coves showed a significant non-linear negative effect on fish density that was also consistent for both groups 20

  7. Settlement and post-settlement survival rates of the white seabream (Diplodus sargus in the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Cuadros

    Full Text Available Survival during the settlement window is a limiting variable for recruitment. The survival is believed to be strongly determined by biological interactions and sea conditions, however it has been poorly investigated. We examined the settlement patterns related to relevant biotic and abiotic factors (i.e. Density-dependence, wind stress, wave height and coastal current velocity potentially determining post-settler survival rates of a coastal necto-benthic fish of wide distribution in the Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic, the white seabream (Diplodus sargus. An observational study of the demography of juveniles of this species was carried out at six coves in Menorca Island (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean. Three of the coves were located in the northern and wind exposed coast, at the Northeast (NE side; while the other three were found along the southern and sheltered coast, at the Southwest (SW side of the island. The settlement period extended from early May to late June and maximum juvenile densities at the sampling sites varied between 5 and 11 ind. m-1 with maximum values observed in late May simultaneously occurring in the two coasts. Our analysis of juvenile survival, based on the interpretation of the observed patters using an individual based model (IBM, revealed two stages in the size-mortality relationships. An initial density-dependent stage was observed for juveniles up to 20 mm TL, followed by a density independent stage when other factors dominated the survival at sizes > 20 mm TL. No significant environmental effects were observed for the small size class (30mm TL size class. In the NE, the wind stress consistently affected the density of fish of 20-30 mm and >30 mm TL with a dome-shape effect with higher densities at intermediate values of wind stress and negative effect at the extremes. The best models applied in the SW coves showed a significant non-linear negative effect on fish density that was also consistent for

  8. Immunophenotypic features of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes from mammary carcinomas in female dogs associated with prognostic factors and survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela-Lima, Alessandra; Araújo, Márcio S S; Costa-Neto, João M; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Barrouin-Melo, Stella M; Cardoso, Sergio V; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Serakides, Rogéria; Cassali, Geovanni D

    2010-06-04

    The immune system plays an important role in the multifactorial biologic system during the development of neoplasias. However, the involvement of the inflammatory response in the promotion/control of malignant cells is still controversial, and the cell subsets and the mechanisms involved are poorly investigated. The goal of this study was to characterize the clinical-pathological status and the immunophenotyping profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and their association with the animal survival rates in canine mammary carcinomas. Fifty-one animals with mammary carcinomas, classified as carcinomas in mixed tumors-MC-BMT = 31 and carcinomas-MC = 20 were submitted to systematic clinical-pathological analysis (tumor size; presence of lymph node and pulmonary metastasis; clinical stage; histological grade; inflammatory distribution and intensity as well as the lymphocytic infiltrate intensity) and survival rates. Twenty-four animals (MC-BMT = 16 and MC = 8) were elected to the immunophenotypic study performed by flow cytometry. Data analysis demonstrated that clinical stage II-IV and histological grade was I more frequent in MC-BMT as compared to MC. Univariate analysis demonstrated that the intensity of inflammation (moderate/intense) and the proportion of CD4+ (> or = 66.7%) or CD8+ T-cells ( or = 600 (P = 0.02) remained as independent prognostic factor. Despite the clinical manifestation, the lymphocytes represented the predominant cell type in the tumor infiltrate. The percentage of T-cells was higher in animals with MC-BMT without metastasis, while the percentage of B-lymphocytes was greater in animals with metastasized MC-BMT (P carcinomas.

  9. Factors relating to poor survival rates of aged cervical cancer patients: a population-based study with the relative survival model in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2009-01-01

    Poor survival of older cervical cancer patients has been reported; however, related factors, such as the extent of disease and the competitive risk by aging have not been well evaluated. We applied the relative survival model developed by Dickman et al to resolve this issue. Study subjects were cervical cancer patients retrieved from the Osaka Cancer Registry. They were limited to the 10,048 reported cases diagnosed from 1975 to 1999, based on the quality of data collection on vital status. Age at diagnosis was categorized into or = 65 years. The impact of prognostic factors on 5-year survival was evaluated with the relative survival model, incorporating patients' expected survival in multivariate analysis. The age-specific relative excess risk (RER) of death was significantly higher for older groups as compared with women aged 30-54 years (RER, 1.58 at 55-64 and 2.51 at > or = 65 years). The RER was decreased by 64.8% among the 55-64 year olds as an effect of cancer stage at diagnosis, and by 43.4% among those 65 years old and over. After adding adjustment for treatment modalities, the RER was no longer significantly higher among 55-64 year olds; however, it was still higher among 65 year olds and over. Advanced stage at diagnosis was the main determinant of poor survival among the aged cervical cancer patients, although other factors such as limitations on the combination of treatment were also suggested to have an influence in those aged 65 years and over.

  10. Dynamic rating curve assessment in hydrometric stations and calculation of the associated uncertainties : Quality and monitoring indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlot, Thomas; Perret, Christian; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2013-04-01

    Whether we talk about safety reasons, energy production or regulation, water resources management is one of EDF's (French hydropower company) main concerns. To meet these needs, since the fifties EDF-DTG operates a hydrometric network that includes more than 350 hydrometric stations. The data collected allow real time monitoring of rivers (hydro meteorological forecasts at points of interests), as well as hydrological studies and the sizing of structures. Ensuring the quality of stream flow data is a priority. A rating curve is an indirect method of estimating the discharge in rivers based on water level measurements. The value of discharge obtained thanks to the rating curve is not entirely accurate due to the constant changes of the river bed morphology, to the precision of the gaugings (direct and punctual discharge measurements) and to the quality of the tracing. As time goes on, the uncertainty of the estimated discharge from a rating curve « gets older » and increases: therefore the final level of uncertainty remains particularly difficult to assess. Moreover, the current EDF capacity to produce a rating curve is not suited to the frequency of change of the stage-discharge relationship. The actual method does not take into consideration the variation of the flow conditions and the modifications of the river bed which occur due to natural processes such as erosion, sedimentation and seasonal vegetation growth. In order to get the most accurate stream flow data and to improve their reliability, this study undertakes an original « dynamic» method to compute rating curves based on historical gaugings from a hydrometric station. A curve is computed for each new gauging and a model of uncertainty is adjusted for each of them. The model of uncertainty takes into account the inaccuracies in the measurement of the water height, the quality of the tracing, the uncertainty of the gaugings and the aging of the confidence intervals calculated with a variographic

  11. Population-based study of ovarian cancer in Côte d'Or: prognostic factors and trends in relative survival rates over the last 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altwegg Thierry

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this population-based study was to assess independent prognostic factors in ovarian cancer using relative survival (RS and to investigate changes in RS rates from 1982 to 2005. Methods Data on 748 patients with ovarian cancer were provided by the Côte d'Or gynaecologic cancer registry. The RS was estimated using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error structure. Relative survival and its 95% confidence interval (CI were described at the following specific time points 1, 3 and 5 years. The effect of prognostic factors on survival was assessed with multivariate analyses of RS. Results The median follow-up was 12 years. The RS rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 81%, 55% and 44%, respectively. As compared with the period 1982-1989, an improvement in survival was found for the period 1998-2005: HR = 0.52[0.40-0.67]. Women who lived in urban areas had better RS: HR = 0.82[0.67-0.99]. Patients with epithelial types of ovarian cancer other than mucinous or endometrioid cancer had worse RS than those with serous histology. Age ≥ 70 years was associated with lower survival. Conclusions Period of diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, histology, place of residence and age were independent prognostic factors for survival in ovarian cancer. An improvement in the survival rate was observed after 1998 but a significant improvement was limited to advanced stage cancers.

  12. Applicator Attenuation Effect on Dose Calculations of Esophageal High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy Using EDR2 Film

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    Seyed Mohsen Hosseini Daghigh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Interaluminal brachytherapy is one of the important methods of esophageal cancer treatment. The effect of applicator attenuation is not considered in dose calculation method released by AAPM-TG43. In this study, the effect of High-Dose Rate (HDR brachytherapy esophageal applicator on dose distribution was surveyed in HDR brachytherapy. Materials and Methods A cylindrical PMMA phantom was built in order to be inserted by various sizes of esophageal applicators. EDR2 films were placed at 33 mm from Ir-192 source and irradiated with 1.5 Gy after planning using treatment planning system for all applicators. Results The results of film dosimetry in reference point for 6, 8, 10, and 20 mm applicators were 1.54, 1.53, 1.48, and 1.50 Gy, respectively. The difference between practical and treatment planning system results was 0.023 Gy (

  13. Effects of track structure and cell inactivation on the calculation of heavy ion mutation rates in mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Shavers, M. R.; Katz, R.

    1996-01-01

    It has long been suggested that inactivation severely effects the probability of mutation by heavy ions in mammalian cells. Heavy ions have observed cross sections of inactivation that approach and sometimes exceed the geometric size of the cell nucleus in mammalian cells. In the track structure model of Katz the inactivation cross section is found by summing an inactivation probability over all impact parameters from the ion to the sensitive sites within the cell nucleus. The inactivation probability is evaluated using the dose-response of the system to gamma-rays and the radial dose of the ions and may be equal to unity at small impact parameters for some ions. We show how the effects of inactivation may be taken into account in the evaluation of the mutation cross sections from heavy ions in the track structure model through correlation of sites for gene mutation and cell inactivation. The model is fit to available data for HPRT mutations in Chinese hamster cells and good agreement is found. The resulting calculations qualitatively show that mutation cross sections for heavy ions display minima at velocities where inactivation cross sections display maxima. Also, calculations show the high probability of mutation by relativistic heavy ions due to the radial extension of ions track from delta-rays in agreement with the microlesion concept. The effects of inactivation on mutations rates make it very unlikely that a single parameter such as LET or Z*2/beta(2) can be used to specify radiation quality for heavy ion bombardment.

  14. Reliable real-time calculation of heart-rate complexity in critically ill patients using multiple noisy waveform sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nehemiah T; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Batchinsky, Andriy I

    2014-04-01

    Heart-rate complexity (HRC) has been proposed as a new vital sign for critical care medicine. The purpose of this research was to develop a reliable method for determining HRC continuously in real time in critically ill patients using multiple waveform channels that also compensates for noisy and unreliable data. Using simultaneously acquired electrocardiogram (Leads I, II, V) and arterial blood pressure waveforms sampled at 360 Hz from 250 patients (over 375 h of patient data), we evaluated a new data fusion framework for computing HRC in real time. The framework employs two algorithms as well as signal quality indices. HRC was calculated (via the method of sample entropy), and equivalence tests were then performed. Bland-Altman plots and box plots of differences between mean HRC values were also obtained. Finally, HRC differences were analyzed by paired t tests. The gold standard for obtaining true means was manual verification of R waves and subsequent entropy calculations. Equivalence tests between mean HRC values derived from manually verified sequences and those derived from automatically detected peaks showed that the "Fusion" values were the least statistically different from the gold standard. Furthermore, the fusion of waveform sources produced better error density distributions than those derived from individual waveforms. The data fusion framework was shown to provide in real-time a reliable continuously streamed HRC value, derived from multiple waveforms in the presence of noise and artifacts. This approach will be validated and tested for assessment of HRC in critically ill patients.

  15. Effects of posture on FDTD calculations of specific absorption rate in a voxel model of the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, R P; Dimbylow, P J [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-21

    A change in the posture of the human body can significantly affect the way in which it absorbs radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. To study this, an anatomically realistic model of the body has been modified to develop new voxel models in postures other than the standard standing position with arms to the side. These postures were sitting, arms stretched out horizontally to the side and vertically above the head. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) have been performed from 10 MHz to 300 MHz at a resolution of 4 mm. Calculations show that the effect of a raised arm above the head posture was to increase the value of the whole-body averaged SAR at resonance by up to 35% when compared to the standard, arms by the side position. SAR values, both whole-body averaged and localized in the ankle, were used to derive the external electric field values required to produce the SAR basic restrictions of the ICNIRP guidelines. It was found that, in certain postures, external electric field reference levels alone would not provide a conservative estimate of localized SAR exposure and it would be necessary to invoke secondary reference levels on limb currents to provide compliance with restrictions.

  16. Calculation of the electron and hole impact ionization rate for wurtzite AlN and GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. R.; Qin, Z. X.; Luo, G. F.; Shen, B.; Zhang, G. Y.

    2010-11-01

    The interband impact ionization transition rate (IIR) of electrons and holes in wurtzite GaN and AlN is calculated using full local density approximation (LDA) band structures under the scissor approximation. The IIR of AlN is first calculated and the results show a large difference between the IIR of electrons and holes. The IIR of electrons grows from zero to 1014 at energies of ~6.6-10 eV, while the IIR of holes is zero below 12.2 eV. The difference is interpreted by the energy gap between the sixth and the seventh valence bands. Analysis shows that it is hard for holes in AlN to tunnel through the large energy gap between the sixth and the seventh valence bands; as a result, holes can hardly get enough energy for impact ionization in the electrical field of several MV cm-1. This indicates that AlN is a good material for avalanche photodetectors of controllable gain, low noise and wide bandwidth with a cutoff wavelength of 210 nm. To further facilitate Monte Carlo simulation, the AlN and GaN IIR are fitted to the Keldysh formula.

  17. A Unified Approach for Calculating Error Rates of 10 Gbps WDM Network in Presence of Higher Order Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Karamjit; Singh, Hardeep

    2017-12-01

    The lack of regeneration in all optical networks makes the data susceptible to network malfunctions, misconfigurations and signal impairments. As most of the effects are additive in nature, the signal quality is degraded by the time it reaches at the destination end making optical monitors installation a need of the day to maintain the service-level agreements for the end users. The physical layer impairments that need to be monitored are broadly classified as linear and nonlinear impairments. As the nonlinear impairments depends on the network state, it is difficult to preestimate them, while linear impairments can be easily determined from the type of fiber, wavelength/waveband, amplifier and environmental conditions. Among the linear impairments, dispersion, amplified spontaneous emission noise and attenuation are more dominating. In the present work, an effort is given to study the impact of dispersion on system quality, quantified through bit error rate (BER) and Q-value. Eye diagrams obtained at the receiver end are used for calculating system response. The curves obtained for BER and Q-value are further processed for curve fitting and suitable fifth-order polynomial equation is calculated representing the system response. Implementation of this equation in routing applications is discussed.

  18. Application of numerical method in calculating the internal rate of return of joint venture investment using diminishing musyarakah model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslan, Siti Zaharah Mohd; Jaffar, Maheran Mohd

    2017-05-01

    Islamic banking in Malaysia offers variety of products based on Islamic principles. One of the concepts is a diminishing musyarakah. The concept of diminishing musyarakah helps Muslims to avoid transaction which are based on riba. The diminishing musyarakah can be defined as an agreement between capital provider and entrepreneurs that enable entrepreneurs to buy equity in instalments where profits and losses are shared based on agreed ratio. The objective of this paper is to determine the internal rate of return (IRR) for a diminishing musyarakah model by applying a numerical method. There are several numerical methods in calculating the IRR such as by using an interpolation method and a trial and error method by using Microsoft Office Excel. In this paper we use a bisection method and secant method as an alternative way in calculating the IRR. It was found that the diminishing musyarakah model can be adapted in managing the performance of joint venture investments. Therefore, this paper will encourage more companies to use the concept of joint venture in managing their investments performance.

  19. Association Between Change in Body Mass Index, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Scores, and Survival Among Persons With Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Anne-Marie A.; Pérez, Adriana; Wang, Jue; Su, Xiao; Morgan, John; Rajan, Suja S.; Leehey, Maureen A.; Pontone, Gregory M.; Chou, Kelvin L.; Umeh, Chizoba; Mari, Zoltan; Boyd, James

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Greater body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is associated with improved survival among persons with Huntington disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Weight loss is common among persons with Parkinson disease (PD) and is associated with worse quality of life. OBJECTIVE To explore the association between change in BMI, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor and total scores, and survival among persons with PD and to test whether there is a positive association between BMI at randomization and survival. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Secondary analysis (from May 27, 2014, to October 13, 2015) of longitudinal data (3–6 years) from 1673 participants who started the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Trials in PD Long-term Study-1 (NET-PD LS-1). This was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of creatine monohydrate (10 g/d) that was performed at 45 sites throughout the United States and Canada. Participants with early (within 5 years of diagnosis) and treated (receiving dopaminergic therapy) PD were enrolled from March 2007 to May 2010 and followed up until September 2013. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Change across time in motor UPDRS score, change across time in total UPDRS score, and time to death. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the effect of BMI on the change in motor and total UPDRS scores after controlling for covariates. Survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models of time to death. A participant’s BMI was measured at randomization, and BMI trajectory groups were classified according to whether participants experienced weight loss (“decreasing BMI”), weight stability (“stable BMI”), or weight gain (“increasing BMI”) during the study. RESULTS Of the 1673 participants (mean [SD] age, 61.7 [9.6] years; 1074 [64.2%] were male), 158 (9.4%) experienced weight loss

  20. Effects of an experimental oil spill (bunker on seedling survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoela Nardes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bunker oil on survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa were tested using 60 seedlings planted in small plastic bags (experimental unit. One of the six treatments was randomly assigned to each bag: 0 mL (control, 10 mL, 20 mL, 30 mL, 40 mL e 50 mL of bunker oil spilled in each bag. The experiment was monitored weekly for 20 weeks. The results were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and linear regression. In the first seven weeks, we observed chlorosis, loss of leafs and death rate significantly superior to plants of all treatments compared to the control group. Persistent effects like reduction of stem growth and leaf production was proportional to the initial oil concentration. The plants from control and 10 mL treatments were significantly superior to all remaining treatments in height, leaf number and healthy level. Results indicated that L. racemosa seedlings suffer both lethal and sublethal effects from exposition to bunker oil exposure.

  1. Improvement of survival rate in patients with cardiogenic shock by using nonpulsatile and pulsatile ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, K; el-Banayosy, A; Posival, H; Seggewiss, H; Murray, E; Körner, M M; Körfer, R

    1992-12-01

    Between January 1988 and January 1992, 65 patients (pts) had a ventricle assist device (VAD) inserted in our clinic. In 24 pts a VAD was applied because of primarily unsuccessful weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (Group A). In a further 24 pts (Group B) a VAD was installed for the therapy of refractive cardiogenic shock (CS) after initially successful cardiac surgery (n = 21) and after acute myocardial infarction (n = 3). Twelve pts were bridged to heart transplantation (Group C) and five had a VAD inserted for various other reasons (Group D). In 36 (55.4%) of the total 65 pts a nonpulsatile VAD (Biomedicus 540) was used: 10 in Group A; 20 in B, 3 in C and 3 in D. In 29 pts (44.6%) a pulsatile VAD (Abiomed BVS 5000) was used: 14 in Group A, 4 in B, 9 in C and 2 in D. Weaning rate and long-term survival rates were 50% and 46% respectively in Group A and 38% and 42% in Group B. Seven pts from Group C were transplanted and six are long-term survivors. Two pts (40%) in Group D were discharged from hospital. Major postoperative complications were bleeding (46%), thromboembolism (14%), multiple organ failure (11%), renal failure (11%), arterial embolism (4.6%), sepsis (3%). The results indicate that application of a VAD can be recommended in pts with postcardiotomy CS to allow recovery of cardiac function and in pts with irreversible ventricular damage as bridging to HTX.

  2. Optimized surgical techniques and postoperative care improve survival rates and permit accurate telemetric recording in exercising mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Beat; Rettich, Andreas; Vogel, Johannes; Gassmann, Max; Arras, Margarete

    2009-01-01

    compromised physiological capacities. Conclusion Recovery and survival rates of mice after major surgery were significantly improved by careful management of postoperative intensive care regimens including key supportive measures such as pain relief, administration of fluids, and warmth. Furthermore, fixation of the blood pressure transmitter provided constant reliable telemetric recordings in exercising mice. PMID:19646283

  3. THE EFFECTS OF STORAGE TEMPERATURE AND TYPES OF MEDIA ON THE SURVIVAL RATE OF S. agalactiae BACTERIOPHAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The successful effect of phages in phage therapy has been proven by an increase of the presence of phages in survivors. Seven previously isolated phages were used to examine the effects of storage temperature and types of media on their survival rate. Phages PSaT-18, PSaT-19, PSaT-20 and PSaT-21 isolated from a Streptococcosis-infected Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were used in this study. Phages PSaG-1, PSaG-2 and PSaG-3 were isolated from a diseased Gouramy (Osphronemus gouramy. All of the phages were stored in refrigerator at temperature of 8oC and kept in two types of media, Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHIB and BHIB enriched with glycerol. To determine the lytic activity of the phages, 20 μL of each phage suspension was poured onto BHIA plate and incubated at 25oC for 24 to 48 hours. The result showed that phages PSaT-18, PSaT-19, PSaT-20 and PSaT-21 have lytic activity against S. agalactiae and S. iniae than phages PSaG-1, PSaG-2, and PSaG-3. Phages PSaT-18, PSaT-19, PSaT-20, and PSaT-21 always survived up to three weeks and phage PSaT-18 in BHIB have the highest potential as a candidate of phage therapy for Streptococcosis.

  4. Bevacizumab reduces the growth rate constants of renal carcinomas: a novel algorithm suggests early discontinuation of bevacizumab resulted in a lack of survival advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Yang, James; Bates, Susan E; Fojo, Tito

    2008-10-01

    To hasten cancer drug development, new paradigms are needed to assess therapeutic efficacy. In a randomized phase II study in patients with renal cell carcinoma, 10 microg/kg bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA) administered every 2 weeks resulted in a longer time to progression but a statistically significant difference in overall survival could not be demonstrated. We developed a novel two-phase equation to estimate concomitant rates of tumor regression (regression rate constant) and tumor growth (growth rate constant). This method allows us to assess therapeutic efficacy using tumor measurements gathered while a patient receives therapy in a clinical trial. The growth rate constants of renal cell carcinomas were significantly lower during therapy with 10 microg/kg bevacizumab than those of tumors in patients receiving placebo. In all cohorts the tumor growth rate constants were correlated with survival. That a survival advantage was not demonstrated with bevacizumab appears to have been a result of early discontinuation of bevacizumab. Single-agent bevacizumab significantly affects the growth rate constants of renal cell carcinoma. Extrapolating from the growth rate constants, we conclude that the failure to demonstrate a survival advantage in the original study was a result of premature discontinuation of bevacizumab. The mathematical model described herein has applications to many tumor types and should aid in evaluating the relative efficacies of different therapies. Quantitating tumor growth rate constants using data gathered while patients are enrolled in a clinical trial, as in the present study, may streamline and assist in drug development.

  5. Apparent oxygen utilization rates calculated from tritium and helium-3 profiles at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Stanley

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present three years of Apparent Oxygen Utilization Rates (AOUR estimated from oxygen and tracer data collected over the ocean thermocline at monthly resolution between 2003 and 2006 at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site. We estimate water ages by calculating a transit time distribution from tritium and helium-3 data. The vertically integrated AOUR over the upper 500 m, which is a regional estimate of export, during the three years is 3.1 ± 0.5 mol O2 m−2 yr−1. This is comparable to previous AOUR-based estimates of export production at the BATS site but is several times larger than export estimates derived from sediment traps or 234Th fluxes. We compare AOUR determined in this study to AOUR measured in the 1980s and show AOUR is significantly greater today than decades earlier because of changes in AOU, rather than changes in ventilation rates. The changes in AOU are likely a methodological artefact associated with problems with early oxygen measurements.

  6. Survival Rate of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) Restorations Using a Glass Ionomer Bilayer Technique with a Nanofilled Coating: A Bi-center Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Daniela; Bonifácio, Clarissa Calil; Bönecker, Marcelo; Guglielmi, Camila de Almeida Brandão; da Franca, Carolina; van Amerongen, Willem Evert; Colares, Viviane; Raggio, Daniela Prócida

    2016-01-01

    The high-viscosity consistency of glass ionomer cement (GIC) contributes to its inappropriate adaptation, while the material's premature exposure to humidity decreases its mechanical properties. This study's purposes were to: (1) investigate approximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations' survival in primary molars using two different insertion techniques and two surface protection materials; and (2) compare the results of cities where treatments were performed. A total of 389 six- to seven-year-olds were selected from two cities in Brazil and randomly assigned into four groups: (1) ART restorations plus petroleum jelly (PJ); (2) bilayer-ART restorations plus PJ; (3) ART restorations plus nanofilled coating for GIC (NC); (4) bilayer-ART restorations plus NC. Restorations were evaluated after one, six, 12, 18, and 24 months. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, log-rank test, and Cox regression analysis were performed. Restorations' cumulative survival was 46.4 percent. There was a higher survival of bilayer-ART restorations (P=0.03). No difference was observed between surface protection materials (P=0.57). Restorations made in Barueri were almost 2.5-fold more likely to survive than those from Recife (PART restorations' survival in primary molars. The nanofilled coating does not influence restorations' survival rate, and the city where treatments were performed influences restoration survival.

  7. The role of poverty rate and racial distribution in the geographic clustering of breast cancer survival among older women: a geographic and multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, Mario; Jeffe, Donna B; Lian, Min; Gillanders, William E; Aft, Rebecca

    2009-03-01

    The authors examined disparities in survival among women aged 66 years or older in association with census-tract-level poverty rate, racial distribution, and individual-level factors, including patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related factors, utilization of medical care, and mammography use. They used linked data from the 1992-1999 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) programs, 1991-1999 Medicare claims, and the 1990 US Census. A geographic information system and advanced statistics identified areas of increased or reduced breast cancer survival and possible reasons for geographic variation in survival in 2 of the 5 SEER areas studied. In the Detroit, Michigan, area, one geographic cluster of shorter-than-expected breast cancer survival was identified (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.60). An additional area where survival was longer than expected approached statistical significance (HR = 0.4; P = 0.056). In the Atlanta, Georgia, area, one cluster of shorter- (HR = 1.81) and one cluster of longer-than-expected (HR = 0.72) breast cancer survival were identified. Stage at diagnosis and census-tract poverty (and patient's race in Atlanta) explained the geographic variation in breast cancer survival. No geographic clusters were identified in the 3 other SEER programs. Interventions to reduce late-stage breast cancer, focusing on areas of high poverty and targeting African Americans, may reduce disparities in breast cancer survival in the Detroit and Atlanta areas.

  8. Postoperative radiotherapy appeared to improve the disease free survival rate of patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer at high risk of loco-regional recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Yong Hoon [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Sang Jun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To investigate the outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy (RT), in patients with extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer by comparing the survival rate between patients undergoing surgery alone or surgery plus postoperative RT, and to identify the prognostic factors affecting survival. Between 2000 and 2013, 52 patients with EHBD cancer underwent surgical resection. Of these, 33 patients did not receive postoperative RT (group I), and 19 patients did (group II). R1 resection was significantly more frequent in group II. The median radiation dose was 5,040 cGy. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate for group I and group II was 38% and 56%, respectively (p = 0.274). The 3-year disease free survival (DFS) rate for group I and group II was 20% and 31%, respectively (p = 0.049), and the 3-year loco-regional recurrence free survival (LRFS) rates were 19% and 58%, respectively (p = 0.002). Multivariate analyses showed that postoperative RT and lymphovascular invasion were independent prognostic factors for DFS and LRFS. Overall, 42 patients (80%) experienced treatment failure. Distant metastasis was the predominant pattern of failure in group II. Postoperative RT after surgical resection appeared to improve the loco-regional control and DFS rate. More effort is needed to reduce distant metastasis, the major pattern of failure, in patients who receive postoperative RT.

  9. Postoperative radiotherapy appeared to improve the disease free survival rate of patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer at high risk of loco-regional recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Yonghoon; Byun, Sang Jun

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy (RT), in patients with extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer by comparing the survival rate between patients undergoing surgery alone or surgery plus postoperative RT, and to identify the prognostic factors affecting survival. Between 2000 and 2013, 52 patients with EHBD cancer underwent surgical resection. Of these, 33 patients did not receive postoperative RT (group I), and 19 patients did (group II). R1 resection was significantly more frequent in group II. The median radiation dose was 5,040 cGy. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate for group I and group II was 38% and 56%, respectively (p = 0.274). The 3-year disease free survival (DFS) rate for group I and group II was 20% and 31%, respectively (p = 0.049), and the 3-year loco-regional recurrence free survival (LRFS) rates were 19% and 58%, respectively (p = 0.002). Multivariate analyses showed that postoperative RT and lymphovascular invasion were independent prognostic factors for DFS and LRFS. Overall, 42 patients (80%) experienced treatment failure. Distant metastasis was the predominant pattern of failure in group II. Postoperative RT after surgical resection appeared to improve the loco-regional control and DFS rate. More effort is needed to reduce distant metastasis, the major pattern of failure, in patients who receive postoperative RT.

  10. High-precision QED calculations of the hyperfine structure in hydrogen and transition rates in multicharged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volotka, A.V.

    2006-07-01

    Studies of the hyperfine splitting in hydrogen are strongly motivated by the level of accuracy achieved in recent atomic physics experiments, which yield finally model-independent informations about nuclear structure parameters with utmost precision. Considering the current status of the determination of corrections to the hyperfine splitting of the ground state in hydrogen, this thesis provides further improved calculations by taking into account the most recent value for the proton charge radius. Comparing theoretical and experimental data of the hyperfine splitting in hydrogen the proton-size contribution is extracted and a relativistic formula for this contribution is derived in terms of moments of the nuclear charge and magnetization distributions. An iterative scheme for the determination of the Zemach and magnetic radii of the proton is proposed. As a result, the Zemach and magnetic radii are determined and the values are compared with the corresponding ones deduced from data obtained in electron-proton scattering experiments. The extraction of the Zemach radius from a rescaled difference between the hyperfine splitting in hydrogen and in muonium is considered as well. Investigations of forbidden radiative transitions in few-electron ions within ab initio QED provide a most sensitive tool for probing the influence of relativistic electron-correlation and QED corrections to the transition rates. Accordingly, a major part of this thesis is devoted to detailed studies of radiative and interelectronic-interaction effects to the transition probabilities. The renormalized expressions for the corresponding corrections in one- and twoelectron ions as well as for ions with one electron over closed shells are derived employing the two-time Green's function method. Numerical results for the correlation corrections to magnetic transition rates in He-like ions are presented. For the first time also the frequency-dependent contribution is calculated, which has to be

  11. Managed Sustainable Development Classification Of Resources And Goods amp Services Calculating Sustainable Growth Rate And The Sustainable Development Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Saxena

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Macro-level manmade problems can often be best solved by understanding and manipulating the economics behind it. The world today is facing genuine problems of scarcity of resources and environmental amp ecological issues in view of intergenerational equity. The paper proposes a new approach of identification and classification of i Resources and ii Goods and services in the context of sustainable development. Every economy has ambitious economic growth aspirations which are often found conflicting with the commitments on natural resource conservation and climate change obligations. The proposed methodology is a reconciliation of the aspired economic growth of a region and the conservation of the resources and nature. The paper employs contribution of different types of goods and services in the gross domestic product GDP of a region to analyze sustainability of development. The important parameters that the paper establishes are Sustainability Ratio R Sustainable Growth Rate SG and the Sustainable Development Index SI. These parameters can be used to compare the sustainable development level of different regions. Ensuring natural resource and environmental sustainability will eventually ensure economic sustainability. The paper considers resource depletion concerns as well as the environmental pollutants biological risks carbon footprint warhead proliferation et cetera thereby ensuring all round sustainability from survival to economic end. The sustainability analysis is done for long periods such as 50 years 100 years et cetera. The index shows how sustainable the development of an economy is and how sustainability it is growing. The presently much revered GDP growth numbers are directionless it does not tell the type of growth an economy essentially has. The direction should be sustainability which the paper stresses upon. An illustration of sustainability analysis of India is also done. Such indices can help identifying sustainably developing

  12. The relationship between annual survival rate and migration distance in mallards: an examination of the time-allocation hypothesis for the evolution of migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestbeck, J.B.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Predictions of the time-allocation hypothesis were tested with several a posteriori analyses of banding data for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). The time-allocation hypothesis states that the critical difference between resident and migrant birds is their allocation of time to reproduction on the breeding grounds and survival on the nonbreeding grounds. Residents have higher reproduction and migrants have higher survival. Survival and recovery rates were estimated by standard band-recovery methods for banding reference areas in the central United States and central Canada. A production-rate index was computed for each reference area with data from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service May Breeding Population Survey and July Production Survey. An analysis of covariance was used to test for the effects of migration distance and time period (decade) on survival, recovery, and production rates. Differences in migration chronology were tested by comparing direct-recovery distributions for different populations during the fall migration. Differences in winter locations were tested by comparing distributions of direct recoveries reported during December and January. A strong positive relationship was found between survival rate, and migration distance for 3 of the 4 age and sex classes. A weak negative relationship was found between recovery rate and migration distance. No relationship was found between production rate and migration distance. During the fall migration, birds from the northern breeding populations were located north of birds from the southern breeding populations. No pattern could be found in the relative locations of breeding and wintering areas. Although our finding that survival rate increased with migration distance was consistent with the time-allocation hypothesis, our results on migration chronology and location of wintering areas were not consistent with the mechanism underlying the time-allocation hypothesis. Neither this analysis nor other recent

  13. Prognostic abilities of different calculation formulas for the glomerular filtration rate in elderly Chinese patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Shihui Fu, Yuan Liu, Bing Zhu, Tiehui Xiao, Shuangyan Yi, Yongyi Bai, Ping Ye, Leiming LuoDepartment of Geriatric Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaObjective: As a standard indicator of renal function, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR is vital for the prognostic analysis of elderly patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. Thus, the search for the calculation equation of GFR with the best prognostic ability is an important task. The most commonly used Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD equation and the Chinese version (CMDRD of the MDRD equation has many shortcomings. The newly developed Mayo Clinic quadratic (Mayo and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equations may overcome these shortcomings. Because the populations involved in these equation-related studies are almost completely devoid of subjects > 70 years of age, there are more debates on the performance of these equations in the elderly. This study was designed to compare the prognostic abilities of different calculation formulas for the GFR in elderly Chinese patients with CAD.Methods: This study included 1050 patients (≥60 years of age with CAD. The endpoint was all-cause mortality over a mean follow-up period of 417 days.Results: The median age was 86 years (60–104 years. The median values for the MDRD-GFR, CMDRD-GFR, CKD-EPI-GFR, and Mayo-GFR were 66.0, 69.2, 65.6, and 75.8 mL/minute/1.73 m2, respectively. The prevalence of GFR < 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2 based on these measures was 39.3%, 35.4%, 43.0%, and 28.7%, respectively. Their area under the curve values for predicting death were 0.611, 0.610, 0.625, and 0.632, respectively. Their cut-off points for predicting death were 54.1, 53.5, 48.0, and 57.4 mL/minute/1.73 m2, respectively. Compared with the MDRD-GFR, the net reclassification improvement values of the CMDRD-GFR, CKD-EPI-GFR, and Mayo-GFR were 0.02, 0.10, and 0.14, respectively

  14. Survival rates as a guide to implanted cardioverter-defibrillator replacement strategies for device recalls--adding statistical insight to clinical intuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gula, Lorne J; Massel, David; Krahn, Andrew D; Skanes, Allan C; Yee, Raymond; Klein, George J

    2007-02-01

    Recalls and advisories of implanted cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have become an unfortunate reality of cardiac rhythm management. With a paucity of data available on which to base replacement decisions, our goal is to model the potential risks and benefits of ICD generator replacement. The estimated risks are varied through a wide range to determine the potential range of outcomes. Using initial estimates of risk derived from real data on 2915 advisory devices from 17 implanting centers, a decision analysis and Markov model were used to estimate survival according to device replacement decision. Survival rates at 5 years with and without device replacement were estimated at 60.38% and 60.66%, respectively. This difference was not significantly different on comparative analysis, using variability determined by Monte Carlo simulation. One-way and two-way sensitivity analyses are presented, demonstrating the minimal effect of varying estimates of risk. Only variation in risk of device failure had a differential effect on survival, with a survival benefit at 7 years if annual risk of device failure is at least 1.8%. Little differential effect on survival was demonstrated by variation of estimates of arrhythmia risk, nonarrhythmic mortality, and postprocedure infection rate. Survival rates with a generator replacement or nonreplacement strategy in response to ICD recalls are similar and decrease nearly in parallel over time. The main factor with differential effect on survival is risk of device failure, although the level of this risk required to confer a survival advantage to a replacement strategy is quite large.

  15. Comparing the measured basal metabolic rates in patients with chronic disorders of consciousness to the estimated basal metabolic rate calculated from common predictive equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guizhen; Xie, Qiuyou; He, Yanbin; Wang, Ziwen; Chen, Yan; Jiang, Mengliu; Ni, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Qinxian; Murong, Min; Guo, Yequn; Qiu, Xiaowen; Yu, Ronghao

    2017-10-01

    Accurately predicting the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of patients in a vegetative state (VS) or minimally conscious state (MCS) is critical to proper nutritional therapy, but commonly used equations have not been shown to be accurate. Therefore, we compared the BMR measured by indirect calorimetry (IC) to BMR values estimated using common predictive equations in VS and MCS patients. Body composition variables were measured using the bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) technique. BMR was measured by IC in 82 patients (64 men and 18 women) with VS or MCS. Patients were classified by body mass index as underweight (equations and compared to the measured BMR using Bland-Altman analyses. For the underweight group, there was a significant difference between the measured BMR values and the estimated BMR values calculated using the H-B, Schofield, and Cunningham equations (p equations were different significantly from the measured BMR (p equations, only Schofield was not significantly different from the measured BMR in the normal-weight group. The Schofield equation showed the best concordance (only 41.5%) with the BMR values measured by IC. None of the commonly used equations to estimate BMR were suitable for the VS or MCS populations. Indirect calorimetry is the preferred way to avoid either over or underestimate of BMR values. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Pharmacogenetic analysis of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a possible association between survival rate and ITPA polymorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyery Kim

    Full Text Available Genetic polymorphisms are important factors in the effects and toxicity of chemotherapeutics. To analyze the pharmacogenetic and ethnic differences in chemotherapeutics, major genes implicated in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL were analyzed. Eighteen loci of 16 genes in 100 patients with ALL were analyzed. The distribution of variant alleles were CYP3A4*1B (0%, CYP3A5*3 (0%, GSTM1 (21%, GSTP1 (21%, GSTT1 (16%, MDR1 exon 21 (77%, MDR1 exon 26 (61%, MTHFR 677 (63%, MTHFR 1298 (29%, NR3C1 1088 (0%, RFC1 80 (68%, TPMT combined genotype (7%, VDR intron 8 (11%, VDR FokI (83%, TYMS enhancer repeat (22% and ITPA 94 (30%. The frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of 10 loci were statistically different from those in Western Caucasians. Dose percents (actual/planned dose or toxicity of mercaptopurine and methotrexate were not related to any SNPs. Event free survival (EFS rate was lower in ITPA variants, and ITPA 94 AC/AA variant genotypes were the only independent risk factor for lower EFS in multivariate analysis, which was a different pharmacogenetic implication from Western studies. This study is the first pharmacogenetic study in Korean pediatric ALL. Our result suggests that there are other possible pharmacogenetic factors besides TPMT or ITPA polymorphisms which influence the metabolism of mercaptopurine in Asian populations.

  17. SURVIVAL RATE, GROWTH AND SEEDLING QUALITY INDEX OF Baringtonia Asiatica Kurz STUMP DUE TO LENGTH VARIATION OF STEMS AND ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ady Suryawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are 14805.14 ha of North Sulawesi coastal ecosystems that has been damaged. Baringtonia asiatica Kurz (Keben is one type of coastal plants that can be used to protect coastal areas . Unfortunately, the propagation technique of keben was not widely studied. This study aims to determine the characters of seedlings produced from the stumps of seed germination. The research used Complete Random Design with nine treatments, consisting of combination between three levels of root length (0 cm, 5 cm and 10 cm, and three levels of the stems length (5 cm, 15 cm and 30 cm. Parameters for analysis include percent of success, growth and quality index. The results show that root length and stem length factors significantly affect the height and robustness value. Treatment of root length of 10 cm and 5 cm rods allegedly produces the most excellent quality with the survival rates 93 %, height 10.3 cm, diameter 1.08 cm, robustness value 2.03 and index of seed quality 1.35. Based on regulation of land rehabilitation, the height of 10 weeks stump have not qualified yet.

  18. Evaluation of survival rate, bone loss and post operative complication in fixed retained prosthesis with All-on-4 technique: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Alikhasi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims The purpose of this study was to evaluate the survival rate, mean bone loss and post operative complication of implants inserted in All-on-4 technique .   Materials and Methods: The literature was searched using keywords angled implant, All-on-4, tilted implant and graftless technique in the last 10 years (2001 to 2011 and clinical trial article that evaluated survival rate and mean bone loss around axial and tilted implants in All-on-4 technique was selected and evaluated.   A total of 73 articles were found by searching. After evaluation of titles and abstracts, finally 10 clinical trial, that were fully consistent with including criteria such as mean of bone loss and survival rate was selected and evaluated.   Conclusion: Results showed that the survival rate (96-100% and mean bone loss (0.34-1.9 mm with All-on-4 technique in immediate loading is comparable with other implant support treatment plan. Comparison of implant survival and bone loss in axial and tilted implant in All-on-4 system is shown this treatment plan has consistent result with other conventional implant support prosthesis. Also, postoperative complication including fractures of the acrylic temporary prosthesis, detachment of the teeth, abutment or prosthesis screw loosening have been reported with All-on-4 technique.

  19. Route-Specific Passage Proportions and Survival Rates for Fish Passing through John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-04

    This report fulfills a request of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Portland, Oregon, to produce an interim report of estimates of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates for lower Columbia River dams in 2010 and 2011. The estimates are needed to update the Compass Model for the Columbia River Treaty and the new Biological Opinion before detail technical reports are published in late 2012. This report tabulates route-specific fish-passage proportions and survival rates for steelhead and Chinook salmon smolts passing through various sampled routes at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011. Results were compiled from analyses of data acquired in spring 2010 and 2011 studies that were specifically designed to estimate dam-passage and forebay-to-tailrace survival rates, travel time metrics, and spill passage efficiency, as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The study designs allowed for estimation of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates as well as estimation of forebay-passage survival, all of which are summarized herein.

  20. Effects of hydroperiod duration on survival, developmental rate, and size at metamorphosis in boreal chorus frog tadpoles (Pseudacris maculata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amburgey, Staci; Funk, W. Chris; Murphy, Melanie; Muths, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between climate-driven habitat conditions and survival is key to preserving biodiversity in the face of rapid climate change. Hydroperiod—the length of time water is in a wetland—is a critical limiting habitat variable for amphibians as larvae must metamorphose before ponds dry. Changes in precipitation and temperature patterns are affecting hydroperiod globally, but the impact of these changes on amphibian persistence is poorly understood. We studied the responses of Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata) tadpoles to simulated hydroperiods (i.e., water level reductions) in the laboratory using individuals collected from ponds spanning a range of natural hydroperiods (Colorado Front Range, USA). To assess the effects of experimental hydroperiod reduction, we measured mortality, time to metamorphosis, and size at metamorphosis. We found that tadpoles grew at rates reflecting the hydroperiods of their native ponds, regardless of experimental treatment. Tadpoles from permanent ponds metamorphosed faster than those from ephemeral ponds across all experimental treatments, a pattern which may represent a predation selection gradient or countergradient variation in developmental rates. Size at metamorphosis did not vary across experimental treatments. Mortality was low overall but varied with pond of origin. Our results suggest that adaptation to local hydroperiod and/or predation and temperature conditions is important in P. maculata. Moreover, the lack of a plastic response to reduced hydroperiods suggests that P. maculata may not be able to metamorphose quickly enough to escape drying ponds. These results have important implications for amphibian persistence in ponds predicted to dry more quickly due to rapid climate change.

  1. Evaluation of annual survival and mortality rates and longevity of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) at the United States Navy Marine Mammal Program from 2004 through 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Xitco, Mark; Ridgway, Sam H

    2015-04-15

    Objective-To evaluate annual survival and mortality rates and the longevity of a managed population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Design-Retrospective cohort study. Animals-103 bottlenose dolphins at the US Navy Marine Mammal Program (MMP). Procedures-Population age structures, annual survival and crude mortality rates, and median age at death for dolphins > 30 days old were determined from 2004 through 2013. Results-During 2004 through 2013, the annual survival rates for MMP dolphins ranged from 0.98 to 1.0, and the annual crude mortality rates ranged from 0% to 5%, with a mean of 2.7%. The median age at death was 30.1 years from 2004 through 2008 and increased to 32 years from 2009 through 2013. The maximum age for a dolphin in the study was 52 years. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that the annual mortality rates were low and survival rates were high for dolphins in the MMP from 2004 through 2013 and that the median age at death for MMP dolphins during that time was over 10 years greater than that reported in free-ranging dolphins. These findings were likely attributable to the continually improving care and husbandry of managed dolphin populations.

  2. EFFECT OF INOCULUM SIZE ON SURVIVAL RATE OF CANDIDA-ALBICANS AND ASPERGILLUS-NIGER IN TOPICAL PREPARATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDOORNE, H; DEVRINGER, T

    The survival of Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger in O/W creams with different types and concentrations of parabens was studied. The survival was not only dependent on the type and concentration of the preservative, but also on the size of the inoculum. The results are relevant for future

  3. The Risk of Growing Fast: Does fast growth have a negative impact on the survival rates of firms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Haibo; van der Zwan, Peter; de Kok, Jan; Hartog, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Fast-growing firms are considered as the central drivers of job creation in the economy. There is an abundance of literature on the separate subjects of firm growth and firm survival. However, the relationship between survival and growth is neglected. Using the Dutch Longitudinal Enterprise Database

  4. Better Rooting Procedure to Enhance Survival Rate of Field Grown Malaysian Eksotika Papaya Transformed with 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom

    2013-01-01

    A high survival rate for transformed papaya plants when transferred to the field is useful in the quest for improving the commercial quality traits. We report in this paper an improved rooting method for the production of transformed Malaysian Eksotika papaya with high survival rate when transferred to the field. Shoots were regenerated from embryogenic calli transformed with antisense and RNAi constructs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Regenerated transformed shoots, each measuring approximately 3-4 cm in height, were cultured in liquid half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or sterile distilled water, and with either perlite or vermiculite supplementation. All the culturing processes were conducted either under sterile or nonsterile condition. The results showed that rooting under sterile condition was better. Shoots cultured in half-strength MS medium supplemented with vermiculite exhibited a 92.5% rooting efficiency while perlite showed 77.5%. The survival rate of the vermiculite-grown transformed papaya plantlets after transfer into soil, contained in polybags, was 94%, and the rate after transfer into the ground was 92%. Morpho-histological analyses revealed that the tap roots were more compact, which might have contributed to the high survival rates of the plantlets. PMID:25969786

  5. Developing an analytical tool for evaluating EMS system design changes and their impact on cardiac arrest outcomes: combining geographic information systems with register data on survival rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sund Björn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA is a frequent and acute medical condition that requires immediate care. We estimate survival rates from OHCA in the area of Stockholm, through developing an analytical tool for evaluating Emergency Medical Services (EMS system design changes. The study also is an attempt to validate the proposed model used to generate the outcome measures for the study. Methods and results This was done by combining a geographic information systems (GIS simulation of driving times with register data on survival rates. The emergency resources comprised ambulance alone and ambulance plus fire services. The simulation model predicted a baseline survival rate of 3.9 per cent, and reducing the ambulance response time by one minute increased survival to 4.6 per cent. Adding the fire services as first responders (dual dispatch increased survival to 6.2 per cent from the baseline level. The model predictions were validated using empirical data. Conclusion We have presented an analytical tool that easily can be generalized to other regions or countries. The model can be used to predict outcomes of cardiac arrest prior to investment in EMS design changes that affect the alarm process, e.g. (1 static changes such as trimming the emergency call handling time or (2 dynamic changes such as location of emergency resources or which resources should carry a defibrillator.

  6. Developing an analytical tool for evaluating EMS system design changes and their impact on cardiac arrest outcomes: combining geographic information systems with register data on survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, Björn

    2013-02-15

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a frequent and acute medical condition that requires immediate care. We estimate survival rates from OHCA in the area of Stockholm, through developing an analytical tool for evaluating Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system design changes. The study also is an attempt to validate the proposed model used to generate the outcome measures for the study. This was done by combining a geographic information systems (GIS) simulation of driving times with register data on survival rates. The emergency resources comprised ambulance alone and ambulance plus fire services. The simulation model predicted a baseline survival rate of 3.9 per cent, and reducing the ambulance response time by one minute increased survival to 4.6 per cent. Adding the fire services as first responders (dual dispatch) increased survival to 6.2 per cent from the baseline level. The model predictions were validated using empirical data. We have presented an analytical tool that easily can be generalized to other regions or countries. The model can be used to predict outcomes of cardiac arrest prior to investment in EMS design changes that affect the alarm process, e.g. (1) static changes such as trimming the emergency call handling time or (2) dynamic changes such as location of emergency resources or which resources should carry a defibrillator.